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Sample records for phase insulin secretion

  1. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    PubMed

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  2. Identification of ABCC8 as a contributory gene to impaired early-phase insulin secretion in NZO mice.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Fam, Barbara C; Holdsworth, Anita; Visinoni, Sherley; Ruan, Zheng; Stathopoulos, Maria; Thorburn, Anne W; Joannides, Christos N; Cancilla, Michael; Balmer, Lois; Proietto, Joseph; Morahan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with defective insulin secretion, which in turn contributes to worsening glycaemic control and disease progression. The genetic cause(s) associated with impaired insulin secretion in T2D are not well elucidated. Here we used the polygenic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse model, which displays all the cardinal features of T2D including hyperglycaemia to identify genes associated with β-cell dysfunction. A genome-wide scan identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 7 associated with defective glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Using congenic strains, the locus was narrowed to two candidate genes encoding the components of the KATP channel: Abcc8 (SUR1) and Kcnj11 (Kir6.2). The NZO Abcc8 allele was associated with a ∼211 bp deletion in its transcript and reduced expression of SUR1. Transgenic NZO mice were generated that expressed the WT Abcc8/Kcnj11 genes and displayed significant improvements in early-phase glucose-mediated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance, confirming Abcc8 as a causative gene. Importantly, we showed that despite improving β-cell function in the NZO transgenic mice, there was no enhancement of insulin sensitivity or body weight. This study provides evidence for a role of Abcc8 in early-phase glucose-mediated insulin secretion and validates this gene as a contributor to β-cell dysfunction in T2D. PMID:26493453

  3. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans.

    PubMed

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F; Hartmann, Bolette; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Enteropancreatic hormone secretion is thought to include a cephalic phase, but the evidence in humans is ambiguous. We studied vagally induced gut hormone responses with and without muscarinic blockade in 10 glucose-clamped healthy men (age: 24.5 ± 0.6 yr, means ± SE; body mass index: 24.0 ± 0.5 kg/m(2); HbA1c: 5.1 ± 0.1%/31.4 ± 0.5 mmol/mol). Cephalic activation was elicited by modified sham feeding (MSF, aka "chew and spit") with or without atropine (1 mg bolus 45 min before MSF + 80 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 2 h). To mimic incipient prandial glucose excursions, glucose levels were clamped at 6 mmol/l on all days. The meal stimulus for the MSF consisted of an appetizing breakfast. Participants (9/10) also had a 6 mmol/l glucose clamp without MSF. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels rose from 6.3 ± 1.1 to 19.9 ± 6.8 pmol/l (means ± SE) in response to MSF and atropine lowered basal PP levels and abolished the MSF response. Neither insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), nor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels changed in response to MSF or atropine. Glucagon and ghrelin levels were markedly attenuated by atropine prior to and during the clamp: at t = 105 min on the atropine (ATR) + clamp (CLA) + MSF compared with the saline (SAL) + CLA and SAL + CLA + MSF days; baseline-subtracted glucagon levels were -10.7 ± 1.1 vs. -4.0 ± 1.1 and -4.7 ± 1.9 pmol/l (means ± SE), P < 0.0001, respectively; corresponding baseline-subtracted ghrelin levels were 303 ± 36 vs. 39 ± 38 and 3.7 ± 21 pg/ml (means ± SE), P < 0.0001. Glucagon and ghrelin levels were unaffected by MSF. Despite adequate PP responses, a cephalic phase response was absent for insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, and ghrelin. PMID:26492921

  4. Combinatorial insulin secretion dynamics of recombinant hepatic and enteroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Kiranmai; Thulé, Peter M; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2012-04-01

    One of the most promising cell-based therapies for combating insulin-dependent diabetes entails the use of genetically engineered non-β cells that secrete insulin in response to physiologic stimuli. A normal pancreatic β cell secretes insulin in a biphasic manner in response to glucose. The first phase is characterized by a transient stimulation of insulin to rapidly lower the blood glucose levels, which is followed by a second phase of insulin secretion to sustain the lowered blood glucose levels over a longer period of time. Previous studies have demonstrated hepatic and enteroendocrine cells to be appropriate hosts for recombinant insulin expression. Due to different insulin secretion kinetics from these cells, we hypothesized that a combination of the two cell types would mimic the biphasic insulin secretion of normal β cells with higher fidelity than either cell type alone. In this study, insulin secretion experiments were conducted with two hepatic cell lines (HepG2 and H4IIE) transduced with 1 of 3 adenoviruses expressing the insulin transgene and with a stably transfected recombinant intestinal cell line (GLUTag-INS). Insulin secretion was stimulated by exposing the cells to glucose only (hepatic cells), meat hydrolysate only (GLUTag-INS), or to a cocktail of the two secretagogues. It was found experimentally that the recombinant hepatic cells secreted insulin in a more sustained manner, whereas the recombinant intestinal cell line exhibited rapid insulin secretion kinetics upon stimulation. The insulin secretion profiles were computationally combined at different cell ratios to arrive at the combinatorial kinetics. Results indicate that combinations of these two cell types allow for tuning the first and second phase of insulin secretion better than either cell type alone. This work provides the basic framework in understanding the secretion kinetics of the combined system and advances it towards preclinical studies. PMID:22094821

  5. Combinatorial Insulin Secretion Dynamics of Recombinant Hepatic and Enteroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Durvasula, Kiranmai; Thulé, Peter M.; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    One of the more promising cell-based therapies for combating insulin-dependent diabetes entails the use of genetically engineered non-β cells that secrete insulin in response to physiologic stimuli. A normal pancreatic β cell secretes insulin in a biphasic manner in response to glucose. The first phase is characterized by a transient stimulation of insulin to rapidly lower the blood glucose levels, which is followed by a second phase of insulin secretion to sustain the lowered blood glucose levels over a longer period of time. Previous studies have demonstrated hepatic and enteroendocrine cells to be appropriate hosts for recombinant insulin expression. Due to different insulin secretion kinetics from these cells, we hypothesized that a combination of the two cell types would mimic the biphasic insulin secretion of normal β cells with higher fidelity than either cell type alone. In this study, insulin secretion experiments were conducted with two hepatic cell lines (HepG2 and H4IIE) transduced with one of three adenoviruses expressing the insulin transgene and with a stably transfected recombinant intestinal cell line (GLUTag-INS). Insulin secretion was stimulated by exposing the cells to glucose only (hepatic cells), meat hydrolysate only (GLUTag-INS), or to a cocktail of the two secretagogues. It was found experimentally that the recombinant hepatic cells secreted insulin in a more sustained manner, whereas the recombinant intestinal cell line exhibited rapid insulin secretion kinetics upon stimulation. The insulin secretion profiles were computationally combined at different cell ratios to arrive at the combinatorial kinetics. Results indicate that combinations of these two cell types allow for tuning the first and second phase of insulin secretion better than either cell type alone. This work provides the basic framework in understanding the secretion kinetics of the combined system and advances it towards pre-clinical studies. PMID:22094821

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  7. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; MacDonald, Patrick E; Genieser, Hans-G; Herberg, Friedrich W; Holz, George G

    2015-07-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  8. Clinical Results of an Automated Artificial Pancreas Using Technosphere Inhaled Insulin to Mimic First-Phase Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Howard; Dassau, Eyal; Lee, Justin J.; Harvey, Rebecca A.; Bevier, Wendy; Doyle, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not adding a fixed preprandial dose of inhaled insulin to a fully automated closed loop artificial pancreas would improve the postprandial glucose control without adding an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Research Design and Methods: Nine subjects with T1DM were recruited for the study. The patients were on closed-loop control for 24 hours starting around 4:30 pm. Mixed meals (~50 g CHO) were given at 6:30 pm and 7:00 am the following day. For the treatment group each meal was preceded by the inhalation of one 10 U dose of Technosphere Insulin (TI). Subcutaneous insulin delivery was controlled by a zone model predictive control algorithm (zone-MPC). At 11:00 am, the patient exercised for 30 ± 5 minutes at 50% of predicted heart rate reserve. Results: The use of TI resulted in increasing the median percentage time in range (70-180 mg/dl, BG) during the 5-hour postprandial period by 21.6% (81.6% and 60% in the with/without TI cases, respectively, P = .06) and reducing the median postprandial glucose peak by 33 mg/dl (172 mg/dl and 205 mg/dl in the with and without TI cases, respectively, P = .004). The median percentage time in range 80-140 mg/dl during the entire study period was 67.5% as compared to percentage time in range without the use of TI of 55.2% (P = .03). Conclusions: Adding preprandial TI (See video supplement) to an automated closed-loop AP system resulted in superior postprandial control as demonstrated by lower postprandial glucose exposure without addition hypoglycemia. PMID:25901023

  9. Combination of Peptide YY3–36 with GLP-17–36 amide Causes an Increase in First-Phase Insulin Secretion after IV Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tricia M.; Salem, Victoria; Troke, Rachel C.; Alsafi, Ali; Field, Benjamin C. T.; De Silva, Akila; Misra, Shivani; Baynes, Kevin C. R.; Donaldson, Mandy; Minnion, James; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Godsland, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The combination of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a potential treatment for diabetes and obesity. However, the combined effects of these hormones, PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide, on glucose homeostasis are unknown. Objective: This study sought to investigate the acute effects of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide, individually and in combination, on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Setting and Design: Using a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) and minimal modeling, this study measured the effects of PYY3–36 alone, GLP-17–36 amide alone, and a combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide on acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and insulin sensitivity index (SI) in 14 overweight human volunteers, studied in a clinical research facility. Results: PYY3–36 alone caused a small but nonsignificant increase in AIRg. GLP-17–36 amide alone and the combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide did increase AIRg significantly. No significant differences in SI were observed with any intervention. Conclusions: PYY3–36 lacks any significant acute effects on first-phase insulin secretion or SI when tested using an FSIVGTT. Both GLP-17–36 amide alone and the combination of PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide increase first-phase insulin secretion. There does not seem to be any additive or synergistic effect between PYY3–36 and GLP-17–36 amide on first-phase insulin secretion. Neither hormone alone nor the combination had any significant effects on SI. PMID:25144632

  10. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wendy A.; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

    2014-01-01

    Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

  11. Insulin and Glucagon Secretion In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-duration space flight is associated with many physiological abnormalities in astronauts. In particular, altered regulation of the hormones insulin and glucagon may contribute to metabolic disturbances such as increased blood sugar levels, which if persistently elevated result in toxic effects. These changes are also observed in the highly prevalent disease diabetes, which affects 16 million Americans and consumes over $100 billion in annual healthcare costs. By mimicking the microgravity environment of space in the research laboratory using a NASA-developed bioreactor, one can study the physiology of insulin and glucagon secretion and determine if there are alterations in these cellular processes. The original specific objectives of the project included: (1) growing ('cell culture') of pancreatic islet beta and alpha cells that secrete insulin and glucagon respectively, in the NASA bioreactor; (2) examination of the effects of microgravity on insulin and glucagon secretion; and (3) study of molecular mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion if altered by microgravity.

  12. Islet Insulin Secretion Measurements in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Alison; Shimomura, Kenju; Cox, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes detailed protocols for in vitro measurements of insulin function and secretion in isolated mouse islets for the analysis of glucose homeostasis. We specify a method of enzyme digestion and hand picking to isolate and release the greatest number of high quality islets from the pancreas of the mouse. We describe an effective method for generating dynamic measurements of insulin secretion using a perifusion assay including a detailed protocol for constructing a peristaltic pump and tubing assembly. In addition we describe an alternative and simple technique for measuring insulin secretion using static incubation of isolated islets. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584553

  13. Simultaneous measurement of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and the disposition index in conscious unhandled mice

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, L. C.; Watanabe, Y.; Stefanovski, D.; Lee, E. J.; Singamsetty, S.; Romano, L. C.; Zou, B.; Garcia-Ocana, A.; Bergman, R. N.; O’Donnell, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Of the parameters that determine glucose disposal and progression to diabetes in humans: first-phase insulin secretion, glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity, and the disposition index, only insulin sensitivity can be reliably measured in conscious mice. To determine the importance of the other parameters in murine glucose homeostasis in lean and obese states, we developed the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) for use in unhandled mice. We validated the conscious FSIVGTT against the euglycemic clamp for measuring insulin sensitivity in lean and obese mice. Insulin resistant mice had increased first-phase insulin secretion, decreased glucose effectiveness and a reduced disposition index, qualitatively similar to humans. Intriguingly, while insulin secretion explained most of the variation in glucose disposal in lean mice, glucose effectiveness and the disposition index more strongly predicted glucose disposal in obese mice. Disposition index curves identified individual diet-induced obese mice as having compensated or decompensated insulin secretion. Conscious FSIVGTT opens the door to apply mouse genetics to the determinants of in vivo insulin secretion, glucose effectiveness and disposition index, and further validates the mouse as a model of metabolic disease. PMID:22331130

  14. Prkar1a in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Stratakis, C; Kirschner, L

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide with significant consequences on individual quality of life as well as economic burden on states' healthcare costs. While origins of the pathogenesis of T2DM are poorly understood, an early defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells is considered a hallmark of T2DM. Upon a glucose stimulus, insulin is secreted in a biphasic manner with an early first-phase burst of insulin, which is followed by a second, more sustained phase of insulin output. First phase insulin secretion is diminished early in T2DM as well is in subjects who are at risk of developing T2DM. An effective treatment of T2DM with incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or its long acting peptide analogue exendin-4 (E4), restores first-phase and augments second-phase glucose stimulated insulin secretion. This effect of incretin action occurs within minutes of GLP-1/E4 infusion in T2DM humans. An additional important consideration is that incretin hormones augment GSIS only above a certain glucose threshold, which is slightly above the normal glucose range. This ensures that incretin hormones stimulate GSIS only when glucose levels are high, while they are ineffective when insulin levels are below a certain threshold. Activation of the GLP-1 receptor, which is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells, stimulates 2 -distinct intracellular signaling pathways: a) the cAMP-protein kinase A branch and b) the cAMP-EPAC2 (EPAC=exchange protein activated by cAMP) branch. While the EPAC2 branch is considered to mediate GLP-1 effects on first-phase GSIS, the PKA branch is necessary for the former branch to be active. However, how these 2 branches interplay and converge and how their effects on insulin secretion and insulin vesicle exocytosis are coordinated is poorly understood.Thus, at the outset of our studies we have a poorly understood intracellular interplay of cAMP-dependent signaling

  15. [Endogenous hyperlactatemia and insulin secretion].

    PubMed

    Ribes, G; Valette, G; Lignon, F; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1978-01-01

    In the normal anesthetized dog, the endogenous hyperlactatemia induced either by intense muscular work or by a high dose of phenformin (20 mg/kg subtucaneously) is followed by an increase in the pancreaticoduodenal insulin output. A previous perfusion of sodium dichloroacetate (50 mg/kg. h) opposes the hyperlactatemia, and reduces or suppresses the increase in insulin output. PMID:150887

  16. Sustained Decrease of Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Japanese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Who Developed Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Hamuro, Akihiro; Misugi, Takuya; Motoyama, Koka; Morioka, Tomoaki; Fukumoto, Shinya; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare glucose intolerance in the antenatal and the postpartum periods using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using a retrospective design. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were obtained from 85 Japanese women with GDM who delivered from April 2011 through April 2015 and who underwent an OGTT 6–14 weeks postpartum. The women were divided into two groups based on the results of the postpartum OGTT: one group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the other with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We analyzed the associations between postpartum IGT–IFG and various factors. RESULTS Antenatally, a significant difference was observed between the groups only in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of the 75-g OGTT. Postpartum results of plasma glucose level were significantly higher at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours in the IGT–IFG group than those in the NGT group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the levels of 0.5-hour immunoreactive insulin and insulinogenic index was observed in the IGT–IFG group compared to those in the NGT group. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and homeostasis model assessment β-cell function of both groups were found to significantly decrease in the postpartum period; however, there was no significant change in the insulinogenic index of either group. CONCLUSIONS Our study clearly showed that the postpartum IGT and IFG levels of Japanese women with GDM are affected by impaired early-phase insulin secretion; however, insulin resistance promptly improves. PMID:26688669

  17. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Omi, Tsubasa; Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Takada, Hiromune; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  18. Paliperidone Induced Hypoglycemia by Increasing Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Riku, Keisen; Fukumoto, Motoyuki; Kanai, Koji; Omura, Yumi; Matunaga, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with schizophrenia who developed persistent hypoglycemia following paliperidone administration. After discontinuing paliperidone, the hypoglycemia resolved, but symptoms of diabetes emerged. Therefore, it appears that the hypoglycemia induced by paliperidone may mask symptoms of diabetes. Paliperidone may induce hypoglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This report could help elucidate the relationship between atypical antipsychotics and glucose metabolism. PMID:27478670

  19. Dynamin 2 regulates biphasic insulin secretion and plasma glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Ji, Chen; Wu, Yumei; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H.; Lou, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26413867

  20. Nilotinib exacerbates diabetes mellitus by decreasing secretion of endogenous insulin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Chong, Yong; Maki, Toshinobu; Akashi, Koichi; Kamimura, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    We report a 74-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in accelerated phase with pre-existing severe type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hemorrhagic gastric ulcers who was successfully treated with nilotinib. We first considered second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of this patient, as they elicit a superior response compared with imatinib. We next selected nilotinib, rather than dasatinib, since the increased risk of bleeding associated with dasatinib represented a greater risk of fatality than aggravation of T2D with nilotinib. After improvement of hemorrhagic gastric ulcers and T2D with exogenous insulin therapy, we began nilotinib administration; insulin dose was increased to maintain her glucose levels whereas urine C-peptide level decreased. Conversely, when nilotinib was discontinued due to liver dysfunction, the dosage of injected insulin was decreased and urine C-peptide levels increased. After re-starting nilotinib, the required dose of insulin gradually increased again, and urine C-peptide level decreased, indicating that nilotinib may have impaired secretion of endogenous insulin. The patient obtained a complete cytogenetic response after 3 months of nilotinib treatment. Her T2D has since been well controlled by insulin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that nilotinib treatment for patients with severe T2D may induce a reversible decrease in endogenous insulin secretion, although the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We highly recommend sufficient screening and early intervention with exogenous insulin therapy for diabetic CML patients who receive nilotinib. PMID:23179903

  1. Effect of pantoprazole on insulin secretion in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R; Álvarez-Carrillo, Rebeca

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of pantoprazole during 45 days on insulin secretion in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes, a randomized, double blind, placebo control clinical trial was performed in 14 drug-naïve volunteers. Significant increases in late insulin phase and total insulin secretion, and decreases in HbA1c levels were found. PMID:25704601

  2. Differences in insulin biosynthesis pathway between small and large islets do not correspond to insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Hung; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of mammalian species, small islets secrete more insulin per volume than large islets. This difference may be due to diffusional limitations of large islets, or inherent differences in the insulin production pathways. The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences in the early phase of glucose-stimulated insulin biosynthesis between large and small islets. Isolated small and large rat islets were challenged with 30 minutes of high glucose. The expression of insulin gene transcription factors (MafA, NeuroD/ Beta2, and PDX-1), preproinsulin mRNA, proinsulin and insulin were compared between large and small islets. Under basal (low glucose) conditions, MafA and NeuroD had higher mRNA levels and greater protein amounts in large islets compared to small when normalized to GAPDH levels. 30 minutes of high glucose stimulation failed to alter the mRNA or subsequent protein levels of either gene. However, 30 minutes of high glucose suppressed activated PDX-1 protein levels in both small and large islets. High glucose stimulation did not statistically alter the preproinsulin mRNA (insulin 1 and insulin 2) levels. At the translational level, high glucose increased the proinsulin levels, and large islets showed a higher proinsulin content per cell than small islets. Insulin content per cell was not significantly different between small and large islets under basal or high glucose levels. The results fail to explain the higher level of insulin secretion noted in small versus large islets and may suggest that possible differences lie downstream in the secretory pathway rather than insulin biosynthesis. PMID:26752360

  3. Peroxiredoxin 4 improves insulin biosynthesis and glucose-induced insulin secretion in insulin-secreting INS-1E cells.

    PubMed

    Mehmeti, Ilir; Lortz, Stephan; Elsner, Matthias; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2014-09-26

    Oxidative folding of (pro)insulin is crucial for its assembly and biological function. This process takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is accomplished by protein disulfide isomerase and ER oxidoreductin 1β, generating stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as byproduct. During insulin resistance in the prediabetic state, increased insulin biosynthesis can overwhelm the ER antioxidative and folding capacity, causing an imbalance in the ER redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prdx4), an ER-specific antioxidative peroxidase can utilize luminal H2O2 as driving force for reoxidizing protein disulfide isomerase family members, thus efficiently contributing to disulfide bond formation. Here, we examined the functional significance of Prdx4 on β-cell function with emphasis on insulin content and secretion during stimulation with nutrient secretagogues. Overexpression of Prdx4 in glucose-responsive insulin-secreting INS-1E cells significantly metabolized luminal H2O2 and improved the glucose-induced insulin secretion, which was accompanied by the enhanced proinsulin mRNA transcription and insulin content. This β-cell beneficial effect was also observed upon stimulation with the nutrient insulin secretagogue combination of leucine plus glutamine, indicating that the effect is not restricted to glucose. However, knockdown of Prdx4 had no impact on H2O2 metabolism or β-cell function due to the fact that Prdx4 expression is negligibly low in pancreatic β-cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that the constitutively low expression of Prdx4 is highly susceptible to hyperoxidation in the presence of high glucose. Overall, these data suggest an important role of Prdx4 in maintaining insulin levels and improving the ER folding capacity also under conditions of a high insulin requirement. PMID:25122762

  4. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca2+-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca2+-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  5. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-06-15

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca(2+)-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca(2+)-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  6. Vitamin D, Insulin Secretion, Sensitivity, and Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Grimnes, Guri; Figenschau, Yngve; Almås, Bjørg; Jorde, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile in observational studies. The intention was to compare insulin sensitivity (the primary end point) and secretion and lipids in subjects with low and high serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels and to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the same outcomes among the participants with low serum 25(OH)D levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were recruited from a population-based study (the Tromsø Study) based on their serum 25(OH)D measurements. A 3-h hyperglycemic clamp was performed, and the participants with low serum 25(OH)D levels were thereafter randomized to receive capsules of 20,000 IU vitamin D3 or identical-looking placebo twice weekly for 6 months. A final hyperglycemic clamp was then performed. RESULTS The 52 participants with high serum 25(OH)D levels (85.6 ± 13.5 nmol/L [mean ± SD]) had significantly higher insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and lower HbA1c and triglycerides (TGs) than the 108 participants with low serum 25(OH)D (40.3 ± 12.8 nmol/L), but the differences in ISI and TGs were not significant after adjustments. After supplementation, serum 25(OH)D was 142.7 ± 25.7 and 42.9 ± 17.3 nmol/L in 49 of 51 completing participants randomized to vitamin D and 45 of 53 randomized to placebo, respectively. At the end of the study, there were no statistically significant differences in the outcome variables between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D supplementation to apparently healthy subjects with insufficient serum 25(OH)D levels does not improve insulin sensitivity or secretion or serum lipid profile. PMID:21911741

  7. Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter-Mediated ATP Release Regulates Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Jessica C.; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Li, Qin; Feranchak, Andrew P.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular ATP plays a critical role in regulating insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. The ATP released from insulin secretory vesicles has been proposed to be a major source of extracellular ATP. Currently, the mechanism by which ATP accumulates into insulin secretory granules remains elusive. In this study, the authors identified the expression of a vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in mouse pancreas, isolated mouse islets, and MIN6 cells, a mouse β cell line. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed that VNUT colocalized extensively with insulin secretory granules. Functional studies showed that suppressing endogenous VNUT expression in β cells by small hairpin RNA knockdown greatly reduced basal- and glucose-induced ATP release. Importantly, knocking down VNUT expression by VNUT small hairpin RNA in MIN6 cells and isolated mouse islets dramatically suppressed basal insulin release and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Moreover, acute pharmacologic blockade of VNUT with Evans blue, a VNUT antagonist, greatly attenuated GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous ATP treatment effectively reversed the insulin secretion defect induced by both VNUT knockdown and functional inhibition, indicating that VNUT-mediated ATP release is essential for maintaining normal insulin secretion. In contrast to VNUT knockdown, overexpression of VNUT in β cells resulted in excessive ATP release and enhanced basal insulin secretion and GSIS. Elevated insulin secretion induced by VNUT overexpression was reversed by pharmacologic inhibition of P2X but not P2Y purinergic receptors. This study reveals VNUT is expressed in pancreatic β cells and plays an essential and novel role in regulating insulin secretion through vesicular ATP release and extracellular purinergic signaling. PMID:23254199

  8. Human Insulinomas Show Distinct Patterns of Insulin Secretion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Henquin, Jean-Claude; Nenquin, Myriam; Guiot, Yves; Rahier, Jacques; Sempoux, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Insulinomas are β-cell tumors that cause hypoglycemia through inappropriate secretion of insulin. Characterization of the in vitro dynamics of insulin secretion by perifused fragments of 10 human insulinomas permitted their subdivision into three functional groups with similar insulin content. Group A (four patients with fasting and/or postprandial hypoglycemic episodes) showed qualitatively normal responses to glucose, leucine, diazoxide, tolbutamide, and extracellular CaCl2 omission or excess. The effect of glucose was concentration dependent, but, compared with normal islets, insulin secretion was excessive in both low- and high-glucose conditions. Group B (three patients with fasting hypoglycemic episodes) was mainly characterized by large insulin responses to 1 mmol/L glucose, resulting in very high basal secretion rates that were inhibited by diazoxide and restored by tolbutamide but were not further augmented by other agents except for high levels of CaCl2. Group C (three patients with fasting hypoglycemic episodes) displayed very low rates of insulin secretion and virtually no response to stimuli (including high CaCl2 concentration) and inhibitors (CaCl2 omission being paradoxically stimulatory). In group B, the presence of low-Km hexokinase-I in insulinoma β-cells (not in adjacent islets) was revealed by immunohistochemistry. Human insulinomas thus show distinct, though not completely heterogeneous, defects in insulin secretion that are attributed to the undue expression of hexokinase-I in 3 of 10 patients. PMID:26116696

  9. Effects of aldosterone on insulin sensitivity and secretion

    PubMed Central

    Luther, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Conn originally reported an increased risk of diabetes in patients with hyperaldosteronism in the 1950’s, although the mechanism remains unclear. Aldosterone-induced hypokalemia was initially described to impair glucose tolerance by impairing insulin secretion. Correction of hypokalemia by potassium supplementation only partially restored insulin secretion and glucose tolerance, however. Aldosterone also impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islets via reactive oxygen species in a mineralocorticoid receptor-independent manner. Aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation also impairs insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. Aldosterone may produce insulin resistance secondarily by altering potassium, increasing inflammatory cytokines, and reducing beneficial adipokines such as adiponectin. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists reduce circulating aldosterone concentrations and also the risk of type 2 diabetes in clinical trials. These data suggest that primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism may contribute to worsening glucose tolerance by impairing insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion in humans. Future studies should define the effects of MR antagonists and aldosterone on insulin secretion and sensitivity in humans. PMID:25194457

  10. Suppression of insulin production and secretion by a decretin hormone.

    PubMed

    Alfa, Ronald W; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying; Kockel, Lutz; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yinghua; Powers, Alvin C; Kim, Seung K

    2015-02-01

    Decretins, hormones induced by fasting that suppress insulin production and secretion, have been postulated from classical human metabolic studies. From genetic screens, we identified Drosophila Limostatin (Lst), a peptide hormone that suppresses insulin secretion. Lst is induced by nutrient restriction in gut-associated endocrine cells. limostatin deficiency led to hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia, and excess adiposity. A conserved 15-residue polypeptide encoded by limostatin suppressed secretion by insulin-producing cells. Targeted knockdown of CG9918, a Drosophila ortholog of Neuromedin U receptors (NMURs), in insulin-producing cells phenocopied limostatin deficiency and attenuated insulin suppression by purified Lst, suggesting CG9918 encodes an Lst receptor. NMUR1 is expressed in islet β cells, and purified NMU suppresses insulin secretion from human islets. A human mutant NMU variant that co-segregates with familial early-onset obesity and hyperinsulinemia fails to suppress insulin secretion. We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. PMID:25651184

  11. Suppression of Insulin Production and Secretion by a Decretin Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Alfa, Ronald W.; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying; Kockel, Lutz; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yinghua; Powers, Alvin C.; Kim, Seung K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Decretins, hormones induced by fasting that suppress insulin production and secretion, have been postulated from classical human metabolic studies. From genetic screens, we identified Drosophila Limostatin (Lst), a peptide hormone that suppresses insulin secretion. Lst is induced by nutrient restriction in gut-associated endocrine cells. limostatin deficiency led to hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and excess adiposity. A conserved 15-residue polypeptide encoded by limostatin suppressed secretion by insulin-producing cells. Targeted knockdown of CG9918, a Drosophila orthologue of Neuromedin U receptors (NMUR), in insulin-producing cells phenocopied limostatin deficiency, and attenuated insulin suppression by purified Lst, suggesting CG9918 encodes an Lst receptor. NMUR1 is expressed in islet β-cells, and purified NMU suppresses insulin secretion from human islets. A human mutant NMU variant that co-segregates with familial early-onset obesity and hyperinsulinemia fails to suppress insulin secretion. We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. PMID:25651184

  12. Mathematical modeling of insulin secretion and the role of glucose-dependent mobilization, docking, priming and fusion of insulin granules.

    PubMed

    Stamper, I Johanna; Wang, Xujing

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we develop a new mathematical model of glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells, and we use this model to investigate the rate limiting factors. We assume that insulin granules reside in different pools inside each β-cell, and that all β-cells respond homogeneously to glucose with the same recruitment thresholds. Consistent with recent experimental observations, our model also accounts for the fusion of newcomer granules that are not pre-docked at the plasma membrane. In response to a single step increase in glucose concentration, our model reproduces the characteristic biphasic insulin release observed in multiple experimental systems, including perfused pancreata and isolated islets of rodent or human origin. From our model analysis we note that first-phase insulin secretion depends on rapid depletion of the primed, release-ready granule pools, while the second phase relies on granule mobilization from the reserve. Moreover, newcomers have the potential to contribute significantly to the second phase. When the glucose protocol consists of multiple changes in sequence (a so-called glucose staircase), our model predicts insulin spikes of increasing height, as has been seen experimentally. This increase stems from the glucose-dependent increase in the fusion rate of insulin granules at the plasma membrane of single β-cells. In contrast, previous mathematical models reproduced the staircase experiment by assuming heterogeneous β-cell activation. In light of experimental data indicating limited heterogeneous activation for β-cells within intact islets, our findings suggest that a graded, dose-dependent cell response to glucose may contribute to insulin secretion patterns observed in multiple experiments, and thus regulate in vivo insulin release. In addition, the strength of insulin granule mobilization, priming and fusion are critical limiting factors in determining the total amount of insulin release. PMID:23154190

  13. Changing Clinical Characteristics according to Insulin Resistance and Insulin Secretion in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jang Won; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Han-Kyu; Lee, Yil-Seob

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of increased insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes has been emphasized in Asian populations. Thus, we evaluated the proportion of insulin resistance and the insulin secretory capacity in patients with early phase type 2 diabetes in Korea. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,314 drug-naive patients with newly diagnosed diabetes from primary care clinics nationwide. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as an index to measure insulin resistance, which was defined as a HOMA-IR ≥2.5. Insulin secretory defects were classified based on fasting plasma C-peptide levels: severe (<1.1 ng/mL), moderate (1.1 to 1.7 ng/mL) and mild to non-insulin secretory defect (≥1.7 ng/mL). Results The mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.2 kg/m2; 77% of patients had BMIs >23.0 kg/m2. Up to 50% of patients had central obesity based on their waist circumference (≥90 cm in men and 85 cm in women), and 70.6% had metabolic syndrome. Overall, 59.5% of subjects had insulin resistance, and 20.2% demonstrated a moderate to severe insulin secretory defect. Among those with insulin resistance, a high proportion of subjects (79.0%) had a mild or no insulin secretory defect. Only 2.6% of the men and 1.9% of the women had both insulin resistance and a moderate to severe insulin secretory defect. Conclusion In this study, patients with early phase type 2 diabetes demonstrated increased insulin resistance, but preserved insulin secretion, with a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26566496

  14. Toxins that modulate ionic channels as tools for exploring insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Hiriart, Marcia

    2010-11-01

    Glucose-induced insulin secretion is a cardinal process in glucose homeostasis and metabolic expenditure. Uncoupling of the insulin response to glucose variations may lead to type-2 diabetes mellitus. Thus the identification of more specific drugs to facilitate the study of insulin secretion mechanisms and to develop new pharmacological agents for therapeutics is fundamental. Venomous organisms possess a great diversity of toxic molecules and some of them are neurotoxins that affect membrane excitability. This article reviews properties of those toxins affecting ion channels pivotal for insulin secretion and the usefulness of such compounds in the study of pancreatic beta-cell physiology. Here we examine the major contributions of toxinology to the understanding of the ionic phase of insulin secretion, to the determination of ion channel composition in different insulin secreting cell-line models as well as from primary cultures of different mammal species. Finally, we present a summary of the many diverse toxins affecting insulin release and a brief discussion of the potential of novel toxins in therapeutics. PMID:21046453

  15. Insulin secretion after injuries of differing severity in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Frayn, K. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects on insulin secretion of injuries of differing severity have been studied in the rat. The injuries used were dorsal scalds to 20% and 40% of the body surface area, and a 4-h period of bilateral hind-limb ischaemia. These injuries resulted in 48 h mortality rates of 0/10, 7/10 and 5/10 respectively. Rats were studied 1-5-2 h after scalding or removal of tourniquets. The blood glucose concentration was markedly raised after all these injuries, and the plasma insulin concentration was also raised, so that the insulin to glucose ratio in any group did not differ significantly from that in non-injured controls. Injection of glucose (0-5 g/kg i.v.) induced a rise in insulin concentration in all groups, although the insulin to glucose ratio after the lethal 40% scald was lower than in control rats. It was concluded that in the rat normal insulin secretion is maintained even after lethal injuries, although some suppression of the insulin response to exogenous glucose may occur. Insulin resistance is more important in the rat than impairment of insulin secretion even at an early stage after injury. PMID:782499

  16. Galphaz negatively regulates insulin secretion and glucose clearance.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Joseph, Jamie W; Bailey, Candice L; Fueger, Patrick T; Hendry, Ian A; Newgard, Christopher B; Casey, Patrick J

    2008-02-22

    Relatively little is known about the in vivo functions of the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein Gz (Galphaz). Clues to one potential function recently emerged with the finding that activation of Galphaz inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in an insulinoma cell line (Kimple, M. E., Nixon, A. B., Kelly, P., Bailey, C. L., Young, K. H., Fields, T. A., and Casey, P. J. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 31708-31713). To extend this study in vivo, a Galphaz knock-out mouse model was utilized to determine whether Galphaz function plays a role in the inhibition of insulin secretion. No differences were discovered in the gross morphology of the pancreatic islets or in the islet DNA, protein, or insulin content between Galphaz-null and wild-type mice. There was also no difference between the insulin sensitivity of Galphaz-null mice and wild-type controls, as measured by insulin tolerance tests. Galphaz-null mice did, however, display increased plasma insulin concentrations and a corresponding increase in glucose clearance following intraperitoneal and oral glucose challenge as compared with wild-type controls. The increased plasma insulin observed in Galphaz-null mice is most likely a direct result of enhanced insulin secretion, since pancreatic islets isolated from Galphaz-null mice exhibited significantly higher glucose-stimulated insulin secretion than those of wild-type mice. Finally, the increased insulin secretion observed in Galphaz-null islets appears to be due to the relief of a tonic inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, as cAMP production was significantly increased in Galphaz-null islets in the absence of exogenous stimulation. These findings indicate that Galphaz may be a potential new target for therapeutics aimed at ameliorating beta-cell dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes. PMID:18096703

  17. Decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion with aging is independent of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Vuguin, Patricia; Yang, Xiaoman; Barzilai, Nir

    2004-02-01

    While the incidence of diabetes increases with age, a decrease in beta-cell function independent of age-related insulin resistance has not been conclusively determined. We studied insulin secretion (by hyperglycemic clamp) in 3-, 9-, and 20-month-old chronically catheterized, awake, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 78). Insulin action was modulated in a group of old rats by caloric restriction (CR) or by surgical removal of visceral fat (VF-). During the first 2 h of the clamp (11 mmol/l glucose), insulin secretion and insulin resistance (S(i hyper clamp)) demonstrated the characteristic hyperbolic relationship. However, after hyperglycemia for an additional 2 h, the ability to maintain insulin secretion, commensurate with the degree of insulin resistance, was decreased in all aging rats (P < 0.05). Increasing plasma glucose levels to 18 mmol/l glucose, after clamp at 11 mmol/l, increased insulin secretion by approximately threefold in young rats, but failed to induce similar magnitude of response in the aging rats ( approximately 50%). However, elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels by twofold (by intralipid infusion during 11 mmol/l glucose clamp) resulted in a robust, approximate twofold response in both young and old rats. Thus, prolonged stimulation by hyperglycemia unveiled a functional defect in insulin secretion with aging. This age-related defect is independent of insulin action and is specific to glucose and not FFAs. We suggest that prolonged hyperglycemic stimulation can be a tool to identify functional defects in insulin secretion, particularly in the context of the hyperbolic relationship with insulin action, in elderly subjects or those at risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:14747296

  18. Green tea polyphenols modulate insulin secretion by inhibiting glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Allen, Aron; Kwagh, Jae; Doliba, Nicolai M; Qin, Wei; Najafi, Habiba; Collins, Heather W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2006-04-14

    Insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and other metabolic fuels. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been shown to play a regulatory role in this process. The importance of GDH was underscored by features of hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia syndrome, where a dominant mutation causes the loss of inhibition by GTP and ATP. Here we report the effects of green tea polyphenols on GDH and insulin secretion. Of the four compounds tested, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate were found to inhibit GDH with nanomolar ED(50) values and were therefore found to be as potent as the physiologically important inhibitor GTP. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that EGCG inhibits BCH-stimulated insulin secretion, a process that is mediated by GDH, under conditions where GDH is no longer inhibited by high energy metabolites. EGCG does not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under high energy conditions where GDH is probably fully inhibited. We have further shown that these compounds act in an allosteric manner independent of their antioxidant activity and that the beta-cell stimulatory effects are directly correlated with glutamine oxidation. These results demonstrate that EGCG, much like the activator of GDH (BCH), can facilitate dissecting the complex regulation of insulin secretion by pharmacologically modulating the effects of GDH. PMID:16476731

  19. Effect of Naloxon on Counter Insulin Hormone Secretion in Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yeong Shil; Kim, Sung Woon; Yang, In Myung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Choi, Young Kil

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the normal physiologic role of endogenous opiates in glucose homeostasis and as a preliminary study for clarifying the association of endogenous opites with pathophysilogy of NIDDM, we obseved the changes in the secretion of counter-insulin hormones in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia with or without naloxone. The results were as follows: Blood glucose was decreased significantly more rapidly with naloxone infusion than after insulin alone, which seems to play a role in the early responses of ACTH and GH.Not only was the more rapid response of ACTH and GH, but also the prolonged secretion of ACTH and Cortisol were observed after administration of insulin and naloxone. We concluded that endogenous opiates may be involved in the feedback regulation of secretion of ACTH and GH during hypoglycemia either at hypophysis or hypothalamus, and involved in glucose homeostasis via a certain direct mechanism other than regulation of counter hormone secretion. PMID:2856480

  20. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P < .05), A1C (5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 5.6% ± 0.4%, P < .05), AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P < .05), and total insulin secretion (0.45 ± 0.23 vs. 0.35 ± 0.18, P < .05), with a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P < .05). There were no significant differences after placebo administration. A. dracunculus administration for 90 days in patients with IGT significantly decreased SBP, A1C, AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels. PMID:27097076

  1. Thrombin stimulates insulin secretion via protease-activated receptor-3

    PubMed Central

    Hänzelmann, Sonja; Wang, Jinling; Güney, Emre; Tang, Yunzhao; Zhang, Enming; Axelsson, Annika S; Nenonen, Hannah; Salehi, Albert S; Wollheim, Claes B; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik; Costa, Ivan G; Castelo, Robert; Rosengren, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    The disease mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly defined. Here we aimed to explore the pathophysiology of T2D by analyzing gene co-expression networks in human islets. Using partial correlation networks we identified a group of co-expressed genes (‘module’) including F2RL2 that was associated with glycated hemoglobin. F2Rl2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that encodes protease-activated receptor-3 (PAR3). PAR3 is cleaved by thrombin, which exposes a 6-amino acid sequence that acts as a ‘tethered ligand’ to regulate cellular signaling. We have characterized the effect of PAR3 activation on insulin secretion by static insulin secretion measurements, capacitance measurements, studies of diabetic animal models and patient samples. We demonstrate that thrombin stimulates insulin secretion, an effect that was prevented by an antibody that blocks the thrombin cleavage site of PAR3. Treatment with a peptide corresponding to the PAR3 tethered ligand stimulated islet insulin secretion and single β-cell exocytosis by a mechanism that involves activation of phospholipase C and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Moreover, we observed that the expression of tissue factor, which regulates thrombin generation, was increased in human islets from T2D donors and associated with enhanced β-cell exocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate that thrombin generation potential in patients with T2D was associated with increased fasting insulin and insulinogenic index. The findings provide a previously unrecognized link between hypercoagulability and hyperinsulinemia and suggest that reducing thrombin activity or blocking PAR3 cleavage could potentially counteract the exaggerated insulin secretion that drives insulin resistance and β-cell exhaustion in T2D. PMID:26742564

  2. Phosphate depletion impairs leucine-induced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Oh, H Y; Fadda, G Z; Smogorzewski, M; Liou, H H; Massry, S G

    1994-11-01

    Phosphate depletion (PD) in vivo causes a sundry of abnormalities in pancreatic islets including a rise in cytosolic calcium, low ATP content, reduced Ca2+ ATPase and Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, and impaired insulin secretion in response to glucose or potassium. L-Leucine is a strong secretagogue that triggers insulin secretion by deamination to alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and the subsequent metabolism of the latter to ATP and by the activation of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), which acts on glutamate to generate alpha-ketoglutarate, the metabolism of which results in ATP production. The generation of ATP triggers events that lead to insulin secretion. It is not known whether PD impairs leucine-induced insulin secretion, and the cellular derangements that are involved in such an abnormality are not defined. These issues were studied in PD rats and in pair-weighed normal animals as controls. D-Leucine uptake by islets from PD rats is normal, but both leucine- and KIC-induced insulin secretions are impaired and the activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, which facilitates the metabolism of KIC, is reduced. Both leucine and 2-aminobicyclo (2-2-1) haptene failed to stimulate GLDH and to augment the generation of alpha-ketoglutarate in the islets of PD rats. Also, the concentration of basal alpha-ketoglutarate was significantly higher in the islets of PD rats, suggesting that its metabolism is impaired. In addition, the activity of glutaminase is significantly reduced, an abnormality that would result in decreased production of glutamate, the substrate for GLDH. The data show that PD impairs leucine-induced insulin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7873737

  3. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Paska A. . E-mail: Paska.Permana@med.va.gov; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-03-10

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

  4. Microtubules Negatively Regulate Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Hu, Ruiying; Brissova, Marcela; Stein, Roland W; Powers, Alvin C; Gu, Guoqiang; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-09-28

    For glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), insulin granules have to be localized close to the plasma membrane. The role of microtubule-dependent transport in granule positioning and GSIS has been debated. Here, we report that microtubules, counterintuitively, restrict granule availability for secretion. In β cells, microtubules originate at the Golgi and form a dense non-radial meshwork. Non-directional transport along these microtubules limits granule dwelling at the cell periphery, restricting granule availability for secretion. High glucose destabilizes microtubules, decreasing their density; such local microtubule depolymerization is necessary for GSIS, likely because granule withdrawal from the cell periphery becomes inefficient. Consistently, microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole blocks granule withdrawal, increases their concentration at exocytic sites, and dramatically enhances GSIS in vitro and in mice. Furthermore, glucose-driven MT destabilization is balanced by new microtubule formation, which likely prevents over-secretion. Importantly, microtubule density is greater in dysfunctional β cells of diabetic mice. PMID:26418295

  5. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian W; Uchakin, Peter N; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K

    2002-10-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss. PMID:12361776

  6. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in space flight: diabetogenic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly three decades of space flight research have suggested that there are subclinical diabetogenic changes that occur in microgravity. Alterations in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and metabolism of protein and amino acids support the hypothesis that insulin plays an essential role in the maintenance of muscle mass in extended-duration space flight. Experiments in flight and after flight and ground-based bedrest studies have associated microgravity and its experimental paradigms with manifestations similar to those of diabetes, physical inactivity, and aging. We propose that these manifestations are characterized best by an etiology that falls into the clinical category of "other" causes of diabetes, including, but not restricted to, genetic beta-cell defects, insulin action defects, diseases of the endocrine pancreas, endocrinopathies, drug or chemically induced diabetes, infections, immune-mediated metabolic alteration, and a host of genetic related diseases. We present data showing alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, insulin secretion, and amino acid metabolism in pancreatic islets of Langerhans cultured in a ground-based cell culture bioreactor that mimics some of the effects of microgravity. Taken together, space flight research, ground-based studies, and bioreactor studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans support the hypothesis that the pancreas is unable to overcome peripheral insulin resistance and amino acid dysregulation during space flight. We propose that measures of insulin secretion and insulin action will be necessary to design effective countermeasures against muscle loss, and we advance the "disposition index" as an essential model to be used in the clinical management of space flight-induced muscle loss.

  7. Genome-Wide Interaction with Insulin Secretion Loci Reveals Novel Loci for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Keaton, Jacob M; Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Ng, Maggie C Y; Palmer, Nicholette D; Pankow, James S; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, yet most T2D loci identified to date influence insulin secretion. We hypothesized that T2D loci, particularly those affecting insulin sensitivity, can be identified through interaction with insulin secretion loci. To test this hypothesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), a dynamic measure of first-phase insulin secretion, were identified in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS; n = 492 subjects). These SNPs were tested for interaction, individually and jointly as a genetic risk score (GRS), using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from five cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, JHS, MESA, WFSM; n = 2,725 cases, 4,167 controls) with T2D as the outcome. In single variant analyses, suggestively significant (Pinteraction<5×10-6) interactions were observed at several loci including LYPLAL1 (rs10746381), CHN2 (rs7796525), and EXOC1 (rs4289500). Notable AIRg GRS interactions were observed with SAMD4A (rs11627203) and UTRN (rs17074194). These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk can be identified by interactions with insulin secretion loci. PMID:27448167

  8. Genome-Wide Interaction with Insulin Secretion Loci Reveals Novel Loci for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Keaton, Jacob M.; Hellwege, Jacklyn N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Pankow, James S.; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G.; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, yet most T2D loci identified to date influence insulin secretion. We hypothesized that T2D loci, particularly those affecting insulin sensitivity, can be identified through interaction with insulin secretion loci. To test this hypothesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), a dynamic measure of first-phase insulin secretion, were identified in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS; n = 492 subjects). These SNPs were tested for interaction, individually and jointly as a genetic risk score (GRS), using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from five cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, JHS, MESA, WFSM; n = 2,725 cases, 4,167 controls) with T2D as the outcome. In single variant analyses, suggestively significant (Pinteraction<5×10−6) interactions were observed at several loci including LYPLAL1 (rs10746381), CHN2 (rs7796525), and EXOC1 (rs4289500). Notable AIRg GRS interactions were observed with SAMD4A (rs11627203) and UTRN (rs17074194). These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk can be identified by interactions with insulin secretion loci. PMID:27448167

  9. Effect of glibenclamide in insulin-treated diabetic patients with a residual insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Mauerhoff, T; Ketelslegers, J M; Lambert, A E

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the effect of the combination of a sulfonylurea (Hb 420 or glibenclamide) with insulin in 22 type II diabetic patients, treated with insulin and with residual insulin secretion (fasting plasma C peptide level greater than 0.2 pmol/ml). After a 3 week run-in period, the patients received either glibenclamide (7 mg of Hb 420 before breakfast and 3.5 mg before supper) or placebo in double blind fashion. Clinical and biological parameters (body weight, number of hypoglycemic episodes, daily insulin dose, fasting and postprandial glucose and C peptide levels after a standard meal) were collected during the basal (run-in) period and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. In the glibenclamide group, a significant increase in the number of hypoglycemic episodes was observed in spite of a 8 to 10% reduction in insulin requirements. A 18% reduction of both fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels was found after 8 and 16 weeks of glibenclamide therapy. Concomitantly, a 35% increase of fasting and postprandial plasma C peptide levels occurred. The data suggest that the use of combined sulfonylurea and insulin therapy may be beneficial to type II diabetic patients with residual insulin secretion and poor glycemic control under insulin therapy alone. PMID:3084315

  10. A Unifying Organ Model of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Gaz, Claudio; Palumbo, Pasquale; Panunzi, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of insulin by the pancreas has been the object of much attention over the past several decades. Insulin is known to be secreted by pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia: its blood concentrations however exhibit both high-frequency (period approx. 10 minutes) and low-frequency oscillations (period approx. 1.5 hours). Furthermore, characteristic insulin secretory response to challenge maneuvers have been described, such as frequency entrainment upon sinusoidal glycemic stimulation; substantial insulin peaks following minimal glucose administration; progressively strengthened insulin secretion response after repeated administration of the same amount of glucose; insulin and glucose characteristic curves after Intra-Venous administration of glucose boli in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects as well as in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Previous modeling of β-cell physiology has been mainly directed to the intracellular chain of events giving rise to single-cell or cell-cluster hormone release oscillations, but the large size, long period and complex morphology of the diverse responses to whole-body glucose stimuli has not yet been coherently explained. Starting with the seminal work of Grodsky it was hypothesized that the population of pancreatic β-cells, possibly functionally aggregated in islets of Langerhans, could be viewed as a set of independent, similar, but not identical controllers (firing units) with distributed functional parameters. The present work shows how a single model based on a population of independent islet controllers can reproduce very closely a diverse array of actually observed experimental results, with the same set of working parameters. The model’s success in reproducing a diverse array of experiments implies that, in order to understand the macroscopic behaviour of the endocrine pancreas in regulating glycemia, there is no need to hypothesize intrapancreatic pacemakers, influences between different islets of Langerhans

  11. Oral glucose is the prime elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Grill, H J; Berridge, K C; Ganster, D J

    1984-01-01

    Seven sugars, two sugar alcohols, and a nonnutritive sweetener were orally administered to naive rats with and without gastric drainage fistulas. Although all taste solutions were ingested, only glucose evoked a statistically significant elevation of insulin levels. This rise was independent of a rise in glycemia. The preeminence of oral glucose as an elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion is especially striking, considering that glucose is neither the most intense (as measured electrophysiologically) nor the most palatable (as measured by behavioral preference tests) taste stimulus tested. These results suggest the existence of a gustatory and/or gastrointestinal chemoreceptor that is most responsive to glucose. PMID:6364839

  12. Optical Control of Insulin Secretion Using an Incretin Switch

    PubMed Central

    Broichhagen, Johannes; Podewin, Tom; Meyer‐Berg, Helena; von Ohlen, Yorrick; Johnston, Natalie R.; Jones, Ben J.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Rutter, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Incretin mimetics are set to become a mainstay of type 2 diabetes treatment. By acting on the pancreas and brain, they potentiate insulin secretion and induce weight loss to preserve normoglycemia. Despite this, incretin therapy has been associated with off‐target effects, including nausea and gastrointestinal disturbance. A novel photoswitchable incretin mimetic based upon the specific glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor (GLP‐1R) agonist liraglutide was designed, synthesized, and tested. This peptidic compound, termed LirAzo, possesses an azobenzene photoresponsive element, affording isomer‐biased GLP‐1R signaling as a result of differential activation of second messenger pathways in response to light. While the trans isomer primarily engages calcium influx, the cis isomer favors cAMP generation. LirAzo thus allows optical control of insulin secretion and cell survival. PMID:26585495

  13. Insight into Insulin Secretion from Transcriptome and Genetic Analysis of Insulin-Producing Cells of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Ni, Julie; Ma, Wenxiu; Shiu, Vanessa; Milla, Luis A.; Park, Sangbin; Spletter, Maria L.; Tang, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Xing; Kim, Seung K.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain produce and release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) to the hemolymph. ILPs are crucial for growth and regulation of metabolic activity in flies, functions analogous to those of mammalian insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). To identify components functioning in IPCs to control ILP production, we employed genomic and candidate gene approaches. We used laser microdissection and messenger RNA sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of larval IPCs. IPCs highly express many genes homologous to genes active in insulin-producing β-cells of the mammalian pancreas. The genes in common encode ILPs and proteins that control insulin metabolism, storage, secretion, β-cell proliferation, and some not previously linked to insulin production or β-cell function. Among these novelties is unc-104, a kinesin 3 family gene, which is more highly expressed in IPCs compared to most other neurons. Knockdown of unc-104 in IPCs impaired ILP secretion and reduced peripheral insulin signaling. Unc-104 appears to transport ILPs along axons. As a complementary approach, we tested dominant-negative Rab genes to find Rab proteins required in IPCs for ILP production or secretion. Rab1 was identified as crucial for ILP trafficking in IPCs. Inhibition of Rab1 in IPCs increased circulating sugar levels, delayed development, and lowered weight and body size. Immunofluorescence labeling of Rab1 showed its tight association with ILP2 in the Golgi of IPCs. Unc-104 and Rab1 join other proteins required for ILP transport in IPCs. PMID:24558258

  14. Insulin stimulation of hepatic triacylglycerol secretion and the etiology of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zammit, V A; Waterman, I J; Topping, D; McKay, G

    2001-08-01

    The recent observations that insulin can either stimulate or inhibit triacylglycerol secretion by the liver, depending on prior metabolic (possibly insulinemic) state, have rationalized the many apparently contradictory observations, obtained over the past three decades, on the effects of the hormone on this aspect of hepatic metabolism. Extrapolation to the situation in vivo suggests that frequent stimulation of insulin secretion may result in a chronic stimulation of VLDL secretion, and increased delivery of acyl moieties to muscle, where they induce insulin resistance if provided in excess of the oxidative needs (mostly due to exercise) of the tissue. High fructose/sucrose diets, which also stimulate hepatic VLDL secretion, will have the same effect, especially if consumed frequently during the diurnal cycle. Due to the quantitative importance of muscle as a site for insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism, these effects may initiate the metabolic vicious cycle that results in the development of the metabolic syndrome, well in advance of overt obesity or the diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. PMID:11481396

  15. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Candidate Polymorphisms in KCNQ1 With Incretin and Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Müssig, Karsten; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Kirchhoff, Kerstin; Guthoff, Martina; Schäfer, Silke A.; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Silbernagel, Günther; Stefan, Norbert; Holst, Jens J.; Gallwitz, Baptist; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes. This linkage appears to be mediated by altered β-cell function. In an attempt to study underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of four KCNQ1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on insulin secretion upon different stimuli. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We genotyped 1,578 nondiabetic subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes for rs151290, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide secretion was measured in 170 participants. In 519 participants, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed, in 314 participants an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and in 102 subjects a hyperglycemic clamp combined with GLP-1 and arginine stimuli. RESULTS rs151290 was nominally associated with 30-min C-peptide levels during OGTT, first-phase insulin secretion, and insulinogenic index after adjustment in the dominant model (all P ≤ 0.01). rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897 were nominally associated with OGTT-derived insulin secretion indexes (all P < 0.05). No SNPs were associated with β-cell function during intravenous glucose or GLP-1 administration. However, rs151290 was associated with glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide and GLP-1 increase after adjustment in the dominant model (P = 0.0042 and P = 0.0198, respectively). No associations were detected between the other SNPs and basal or stimulated incretin levels (all P ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Common genetic variation in KCNQ1 is associated with insulin secretion upon oral glucose load in a German population at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The discrepancy between orally and intravenously administered glucose seems to be explained not by altered incretin signaling but most likely by changes in incretin secretion. PMID:19366866

  16. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  17. Activators of PKA and Epac distinctly influence insulin secretion and cytosolic Ca2+ in female mouse islets stimulated by glucose and tolbutamide.

    PubMed

    Henquin, Jean-Claude; Nenquin, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Amplification of insulin secretion by cAMP is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Using selective activators, we determined how each effector influences the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) and insulin secretion in mouse islets. Alone PKA activator amplified glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion, with a greater impact on second than first phase. Epac activator strongly amplified both phases in response to either secretagogue. Amplification was even greater when activators were combined. Although both activators similarly amplified glucose-induced insulin secretion, Epac activator was particularly efficient on tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion. That greater efficacy is attributed to higher [Ca(2+)]c rather than interaction of tolbutamide with Epac, because it was also observed during KCl stimulation. Moreover, in contrast to Epac activator, tolbutamide was inactive when insulin secretion was increased by gliclazide, and its effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion was unaffected by an inhibitor of Epac2. PKA activator increased [Ca(2+)]c during acute or steady-state glucose stimulation, whereas Epac activator had no effect alone or in combination. Neither activator affected [Ca(2+)]c response to tolbutamide or KCl. Metabolic (glucose-mediated) amplification of insulin secretion was unaffected by PKA activator. It was attenuated when insulin secretion was augmented by Epac activator but insensitive to Epac2 inhibitor, which suggests distinct although somewhat overlapping mechanisms. In conclusion, activators of PKA and Epac amplify insulin secretion by augmenting the action of Ca(2+) on exocytosis and, for PKA only, slightly increasing glucose-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise. The influence of Epac seems more important than that of PKA during first phase. PMID:24977470

  18. PPARβ/δ affects pancreatic β cell mass and insulin secretion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, José; Barg, Sebastian; Vallois, David; Lahiri, Shawon; Roger, Catherine; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Pradevand, Sylvain; McDonald, Angela; Bonal, Claire; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona; Debril, Marie-Bernard; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Herrera, Pedro; Rutter, Guy A.; Prentki, Marc; Thorens, Bernard; Wahli, Walter

    2012-01-01

    PPARβ/δ protects against obesity by reducing dyslipidemia and insulin resistance via effects in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. However, its function in pancreas remains ill defined. To gain insight into its hypothesized role in β cell function, we specifically deleted Pparb/d in the epithelial compartment of the mouse pancreas. Mutant animals presented increased numbers of islets and, more importantly, enhanced insulin secretion, causing hyperinsulinemia. Gene expression profiling of pancreatic β cells indicated a broad repressive function of PPARβ/δ affecting the vesicular and granular compartment as well as the actin cytoskeleton. Analyses of insulin release from isolated PPARβ/δ-deficient islets revealed an accelerated second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects in PPARβ/δ-deficient islets correlated with increased filamentous actin (F-actin) disassembly and an elevation in protein kinase D activity that altered Golgi organization. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a repressive role for PPARβ/δ in β cell mass and insulin exocytosis, and shed a new light on PPARβ/δ metabolic action. PMID:23093780

  19. Insulin secretion as a determinant of pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-08-01

    New epidemiology confirms that glucose intolerance is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and that this association cannot be accounted for by an adverse impact of early pancreatic cancer on beta cell function. Previous reports indicate that risk for pancreatic cancer is increased in adult-onset diabetics. Since streptozotocin diabetes inhibits carcinogen-mediated induction of pancreatic cancer in hamsters, the most reasonable interpretation of these findings is that insulin (or some other beta cell product) acts as a promoter for pancreatic carcinogenesis. This view is consistent with a report that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas express insulin receptors that can stimulate mitosis; an additional possibility is that high insulin levels indirectly promote pancreatic carcinogenesis by boosting effective IGF-I activity via hepatic actions. In international ecologic epidemiology, pancreatic cancer rates correlate tightly with dietary intake of animal products; this may reflect the fact that vegan diets are associated with low diurnal insulin secretion. There is also suggestive evidence that macrobiotic vegan diets, which are low in glycemic index, may increase mean survival time in pancreatic cancer. However, other types of diets associated with decreased postprandial insulin response, such as high-protein diets or 'Mediterranean' diets high in oleic acid, may also have the potential for pancreatic cancer prevention. The huge increases of age-adjusted pancreatic cancer mortality in Japan and among African-Americans during the last century imply that pancreatic cancer is substantially preventable; a low-insulin-response diet coupled with exercise training, weight control, and smoking avoidance, commendable for a great many other reasons, may slash pancreatic cancer mortality dramatically. PMID:11461162

  20. Effect of fucoidan administration on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in overweight or obese adults.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Corona, Diana M; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of fucoidan administration on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in overweight or obese adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 25 obese or overweight volunteers. Thirteen patients received an oral dose of 500 mg of fucoidan once daily before breakfast and 12 patients received placebo for 3 months. Before and after the intervention, fasting glucose and 2-h postload, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels were measured. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and homeostasis model analysis formulas (HOMA) for β-cell function and insulin resistance were calculated. The results showed a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (71.7 ± 12.2 vs. 67.8 ± 13.8 mmHg; P<.05) and LDL-C (3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 2.7 ± 0.6 mmol/l; P<.01) with increase in insulin levels (60.6 ± 24.0 vs. 78.6 ± 32.4 pmol/l; P<.05), HOMA β-cell (35.0 ± 20.8 vs. 50.6 ± 18.7; P<.05) and HOMA IR (1.9 ± 1.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.8; P<.05) were observed after fucoidan administration. We conclude that fucoidan administration during a 3-month period in overweight or obese adults decreased diastolic blood pressure and LDL-C concentrations, increasing insulin secretion and insulin resistance. PMID:24611906

  1. Liver Enzymes Are Associated With Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, and Glucagon Concentration in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Laville, Martine; Anderwald, Christian H.; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the association between risk of type 2 diabetes and elevated concentrations of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanineaminotransferase (ALT) remain poorly characterized. We explored the association of liver enzymes with peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, insulin clearance, and glucagon concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 1,309 nondiabetic individuals from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study; all had a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion and hepatic insulin extraction. The hepatic insulin resistance index was calculated in 393 individuals. RESULTS In both men and women, plasma concentrations of GGT and ALT were inversely related with insulin sensitivity (M/I) (all P < 0.01). Likewise, the hepatic insulin resistance index was positively correlated with both GGT (r = 0.37, P < 0.0001, men; r = 0.36, P < 0.0001, women) and ALT (r = 0.25, P = 0.0005, men; r = 0.18, P = 0.01, women). These associations persisted in multivariable models. Increased GGT and ALT were significantly associated with higher insulin secretion rates and with both reduced endogenous clearance of insulin and hepatic insulin extraction during the OGTT (P = 0.0005 in men; P = 0.003 in women). Plasma fasting glucagon levels increased over ALT quartiles (men, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 11.2 ± 5.1 vs. 9.3 ± 3.8 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0002; women, 9.0 ± 4.3 vs. 7.6 ± 3.1, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In healthy individuals, increased GGT and ALT were biomarkers of both systemic and hepatic insulin resistance with concomitant increased insulin secretion and decreased hepatic insulin clearance. The novel finding of a positive correlation between ALT and fasting glucagon level concentrations warrants confirmation in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21521874

  2. Modulation of glucose regulation and insulin secretion by circadian rhythmicity and sleep.

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, E; Blackman, J D; Roland, D; Spire, J P; Refetoff, S; Polonsky, K S

    1991-01-01

    To define the roles of circadian rhythmicity (intrinsic effects of time of day independent of the sleep or wake condition) and sleep (intrinsic effects of the sleep condition, irrespective of the time of day) on the 24-h variation in glucose tolerance, eight normal men were studied during constant glucose infusion for a total of 53 h. The period of study included 8 h of nocturnal sleep, 28 h of continuous wakefulness, and 8 h of daytime sleep. Blood samples for the measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, cortisol, and growth hormone were collected at 20-min intervals throughout the entire study. Insulin secretion rates were derived from C-peptide levels by deconvolution. Sleep was polygraphically monitored. During nocturnal sleep, levels of glucose and insulin secretion increased by 31 +/- 5% and 60 +/- 11%, respectively, and returned to baseline in the morning. During sleep deprivation, glucose levels and insulin secretion rose again to reach a maximum at a time corresponding to the beginning of the habitual sleep period. The magnitude of the rise above morning levels averaged 17 +/- 5% for glucose and 49 +/- 8% for calculated insulin secretion. Serum insulin levels did not parallel the circadian variation in insulin secretion, indicating the existence of an approximate 40% increase in insulin clearance during the night. Daytime sleep was associated with a 16 +/- 3% rise in glucose levels, a 55 +/- 7% rise in insulin secretion, and a 39 +/- 5% rise in serum insulin. The diurnal variation in insulin secretion was inversely related to the cortisol rhythm, with a significant correlation of the magnitudes of their morning to evening excursions. Sleep-associated rises in glucose correlated with the amount of concomitant growth hormone secreted. These studies demonstrate previously underappreciated effects of circadian rhythmicity and sleep on glucose levels, insulin secretion, and insulin clearance, and suggest that these effects could be partially mediated by

  3. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  4. The possible mechanisms by which maternal hypothyroidism impairs insulin secretion in adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Godini, Aliashraf; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have recently shown that maternal hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose metabolism and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring in rats. The aim of this study was to locate the defect in the insulin secretion pathway induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid (FH) group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out on 5-month-old male offspring. In in vitro studies, the effects of various secretagogues and inhibitors acting at different levels of the insulin secretion cascade were investigated, and insulin content, insulin secretion and glucokinase activity of the islets were compared. Although insulin content of the FH islets did not differ from that of control islets, insulin secretion from FH islets was reduced when it was challenged by glucose or arginine. Compared with control islets, activities of both hexokinase and glucokinase were also significantly decreased in the FH islets. Although, in both groups, increasing glibenclamide and nifedipine concentrations in the presence of 16.7 mmol l(-1) glucose increased and decreased insulin secretion, respectively, the percentage of changes in secretion of FH islets was significantly lower compared with control islets. The response of FH islets to high extracellular potassium concentration and diazoxide was also significantly lower than that of the control islets. These findings demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion in the FH group is probably related to alterations in different steps of the insulin secretion pathway and not in the insulin pool of β-cells. PMID:24097159

  5. Effects of prolonged fasting and sustained lipolysis on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Salgin, B; Marcovecchio, M L; Humphreys, S M; Hill, N; Chassin, L J; Lunn, D J; Hovorka, R; Dunger, D B

    2009-03-01

    Normal beta-cells adjust their function to compensate for any decrease in insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to explore whether a prolonged fast would allow a study of the effects of changes in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity and whether any potential effects could be reversed by the antilipolytic agent acipimox. Fourteen (8 female, 6 male) healthy young adults (aged 22.8-26.9 yr) without a family history of diabetes and a body mass index of 22.6 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2) were studied on three occasions in random order. Growth hormone and FFA levels were regularly measured overnight (2200-0759), and subjects underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test in the morning (0800-1100) on each visit. Treatment A was an overnight fast, treatment B was a 24-h fast with regular administrations of a placebo, and treatment C was a 24-h fast with regular ingestions of 250 mg of acipimox. The 24-h fast increased overnight FFA levels (as measured by the area under the curve) 2.8-fold [51.3 (45.6-56.9) vs. 18.4 (14.4-22.5) *10(4) micromol/l*min, P < 0.0001], and it led to decreases in insulin sensitivity [5.7 (3.6-8.9) vs. 2.6 (1.3-4.7) *10(-4) min(-1) per mU/l, P < 0.0001] and the acute insulin response [16.3 (10.9-21.6) vs. 12.7 (8.7-16.6) *10(2) pmol/l*min, P = 0.02], and therefore a reduction in the disposition index [93.1 (64.8-121.4) vs. 35.5 (21.6-49.4) *10(2) pmol/mU, P < 0.0001]. Administration of acipimox during the 24-h fast lowered FFA levels by an average of 20% (range: -62 to +49%; P = 0.03), resulting in a mean increase in the disposition index of 31% (P = 0.03). In conclusion, the 24-h fast was accompanied by substantial increases in fasting FFA levels and induced reductions in the acute glucose-simulated insulin response and insulin sensitivity. The use of acipimox during the prolonged fast increased the disposition index, suggesting a partial reversal of the effects of fasting on the acute insulin response and insulin

  6. MISC-1/OGC Links Mitochondrial Metabolism, Apoptosis and Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Marco; Park, Donha; Luciani, Dan S.; Kida, Katarzyna; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Blacque, Oliver E.; Johnson, James D.; Riddle, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    We identified MISC-1 (Mitochondrial Solute Carrier) as the C. elegans orthologue of mammalian OGC (2-oxoglutarate carrier). OGC was originally identified for its ability to transfer α-ketoglutarate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, we found that MISC-1 and OGC are not solely involved in metabolic control. Our data show that these orthologous proteins participate in phylogenetically conserved cellular processes, like control of mitochondrial morphology and induction of apoptosis. We show that MISC-1/OGC is required for proper mitochondrial fusion and fission events in both C. elegans and human cells. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that loss of MISC-1 results in a decreased number of mitochondrial cristae, which have a blebbed appearance. Furthermore, our pull-down experiments show that MISC-1 and OGC interact with the anti-apoptotic proteins CED-9 and Bcl-xL, respectively, and with the pro-apoptotic protein ANT. Knock-down of misc-1 in C. elegans and OGC in mouse cells induces apoptosis through the caspase cascade. Genetic analysis suggests that MISC-1 controls apoptosis through the physiological pathway mediated by the LIN-35/Rb-like protein. We provide genetic and molecular evidence that absence of MISC-1 increases insulin secretion and enhances germline stem cell proliferation in C. elegans. Our study suggests that the mitochondrial metabolic protein MISC-1/OGC integrates metabolic, apoptotic and insulin secretion functions. We propose a novel mechanism by which mitochondria integrate metabolic and cell survival signals. Our data suggest that MISC-1/OGC functions by sensing the metabolic status of mitochondria and directly activate the apoptotic program when required. Our results suggest that controlling MISC-1/OGC function allows regulation of mitochondrial morphology and cell survival decisions by the metabolic needs of the cell. PMID:21448454

  7. Dopamine-mediated autocrine inhibitory circuit regulating human insulin secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Norman; Maffei, Antonella; Freeby, Matthew; Burroughs, Steven; Freyberg, Zachary; Javitch, Jonathan; Leibel, Rudolph L; Harris, Paul E

    2012-10-01

    We describe a negative feedback autocrine regulatory circuit for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in purified human islets in vitro. Using chronoamperometry and in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion measurements, evidence is provided that dopamine (DA), which is loaded into insulin-containing secretory granules by vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in human β-cells, is released in response to glucose stimulation. DA then acts as a negative regulator of insulin secretion via its action on D2R, which are also expressed on β-cells. We found that antagonism of receptors participating in islet DA signaling generally drive increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These in vitro observations may represent correlates of the in vivo metabolic changes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics, such as increased adiposity. PMID:22915827

  8. Dopamine-Mediated Autocrine Inhibitory Circuit Regulating Human Insulin Secretion in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norman; Maffei, Antonella; Freeby, Matthew; Burroughs, Steven; Freyberg, Zachary; Javitch, Jonathan; Leibel, Rudolph L.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a negative feedback autocrine regulatory circuit for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in purified human islets in vitro. Using chronoamperometry and in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion measurements, evidence is provided that dopamine (DA), which is loaded into insulin-containing secretory granules by vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in human β-cells, is released in response to glucose stimulation. DA then acts as a negative regulator of insulin secretion via its action on D2R, which are also expressed on β-cells. We found that antagonism of receptors participating in islet DA signaling generally drive increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These in vitro observations may represent correlates of the in vivo metabolic changes associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics, such as increased adiposity. PMID:22915827

  9. Mitochondrial Function Is Required for Secretion of DAF-28/Insulin in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Billing, Ola; Kao, Gautam; Naredi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    While insulin signaling has been extensively studied in Caenorhabditis elegans in the context of ageing and stress response, less is known about the factors underlying the secretion of insulin ligands upstream of the insulin receptor. Activation of the receptor governs the decision whether to progress through the reproductive lifecycle or to arrest growth and enter hibernation. We find that animals with reduced levels of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocase homologue TOMM-40 arrest growth as larvae and have decreased insulin signaling strength. TOMM-40 acts as a mitochondrial translocase in C. elegans and in its absence animals fail to import a mitochondrial protein reporter across the mitochondrial membrane(s). Inactivation of TOMM-40 evokes the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and causes a collapse of the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Consequently these broadly dysfunctional mitochondria render an inability to couple food abundance to secretion of DAF-28/insulin. The secretion defect is not general in nature since two other neuropeptides, ANF::GFP and INS-22::VENUS, are secreted normally. RNAi against two other putative members of the TOMM complex give similar phenotypes, implying that DAF-28 secretion is sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction in general. We conclude that mitochondrial function is required for C. elegans to secrete DAF-28/insulin when food is abundant. This modulation of secretion likely represents an additional level of control over DAF-28/insulin function. PMID:21264209

  10. Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2013-03-01

    Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of β-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased β-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. PMID:23262275

  11. Endocrine Determinants of Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion during a Weight Cycle in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, Judith; Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Müller, Manfred J.; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL) of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear. Methods In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2) followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF), 3wks of caloric restriction (CR) containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO) and 2wks of refeeding (RF) with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI), insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose) and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion) were assessed. Results IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05). Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05) whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05) and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only). After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant. Conclusion Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and

  12. Glycemia Determines the Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Genes on Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Thamer, Claus; Herzberg-Schäfer, Silke A.; Guthoff, Martina; Stefan, Norbert; Machicao, Fausto; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in diabetes risk genes reduce glucose- and/or incretin-induced insulin secretion. Here, we investigated interactions between glycemia and such diabetes risk polymorphisms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin secretion was assessed by insulinogenic index and areas under the curve of C-peptide/glucose in 1,576 subjects using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants were genotyped for 10 diabetes risk SNPs associated with β-cell dysfunction: rs5215 (KCNJ11), rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs7754840 (CDKAL1), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs10830963 (MTNR1B), rs7903146 (TCF7L2), rs10010131 (WFS1), rs7923837 (HHEX), rs151290 (KCNQ1), and rs4402960 (IGF2BP2). Furthermore, the impact of the interaction between genetic variation in TCF7L2 and glycemia on changes in insulin secretion was tested in 315 individuals taking part in a lifestyle intervention study. RESULTS For the SNPs in TCF7L2 and WFS1, we found a significant interaction between glucose control and insulin secretion (all P ≤ 0.0018 for glucose × genotype). When plotting insulin secretion against glucose at 120 min OGTT, the compromising SNP effects on insulin secretion are most apparent under high glucose. In the longitudinal study, rs7903146 in TCF7L2 showed a significant interaction with baseline glucose tolerance upon change in insulin secretion (P = 0.0027). Increased glucose levels at baseline predicted an increase in insulin secretion upon improvement of glycemia by lifestyle intervention only in carriers of the risk alleles. CONCLUSIONS For the diabetes risk genes TCF7L2 and WFS1, which are associated with impaired incretin signaling, the level of glycemia determines SNP effects on insulin secretion. This indicates the increasing relevance of these SNPs during the progression of prediabetes stages toward clinically overt type 2 diabetes. PMID:20802253

  13. Dietary composition and its associations with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mélanie; Benedetti, Andrea; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the associations between macronutrient intake and insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion (ISct), taking into consideration moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fitness and sedentary behaviour. Caucasian youth (n 630) aged 8-10 years at recruitment, with at least one obese biological parent, were studied (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort). IS was measured using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance and Matsuda IS index. ISct was measured using HOMA2%-β, the ratio of the AUC of insulin:glucose over the first 30 min (AUC I/G(t= 30 min)) of the oral glucose tolerance test and AUC I/G(t= 120 min) over 2 h. Fitness was measured using VO₂(peak), percentage of fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7 d MVPA using accelerometry; screen time (ST) by average daily hours of self-reported television, video game or computer use. Dietary composition was measured using three non-consecutive dietary recalls. Non-parametric smoothing splines were used to model non-linear associations; all models were adjusted for age, sex, season, pubertal stage, MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. The percentage of total daily energy from dietary protein, fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate and the consumption of dietary vitamin D, sugar-sweetened beverages, fibre and portions of fruits and vegetables were taken into consideration. No dietary component was associated with any measure of IS after adjusting for MVPA, fitness, ST and adiposity. For every 1% increase in daily protein intake (%), AUC I/G(t= 30 min) decreased by 1·1% (P= 0·033). Otherwise, dietary composition was not associated with ISct. While long-term excess of energy intake has been shown to lead to overweight and obesity, dietary macronutrient composition is not independently correlated with IS or ISct in youth. PMID:24047611

  14. Jerusalem artichoke and chungkookjang additively improve insulin secretion and sensitivity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Kim, Da Sol; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne, HTL) and chungkookjang (CKJ; fermented soybeans) both modulate energy and glucose metabolism. However, the mechanism and their additive effects are unknown. We investigated whether the consumption of HTL and CKJ altered insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion capacity and β-cell survival in type 2 diabetic animals. Rats were divided into partially pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, and sham operated non-diabetic control rats and all fed high fat diets. Diabetic rats were sub-divided into an untreated diabetic control group and those fed 5% HTL, 5% CKJ or 5% HTL+5% CKJ for 8 weeks. HTL+CKJ treatment reduced visceral fat without modulating energy intake compared to the diabetic-control. Glucose tolerance was improved in an ascending order of diabetic-control, CKJ, HTL, HTL+CKJ, and normal-control, but by different mechanisms. CKJ and CKJ+HTL, but not HTL, increased first and second phase insulin secretion in comparison to the diabetic-control at hyperglycemic clamp. However, glucose infusion rates (mg/kg bw/min) were increased by and CKJ+HTL (13.5), but not HTL (9.4) or CKJ (9.5) alone, and HTL and CKJ+ HTL decreased hepatic glucose compared to diabetic-control during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic study and were associated with decreased triglyceride accumulation and increased glycogen storage. The improved hepatic insulin sensitivity by HTL and CKJ+HTL was explained by potentiated insulin signaling (tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2→phosphorylation of Akt) and phosphorylation of AMPK→phosphorykation of acetyl Co carboxlase in comparison to diabetic-control and decreased PEPCK expression. Absolute β-cell mass was increased by CKJ (23.4mg) and CKJ+HTL (26.3 mg) by increasing proliferation compared to the diabetic-control (21.26 mg). Although HTL lowered β-cell apoptosis, it did not increase β-cell mass (20.8 mg). In conclusions, HTL and CKJ enhanced glucose tolerance in different

  15. Jerusalem artichoke and chungkookjang additively improve insulin secretion and sensitivity in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne, HTL) and chungkookjang (CKJ; fermented soybeans) both modulate energy and glucose metabolism. However, the mechanism and their additive effects are unknown. We investigated whether the consumption of HTL and CKJ altered insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion capacity and β-cell survival in type 2 diabetic animals. Rats were divided into partially pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, and sham operated non-diabetic control rats and all fed high fat diets. Diabetic rats were sub-divided into an untreated diabetic control group and those fed 5% HTL, 5% CKJ or 5% HTL+5% CKJ for 8 weeks. HTL+CKJ treatment reduced visceral fat without modulating energy intake compared to the diabetic-control. Glucose tolerance was improved in an ascending order of diabetic-control, CKJ, HTL, HTL+CKJ, and normal-control, but by different mechanisms. CKJ and CKJ+HTL, but not HTL, increased first and second phase insulin secretion in comparison to the diabetic-control at hyperglycemic clamp. However, glucose infusion rates (mg/kg bw/min) were increased by and CKJ+HTL (13.5), but not HTL (9.4) or CKJ (9.5) alone, and HTL and CKJ+ HTL decreased hepatic glucose compared to diabetic-control during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic study and were associated with decreased triglyceride accumulation and increased glycogen storage. The improved hepatic insulin sensitivity by HTL and CKJ+HTL was explained by potentiated insulin signaling (tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2→phosphorylation of Akt) and phosphorylation of AMPK→phosphorykation of acetyl Co carboxlase in comparison to diabetic-control and decreased PEPCK expression. Absolute β-cell mass was increased by CKJ (23.4mg) and CKJ+HTL (26.3 mg) by increasing proliferation compared to the diabetic-control (21.26 mg). Although HTL lowered β-cell apoptosis, it did not increase β-cell mass (20.8 mg). In conclusions, HTL and CKJ enhanced glucose tolerance in different

  16. Serpine1 Mediates Porphyromonas gingivalis Induced Insulin Secretion in the Pancreatic Beta Cell Line MIN6

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Uppoor G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of gingiva and alveolar bone caused by an exuberant host immunological response to periodontal pathogens. Results from a number of epidemiological studies indicate a close association between diabetes and periodontitis. Results from cross-sectional studies indicate that subjects with periodontitis have a higher odds ratio of developing insulin resistance (IR). However, the mechanisms by which periodontitis influences the development of diabetes are not known. Results from our previous studies using an animal model of periodontitis suggest that periodontitis accelerates the onset of hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, LPS from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), stimulates Serpine1 expression in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that a periodontal pathogen induces hyperinsulinemia and Serpine1 may be involved in this process. To test this hypothesis, we co-incubated Pg with the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6 and measured the effect on insulin secretion by MIN6 cells. We further determined the involvement of Serpine1 in insulin secretion by downregulating Serpine1 expression. Our results indicated that Pg stimulated insulin secretion by approximately 3.0 fold under normoglycemic conditions. In a hyperglycemic state, Pg increased insulin secretion by 1.5 fold. Pg significantly upregulated expression of the Serpine1 gene and this was associated with increased secretion of insulin by MIN6 cells. However, cells with downregulated Serpine1 expression were resistant to Pg stimulated insulin secretion under normoglycemic conditions. We conclude that the periodontal pathogen, Pg, induced insulin secretion by MIN6 cells and this induction was, in part, Serpine1 dependent. Thus, Serpine1 may play a pivotal role in insulin secretion during the accelerated development of hyperinsulinemia and the resulting IR in the setting of periodontitis. PMID

  17. The role of thermosensitive TRP (transient receptor potential) channels in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is the only efficient means to decrease blood glucose concentrations. Glucose is the principal stimulator of insulin secretion with the ATP-sensitive K+ channel-voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated pathway being the primary one involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Recently, several reports demonstrated that some transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in pancreatic β-cells and contribute to pancreatic β-cell functions. Interestingly, six of them (TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4) are thermosensitive TRP channels. Thermosensitive TRP channels in pancreatic β-cells can function as multimodal receptors and cause Ca2+ influx and membrane depolarization at physiological body temperature. TRPM channels (TRPM2, TRPM4 and TRPM5) control insulin secretion levels by sensing intracellular Ca2+ increase, NAD metabolites, or hormone receptor activation. TRPV2 is involved not only in insulin secretion but also cell proliferation, and is regulated by the autocrine effects of insulin. TRPV1 expressed in sensory neurons is involved in β-cell stress and islet inflammation by controlling neuropeptide release levels. It is thus clear that thermosensitive TRP channels play important roles in pancreatic β-cell functions, and future analyses of TRP channel function will lead to better understanding of the complicated mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:21785227

  18. Insulin Regulates Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion and Lipid Content via Signaling in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; O'Hare, James; Hackl, Martina; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Krššák, Martin; Scheja, Ludger; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as VLDLs. Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and via signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here, we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the third ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by noninvasive (1)H-MRS and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. In mice that lack the insulin receptor in the brain, hepatic TG secretion was reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. These studies identify brain insulin as an important permissive factor in hepatic VLDL secretion that protects against hepatic steatosis. PMID:26861781

  19. SORCS1 polymorphism and insulin secretion in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hrovat, Ana; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Goričar, Katja; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Janež, Andrej; Dolžan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of SORCS1 polymorphisms on insulin secretion in obese women with PCOS. Metabolic status was recorded in 50 clinically well characterized PCOS patients. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and laboratory parameters of insulin resistance measured. All patients were genotyped for SORCS1 rs1358030, rs1416406 and rs11192966 polymorphisms. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. SORCS1 rs1416406 significantly influenced stimulated glucose plasma levels (p = 0.006) and increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.034). None of the polymorphisms influenced insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment. We report for the first time the relevance of SORCS1 polymorphisms for glycemic control and glucose stimulated insulin secretion in obese women with PCOS. PMID:27052493

  20. The sympathetic tone mediates leptin's inhibition of insulin secretion by modulating osteocalcin bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Gao, Nan; Jung, Dae Young; Yadav, Vijay; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Myers, Martin G.; Chua, Streamson C.; Kim, Jason K.; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Karsenty, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    The osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin favors insulin secretion, but how this function is regulated in vivo by extracellular signals is for now unknown. In this study, we show that leptin, which instead inhibits insulin secretion, partly uses the sympathetic nervous system to fulfill this function. Remarkably, for our purpose, an osteoblast-specific ablation of sympathetic signaling results in a leptin-dependent hyperinsulinemia. In osteoblasts, sympathetic tone stimulates expression of Esp, a gene inhibiting the activity of osteocalcin, which is an insulin secretagogue. Accordingly, Esp inactivation doubles hyperinsulinemia and delays glucose intolerance in ob/ob mice, whereas Osteocalcin inactivation halves their hyperinsulinemia. By showing that leptin inhibits insulin secretion by decreasing osteocalcin bioactivity, this study illustrates the importance of the relationship existing between fat and skeleton for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. PMID:19103808

  1. Important role of heparan sulfate in postnatal islet growth and insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Iwao; Noguchi, Naoya; Nata, Koji; Yamada, Shuhei; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Mizumoto, Shuji; Ikeda, Takayuki; Sugihara, Kazushi; Asano, Masahide; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Shervani, Nausheen Jamal; Uruno, Akira; Kato, Ichiro; Unno, Michiaki; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Takasawa, Shin; and others

    2009-05-22

    Heparan sulfate (HS) binds with several signaling molecules and regulates ligand-receptor interactions, playing an essential role in embryonic development. Here we showed that HS was intensively expressed in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells after 1 week of age in mice. The enzymatic removal of HS in isolated islets resulted in attenuated glucose-induced insulin secretion with a concomitant reduction in gene expression of several key components in the insulin secretion machinery. We further depleted islet HS by inactivating the exostosin tumor-like 3 gene specifically in {beta}-cells. These mice exhibited abnormal islet morphology with reduced {beta}-cell proliferation after 1 week of age and glucose intolerance due to defective insulin secretion. These results demonstrate that islet HS is involved in the regulation of postnatal islet maturation and required to ensure normal insulin secretion.

  2. Interleukin-6 enhances insulin secretion by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from L cells and alpha cells

    PubMed Central

    Ellingsgaard, Helga; Hauselmann, Irina; Schuler, Beat; Habib, Abdella M; Baggio, Laurie L; Meier, Daniel T; Eppler, Elisabeth; Bouzakri, Karim; Wueest, Stephan; Muller, Yannick D; Hansen, Ann Maria Kruse; Reinecke, Manfred; Konrad, Daniel; Gassmann, Max; Reimann, Frank; Halban, Philippe A; Gromada, Jesper; Drucker, Daniel J; Gribble, Fiona M; Ehses, Jan A; Donath, Marc Y

    2014-01-01

    Exercise, obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that induces insulin secretion. Here we show that administration of IL-6 or elevated IL-6 concentrations in response to exercise stimulate GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells and pancreatic alpha cells, improving insulin secretion and glycemia. IL-6 increased GLP-1 production from alpha cells through increased proglucagon (which is encoded by GCG) and prohormone convertase 1/3 expression. In models of type 2 diabetes, the beneficial effects of IL-6 were maintained, and IL-6 neutralization resulted in further elevation of glycemia and reduced pancreatic GLP-1. Hence, IL-6 mediates crosstalk between insulin-sensitive tissues, intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets to adapt to changes in insulin demand. This previously unidentified endocrine loop implicates IL-6 in the regulation of insulin secretion and suggests that drugs modulating this loop may be useful in type 2 diabetes. PMID:22037645

  3. Interleukin-6 enhances insulin secretion by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from L cells and alpha cells.

    PubMed

    Ellingsgaard, Helga; Hauselmann, Irina; Schuler, Beat; Habib, Abdella M; Baggio, Laurie L; Meier, Daniel T; Eppler, Elisabeth; Bouzakri, Karim; Wueest, Stephan; Muller, Yannick D; Hansen, Ann Maria Kruse; Reinecke, Manfred; Konrad, Daniel; Gassmann, Max; Reimann, Frank; Halban, Philippe A; Gromada, Jesper; Drucker, Daniel J; Gribble, Fiona M; Ehses, Jan A; Donath, Marc Y

    2011-01-01

    Exercise, obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that induces insulin secretion. Here we show that administration of IL-6 or elevated IL-6 concentrations in response to exercise stimulate GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells and pancreatic alpha cells, improving insulin secretion and glycemia. IL-6 increased GLP-1 production from alpha cells through increased proglucagon (which is encoded by GCG) and prohormone convertase 1/3 expression. In models of type 2 diabetes, the beneficial effects of IL-6 were maintained, and IL-6 neutralization resulted in further elevation of glycemia and reduced pancreatic GLP-1. Hence, IL-6 mediates crosstalk between insulin-sensitive tissues, intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets to adapt to changes in insulin demand. This previously unidentified endocrine loop implicates IL-6 in the regulation of insulin secretion and suggests that drugs modulating this loop may be useful in type 2 diabetes. PMID:22037645

  4. Simvastatin Impairs Insulin Secretion by Multiple Mechanisms in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    López Rodríguez, Maykel; Stančáková, Alena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kokkola, Tarja; Laakso, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and are efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Molecular mechanisms explaining statin-induced impairment in insulin secretion remain largely unknown. In the current study, we show that simvastatin decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic MIN6 β-cells by 59% and 79% (p<0.01) at glucose concentration of 5.5 mmol/l and 16.7 mmol/l, respectively, compared to control, whereas pravastatin did not impair insulin secretion. Simvastatin induced decrease in insulin secretion occurred through multiple targets. In addition to its established effects on ATP-sensitive potassium channels (p = 0.004) and voltage-gated calcium channels (p = 0.004), simvastatin suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by muscarinic M3 or GPR40 receptor agonists (Tak875 by 33%, p = 0.002; GW9508 by 77%, p = 0.01) at glucose level of 5.5 mmol/l, and inhibited calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Impaired insulin secretion caused by simvastatin treatment were efficiently restored by GPR119 or GLP-1 receptor stimulation and by direct activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways with forskolin. The effects of simvastatin treatment on insulin secretion were not affected by the presence of hyperglycemia. Our observation of the opposite effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is in agreement with previous reports showing that simvastatin, but not pravastatin, was associated with increased risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26561346

  5. Insulin-producing cells could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the difference between insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and normal human pancreatic beta cells both in physiological function and morphological features in cellular level. Methods The levels of insulin secretion were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The insulin gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The morphological features were detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Results IPCs and normal human pancreatic beta cells were similar to each other under the observation in AFM with the porous structure features in the cytoplasm. Both number of membrane particle size and average roughness of normal human beta cells were higher than those of IPCs. Conclusions Our results firstly revealed that the cellular ultrastructure of IPCs was closer to that of normal human pancreatic beta cells, but they still could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells. PMID:23421382

  6. Insulin-secreting non-islet cells are resistant to autoimmune destruction.

    PubMed Central

    Lipes, M A; Cooper, E M; Skelly, R; Rhodes, C J; Boschetti, E; Weir, G C; Davalli, A M

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic nonobese diabetic mice were created in which insulin expression was targeted to proopiomelanocortin-expressing pituitary cells. Proopiomelanocortin-expressing intermediate lobe pituitary cells efficiently secrete fully processed, mature insulin via a regulated secretory pathway, similar to islet beta cells. However, in contrast to the insulin-producing islet beta cells, the insulin-producing intermediate lobe pituitaries are not targeted or destroyed by cells of the immune system. Transplantation of the transgenic intermediate lobe tissues into diabetic nonobese diabetic mice resulted in the restoration of near-normoglycemia and the reversal of diabetic symptoms. The absence of autoimmunity in intermediate lobe pituitary cells engineered to secrete bona fide insulin raises the potential of these cell types for beta-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710916

  7. Physical exercise and pancreatic islets: acute and chronic actions on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe N; Proença, André R G; Chimin, Patrícia; Marçal, Anderson C; Bessa-Lima, Fábio; Carvalho, Carla R O

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a great public health problem, which attacks part of the world population, being characterized by an imbalance in body glucose homeostasis. Physical exercise is pointed as a protective agent and is also recommended to people with DM. As pancreatic islets present an important role in glucose homeostasis, we aim to study the role of physical exercise (chronic adaptations and acute responses) in pancreatic islets functionality in Wistar male rats. First, animals were divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and aerobic trained (T). At the end of 8 weeks, half of them (S and T) were submitted to an acute exercise session (exercise until exhaustion), being subdivided as acute sedentary (AS) and acute trained (AT). After the experimental period, periepididymal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat pads, blood, soleus muscle and pancreatic islets were collected and prepared for further analysis. From the pancreatic islets, total insulin content, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, leucine, arginine and carbachol were analyzed. Our results pointed that body adiposity and glucose homeostasis improved with chronic physical exercise. In addition, total insulin content was reduced in group AT, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose was reduced in trained groups (T and AT) and insulin secretion stimulated by carbachol was increased in group AT. There were no significant differences in insulin secretion stimulated by arginine and leucine. We identified a possible modulating action on insulin secretion, probably related to the association of chronic adaptation with an acute response on cholinergic activity in pancreatic islets. PMID:22868676

  8. Intra- and Inter-Islet Synchronization of Metabolically Driven Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is pulsatile with a period of 5–10 min and is believed to be responsible for plasma insulin oscillations with similar frequency. To observe an overall oscillatory insulin profile it is necessary that the insulin secretion from individual β-cells is synchronized within islets, and that the population of islets is also synchronized. We have recently developed a model in which pulsatile insulin secretion is produced as a result of calcium-driven electrical oscillations in combination with oscillations in glycolysis. We use this model to investigate possible mechanisms for intra-islet and inter-islet synchronization. We show that electrical coupling is sufficient to synchronize both electrical bursting activity and metabolic oscillations. We also demonstrate that islets can synchronize by mutually entraining each other by their effects on a simple model “liver,” which responds to the level of insulin secretion by adjusting the blood glucose concentration in an appropriate way. Since all islets are exposed to the blood, the distributed islet-liver system can synchronize the individual islet insulin oscillations. Thus, we demonstrate how intra-islet and inter-islet synchronization of insulin oscillations may be achieved. PMID:15834002

  9. Indices of insulin secretion during a liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare indices of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity (IS),and oral disposition index (oDI) during the liquid mixed-meal test in obese youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and negative autoantibodies (Ab-) versus those with T2DM and positive autoantibodies (Ab+) to ...

  10. Potentiation of stimulus-induced insulin secretion in protein kinase C-deficient RINm5F cells.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G D; Regazzi, R; Ullrich, S; Pralong, W F; Wollheim, C B

    1990-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in stimulus recognition and insulin secretion was investigated after long-term (24 h) treatment of RINm5F cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Three methods revealed that PKC was no longer detectable, and PMA-induced insulin secretion was abolished. Such PKC-deficient cells displayed enhanced insulin secretion (2-6-fold) in response to vasopressin and carbachol (activating phospholipase C) as well as to D-glyceraldehyde and alanine (promoting membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ influx). Insulin release stimulated by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) was also greater in PKC-deficient cells. OAG caused membrane depolarization and raised the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), both of which were unaffected by PKC down-regulation. Except for that caused by vasopressin, the secretagogue-induced [Ca2+]i elevations were similar in control and PKC-depleted cells. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by vasopressin was enhanced during the early phase (observed both in cell suspensions and at the single cell level) and the stimulation of diacylglycerol production was also augmented. These findings suggest more efficient activation of phospholipase C by vasopressin after PKC depletion. Electrically permeabilized cells were used to test whether the release process is facilitated after long-term PMA treatment. PKC deficiency was associated with only slightly increased responsiveness to half-maximally (2 microM) but not to maximally stimulatory Ca2+ concentrations. At 2 microM-Ca2+ vasopressin caused secretion, which was also augmented by PMA pretreatment. The difference between intact and permeabilized cells could indicate the loss in the latter of soluble factors which mediate the enhanced secretory responses. However, changes in cyclic AMP production could not explain the difference. These results demonstrate that PKC not only exerts inhibitory influences on the coupling of receptors to phospholipase C but also interferes with

  11. Stress-impaired transcription factor expression and insulin secretion in transplanted human islets

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chunhua; Kayton, Nora S.; Shostak, Alena; Poffenberger, Greg; Cyphert, Holly A.; Aramandla, Radhika; Thompson, Courtney; Papagiannis, Ioannis G.; Shiota, Masakazu; Stafford, John M.; Greiner, Dale L.; Herrera, Pedro L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Stein, Roland; Powers, Alvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and progressive β cell dysfunction. Excess glucose and lipid impair β cell function in islet cell lines, cultured rodent and human islets, and in vivo rodent models. Here, we examined the mechanistic consequences of glucotoxic and lipotoxic conditions on human islets in vivo and developed and/or used 3 complementary models that allowed comparison of the effects of hyperglycemic and/or insulin-resistant metabolic stress conditions on human and mouse islets, which responded quite differently to these challenges. Hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance impaired insulin secretion only from human islets in vivo. In human grafts, chronic insulin resistance decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased superoxide and amyloid formation. In human islet grafts, expression of transcription factors NKX6.1 and MAFB was decreased by chronic insulin resistance, but only MAFB decreased under chronic hyperglycemia. Knockdown of NKX6.1 or MAFB expression in a human β cell line recapitulated the insulin secretion defect seen in vivo. Contrary to rodent islet studies, neither insulin resistance nor hyperglycemia led to human β cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results demonstrate profound differences in how excess glucose or lipid influence mouse and human insulin secretion and β cell activity and show that reduced expression of key islet-enriched transcription factors is an important mediator of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. PMID:27064285

  12. The effect of thyroidectomy and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on insulin secretion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Godini, A; Ghasemi, A; Karbalaei, N; Zahediasl, S

    2014-09-01

    Data available on thyroid dysfunction and insulin secretion are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin secretion, in vivo and in vitro, in rats. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into 4 groups, the control, the propylthiouracyl (PTU)-treated hypothyroid, the surgically thyroidectomized, and the sham-operated thyroidectomized. After 5 weeks, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed and 3 weeks later pancreatic islets were isolated to assess glucose induced insulin secretion and insulin content. Fasting serum glucose and insulin levels did not differ between the groups, but serum glucose concentration during IVGTT in the PTU-induced hypothyroid group was significantly higher as compared to controls, throughout 5-60 min. The serum glucose concentration during IVGTT in the thyroidectomized rats was also significantly higher than in the sham-operated ones, except at 10 and 60 min. The area under the curve of the serum insulin was significantly lower during IVGTT in the PTU-treated (10,010 ± 1,380 pmol/l/60 min) and thyroidectomized (13,930 ± 2,786) groups vs. their comparable groups (19,150 ± 2,110), p<0.01 and (20,650 ± 1,601), p<0.05, respectively. In the PTU-treated, but not in thyroidectomized animals, insulin secretion in response to glucose 8.3 and 16.7 mM was significantly lower than their comparable group. The results show that PTU- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose tolerance due to reduced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Islets insulin secretion is positively correlated with serum T3 and T4 concentrations. PMID:24627102

  13. Mafa expression enhances glucose-responsive insulin secretion in neonatal rat beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, C.; Koh, A.; El Khattabi, I.; Li, W.-C.; Toschi, E.; Jermendy, A.; Juhl, K.; Mao, K.; Weir, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis Neonatal beta cells lack glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and are thus functionally immature. We hypothesised that this lack of glucose responsiveness results from a generalised low expression of genes characteristic of mature functional beta cells. Important glucose-responsive transcription factors, Mafa and Pdx1, regulate genes involved in insulin synthesis and secretion, and have been implicated in late beta cell development. The aim of this study was to assess whether Mafa and/or Pdx1 regulates the postnatal functional maturation of beta cells. Methods By quantitative PCR we evaluated expression of these and other beta cell genes over the first month compared with adult. After infection with adenovirus expressing MAFA, Pdx1 or green fluorescent protein (Gfp), P2 rat islets were evaluated by RT-PCR and insulin secretion with static incubation and reverse haemolytic plaque assay (RHPA). Results At P2 most beta cell genes were expressed at about 10% of adult, but by P7 Pdx1 and Neurod1 no longer differ from adult; by contrast, Mafa expression remained significantly lower than adult through P21. Overexpression of Pdx1 increased Mafa, Neurod1, glucokinase (Gck) mRNA and insulin content but failed to enhance glucose responsiveness. Similar overexpression of MAFA resulted in increased Neurod1, Nkx6-1, Gck and Glp1r mRNAs and no change in insulin content but, importantly, acquisition of glucose-responsive insulin secretion. Both the percentage of secreting beta cells and the amount of insulin secreted per beta cell increased, approaching that of adult beta cells. Conclusions/interpretation In the process of functional maturation acquiring glucose-responsive insulin secretion, neonatal beta cells undergo a coordinated gene expression programme in which Mafa plays a crucial role. PMID:21190012

  14. Measuring phospholipase D activity in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and insulin-responsive muscle cells and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, Rosanna; Huang, Ping; Teng, Shuzhi; Hughes, William E

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme producing phosphatidic acid and choline through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. The enzyme has been identified as a member of a variety of signal transduction cascades and as a key regulator of numerous intracellular vesicle trafficking processes. A role for PLD in regulating glucose homeostasis is emerging as the enzyme has recently been identified in events regulating exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells and also in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through controlling GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in muscle and adipose tissue. We present methodologies for assessing cellular PLD activity in secretagogue-stimulated insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and also insulin-stimulated adipocyte and muscle cells, two of the principal insulin-responsive cell types controlling blood glucose levels. PMID:19160674

  15. LPS-Enhanced Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Is Normalized by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, Mark K.; Dudele, Anete; Poulsen, Morten M.; Ebbesen, Lene H.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Jessen, Niels; Richelsen, Bjørn; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is seen with obesity and is suggested to be a mediator of insulin resistance. The eliciting factor of low-grade inflammation is unknown but increased permeability of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulting in endotoxemia could be a candidate. Here we test the effect of LPS and the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels and inflammation. Mice were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic mini pumps infusing either low-dose LPS or saline for 28 days. Half of the mice were treated with resveratrol delivered through the diet. LPS caused increased inflammation of the liver and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous) together with enlarged spleens and increased number of leukocytes in the blood. Resveratrol specifically reduced the inflammatory status in epididymal fat (reduced expression of TNFa and Il1b, whereas the increased macrophage infiltration was unaltered) without affecting the other tissues investigated. By LC-MS, we were able to quantitate resveratrol metabolites in epididymal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. LPS induced insulin resistance as the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test was increased despite similar plasma glucose level resulting in an increase in the insulinogenic index (IGI; delta0-15insulin / delta0-15glucose) from 13.73 to 22.40 pmol/mmol (P < 0.001). This aberration in insulin and glucose homeostasis was normalized by resveratrol. In conclusion: Low-dose LPS enhanced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without affecting the blood glucose suggesting increased insulin resistance. Resveratrol restored LPS-induced alteration of the insulin secretion and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects specifically in epididymal adipose tissue possibly due to preferential accumulation of resveratrol metabolites pointing towards a possible important involvement of this tissue for the effects on insulin resistance and insulin

  16. ENPP1 Affects Insulin Action and Secretion: Evidences from In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Rosa; Caporarello, Nunzia; Marucci, Antonella; Dimatteo, Claudia; Iadicicco, Claudia; Del Guerra, Silvia; Prudente, Sabrina; Sudano, Dora; Miele, Claudia; Parrino, Cristina; Piro, Salvatore; Beguinot, Francesco; Marchetti, Piero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to deeper investigate the mechanisms through which ENPP1, a negative modulator of insulin receptor (IR) activation, plays a role on insulin signaling, insulin secretion and eventually glucose metabolism. ENPP1 cDNA (carrying either K121 or Q121 variant) was transfected in HepG2 liver-, L6 skeletal muscle- and INS1E beta-cells. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation (HepG2, L6, INS1E), Akt-Ser473, ERK1/2-Thr202/Tyr204 and GSK3-beta Ser9 phosphorylation (HepG2, L6), PEPCK mRNA levels (HepG2) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (L6) was studied. GLUT 4 mRNA (L6), insulin secretion and caspase-3 activation (INS1E) were also investigated. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation was decreased in HepG2-K, L6-K, INS1E-K (20%, 52% and 11% reduction vs. untransfected cells) and twice as much in HepG2-Q, L6-Q, INS1E-Q (44%, 92% and 30%). Similar data were obtained with Akt-Ser473, ERK1/2-Thr202/Tyr204 and GSK3-beta Ser9 in HepG2 and L6. Insulin-induced reduction of PEPCK mRNA was progressively lower in untransfected, HepG2-K and HepG2-Q cells (65%, 54%, 23%). Insulin-induced glucose uptake in untransfected L6 (60% increase over basal), was totally abolished in L6-K and L6-Q cells. GLUT 4 mRNA was slightly reduced in L6-K and twice as much in L6-Q (13% and 25% reduction vs. untransfected cells). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was 60% reduced in INS1E-K and almost abolished in INS1E-Q. Serum deficiency activated caspase-3 by two, three and four folds in untransfected INS1E, INS1E-K and INS1E-Q. Glyburide-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 50% in isolated human islets from homozygous QQ donors as compared to those from KK and KQ individuals. Our data clearly indicate that ENPP1, especially when the Q121 variant is operating, affects insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle- and liver-cells and both function and survival of insulin secreting beta-cells, thus representing a strong pathogenic factor predisposing to insulin resistance

  17. Snapin mediates incretin action and augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jin; Seshadri, Madhav; Ashraf, Uzair; Mdluli, Thembi; Mondal, Prosenjit; Keil, Meg; Azevedo, Monalisa; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Hussain, Mehboob A

    2011-03-01

    Impaired insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) potentiates insulin secretion and improves metabolic control in humans with T2DM. GLP-1 receptor-mediated signaling leading to insulin secretion occurs via cyclic AMP stimulated protein kinase A (PKA)- as well as guanine nucleotide exchange factor-mediated pathways. However, how these two pathways integrate and coordinate insulin secretion remains poorly understood. Here we show that these incretin-stimulated pathways converge at the level of snapin, and that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of snapin increases interaction among insulin secretory vesicle-associated proteins, thereby potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In diabetic islets with impaired GSIS, snapin phosphorylation is reduced, and expression of a snapin mutant, which mimics site-specific phosphorylation, restores GSIS. Thus, snapin is a critical node in GSIS regulation and provides a potential therapeutic target to improve β cell function in T2DM. PMID:21356520

  18. mTOR Inhibition: Reduced Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Jordi; Ramírez-Bajo, María Jose; Banon-Maneus, Elisenda; Moya-Rull, Daniel; Ventura-Aguiar, Pedro; Hierro-Garcia, Natalia; Lazo-Rodriguez, Marta; Revuelta, Ignacio; Torres, Armando; Oppenheimer, Federico; Campistol, Josep M.; Diekmann, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Background Sirolimus (SRL) has been associated with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The aim was to determine the effect of SRL on development of insulin resistance and β-cell toxicity. Methods Lean Zucker rat (LZR) and obese Zucker rat (OZR) were distributed into groups: vehicle and SRL (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg) during 12 or 28 days. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was evaluated at days 0, 12, 28, and 45. Islet morphometry, β-cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed at 12 days. Islets were isolated to analyze insulin content, insulin secretion, and gene expression. Results After 12 days, SRL treatment only impaired IPGTT in a dose-dependent manner in OZR. Treatment prolongation induced increase of area under the curve of IPGTT in LZR and OZR; however, in contrast to OZR, LZR normalized glucose levels after 2 hours. The SRL reduced pancreas weight and islet proliferation in LZR and OZR as well as insulin content. Insulin secretion was only affected in OZR. Islets from OZR + SRL rats presented a downregulation of Neurod1, Pax4, and Ins2 gene. Genes related with insulin secretion remained unchanged or upregulated. Conclusions In conditions that require adaptive β-cell proliferation, SRL might reveal harmful effects by blocking β-cell proliferation, insulin production and secretion. These effects disappeared when removing the therapy.

  19. Biological effects of strong static magnetic fields on insulin-secreting cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, T.; Miyakoshi, J.

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic flux density of MRI for clinical diagnosis has been increasing. However, there remains very little biological data regarding the effect of strong static magnetic fields (SMFs) on human health. To evaluate the biological effects of strong SMFs, we cultured INS-1 cells under exposure to sham and SMF conditions for 1 or 2 h, and analyzed insulin secretion, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and cell number. Exposure to SMF with a high magnetic field gradient for 1 h significantly increased insulin secretion and insulin 1 mRNA expression. Exposure to SMF did not affect cell proliferation and cell number. Our results suggested that MRI systems with a higher magnetic flux density might not cause cell proliferative or functional damages on insulin-secreting cells.

  20. Functional Reconstitution of the Insulin-Secreting Porosome Complex in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Naik, Akshata R; Kulkarni, Sanjana P; Lewis, Kenneth T; Taatjes, Douglas J; Jena, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular cup-shaped lipoprotein structures called porosomes embedded in the cell plasma membrane mediate fractional release of intravesicular contents from cells during secretion. The presence of porosomes, have been documented in many cell types including neurons, acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas, GH-secreting cells of the pituitary, and insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells. Functional reconstitution of porosomes into artificial lipid membranes, have also been accomplished. Earlier studies on mouse insulin-secreting Min6 cells report 100-nm porosome complexes composed of nearly 30 proteins. In the current study, porosomes have been functionally reconstituted for the first time in live cells. Isolated Min6 porosomes reconstituted into live Min6 cells demonstrate augmented levels of porosome proteins and a consequent increase in the potency and efficacy of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Elevated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion 48 hours after reconstitution, reflects on the remarkable stability and viability of reconstituted porosomes, documenting the functional reconstitution of native porosomes in live cells. These results, establish a new paradigm in porosome-mediated insulin secretion in β-cells. PMID:26523491

  1. Sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and transcription in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Sanchez-Soto, M. Carmen; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Hiriart, Marcia . E-mail: mhiriart@ifc.unam.mx

    2006-07-01

    Human studies have shown that chronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with a high prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are not well understood, and practically, there is no information available on the effects of arsenic on pancreatic {beta}-cells functions. Thus, since insulin secreted by the pancreas plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, our aim was to determine if sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and mRNA expression in single adult rat pancreatic {beta}-cells. Cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 {mu}M sodium arsenite and incubated for 72 and 144 h. The highest dose tested (10 {mu}M) decreased {beta}-cell viability, by 33% and 83%, respectively. Insulin secretion and mRNA expression were evaluated in the presence of 1 and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite. Basal insulin secretion, in 5.6 mM glucose, was not significantly affected by 1 or 5 {mu}M treatment for 72 h, but basal secretion was reduced when cells were exposed to 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite for 144 h. On the other hand, insulin secretion in response to 15.6 mM glucose decreased with sodium arsenite in a dose-dependent manner in such a way that cells were no longer able to distinguish between different glucose concentrations. We also showed a significant decrease in insulin mRNA expression of cells exposed to 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite during 72 h. Our data suggest that arsenic may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus by impairing pancreatic {beta}-cell functions, particularly insulin synthesis and secretion.

  2. A single-islet microplate assay to measure mouse and human islet insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Truchan, Nathan A; Brar, Harpreet K; Gallagher, Shannon J; Neuman, Joshua C; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-01-01

    One complication to comparing β-cell function among islet preparations, whether from genetically identical or diverse animals or human organ donors, is the number of islets required per assay. Islet numbers can be limiting, meaning that fewer conditions can be tested; other islet measurements must be excluded; or islets must be pooled from multiple animals/donors for each experiment. Furthermore, pooling islets negates the possibility of performing single-islet comparisons. Our aim was to validate a 96-well plate-based single islet insulin secretion assay that would be as robust as previously published methods to quantify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse and human islets. First, we tested our new assay using mouse islets, showing robust stimulation of insulin secretion 24 or 48 h after islet isolation. Next, we utilized the assay to quantify mouse islet function on an individual islet basis, measurements that would not be possible with the standard pooled islet assay methods. Next, we validated our new assay using human islets obtained from the Integrated Islet Distribution Program (IIDP). Human islets are known to have widely varying insulin secretion capacity, and using our new assay we reveal biologically relevant factors that are significantly correlated with human islet function, whether displayed as maximal insulin secretion response or fold-stimulation of insulin secretion. Overall, our results suggest this new microplate assay will be a useful tool for many laboratories, expert or not in islet techniques, to be able to precisely quantify islet insulin secretion from their models of interest. PMID:26452321

  3. Cooperation between cAMP signalling and sulfonylurea in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, T; Takahashi, T; Takahashi, H; Seino, S

    2014-09-01

    Although glucose is physiologically the most important regulator of insulin secretion, glucose-induced insulin secretion is modulated by hormonal and neural inputs to pancreatic β-cells. Most of the hormones and neurotransmitters evoke intracellular signals such as cAMP, Ca²⁺ , and phospholipid-derived molecules by activating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In particular, cAMP is a key second messenger that amplifies insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. The action of cAMP on insulin secretion is mediated by both protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and Epac2A-dependent mechanisms. Many of the proteins expressed in β-cells are phosphorylated by PKA in vitro, but only a few proteins in which PKA phosphorylation directly affects insulin secretion have been identified. On the other hand, Epac2A activates the Ras-like small G protein Rap in a cAMP-dependent manner. Epac2A is also directly activated by various sulfonylureas, except for gliclazide. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analogue, and glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea, synergistically activate Epac2A and Rap1, whereas adrenaline, which suppresses cAMP production in pancreatic β-cells, blocks activation of Epac2A and Rap1 by glibenclamide. Thus, cAMP signalling and sulfonylurea cooperatively activate Epac2A and Rap1. This interaction could account, at least in part, for the synergistic effects of incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas in insulin secretion. Accordingly, clarification of the mechanism of Epac2A activation may provide therapeutic strategies to improve insulin secretion in diabetes. PMID:25200305

  4. One-year metreleptin improves insulin secretion in patients with diabetes linked to genetic lipodystrophic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vatier, C; Fetita, S; Boudou, P; Tchankou, C; Deville, L; Riveline, Jp; Young, J; Mathivon, L; Travert, F; Morin, D; Cahen, J; Lascols, O; Andreelli, F; Reznik, Y; Mongeois, E; Madelaine, I; Vantyghem, Mc; Gautier, Jf; Vigouroux, C

    2016-07-01

    Recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin) therapy was shown to improve hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and insulin sensitivity in patients with lipodystrophic syndromes, but its effects on insulin secretion remain controversial. We used dynamic intravenous (i.v.) clamp procedures to measure insulin secretion, adjusted to insulin sensitivity, at baseline and after 1 year of metreleptin therapy, in 16 consecutive patients with lipodystrophy, diabetes and leptin deficiency. Patients, with a mean [± standard error of the mean (s.e.m.)] age of 39.2 (±4) years, presented with familial partial lipodystrophy (n = 11, 10 women) or congenital generalized lipodystrophy (n = 5, four women). Their mean (± s.e.m.) BMI (23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m(2) ), glycated haemoglobin levels (8.5 ± 0.4%) and serum triglycerides levels (4.6 ± 0.9 mmol/l) significantly decreased within 1 month of metreleptin therapy, then remained stable. Insulin sensitivity (from hyperglycaemic or euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps, n = 4 and n = 12, respectively), insulin secretion during graded glucose infusion (n = 12), and acute insulin response to i.v. glucose adjusted to insulin sensitivity (disposition index, n = 12), significantly increased after 1 year of metreleptin therapy. The increase in disposition index was related to a decrease in percentage of total and trunk body fat. Metreleptin therapy improves not only insulin sensitivity, but also insulin secretion in patients with diabetes attributable to genetic lipodystrophies. PMID:26584826

  5. Role of the Transcription Factor Sox4 in Insulin Secretion and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Goldsworthy, Michelle; Hugill, Alison; Freeman, Helen; Horner, Emma; Shimomura, Kenju; Bogani, Debora; Pieles, Guido; Mijat, Vesna; Arkell, Ruth; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Cox, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES— To identify, map, clone, and functionally validate a novel mouse model for impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Haploinsufficiency of the insulin receptor and associated mild insulin resistance has been used to sensitize an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen to identify novel mutations resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. The new impaired glucose tolerance 4 (IGT4) model was selected using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and inheritance of the phenotype confirmed by generation of backcross progeny. Segregation of the phenotype was correlated with genotype information to map the location of the gene and candidates sequenced for mutations. The function of the SRY-related high mobility group (HMG)-box 4 (Sox4) gene in insulin secretion was tested using another ENU allele and by small interfering RNA silencing in insulinoma cells. RESULTS— We describe two allelic autosomal dominant mutations in the highly conserved HMG box of the transcription factor Sox4. Previously associated with pancreas development, Sox4 mutations in the adult mouse result in an insulin secretory defect, which exhibits impaired glucose tolerance in association with insulin receptor+/−–induced insulin resistance. Elimination of the Sox4 transcript in INS1 and Min6 cells resulted in the abolition of glucose-stimulated insulin release similar to that observed for silencing of the key metabolic enzyme glucokinase. Intracellular calcium measurements in treated cells indicate that this defect lies downstream of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) and calcium influx. CONCLUSIONS— IGT4 represents a novel digenic model of insulin resistance coupled with an insulin secretory defect. The Sox4 gene has a role in insulin secretion in the adult β-cell downstream of the KATP channel. PMID:18477811

  6. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24814481

  7. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion by PKC-dependent TRPM4 and TRPM5 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shigeto, Makoto; Ramracheya, Reshma; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Cha, Chae Young; Chibalina, Margarita V.; Hastoy, Benoit; Philippaert, Koenraad; Reinbothe, Thomas; Rorsman, Nils; Salehi, Albert; Sones, William R.; Vergari, Elisa; Weston, Cathryn; Gorelik, Julia; Katsura, Masashi; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Vennekens, Rudi; Zaccolo, Manuela; Galione, Antony; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Kaku, Kohei; Ladds, Graham; Rorsman, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in Trpm4 or Trpm5 KO islets. These data provide important insight into the therapeutic action of GLP-1 and suggest that circulating levels of this hormone directly stimulate insulin secretion by β cells. PMID:26571400

  8. Integrated perfusion and separation systems for entrainment of insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lian; Wang, Xue; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Schrell, Adrian M; Mukhitov, Nikita; Roper, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    A microfluidic system was developed to investigate the entrainment of insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans to oscillatory glucose levels. A gravity-driven perfusion system was integrated with a microfluidic system to deliver sinusoidal glucose waveforms to the islet chamber. Automated manipulation of the height of the perfusion syringes allowed precise control of the ratio of two perfusion solutions into a chamber containing 1-10 islets. Insulin levels in the perfusate were measured using an online competitive electrophoretic immunoassay with a sampling period of 10 s. The insulin immunoassay had a detection limit of 3 nM with RSDs of calibration points ranging from 2-8%. At 11 mM glucose, insulin secretion from single islets was oscillatory with a period ranging from 3-6 min. Application of a small amplitude sinusoidal wave of glucose with a period of 5 or 10 min, shifted the period of the insulin oscillations to this forcing period. Exposing groups of 6-10 islets to a sinusoidal glucose wave synchronized their behavior, producing a coherent pulsatile insulin response from the population. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed system for the study of oscillatory insulin secretion and can be easily modified for investigating the dynamic nature of other hormones released from different cell types. PMID:25474044

  9. Increase of Calcium Sensing Receptor Expression Is Related to Compensatory Insulin Secretion during Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Seo, Eun-Hui; Lee, Young-Sun; Cho, Sung Chun; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Sang Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is caused by both insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. To investigate age-related changes in glucose metabolism and development of type 2 diabetes, we compared glucose homeostasis in different groups of C57BL/6J mice ranging in age from 4 months to 20 months (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months). Interestingly, we observed that non-fasting glucose levels were not significantly changed, but glucose tolerance gradually increased by 20 months of age, whereas insulin sensitivity declined with age. We found that the size of islets and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion increased with aging. However, mRNA expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and granuphilin was decreased in islets of older mice compared with that of 4-month-old mice. Serum calcium (Ca2+) levels were significantly decreased at 12, 20 and 28 months of age compared with 4 months and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mRNA expression in the islets significantly increased with age. An extracellular calcium depletion agent upregulated CaSR mRNA expression and consequently enhanced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, we suggest that decreased Ca2+ levels and increased CaSR expression might be involved in increased insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance in aged mice. PMID:27441644

  10. Insulin Stimulates S100B Secretion and These Proteins Antagonistically Modulate Brain Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; de Souza, Daniela F; Biasibetti, Regina; Bobermin, Larissa D; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Brain metabolism is highly dependent on glucose, which is derived from the blood circulation and metabolized by the astrocytes and other neural cells via several pathways. Glucose uptake in the brain does not involve insulin-dependent glucose transporters; however, this hormone affects the glucose influx to the brain. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of S100B (an astrocyte-derived protein) have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism; however, there is no evidence whether insulin modulates glucose metabolism and S100B secretion. Herein, we investigated the effect of S100B on glucose metabolism, measuring D-(3)H-glucose incorporation in two preparations, C6 glioma cells and acute hippocampal slices, and we also investigated the effect of insulin on S100B secretion. Our results showed that: (a) S100B at physiological levels decreases glucose uptake, through the multiligand receptor RAGE and mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling, and (b) insulin stimulated S100B secretion via PI3K signaling. Our findings indicate the existence of insulin-S100B modulation of glucose utilization in the brain tissue, and may improve our understanding of glucose metabolism in several conditions such as ketosis, streptozotocin-induced dementia and pharmacological exposure to antipsychotics, situations that lead to changes in insulin signaling and extracellular levels of S100B. PMID:26875731

  11. Isocitrate-to-SENP1 signaling amplifies insulin secretion and rescues dysfunctional β cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Dai, Xiaoqing; Jensen, Mette V.; Wang, Runsheng; Peterson, Brett S.; Huang, Chao; Ilkayeva, Olga; Smith, Nancy; Miller, Nathanael; Hajmrle, Catherine; Spigelman, Aliya F.; Wright, Robert C.; Plummer, Gregory; Suzuki, Kunimasa; Mackay, James P.; van de Bunt, Martijn; Gloyn, Anna L.; Ryan, Terence E.; Norquay, Lisa D.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; Colmers, William F.; Shirihai, Orian S.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Yeh, Edward T.H.; Newgard, Christopher B.; MacDonald, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin secretion from β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls metabolic homeostasis and is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Increases in blood glucose trigger insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels, depolarizing β cells, and opening voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to elicit insulin exocytosis. However, one or more additional pathway(s) amplify the secretory response, likely at the distal exocytotic site. The mitochondrial export of isocitrate and engagement with cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc) may be one key pathway, but the mechanism linking this to insulin secretion and its role in T2D have not been defined. Here, we show that the ICDc-dependent generation of NADPH and subsequent glutathione (GSH) reduction contribute to the amplification of insulin exocytosis via sentrin/SUMO-specific protease-1 (SENP1). In human T2D and an in vitro model of human islet dysfunction, the glucose-dependent amplification of exocytosis was impaired and could be rescued by introduction of signaling intermediates from this pathway. Moreover, islet-specific Senp1 deletion in mice caused impaired glucose tolerance by reducing the amplification of insulin exocytosis. Together, our results identify a pathway that links glucose metabolism to the amplification of insulin secretion and demonstrate that restoration of this axis rescues β cell function in T2D. PMID:26389676

  12. Evidence for a role of exogenous or endogenous hyperlactatemia in insulin secretion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Ribes, G; Blayac, J P; Valette, G; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1979-01-01

    Various types of experimental hyperlactatemia were induced in the normal anesthetized dog, and the changes in insulin secretion were measured in the pancreatico-duodenal vein. Hyperlactatemia was induced in the absence or in the presence of an infusion of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA), which activates pyruvate dehydrogenase. 1. Exogenous hyperlactatemia: The infusion of sodium L(+)lactate resulted in a strong increase in blood lactate level which was accompanied by a significant increase in the insulin output from the pancreatico-duodenal vein. The administration of DCA did not counteract the increase in lactate level and did not modify insulin output either. 2. Endogenous hyperlactatemia: This was induced either by pharmacological means: the subcutaneous injection of an antidiabetic biguanide, phenformin (20 mg/kg), or by physiological means: intense muscular work. In both cases an increase in the lactate level and in insulin output was recorded. The administration of DCA suppressed the hyperlactatemia and counteracted the increase in insulin output. These results show that there is a relationship between lactate level and insulin secretion, and give evidence for a role of endogenous lactate in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:399784

  13. Decreased irisin secretion contributes to muscle insulin resistance in high-fat diet mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zaigang; Chen, Xu; Chen, Yujuan; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies have revealed the relationship between irisin and insulin signaling, while positive associations of muscle FNDC5 with insulin resistance is observed. However, the functional mechanism of irisin on muscle insulin resistance is still obscure. This study aims to investigate the effect of irisin on muscle insulin action. Methods: Diabetic mouse model was established by high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Body indexes and serum levels of triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were record. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before being killed. Circulating irisin level was also detected, while FNDC5/irisin expression was determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis in both muscle and adipose tissues. Insulin action was further evaluated by the phosphorylation of AKT and Erk, and palmitic acid treated muscle cells were introduced for mimicking diabetic status in vitro. Results: Obvious obese feathers associated with type 2 diabetes were observed in HFD feeding mice, with decreased circulating irisin level and FNDC5/irisin secretion in adipose tissues. Although FNDC5/irisin expression showed little change in skeletal muscle, the insulin action was inhibited significantly. Moreover, palmitic acid treated muscle cells showed similar inhibition of insulin action, and FNDC5/irisin expression change. Besides, insulin action could be reversed by irisin addition in muscle cells. Conclusion: HFD induced obese mice showed decreased irisin secretion from adipose tissues, which might contribute to muscle insulin resistance. Furthermore, irisin addition could recover insulin action in palmitic acid treated muscle cells, indicating the importance of irisin for preserving insulin signaling. PMID:26261526

  14. Heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but not insulin action, in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Dai, Chunhua; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Mayes, Wesley H; Mokshagundam, Shilpa; James, Freyja D; Thompson, Courtney S; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H; Powers, Alvin C

    2014-11-01

    Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to insulin resistance and islet dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a primary defense against mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin action, wild-type (sod2(+/+)) and heterozygous knockout mice (sod2(+/-)) were fed a chow or high-fat (HF) diet, which accelerates ROS production. Hyperglycemic (HG) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI) clamps were performed to assess GSIS and insulin action in vivo. GSIS during HG clamps was equal in chow-fed sod2(+/-) and sod2(+/+) but was markedly decreased in HF-fed sod2(+/-). Remarkably, this impairment was not paralleled by reduced HG glucose infusion rate (GIR). Decreased GSIS in HF-fed sod2(+/-) was associated with increased ROS, such as superoxide ion. Surprisingly, insulin action determined by HI clamps did not differ between sod2(+/-) and sod2(+/+) of either diet. Since insulin action was unaffected, we hypothesized that the unchanged HG GIR in HF-fed sod2(+/-) was due to increased glucose effectiveness. Increased GLUT-1, hexokinase II, and phospho-AMPK protein in muscle of HF-fed sod2(+/-) support this hypothesis. We conclude that heterozygous SOD2 deletion in mice, a model that mimics SOD2 changes observed in diabetic humans, impairs GSIS in HF-fed mice without affecting insulin action. PMID:24947366

  15. Heterozygous SOD2 Deletion Impairs Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion, but Not Insulin Action, in High-Fat–Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chunhua; Lustig, Mary E.; Bonner, Jeffrey S.; Mayes, Wesley H.; Mokshagundam, Shilpa; James, Freyja D.; Thompson, Courtney S.; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G.R.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Wasserman, David H.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are linked to insulin resistance and islet dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a primary defense against mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that heterozygous SOD2 deletion impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin action, wild-type (sod2+/+) and heterozygous knockout mice (sod2+/−) were fed a chow or high-fat (HF) diet, which accelerates ROS production. Hyperglycemic (HG) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI) clamps were performed to assess GSIS and insulin action in vivo. GSIS during HG clamps was equal in chow-fed sod2+/− and sod2+/+ but was markedly decreased in HF-fed sod2+/−. Remarkably, this impairment was not paralleled by reduced HG glucose infusion rate (GIR). Decreased GSIS in HF-fed sod2+/− was associated with increased ROS, such as superoxide ion. Surprisingly, insulin action determined by HI clamps did not differ between sod2+/− and sod2+/+ of either diet. Since insulin action was unaffected, we hypothesized that the unchanged HG GIR in HF-fed sod2+/− was due to increased glucose effectiveness. Increased GLUT-1, hexokinase II, and phospho-AMPK protein in muscle of HF-fed sod2+/− support this hypothesis. We conclude that heterozygous SOD2 deletion in mice, a model that mimics SOD2 changes observed in diabetic humans, impairs GSIS in HF-fed mice without affecting insulin action. PMID:24947366

  16. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  17. Exercise Intensity Modulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion when Adjusted for Adipose, Liver and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise intensity on compensatory changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) when adjusted for adipose, liver and skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). Fifteen participants (8F, Age: 49.9±3.6yr; BMI: 31.0±1.5kg/m2; VO2peak: 23.2±1.2mg/kg/min) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT and/or HbA1c) underwent a time-course matched Control, and isocaloric (200kcal) exercise at moderate (MIE; at lactate threshold (LT)), and high-intensity (HIE; 75% of difference between LT and VO2peak). A 75g OGTT was conducted 1 hour post-exercise/Control, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (1/Oral Minimal Model; SMIR), hepatic (HOMAIR), and adipose (ADIPOSEIR) IR. Insulin secretion rates were determined by deconvolution modeling for GSIS, and disposition index (DI; GSIS/IR; DISMIR, DIHOMAIR, DIADIPOSEIR) calculations. Compared to Control, exercise lowered SMIR independent of intensity (P<0.05), with HIE raising HOMAIR and ADIPOSEIR compared with Control (P<0.05). GSIS was not reduced following exercise, but DIHOMAIR and DIADIPOSEIR were lowered more following HIE compared with Control (P<0.05). However, DISMIR increased in an intensity based manner relative to Control (P<0.05), which corresponded with lower post-prandial blood glucose levels. Taken together, pancreatic insulin secretion adjusts in an exercise intensity dependent manner to match the level of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Further work is warranted to understand the mechanism by which exercise influences the cross-talk between tissues that regulate blood glucose in people with prediabetes. PMID:27111219

  18. p53- and ERK7-Dependent Ribosome Surveillance Response Regulates Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptide Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hasygar, Kiran; Hietakangas, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like signalling is a conserved mechanism that coordinates animal growth and metabolism with nutrient status. In Drosophila, insulin-producing median neurosecretory cells (IPCs) regulate larval growth by secreting insulin-like peptides (dILPs) in a diet-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that nutrition affects dILP secretion through humoral signals derived from the fat body. Here we uncover a novel mechanism that operates cell autonomously in the IPCs to regulate dILP secretion. We observed that impairment of ribosome biogenesis specifically in the IPCs strongly inhibits dILP secretion, which consequently leads to reduced body size and a delay in larval development. This response is dependent on p53, a known surveillance factor for ribosome biogenesis. A downstream effector of this growth inhibitory response is an atypical MAP kinase ERK7 (ERK8/MAPK15), which is upregulated in the IPCs following impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as starvation. We show that ERK7 is sufficient and essential to inhibit dILP secretion upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, and it acts epistatically to p53. Moreover, we provide evidence that p53 and ERK7 contribute to the inhibition of dILP secretion upon starvation. Thus, we conclude that a cell autonomous ribosome surveillance response, which leads to upregulation of ERK7, inhibits dILP secretion to impede tissue growth under limiting dietary conditions. PMID:25393288

  19. Synchronization of Ca(2+)-signals within insulin-secreting pseudoislets: effects of gap-junctional uncouplers.

    PubMed

    Squires, P E; Hauge-Evans, A C; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2000-05-01

    The secretory response of the intact islet is greater than the response of individual beta-cells in isolation, and functional coupling between cells is critical in insulin release. The changes in intracellular Ca(2+)([Ca(2+)](i)) which initiate insulin secretory responses are synchronized between groups of cells within the islet, and gap-junctions are thought to play a central role in coordinating signalling events. We have used the MIN6 insulin-secreting cell line, to examine whether uncoupling gap-junctions alters the synchronicity of nutrient- and non-nutrient-evoked Ca(2+)oscillations, or affects insulin secretion. MIN6 cells express mRNA species that can be amplified using PCR primers for connexin 36. A commonly used gap-junctional inhibitor, heptanol, inhibited glucose- and tolbutamide-induced Ca(2+)-oscillations to basal levels in MIN6 cell clusters at concentrations of 0.5 mM and greater, and it had similar effects in pseudoislets when used at 2.5 mM. Lower heptanol concentrations altered the frequency of Ca(2+)transients without affecting their synchronicity, in both monolayers and pseudoislets. Heptanol also had effects on insulin secretion from MIN6 pseudoislets such that 1 mM enhanced secretion while 2.5 mM was inhibitory. These data suggest that heptanol has multiple effects in pancreatic beta-cells, none of which appears to be related to uncoupling of synchronicity of Ca(2+)signalling between cells. A second gap-junction uncoupler, 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, also failed to uncouple synchronized Ca(2+)-oscillations, and it had no effect on insulin secretion. These data provide evidence that Ca(2+)signalling events occur simultaneously across the bulk mass of the pseudoislet, and suggest that gap-junctions are not required to coordinate the synchronicity of these events, nor is communication via gap junctions essential for integrated insulin secretory responses. PMID:10859595

  20. Zip4 Mediated Zinc Influx Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Alexandre B.; Prentice, Kacey J.; Froese, Sean; Liu, Ying; Andrews, Glen K.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc has an important role in normal pancreatic beta cell physiology as it regulates gene transcription, insulin crystallization and secretion, and cell survival. Nevertheless, little is known about how zinc is transported through the plasma membrane of beta cells and which of the class of zinc influx transporters (Zip) is involved. Zip4 was previously shown to be expressed in human and mouse beta cells; however, its function there is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the zinc transport role of Zip4 in beta cells. To investigate this, Zip4 was over-expressed in MIN6 beta cells using a pCMV6-Zip4GFP plasmid. Organelle staining combined with confocal microscopy showed that Zip4 exhibits a widespread localization in MIN6 cells. Time-lapse zinc imaging experiments showed that Zip4 increases cytoplasmic zinc levels. This resulted in increased granular zinc content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, it is unlikely that the increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion was triggered by a modulation of mitochondrial function, as mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. To define the role of Zip4 in-vivo, we generated a beta cell-specific knockout mouse model (Zip4BKO). Deletion of the Zip4 gene was confirmed in Zip4BKO islets by PCR, RT-PCR, and immuno-histochemistry. Zip4BKO mice showed slightly improved glucose homeostasis but no change in insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test. While Zip4 was not found to be essential for proper glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in vivo in mice, this study also found that Zip4 mediates increases in cytoplasmic and granular zinc pools and stimulates glucose dependant insulin secretion in-vitro. PMID:25806541

  1. GLYCEMIC REGULATION AND INSULIN SECRETION ARE ABNORMAL IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS PIGS DESPITE SPARING OF ISLET CELL MASS

    PubMed Central

    Uc, Aliye; Olivier, Alicia K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Yao, Jianrong; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Buchanan, Katherine M.; Vanegas Calderón, Oriana G.; Abu-El-Haija, Marwa; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Rector, Michael V.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Taft, Peter J.; Gansemer, Nick D.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Hornick, Emma E.; Stoltz, David A.; Ode, Katie L.; Welsh, Michael J.; Engelhardt, John F.; Norris, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common and significant comorbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The pathogenesis of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) is incompletely understood. Because exocrine pancreatic disease is similar between humans and pigs with CF, the CF pig model has the potential to contribute significantly to the understanding of CFRD pathogenesis. We determined the structure of the endocrine pancreas in fetal, newborn and older CF and non-CF pigs and assessed endocrine pancreas function by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT). In fetal pigs, pancreatic insulin and glucagon density was similar between CF and non-CF. In newborn and older pigs, the insulin and glucagon density was unchanged between CF and non-CF per total pancreatic area, but increased per remnant lobular tissue in CF reflecting exocrine pancreatic loss. Although fasting glucose levels were not different between CF and non-CF newborns, CF newborns demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance and increased glucose area under the curve during IV-GTT. Second phase insulin secretion responsiveness was impaired in CF newborn pigs and significantly lower than that observed in non-CF newborns. Older CF pigs had elevated random blood glucose levels compared to non-CF. In summary, glycemic abnormalities and insulin secretion defects were present in newborn CF pigs and spontaneous hyperglycemia developed over time. Functional changes in CF pig pancreas were not associated with a decline in islet cell mass. Our results suggest that functional islet abnormalities, independent of structural islet loss, contribute to the early pathogenesis of CFRD. PMID:25142104

  2. Defective insulin secretion by chronic glucagon receptor activation in glucose intolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Ahlkvist, Linda; Omar, Bilal; Valeur, Anders; Fosgerau, Keld; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Stimulation of insulin secretion by short-term glucagon receptor (GCGR) activation is well characterized; however, the effect of long-term GCGR activation on β-cell function is not known, but of interest, since hyperglucagonemia occurs early during development of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we examined whether chronic GCGR activation affects insulin secretion in glucose intolerant mice. To induce chronic GCGR activation, high-fat diet fed mice were continuously (2 weeks) infused with the stable glucagon analog ZP-GA-1 and challenged with oral glucose and intravenous glucose±glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). Islets were isolated to evaluate the insulin secretory response to glucose±GLP1 and their pancreas were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. Two weeks of ZP-GA-1 infusion reduced insulin secretion both after oral and intravenous glucose challenges in vivo and in isolated islets. These inhibitory effects were corrected for by GLP1. Also, we observed increased β-cell area and islet size. We conclude that induction of chronic ZP-GA-1 levels in glucose intolerant mice markedly reduces insulin secretion, and thus, we suggest that chronic activation of the GCGR may contribute to the failure of β-cell function during development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26698567

  3. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  4. Optogenetic control of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, T; Okawa, S; Hirasawa, T; Ishihara, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study assessed the ability of optogenetics techniques to provide a better understanding of the control of insulin secretion, particularly regarding pancreatic β-cell function in homeostasis and pathological conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM). We used optogenetics to investigate whether insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis could be controlled by regulating intracellular calcium ion concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in a mouse pancreatic β-cell line (MIN6) transfected with the optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). The ChR2-transfected MIN6 (ChR2-MIN6) cells secreted insulin following irradiation with a laser (470 nm). The increase in [Ca(2+)]i was accompanied by elevated levels of messenger RNAs that encode calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta and adenylate cyclase 1. ChR2-MIN6 cells suspended in matrigel were inoculated into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice that were then subjected to a glucose tolerance test. Laser irradiation of these mice caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, and the irradiated implanted cells expressed insulin. These findings demonstrate the power of optogenetics to precisely and efficiently controlled insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells 'on demand', in contrast to techniques using growth factors or chemical inducers. Optogenetic technology shows great promise for understanding the mechanisms of glucose homeostasis and for developing treatments for metabolic diseases such as DM. PMID:25809465

  5. Kin of IRRE-like Protein 2 Is a Phosphorylated Glycoprotein That Regulates Basal Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yesildag, Burcak; Bock, Thomas; Herrmanns, Karolin; Wollscheid, Bernd; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-23

    Direct interactions among pancreatic β-cells via cell surface proteins inhibit basal and enhance stimulated insulin secretion. Here, we functionally and biochemically characterized Kirrel2, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein with β-cell-specific expression in the pancreas. Our results show that Kirrel2 is a phosphorylated glycoprotein that co-localizes and interacts with the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin in MIN6 cells. We further demonstrate that the phosphosites Tyr(595-596) are functionally relevant for the regulation of Kirrel2 stability and localization. Analysis of the extracellular and intracellular domains of Kirrel2 revealed that it is cleaved and shed from MIN6 cells and that the remaining membrane spanning cytoplasmic domain is processed by γ-secretase complex. Kirrel2 knockdown with RNA interference in MIN6 cells and ablation of Kirrel2 from mice with genetic deletion resulted in increased basal insulin secretion from β-cells, with no immediate influence on stimulated insulin secretion, total insulin content, or whole body glucose metabolism. Our results show that in pancreatic β-cells Kirrel2 localizes to adherens junctions, is regulated by multiple post-translational events, including glycosylation, extracellular cleavage, and phosphorylation, and engages in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. PMID:26324709

  6. Increased Expression of the Diabetes Gene SOX4 Reduces Insulin Secretion by Impaired Fusion Pore Expansion.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephan C; Do, Hyun Woong; Hastoy, Benoit; Hugill, Alison; Adam, Julie; Chibalina, Margarita V; Galvanovskis, Juris; Godazgar, Mahdieh; Lee, Sheena; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Salehi, Albert; Tarasov, Andrei I; Rosengren, Anders H; Cox, Roger; Rorsman, Patrik

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor Sox4 has been proposed to underlie the increased type 2 diabetes risk linked to an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism in CDKAL1 In a mouse model expressing a mutant form of Sox4, glucose-induced insulin secretion is reduced by 40% despite normal intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and depolarization-evoked exocytosis. This paradox is explained by a fourfold increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis (as determined by single-granule exocytosis measurements) in which the fusion pore connecting the granule lumen to the exterior expands to a diameter of only 2 nm, which does not allow the exit of insulin. Microarray analysis indicated that this correlated with an increased expression of the exocytosis-regulating protein Stxbp6. In a large collection of human islet preparations (n = 63), STXBP6 expression and glucose-induced insulin secretion correlated positively and negatively with SOX4 expression, respectively. Overexpression of SOX4 in the human insulin-secreting cell EndoC-βH2 interfered with granule emptying and inhibited hormone release, the latter effect reversed by silencing STXBP6 These data suggest that increased SOX4 expression inhibits insulin secretion and increased diabetes risk by the upregulation of STXBP6 and an increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis at the expense of full fusion. We propose that pharmacological interventions promoting fusion pore expansion may be effective in diabetes therapy. PMID:26993066

  7. A Role for SPARC in the Moderation of Human Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Lorna W.; McCulloch, Laura J.; Holley, Janet E.; Rawling, Thomas J.; Welters, Hannah J.; Kos, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis We have previously shown the implication of the multifunctional protein SPARC (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine)/osteonectin in insulin resistance but potential effects on beta-cell function have not been assessed. We therefore aimed to characterise the effect of SPARC on beta-cell function and features of diabetes. Methods We measured SPARC expression by qRT-PCR in human primary pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, liver and muscle. We then examined the relation of SPARC with glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in primary human islets and the effect of SPARC overexpression on GSIS in beta cell lines. Results SPARC was expressed at measurable levels in human islets, adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and demonstrated reduced expression in primary islets from subjects with diabetes compared with controls (p< = 0.05). SPARC levels were positively correlated with GSIS in islets from control donors (p< = 0.01). Overexpression of SPARC in cultured beta-cells resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in insulin secretion in high glucose conditions (p< = 0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that levels of SPARC are reduced in islets from donors with diabetes and that it has a role in insulin secretion, an effect which appears independent of SPARC’s modulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue. PMID:23840838

  8. Effect of disruption of actin filaments by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin on insulin secretion in HIT-T15 cells and pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G; Rungger-Brändle, E; Just, I; Jonas, J C; Aktories, K; Wollheim, C B

    1994-01-01

    To examine their role in insulin secretion, actin filaments (AFs) were disrupted by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin that ADP-ribosylates G-actin. Ribosylation also prevents polymerization of G-actin to F-actin and inhibits AF assembly by capping the fast-growing end of F-actin. Pretreatment of HIT-T15 cells with the toxin inhibited stimulated insulin secretion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The toxin did not affect cellular insulin content or nonstimulated secretion. In static incubation, toxin treatment caused 45-50% inhibition of secretion induced by nutrients alone (10 mM glucose + 5 mM glutamine + 5 mM leucine) or combined with bombesin (phospholipase C-activator) and 20% reduction of that potentiated by forskolin (stimulator of adenylyl cyclase). In perifusion, the stimulated secretion during the first phase was marginally diminished, whereas the second phase was inhibited by approximately 80%. Pretreatment of HIT cells with wartmannin, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, caused a similar pattern of inhibition of the biphasic insulin release as C2 toxin. Nutrient metabolism and bombesin-evoked rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ were not affected by C2 toxin, indicating that nutrient recognition and the coupling between receptor activation and second messenger generation was not changed. In the toxin-treated cells, the AF web beneath the plasma membrane and the diffuse cytoplasmic F-actin fibers disappeared, as shown both by staining with an antibody against G- and F-actin and by staining F-actin with fluorescent phallacidin. C2 toxin dose-dependently reduced cellular F-actin content. Stimulation of insulin secretion was not associated with changes in F-actin content and organization. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin E and B, which shorten AFs, inhibited the stimulated insulin release by 30-50% although differing in their effects on F-actin content. In contrast to HIT-T15 cells, insulin secretion was potentiated in isolated rat islets after disruption of

  9. Pseudoislet formation enhances gene expression, insulin secretion and cytoprotective mechanisms of clonal human insulin-secreting 1.1B4 cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effects of cell communication on human beta cell function and resistance to cytotoxicity using the novel human insulin-secreting cell line 1.1B4 configured as monolayers and pseudoislets. Incubation with the incretin gut hormones GLP-1 and GIP caused dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from 1.1B4 cell monolayers and pseudoislets. The secretory responses were 1.5-2.7-fold greater than monolayers. Cell viability (MTT), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining) were investigated following 2-h exposure of 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H2O2, streptozotocin, glucose, palmitate or cocktails of proinflammatory cytokines. All agents tested decreased viability and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in both 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets. However, pseudoislets exhibited significantly greater resistance to cytotoxicity (1.5-2.7-fold increases in LD50) and lower levels of DNA damage (1.3-3.4-fold differences in percentage tail DNA and olive tail moment) and apoptosis (1.3-1.5-fold difference) compared to monolayers. Measurement of gene expression by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR showed that genes involved with insulin secretion (INS, PDX1, PCSK1, PCSK2, GLP1R and GIPR), cell-cell communication (GJD2, GJA1 and CDH1) and antioxidant defence (SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and CAT) were significantly upregulated in pseudoislets compared to monolayers, whilst the expression of proapoptotic genes (NOS2, MAPK8, MAPK10 and NFKB1) showed no significant differences. In summary, these data indicate cell-communication associated with three-dimensional islet architecture is important both for effective insulin secretion and for protection of human beta cells against cytotoxicity. PMID:25559846

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Influences Glucose Homeostasis and β-Cell Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Strodthoff, Daniela; Ma, Zuheng; Wirström, Tina; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Engel, David; Clarke, Robert; Falkmer, Sture; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Göran K; Björklund, Anneli; Lundberg, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We examined the function of TLR3 in glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes-related phenotypes in animals and humans. TLR3 is highly expressed in the pancreas, suggesting that it can influence metabolism. Using a diet-induced obesity model, we show that TLR3-deficient mice had enhanced glycemic control, facilitated by elevated insulin secretion. Despite having high insulin levels, Tlr3(-/-) mice did not experience disturbances in whole-body insulin sensitivity, suggesting that they have a robust metabolic system that manages increased insulin secretion. Increase in insulin secretion was associated with upregulation of islet glucose phosphorylation as well as exocytotic protein VAMP-2 in Tlr3(-/-) islets. TLR3 deficiency also modified the plasma lipid profile, decreasing VLDL levels due to decreased triglyceride biosynthesis. Moreover, a meta-analysis of two healthy human populations showed that a missense single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR3 (encoding L412F) was linked to elevated insulin levels, consistent with our experimental findings. In conclusion, our results increase the understanding of the function of innate receptors in metabolic disorders and implicate TLR3 as a key control system in metabolic regulation. PMID:25918231

  11. Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Activity Decreases Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in INS-1 (832/13) Cells and Rat Islets

    PubMed Central

    Burritt, Nathan E.; Corkey, Barbara E.; Deeney, Jude T.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid signals derived from lipolysis and membrane phospholipids play an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), though the exact secondary signals remain unclear. Previous reports have documented a stimulatory role of exogenously added mono-acyl-glycerol (MAG) on insulin secretion from cultured β-cells and islets. In this report we have determined effects of increasing intracellular MAG in the β-cell by inhibiting mono-acyl-glycerol lipase (MGL) activity, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol breakdown, namely the hydrolysis of MAG to glycerol and free fatty acid (FA). To determine the role of MGL in GSIS, we used three different pharmacological agents (JZL184, MJN110 and URB602). All three inhibited GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 (832/13). JZL184 significantly inhibited both GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in rat islets. JZL184 significantly decreased lipolysis and increased both mono- and diacyglycerol species in INS-1 cells. Analysis of the kinetics of GSIS showed that inhibition was greater during the sustained phase of secretion. A similar pattern was observed in the response of Ca2+ to glucose and depolarization but to a lesser degree suggesting that altered Ca2+ handling alone could not explain the reduction in insulin secretion. In addition, a significant reduction in long chain-CoA (LC-CoA) was observed in INS-1 cells at both basal and stimulatory glucose following inhibition of MGL. Our data implicate an important role for MGL in insulin secretion. PMID:26867016

  12. Inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingying; Zhong, Xiangqin; Ding, Yaqin; Bai, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Hongbin; Liu, Yunfeng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is important to maintain glucose homeostasis and is regulated by electrical activities. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a bone-derived protein, has been reported to regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion, stimulating β cell proliferation and improving insulin sensitivity. But the underlying mechanisms of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion and voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, voltage-gated calcium channels in rat β cells. Insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. Channel currents and membrane action potentials were recorded using the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Calcium imaging system was used to analyze intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). The data show that under 16.7mmol/l glucose conditions uncarboxylated osteocalcin alone increased insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i, but with no such effects on insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i in the presence of a KV channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride. In the patch-clamp experiments, uncarboxylated osteocalcin lengthened action potential duration and significantly inhibited KV currents, but had no influence on the characteristics of voltage-gated calcium channels. These results indicate that KV channels are involved in uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells. By inhibiting KV channels, uncarboxylated osteocalcin prolongs action potential duration, increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and finally promotes insulin secretion. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion. PMID:26927753

  13. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yunli; Wang, Xinting; Liu, Can; Yao, Dan; Hu, Mengyue; Li, Jia; Hu, Nan; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may be

  14. Does adrenergic activity suppress insulin secretion during surgery? A clinical experiment with halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Aärimaa, M; Syvälahti, E; Ovaska, J

    1978-01-01

    Peroperative inhibition of insulin release is widely attributed to increased alpha-adrenergic activity. To test this hypothesis serum insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at short intervals in 11 patients who underwent major surgery. Five patients were anesthetized with halothane and six with general anesthesia without halothane. The results were similar in both patient groups; halothane had no effect on insulin. This suggests that suppression of insulin under operations is probably not due to activation of the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the pancreatic beta-cells. The authors propose that suppression of insulin secretion during surgery may be caused by adrenaline, which, in competing for the glucose receptors, insensitizes the pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:202205

  15. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaca, Pilar; Berna, Genoveva; Araujo, Raquel; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Bedoya, Francisco J.; Soria, Bernat; Martin, Franz

    2008-03-10

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells.

  16. Loss of regular oscillatory insulin secretion in islet cell antibody positive non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bingley, P J; Matthews, D R; Williams, A J; Bottazzo, G F; Gale, E A

    1992-01-01

    Basal insulin secretion was compared in nine islet-cell antibody positive, non-diabetic first-degree relatives of children with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and nine normal control subjects matched for age, sex and weight. Acute insulin responses to a 25 g intravenous glucose tolerance test were similar in the two groups (243 (198-229) vs 329 (285-380) mU.l-1 x 10 min-1, mean (+/- SE), p = 0.25). Fasting plasma insulin was assayed in venous samples taken at one min intervals for 2 h. Time series analysis was used to demonstrate oscillatory patterns in plasma insulin. Autocorrelation showed that regular oscillatory activity was generally absent in the islet-cell antibody-positive group, whereas a regular 13 min cycle was shown in control subjects (p less than 0.0001). Fourier transformation did, however, show a 13 min spectral peak in the islet-cell antibody positive group, consistent with intermittent pulsatility. We conclude that overall oscillatory patterns of basal insulin secretion are altered in islet-cell antibody positive subjects even when the acute insulin response is within the normal range. PMID:1541379

  17. Relationships between insulin secretion, insulin action, and fasting plasma glucose concentration in nondiabetic and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Bogardus, C; Lillioja, S; Howard, B V; Reaven, G; Mott, D

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between insulin secretion, insulin action, and fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPG) were examined in 34 southwest American Indians (19 nondiabetics, 15 noninsulin-dependent diabetics) who had a broad range of FPG (88-310 mg/100 ml). Fasting, glucose-stimulated, and meal-stimulated plasma insulin concentrations were negatively correlated with FPG in diabetics but not in nondiabetics. In contrast, fasting and glucose-stimulated plasma C-peptide concentrations did not decrease with increasing FPG in either group and 24-h urinary C-peptide excretion during a diet of mixed composition was positively correlated with FPG for all subjects (r = 0.36, P less than 0.05). Fasting free fatty acid (FFA) was correlated with FPG in nondiabetics (r = 0.49, P less than 0.05) and diabetics (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001). Fasting FFA was also correlated with the isotopically determined endogenous glucose production rate in the diabetics (r = 0.54, P less than 0.05). Endogenous glucose production was strongly correlated with FPG in the diabetics (r = 0.90, P less than 0.0001), but not in the nondiabetics. Indirect calorimetry showed that FPG was also negatively correlated with basal glucose oxidation rates (r = -0.61, P less than 0.001), but positively with lipid oxidation (r = 0.74, P less than 0.001) in the diabetics. Insulin action was measured as total insulin-mediated glucose disposal, glucose oxidation, and storage rates, using the euglycemic clamp with simultaneous indirect calorimetry at plasma insulin concentrations of 135 +/- 5 and 1738 +/- 59 microU/ml. These parameters of insulin action were significantly, negatively correlated with FPG in the nondiabetics at both insulin concentrations, but not in the diabetics although all the diabetics had markedly decreased insulin action. We conclude that decreased insulin action is present in the noninsulin-dependent diabetics in this population and marked hyperglycemia occurs with the addition of decreased

  18. Extracellular factors and immunosuppressive drugs influencing insulin secretion of murine islets

    PubMed Central

    Auer, V J; Janas, E; Ninichuk, V; Eppler, E; Weiss, T S; Kirchner, S; Otto, A M; Stangl, M J

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 60% of transplanted islets undergo apoptosis within the first week post-transplantation into the liver attributed to poor engraftment, immune rejection and toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. Understanding how extracellular matrix (ECM) components, immunosuppressive drugs and proinflammatory cytokines affect insulin secretion will contribute to an improved clinical outcome of islet transplantations. In this study, functional activity of isolated murine islets was measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and by electrophysiological measurements using patch-clamp. Cultivating islets with soluble fibronectin or laminin, as opposed to with coated laminin, markedly increased GSIS. Addition of cyclosporin A reduced GSIS and suppressed glucose-induced spike activity. Tacrolimus affected neither GSIS nor spike activity, indicating a different mechanism. To evaluate the influence of proinflammatory cytokines, islets were incubated with interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or with supernatants from cultured Kupffer cells, the main mediators of inflammation in the hepatic sinusoids. IL-1β exerted a bimodal effect on insulin secretion, stimulating below 2 ng/ml and suppressing above 10 ng/ml. Soluble laminin in combination with a stimulatory IL-1β concentration further increased insulin secretion by 20% compared to IL-1β alone, while with high IL-1β concentrations soluble laminin slightly attenuated GSIS inhibition. TNF-α alone did not affect GSIS, but with stimulatory IL-1β concentrations completely abolished it. Similarly, supernatants derived from Kupffer cells exerted a bimodal effect on GSIS. Our data suggest that improved insulin secretion of transplanted islets could be achieved by including soluble laminin and low IL-1β concentrations in the islet cultivation medium, and by a simultaneous inhibition of cytokine secretion from Kupffer cells. PMID:23039895

  19. Extracellular factors and immunosuppressive drugs influencing insulin secretion of murine islets.

    PubMed

    Auer, V J; Janas, E; Ninichuk, V; Eppler, E; Weiss, T S; Kirchner, S; Otto, A M; Stangl, M J

    2012-11-01

    Approximately 60% of transplanted islets undergo apoptosis within the first week post-transplantation into the liver attributed to poor engraftment, immune rejection and toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. Understanding how extracellular matrix (ECM) components, immunosuppressive drugs and proinflammatory cytokines affect insulin secretion will contribute to an improved clinical outcome of islet transplantations. In this study, functional activity of isolated murine islets was measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and by electrophysiological measurements using patch-clamp. Cultivating islets with soluble fibronectin or laminin, as opposed to with coated laminin, markedly increased GSIS. Addition of cyclosporin A reduced GSIS and suppressed glucose-induced spike activity. Tacrolimus affected neither GSIS nor spike activity, indicating a different mechanism. To evaluate the influence of proinflammatory cytokines, islets were incubated with interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or with supernatants from cultured Kupffer cells, the main mediators of inflammation in the hepatic sinusoids. IL-1β exerted a bimodal effect on insulin secretion, stimulating below 2 ng/ml and suppressing above 10 ng/ml. Soluble laminin in combination with a stimulatory IL-1β concentration further increased insulin secretion by 20% compared to IL-1β alone, while with high IL-1β concentrations soluble laminin slightly attenuated GSIS inhibition. TNF-α alone did not affect GSIS, but with stimulatory IL-1β concentrations completely abolished it. Similarly, supernatants derived from Kupffer cells exerted a bimodal effect on GSIS. Our data suggest that improved insulin secretion of transplanted islets could be achieved by including soluble laminin and low IL-1β concentrations in the islet cultivation medium, and by a simultaneous inhibition of cytokine secretion from Kupffer cells. PMID:23039895

  20. A peroxiredoxin, PRDX-2, is required for insulin secretion and insulin/IIS-dependent regulation of stress resistance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Oláhová, Monika; Veal, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant thiol peroxidases with a conserved anti-ageing role. In contrast to most animals, the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a single cytosolic 2-Cys Prx, PRDX-2, rendering it an excellent model for examining how peroxiredoxins affect animal physiology and ageing. Our previous work revealed that, although PRDX-2 protects against the toxicity of peroxides, enigmatically, prdx-2-mutant animals are hyper-resistant to other forms of oxidative stress. Here, we have investigated the basis for this increased resistance. Mammalian FOXO and Nrf2 transcription factors directly promote the expression of a range of detoxification enzymes. We show that the FOXO orthologue, DAF-16, and the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, are required for the increased stress resistance of prdx-2-mutant worms. Our data suggest that PRDX-2 is required for normal levels of insulin secretion and hence the inhibition of DAF-16 and SKN-1 by insulin/IGF-1-like signalling (IIS) under nutrient-rich conditions. Intriguingly, loss of PRDX-2 increases DAF-16 and SKN-1 activities sufficiently to increase arsenite resistance without initiating other IIS-inhibited processes. Together, these data suggest that loss of peroxiredoxin function may increase stress resistance by reducing insulin secretion, but that further changes in insulin signalling are required for the reprogramming of development and fat metabolism. In addition, we reveal that the temperature-dependent prolongevity function of PRDX-2 is required for the extended lifespan associated with several pathways, including further reductions in IIS. PMID:25808059

  1. Extracellular Nucleotides Inhibit Insulin Receptor Signaling, Stimulate Autophagy and Control Lipoprotein Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Cynthia; Sparks, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with abnormal plasma lipoprotein metabolism and with an elevation in circulating nucleotide levels. We evaluated how extracellular nucleotides may act to perturb hepatic lipoprotein secretion. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (>10 µM) acts like a proteasomal inhibitor to stimulate apoB100 secretion and inhibit apoA-I secretion from human liver cells at 4 h and 24 h. ADP blocks apoA-I secretion by stimulating autophagy. The nucleotide increases cellular levels of the autophagosome marker, LC3-II, and increases co-localization of LC3 with apoA-I in punctate autophagosomes. ADP affects autophagy and apoA-I secretion through P2Y13. Overexpression of P2Y13 increases cellular LC3-II levels by ∼50% and blocks induction of apoA-I secretion. Conversely, a siRNA-induced reduction in P2Y13 protein expression of 50% causes a similar reduction in cellular LC3-II levels and a 3-fold stimulation in apoA-I secretion. P2Y13 gene silencing blocks the effects of ADP on autophagy and apoA-I secretion. A reduction in P2Y13 expression suppresses ERK1/2 phosphorylation, increases the phosphorylation of IR-β and protein kinase B (Akt) >3-fold, and blocks the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by TNFα and ADP. Conversely, increasing P2Y13 expression significantly inhibits insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR-β) and Akt, similar to that observed after treatment with ADP. Nucleotides therefore act through P2Y13, ERK1/2 and insulin receptor signaling to stimulate autophagy and affect hepatic lipoprotein secretion. PMID:22590634

  2. Ion channels and regulation of insulin secretion in human β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Fridlyand, Leonid E.; Jacobson, David A.; Philipson, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In mammals an increase in glucose leads to block of ATP dependent potassium channels in pancreatic β cells leading to membrane depolarization. This leads to the repetitive firing of action potentials that increases calcium influx and triggers insulin granule exocytosis. Several important differences between species in this process suggest that a dedicated human-oriented approach is advantageous as extrapolating from rodent data may be misleading in several respects. We examined depolarization-induced spike activity in pancreatic human islet-attached β-cells employing whole-cell patch-clamp methods. We also reviewed the literature concerning regulation of insulin secretion by channel activity and constructed a data-based computer model of human β cell function. The model couples the Hodgkin-Huxley-type ionic equations to the equations describing intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and insulin release. On the basis of this model we employed computational simulations to better understand the behavior of action potentials, calcium handling and insulin secretion in human β cells under a wide range of experimental conditions. This computational system approach provides a framework to analyze the mechanisms of human β cell insulin secretion. PMID:23624892

  3. Cinnamon Administration Enhances Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in Diabetic Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to measure the effects of orally administered cinnamon on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in vivo. Young male Wistar strain rats were rendered diabetic by intravenous administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg body weight) to produce animals with Type 2 di...

  4. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM. PMID:27047382

  5. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:26724516

  6. [Role of the NADH shuttle system in glucose-induced insulin secretion].

    PubMed

    Eto, K; Kadowaki, T

    1999-03-01

    To determine the role of the NADH shuttle system composed of the glycerol phosphate shuttle and malate-aspartate shuttle in glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, we have generated mice which lack mitochondrial glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), a rate-limiting enzyme of the glycerol phosphate shuttle. When both shuttles were halted in mGPDH-deficient islets treated with aminooxyacetate, an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle, glucose-induced insulin secretion was almost completely abrogated. Under these conditions, although the flux of glycolysis and supply of glucose-derived pyruvate into mitochondria were unaffected, glucose-induced increases in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+ entry into mitochondria, and ATP content were severely attenuated. This study provides the first direct evidence that the NADH shuttle system is essential for coupling glycolysis with the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism to trigger glucose-induced insulin secretion and thus revises the classical model for the metabolic signals of glucose-induced insulin secretion. PMID:10199125

  7. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Revealed Glucose-Stimulated Responses of Islet Associated with Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Li, Qingrun; Tang, Jiashu; Xia, Fangying; Wu, Jiarui; Zeng, Rong

    2015-11-01

    As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, islet has been an important focus of diabetes research. Phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in islet function, especially in islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A systematic view on how phosphorylation networks were coordinately regulated in this process remains lacking, partially due to the limited amount of islets from an individual for a phosphoproteomic analysis. Here we optimized the in-tip and best-ratio phosphopeptide enrichment strategy and a SILAC-based workflow for processing rat islet samples. With limited islet lysates from each individual rat (20-47 μg), we identified 8539 phosphosites on 2487 proteins. Subsequent quantitative analyses uncovered that short-term (30 min) high glucose stimulation induced coordinate responses of islet phosphoproteome on multiple biological levels, including insulin secretion related pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, protein processing in ER and Golgi, transcription and translation, and so on. Furthermore, three glucose-responsive phosphosites (Prkar1a pT75pS77 and Tagln2 pS163) from the data set were proved to be correlated with insulin secretion. Overall, we initially gave an in-depth map of islet phosphoproteome regulated by glucose on individual rat level. This was a significant addition to our knowledge about how phosphorylation networks responded in insulin secretion. Also, the list of changed phosphosites was a valuable resource for molecular researchers in diabetes field. PMID:26437020

  8. Probing cell type–specific functions of Gi in vivo identifies GPCR regulators of insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Regard, Jean B.; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Cano, David A.; Camerer, Eric; Yin, Liya; Zheng, Yao-Wu; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Hebrok, Matthias; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo roles of the hundreds of mammalian G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are incompletely understood. To explore these roles, we generated mice expressing the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, a known inhibitor of Gi/o signaling, under the control of the ROSA26 locus in a Cre recombinase–dependent manner (ROSA26PTX). Crossing ROSA26PTX mice to mice expressing Cre in pancreatic β cells produced offspring with constitutive hyperinsulinemia, increased insulin secretion in response to glucose, and resistance to diet-induced hyperglycemia. This phenotype underscored the known importance of Gi/o and hence of GPCRs for regulating insulin secretion. Accordingly, we quantified mRNA for each of the approximately 373 nonodorant GPCRs in mouse to identify receptors highly expressed in islets and examined the role of several. We report that 3-iodothyronamine, a thyroid hormone metabolite, could negatively and positively regulate insulin secretion via the Gi-coupled α2A-adrenergic receptor and the Gs-coupled receptor Taar1, respectively, and protease-activated receptor–2 could negatively regulate insulin secretion and may contribute to physiological regulation of glucose metabolism. The ROSA26PTX system used in this study represents a new genetic tool to achieve tissue-specific signaling pathway modulation in vivo that can be applied to investigate the role of Gi/o-coupled GPCRs in multiple cell types and processes. PMID:17992256

  9. Central resistance to the inhibitory effects of leptin on stimulated insulin secretion with aging.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Radhika H; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiaoman; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2006-09-01

    Aging is associated with resistance to the effects of leptin on food intake and energy homeostasis. We examined if old rats were resistant to the effects of leptin on glucose stimulated insulin secretion. When leptin was infused intravenously (0.5 microg/kg/min) under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (11 mM) in young (n=5) and old rats (n=10, 5 ad libitum fed and five with surgical removal of visceral fat), glucose stimulated insulin secretion was significantly decreased by 44% in the young rats, but not in old rats (31.8+/-2.8 to 17.9+/-1.0 versus 33.7+/-1.4 versus 31.0+/-1.7 and 24.7+/-1.6 versus 21.0+/-2.8 in young versus old versus old VF- respectively, p<0.01). To identify if the resistance to leptin is secondary to impaired transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB), we infused leptin into the third ventricle (intra-cerebro ventricular, ICV). ICV infusion of leptin elicited a partial effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion in the old (25.7+/-2.5 to 15.4+/-2.4 versus 24.4+/-2.4 to 19.0+/-2.0 in young versus old, respectively) suggesting that part of the leptin resistance was beyond the BBB. Resistance to the effects of leptin on insulin secretion in aging may protect against the onset of diabetes in old subjects. PMID:16122839

  10. Ex vivo generation of glucose sensitive insulin secreting mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Shruti D.; Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetics are incapable of producing insulin/have autoimmune mechanisms making it ineffective to control glucose secretion. We present a prospective study of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-MSC) generated from human adipose tissue (h-AD) sans xenogenic material. Materials and Methods: Ten grams h-AD from donor anterior abdominal wall was collected in proliferation medium composed of α-Minimum Essential Media (α-MEM), albumin, fibroblast-growth factor and antibiotics, minced, incubated in collagenase-I at 37°C with shaker and centrifuged. Supernatant and pellets were separately cultured in proliferation medium on cell+ plates at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 10 days. Cells were harvested by trypsinization, checked for viability, sterility, counts, flow-cytometry (CD45-/90+/73+), and differentiated into insulin-expressing cells using medium composed of DMEM, gene expressing up-regulators and antibiotics for 3 days. They were studied for transcriptional factors Pax-6, Isl-1, pdx-1 (immunofluorescence). C-peptide and insulin were measured by chemiluminescence. In vitro glucose sensitivity assay was carried out by measuring levels of insulin and C-peptide secretion in absence of glucose followed by 2 hours incubation after glucose addition. Results: Mean IS-AD-MSC quantum was 3.21 ml, cell count, 1.5 ×103 cells/μl), CD45-/90+/73+ cells were 44.37% /25.52%. All of them showed presence of pax-6, pdx-1, and Isl-1. Mean C-Peptide and insulin levels were 0.36 ng/ml and 234 μU/ml, respectively, pre-glucose and 0.87 ng/ml and 618.3 μU/ml post-glucose additions. The mean rise in secretion levels was 2.42 and 2.65 fold, respectively. Conclusion: Insulin-secreting h-AD-MSC can be generated safely and effectively showing in vitro glucose responsive alteration in insulin and C-peptide secretion levels. PMID:22701849

  11. The Possible Mechanisms of the Impaired Insulin Secretion in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godini, Aliashraf; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Although the insulin secretion deficit in hypothyroid male rats has been documented, the underling mechanisms of the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin secretion are not clear. Isolated islets of the PTU-induced hypothyroid and control rats were exposed to glibenclamide, acetylcholine, and nifedipine in the presence of glucose concentrations of 2.8 or 8.3 and 16.7 mmol/L. Glucokinase and hexokinase specific activity, glucokinase content, and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were also determined in the isolated islets. Isolated islets from the hypothyroid rats showed a defect in insulin secretion in response to high glucose. In the presence of glibenclamide or acetylcholine, the isolated islets from the hypothyroid and control rats stimulated by glucose concentration of 16.7 mmol/L secreted similar amounts of insulin. In the presence of glucose concentrations of 8.3 mmol/L and 16.7 mmol/L, nifedipine was able to diminish insulin secretion from isolated islets of both groups, indicating that probably the defect may not arise from L type calcium channels or the steps beyond depolarization or the elements involved in the acetylcoline signaling pathway. Glucokinase content and hexokinase specific activity were also the same in the control and hypothyroid groups. On the other hand, glucokinase specific activity and glucose transporter 2 protein expression were significantly (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) lower in the islets isolated from the hypothyroid rats (6.50 ± 0.46 mU/min/mg protein and 0.55 ± 0.09 arbitrary unit) compared to the controls (10.93 ± 0.83 mU/min/mg protein and 0.98 ± 0.07 arbitrary unit) respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that hypothyroidism reduced insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, which confirms the finding of the previous studies; in addition, the insulin secretion deficit observed in hypothyroid rats may arise from the abnormalities in some parts of the glucose sensor apparatus of the

  12. BAG3 regulates formation of the SNARE complex and insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, V; Festa, M; Rosati, A; Hahne, M; Tiberti, C; Capunzo, M; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin release in response to glucose stimulation requires exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. Glucose stimulation of beta cells leads to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which acts on the Rho family proteins (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) that direct F-actin remodeling. This process requires docking and fusion of secretory vesicles to the release sites at the plasma membrane and is a complex mechanism that is mediated by SNAREs. This transiently disrupts the F-actin barrier and allows the redistribution of the insulin-containing granules to more peripheral regions of the β cell, hence facilitating insulin secretion. In this manuscript, we show for the first time that BAG3 plays an important role in this process. We show that BAG3 downregulation results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation and in disruption of the F-actin network. Moreover, we show that BAG3 binds to SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1, two components of the t-SNARE complex preventing the interaction between SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1. Upon glucose stimulation BAG3 is phosphorylated by FAK and dissociates from SNAP-25 allowing the formation of the SNARE complex, destabilization of the F-actin network and insulin release. PMID:25766323

  13. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  14. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  15. BAG3 regulates formation of the SNARE complex and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Iorio, V; Festa, M; Rosati, A; Hahne, M; Tiberti, C; Capunzo, M; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin release in response to glucose stimulation requires exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. Glucose stimulation of beta cells leads to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which acts on the Rho family proteins (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) that direct F-actin remodeling. This process requires docking and fusion of secretory vesicles to the release sites at the plasma membrane and is a complex mechanism that is mediated by SNAREs. This transiently disrupts the F-actin barrier and allows the redistribution of the insulin-containing granules to more peripheral regions of the β cell, hence facilitating insulin secretion. In this manuscript, we show for the first time that BAG3 plays an important role in this process. We show that BAG3 downregulation results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation and in disruption of the F-actin network. Moreover, we show that BAG3 binds to SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1, two components of the t-SNARE complex preventing the interaction between SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1. Upon glucose stimulation BAG3 is phosphorylated by FAK and dissociates from SNAP-25 allowing the formation of the SNARE complex, destabilization of the F-actin network and insulin release. PMID:25766323

  16. Pancreatic PYY Is Critical in the Control of Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Chuan; Loh, Kim; Bensellam, Mohammed; Lee, Kailun; Zhai, Lei; Lau, Jackie; Cantley, James; Luzuriaga, Jude; Laybutt, D Ross; Herzog, Herbert

    2015-09-01

    Insulin secretion is tightly controlled through coordinated actions of a number of systemic and local factors. Peptide YY (PYY) is expressed in α-cells of the islet, but its role in control of islet function such as insulin release is not clear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model (Pyy(tg/+)/Rip-Cre) overexpressing the Pyy gene under the control of the rat insulin 2 gene promoter and assessed the impact of islet-released PYY on β-cell function, insulin release, and glucose homeostasis in mice. Our results show that up-regulation of PYY in islet β-cells leads to an increase in serum insulin levels as well as improved glucose tolerance. Interestingly, PYY-overproducing mice show increased lean mass and reduced fat mass with no significant changes in food intake or body weight. Energy expenditure is also increased accompanied by increased respiratory exchange ratio. Mechanistically, the enhanced insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance are primarily due to increased β-cell mass and secretion. This is associated with alterations in the expression of genes important for β-cell proliferation and function as well as the maintenance of the β-cell phenotype. Taken together, these data demonstrate that pancreatic islet-derived PYY plays an important role in controlling glucose homeostasis through the modulation of β-cell mass and function. PMID:26125465

  17. PDIA6 regulates insulin secretion by selectively inhibiting the RIDD activity of IRE1.

    PubMed

    Eletto, Daniela; Eletto, Davide; Boyle, Sarah; Argon, Yair

    2016-02-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase A6 (PDIA6) interacts with protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and inositol requiring enzyme (IRE)-1 and inhibits their unfolded protein response signaling. In this study, shRNA silencing of PDIA6 expression in insulin-producing mouse cells reduced insulin production (5-fold) and, consequently, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (3-4-fold). This inhibition of insulin release was independent of the PDIA6-PERK interaction or PERK activity. Acute inhibition of PERK did not change the short-term response of β cells to glucose. Rather, PDIA6 affected insulin secretion by modulating one of the activities of IRE1. At 11 mM glucose and lower, the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of the mRNA activity of IRE1 was activated, but not its X-box binding protein (XBP)-1 splicing activity. In the absence of PDIA6, RIDD activity toward insulin transcripts was enhanced up to 4-fold, as shown by molecular assays in cultured cells and the use of a fluorescent reporter in intact islets. Such physiologic activation of IRE1 by glucose contrasted with IRE1 activation by chemical stress, when both IRE1 activities were induced. Thus, whereas the stimulus determines the quality of IRE1 signaling, PDIA6 attenuates multiple enzymatic activities of IRE1, maintaining its signaling within a physiologically tolerable range. PMID:26487694

  18. Decreased basal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of pups in a rat model of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Elena; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin; Calzada, Lizbeth; Ibáñez, Carlos A; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Carmen A; Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) is a deleterious condition that enhances susceptibility of adult offspring to metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The objective is to study the effect of MO on in vitro insulin secretion and pancreatic cellular population in offspring. We hypothesize that a harmful antenatal metabolic environment due to MO diminishes the basal glucose-responsive secretory function of pancreatic beta cells in offspring. Mothers were fed a control (C) or high-fat diet from weaning through pregnancy (120 days) and lactation. At postnatal days (PNDs) 36 and 110, pups were killed, peripheral blood was collected and pancreatic islets were isolated. Basal insulin secretion was measured in vitro in islets for 60 min. It was found that blood insulin, glucose and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were unaffected by maternal diet and age in females. However, male MO offspring at PND 110 showed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance compared with C. Body weight was not modified by MO, but fat content was higher in MO pups compared with C pups. Triglycerides and leptin concentrations were higher in MO than in C offspring in all groups except in females at PND 36. Pancreatic islet cytoarchitecture was unaffected by MO. At PND 36, islets of male and female C and MO offspring responded similarly to glucose, but at PND 110, male and female MO offspring islets showed a 50% decrease in insulin secretion. It was concluded that MO impairs basal insulin secretion of offspring with a greater impact on males than females, and this effect mainly manifests in adulthood. PMID:27496224

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition increases glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Júnia R O L; Miranda, Paulo A C; Fóscolo, Rodrigo B; Lemos, Joao P M; Paula, Luciano F; Silveira, Warley C; Santos, Robson A S; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B; Coimbra, Candido C; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in carbohydrate metabolism and its response to stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic inhibition of the RAS on glucose and insulin levels during acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 10 mg/kg per day enalapril solution or vehicle for 14 days. After 14 days, rats were divided into three experimental groups: enalapril + restraint (ER), vehicle + restraint (VR) and enalapril + saline (ES). Rats in the restraint groups were subjected to 30 min restraint stress, whereas rats in the ES groups were given saline infusion instead. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min restraint stress or saline infusion. After restraint, a hyperglycaemic response was observed in the ER and VR groups that peaked at 20 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05 compared with baseline). The area under the glucose curve was markedly increased in the ER and VR groups compared with that in the ES group (P < 0.05 for both). Importantly, restraint induced a marked increase in insulin secretion in the ER group compared with only a mild elevation in the VR group; insulin secretion in both groups peaked at 20 min (P < 0.05 compared with baseline). Analysis of the area under the insulin curve confirmed an increase in insulin secretion in the ER compared with the VR and ES groups (P < 0.05 for both). The results of the present study reinforce that the RAS is involved in modulating responses to stress and suggest that RAS inhibition with enalapril may increase glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint. PMID:23734984

  20. Diapause is associated with a change in the polarity of secretion of insulin-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Iwasaki, Takashi; Qadota, Hiroshi; Benian, Guy M; Kawano, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of larval diapause, the long-lived growth arrest state called dauer arrest, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this nematode, 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified as putative ligands of the IIS pathway; however, it remains unknown how ILPs modulate larval diapause. Here we show that the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, which suppress larval diapause, is changed in the intestinal epithelial cells at larval diapause. These ILPs are secreted from the intestine into the body cavity during larval stages. In contrast, they are secreted into the intestinal lumen and degraded during dauer arrest, only to be secreted into the body cavity again when the worms return to developmental growth. The process that determines the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, thus, has an important role in the modulation of larval diapause. PMID:26838180

  1. Diapause is associated with a change in the polarity of secretion of insulin-like peptides

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Iwasaki, Takashi; Qadota, Hiroshi; Benian, Guy M.; Kawano, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of larval diapause, the long-lived growth arrest state called dauer arrest, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this nematode, 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified as putative ligands of the IIS pathway; however, it remains unknown how ILPs modulate larval diapause. Here we show that the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, which suppress larval diapause, is changed in the intestinal epithelial cells at larval diapause. These ILPs are secreted from the intestine into the body cavity during larval stages. In contrast, they are secreted into the intestinal lumen and degraded during dauer arrest, only to be secreted into the body cavity again when the worms return to developmental growth. The process that determines the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, thus, has an important role in the modulation of larval diapause. PMID:26838180

  2. Interaction of non-esterified fatty acid and insulin in control of triacylglycerol secretion by Hep G2 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, C D; Brindle, N P; Wang, T W; Hales, C N

    1991-01-01

    The role of insulin in the regulation of plasma triacylglycerol is poorly understood. Conflicting actions of insulin on rat liver cells have been reported, insulin inhibiting triacylglycerol secretion in short incubations (less than 24 h) and stimulating triacylglycerol secretion in longer incubations (48-72 h). The present study was undertaken to examine regulation of triacylglycerol secretion by insulin and investigate the interaction between insulin and non-esterified fatty acid over 72 h in human hepatoblastoma (Hep G2) cells. Insulin inhibited triacylglycerol secretion throughout the 72 h period. The inhibition increased from 66% in the first 24 h to 88% in the final 24 h. Increasing the initial concentration of oleic acid from 200 microM to 1000 microM resulted in a 358% increase in triacylglycerol secretion and a 712% increase in accumulation over 24 h. Oleic acid uptake by the cells was rapid, with only 2.4% of the initial concentration (500 microM) remaining after 24 h. Supplementation of the medium with oleic acid to maintain the concentration between 750 microM and 1000 microM throughout a 5 h period resulted in a 350% increase in triacylglycerol secretion. Supplementation also decreased the insulin-induced inhibition of triacylglycerol secretion (18.2 to 7.8%; P less than 0.001). These results demonstrate that there is not a biphasic action of insulin on triacylglycerol secretion by Hep G2 cells. Experiments of this nature have not previously taken into account the rapid uptake of non-esterified fatty acid by hepatocytes and have consequently underestimated the effect of a sustained concentration on triacylglycerol metabolism. Oleic acid is therefore an even more potent stimulus to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion than has previously been recognized. In addition, in the presence of a sustained increase in oleic acid concentration, there is a decrease in the action of insulin to inhibit triacylglycerol secretion. PMID:1660268

  3. GPR142 Agonists Stimulate Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion via Gq-Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingru; Carrillo, Juan J.; Lin, Hua V.

    2016-01-01

    GPR142 is an islet-enriched G protein-coupled receptor that has been investigated as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by virtue of its insulin secretagogue activity. However, the signaling pathways downstream of GPR142 and whether its stimulation of insulin release is glucose-dependent remain poorly characterized. In this study, we show that both native and synthetic GPR142 agonists can activate Gq as well as Gi signaling when GPR142 is recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. However, in primary pancreatic islets, a native cellular system, the insulin secretagogue activity of GPR142 agonists only requires Gq activation. In addition, our results show that stimulation of insulin secretion by GPR142 in pancreatic islets is strictly glucose-dependent. PMID:27104960

  4. Altered insulin and glucagon secretion in treated genetic hyperlipemia: a mechanism of theraphy?

    PubMed

    Eaton, R P; Oase, R; Schade, D S

    1976-03-01

    The influence of Halofenate therapy on insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in the Zucker rat with genetic endogenous hyperlipemia. Coincident with the lipid lowering effects of Halofenate, the net change in the basal bihormonal axis favored glucagon, with the I/G molar ratio (Insulin/Glucagon) decreasing from 2.72 +/- 0.53 to 0.96 +/- 0.20 during treatment with this drug. Following arginine stimulation the I/G ratio remained reduced at 0.87 +/- 0.13 in Halofenate treated animals, contrasting with the statistically greater ratio of 2.5 +/- 0.55 in control animals. The Halofenate induced state of reduced insulin:glucagon was associated with hypolipemia, postarginine hyperglycemia, and hyperketonemia,-three metabolic parameters characteristic of glucagon excess relative to insulin. It is suggested that the lipid-lowering action of Halofenate in genetic hyperlipemia may reflect the altered bihormonal axis induced by the drug. PMID:1250161

  5. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Lumelsky, N; Blondel, O; Laeng, P; Velasco, I; Ravin, R; McKay, R

    2001-05-18

    Although the source of embryonic stem (ES) cells presents ethical concerns, their use may lead to many clinical benefits if differentiated cell types can be derived from them and used to assemble functional organs. In pancreas, insulin is produced and secreted by specialized structures, islets of Langerhans. Diabetes, which affects 16 million people in the United States, results from abnormal function of pancreatic islets. We have generated cells expressing insulin and other pancreatic endocrine hormones from mouse ES cells. The cells self-assemble to form three-dimensional clusters similar in topology to normal pancreatic islets where pancreatic cell types are in close association with neurons. Glucose triggers insulin release from these cell clusters by mechanisms similar to those employed in vivo. When injected into diabetic mice, the insulin-producing cells undergo rapid vascularization and maintain a clustered, islet-like organization. PMID:11326082

  6. Adaptation of ovine fetal pancreatic insulin secretion to chronic hypoglycaemia and euglycaemic correction

    PubMed Central

    Limesand, Sean W; Hay, William W

    2003-01-01

    Fetal pancreatic adaptations to relative hypoglycaemia, a characteristic of intra-uterine growth restriction, may limit pancreatic β-cell capacity to produce and/or secrete insulin. The objective of this study was to measure β-cell responsiveness in hypoglycaemic (H) fetal sheep and ascertain whether a 5 day euglycaemic recovery period would restore insulin secretion capacity. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured in euglycaemic (E) control fetuses, fetuses made hypoglycaemic for 14 days, and in a subset of 14-day hypoglycaemic fetuses returned to euglycaemia for 5 days (R fetuses). Hypoglycaemia significantly decreased plasma insulin concentrations in H (0.13 ± 0.01 ng ml−1) and R fetuses (0.11 ± 0.01 ng ml−1); insulin concentrations returned to euglycaemic control values (0.30 ± 0.01 ng ml−1) in R fetuses (0.29 ± 0.04 ng ml−1) during their euglycaemic recovery period. Mean steady-state plasma insulin concentration during the GSIS study was reduced in H fetuses (0.40 ± 0.07 vs. 0.92 ± 0.10 ng ml−1 in E), but increased (P < 0.05) in R fetuses (0.73 ± 0.10 ng ml−1) to concentrations not different from those in the E group. Nonlinear modelling of GSIS showed that response time was greater (P < 0.01) in both H (15.6 ± 2.8 min) and R (15.4 ± 1.5 min) than in E fetuses (6.3 ± 1.1 min). In addition, insulin secretion responsiveness to arginine was reduced by hypoglycaemia (0.98 ± 0.11 ng ml−1 in H vs. 1.82 ± 0.17 ng ml−1 in E, P < 0.05) and did not recover (1.21 ± 0.15 ng ml−1 in R, P < 0.05vs. E). Thus, a 5 day euglycaemic recovery period from chronic hypoglycaemia reestablished GSIS to normal levels, but there was a persistent reduction of β-cell responsiveness to glucose and arginine. We conclude that programming of pancreatic insulin secretion responsiveness can occur in response to fetal glucose deprivation, indicating a possible mechanism for establishing, in fetal life, a predisposition to type 2 diabetes. PMID

  7. Evidence for two different types of P2 receptors stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic B cell.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Hillaire-Buys, D; Manteghetti, M; Debrus, S; Chapal, J; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1998-11-01

    Adenine nucleotides have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion by acting on P2 receptors of the P2Y type. Since there have been some discrepancies in the insulin response of different analogues of ATP and ADP, we investigated whether two different types of P2 receptors exist on pancreatic B cells. The effects of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, which is more specific for the P2X subtype, were studied in vitro in pancreatic islets and isolated perfused pancreas from rats, in comparison with the potent P2Y receptor agonist ADPbetaS. In isolated islets, incubated with a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), alpha,beta-me ATP (200 microM) and ADPbetaS (50 microM) similarly stimulated insulin secretion; by contrast, under a non stimulating glucose concentration (3 mM), alpha,beta-me ATP was still effective whereas ADPbetaS was not. In the same way, in islets perifused with 3 mM glucose, alpha,beta-me ATP but not ADPbetaS induced a partial but significant reduction in the peak 86Rb efflux induced by the ATP-dependent potassium channel opener diazoxide. In the isolated pancreas, perfused with a non stimulating glucose concentration (4.2 mM), ADPbetaS and alpha,beta-me ATP (5-50 microM), administered for 10 min, induced an immediate, transient and concentration-dependent increase in the insulin secretion; their relative potency was not significantly different. In contrast, with a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), ADPbetaS was previously shown to be 100 fold more potent than alpha,beta-me ATP. Furthermore, at 4.2 mM glucose a second administration of alpha,beta-me ATP was ineffective. In the same way, ADPbetaS was also able to desensitize its own insulin response. At 3 mM glucose, alpha,beta-me ATP as well as ADPbetaS (50 microM) induced a transient stimulation of insulin secretion and down regulated the action of each other. These results give evidence that pancreatic B cells, in addition to P2Y receptors, which potentiate glucose

  8. Insulin stimulates endothelin-1 secretion from human endothelial cells and modulates its circulating levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ferri, C; Pittoni, V; Piccoli, A; Laurenti, O; Cassone, M R; Bellini, C; Properzi, G; Valesini, G; De Mattia, G; Santucci, A

    1995-03-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive and mitogenic peptide produced by the vascular endothelium. In this study, we evaluated whether insulin stimulates ET-1 secretion by human endothelial cells derived from umbilical cord veins and by human permanent endothelial hybrid cells Ea.hy 926. Moreover, to provide evidence that insulin may stimulate ET-1 secretion in vivo, plasma ET-1 levels were evaluated in 7 type II diabetic normotensive males (mean age, 54.3 +/- 4.0 yr) during 2-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (287 pmol insulin/m2.min-1) as well as in 12 obese hypertensive males (mean age, 44.2 +/- 4.6 yr) before and after a 12-week period of caloric restriction. Our results showed that insulin stimulated ET-1 release from cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. ET-1 release persisted for 24 h and was also observed at physiological insulin concentrations (10(-9) mol/L). The insulin-induced ET-1 secretion was inhibited by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, suggesting that it requires de novo protein synthesis rather than ET-1 release from intracellular stores. In the in vivo experiments, plasma ET-1 levels rapidly increased during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (from 0.76 +/- 0.18 pg/mL at time zero to 1.65 +/- 0.21 pg/mL at 60 min; P < 0.05) and persisted elevated until the end of insulin infusion (1.37 +/- 0.37 pg/mL at 120 min; P < 0.05 vs. time zero). In obese hypertensives, plasma ET-1 levels significantly decreased after 12 weeks of caloric restriction (from 0.85 +/- 0.51 to 0.48 +/- 0.28 pg/mL; P < 0.04). The decrease in body weight induced by caloric restriction was accompanied by a significant reduction in fasting insulin levels (from 167.2 +/- 94.0 to 98.9 +/- 44.9 pmol/L; P < 0.05) which correlated with the reduction in plasma ET-1 levels (r = 0.78; P < 0.003). In conclusion, our data show that insulin stimulates both in vitro and in vivo ET-1 secretion. Such interaction

  9. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 and saturated long chain monoacylglycerol regulate insulin secretion promoted by both fuel and non-fuel stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shangang; Poursharifi, Pegah; Mugabo, Yves; Levens, Emily J.; Vivot, Kevin; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Peyot, Marie-line; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S.R. Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 (ABHD6) is a newly identified monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. We recently reported that it negatively regulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the β cells by hydrolyzing lipolysis-derived MAG that acts as a metabolic coupling factor and signaling molecule via exocytotic regulator Munc13-1. Whether ABHD6 and MAG play a role in response to all classes of insulin secretagogues, in particular various fuel and non-fuel stimuli, is unknown. Methods Insulin secretion in response to various classes of secretagogues, exogenous MAG and pharmacological agents was measured in islets of mice deficient in ABHD6 specifically in the β cell (BKO). Islet perifusion experiments and determinations of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, cytosolic Ca2+ and MAG species levels were carried out. Results Deletion of ABHD6 potentiated insulin secretion in response to the fuels glutamine plus leucine and α-ketoisocaproate and to the non-fuel stimuli glucagon-like peptide 1, carbamylcholine and elevated KCl. Fatty acids amplified GSIS in control and BKO mice to the same extent. Exogenous 1-MAG amplified insulin secretion in response to fuel and non-fuel stimuli. MAG hydrolysis activity was greatly reduced in BKO islets without changes in total diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol lipase activity. ABHD6 deletion induced insulin secretion independently from KATP channels and did not alter the glucose induced rise in intracellular Ca2+. Perifusion studies showed elevated insulin secretion during second phase of GSIS in BKO islets that was not due to altered cytosolic Ca2+ signaling or because of changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Glucose increased islet saturated long chain 1-MAG species and ABHD6 deletion caused accumulation of these 1-MAG species at both low and elevated glucose. Conclusion ABHD6 regulates insulin secretion in response to fuel stimuli at large and some non-fuel stimuli by controlling long chain saturated 1-MAG levels

  10. Low- and high-frequency insulin secretion pulses in normal subjects and pancreas transplant recipients: role of extrinsic innervation.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, G E; Hoffmann, R G; Johnson, C P; Kissebah, A H

    1992-01-01

    Low-frequency ultradian and high-frequency insulin secretion pulses were studied in normal subjects and in metabolically stable pancreas transplant recipients. Insulin secretion pulsatility was evaluated after deconvoluting the pulsatile plasma C peptide concentrations with its kinetic coefficients. In normal subjects, ultradian insulin secretion pulses with periodicities of 75-115 min were consistently observed during the 24-h secretory cycle. Pulse period and relative amplitude during the overnight rest (95 +/- 4 min and 27.6 +/- 2.4%) were similar to those during the steady state of continuous enteral feeding (93 +/- 5 min and 32.6 +/- 3.3%). Sampling at 2-min intervals revealed the presence of high-frequency insulin secretion pulses with periodicities of 14-20 min and an average amplitude of 46.6 +/- 5.4%. Pancreas transplant recipients had normal fasting and fed insulin secretion rates. Both low- and high-frequency insulin secretion pulses were present. The high-frequency pulse characteristics were identical to normal. Low-frequency ultradian pulse periodicity was normal but pulse amplitude was increased. Thus, ultradian insulin secretory pulsatility is a consistent feature in normal subjects. The low- and high-frequency secretion pulsatilities are generated independent of extrinsic innervation. Autonomic innervation might modulate low-frequency ultradian pulse amplitude exerting a dampening effect. PMID:1644923

  11. Ectopic insulin secreting neuroendocrine tumor of kidney with recurrent hypoglycemia: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemia secondary to ectopic insulin secretion of non-pancreatic tumors is rare. Case presentation We describe a middle aged woman with recurrent hypoglycemia. On evaluation, she was detected to have hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and right sided renal mass lesion. 68Ga-Dotanoc and 99mTc-HYNICTOC scans confirmed the intrarenal mass to be of neuroendocrine origin. Right nephrectomy was done and it turned out to be an insulin secreting neuroendocrine tumour. Neuroendocrine nature of this tumour was further confirmed by ultra-structural examination. Her hypoglycemia did not recur after resection of this tumour. Conclusion Few cases of ectopic insulin secretion have been reported though some are not proven convincingly. This case addresses all the issues raised in previous case reports and proves by clinical, laboratory, functional imaging and immunohistochemical analysis that ectopic origin of insulin by non-pancreatic tumors does occur. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ectopic insulinoma arising from the kidney. PMID:24741994

  12. Modulation of Ionic Channels and Insulin Secretion by Drugs and Hormones in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Myrian; Díaz-García, Carlos Manlio; Larqué, Carlos; Hiriart, Marcia

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells, unique cells that secrete insulin in response to an increase in glucose levels, play a significant role in glucose homeostasis. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta cells has been extensively explored. In this mechanism, glucose enters the cells and subsequently the metabolic cycle. During this process, the ATP/ADP ratio increases, leading to ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel closure, which initiates depolarization that is also dependent on the activity of TRP nonselective ion channels. Depolarization leads to the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) and subsequently voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (Cav). The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) triggers the exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Thus, electrical activity of pancreatic beta cells plays a central role in GSIS. Moreover, many growth factors, incretins, neurotransmitters, and hormones can modulate GSIS, and the channels that participate in GSIS are highly regulated. In this review, we focus on the principal ionic channels (KATP, Nav, and Cav channels) involved in GSIS and how classic and new proteins, hormones, and drugs regulate it. Moreover, we also discuss advances on how metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus change channel activity leading to changes in insulin secretion. PMID:27436126

  13. Increased expression of the diabetes gene SOX4 reduces insulin secretion by impaired fusion pore expansion

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stephan C.; Do, Hyun Woong; Hastoy, Benoit; Hugill, Alison; Adam, Julie; Chibalina, Margarita V.; Galvanovskis, Juris; Godazgar, Mahdieh; Lee, Sheena; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Salehi, Albert; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Rosengren, Anders H.; Cox, Roger; Rorsman, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox4 has been proposed to underlie the increased type-2 diabetes risk linked to an intronic SNP in CDKAL1. In a mouse model expressing a mutant form of Sox4, glucose-induced insulin secretion is reduced by 40% despite normal intracellular Ca2+ signalling and depolarization-evoked exocytosis. This paradox is explained by a 4-fold increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis (as determined by single-granule exocytosis measurements), in which the fusion pore connecting the granule lumen to the exterior only expands to a diameter of 2 nm that does not allow the exit of insulin. Microarray analysis indicated that this correlated with an increased expression of the exocytosis-regulating protein Stxbp6. In a large collection of human islet preparations (n=63), STXBP6 expression and GIIS correlated positively and negatively with SOX4 expression, respectively. Overexpression of SOX4 in the human insulin-secreting cell EndoC-βH2 interfered with granule emptying and inhibited hormone release, the latter effect was reversed by silencing of STXBP6. These data suggest that increased SOX4 expression inhibits insulin secretion and increased diabetes risk by upregulation of STXBP6 and an increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis at the expense of full fusion. We propose that pharmacological interventions promoting fusion pore expansion may be effective in diabetes therapy. PMID:26993066

  14. Reevaluation of Fatty Acid Receptor 1 as a Drug Target for the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E.; Grundmann, Manuel; Machicao, Fausto; Peter, Andreas; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are undergoing investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1 agonist, TUG-469, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The proapoptotic effect of chronic exposure of β-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, whereas inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the proapoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo cross-sectional observations demonstrated a negative association between fasting free fatty acids (NEFAs) and insulin secretion. Because NEFAs stimulate secretion through FFAR1, we examined the interaction of genetic variation in FFAR1 with NEFA and insulin secretion. The inverse association of NEFA and secretion was modulated by rs1573611 and became steeper for carriers of the minor allele. In conclusion, FFAR1 agonists support β-cell function, but variation in FFAR1 influences NEFA effects on insulin secretion and therefore could affect therapeutic efficacy of FFAR1 agonists. PMID:23378609

  15. Reevaluation of fatty acid receptor 1 as a drug target for the stimulation of insulin secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Grundmann, Manuel; Machicao, Fausto; Peter, Andreas; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2013-06-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are undergoing investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1 agonist, TUG-469, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The proapoptotic effect of chronic exposure of β-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, whereas inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the proapoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo cross-sectional observations demonstrated a negative association between fasting free fatty acids (NEFAs) and insulin secretion. Because NEFAs stimulate secretion through FFAR1, we examined the interaction of genetic variation in FFAR1 with NEFA and insulin secretion. The inverse association of NEFA and secretion was modulated by rs1573611 and became steeper for carriers of the minor allele. In conclusion, FFAR1 agonists support β-cell function, but variation in FFAR1 influences NEFA effects on insulin secretion and therefore could affect therapeutic efficacy of FFAR1 agonists. PMID:23378609

  16. Phosphorylation and Degradation of Tomosyn-2 De-represses Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sushant; Soni, Mufaddal S.; Wrighton, Lindsay S.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Zhou, Amber S.; Paul, Pradyut K.; Gregg, Trillian; Rabaglia, Mary E.; Keller, Mark P.; Coon, Joshua J.; Attie, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and functional activity of proteins involved in the formation of the SNARE complex are tightly regulated for efficient exocytosis. Tomosyn proteins are negative regulators of exocytosis. Tomosyn causes an attenuation of insulin secretion by limiting the formation of the SNARE complex. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from β-cells must involve reversing the inhibitory action of tomosyn. Here, we show that glucose increases tomosyn protein turnover. Within 1 h of exposure to 15 mm glucose, ∼50% of tomosyn was degraded. The degradation of tomosyn in response to high glucose was blocked by inhibitors of the proteasomal pathway. Using 32P labeling and mass spectrometry, we showed that tomosyn-2 is phosphorylated in response to high glucose, phorbol esters, and analogs of cAMP, all key insulin secretagogues. We identified 11 phosphorylation sites in tomosyn-2. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate phosphomimetic (Ser → Asp) and loss-of-function (Ser → Ala) mutants. The Ser → Asp mutant had enhanced protein turnover compared with the Ser → Ala mutant and wild type tomosyn-2. Additionally, the Ser → Asp tomosyn-2 mutant was ineffective at inhibiting insulin secretion. Using a proteomic screen for tomosyn-2-binding proteins, we identified Hrd-1, an E3-ubiquitin ligase. We showed that tomosyn-2 ubiquitination is increased by Hrd-1, and knockdown of Hrd-1 by short hairpin RNA resulted in increased abundance in tomosyn-2 protein levels. Taken together, our results reveal a mechanism by which enhanced phosphorylation of a negative regulator of secretion, tomosyn-2, in response to insulin secretagogues targets it to degradation by the Hrd-1 E3-ubiquitin ligase. PMID:25002582

  17. Sox17 Regulates Insulin Secretion in the Normal and Pathologic Mouse β Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jonatan, Diva; Spence, Jason R.; Method, Anna M.; Kofron, Matthew; Sinagoga, Katie; Haataja, Leena; Arvan, Peter; Deutsch, Gail H.; Wells, James M.

    2014-01-01

    SOX17 is a key transcriptional regulator that can act by regulating other transcription factors including HNF1β and FOXA2, which are known to regulate postnatal β cell function. Given this, we investigated the role of SOX17 in the developing and postnatal pancreas and found a novel role for SOX17 in regulating insulin secretion. Deletion of the Sox17 gene in the pancreas (Sox17-paLOF) had no observable impact on pancreas development. However, Sox17-paLOF mice had higher islet proinsulin protein content, abnormal trafficking of proinsulin, and dilated secretory organelles suggesting that Sox17-paLOF adult mice are prediabetic. Consistant with this, Sox17-paLOF mice were more susceptible to aged-related and high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and diabetes. Overexpression of Sox17 in mature β cells using Ins2-rtTA driver mice resulted in precocious secretion of proinsulin. Transcriptionally, SOX17 appears to broadly regulate secretory networks since a 24-hour pulse of SOX17 expression resulted in global transcriptional changes in factors that regulate hormone transport and secretion. Lastly, transient SOX17 overexpression was able to reverse the insulin secretory defects observed in MODY4 animals and restored euglycemia. Together, these data demonstrate a critical new role for SOX17 in regulating insulin trafficking and secretion and that modulation of Sox17-regulated pathways might be used therapeutically to improve cell function in the context of diabetes. PMID:25144761

  18. Nuclear SREBP-1a causes loss of pancreatic {beta}-cells and impaired insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Yuko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kato, Toyonori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yahagi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2009-01-16

    Transgenic mice expressing nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a under the control of the insulin promoter were generated to determine the role of SREBP-1a in pancreatic {beta}-cells. Only low expressors could be established, which exhibited mild hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced plasma insulin levels compared to C57BL/6 controls. The islets isolated from the transgenic mice were fewer and smaller, and had decreased insulin content and unaltered glucagon staining. Both glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretions were decreased. The transgenic islets consistently expressed genes for fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, resulting in accumulation of triglycerides but not cholesterol. PDX-1, {beta}{epsilon}{tau}{alpha}2, MafA, and IRS-2 were suppressed, partially explaining the loss and dysfunction of {beta}-cell mass. The transgenic mice on a high fat/high sucrose diet still exhibited impaired insulin secretion and continuous {beta}-cell growth defect. Therefore, nuclear SREBP-1a, even at a low level, strongly disrupts {beta}-cell mass and function.

  19. TRPV6 channel modulates proliferation of insulin secreting INS-1E beta cell line.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, M; Khajavi, N; Mergler, S; Szczepankiewicz, D; Kołodziejski, P A; Metzke, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Billert, M; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

    2015-12-01

    Transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) is a non-selective cation channel with high permeability for Ca²⁺ ions. So far, the role of TRPV6 in pancreatic beta cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterized the role of TRPV6 in controlling calcium signaling, cell proliferation as well as insulin expression, and secretion in experimental INS-1E beta cell model. TRPV6 protein production was downregulated using siRNA by approx. 70%, as detected by Western blot. Intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) was measured by fluorescence Ca²⁺ imaging using fura-2. Calcineurin/NFAT signaling was analyzed using a NFAT reporter assay as well as a calcineurin activity assay. TRPV6 downregulation resulted in impaired cellular calcium influx. Its downregulation also reduced cell proliferation and decreased insulin mRNA expression. These changes were companied by the inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling. In contrast, insulin exocytosis was not affected by TRPV6 downregulation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time the expression of TRPV6 in INS-1E cells and rat pancreatic beta cells and describes its role in modulating calcium signaling, beta cell proliferation and insulin mRNA expression. In contrast, TRPV6 fails to influence insulin secretion. PMID:26384871

  20. Histopathology and ex vivo insulin secretion of pancreatic islets in gestational diabetes: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, Mariella; Marselli, Lorella; Lencioni, Cristina; Masini, Matilde; Bugliani, Marco; Suleiman, Mara; Masiello, Pellegrino; Boggi, Ugo; Filipponi, Franco; Dotta, Francesco; Marchetti, Piero; Di Cianni, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    Gestational diabetes (GD) results from insufficient endogenous insulin supply. No information is available on features of islet cells in human GD. Herein, we describe several properties of islets from a woman with GD. Immunohistochemical stainings and EM analyses were performed on pancreatic samples. Islet isolation was achieved by enzymatic dissociation and density gradient centrifugation. Ex vivo insulin secretion was studied in response to fuel secretagogues. Control islets were obtained from matched non-pregnant, non-diabetic women. Total insulin positive area was lower in GD, mainly due to the presence of smaller islets. β-cell apoptosis and the presence of Ki67 positive islet cells were similar in GD and controls, whereas the amount of insulin positive cells in or close to the ducts was decreased in GD. Ex vivo insulin secretion did not differ between GD and non-pregnant, non-diabetic islets. These findings suggest that in this case of human GD there might mainly be a defect of β-cell amount, not due to increased apoptosis, but possibly to insufficient regeneration. PMID:21765242

  1. Changes of insulin sensitivity and secretion after bariatric/metabolic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mingrone, Geltrude; Cummings, David E

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is classically characterized by failure of pancreatic β-cell function and insulin secretion to compensate for a prevailing level of insulin resistance, typically associated with visceral obesity. Although this is usually a chronic, progressive disease in which delay of end-organ complications is the primary therapeutic goal for medical and behavioral approaches, several types of bariatric surgery, especially those that include intestinal bypass components, exert powerful antidiabetes effects to yield remission of T2D in most cases. It has become increasingly clear that in addition to the known benefits of acute caloric restriction and chronic weight loss to ameliorate T2D, bariatric/metabolic operations also engage a variety of weight-independent mechanisms to improve glucose homeostasis, enhancing insulin sensitivity and secretion to varying degrees depending on the specific operation. In this paper, we review the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, and vertical sleeve gastrectomy on the primary determinants of glucose homeostasis: insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and, to the lesser extent that it is known, insulin-independent glucose disposal. A full understanding of these effects should help optimize surgical and device-based designs to provide maximal antidiabetes impact, and it holds the promise to identify targets for possible novel diabetes pharmacotherapeutics. These insights also contribute to the conceptual rationale for use of bariatric operations as "metabolic surgery," employed primarily to treat T2D, including among patients not obese enough to qualify for surgery based on traditional criteria related to high body mass index. PMID:27568471

  2. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: effects on insulin and glucagon secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-04-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However, in recent years it has become clear that the incretin hormones also affect glucagon secretion. While GLP-1 decreases glucagon levels, the effect of GIP on glucagon levels has been unclear. The regulation of glucagon secretion is interesting, as the combination of inadequate insulin secretion and excessive glucagon secretion are essential contributors to the hyperglycaemia that characterise patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the near absence of a well-timed glucagon response contributes to an increased risk of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the blood glucose level affects the glucagon and insulin responses to GIP in healthy subjects (Study 1) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (Study 2), and more specifically to investigate the effects of GIP and GLP-1 at low blood glucose in patients with Type 1 diabetes without endogenous insulin secretion (Study 3). The investigations in the three mentioned study populations have been described in three original articles. The employed study designs were in randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover set-up, in which the same research subject is subjected to several study days thereby acting as his own control. Interventions were intravenous administration of hormones GIP, GLP-1 and placebo (saline) during different blood glucose levels maintained (clamped) at a certain level. The end-points were plasma concentrations of glucagon and insulin as well as the amount of glucose used to clamp the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during

  3. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  4. Cafestol, a Bioactive Substance in Coffee, Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Increases Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells: Studies in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Mellbye, Fredrik Brustad; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Hermansen, Kjeld; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-10-23

    Diet and exercise intervention can delay or prevent development of type-2-diabetes (T2D), and high habitual coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of developing T2D. This study aimed to test whether selected bioactive substances in coffee acutely and/or chronically increase insulin secretion from β-cells and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Insulin secretion from INS-1E rat insulinoma cells was measured after acute (1-h) and long-term (72-h) incubation with bioactive substances from coffee. Additionally, we measured uptake of radioactive glucose in human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) after incubation with cafestol. Cafestol at 10(-8) and 10(-6) M acutely increased insulin secretion by 12% (p < 0.05) and 16% (p < 0.001), respectively. Long-term exposure to 10(-10) and 10(-8) M cafestol increased insulin secretion by 34% (p < 0.001) and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Caffeic acid also increased insulin secretion acutely and chronically. Chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, oxokahweol, and secoisolariciresinol did not significantly alter insulin secretion acutely. Glucose uptake in SkMC was significantly enhanced by 8% (p < 0.001) in the presence of 10(-8) M cafestol. This newly demonstrated dual action of cafestol suggests that cafestol may contribute to the preventive effects on T2D in coffee drinkers and be of therapeutic interest. PMID:26465380

  5. Essential Role of Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter in the Generation of Mitochondrial pH Gradient and Metabolism-Secretion Coupling in Insulin-releasing Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Xianglan; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Xu, Shanhua; Das, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Wollheim, Claes B.; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-01-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, ATP acts as a signaling molecule initiating plasma membrane electrical activity linked to Ca2+ influx, which triggers insulin exocytosis. The mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) mediates Ca2+ uptake into the organelle, where energy metabolism is further stimulated for sustained second phase insulin secretion. Here, we have studied the contribution of the MCU to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism-secretion coupling in intact and permeabilized clonal β-cells as well as rat pancreatic islets. Knockdown of MCU with siRNA transfection blunted matrix Ca2+ rises, decreased nutrient-stimulated ATP production as well as insulin secretion. Furthermore, MCU knockdown lowered the expression of respiratory chain complexes, mitochondrial metabolic activity, and oxygen consumption. The pH gradient formed across the inner mitochondrial membrane following nutrient stimulation was markedly lowered in MCU-silenced cells. In contrast, nutrient-induced hyperpolarization of the electrical gradient was not altered. In permeabilized cells, knockdown of MCU ablated matrix acidification in response to extramitochondrial Ca2+. Suppression of the putative Ca2+/H+ antiporter leucine zipper-EF hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) also abolished Ca2+-induced matrix acidification. These results demonstrate that MCU-mediated Ca2+ uptake is essential to establish a nutrient-induced mitochondrial pH gradient which is critical for sustained ATP synthesis and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells. PMID:25548283

  6. Essential role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter in the generation of mitochondrial pH gradient and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xianglan; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Xu, Shanhua; Das, Ranjan; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Wollheim, Claes B; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-02-13

    In pancreatic β-cells, ATP acts as a signaling molecule initiating plasma membrane electrical activity linked to Ca(2+) influx, which triggers insulin exocytosis. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) mediates Ca(2+) uptake into the organelle, where energy metabolism is further stimulated for sustained second phase insulin secretion. Here, we have studied the contribution of the MCU to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism-secretion coupling in intact and permeabilized clonal β-cells as well as rat pancreatic islets. Knockdown of MCU with siRNA transfection blunted matrix Ca(2+) rises, decreased nutrient-stimulated ATP production as well as insulin secretion. Furthermore, MCU knockdown lowered the expression of respiratory chain complexes, mitochondrial metabolic activity, and oxygen consumption. The pH gradient formed across the inner mitochondrial membrane following nutrient stimulation was markedly lowered in MCU-silenced cells. In contrast, nutrient-induced hyperpolarization of the electrical gradient was not altered. In permeabilized cells, knockdown of MCU ablated matrix acidification in response to extramitochondrial Ca(2+). Suppression of the putative Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter leucine zipper-EF hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) also abolished Ca(2+)-induced matrix acidification. These results demonstrate that MCU-mediated Ca(2+) uptake is essential to establish a nutrient-induced mitochondrial pH gradient which is critical for sustained ATP synthesis and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells. PMID:25548283

  7. Glycaemic regulation and insulin secretion are abnormal in cystic fibrosis pigs despite sparing of islet cell mass.

    PubMed

    Uc, Aliye; Olivier, Alicia K; Griffin, Michelle A; Meyerholz, David K; Yao, Jianrong; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Buchanan, Katherine M; Vanegas Calderón, Oriana G; Abu-El-Haija, Marwa; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Reznikov, Leah R; Hoegger, Mark J; Rector, Michael V; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Taft, Peter J; Gansemer, Nick D; Ludwig, Paula S; Hornick, Emma E; Stoltz, David A; Ode, Katie L; Welsh, Michael J; Engelhardt, John F; Norris, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common and significant co-morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is incompletely understood. Because exocrine pancreatic disease is similar between humans and pigs with CF, the CF pig model has the potential to contribute significantly to the understanding of CFRD pathogenesis. We determined the structure of the endocrine pancreas in fetal, newborn and older CF and non-CF pigs and assessed endocrine pancreas function by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT). In fetal pigs, pancreatic insulin and glucagon density was similar between CF and non-CF. In newborn and older pigs, the insulin and glucagon density was unchanged between CF and non-CF per total pancreatic area, but increased per remnant lobular tissue in CF reflecting exocrine pancreatic loss. Although fasting glucose levels were not different between CF and non-CF newborns, CF newborns demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance and increased glucose area under the curve during IV-GTT. Second phase insulin secretion responsiveness was impaired in CF newborn pigs and significantly lower than that observed in non-CF newborns. Older CF pigs had elevated random blood glucose levels compared with non-CF. In summary, glycaemic abnormalities and insulin secretion defects were present in newborn CF pigs and spontaneous hyperglycaemia developed over time. Functional changes in CF pig pancreas were not associated with a decline in islet cell mass. Our results suggest that functional islet abnormalities, independent of structural islet loss, contribute to the early pathogenesis of CFRD. PMID:25142104

  8. Effect of Salsalate on Insulin Action, Secretion, and Clearance in Nondiabetic, Insulin-Resistant Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alice; Ariel, Danit; Abbasi, Fahim; Lamendola, Cindy; Grove, Kaylene; Tomasso, Vanessa; Ochoa, Hector; Reaven, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Salsalate treatment has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salsalate treatment on insulin action, secretion, and clearance rate in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a randomized (2:1), single-blind, placebo-controlled study of salsalate (3.5 g daily for 4 weeks) in nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance. All individuals had measurement of glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test), steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG; insulin suppression test), and insulin secretion and clearance rate (graded-glucose infusion test) before and after treatment. RESULTS Forty-one individuals were randomized to salsalate (n = 27) and placebo (n = 14). One individual from each group discontinued the study. Salsalate improved fasting (% mean change −7% [95% CI −10 to −14] vs. 1% [−3 to 5], P = 0.005) but not postprandial glucose concentration compared with placebo. Salsalate also lowered fasting triglyceride concentration (−25% [−34 to −15] vs. −6% [−26 to 14], P = 0.04). Salsalate had no effect on SSPG concentration or insulin secretion rate but significantly decreased insulin clearance rate compared with placebo (−23% [−30 to −16] vs. 3% [−10 to 15], P < 0.001). Salsalate was well tolerated, but four individuals needed a dose reduction due to symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Salsalate treatment in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals improved fasting, but not postprandial, glucose and triglyceride concentration. These improvements were associated with a decrease in insulin clearance rate without change in insulin action or insulin secretion. PMID:24963111

  9. Aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum Sweet inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents.

    PubMed

    Krisanapun, Chutwadee; Peungvicha, Penchom; Temsiririrkkul, Rungravi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract derived from the Thai Abutilon indicum Sweet plant and to explore its effects on intestinal glucose absorption and insulin secretion. The authors hypothesized that the plasma glucose level could be reduced through the inhibition of glucose absorption and/or the enhancement of insulin secretion. Administration of the extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) in an oral glucose tolerance test led to a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in 30 minutes after the administration in moderately diabetic rats, as compared with untreated rats (P < .05), and this was at a faster rate than the use of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. The inhibition of glucose absorption through the small intestine was investigated using an everted intestinal sac. The results showed that the extract at concentrations of 0.156 to 5 mg/mL caused a reduction of glucose absorption in a dose response manner. The maximum response was noted at a dose of 2.5 mg/mL. The promotion of the extract on insulin secretion was confirmed by incubating beta cell of pancreatic islets and INS-1E insulinoma cells with the extract at 1 to 1000 microg/mL. These observations suggest that the aqueous extract from the A indicum plant has antidiabetic properties, which inhibited glucose absorption and stimulated insulin secretion. Phytochemical screening also revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins that could account for the observed pharmacologic effects of the plant extract. PMID:19761892

  10. Assessment of benzene induced oxidative impairment in rat isolated pancreatic islets and effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Benzene (C6H6) is an organic compound used in petrochemicals and numerous other industries. It is abundantly released to our environment as a chemical pollutant causing widespread human exposure. This study mainly focused on benzene induced toxicity on rat pancreatic islets with respect to oxidative damage, insulin secretion and glucokinase (GK) activity. Benzene was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally at doses 200, 400 and 800mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In rats, benzene significantly raised the concentration of plasma insulin. Also the effect of benzene on the release of glucose-induced insulin was pronounced in isolated islets. Benzene caused oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, and also reduced the cell viability and total thiols groups, in the islets of exposed rats. In conclusion, the current study revealed that pancreatic glucose metabolism is susceptible to benzene toxicity and the resultant oxidative stress could lead to functional abnormalities in the pancreas. PMID:25935538

  11. Silk matrices promote formation of insulin-secreting islet-like clusters.

    PubMed

    Shalaly, Nancy Dekki; Ria, Massimiliano; Johansson, Ulrika; Åvall, Karin; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedhammar, My

    2016-06-01

    Ex vivo expansion of endocrine cells constitutes an interesting alternative to be able to match the unmet need of transplantable pancreatic islets. However, endocrine cells become fragile once removed from their extracellular matrix (ECM) and typically become senescent and loose insulin expression during conventional 2D culture. Herein we develop a protocol where 3D silk matrices functionalized with ECM-derived motifs are used for generation of insulin-secreting islet-like clusters from mouse and human primary cells. The obtained clusters were shown to attain an islet-like spheroid shape and to maintain functional insulin release upon glucose stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of transplanted murine clusters showed engraftment with increasing vessel formation during time. There was no sign of cell death and the clusters maintained or increased in size throughout the period, thus suggesting a suitable cluster size for transplantation. PMID:26986856

  12. Urocortin3 mediates somatostatin-dependent negative feedback control of insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Donaldson, Cynthia J.; Cáceres, Elena; Hunter, Anna E.; Cowing–Zitron, Christopher; Pound, Lynley D.; Adams, Michael W.; Zembrzycki, Andreas; Grove, Kevin L.; Huising, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone Urocortin3 (Ucn3) is abundantly expressed by mature beta cells, yet its physiological role is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Ucn3 is stored and co–released with insulin and potentiates glucose–stimulated somatostatin secretion via cognate receptor on delta cells. Further, we found that islets lacking endogenous Ucn3 demonstrate fewer delta cells, reduced somatostatin content, impaired somatostatin secretion and exaggerated insulin release, and that these defects are rectified by synthetic Ucn3 in vitro. Our observations indicate that the paracrine actions of Ucn3 activate a negative feedback loop that promotes somatostatin release to ensure the timely reduction of insulin secretion upon normalization of plasma glucose. Moreover, Ucn3 is markedly depleted from beta cells in mouse and macaque diabetes models and in human diabetic islets. This suggests that Ucn3 is a key contributor to stable glycemic control whose reduction during diabetes aggravates glycemic volatility and contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26076035

  13. Reactive oxygen species as a signal in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jingbo; Bai, Yushi; Zhang, Qiang; Wong, Victoria; Floering, Lisa M; Daniel, Kiefer; Reece, Jeffrey M; Deeney, Jude T; Andersen, Melvin E; Corkey, Barbara E; Collins, Sheila

    2007-07-01

    One of the unique features of beta-cells is their relatively low expression of many antioxidant enzymes. This could render beta-cells susceptible to oxidative damage but may also provide a system that is sensitive to reactive oxygen species as signals. In isolated mouse islets and INS-1(832/13) cells, glucose increases intracellular accumulation of H2O2. In both models, insulin secretion could be stimulated by provision of either exogenous H2O2 or diethyl maleate, which raises intracellular H2O2 levels. Provision of exogenous H2O2 scavengers, including cell permeable catalase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inhibited glucose-stimulated H2O2 accumulation and insulin secretion (GSIS). In contrast, cell permeable superoxide dismutase, which metabolizes superoxide into H2O2, had no effect on GSIS. Because oxidative stress is an important risk factor for beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes, the relationship between glucose-induced H2O2 generation and GSIS was investigated under various oxidative stress conditions. Acute exposure of isolated mouse islets or INS-1(832/13) cells to oxidative stressors, including arsenite, 4-hydroxynonenal, and methylglyoxal, led to decreased GSIS. This impaired GSIS was associated with increases in a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, these findings suggest that H2O2 derived from glucose metabolism is one of the metabolic signals for insulin secretion, whereas oxidative stress may disturb its signaling function. PMID:17400930

  14. Reversal of diabetes following transplantation of an insulin-secreting human liver cell line: Melligen cells

    PubMed Central

    Lawandi, Janet; Tao, Chang; Ren, Binhai; Williams, Paul; Ling, Dora; Swan, M Anne; Nassif, Najah T; Torpy, Fraser R; O’Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to the transplantation of islets, a human liver cell line has been genetically engineered to reverse type 1 diabetes (TID). The initial liver cell line (Huh7ins) commenced secretion of insulin in response to a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/l. After transfection of the Huh7ins cells with human islet glucokinase, the resultant Melligen cells secreted insulin in response to glucose within the physiological range; commencing at 4.25 mmol/l. Melligen cells exhibited increased glucokinase enzymatic activity in response to physiological glucose concentrations, as compared with Huh7ins cells. When transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, Melligen cells restored normoglycemia. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that both cell lines expressed a range of β-cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones. Exposure of Melligen and Huh7ins cells to proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) affected neither their viability nor their ability to secrete insulin to glucose. Gene expression (microarray and qRT-PCR) analyses indicated the survival of Melligen cells in the presence of known β-cell cytotoxins was associated with the expression of NF-κB and antiapoptotic genes (such as BIRC3). This study describes the successful generation of an artificial β-cell line, which, if encapsulated to avoid allograft rejection, may offer a clinically applicable cure for T1D. PMID:26029722

  15. Reversal of diabetes following transplantation of an insulin-secreting human liver cell line: Melligen cells.

    PubMed

    Lawandi, Janet; Tao, Chang; Ren, Binhai; Williams, Paul; Ling, Dora; Swan, M Anne; Nassif, Najah T; Torpy, Fraser R; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to the transplantation of islets, a human liver cell line has been genetically engineered to reverse type 1 diabetes (TID). The initial liver cell line (Huh7ins) commenced secretion of insulin in response to a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/l. After transfection of the Huh7ins cells with human islet glucokinase, the resultant Melligen cells secreted insulin in response to glucose within the physiological range; commencing at 4.25 mmol/l. Melligen cells exhibited increased glucokinase enzymatic activity in response to physiological glucose concentrations, as compared with Huh7ins cells. When transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, Melligen cells restored normoglycemia. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that both cell lines expressed a range of β-cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones. Exposure of Melligen and Huh7ins cells to proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) affected neither their viability nor their ability to secrete insulin to glucose. Gene expression (microarray and qRT-PCR) analyses indicated the survival of Melligen cells in the presence of known β-cell cytotoxins was associated with the expression of NF-κB and antiapoptotic genes (such as BIRC3). This study describes the successful generation of an artificial β-cell line, which, if encapsulated to avoid allograft rejection, may offer a clinically applicable cure for T1D. PMID:26029722

  16. A novel Gymnema sylvestre extract stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Asare-Anane, H; Maity, C R; Chatterjee, S K; Koley, N; Biswas, T; Chatterji, A K; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S A; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2010-09-01

    Many plant-based products have been suggested as potential antidiabetic agents, but few have been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in human studies, and little is known of their mechanisms of action. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have been used for the treatment of T2DM in India for centuries. The effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract, Om Santal Adivasi, (OSA(R)) on plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose in a small cohort of patients with T2DM are reported here. Oral administration of OSA(R) (1 g/day, 60 days) induced significant increases in circulating insulin and C-peptide, which were associated with significant reductions in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose. In vitro measurements using isolated human islets of Langerhans demonstrated direct stimulatory effects of OSA(R) on insulin secretion from human ß-cells, consistent with an in vivo mode of action through enhancing insulin secretion. These in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that OSA(R) may provide a potential alternative therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with T2DM. PMID:20812281

  17. Restructuring of Pancreatic Islets and Insulin Secretion in a Postnatal Critical Window

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Godinez-Puig, Victoria; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Hiriart, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Function and structure of adult pancreatic islets are determined by early postnatal development, which in rats corresponds to the first month of life. We analyzed changes in blood glucose and hormones during this stage and their association with morphological and functional changes of alpha and beta cell populations during this period. At day 20 (d20), insulin and glucose plasma levels were two- and six-fold higher, respectively, as compared to d6. Interestingly, this period is characterized by physiological hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, where peripheral insulin resistance and a high plasmatic concentration of glucagon are also observed. These functional changes were paralleled by reorganization of islet structure, cell mass and aggregate size of alpha and beta cells. Cultured beta cells from d20 secreted the same amount of insulin in 15.6 mM than in 5.6 mM glucose (basal conditions), and were characterized by a high basal insulin secretion. However, beta cells from d28 were already glucose sensitive. Understanding and establishing morphophysiological relationships in the developing endocrine pancreas may explain how events in early life are important in determining adult islet physiology and metabolism. PMID:17183663

  18. Delayed improvement of insulin secretion after autologous islet transplantation in partially pancreatectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye Seung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Sung-Joo; Choi, Dong-Wook; Heo, Jin-Seok; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Jong Kyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Byung-Wan; Jee, Jae-Hwan; Noh, Jung-Hyun; Jeong, In Kyung; Yang, Tae-Young; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Ahn, You-Ran; Kim, Young-Seok; No, Heesung; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of autologous islet transplantation (ITx) on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretory function after partial pancreatectomy (Px). Fourteen nondiabetic patients who underwent distal Px and autologous ITx for benign pancreatic tumors were enrolled in the study (Px + ITx group). Fourteen normal glucose-tolerant controls and 6 Px without ITx controls were recruited, and all groups were followed over a 24-month period. They performed the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and the 1-mg glucagon stimulation test. Hemoglobin A(1c) was measured, and indices of insulin secretion were calculated. In the Px + ITx group, insulin secretion increased after a nadir at 6 months. Glucose tolerance, which had been abruptly impaired immediately after Px, recovered until 6 months and stabilized thereafter. As a result, differences in glucose intolerance emerged between the subjects in the Px group and those in the Px + ITx group at 24 months after Px. Characteristic variables in the better insulin secretory subjects in the Px + ITx group included younger age, less extensive pancreas resection, and a greater number of total islets. In summary, delayed amelioration of glucose intolerance was induced by autologous ITx after partial Px, even with a small number of islets. PMID:19604519

  19. A Novel GLP1 Receptor Interacting Protein ATP6ap2 Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Feihan F; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinye Serena; Huang, Xinyi; Luu, Lemieux; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert; Wheeler, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    GLP1 activates its receptor, GLP1R, to enhance insulin secretion. The activation and transduction of GLP1R requires complex interactions with a host of accessory proteins, most of which remain largely unknown. In this study, we used membrane-based split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays to identify novel GLP1R interactors in both mouse and human islets. Among these, ATP6ap2 (ATPase H(+)-transporting lysosomal accessory protein 2) was identified in both mouse and human islet screens. ATP6ap2 was shown to be abundant in islets including both alpha and beta cells. When GLP1R and ATP6ap2 were co-expressed in beta cells, GLP1R was shown to directly interact with ATP6ap2, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. In INS-1 cells, overexpression of ATP6ap2 did not affect insulin secretion; however, siRNA knockdown decreased both glucose-stimulated and GLP1-induced insulin secretion. Decreases in GLP1-induced insulin secretion were accompanied by attenuated GLP1 stimulated cAMP accumulation. Because ATP6ap2 is a subunit required for V-ATPase assembly of insulin granules, it has been reported to be involved in granule acidification. In accordance with this, we observed impaired insulin granule acidification upon ATP6ap2 knockdown but paradoxically increased proinsulin secretion. Importantly, as a GLP1R interactor, ATP6ap2 was required for GLP1-induced Ca(2+) influx, in part explaining decreased insulin secretion in ATP6ap2 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings identify a group of proteins that interact with the GLP1R. We further show that one interactor, ATP6ap2, plays a novel dual role in beta cells, modulating both GLP1R signaling and insulin processing to affect insulin secretion. PMID:26272612

  20. Phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow insulin and glucose oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturis, Jeppe; Knudsen, Carsten; O'Meara, Niall M.; Thomsen, Jesper S.; Mosekilde, Erik; Van Cauter, Eve; Polonsky, Kenneth S.

    1995-03-01

    We present a detailed numerical investigation of the phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow oscillations in human insulin secretion and blood glucose concentration. The bifurcation structures of period 2π and 4π tongues are mapped out and found to be qualitatively identical to those of several other periodically forced self-oscillating systems operating across a Hopf-bifurcation point. The numerical analyses are supplemented by clinical experiments.

  1. [Differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells induced by regenerating pancreatic extract].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Wang, Dianliang; Zeng, Hongyan; Wang, Lieming; Sun, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Shasha

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the natural biological inducer, rat regenerating pancreatic extract (RPE), was used to induce human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into insulin-secreting cells. We excised 60% of rat pancreas in order to stimulate pancreatic regeneration. RPE was extracted and used to induce hAMSCs at a final concentration of 20 microg/mL. The experiment methods used were as follows: morphological-identification, dithizone staining, immumofluorescence analysis, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose. The results show that the cell morphology of passge3 hAMSCs changed significantly after the induction of RPE, resulting in cluster shape after induction for 15 days. Dithizone staining showed that there were scarlet cell masses in RPE-treated culture. Immumofluorescence analysis indicated that induced cells were insulin-positive expression. RT-PCR showed the positive expression of human islet-related genes Pdx1 and insulin in the induced cells. The result of insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose indicated that insulin increasingly secreted and then kept stable with prolongation of high glucose stimulation. In conclusion, hAMSCs had the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells induced by RPE in vitro. PMID:22667123

  2. Usurping the mitochondrial supremacy: extramitochondrial sources of reactive oxygen intermediates and their role in beta cell metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Heart, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is a process dependent on metabolism. While oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of beta cell toxicity and impairs insulin secretion, recent studies suggest that low levels of metabolically-derived reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) also play a positive role in insulin secretion. Glucose metabolism is directly correlated with ROI production, particularly in beta cells in which glucose uptake is proportional to the extracellular concentration of glucose. Low levels of exogenously added ROI or quinones, which stimulate ROI production, positively affect insulin secretion, while antioxidants block insulin secretion, suggesting that ROI activate unidentified redox-sensitive signal transduction components within these cells. The mitochondria are one source of ROI: increased metabolic flux increases mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in electron leakage and adventitious ROI production. A second source of ROI are cytosolic and plasma membrane oxidoreductases which oxidize NAD(P)H and directly produce ROI through the reduction of molecular oxygen. The mechanism of ROI-mediated potentiation of insulin secretion remains an important topic for future study. PMID:20397883

  3. Engineered Commensal Bacteria Reprogram Intestinal Cells Into Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Franklin F.; Liu, Joy H.

    2015-01-01

    The inactive full-length form of GLP-1(1-37) stimulates conversion of both rat and human intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-secreting cells. We investigated whether oral administration of human commensal bacteria engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37) could ameliorate hyperglycemia in a rat model of diabetes by reprogramming intestinal cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells. Diabetic rats were fed daily with human lactobacilli engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37). Diabetic rats fed GLP-1–secreting bacteria showed significant increases in insulin levels and, additionally, were significantly more glucose tolerant than those fed the parent bacterial strain. These rats developed insulin-producing cells within the upper intestine in numbers sufficient to replace ∼25–33% of the insulin capacity of nondiabetic healthy rats. Intestinal tissues in rats with reprogrammed cells expressed MafA, PDX-1, and FoxA2. HNF-6 expression was observed only in crypt epithelia expressing insulin and not in epithelia located higher on the villous axis. Staining for other cell markers in rats treated with GLP-1(1-37)–secreting bacteria suggested that normal function was not inhibited by the close physical proximity of reprogrammed cells. These results provide evidence of the potential for a safe and effective nonabsorbed oral treatment for diabetes and support the concept of engineered commensal bacterial signaling to mediate enteric cell function in vivo. PMID:25626737

  4. Engineered commensal bacteria reprogram intestinal cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells for the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Duan, Franklin F; Liu, Joy H; March, John C

    2015-05-01

    The inactive full-length form of GLP-1(1-37) stimulates conversion of both rat and human intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-secreting cells. We investigated whether oral administration of human commensal bacteria engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37) could ameliorate hyperglycemia in a rat model of diabetes by reprogramming intestinal cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells. Diabetic rats were fed daily with human lactobacilli engineered to secrete GLP-1(1-37). Diabetic rats fed GLP-1-secreting bacteria showed significant increases in insulin levels and, additionally, were significantly more glucose tolerant than those fed the parent bacterial strain. These rats developed insulin-producing cells within the upper intestine in numbers sufficient to replace ∼25-33% of the insulin capacity of nondiabetic healthy rats. Intestinal tissues in rats with reprogrammed cells expressed MafA, PDX-1, and FoxA2. HNF-6 expression was observed only in crypt epithelia expressing insulin and not in epithelia located higher on the villous axis. Staining for other cell markers in rats treated with GLP-1(1-37)-secreting bacteria suggested that normal function was not inhibited by the close physical proximity of reprogrammed cells. These results provide evidence of the potential for a safe and effective nonabsorbed oral treatment for diabetes and support the concept of engineered commensal bacterial signaling to mediate enteric cell function in vivo. PMID:25626737

  5. Chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in pancreatic islets impair insulin secretion due to dysregulated calcium dynamics, glucose responsiveness and mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the progression towards diabetes, glucolipotoxicity is one of the main causes of pancreatic beta cell pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on cellular responses in pancreatic islets, including glucose and fat metabolism, Calcium mobilization, insulin secretion and insulin content. Results Exposure of islets to chronic glucolipotoxic conditions decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Reduced protein levels of Glut2/slc2a2, and decreased glucokinase and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA levels indicated a significant lowering in glucose sensing. Concomitantly, both fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation increased significantly while fatty acid oxidation decreased. This general suppression in glucose metabolism correlated well with a decrease in mitochondrial number and activity, reduction in cellular ATP content and dampening of the TCA cycle. Further, we also observed a decrease in IP3 levels and lower Calcium mobilization in response to glucose. Importantly, chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in vitro decreased insulin gene expression, insulin content, insulin granule docking (to the plasma membrane) and insulin secretion. Conclusions Our results present an integrated view of the effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on known and novel signaling events, in vitro, that results in reduced glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion. PMID:23815372

  6. Insulin degludec does not increase antibody formation versus insulin glargine: an evaluation of phase IIIa trials.

    PubMed

    Vora, J; Seufert, J; Solberg, H; Kinduryte, O; Johansen, T; Hollander, P

    2016-07-01

    We examined insulin antibody formation in patients with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with once-daily insulin degludec (IDeg) or insulin glargine (IGlar) to evaluate the impact of antibody formation on efficacy and safety. Insulin antibodies were measured using subtraction radioimmunoassays in six phase IIIa clinical trials using IDeg (n = 2250) and IGlar (n = 1184). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate associations between cross-reacting antibodies and change from baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin dose. IDeg- and IGlar-specific antibodies remained low [<1% bound/total radioactivity (B/T)] and with low levels of antibodies cross-reacting with human insulin in patients with T1D (<20% B/T) and T2D (<6% B/T). Spearman's correlation coefficients between insulin antibody levels and change in HbA1c or insulin dose were low in both treatment groups. No clinically meaningful differences in adverse event (AE) rates were observed in patients with >10% B/T or without an absolute increase in antibodies cross-reacting with human insulin. IDeg treatment resulted in few immunogenic responses in patients with T1D and T2D; antibody formation was not associated with change in HbA1c, insulin dose or rates of AEs. PMID:26663320

  7. Epigenetic conversion of adult dog skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Brevini, T A L; Pennarossa, G; Acocella, F; Brizzola, S; Zenobi, A; Gandolfi, F

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is among the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorder in dogs and its prevalence continues to increase. Medical management of this pathology is lifelong and challenging because of the numerous serious complications. A therapy based on the use of autologous viable insulin-producing cells to replace the lost β cell mass would be very advantageous. A protocol to enable the epigenetic conversion of canine dermal fibroblasts, obtained from a skin biopsy, into insulin-producing cells (EpiCC) is described in the present manuscript. Cells were briefly exposed to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) in order to increase their plasticity. This was followed by a three-step differentiation protocol that directed the cells towards the pancreatic lineage. After 36 days, 38 ± 6.1% of the treated fibroblasts were converted into EpiCC that expressed insulin mRNA and protein. Furthermore, EpiCC were able to release insulin into the medium in response to an increased glucose concentration. This is the first evidence that generating a renewable autologous, functional source of insulin-secreting cells is possible in the dog. This procedure represents a novel and promising potential therapy for diabetes in dogs. PMID:27033591

  8. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shin-ichiro; Tsuchida, Takuma; Oguma, Takahiro; Marley, Anna; Wennberg-Huldt, Charlotte; Hovdal, Daniel; Fukuda, Hajime; Yoneyama, Yukimi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Johansson, Anders; Lundqvist, Sara; Brengdahl, Johan; Isaacs, Richard J.; Brown, Daniel; Geschwindner, Stefan; Benthem, Lambertus; Priest, Claire; Turnbull, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents. PMID:26720709

  9. Hormones and Obesity: Changes in Insulin and Growth Hormone Secretion Following Surgically Induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crockford, P. M.; Salmon, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Ten obese patients were subjected to insulin tolerance tests (0.2 unit per kg. regular insulin intravenously) and/or treadmill exercise tolerance testing (2.6 m.p.h. at 11° angulation) before and after surgically induced weight reduction. Immunoreactive growth hormone (IRGH) responses returned to normal with weight reduction in all but one—a grossly obese woman studied relatively early in the postoperative period when still far from the ideal body weight. Five of these patients and two additional subjects had intravenous glucose tolerance tests (0.5 g. per kg.) before and after weight reduction. In all, there was a significant diminution in immunoreactive insulin (IRI) values, accompained by little or no change in the glucose disappearance rate (KG) and a significant improvement in insulin effectiveness as indicated by the calculated “insulinogenic index”. It was concluded that the abnormalities in IRGH and IRI secretion, as well as the insulin resistance in obesity, are probably secondary and not of primary importance in the etiology of this disorder. PMID:5430052

  10. Novel I1-Imidazoline Agonist S43126 Augment Insulin Secretion in Min6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesfai, Jerusalem; Crane, Louis; Baziard-Mouysset, Genevieve; Edwards, Lincoln P.

    2016-01-01

    The I1-imidazoline receptor is a novel drug target for hypertension and insulin resistance which are major disorders associated with Type II diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effects of a novel imidazoline agonist S43126 on calcium fluxes and insulin secretion from Min6 β-cells. We also examined the effects of S43126 on the induction of IRAS, and phosphorylation of components in the I1-imidazoline signaling pathways, namely ERK and PKB. Min6 β-cells were treated with varying doses of S43126 [10−8M to 10−5M] for various time (5–60mins). S43126 at higher dose [10−5M] stimulated insulin secretion under elevated glucose concentration compared to basal. In addition, insulin secretion and Ca2+ influx mediated by S43126 [10−5M] were decreased following co-treatment with efaroxan (I1-antagonist) and nifedipine (L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel blocker) at various times (5–60mins). Furthermore, S43126 at [10−5M] increased Ca2+ oscillation, [Ca2+] and 45Ca2+ uptake in a time and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Western blot analysis of treated samples showed that S43126 caused an increased protein expression of IRAS as well as phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and PKB in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that S43126 exerts its insulinotropic effect in a glucose dependent manner by a mechanism involving L-type calcium channels and imidazoline I1-receptors.

  11. Manganese supplementation protects against diet-induced diabetes in wild type mice by enhancing insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soh-Hyun; Jouihan, Hani A; Cooksey, Robert C; Jones, Deborah; Kim, Hyung J; Winge, Dennis R; McClain, Donald A

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is both a contributing mechanism and complication of diabetes, and oxidative stress contributes to that dysfunction. Mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metalloenzyme that provides antioxidant protection. We have previously shown in a mouse model of hereditary iron overload that cytosolic iron levels affected mitochondrial manganese availability, MnSOD activity, and insulin secretion. We therefore sought to determine the metallation status of MnSOD in wild-type mice and whether altering that status affected β-cell function. 129/SvEVTac mice given supplemental manganese exhibited a 73% increase in hepatic MnSOD activity and increased metallation of MnSOD. To determine whether manganese supplementation offered glucose homeostasis under a situation of β-cell stress, we challenged C57BL/6J mice, which are more susceptible to diet-induced diabetes, with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Manganese was supplemented or not for the final 8 weeks on that diet, after which we examined glucose tolerance and the function of isolated islets. Liver mitochondria from manganese-injected C57BL/6J mice had similar increases in MnSOD activity (81%) and metallation as were seen in 129/SvEVTac mice. The manganese-treated group fed high fat had improved glucose tolerance (24% decrease in fasting glucose and 41% decrease in area under the glucose curve), comparable with mice on normal chow and increased serum insulin levels. Isolated islets from the manganese-treated group exhibited improved insulin secretion, decreased lipid peroxidation, and improved mitochondrial function. In conclusion, MnSOD metallation and activity can be augmented with manganese supplementation in normal mice on normal chow, and manganese treatment can increase insulin secretion to improve glucose tolerance under conditions of dietary stress. PMID:23372018

  12. Sortilin facilitates VLDL-B100 secretion by insulin sensitive McArdle RH7777 cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Robert P; Guida, Wayne C; Sowden, Mark P; Jenkins, Jermaine L; Starr, Matthew L; Fratti, Rutilio A; Sparks, Charles E; Sparks, Janet D

    2016-09-16

    Studies examining the relationship between cellular sortilin and VLDL-B100 secretion demonstrate inconsistent results. Current studies explore the possibility that discrepancies may be related to insulin sensitivity. McArdle RH7777 cells (McA cells) cultured under serum enriched conditions lose sensitivity to insulin. Following incubation in serum-free DMEM containing 1% BSA, McA cells become insulin responsive and demonstrate reduced apo B secretion. Current studies indicate that insulin sensitive McA cells express lower cellular sortilin that corresponds with reduction in VLDL-B100 secretion without changes in mRNA of either sortilin or apo B. When sortilin expression is further reduced by siRNA knockdown (KD), there are additional decreases in VLDL-B100 secretion. A crystal structure of human sortilin (hsortilin) identifies two binding sites on the luminal domain for the N- and C-termini of neurotensin (NT). A small organic compound (cpd984) was identified that has strong theoretical binding to the N-terminal site. Both cpd984 and NT bind hsortilin by surface plasmon resonance. In incubations with insulin sensitive McA cells, cpd984 was shown to enhance VLDL-B100 secretion at each level of sortilin KD suggesting cpd984 acted through sortilin in mediating its effect. Current results support a role for sortilin to facilitate VLDL-B100 secretion which is limited to insulin sensitive McA cells. Inconsistent reports of the relationship between VLDL-B100 secretion and sortilin in previous studies may relate to differing functions of sortilin in VLDL-B100 secretion depending upon insulin sensitivity. PMID:27495870

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to impairment of insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Wang, Ching-Chu; Huang, Hsin-Chang; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2013-02-01

    Adipocytes play an integrative role in the regulation of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis in the human body. Functional defects in adipocytes may cause systemic disturbance of glucose homeostasis. Recent studies revealed mitochondrial abnormalities in the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, patients with mitochondrial diseases usually manifest systemic metabolic disorder. However, it is unclear how mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes affects the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study, we induced mitochondrial dysfunction and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by addition of respiratory inhibitors oligomycin A and antimycin A and by knockdown of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), respectively. We found an attenuation of the insulin response as indicated by lower glucose uptake and decreased phosphorylation of Akt upon insulin stimulation of adipocytes with mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the expression of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and secretion of adiponectin were decreased in adipocytes with increased ROS generated by defective mitochondria. Moreover, the severity of insulin insensitivity was correlated with the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that higher intracellular ROS levels elicited by mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in impairment of the function of adipocytes in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis through attenuation of insulin signaling, downregulation of Glut4 expression, and decrease in adiponectin secretion. Our findings substantiate the important role of mitochondria in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in adipocytes and also provide a molecular basis for the explanation of the manifestation of diabetes mellitus or insulin insensitivity in a portion of patients with mitochondrial diseases such as MELAS or MERRF syndrome. PMID:23253816

  14. Increasing insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell testosterone secretion in men.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Hardin, Megan; Dwyer, Andrew A; Valassi, Elena; Yialamas, Maria; Elahi, Dariush; Hayes, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with low testosterone (T) levels in men, the mechanism of which is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men with a spectrum of insulin sensitivity. Twenty-one men (aged 25-65 yr) had a glucose tolerance test and assessment of insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity, expressed as the M value (milligrams per kilograms(-1) per minute(-1)), was calculated from the glucose disposal rate during the final 30 min of the clamp. Eighteen subjects had blood sampling every 10 min for 12 h to assess LH pulsatility. Hypogonadism was then induced with a GnRH antagonist, followed by sequential stimulation testing with GnRH (750 ng/kg, iv) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 1000 IU, im) to assess pituitary and testicular responsiveness, respectively. Nine subjects had normal glucose tolerance, nine had impaired glucose tolerance, and three had diabetes mellitus. There was a positive relationship between M and T levels (r = 0.46; P < 0.05). No relationship was seen between M and parameters of LH secretion, including mean LH levels, LH pulse amplitude, LH pulse frequency, and LH response to exogenous GnRH administration. In contrast, a strong correlation was observed between M and the T response to hCG (r = 0.73; P < 0.005). Baseline T levels correlated with the increase in T after hCG administration (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). During the clamp, T levels increased from a baseline level of 367 +/- 30 to 419 +/- 38 ng/dl during the last 30 min (P < 0.05). From these data we conclude that insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell T secretion in men. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanism of this effect. PMID:15713702

  15. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal A; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24-48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  16. Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Elvstam, Olof; Eliasson, Lena; Wendt, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24–48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable

  17. Increased adrenergic signaling is responsible for decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the chronically hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Sasha E; Brown, Laura D; Thorn, Stephanie R; Limesand, Sean W; Davis, Melissa; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin may stimulate its own insulin secretion and is a potent growth factor for the pancreatic β-cell. Complications of pregnancy, such as diabetes and intrauterine growth restriction, are associated with changes in fetal insulin concentrations, secretion, and β-cell mass. However, glucose concentrations are also abnormal in these conditions. The direct effect of chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia on fetal insulin secretion and β-cell mass has not been tested. We hypothesized that chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia would increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell mass in the ovine fetus. Singleton ovine fetuses were infused with iv insulin to produce high physiological insulin concentrations, or saline for 7-10 days. The hyperinsulinemic animals also received a direct glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia. GSIS, measured at 133 ± 1 days of gestation, was significantly attenuated in the hyperinsulinemic fetuses (P < .05). There was no change in β-cell mass. The hyperinsulinemic fetuses also had decreased oxygen (P < .05) and higher norepinephrine (1160 ± 438 vs 522 ± 106 pg/mL; P < .005). Acute pharmacologic adrenergic blockade restored GSIS in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic fetuses, demonstrating that increased adrenergic signaling mediates decreased GSIS in these fetuses. PMID:25343274

  18. P2Y₁ receptor-dependent diacylglycerol signaling microdomains in β cells promote insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Tengholm, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) controls numerous cell functions by regulating the localization of C1-domain-containing proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the lipid. Here, we explored plasma membrane DAG dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. Single MIN6 cells, primary mouse β cells, and human β cells within intact islets were transfected with translocation biosensors for DAG, PKC activity, or insulin secretion and imaged with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Muscarinic receptor stimulation triggered stable, homogenous DAG elevations, whereas glucose induced short-lived (7.1 ± 0.4 s) but high-amplitude elevations (up to 109 ± 10% fluorescence increase) in spatially confined membrane regions. The spiking was mimicked by membrane depolarization and suppressed after inhibition of exocytosis or of purinergic P2Y₁, but not P2X receptors, reflecting involvement of autocrine purinoceptor activation after exocytotic release of ATP. Each DAG spike caused local PKC activation with resulting dissociation of its substrate protein MARCKS from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of spiking reduced glucose-induced pulsatile insulin secretion. Thus, stimulus-specific DAG signaling patterns appear in the plasma membrane, including distinct microdomains, which have implications for the kinetic control of exocytosis and other membrane-associated processes. PMID:23299857

  19. Intravenous infusion of glucose and insulin in relation to milk secretion in the sow.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L; Rook, J A

    1977-01-01

    1. A comparison was made of the composition of milk from front and rear tetas in four sows. There were small and not significant differences in fat, protein and lactose contents, and in the fatty-acid composition of the milk fat with the exception of the 18:3 acid where the difference was also small but significant. 2. The effects of intravenous infusions of glucose and insulin in lactating sows on milk secretion and blood composition were investigated in two sows. 3. Intravenous infusion of glucose had no effect on blood plasma glucose concentration but increased the yields of lactose, protein and water. 4. Intravenous infusion of insulin depressed plasma glucose concentration and the yields of lactose and water. The yield of protein was unaffected. 5. It is concluded that differences between the non-ruminant (the sow) and the ruminant in the responses in milk secretion to glucose infusion may be related to differences in the sensitivity to insulin of mammary tissue. PMID:849401

  20. Insulin-secreting β cells require a post-genomic concept

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β cells are essential in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis accomplished by highly specialized transcription of insulin gene, of which occupies up to 40% their transcriptome. Deficiency of these cells causes diabetes mellitus, a global public health problem. Although tremendous endeavors have been made to generate insulin-secreting cells from human pluripotent stem cells (i.e., primitive cells capable of giving rise to all cell types in the body), a regenerative therapy to diabetes has not yet been established. Furthermore, the nomenclature of β cells has become inconsistent, confusing and controversial due to the lack of standardized positive controls of developmental stage-matched in vivo cells. In order to minimize this negative impact and facilitate critical research in this field, a post-genomic concept of pancreatic β cells might be helpful. In this review article, we will briefly describe how β cells were discovered and islet lineage is developed that may help understand the cause of nomenclatural controversy, suggest a post-genomic definition and finally provide a conclusive remark on future research of this pivotal cell. PMID:27226815

  1. Insulin-secreting β cells require a post-genomic concept.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2016-05-25

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β cells are essential in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis accomplished by highly specialized transcription of insulin gene, of which occupies up to 40% their transcriptome. Deficiency of these cells causes diabetes mellitus, a global public health problem. Although tremendous endeavors have been made to generate insulin-secreting cells from human pluripotent stem cells (i.e., primitive cells capable of giving rise to all cell types in the body), a regenerative therapy to diabetes has not yet been established. Furthermore, the nomenclature of β cells has become inconsistent, confusing and controversial due to the lack of standardized positive controls of developmental stage-matched in vivo cells. In order to minimize this negative impact and facilitate critical research in this field, a post-genomic concept of pancreatic β cells might be helpful. In this review article, we will briefly describe how β cells were discovered and islet lineage is developed that may help understand the cause of nomenclatural controversy, suggest a post-genomic definition and finally provide a conclusive remark on future research of this pivotal cell. PMID:27226815

  2. High-normal 2 h glucose is associated with defects of insulin secretion and predispose to diabetes in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ziwei; Zhou, Jian; Li, Xiaowen; Song, Lige; Hou, Xuhong; Tang, Junling; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether impaired beta-cell function exists in Chinese individuals within the normal range of glucose tolerance (NGT), and these individuals are predisposed to diabetes later in life. The cross-sectional study included 843 NGT subjects and 562 isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients and the longitudinal study included 1,724 NGT subjects. Insulin secretion was assessed using indices derived from oral glucose tolerance test and adjusted by insulin resistance. NGT subjects were sub-divided into two groups: NGT-l (2hPG<125 mg/dl) and NGT-h (2hPG 125-140 mg/dl). Normal weight subjects were individuals with BMI<25 kg/m2, and overweight were with BMI≥25 kg/m2. In normal weight subjects, the first- and second-phase insulin secretion indices were significantly higher in NGT-h and NGT-l subjects compared with IGT subjects. However, in overweight subjects, first-phase insulin secretion index in NGT-h subjects was significantly lower than that in NGT-l subjects, but similar to that in IGT patients. The second-phase insulin secretion was comparable between NGT-h and NGT-l subjects. After an average follow-up of 43.80±11.25 months, totally 25 (1.5%) NGT subjects at baseline developed diabetes. The incidence rate of diabetes was higher in NGT-h overweight subjects (9.2%) than in NGT-l overweight subjects (1.5%) with a risk ratio (RR) reaching 6.655 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.347-18.867]. This risk remained after adjustment for sex, age, BMI, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure (RR 8.315, 95% CI 2.649-26.108). It is concluded that overweight NGT adults with high-normal 2hPG (≥125 mg/dl) had a defect in first-phase insulin secretion and were with the increasing risk for developing new diabetes. PMID:24711220

  3. Nucleobindin-1 encodes a nesfatin-1-like peptide that stimulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Naresh; Mohan, Haneesha; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-05-15

    Nesfatin-1 (82 amino acid) is an anorexigenic and insulinotropic peptide encoded in a secreted precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1) is a protein with very high sequence similarity to NUCB2. We hypothesized that a nesfatin-1 like peptide (NLP) is encoded in NUCB1, and this peptide is biologically active. In silico analysis found a signal peptide cleavage site at position 25 (Arginine) and 26 (Valine) preceding the NLP region in NUCB1 sequence, and potential proprotein convertase cleavage sites at Lys-Arg (KR), forming a 77 amino acid NLP. RT-PCR studies found NUCB1 mRNA in both pancreas and MIN6 cells. NUCB1-like immunoreactivity was detected in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells, and pancreatic islet beta cells of mice. In order to determine the biological activity of NLP, MIN6 cells were incubated with synthetic rat NLP. NLP (10nM and 100nM) upregulated preproinsulin mRNA expression and insulin secretion at 1h post-incubation. In identical experiments using MIN6 cells, a scrambled peptide based on the NLP sequence did not elicit any effects on preproinsulin mRNA expression or insulin secretion. From this result, it is clear that an intact NLP sequence is required for its biological activity. NLP appears as another endogenous insulinotropic peptide encoded in NUCB1. PMID:25907657

  4. Metabolic memory of ß-cells controls insulin secretion and is mediated by CaMKIIa

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gustavo Jorge dos; Ferreira, Sandra Mara; Ortis, Fernanda; Rezende, Luiz Fernando; Li, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Boschero, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) functions both in regulation of insulin secretion and neurotransmitter release through common downstream mediators. Therefore, we hypothesized that pancreatic ß-cells acquire and store the information contained in calcium pulses as a form of “metabolic memory”, just as neurons store cognitive information. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel paradigm of pulsed exposure of ß-cells to intervals of high glucose, followed by a 24-h consolidation period to eliminate any acute metabolic effects. Strikingly, ß-cells exposed to this high-glucose pulse paradigm exhibited significantly stronger insulin secretion. This metabolic memory was entirely dependent on CaMKII. Metabolic memory was reflected on the protein level by increased expression of proteins involved in glucose sensing and Ca2+-dependent vesicle secretion, and by elevated levels of the key ß-cell transcription factor MAFA. In summary, like neurons, human and mouse ß-cells are able to acquire and retrieve information. PMID:24944908

  5. Development of genetically engineered human intestinal cells for regulated insulin secretion using rAAV-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shiue-Cheng; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2003-04-01

    Cell-based therapies for treating insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) can provide a more physiologic regulation of blood glucose levels in a less invasive fashion than daily insulin injections. Promising cells include intestinal enteroendocrine cells genetically engineered to secrete insulin in response to physiologic stimuli; responsiveness occurs at the exocytosis level to regulate the acute release of recombinant insulin. In this work, we established a human cellular model to demonstrate that meat hydrolysate can simultaneously stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an enteroendocrine cell-derived incretin hormone) and recombinant insulin secretion from the engineered human NCI-H716 intestinal cell line. Cells were genetically modified using the recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated insulin gene transfer. Recombinant cells were then differentiated to display endocrine features, in particular the formation of granule-like compartments. A fusion protein of insulin and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was designed to reveal the compartments of localization of the fusion protein and assess its co-localization with endogenous GLP-1. Our work provides a unique human cellular model for regulated insulin release through genetic engineering of GLP-1-secreting intestinal cells, which is expected to be useful for cell-based therapies of IDD. PMID:12659868

  6. Differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor β-cells into insulin secreting cells in mice with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Ermakova, N N; Khmelevskaya, E S; Pershina, O V; Krupin, V A; Ermolaeva, L A; Dygai, A M

    2014-04-01

    We studied in vitro differentiation of pancreatic stem and progenitor cells into insulin secreting cells in the model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in C57Bl/6 mice. Streptozotocin was shown to increase the population of pancreatic oligopotent β-cell precursors (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD133(+), and CD49f(low)) and did not affect multipotent (stem) progenitor cells (CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), CD309(-)). During long-term culturing, diabetic multipotent progenitor cells showed high capacity for self-renewal. A population of dithizone-positive (insulin secreting cells) mononuclear cells was obtained releasing insulin after prolonged culturing in suspension enriched with diabetic CD45(-), TER119(-), CD17(-), and CD309(-) cells. The rate of generation of "new" insulin-producing cells and insulin release in the samples of experimental group considerably exceeded activity of the corresponding processes in the control group. PMID:24824681

  7. Comparison of effects of phorbol esters and glucose on protein kinase C activation and insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Easom, R A; Hughes, J H; Landt, M; Wolf, B A; Turk, J; McDaniel, M L

    1989-01-01

    The tumour-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and this suggests a potential role for protein kinase C in the regulation of stimulus-secretion coupling in islets. In the present study, the hypothesis that the insulinotropic effect of TPA is mediated by activation of protein kinase C in pancreatic islets has been examined. TPA induced a gradual translocation of protein kinase C from the cytosol to a membrane-associated state which correlated with the gradual onset of insulin secretion. The pharmacologically inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not mimic this effect. TPA also induced a rapid time-dependent decline of total protein kinase C activity in islets and the appearance of a Ca2+- and phospholipid-independent protein kinase activity. Insulin secretion induced by TPA was completely suppressed (IC50 approximately 10 nM) by staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C inhibitor. Staurosporine also inhibited islet cytosolic protein kinase C activity at similar concentrations (IC50 approximately 2 nM). In addition, staurosporine partially (approximately 60%) inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion at concentrations (IC50 approximately 10 nM) similar to those required to inhibit TPA-induced insulin secretion, suggesting that staurosporine may act at a step common to both mechanisms, possibly the activation of protein kinase C. However, stimulatory concentrations of glucose did not induce down-regulation of translocation of protein kinase C, and the inhibition of glucose-induced insulin release by staurosporine was incomplete. Significant questions therefore remain unresolved as to the possible involvement of protein kinase C in glucose-induced insulin secretion. PMID:2690823

  8. Thyrotropin inhibits while insulin, epidermal growth factor and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate stimulate insulin-like growth factor binding protein secretion from sheep thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Eggo, M C; Bachrach, L K; Brown, A L; Burrow, G N

    1991-01-01

    Six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) have been identified in the conditioned medium from sheep thyroid cells cultured under serum-free conditions. IGFBPs of 32, 28, 23 and 19 kDa were secreted by cells cultured for 14 days in serum-free and hormone-free medium. The constitutive secretion of IGFBP was inhibited by thyrotropin (TSH, 0.3 mU per mL). The effect was most marked on the secretion of the 28 kDa BP. High insulin concentrations stimulated the secretion of this IGFBP. The stimulatory effects of insulin were inhibited by TSH. Growth hormone treatment decreased the secretion of the 28 kDa protein. Tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both of which stimulate thyroid cell growth but inhibit differentiated function, markedly stimulated IGFBP secretion and induced the appearance of a 46 and a 150 kDa IGFBP. The effects of EGF and TPA were not identical. A rat IGFBP-2 cDNA reacted with sheep thyroid RNA of approximate size 1.6 kb. TPA treatment increased IGFBP-2 mRNA. Other hormones used to enhance differentiation and growth in thyroid cells in culture i.e. transferrin, somatostatin, cortisol and glycyl-histidyl-lysine acetate had no marked effects on IGFBP secretion nor on TSH-dependent, insulin-mediated iodide uptake and organification and cell growth. We show a correlation between secretion of high molecular weight IGFBP with enhanced growth but decreased function. Conversely, we find a correlation between decreased secretion of the 28 kDa BP and increased growth and function. PMID:1722684

  9. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  10. Zinc status affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-06-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (-19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  11. RFX6 regulates insulin secretion by modulating Ca2+ homeostasis in human β cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikash; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Hastoy, Benoit; Piccand, Julie; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Vaillant, Emmanuel; Cavé, Hélène; Busiah, Kanetee; Froguel, Philippe; Vaxillaire, Martine; Rorsman, Patrik; Polak, Michel; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2014-12-24

    Development and function of pancreatic β cells involve the regulated activity of specific transcription factors. RFX6 is a transcription factor essential for mouse β cell differentiation that is mutated in monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes. However, the expression and functional roles of RFX6 in human β cells, especially in pathophysiological conditions, are poorly explored. We demonstrate the presence of RFX6 in adult human pancreatic endocrine cells. Using the recently developed human β cell line EndoC-βH2, we show that RFX6 regulates insulin gene transcription, insulin content, and secretion. Knockdown of RFX6 causes downregulation of Ca(2+)-channel genes resulting in the reduction in L-type Ca(2+)-channel activity that leads to suppression of depolarization-evoked insulin exocytosis. We also describe a previously unreported homozygous missense RFX6 mutation (p.V506G) that is associated with neonatal diabetes, which lacks the capacity to activate the insulin promoter and to increase Ca(2+)-channel expression. Our data therefore provide insights for understanding certain forms of neonatal diabetes. PMID:25497100

  12. Protein Fractions from Korean Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) Extract Induce Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Bae

    2014-01-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) has been known as a medicinal plant in European and Asian countries. Recent data show that biological activity of mistletoe alleviates hypertension, heart disease, renal failure, and cancer development. In this study, we report the antidiabetic effect of Korean mistletoe extract (KME). KME treatments enhanced the insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell without any effects of cytotoxicity. PDX-1 and beta2/neuroD known as transcription factors that regulate the expression of insulin gene were upregulated by treatment of the KME protein fractions isolated by ion-exchange chromatography after ammonium sulfate precipitation. Furthermore, these KME protein fractions significantly lowered the blood glucose level and the volume of drinking water in alloxan induced hyperglycemic mice. Taken together with the findings, it provides new insight that KME might be served as a useful source for the development of medicinal reagent to reduce blood glucose level of type I diabetic patients. PMID:24959189

  13. Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 Regulates Insulin Secretion through a Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Shridas, Preetha; Zahoor, Lubna; Forrest, Kathy J.; Layne, Joseph D.; Webb, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Group X secretory phospholipase A2 (GX sPLA2) potently hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid (AA). While AA is an activator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a known inhibitor. In this study, we determined that GX sPLA2 is expressed in insulin-producing cells of mouse pancreatic islets and investigated its role in beta cell function. GSIS was measured in vivo in wild-type (WT) and GX sPLA2-deficient (GX KO) mice and ex vivo using pancreatic islets isolated from WT and GX KO mice. GSIS was also assessed in vitro using mouse MIN6 pancreatic beta cells with or without GX sPLA2 overexpression or exogenous addition. GSIS was significantly higher in islets isolated from GX KO mice compared with islets from WT mice. Conversely, GSIS was lower in MIN6 cells overexpressing GX sPLA2 (MIN6-GX) compared with control (MIN6-C) cells. PGE2 production was significantly higher in MIN6-GX cells compared with MIN6-C cells and this was associated with significantly reduced cellular cAMP. The effect of GX sPLA2 on GSIS was abolished when cells were treated with NS398 (a COX-2 inhibitor) or L-798,106 (a PGE2-EP3 receptor antagonist). Consistent with enhanced beta cell function, GX KO mice showed significantly increased plasma insulin levels following glucose challenge and were protected from age-related reductions in GSIS and glucose tolerance compared with WT mice. We conclude that GX sPLA2 plays a previously unrecognized role in negatively regulating pancreatic insulin secretion by augmenting COX-2-dependent PGE2 production. PMID:25122761

  14. Neurotransmitter-induced inhibition of exocytosis in insulin-secreting beta cells by activation of calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Renström, E; Ding, W G; Bokvist, K; Rorsman, P

    1996-09-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones such as somatostatin, galanin, and adrenalin reduce insulin secretion. Their inhibitory action involves direct interference with the exocytotic machinery. We have examined the molecular processes underlying this effect using high resolution measurements of cell capacitance. Suppression of exocytosis was maximal at concentrations that did not cause complete inhibition of glucose-stimulated electrical activity. This action was dependent on activation of G proteins but was not associated with inhibition of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents or adenylate cyclase activity. The molecular processes initiated by the agonists culminate in the activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, and suppression of the activity of this enzyme abolishes their action on exocytosis. We propose that mechanisms similar to those we report here may contribute to adrenergic and peptidergic inhibition of secretion in other neuroendocrine cells and in nerve terminals. PMID:8816714

  15. Sweet Taste Receptor Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells Activates the Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signaling Systems and Stimulates Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Mogami, Hideo; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and cAMP ([cAMP]c) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca2+]c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca2+]c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a Gq inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions Sweet taste receptor is expressed in β-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:19352508

  16. Gene networks modified by sulphonylureas in beta cells: a pathway-based analysis of insulin secretion and cell death.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Nils E; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Grimm, Daniela; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Rungby, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Sulphonylureas (SUs) used in the treatment for type 2 diabetes have been shown to result in different clinical outcome. This study hypothesized that three widely used SUs, glibenclamide, glimepiride and gliclazide, may affect function and survival of insulin-producing cells differently. To evaluate differences between SUs, insulin secretion and cell death were measured, and genome-wide gene expression patterns were compared using a bioinformatics approach focusing on functional relationships between molecules. Insulin-producing INS-1E cells exposed to SUs for 6 and 24 hr were assayed using GeneChip. Cluster and pathway analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes and patterns of potential biological functions associated with SU treatment. Cell death was measured using acridine orange/Hoechst 33342 staining. Short-term treatment (6 hr) yielded up-regulation of insulin secretion and genes associated with insulin secretion for all three SUs applied. While long-term treatment (24-72 hr) with gliclazide did not change gene expression or cell survival, treatment with glibenclamide or glimepiride up-regulated genes associated with oxidative stress and hypoxia, but did not induce cell death. Short-term treatment with SUs initiates gene regulation that can be attributed to insulin secretion with few differences between individual SUs. This regulation was temporal and returned to baseline after 24 hr. Individual differences observed after 24-72 hr indicate that glibenclamide and glimepiride induce potentially harmful cell signalling insufficient for triggering beta cell death. PMID:22642398

  17. The effect of a low-calorie diet with and without fenfluramine on the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion of obese maturity-onset diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, J. Ranald W.

    1973-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion have been measured in twenty-three obese maturity-onset diabetics (twelve high-insulin secretors and eleven lowor normal-insulin secretors) on first presentation and after 10 weeks on a low-calorie diet. There was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance alone, when the results were compared with those from diabetics not on any form of treatment. Thereafter nine of these subjects (five high-insulin secretors and four low- or normal-insulin secretors) continued on the dietary therapy alone, and eleven of the remaining fourteen subjects (six high-insulin secretors and five low- or normal-insulin secretors) continued on the low-calorie diet with the addition of fenfluramine, and their glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were measured again after a further 10 weeks. The remaining three subjects were no longer studied. The nine subjects continuing on the diet alone showed maintenance of the improvement in glucose tolerance achieved during the first 10-week period with no significant change in insulin secretion. The eleven subjects placed on fenfluramine in addition to the diet also showed maintenance of the improvement in glucose tolerance achieved during the first 10-week period with a significant decrease in insulin secretion in the six high-insulin secreting subjects and no significant change in insulin secretion in the five lowor normal-secretors. PMID:4804456

  18. Palmitate-induced impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion precedes mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jonathan; Jensen, Verena Hirschberg; Jastroch, Martin; Affourtit, Charles

    2016-02-15

    It has been well established that excessive levels of glucose and palmitate lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β-cells. This β-cell 'glucolipotoxicity' is possibly mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction, but involvement of bioenergetic failure in the pathological mechanism is the subject of ongoing debate. We show in the present study that increased palmitate levels impair GSIS before altering mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that GSIS defects arise from increased insulin release under basal conditions in addition to decreased insulin secretion under glucose-stimulatory conditions. Real-time respiratory analysis of intact mouse pancreatic islets reveals that mitochondrial ATP synthesis is not involved in the mechanism by which basal insulin is elevated. Equally, mitochondrial lipid oxidation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) do not contribute to increased basal insulin secretion. Palmitate does not affect KCl-induced insulin release at a basal or stimulatory glucose level, but elevated basal insulin release is attenuated by palmitoleate and associates with increased intracellular calcium. These findings deepen our understanding of β-cell glucolipotoxicity and reveal that palmitate-induced GSIS impairment is disconnected from mitochondrial dysfunction, a notion that is important when targeting β-cells for the treatment of diabetes and when assessing islet function in human transplants. PMID:26621874

  19. Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets

    SciTech Connect

    Alquier, Thierry; Peyot, Marie-Line; Latour, M. G.; Kebede, Melkam; Sorensen, Christina M.; Gesta, Stephane; Kahn, C. R.; Smith, Richard D.; Jetton, Thomas L.; Metz, Thomas O.; Prentki, Marc; Poitout, Vincent J.

    2009-11-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty-acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. We observed that glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, assessed by hyperglycemic clamps, was decreased by approximately 60% in GPR40 knock-out (KO) fasted and fed mice, without changes in insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Glucose and palmitate metabolism were not affected by GPR40 deletion. Lipid profiling revealed a similar increase in triglyceride and decrease in lysophosphatidylethanolamine species in WT and KO islets in response to palmitate. These results demonstrate that GPR40 regulates insulin secretion in vivo not only in response to fatty acids but also to glucose and arginine, without altering intracellular fuel metabolism.

  20. Co-culture of clonal beta cells with GLP-1 and glucagon-secreting cell line impacts on beta cell insulin secretion, proliferation and susceptibility to cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; Moffett, R Charlotte; Flatt, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the direct effects on insulin releasing MIN6 cells of chronic exposure to GLP-1, glucagon or a combination of both peptides secreted from GLUTag L-cell and αTC1.9 alpha-cell lines in co-culture. MIN6, GLUTag and αTC1.9 cell lines exhibited high cellular hormone content and release of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon, respectively. Co-culture of MIN6 cells with GLUTag cells significantly increased cellular insulin content, beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretory responses to a range of established secretogogues and afforded protection against exposure cytotoxic concentrations of glucose, lipid, streptozotocin or cytokines. Benefits of co-culture of MIN6 cells with αTC1.9 alphacells were limited to enhanced beta-cell proliferation with marginal positive actions on both insulin secretion and cellular protection. In contrast, co-culture of MIN6 with GLUTag cells plus αTC1.9 cells, markedly enhanced both insulin secretory responses and protection against beta-cell toxins compared with co-culture with GLUTag cells alone. These data indicate important long-term effects of conjoint GLP-1 and glucagon exposure on beta-cell function. This illustrates the possible functional significance of alpha-cell GLP-1 production as well as direct beneficial effects of dual agonism at beta-cell GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. PMID:27015674

  1. Cryopreservation of insulin-secreting INS832/13 cells using a wheat protein formulation.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Mélanie; Robinson, Isabelle; Do Carmo, Sonia; Ali-Benali, Mohamed A; Ouellet, François; Mounier, Catherine; Sarhan, Fathey; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic that affects about 285million people worldwide. For severely-ill patients with type I diabetes, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only therapeutic option. Islet transplantation is hindered by the scarce supply of fresh functional islets and limitations in cryopreservation procedures. Thus, improved cryopreservation procedures are needed to increase the availability of functional islets for clinical applications. Towards this goal, this work developed a cryopreservation protocol for pancreatic cells using proteins that accumulate naturally in freezing-tolerant plants. A preincubation of cells with 1% lecithin-1% glycerol-1% N-methylpyrrolidone followed by cryopreservation with partially purified proteins from wheat improved the viability and insulin-secreting properties of INS832/13 cells, compared to cryopreservation with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). The major factor that enhanced the cryoprotective effect of the wheat protein formulation was preincubation with the lipid lecithin. Expression profiles of genes involved in metabolic and signaling functions of pancreatic cells (Ins, Glut1/2/3, Pdx1, Reg1α) were similar between fresh cells and those cryopreserved with the plant protein formulation. This novel plant-based technology, which is non-toxic and contains no animal material, is a promising alternative to Me2SO for cryopreservation of insulin-secreting pancreatic cells. PMID:23313787

  2. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  3. [Role of peripheral serotonin in the insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Cortés, Víctor Antonio; Galgani, José Eduardo; Olmos, Pablo Roberto; Santos, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The most studied roles of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) have been related to its action in the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, most of 5HT is produced outside the CNS, mainly in the enterochromaffin cells of the gut. Additionally, other tissues such as the endocrine pancreas, particularly β-cells, have its own serotonin system able to synthesize, secrete and respond to extracellular 5HT through cell surface receptors subtypes that have been grouped in 7 families (HTR1-7). Interestingly, 5HT is stored in granules and released together with insulin from β-cells and its biological significance is likely a combination of intra and extracellular actions. The expression of enzymes involved in 5HT synthesis and their receptors varied markedly in β-pancreatic cells during pregnancy, in parallel with an increase in their insulin secretion potential (probably through the action of Htr3a) and an increase in β-cell mass (through the action of Htr2b and Htr1d). In addition, it has been suggested that gut-derived 5HT may promote hepatic gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting through Htr2b receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest that peripheral 5HT plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through the differential expression and activation of 5-HT membrane receptors on the surface of hepatocytes, adipocytes and pancreatic β-cells. PMID:25238823

  4. Opiate-prostaglandin interactions in the regulation of insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Green, I.C.; Tadayyon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The inadequate insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation in non-insulin dependent diabetes has been attributed to many factors including high PGE/sub 2/ levels blunting the secretory response, and to the existence of inhibitory opiate activity in vivo. The purpose of the present work was to see if there was a connection between these two independent theories. Radioimmunoassayable PGE/sub 2/ in islets of Langerhans was found to be proportional to islet number and protein content and was typically 4 to 5pg/..mu..g islet protein. Indomethacin sodium salicylate and chlorpropamide all lowered islet PGE/sub 2/ levels and stimulated insulin release in vitro. Dynorphin stimulated insulin release at a concentration of 6 x 10/sup -9/M, while lowering islet PGE/sub 2/. Conversely, at a higher concentration, dynorphin had no stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and did not lower PGE/sub 2/ levels in islets or in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of dynorphin and sodium salicylate on insulin secretion were blocked by exogenous PGE/sub 2/. PGE/sub 2/ at a lower concentration did not exert any inhibitory effect on dynorphin- or sodium salicylate-induced insulin release. This concentration of exogenous PGE/sub 2/ stimulated insulin release in the presence of 6mM glucose.

  5. Prehepatic secretion and disposal of insulin in obese adolescents as estimated by three-hour, eight-sample oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Domzig, Christian; Wabitsch, Martin; Denzer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The body compensates for early-stage insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion. A reliable and easy-to-use mathematical assessment of insulin secretion and disposal could be a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Because the pathophysiology of insulin resistance is incompletely understood, assessing insulin metabolism with minimal assumptions regarding its metabolic regulation is a major challenge. To assess insulin secretion and indexes of insulin disposal, our marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) was applied to a sparse sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) protocol measuring the insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Identifiability and potential bias of metabolic parameters were estimated from published data with dense sampling. The MRA was applied to OGTT data from 135 obese adolescents to demonstrate its clinical applicability. Individual prehepatic basal and dynamic insulin secretion and clearance levels were determined with a precision and accuracy greater than 10% of the nominal value. The intersubject variability in these parameters was approximately four times higher than the intrasubject variability, and there was a strong negative correlation between prehepatic secretion and plasma clearance of insulin. MRA-based analysis provides reliable estimates of insulin secretion and clearance, thereby enabling detailed glucose homeostasis characterization based on restricted datasets that are obtainable during routine patient care. PMID:27143555

  6. Cytosolic free Ca2+ in insulin secreting cells and its regulation by isolated organelles.

    PubMed

    Prentki, M; Wollheim, C B

    1984-10-15

    The role of Ca2+ in secretagogue-induced insulin release is documented not only by the measurements of 45Ca fluxes in pancreatic islets, but also, by direct monitoring of cytosolic free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i. As demonstrated, using the fluorescent indicator quin 2, glyceraldehyde, carbamylcholine and alanine raise [Ca2+]i in the insulin secreting cell line RINm5F, whereas glucose has a similar effect in pancreatic islet cells. The regulation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis by organelles from a rat insulinoma, was investigated with a Ca2+ selective electrode. The results suggest that both the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria participate in this regulation, albeit at different Ca2+ concentrations. By contrast, the secretory granules do not appear to be involved in the short-term regulation of [Ca2+]i. Evidence is presented that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which is shown to mobilize Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, is acting as an intracellular mediator in the stimulation of insulin release. PMID:6436050

  7. A genetically engineered human pancreatic β cell line exhibiting glucose-inducible insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ravassard, Philippe; Hazhouz, Yasmine; Pechberty, Séverine; Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Armanet, Mathieu; Czernichow, Paul; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Despite intense efforts over the past 30 years, human pancreatic β cell lines have not been available. Here, we describe a robust technology for producing a functional human β cell line using targeted oncogenesis in human fetal tissue. Human fetal pancreatic buds were transduced with a lentiviral vector that expressed SV40LT under the control of the insulin promoter. The transduced buds were then grafted into SCID mice so that they could develop into mature pancreatic tissue. Upon differentiation, the newly formed SV40LT-expressing β cells proliferated and formed insulinomas. The resulting β cells were then transduced with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), grafted into other SCID mice, and finally expanded in vitro to generate cell lines. One of these cell lines, EndoC-βH1, expressed many β cell–specific markers without any substantial expression of markers of other pancreatic cell types. The cells secreted insulin when stimulated by glucose or other insulin secretagogues, and cell transplantation reversed chemically induced diabetes in mice. These cells represent a unique tool for large-scale drug discovery and provide a preclinical model for cell replacement therapy in diabetes. This technology could be generalized to generate other human cell lines when the cell type–specific promoter is available. PMID:21865645

  8. GPRC6A mediates the effects of L-arginine on insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Pi, Min; Wu, Yunpeng; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Gerling, Ivan; Quarles, L Darryl

    2012-10-01

    L-arginine (l-Arg) is an insulin secretagogue, but the molecular mechanism whereby it stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells is not known. The possibility that l-Arg regulates insulin secretion through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated mechanism is suggested by the high expression of the nutrient receptor GPCR family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) in the pancreas and TC-6 β-cells and the finding that Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice have abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. To test the direct role of GPRC6A in regulating insulin secretion, we evaluated the response of pancreatic islets derived from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice to L-Arg. We found that the islet size and insulin content were decreased in pancreatic islets from Gprac6a(-/]minus]) mice. These alterations were selective for β-cells, because there were no abnormalities in serum glucagon levels or glucagon content of islets derived from Gprac6a(-/]minus]) mice. Significant reduction was observed in both the pancreatic ERK response to L-Arg administration to Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice in vivo and L-Arg-induced insulin secretion and production ex vivo in islets isolated from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice. L-Arg stimulation of cAMP accumulation in isolated islets isolated from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice was also diminished. These findings suggest that l-Arg stimulation of insulin secretion in β-cells is mediated, at least in part, through GPRC6A activation of cAMP pathways. PMID:22872579

  9. GPRC6A Mediates the Effects of l-Arginine on Insulin Secretion in Mouse Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunpeng; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Gerling, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) is an insulin secretagogue, but the molecular mechanism whereby it stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells is not known. The possibility that l-Arg regulates insulin secretion through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated mechanism is suggested by the high expression of the nutrient receptor GPCR family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) in the pancreas and TC-6 β-cells and the finding that Gprc6a−/]minus] mice have abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. To test the direct role of GPRC6A in regulating insulin secretion, we evaluated the response of pancreatic islets derived from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice to l-Arg. We found that the islet size and insulin content were decreased in pancreatic islets from Gprac6a−/]minus] mice. These alterations were selective for β-cells, because there were no abnormalities in serum glucagon levels or glucagon content of islets derived from Gprac6a−/]minus] mice. Significant reduction was observed in both the pancreatic ERK response to l-Arg administration to Gprc6a−/]minus] mice in vivo and l-Arg-induced insulin secretion and production ex vivo in islets isolated from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice. l-Arg stimulation of cAMP accumulation in isolated islets isolated from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice was also diminished. These findings suggest that l-Arg stimulation of insulin secretion in β-cells is mediated, at least in part, through GPRC6A activation of cAMP pathways. PMID:22872579

  10. 1-Hour OGTT Plasma Glucose as a Marker of Progressive Deterioration of Insulin Secretion and Action in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Alessandra; Seghieri, Giuseppe; Lencioni, Cristina; Anichini, Roberto; Bertolotto, Alessandra; De Bellis, Alessandra; Resi, Veronica; Lacaria, Emilia; Del Prato, Stefano; Di Cianni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Considering old GDM diagnostic criteria, alterations in insulin secretion and action are present in women with GDM as well as in women with one abnormal value (OAV) during OGTT. Our aim is to assess if changes in insulin action and secretion during pregnancy are related to 1-hour plasma glucose concentration during OGTT. We evaluated 3 h/100 g OGTT in 4,053 pregnant women, dividing our population on the basis of 20 mg/dL increment of plasma glucose concentration at 1 h OGTT generating 5 groups (<120 mg/dL, n = 661; 120-139 mg/dL, n = 710; 140-159 mg/dL, n = 912; 160-179 mg/dL, n = 885; and ≥180 mg/dL, n = 996). We calculated incremental area under glucose (AUC(gluc)) and insulin curves (AUC(ins)), indexes of insulin secretion (HOMA-B), and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-R), AUC(ins)/AUC(gluc). AUC(gluc) and AUC(ins) progressively increased according to 1-hour plasma glucose concentrations (both P < 0.0001 for trend). HOMA-B progressively declined (P < 0.001), and HOMA-R progressively increased across the five groups. AUC(ins)/AUC(gluc) decreased in a linear manner across the 5 groups (P < 0.001). Analysing the groups with 1-hour value <180 mg/dL, defects in insulin secretion (HOMA-B: -29.7%) and sensitivity (HOMA-R: +15%) indexes were still apparent (all P < 0.001). Progressive increase in 1-hour OGTT is associated with deterioration of glucose tolerance and alterations in indexes of insulin action and secretion. PMID:22567007

  11. Junctophilin 3 expresses in pancreatic beta cells and is required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Pan, Z-F; Huang, X; Wu, B-W; Li, T; Kang, M-X; Ge, R-S; Hu, X-Y; Zhang, Y-H; Ge, L-J; Zhu, D-Y; Wu, Y-L; Lou, Y-J

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that junctophilin (JPHs) isoforms act as a physical bridge linking plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for channel crosstalk in excitable cells. Our purpose is to investigate whether JPHs are involved in the proper communication between Ca(2+) influx and subsequent Ca(2+) amplification in pancreatic beta cells, thereby participating in regulating insulin secretion. The expression of JPH isoforms was examined in human and mouse pancreatic tissues, and JPH3 expression was found in both the beta cells. In mice, knockdown of Jph3 (si-Jph3) in islets decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) accompanied by mitochondrial function impairment. Si-Jph3 lowered the insulin secretory response to Ca(2+) signaling in the presence of glucose, and reduced [Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude triggered by caffeine. Si-Jph3 also attenuated mitofusin 2 expression, thereby disturbing the spatial organization of ER-mitochondria contact in islets. These results suggest that the regulation of GSIS by the KATP channel-independent pathways is partly impaired due to decrease of JPH3 expression in mouse islets. JPH3 also binds to type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) in mouse and human pancreatic tissues, which might contribute to Ca(2+) release amplification in GSIS. This study demonstrates some previously unrecognized findings in pancreatic tissues: (1) JPH3 expresses in mouse and human beta cells; (2) si-Jph3 in mouse primary islets impairs GSIS in vitro; (3) impairment in GSIS in si-Jph3 islets is due to changes in RyR2-[Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude and ER-mitochondria contact. PMID:27336719

  12. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Ling L.; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H.; Lam, Kok W.; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl. PMID:27625609

  13. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ling L; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H; Lam, Kok W; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F M

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl. PMID:27625609

  14. Role of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in interplay between incretin and sulfonylurea in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Harumi; Shibasaki, Tadao; Park, Jae-Hyung; Hidaka, Shihomi; Takahashi, Toshimasa; Ono, Aika; Song, Dae-Kyu; Seino, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas are currently used worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We recently found that Epac2A, a cAMP binding protein having guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward Rap, is a target of both incretin and sulfonylurea. This suggests the possibility of interplay between incretin and sulfonylurea through Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in insulin secretion. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effects of incretin and various sulfonylureas on insulin secretion and activation of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling. A strong augmentation of insulin secretion by combination of GLP-1 and glibenclamide or glimepiride, which was found in Epac2A(+/+) mice, was markedly reduced in Epac2A(-/-) mice. In contrast, the combinatorial effect of GLP-1 and gliclazide was rather mild, and the effect was not altered by Epac2A ablation. Activation of Rap1 was enhanced by the combination of an Epac-selective cAMP analog with glibenclamide or glimepiride but not gliclazide. In diet-induced obese mice, ablation of Epac2A reduced the insulin secretory response to coadministration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and glimepiride. These findings clarify the critical role of Epac2A/Rap1 signaling in the augmenting effect of incretin and sulfonylurea on insulin secretion and provide the basis for the effects of combination therapies of incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas. PMID:25315008

  15. VAMP7 Regulates Autophagy to Maintain Mitochondrial Homeostasis and to Control Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Kyota; Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Itakura, Makoto; Torii, Seiji; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Nakamichi, Yoko; Kishimoto, Takuma; Kawakami, Hayato; Harada, Akihiro; Takahashi, Masami; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    VAMP7 is a SNARE protein that mediates specific membrane fusions in intracellular trafficking and was recently reported to regulate autophagosome formation. However, its function in pancreatic β-cells is largely unknown. To elucidate the physiological role of VAMP7 in β-cells, we generated pancreatic β-cell-specific VAMP7 knockout (Vamp7(flox/Y);Cre) mice. VAMP7 deletion impaired glucose-stimulated ATP production and insulin secretion, though VAMP7 was not localized to insulin granules. VAMP7-deficient β-cells showed defective autophagosome formation and reduced mitochondrial function. p62/SQSTM1, a marker protein for defective autophagy, was selectively accumulated on mitochondria in VAMP7-deficient β-cells. These findings suggest that accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that are degraded by autophagy caused impairment of glucose-stimulated ATP production and insulin secretion in Vamp7(flox/Y);Cre β-cells. Feeding a high-fat diet to Vamp7(flox/Y);Cre mice exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction, further decreased ATP production and insulin secretion, and consequently induced glucose intolerance. Moreover, we found upregulated VAMP7 expression in wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet and in db/db mice, a model for diabetes. Thus our data indicate that VAMP7 regulates autophagy to maintain mitochondrial quality and insulin secretion in response to pathological stress in β-cells. PMID:26953164

  16. Characterization of the Insulin Reservoir in Rat Islets of Langerhans: Evaluation of Hormone Synthesis, Processing, Storage and Secretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gishizky, Mikhail Lev

    1988-12-01

    It has been reported that acute glucose stimulation of islets results in the preferential release of newly synthesized insulin. This suggests that the large islet hormone reservoir may represent a heterogeneous pool. In these investigation we characterized the nature of the islet hormone reservoir and evaluated possible mechanisms responsible for its regulation. Our studies demonstrated that under stimulated secretory conditions normal pancreatic islets secreted newly synthesized insulin in preference to their large stored hormone content. The preferential release pattern was observed with all secretogogues tested and was not restricted to a specific subset of islets. Aided by computer model analysis, we proposed that the islet insulin reservoir represented a heterogeneous pool composed of at least two hypothetical compartments--labile and stable. Evaluation of the islet hormone reservoir under different in vivo and in vitro conditions demonstrated that in response to prolonged stimulation, the hypothetical labile compartment apparently decreased in size. This augmentation in the compartmental character was associated with (1) decreased amount of insulin secreted, (2) increased proportion of newly synthesized insulin secreted, and (3) an increased rate of prohormone conversion with no alteration in the rate of hormone synthesis. Thus parameters which defined the islet hormone reservoir represented a dynamic system that responded to the islets milieu. Preferential release of newly synthesized insulin was not an intrinsic property of insulin secreting cells. Furthermore, the mechanism responsible for the compartmentalization of the insulin reservoir did not discriminate between the two non-allelic murine insulins. Our studies indicated that differences in the amino acid structure of the two prohormones apparently resulted in proinsulin I being transported to the conversion compartment faster than proinsulin II. However, glucose regulation of the synthesis and

  17. Acute and chronic regulation of leptin synthesis, storage, and secretion by insulin and dexamethasone in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Wang, Yanxin; Ricci, Matthew R; Sullivan, Sean; Russell, Colleen D; Fried, Susan K

    2007-03-01

    Serum leptin levels are upregulated in proportion to body fat and also increase over the short term in response to meals or insulin. To understand the mechanisms involved, we assessed leptin synthesis and secretion in samples of adipose tissue from subjects with a wide range of BMI. Tissue leptin content and relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, as determined by metabolic labeling, were highly correlated with each other and with BMI and fat cell size. To understand mechanisms regulating leptin synthesis in obesity, we used biosynthetic labeling to directly assess the effects of insulin and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone) on leptin synthesis and secretion in human adipose tissue. Chronic treatment (1-2 days in organ culture) with insulin increased relative rates of leptin biosynthesis without affecting leptin mRNA levels. In contrast, dexamethasone increased leptin mRNA and biosynthesis in parallel. Acute treatment with insulin or dexamethasone (added during 1-h preincubation and 45-min pulse labeling) did not affect relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, but pulse-chase studies showed that addition of insulin nearly doubled the release of [35S]leptin after a 1-h chase. We conclude that the higher leptin stores in adipose tissue of obese humans are maintained by chronic effects of insulin and glucocorticoids acting at pre- and posttranslational levels and that the ability of insulin to increase the release of preformed leptin may contribute to short-term variations in circulating leptin levels. PMID:17122089

  18. BLX‐1002 restores glucose sensitivity and enhances insulin secretion stimulated by GLP‐1 and sulfonylurea in type 2 diabetic pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qimin; Zhang, Fan; Sjöholm, Åke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract BLX‐1002 is a novel thiazolidinedione with no peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR) activity that has been shown to improve glycemia in type 2 diabetes without weight gain. We previously found that BLX‐1002 selectively augments glucose‐sensitive (but not basal) insulin secretion in normal mouse β‐cells. We have now extended these observations to other insulin secretagogues and to diabetic rat islets. To this end, dynamics of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, GLP‐1, and the sulfonylurea tolbutamide were examined in pancreatic islets from nondiabetic Wistar and type 2 diabetic Goto‐Kakizaki rats ex vivo. BLX‐1002 restored normal glucose‐sensitive insulin secretion in otherwise “glucose‐blind” islets from GK rats, but did not affect basal or glucose‐stimulated secretion in normal Wistar rat islets. The stimulatory effect of BLX‐1002 on insulin secretion at high glucose required Ca2+ and involved phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase (PI3K) activity. Consistent with its effects on insulin secretion, BLX‐1002 also augmented insulin secretion and cytoplasmic‐free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) stimulated by high glucose, GLP‐1, and tolbutamide in islets from GK, but not Wistar, rats. The inactive analog BLX‐1237 had no effects. In conclusion, our findings suggest that BLX‐1002 potentiates insulin secretion by different stimuli in diabetic β‐cells only, in a Ca2+‐dependent manner and involving PI3K. PMID:24872354

  19. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion. PMID:26986842

  20. Functional Analysis of Novel Candidate Regulators of Insulin Secretion in the MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamato, Eiji; Tanabe, Koji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. The pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, retains GSIS but gradually loses it in long-term culture. The MIN6 subclone, MIN6c4, exhibits well-regulated GSIS even after prolonged culture. We previously used DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression in the parental MIN6 cells and MIN6c4 cells and identified several differentially regulated genes that may be involved in maintaining GSIS. Here we investigated the potential roles of six of these genes in GSIS: Tmem59l (Transmembrane protein 59 like), Scgn (Secretagogin), Gucy2c (Guanylate cyclase 2c), Slc29a4 (Solute carrier family 29, member 4), Cdhr1 (Cadherin-related family member 1), and Celsr2 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2). These genes were knocked down in MIN6c4 cells using lentivirus vectors expressing gene-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and the effects of the knockdown on insulin expression and secretion were analyzed. Suppression of Tmem59l, Scgn, and Gucy2c expression resulted in significantly decreased glucose- and/or KCl-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN6c4 cells, while the suppression of Slc29a4 expression resulted in increased insulin secretion. Tmem59l overexpression rescued the phenotype of the Tmem59l knockdown MIN6c4 cells, and immunostaining analysis indicated that the TMEM59L protein colocalized with insulin and GM130, a Golgi complex marker, in MIN6 cells. Collectively, our findings suggested that the proteins encoded by Tmem59l, Scgn, Gucy2c, and Slc29a4 play important roles in regulating GSIS. Detailed studies of these proteins and their functions are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in insulin secretion. PMID:26986842

  1. Loss of FFA2 and FFA3 increases insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cong; Ahmed, Kashan; Gille, Andreas; Lu, Shun; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Tunaru, Sorin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem worldwide, and one of its key features is the inability of elevated glucose to stimulate the release of sufficient amounts of insulin from pancreatic beta cells to maintain normal blood glucose levels. New therapeutic strategies to improve beta cell function are therefore believed to be beneficial. Here we demonstrate that the short-chain fatty acid receptors FFA2 (encoded by FFAR2) and FFA3 (encoded by FFAR3) are expressed in mouse and human pancreatic beta cells and mediate an inhibition of insulin secretion by coupling to Gi-type G proteins. We also provide evidence that mice with dietary-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes, as compared to non-obese control mice, have increased local formation by pancreatic islets of acetate, an endogenous agonist of FFA2 and FFA3, as well as increased systemic levels. This elevation may contribute to the insufficient capacity of beta cells to respond to hyperglycemia in obese states. Indeed, we found that genetic deletion of both receptors, either on the whole-body level or specifically in pancreatic beta cells, leads to greater insulin secretion and a profound improvement of glucose tolerance when mice are on a high-fat diet compared to controls. On the other hand, deletion of Ffar2 and Ffar3 in intestinal cells did not alter glucose tolerance in diabetic animals, suggesting these receptors act in a cell-autonomous manner in beta cells to regulate insulin secretion. In summary, under diabetic conditions elevated acetate acts on FFA2 and FFA3 to inhibit proper glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and we expect antagonists of FFA2 and FFA3 to improve insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25581519

  2. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wisetmuen, Eamruthai; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Yutanawiboonchai, Wiboonchai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion. PMID:23798879

  3. Polymorphism rs11085226 in the Gene Encoding Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 Negatively Affects Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Wagner, Robert; Linder, Katarzyna; Böhm, Anja; Herzberg-Schäfer, Silke A.; Machicao, Fausto; Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Fritsche, Andreas; Staiger, Harald; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Solimena, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Objective Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) promotes stability and translation of mRNAs coding for insulin secretion granule proteins and thereby plays a role in β-cells function. We studied whether common genetic variations within the PTBP1 locus influence insulin secretion, and/or proinsulin conversion. Methods We genotyped 1,502 healthy German subjects for four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PTBP1 locus (rs351974, rs11085226, rs736926, and rs123698) covering 100% of genetic variation with an r2≥0.8. The subjects were metabolically characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test with insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide measurements. A subgroup of 320 subjects also underwent an IVGTT. Results PTBP1 SNP rs11085226 was nominally associated with lower insulinogenic index and lower cleared insulin response in the OGTT (p≤0.04). The other tested SNPs did not show any association with the analyzed OGTT-derived secretion parameters. In the IVGTT subgroup, SNP rs11085226 was accordingly associated with lower insulin levels within the first ten minutes following glucose injection (p = 0.0103). Furthermore, SNP rs351974 was associated with insulin levels in the IVGTT (p = 0.0108). Upon interrogation of MAGIC HOMA-B data, our rs11085226 result was replicated (MAGIC p = 0.018), but the rs351974 was not. Conclusions We conclude that common genetic variation in PTBP1 influences glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This underlines the importance of PTBP1 for beta cell function in vivo. PMID:23077502

  4. Enhanced insulin secretion responsiveness and islet adrenergic desensitization after chronic norepinephrine suppression is discontinued in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochuan; Green, Alice S; Macko, Antoni R; Yates, Dustin T; Kelly, Amy C; Limesand, Sean W

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses experience prolonged hypoxemia, hypoglycemia, and elevated norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, resulting in hypoinsulinemia and β-cell dysfunction. Previously, we showed that acute adrenergic blockade revealed enhanced insulin secretion responsiveness in the IUGR fetus. To determine whether chronic exposure to NE alone enhances β-cell responsiveness afterward, we continuously infused NE into fetal sheep for 7 days and, after terminating the infusion, evaluated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucose-potentiated arginine-induced insulin secretion (GPAIS). During treatment, NE-infused fetuses had greater (P < 0.05) plasma NE concentrations and exhibited hyperglycemia (P < 0.01) and hypoinsulinemia (P < 0.01) compared with controls. GSIS during the NE infusion was also reduced (P < 0.05) compared with pretreatment values. GSIS and GPAIS were approximately fourfold greater (P < 0.01) in NE fetuses 3 h after the 7 days that NE infusion was discontinued compared with age-matched controls or pretreatment GSIS and GPAIS values of NE fetuses. In isolated pancreatic islets from NE fetuses, mRNA concentrations of adrenergic receptor isoforms (α1D, α2A, α2C, and β1), G protein subunit-αi-2, and uncoupling protein 2 were lower (P < 0.05) compared with controls, but β-cell regulatory genes were not different. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to elevated NE persistently suppresses insulin secretion. After removal, NE fetuses demonstrated a compensatory enhancement in insulin secretion that was associated with adrenergic desensitization and greater stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic islets. PMID:24253046

  5. A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; King, A J; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines, especially plant-derived extracts, have been used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for many centuries, and offer the potential of cheap and readily available alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals in developing countries. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have anti-diabetic activities and have been used as a folk medicine in India for centuries. We have investigated the effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract termed OSA® on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, and on insulin secretion and synthesis by isolated mouse islets. Single administration of OSA® (500 mg/kg) to ob/ob mice 30 min before an intraperitoneal glucose load improved their abnormal glucose tolerance. In vitro studies indicated that OSA® (0.25 mg/ml) initiated rapid and reversible increases in insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets at substimulatory (2 mM) and stimulatory (20 mM) glucose concentrations. In addition, prolonged treatment (24-48 h) of mouse islets with OSA® elevated the expression of preproinsulin mRNA and maintained the total insulin content of mouse islets in the presence of stimulated insulin secretion. These effects of OSA® are consistent with its potential use as a therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with obesity-related T2DM. PMID:22911568

  6. Insulin-like and IGF-like peptides in the silkmoth Bombyx mori: discovery, structure, secretion, and function

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Akira; Okamoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    A quarter of a century has passed since bombyxin, the first insulin-like peptide identified in insects, was discovered in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. During these years, bombyxin has been studied for its structure, genes, distribution, hemolymph titers, secretion control, as well as physiological functions, thereby stimulating a wide range of studies on insulin-like peptides in other insects. Moreover, recent studies have identified a new class of insulin family peptides, IGF-like peptides, in B. mori and Drosophila melanogaster, broadening the base of the research area of the insulin-related peptides in insects. In this review, we describe the achievements of the studies on insulin-like and IGF-like peptides mainly in B. mori with short histories of their discovery. Our emphasis is that bombyxins, secreted by the brain neurosecretory cells, regulate nutrient-dependent growth and metabolism, whereas the IGF-like peptides, secreted by the fat body and other peripheral tissues, regulate stage-dependent growth of tissues. PMID:23966952

  7. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26348137

  8. Vitamin D induces autophagy of pancreatic β-cells and enhances insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yubin; He, Dawei; Ni, Chengpei; Zhou, Huiying; Wu, Shuyan; Xue, Zhimou; Zhou, Zhengyu

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that vitamin D is involved in defense against diabetes; however, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of vitamin D on the pathogenesis of diabetes was investigated, with an emphasis on its direct effect on pancreatic β‑cells. A streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) mouse model and MIN6 mouse insulinoma β‑cells were subjected to vitamin D treatment. Histopathological analysis of pancreatic islets was performed to investigate insulitis, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of markers of autophagy [microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin 1] and regulation of apoptosis [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)]. Apoptosis of MIN6 cells was examined by flow cytometry following annexin V/propidium iodide labeling. The secretion of insulin was measured by ELISA. The results revealed that vitamin D reduced the incidence of T1DM, enhanced insulin secretion and relieved pancreatic inflammation in STZ‑treated mice. Furthermore, vitamin D increased the mRNA expression levels of LC3 and Beclin 1, and increased Bcl‑2 protein expression levels in STZ‑treated MIN6 cells, while decreasing the apoptosis rate. The results of the present study demonstrated, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that vitamin D induces autophagy and suppresses apoptosis of pancreatic β‑cells, as well as preventing insulitis. These findings regarding vitamin D provide insights into its involvement in diabetes, and suggest a potential novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes via agents enhancing autophagy in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:27430408

  9. Use of a High-Density Protein Microarray to Identify Autoantibodies in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and an HLA Background Associated with Reduced Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Douglas C; Piaggi, Paolo; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Bucci, John; Thio, Guene; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    New biomarkers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may aid diagnosis, drug development or clinical treatment. Evidence is increasing for the adaptive immune system's role in T2DM and suggests the presence of unidentified autoantibodies. While high-density protein microarrays have emerged as a useful technology to identify possible novel autoantigens in autoimmune diseases, its application in T2DM has lagged. In Pima Indians, the HLA haplotype (HLA-DRB1*02) is protective against T2DM and, when studied when they have normal glucose tolerance, subjects with this HLA haplotype have higher insulin secretion compared to those without the protective haplotype. Possible autoantibody biomarkers were identified using microarrays containing 9480 proteins in plasma from Pima Indians with T2DM without the protective haplotype (n = 7) compared with those with normal glucose regulation (NGR) with the protective haplotype (n = 11). A subsequent validation phase involving 45 cases and 45 controls, matched by age, sex and specimen storage time, evaluated 77 proteins. Eleven autoantigens had higher antibody signals among T2DM subjects with the lower insulin-secretion HLA background compared with NGR subjects with the higher insulin-secretion HLA background (p<0.05, adjusted for multiple comparisons). PPARG2 and UBE2M had lowest p-values (adjusted p = 0.023) while PPARG2 and RGS17 had highest case-to-control antibody signal ratios (1.7). A multi-protein classifier involving the 11 autoantigens had sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.73, 0.80, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.91, p = 3.4x10-8), respectively. This study identified 11 novel autoantigens which were associated with T2DM and an HLA background associated with reduced insulin secretion. While further studies are needed to distinguish whether these antibodies are associated with insulin secretion via the HLA background, T2DM more broadly, or a combination of the two, this study may

  10. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong; Gao, Ying-Tang; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K(+)-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K(+)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:26559003

  11. Imeglimin lowers glucose primarily by amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in high-fat-fed rodents.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Cardone, Rebecca L; Petersen, Max C; Zhang, Dongyan; Fouqueray, Pascale; Hallakou-Bozec, Sophie; Bolze, Sébastien; Shulman, Gerald I; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Kibbey, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Imeglimin is a promising new oral antihyperglycemic agent that has been studied in clinical trials as a possible monotherapy or add-on therapy to lower fasting plasma glucose and improve hemoglobin A1c (1-3, 9). Imeglimin was shown to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemia and to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose during a hyperglycemic clamp after 1-wk of treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. However, whether the β-cell stimulatory effect of imeglimin is solely or partially responsible for its effects on glycemia remains to be fully confirmed. Here, we show that imeglimin directly activates β-cell insulin secretion in awake rodents without affecting hepatic insulin sensitivity, body composition, or energy expenditure. These data identify a primary amplification rather than trigger the β-cell mechanism that explains the acute, antidiabetic activity of imeglimin. PMID:27406738

  12. Stimulation of insulin secretion by Viscum album (mistletoe) leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Eno, A E; Ofem, O E; Nku, C O; Ani, E J; Itam, E H

    2008-06-01

    Twenty male white rats (250-300 g) of Wistar strain were randomly divided into two batches, the normoglycaemic batch and the streptozotocin-induced diabetic batch often rats each. Animals in each batch were further divided into two groups of five rats per group. After an overnight fast (12 hrs), animals in each group received D-glucose load (2.0 g/kg.i.v) under pentobarbital anaesthesia, with or without the crude extract (100 mg/kg/iv). Blood samples were collected intravenously at 15 min intervals for 3 hrs. for analysis of glucose, insulin and glucagon levels. From the results, the extract (100 mg/kg) did not appear to have any significant effect on the blood glucose level of normal rats, but produced about 35.3% decrease in the diabetic rats. Despite the apparent lack of action on glucose level of normal rats, the extract stimulated insulin secretion by about 92.9% (% control) in this group, and about 81.5% in the diabetic group (% control). The glucagon level was not altered by the extract in the normal rats. In the diabetic group, there was mild but significant suppression ofglucagon level after the first 1 hr. which lasted for about 50 min. We suggest that this extract from V. album leaves may possess antihyperglycaemic, insulinotropic, and possibly, mild glucagonostatic agent(s) and may therefore be a candidate for the anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:18939397

  13. Assessment of beta-cell function and insulin secretion in subjects that underwent renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tura, Andrea; Hecking, Manfred; Wolzt, Michael; Saemann, Marcus D; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    In this study we aimed to assess the performance of various indices of beta-cell function derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in subjects that underwent renal transplantation. Impaired insulin secretion seems in fact central for development of new onset diabetes after transplantation, but its assessment has not been systematically evaluated. Twenty subjects underwent a 75 g 2h-OGTT for measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide. OGTT indices of beta-cell function were either derived by mathematical modeling (yielding the reference index: glucose sensitivity) or were empirical: insulinogenic index (IGI), IGI derived indices, whole shape C-peptide (WHOSH_CP). Indices of beta cell function, showed significant correlation with glucose sensitivity (R(2)=0.40-0.86, all P<;0.003). The majority of beta-cell function indices provided comparable results also when subjects were divided into subgroups according to sex, age, body mass index, mean glycemia. In conclusion, in transplanted subjects OGTT empirical indices are typically acceptable for the estimation of beta-cell function. PMID:26736770

  14. Pancreatic β-cell Enhancers Regulate Rhythmic Transcription of Genes Controlling Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Perelis, Mark; Marcheva, Biliana; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Schipma, Matthew J.; Hutchison, Alan L.; Taguchi, Akihiko; Peek, Clara Bien; Hong, Heekyung; Huang, Wenyu; Omura, Chiaki; Allred, Amanda L.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Barish, Grant D.; Bass, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 are essential components of the molecular clock that coordinate behavior and metabolism with the solar cycle. Genetic or environmental perturbation of circadian cycles contributes to metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. To study the impact of the cell-autonomous clock on pancreatic β-cell function, we examined islets from mice with either intact or disrupted BMAL1 expression both throughout life and limited to adulthood. We found pronounced oscillation of insulin secretion that was synchronized with the expression of genes encoding secretory machinery and signaling factors that regulate insulin release. CLOCK/BMAL1 co-localized with the pancreatic transcription factor PDX1 within active enhancers distinct from those controlling rhythmic metabolic gene networks in liver. β-cell clock ablation in adult mice caused severe glucose intolerance. Thus cell-type specific enhancers underlie the circadian control of peripheral metabolism throughout life and may help explain its deregulation in diabetes. PMID:26542580

  15. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Manoj K; Dusek, Jeffery A; Chang, Bei-Hung; Joseph, Marie G; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress. PMID:23650531

  16. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice. PMID:27255361

  17. Reduction in Endogenous Insulin Secretion is a Risk Factor of Sarcopenia in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2015-10-01

    Sarcopenia has recently attracted widespread attention, because it increases risks of fall and bedridden. Although patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are known to have lower muscle mass of limbs than healthy people, the mechanism is still unclear. We thus examined the association of muscle mass with parameters of endogenous insulin secretion such as fasting immunoreactive insulin, fasting C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR), and daily urine CPR in 191 men with T2DM. Muscle mass of arms and legs was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and we calculated relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI), which is useful for the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, duration of T2DM, serum creatinine, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-I showed that each parameter of endogenous insulin was significantly and positively correlated with muscle mass of arms and legs as well as RSMI (p < 0.05). Moreover, logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounding factors mentioned above showed that each parameter of endogenous insulin was significantly lower in subjects with sarcopenia than those without it (p < 0.05). In conclusion, reduction in endogenous insulin secretion is an independent risk factor of sarcopenia in men with T2DM. PMID:25850525

  18. Cotransplantation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Insulin-Secreting Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem Cells: A Novel Therapy for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, A. V.; Dave, S. D.; Thakkar, U. G.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with disturbed glucose/insulin metabolism, requiring life-long insulin replacement therapy (IRT), 30% of patients develop end-organ failure. We present our experience of cotransplantation of adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-AD-MSC) and cultured bone marrow (CBM) as IRT for these patients. Methods. This was a prospective open-labeled clinical trial to test efficacy and safety of IS-AD-MSC+CBM co-transplantation to treat IDDM, approved by the institutional review board after informed consent in 11 (males : females: 7 : 4) patients with 1–24-year disease duration, in age group: 13–43 years, on mean values of exogenous insulin requirement of 1.14 units/kg BW/day, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac): 8.47%, and c-peptide levels: 0.1 ng/mL. Intraportal infusion of xenogeneic-free IS-AD-MSC from living donors, subjected to defined culture conditions and phenotypically differentiated to insulin-secreting cells, with mean quantum: 1.5 mL, expressing Pax-6, Isl-1, and pdx-1, cell counts: 2.1 × 103/μL, CD45−/90+/73+:40/30.1%, C-Peptide level:1.8 ng/mL, and insulin level: 339.3  IU/mL with CBM mean quantum: 96.3 mL and cell counts: 28.1 × 103/μL, CD45−/34+:0.62%, was carried out. Results. All were successfully transplanted without any untoward effect. Over mean followup of 23 months, they had a decreased mean exogenous insulin requirement to 0.63 units/kgBW/day, Hb1Ac to 7.39%, raised serum c-peptide levels to 0.38 ng/mL, and became free of diabetic ketoacidosis events with mean 2.5 Kg weight gain on normal vegetarian diet and physical activities. Conclusion. This is the first report of treating IDDM with insulin-secreting-AD-MSC+CBM safely and effectively with relatively simple techniques. PMID:21197448

  19. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 µg/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 µg/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 µM nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  20. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 µg/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 µg/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 µM nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  1. Activation of Distinct P2Y Receptor Subtypes Stimulates Insulin Secretion in MIN6 Mouse Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Wess, Jürgen; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides and their receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in disorders such as inflammation, brain disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Pancreatic β cells express several purinergic receptors, and reported nucleotide effects on insulin secretion are contradictory. We studied the effect of P2Y receptors on insulin secretion and cell death in MIN6, mouse pancreatic β cells. Expression of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors was revealed by total mRNA analysis using RT-PCR. MIN6 cells were stimulated in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose with or without P2Y1 and P2Y6 agonists, 2-MeSADP and Up3U, respectively. Both the agonists increased insulin secretion with EC50 values of 44.6±7.0 nM and 30.7±12.7 nM respectively. The insulin secretion by P2Y1 and P2Y6 agonists was blocked by their selective antagonists MRS2179 and MRS2578, respectively. Binding of the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist radioligand [125I]MRS2500 in MIN6 cell membranes was saturable (KD 4.74±0.47 nM), and known P2Y1 ligands competed with high affinities. Inflammation and glucose toxicity leads to pancreatic β cell death in diabetes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Up3U but not 2-MeSADP protected MIN6 cells against TNF-α induced apoptosis. Overall, the results demonstrate that selective stimulation of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors increases insulin secretion that accompanies intracellular calcium release, suggesting potential application of P2Y receptor ligands in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20067775

  2. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signaling affects insulin secretion by enhancing mitochondrial respiration during palmitate exposure.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Hjalti; Bergsten, Peter; Sargsyan, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion via metabolism and FFAR1-mediated signaling. Recent reports indicate that these two pathways act synergistically. Still it remains unclear how they interrelate. Taking into account the key role of mitochondria in insulin secretion, we attempted to dissect the metabolic and FFAR1-mediated effects of fatty acids on mitochondrial function. One-hour culture of MIN6 cells with palmitate significantly enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Antagonism or silencing of FFAR1 prevented the palmitate-induced rise in respiration. On the other hand, in the absence of extracellular palmitate FFAR1 agonists caused a modest increase in respiration. Using an agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and PKC inhibitor we found that in the presence of the fatty acid mitochondrial respiration is regulated via Gαq protein-coupled receptor signaling. The increase in respiration in palmitate-treated cells was largely due to increased glucose utilization and oxidation. However, glucose utilization was not dependent on FFAR1 signaling. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiration in palmitate-treated cells is enhanced via combined action of intracellular metabolism of the fatty acid and the Gαq-coupled FFAR1 signaling. Long-term palmitate exposure reduced ATP-coupling efficiency of mitochondria and deteriorated insulin secretion. The presence of the FFAR1 antagonist during culture did not improve ATP-coupling efficiency, however, it resulted in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and improved insulin secretion after culture. Taken together, our study demonstrates that during palmitate exposure, integrated actions of fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid-induced FFAR1 signaling on mitochondrial respiration underlie the synergistic action of the two pathways on insulin secretion. PMID:26408932

  3. Activation of transmembrane bile acid receptor TGR5 stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Divya P.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Grider, John R.; Murthy, Karnam S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G protein coupled receptor TGR5 is expressed in mouse and human islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 is coupled to activation of Gs and Ca{sup 2+} release via cAMP/Epac/PLC-{epsilon} pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of TGR5 by bile salts and selective ligands causes insulin secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGR5 could be a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. -- Abstract: Bile acids act as signaling molecules and stimulate the G protein coupled receptor, TGR5, in addition to nuclear farnesoid X receptor to regulate lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Bile acid induced activation of TGR5 in the enteroendocrine cells promotes glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, which has insulinotropic effect in the pancreatic {beta} cells. In the present study, we have identified the expression of TGR5 in pancreatic {beta} cell line MIN6 and also in mouse and human pancreatic islets. TGR5 selective ligands, oleanolic acid (OA) and INT-777 selectively activated G{alpha}{sub s} and caused an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca{sup 2+}. OA and INT-777 also increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and the increase was blocked by NF449 (a selective G{alpha}{sub s} inhibitor) or (U73122) (PI hydrolysis inhibitor). OA, INT-777 and lithocholic acid increased insulin release in MIN6 and human islets and the increase was inhibited by treatment with NF449, (U73122) or BAPTA-AM (chelator of calcium), but not with myristoylated PKI (PKA inhibitor), suggesting that the release is dependent on G{sub s}/cAMP/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, a cAMP analog, which activates Epac, but not PKA also stimulated PI hydrolysis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic {beta} cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  4. [Aspartame--the sweet-tasting dipeptide--does not affect the pancreatic insulin-secreting function].

    PubMed

    Sadovnikova, N V; Fedotov, V P; Aleshina, L V; Shvachkin, Iu P; Girin, S K

    1984-01-01

    The action of a synthetic dipeptide aspartam (150 to 180 times as sweet as glucose) on pancreatic insulin-secretory function of rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. The drug was given orally while drinking (300 mg/kg body weight) or was added to the incubation medium of cultivated pancreatic cells (20 mM). It was shown that insulin content in the rat blood serum remained unchanged 10 and 35 minutes after aspartam administration. The drug did not exert any stimulating effect upon insulin secretion following the addition to the pancreatic cell culture medium. It is concluded that aspartam exhibits no direct or mediated action on pancreatic insulin-secretory function. PMID:6382247

  5. Role of cytosolic and calcium independent phospholipases A(2) in insulin secretion impairment of INS-1E cells infected by S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Caporarello, N; Salmeri, M; Scalia, M; Motta, C; Parrino, C; Frittitta, L; Olivieri, M; Toscano, M A; Anfuso, C D; Lupo, G

    2015-12-21

    Cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) play a significant role in insulin β-cells secretion. Bacterial infections may be responsible of the onset of diabetes. The mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus infection of INS-1 cells alters glucose-induced insulin secretion has been examined. After acute infection, insulin secretion and PLA2 activities significantly increased. Moreover, increased expressions of phospho-cPLA2, phospho-PKCα and phospho-ERK 1/2 were observed. Chronic infection causes a decrease in insulin release and a significant increase of iPLA2 and COX-2 protein expression. Moreover, insulin secretion in infected cells could be restored using specific siRNAs against iPLA2 isoform and specific COX-2 inhibitor. PMID:26632509

  6. Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Defects in Insulin Action and Insulin Secretion in Persons with Prediabetes12

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Fahim; Blasey, Christine; Feldman, David; Caulfield, Michael P; Hantash, Feras M; Reaven, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with prediabetes mellitus (PreDM) and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: We aimed to determine whether low 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with defects in insulin action and insulin secretion in persons with PreDM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we stratified 488 nondiabetic subjects as having PreDM or normal fasting glucose (NFG) and a 25(OH)D concentration ≤20 ng/mL (deficient) or >20 ng/mL (sufficient). We determined insulin resistance by steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion by homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β). We compared insulin resistance and secretion measures in PreDM and NFG groups; 25(OH)D-deficient and 25(OH)D-sufficient groups; and PreDM-deficient, PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups, adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, multivitamin use, and season. Results: In the PreDM group, mean SSPG concentration and HOMA-IR were higher and mean HOMA-β was lower than in the NFG group (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). In the 25(OH)D-deficient group, mean SSPG concentration was higher (P < 0.001), but neither mean HOMA-IR nor HOMA-β was significantly different from that in the 25(OH)D-sufficient group. In the PreDM-deficient subgroup, mean (95% CI) SSPG concentration was higher (P < 0.01) than in the PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups [192 (177–207) mg/dL vs. 166 (155–177) mg/dL, 148 (138–159) mg/dL, and 136 (127–144) mg/dL, respectively]. Despite greater insulin resistance, mean HOMA-β was not significantly higher in the PreDM-deficient subgroup than in the PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups [98 (85–112) vs. 91 (82–101), 123 (112–136), and 115 (106–124), respectively]. Conclusion: Subjects with PreDM and low

  7. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1

    PubMed Central

    Ferdaoussi, M.; Bergeron, V.; Zarrouki, B.; Kolic, J.; Cantley, J.; Fielitz, J.; Olson, E. N.; Prentki, M.; Biden, T.; MacDonald, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gαq/11 but the signalling cascade activated down-stream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Methods Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40−/− mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Results Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40−/− islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40−/− islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40−/− islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22820510

  8. Enhanced insulin sensitivity mediated by adipose tissue browning perturbs islet morphology and hormone secretion in response to autonomic nervous activation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Omar, Bilal A; Kvist-Reimer, Martina; Enerbäck, Sven; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance results in a compensatory increase in insulin secretion to maintain normoglycemia. Conversely, high insulin sensitivity results in reduced insulin secretion to prevent hypoglycemia. The mechanisms for this inverse adaptation are not well understood. We utilized highly insulin-sensitive mice, due to adipocyte-specific overexpression of the FOXC2 transcription factor, to study mechanisms of the reversed islet adaptation to increased insulin sensitivity. We found that Foxc2TG mice responded to mild hyperglycemia with insulin secretion significantly lower than that of wild-type mice; however, when severe hyperglycemia was induced, Foxc2TG mice demonstrated insulin secretion equal to or greater than that of wild-type mice. In response to autonomic nervous activation by 2-deoxyglucose, the acute suppression of insulin seen in wild-type mice was absent in Foxc2TG mice, suggesting impaired sympathetic signaling to the islet. Basal glucagon was increased in Foxc2TG mice, but they displayed severely impaired glucagon responses to cholinergic and autonomic nervous stimuli. These data suggest that the autonomic nerves contribute to the islet adaptation to high insulin sensitivity, which is compatible with a neuro-adipo regulation of islet function being instrumental for maintaining glucose regulation. PMID:26530152

  9. l-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Increase in the concentration of plasma l-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged l-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged l-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued l-cysteine–induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, l-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. l-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N′-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in l-cysteine–treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to l-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:25713368

  10. L-tryptophan suppresses rise in blood glucose and preserves insulin secretion in type-2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Tomoko; Kamemura, Norio; Oda, Masataka; Sakurai, Jun; Nakaya, Yutaka; Harada, Nagakatsu; Suenaga, Midori; Matsunaga, Yoichi; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Katunuma, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Ample evidence indicates that a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet increases glucose energy expenditure and is beneficial in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of L-tryptophan in T2DM. Blood glucose was measured by the glucose dehydrogenase assay and serum insulin was measured with ELISA in both normal and hereditary T2DM rats after oral glucose administration with or without L-D-tryptophan and tryptamine. The effect of tryptophan on glucose absorption was examined in the small intestine of rats using the everted-sac method. Glucose incorporation in adipocytes was assayed with [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose using a liquid scintillation counter. Indirect computer-regulated respiratory gas-assay calorimetry was applied to assay energy expenditure in rats. L-Tryptophan suppressed both serum glucose and insulin levels after oral glucose administration and inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine. Tryptamine, but not L-tryptophan, enhanced insulin-stimulated [(3)H]-glucose incorporation into differentiated adipocytes. L-Tryptophan increased glucose-associated energy expenditure in rats in vivo. L-Tryptophan-rich chow consumed from a young age preserved the secretion of insulin and delayed the progression of T2DM in hereditary diabetic rats. The results suggested that L-tryptophan suppresses the elevation of blood glucose and lessens the burden associated with insulin secretion from β-cells. PMID:23419400

  11. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  12. Effects of Steaming Time and Frequency for Manufactured Red Liriope platyphylla on the Insulin Secretion Ability and Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, So Hee; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Young Ju; Prak, So Hae; Lee, Hee Seob; Lee, Jong Sup; Jang, In Surk; Son, Hong Ju

    2011-01-01

    In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ug/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may

  13. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin secretion: interaction between zinc and SLC30A8 genotype in Old Order Amish

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Fu, Mao; Kao, W. H. Linda; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis SLC30A8 encodes a zinc transporter in the beta cell; individuals with a common missense variant (rs13266634; R325W) in SLC30A8 demonstrate a lower early insulin response to glucose and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that zinc supplementation may improve insulin secretion in a genotype-dependent manner. Methods We evaluated the early insulin response to glucose (using frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing) by R325W genotype before and after 14 days of supplementation with oral zinc acetate (50 mg elemental zinc) twice daily in healthy non-diabetic Amish individuals (N=55). Results Individuals with RW/WW genotypes (n=32) had the lowest insulin response to glucose at 5 and 10 min at baseline (vs RR homozygotes [n=23]). After zinc supplementation, the RW/WW group experienced 15% and 14% increases in the insulin response to glucose at 5 and 10 min, respectively (p≤0.04), and, compared with RR homozygotes, experienced a 26% (p=0.04) increase in insulin at 5 min. We observed reciprocal decreases in proinsulin:insulin in the RW/WW (p=0.002) vs RR group (p=0.048), suggesting a genotype-specific improvement in insulin processing. Conclusions/interpretation Zinc supplementation appears to affect the early insulin response to glucose differentially by rs13266634 genotype and could be beneficial for diabetes prevention and/or treatment for some individuals based on SLC30A8 variation. PMID:25348609

  14. Addition of sitagliptin or metformin to insulin monotherapy improves blood glucose control via different effects on insulin and glucagon secretion in hyperglycemic Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Furukawa, Asami; Kosuda, Minami; Nakazaki, Mitsuhiro; Ishihara, Hisamitsu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and the biguanide metformin on the secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as incretin levels, in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus poorly controlled with insulin monotherapy. This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel group study, enrolling 25 subjects. Eleven patients (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] 8.40 ± 0.96%) and 10 patients (8.10 ± 0.54%) on insulin monotherapy completed 12-week treatment with sitagliptin (50 mg) and metformin (750 mg), respectively. Before and after treatment, each subject underwent a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), C-peptide, and glucagon responses to a meal challenge were measured. HbA1c reductions were similar in patients treated with sitagliptin (0.76 ± 0.18%) and metformin (0.77 ± 0.17%). In the sitagliptin group, glucose excursion during a meal tolerance test was reduced and accompanied by elevations in active GLP-1 and active GIP concentrations. C-peptide levels were unaltered despite reduced glucose responses, while glucagon responses were significantly suppressed (-7.93 ± 1.95% of baseline). In the metformin group, glucose excursion and incretin responses were unaltered. C-peptide levels were slightly increased but glucagon responses were unchanged. Our data indicate that sitagliptin and metformin exert different effects on islet hormone secretion in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients on insulin monotherapy. A glucagon suppressing effect of sitagliptin could be one of the factors improving blood glucose control in patients inadequately controlled with insulin therapy. PMID:25328079

  15. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

  16. Extranuclear Actions of the Androgen Receptor Enhance Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in the Male.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Guadalupe; Xu, Weiwei; Jacobson, David A; Wicksteed, Barton; Allard, Camille; Zhang, Guanyi; De Gendt, Karel; Kim, Sung Hoon; Wu, Hongju; Zhang, Haitao; Verhoeven, Guido; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2016-05-10

    Although men with testosterone deficiency are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), previous studies have ignored the role of testosterone and the androgen receptor (AR) in pancreatic β cells. We show that male mice lacking AR in β cells (βARKO) exhibit decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), leading to glucose intolerance. The AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhances GSIS in cultured male islets, an effect that is abolished in βARKO(-/y) islets and human islets treated with an AR antagonist. In β cells, DHT-activated AR is predominantly extranuclear and enhances GSIS by increasing islet cAMP and activating the protein kinase A. In mouse and human islets, the insulinotropic effect of DHT depends on activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, and accordingly, DHT amplifies the incretin effect of GLP-1. This study identifies AR as a novel receptor that enhances β cell function, a finding with implications for the prevention of T2D in aging men. PMID:27133133

  17. Elevated Glucose Oxidation, Reduced Insulin Secretion, and a Fatty Heart May Be Protective Adaptions in Ischemic CAD

    PubMed Central

    Hannukainen, J. C.; Lautamäki, R.; Mari, A.; Pärkkä, J. P.; Bucci, M.; Guzzardi, M. A.; Kajander, S.; Tuokkola, T.; Knuuti, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and ectopic fat deposition have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, which is common in CAD patients. We investigated whether CAD is an independent predictor of these metabolic abnormalities and whether this interaction is influenced by superimposed myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results: We studied CAD patients with (n = 8) and without (n = 14) myocardial ischemia and eight non-CAD controls. Insulin sensitivity and secretion and substrate oxidation were measured during fasting and oral glucose tolerance testing. We used magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission and computerized tomography to characterize CAD, cardiac function, pericardial and abdominal adipose tissue, and myocardial, liver, and pancreatic triglyceride contents. Ischemic CAD was characterized by elevated oxidative glucose metabolism and a proportional decline in β-cell insulin secretion and reduction in lipid oxidation. Cardiac function was preserved in CAD groups, whereas cardiac fat depots were elevated in ischemic CAD compared to non-CAD subjects. Liver and pancreatic fat contents were similar in all groups and related with surrounding adipose masses or systemic insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: In ischemic CAD patients, glucose oxidation is enhanced and correlates inversely with insulin secretion. This can be seen as a mechanism to prevent glucose lowering because glucose is required in oxygen-deprived tissues. On the other hand, the accumulation of cardiac triglycerides may be a physiological adaptation to the limited fatty acid oxidative capacity. Our results underscore the urgent need of clinical trials that define the optimal/safest glycemic range in situations of myocardial ischemia. PMID:27045985

  18. Regulation of the expression of components of the exocytotic machinery of insulin-secreting cells by microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Pascal; Gattesco, Sonia; Regazzi, Romano

    2008-03-01

    Fine-tuning of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells participates in blood glucose homeostasis. Defects in this process can lead to chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Several proteins controlling insulin exocytosis have been identified, but the mechanisms regulating their expression remain poorly understood. Here, we show that two non-coding microRNAs, miR124a and miR96, modulate the expression of proteins involved in insulin exocytosis and affect secretion of the beta-cell line MIN6B1. miR124a increases the levels of SNAP25, Rab3A and synapsin-1A and decreases those of Rab27A and Noc2. Inhibition of Rab27A expression is mediated by direct binding to the 3'-untranslated region of Rab27A mRNA. The effect on the other genes is indirect and linked to changes in mRNA levels. Over-expression of miR124a leads to exaggerated hormone release under basal conditions and a reduction in glucose-induced secretion. miR96 increases mRNA and protein levels of granuphilin, a negative modulator of insulin exocytosis, and decreases the expression of Noc2, resulting in lower capacity of MIN6B1 cells to respond to secretagogues. Our data identify miR124a and miR96 as novel regulators of the expression of proteins playing a critical role in insulin exocytosis and in the release of other hormones and neurotransmitters. PMID:18177263

  19. Drp1 guarding of the mitochondrial network is important for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Florian; Schultz, Julia; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone

    2016-06-10

    Mitochondria form a tubular network in mammalian cells, and the mitochondrial life cycle is determined by fission, fusion and autophagy. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has a pivotal role in these processes because it alone is able to constrict mitochondria. However, the regulation and function of Drp1 have been shown to vary between cell types. Mitochondrial morphology affects mitochondrial metabolism and function. In pancreatic beta cells mitochondrial metabolism is a key component of the glucose-induced cascade of insulin secretion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the action of Drp1 in pancreatic beta cells. For this purpose Drp1 was down-regulated by means of shDrp1 in insulin-secreting INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In INS1 cells reduced Drp1 expression resulted in diminished expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial fusion, namely mitofusin 1 and 2, and optic atrophy protein 1. Diminished mitochondrial dynamics can therefore be assumed. After down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells and spread mouse islets the initially homogenous mitochondrial network characterised by a moderate level of interconnections shifted towards high heterogeneity with elongated, clustered and looped mitochondria. These morphological changes were found to correlate directly with functional alterations. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation were significantly reduced in INS1 cells after Drp1down-regulation. Finally, a significant loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was demonstrated in INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In conclusion, Drp1 expression is important in pancreatic beta cells to maintain the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:27154223

  20. GRP94 is essential for mesoderm induction and muscle development because it regulates insulin-like growth factor secretion.

    PubMed

    Wanderling, Sherry; Simen, Birgitte B; Ostrovsky, Olga; Ahmed, Noreen T; Vogen, Shawn M; Gidalevitz, Tali; Argon, Yair

    2007-10-01

    Because only few of its client proteins are known, the physiological roles of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) are poorly understood. Using targeted disruption of the murine GRP94 gene, we show that it has essential functions in embryonic development. grp94-/- embryos die on day 7 of gestation, fail to develop mesoderm, primitive streak, or proamniotic cavity. grp94-/- ES cells grow in culture and are capable of differentiation into cells representing all three germ layers. However, these cells do not differentiate into cardiac, smooth, or skeletal muscle. Differentiation cultures of mutant ES cells are deficient in secretion of insulin-like growth factor II and their defect can be complemented with exogenous insulin-like growth factors I or II. The data identify insulin-like growth factor II as one developmentally important protein whose production depends on the activity of GRP94. PMID:17634284

  1. Insulin decreases the secretion of apoB-100 from hepatic HepG2 cells but does not decrease the secretion of apoB-48 from intestinal CaCo-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Allister, Emma M; Pal, Sebely; Thomson, Andrew M; Helmerhorst, Erik; Mamo, John C L

    2004-01-01

    We compared the acute effect of insulin on the human colonic intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 and the transformed human hepatic cell line HepG2. Over 24 h, 100 nM and 10 microM insulin significantly inhibited the secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 from HepG2 cells to 63 and 49% of control, respectively. Insulin had no effect on the secretion of apoB-48 from CaCo-2 cells. There was no effect of insulin on the cholesterol ester or free cholesterol concentrations in HepG2 or CaCo-2 cells. HepG2 and CaCo-2 cells bound insulin with high affinity, leading to similar stimulation of insulin receptor protein tyrosine kinase activation. Protein kinase C or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in the presence or absence of insulin was not correlated with apoB-48 production in CaCo-2 cells. Therefore, insulin acutely decreases the secretion of apoB-100 in hepatic HepG2 cells, but does not acutely modulate the production or secretion of apoB-48 from CaCo-2 intestinal cells. PMID:15591776

  2. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  3. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  4. Subpopulations of GFP-Marked Mouse Pancreatic β-Cells Differ in Size, Granularity, and Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Katsuta, Hitoshi; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Katsuta, Rimiko; Akashi, Tomoyuki; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Sharma, Arun J.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing information about the heterogeneity of pancreatic β-cells and how it relates to insulin secretion. This study used the approach of flow cytometry to sort and analyze β-cells from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the mouse insulin I gene promoter. Three populations of β-cells with differing GFP brightness could be identified, which were classified as GFP-low, GFP-medium, and GFP-bright. The GFP-medium population comprised about 70% of the total. The GFP-low population had less insulin secretion as determined by the reverse hemolytic plaque assay and reduced insulin gene expression. Additionally, all three subpopulations of β-cells were found in mice of varying ages (embryonic d 15.5 and postnatal wk 1–9). The three populations from the youngest had larger cells (forward scatter) and less granularity (side scatter) than those from the adults. This approach opens up new ways to advance knowledge about β-cell heterogeneity. PMID:22919061

  5. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lep{sup ob/ob} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; and others

    2009-09-25

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic {beta}-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-}) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic {beta}-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-} developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup +/+} in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep{sup +/+} background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep{sup ob/ob} islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep{sup ob/ob} mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  6. Chromanol 293B, an inhibitor of KCNQ1 channels, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases glucagon-like peptide-1 level in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijie; Wang, Fanfan; Lu, Haiying; Ren, Xiaomei; Zou, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is a highly regulated process involving complex interaction of multiple factors. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1 (KCNQ1) is a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the risk alleles of the KCNQ1 gene appear to be associated with impaired insulin secretion. The role of KCNQ1 channel in insulin secretion has been explored by previous work in clonal pancreatic β-cells but has yet to be investigated in the context of primary islets as well as intact animals. Genetic studies suggest that altered incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion might be a potential link between KCNQ1 variants and impaired insulin secretion, but this hypothesis has not been verified so far. In the current study, we examined KCNQ1 expression in pancreas and intestine from normal mice and then investigated the effects of chromanol 293B, a KCNQ1 channel inhibitor, on insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. By double-immunofluorescence staining, KCNQ1 was detected in insulin-positive β-cells and GLP-1-positive L-cells. Administration of chromanol 293B enhanced GSIS in cultured islets and intact animals. Along with the potentiated insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), plasma GLP-1 level after gastric glucose load was increased in 293B treated mice. These data not only provided new evidence for the participation of KCNQ1 in GSIS at the level of pancreatic islet and intact animal but also indicated the potential linking role of GLP-1 between KCNQ1 and insulin secretion. PMID:25437377

  7. Abnormal Secretion of Insulin and Glucagon by the In Vitro Perfused Pancreas of the Genetically Diabetic Chinese Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Barbara J.; Gerich, John E.; Hagura, Ryoko; Fanska, Rudy E.; Gerritsen, George C.; Grodsky, Gerold M.

    1974-01-01

    Hereditary insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus occurs in certain sublines of nonobese Chinese hamsters. Several characteristics of this syndrome are similar to those seen in insulin-deficient human diabetics. Therefore, to characterize pancreatic islet function, dynamic insulin and glucagon release from normal and nonketotic diabetic hamster pancreases in response to glucose (300 mg/100 ml) and theophylline (10 mM), infused singly and together, was studied in vitro. 20-min glucose infusions of normal hamster pancreases caused biphasic insulin release, consisting of a rapid first peak and a gradually rising second phase, similar to that reported for man in vivo. Both phases were significantly reduced in the diabetic pancreases. Theophylline alone stimulated similar nonphasic insulin release in both the normal and the diabetic pancreases. Glucose and theophylline together caused greater insulin release than either stimulant alone in both normals and diabetics; however, the diabetic response was still subnormal. Glucose suppressed glucagon release from normal pancreases; suppression was significantly impaired in diabetics. Theophylline stimulated nonphasic glucagon release in both the normals and diabetics. Glucose partially suppressed the theophylline-stimulated release in both groups. Insulin/glucagon molar ratios of the diabetics were consistently subnormal, although individual hormone levels often overlapped into the normal range. In summary, the pancreases of genetically diabetic Chinese hamsters perfused in vitro showed: (a) decreased first and second phase insulin release in response to glucose-containing stimuli—only partially ameliorated by theophylline—, and (b) impaired suppression of glucagon in response to glucose, resulting in (c) a decreased insulin/glucagon molar ratio. These data support the suggestion that both alpha and beta cells of diabetic pancreases may be insensitive to glucose. Images PMID:4830228

  8. Enterovirus infection of human islets of Langerhans affects β-cell function resulting in disintegrated islets, decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion and loss of Golgi structure

    PubMed Central

    Hodik, M; Skog, O; Lukinius, A; Isaza-Correa, J M; Kuipers, J; Giepmans, B N G; Frisk, G

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In type 1 diabetes (T1D), most insulin-producing β cells are destroyed, but the trigger is unknown. One of the possible triggers is a virus infection and the aim of this study was to test if enterovirus infection affects glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the effect of virus replication on cellular macromolecules and organelles involved in insulin secretion. Methods Isolated human islets were infected with different strains of coxsackievirus B (CVB) virus and the glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIS) was measured in a dynamic perifusion system. Classical morphological electron microscopy, large-scale electron microscopy, so-called nanotomy, and immunohistochemistry were used to study to what extent virus-infected β cells contained insulin, and real-time PCR was used to analyze virus induced changes of islet specific genes. Results In islets infected with CVB, GSIS was reduced in correlation with the degree of virus-induced islet disintegration. The expression of the gene encoding insulin was decreased in infected islets, whereas the expression of glucagon was not affected. Also, in islets that were somewhat disintegrated, there were uninfected β cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that virus particles and virus replication complexes were only present in β cells. There was a significant number of insulin granules remaining in the virus-infected β cells, despite decreased expression of insulin mRNA. In addition, no typical Golgi apparatus was detected in these cells. Exposure of islets to synthetic dsRNA potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions/interpretation Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; organelles involved in insulin secretion and gene expression were all affected by CVB replication in β cells. PMID:27547409

  9. Routine OGTT: A Robust Model Including Incretin Effect for Precise Identification of Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in a Single Individual

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Matone, Alice; Samson, Adeline; Vrbikova, Jana; Bendlova, Bela; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10−5±9.36×10−5 min−1pM−1), IFG (5.30×10−5±5.18×10−5) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10−5±1.95×10−5, 2.38×10−5±2.28×10−5 and 2.38×10−5±2.09×10−5 respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  10. Routine OGTT: a robust model including incretin effect for precise identification of insulin sensitivity and secretion in a single individual.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Matone, Alice; Samson, Adeline; Vrbikova, Jana; Bendlova, Bela; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5)±9.36×10(-5) min(-1)pM(-1)), IFG (5.30×10(-5)±5.18×10(-5)) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5)±1.95×10(-5), 2.38×10(-5)±2.28×10(-5) and 2.38×10(-5)±2.09×10(-5) respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  11. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  12. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  13. Effects of a beetroot juice with high neobetanin content on the early-phase insulin response in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wootton-Beard, Peter C; Brandt, Kirsten; Fell, David; Warner, Sarah; Ryan, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Produce rich in phytochemicals may alter postprandial glucose and insulin responses by interacting with the pathways that regulate glucose uptake and insulin secretion in humans. The aims of the present study were to assess the phytochemical constituents of red beetroot juice and to measure the postprandial glucose and insulin responses elicited by either 225 ml beetroot juice (BEET), a control beverage matched for macronutrient content (MCON) or a glucose beverage in healthy adults. Beetroot juice was a particularly rich source of betalain degradation compounds. The orange/yellow pigment neobetanin was measured in particularly high quantities (providing 1·3 g in the 225 ml). A total of sixteen healthy individuals were recruited, and consumed the test meals in a controlled single-blind cross-over design. Results revealed a significant lowering of the postprandial insulin response in the early phase (0-60 min) (P < 0·05) and a significantly lower glucose response in the 0-30 min phase (P < 0·05) in the BEET treatment compared with MCON. Betalains, polyphenols and dietary nitrate found in the beetroot juice may each contribute to the observed differences in the postprandial insulin concentration. PMID:25191617

  14. Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Salazar, Ana Maria; Sordo, Monserrat; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2008-09-15

    An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic {beta}-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca{sup 2+}]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 {mu}M). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 {mu}M arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 {mu}M arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the {beta} cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca{sup 2+}]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion.

  15. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Aisner, Yonatan; Niv, Masha Y; Benhar, Moran; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra-oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10-100-fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS 832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes. PMID:23327993

  16. β-Cell Uncoupling Protein 2 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Which Influences Both Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Robson-Doucette, Christine A.; Sultan, Sobia; Allister, Emma M.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Koshkin, Vasilij; Bhatacharjee, Alpana; Prentice, Kacey J.; Sereda, Samuel B.; Shirihai, Orian S.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in pancreatic β-cells is highly debated, partly because of the broad tissue distribution of UCP2 and thus limitations of whole-body UCP2 knockout mouse models. To investigate the function of UCP2 in the β-cell, β-cell–specific UCP2 knockout mice (UCP2BKO) were generated and characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS UCP2BKO mice were generated by crossing loxUCP2 mice with mice expressing rat insulin promoter-driven Cre recombinase. Several in vitro and in vivo parameters were measured, including respiration rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, islet ATP content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), glucagon secretion, glucose and insulin tolerance, and plasma hormone levels. RESULTS UCP2BKO β-cells displayed mildly increased glucose-induced mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization but unchanged rates of uncoupled respiration and islet ATP content. UCP2BKO islets had elevated intracellular ROS levels that associated with enhanced GSIS. Surprisingly, UCP2BKO mice were glucose-intolerant, showing greater α-cell area, higher islet glucagon content, and aberrant ROS-dependent glucagon secretion under high glucose conditions. CONCLUSIONS Using a novel β-cell–specific UCP2KO mouse model, we have shed light on UCP2 function in primary β-cells. UCP2 does not behave as a classical metabolic uncoupler in the β-cell, but has a more prominent role in the regulation of intracellular ROS levels that contribute to GSIS amplification. In addition, β-cell UCP2 contributes to the regulation of intraislet ROS signals that mediate changes in α-cell morphology and glucagon secretion. PMID:21984579

  17. Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Devine, J; Engelman, K

    1995-06-01

    To determine whether sweet-tasting solutions are effective elicitors of cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans, two studies were conducted using nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners as stimuli. Normal weight men sipped and spit four different solutions: water, aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose. A fifth condition involved a modified sham-feed with apple pie. The five stimuli were administered in counterbalanced order, each on a separate day. In study 1, subjects tasted the stimuli for 1 min (n = 15) and in study 2 (n = 16), they tasted the stimuli for 3 min. Arterialized venous blood was drawn to establish a baseline and then at 1 min poststimulus, followed by every 2 min for 15 min and then every 5 min for 15 min. In both study 1 and study 2, no significant increases in plasma insulin were observed after subjects tasted the sweetened solutions. In contrast, significant increases in plasma insulin occurred after the modified sham-feed with both the 1 min and 3 min exposure. These results suggest that nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners in solution are not adequate stimuli for the elicitation of CPIR. PMID:7652029

  18. Syntaxin-3 Binds and Regulates Both R- and L-Type Calcium Channels in Insulin-Secreting INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Dolai, Subhankar; Kang, Youhou; Liang, Tao; Xie, Huanli; Qin, Tairan; Yang, Lu; Chen, Liangyi; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2016-01-01

    Syntaxin (Syn)-1A mediates exocytosis of predocked insulin-containing secretory granules (SGs) during first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part via its interaction with plasma membrane (PM)-bound L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav). In contrast, Syn-3 mediates exocytosis of newcomer SGs that accounts for second-phase GSIS. We now hypothesize that the newcomer SG Syn-3 preferentially binds and modulates R-type Cav opening, which was postulated to mediate second-phase GSIS. Indeed, glucose-stimulation of pancreatic islet β-cell line INS-1 induced a predominant increase in interaction between Syn-3 and Cavα1 pore-forming subunits of R-type Cav2.3 and to lesser extent L-type Cavs, while confirming the preferential interactions between Syn-1A with L-type (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) Cavs. Consistently, direct binding studies employing heterologous HEK cells confirmed that Syn-3 preferentially binds Cav2.3, whereas Syn-1A prefers L-type Cavs. We then used siRNA knockdown (KD) of Syn-3 in INS-1 to study the endogenous modulatory actions of Syn-3 on Cav channels. Syn-3 KD enhanced Ca2+ currents by 46% attributed mostly to R- and L-type Cavs. Interestingly, while the transmembrane domain of Syn-1A is the putative functional domain modulating Cav activity, it is the cytoplasmic domain of Syn-3 that appears to modulate Cav activity. We conclude that Syn-3 may mimic Syn-1A in the ability to bind and modulate Cavs, but preferring Cav2.3 to perhaps participate in triggering fusion of newcomer insulin SGs during second-phase GSIS. PMID:26848587

  19. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species disturb Ca(2+) oscillations in insulin-secreting MIN6 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Salvatore; Tagliavini, Alessia; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in pulsatile insulin secretion and Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic β-cells are early markers of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are implicated in reduced β-cell function, and ROS/RNS target several Ca(2+) pumps and channels. Thus, we hypothesized that ROS/RNS could disturb Ca(2+) oscillations and downstream insulin pulsatility. We show that ROS/RNS production by photoactivation of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) abolish or accelerate Ca(2+) oscillations in the MIN6 β-cell line, depending on the amount of ROS/RNS. Application of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin modifies the Ca(2+) response to high concentrations of ROS/RNS. Further, thapsigargin produces effects that resemble those elicited by moderate ROS/RNS production. These results indicate that ROS/RNS interfere with endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling. This idea is supported by theoretical studies using a mathematical model of Ca(2+) handling adapted to MIN6 cells. Our results suggest a putative link between ROS/RNS and disturbed pulsatile insulin secretion. PMID:26732126

  20. Melatonin Mediates Monochromatic Light-induced Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Secretion of Chick Liver: Involvement of Membrane Receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Suqi; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Wenli; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-07-01

    Monochromatic lights influenced the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal satellite cells in broilers by the enhancement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) secretion. However, whether melatonin (MEL)-mediated monochromatic lights influenced the IGF-1 secretion remains unclear. Newly hatched broilers, including intact, sham operation and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to blue (BL), green (GL), red (RL) and white light (WL) from a light-emitting diode system for 14 days. The results showed that GL effectively promoted the secretion of MEL and IGF-1, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MEL receptor subtypes Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c in the liver compared to BL and RL in vivo. Moreover, those was a positive correlation between MEL and IGF-1 (r = 0.834). After pinealectomy, however, these parameters declined, and there were no differences between GL and other monochromatic light treatments. In vitro, exogenous MEL increased hepatocyte proliferation and IGF-1 secretion. Meanwhile, the MEL enhancements were suppressed by prazosin (selective Mel1c antagonist), followed by luzindole (nonselective Mel1a/Mel1b antagonist), but not suppressed by 4-phenyl-2-propionamideotetralin (selective Mel1b antagonist). These findings demonstrated that MEL mediated the monochromatic light-induced secretion of IGF-1 in chicks' livers by Mel1c and that Mel1a may be involved in this process. PMID:27128575

  1. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  2. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K

    2011-11-11

    Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with (31)P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-(13)C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media. PMID:22008547

  3. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia stimulates corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin secretion into hypophysial portal blood of conscious, unrestrained rams.

    PubMed Central

    Caraty, A; Grino, M; Locatelli, A; Guillaume, V; Boudouresque, F; Conte-Devolx, B; Oliver, C

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is a strong stimulator of pituitary ACTH secretion. The mechanisms by which IIH activates the corticotrophs are still controversial. Indeed, in rats the variations of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion in hypophysial portal blood (HPB) during IIH have been diversely appreciated. This may be due to the stressful conditions required for portal blood collection in rats. We studied the effects of IIH on the secretion of CRF and AVP in HPB and on the release of ACTH and cortisol in peripheral plasma in conscious, unrestrained, castrated rams. After the injection of a low (0.2 IU/kg) or high dose (2 IU/kg) of insulin, ACTH and cortisol levels in peripheral plasma increased in a dose-related manner. After injection of the low dose of insulin, CRF and AVP secretion in HPB were equally stimulated. After injection of the high dose of insulin, CRF secretion was further stimulated, while AVP release was dramatically increased. These results suggest that when the hypoglycemia is moderate, CRF is the main factor triggering ACTH release, and that the increased AVP secretion potentiates the stimulatory effect of CRF. When hypoglycemia is deeper, AVP secretion becomes predominant and may by itself stimulate ACTH release. Images PMID:2161426

  4. Ablation of Elovl6 protects pancreatic islets from high-fat diet-induced impairment of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nie; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Marii; Nakano, Yuta; Zao, Hui; Yokoo, Tomotaka; Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Kuba, Motoko; Okajima, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Shimada, Masako; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yahagi, Naoya; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-07-18

    ELOVL family member 6, elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl6) is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and is related to the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance via the modification of the fatty acid composition. In this study, we investigated the role of systemic Elovl6 in the pancreatic islet and β-cell function. Elovl6 is expressed in both islets and β-cell lines. In mice fed with chow, islets of the Elovl6(-/-) mice displayed normal architecture and β-cell mass compared with those of the wild-type mice. However, when fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, the islet hypertrophy in response to insulin resistance observed in normal mice was attenuated and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) increased in the islets of Elovl6(-/-) mice compared with those of the wild-type mice. Enhanced GSIS in the HFHS Elovl6(-/-) islets was associated with an increased ATP/ADP ratio and the suppression of ATF-3 expression. Our findings suggest that Elovl6 could be involved in insulin secretory capacity per β-cell and diabetes. PMID:24938128

  5. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults.

    PubMed

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. PMID:27185732

  6. Insulin

    MedlinePlus

    ... pump is connected to your body by a flexible tube that has a tip that sticks under your skin. A cartridge of insulin is put in the pump. The insulin flows through the tube into your body. The pump controls how much insulin goes into your body. The ...

  7. NAD kinase regulates the size of the NADPH pool and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Alavian, Kambiz N; Jonas, Elizabeth A; Heart, Emma A

    2012-07-15

    NADPH is an important component of the antioxidant defense system and a proposed mediator in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. An increase in the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio has been reported to occur within minutes following the rise in glucose concentration in β-cells. However, 30 min following the increase in glucose, the total NADPH pool also increases through a mechanism not yet characterized. NAD kinase (NADK) catalyzes the de novo formation of NADP(+) by phosphorylation of NAD(+). NAD kinases have been shown to be essential for redox regulation, oxidative stress defense, and survival in bacteria and yeast. However, studies on NADK in eukaryotic cells are scarce, and the function of this enzyme has not been described in β-cells. We employed INS-1 832/13 cells, an insulin-secreting rat β-cell line, and isolated rodent islets to investigate the role of NADK in β-cell metabolic pathways. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of NADK resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the total NADPH pool and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, suggesting that NADP(+) formed by the NADK-catalyzed reaction is rapidly reduced to NADPH via cytosolic reductases. This increase in the NADPH pool was accompanied by an increase in GSIS in NADK-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, NADK overexpression protected β-cells against oxidative damage by the redox cycling agent menadione and reversed menadione-mediated inhibition of GSIS. Knockdown of NADK via shRNA exerted the opposite effect on all these parameters. These data suggest that NADK kinase regulates intracellular redox and affects insulin secretion and oxidative defense in the β-cell. PMID:22550069

  8. Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy cause decreased insulin secretion from β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Wen-Sen; Lu, Chin-I; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Shu-Huei; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2015-11-15

    Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) is a major component of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We hypothesised that AGEs reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by damaging mitochondrial functions and inducing mitophagy. Mitochondrial morphology and the occurrence of autophagy were examined in pancreatic islets of diabetic db/db mice and in the cultured CML-BSA-treated insulinoma cell line RIN-m5F. In addition, the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on mitochondria in AGE-damaged tissues were evaluated. The diabetic db/db mouse exhibited an increase in the number of autophagosomes in damaged mitochondria and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Treatment of db/db mice with ALA for 12 wk increased the number of mitochondria with well-organized cristae and fewer autophagosomes. Treatment of RIN-m5F cells with CML-BSA increased the level of RAGE protein and autophagosome formation, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased insulin secretion. CML-BSA also reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, increased ROS and lipid peroxide production, and caused mitochondrial DNA deletions. Elevated fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) level and mitochondrial fragmentation demonstrated the unbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in CML-BSA-treated cells. Additionally, increased levels of Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 protein suggest that fragmented mitochondria were associated with increased mitophagic activity, and ALA attenuated the CML-BSA-induced mitophage formation. Our study demonstrated that CML-BSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in pancreatic β-cells. The findings from this study suggest that increased concentration of AGEs may damage β-cells and reduce insulin secretion. PMID:26394662

  9. PGC-1 coactivators in β-cells regulate lipid metabolism and are essential for insulin secretion coupled to fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Oropeza, Daniel; Jouvet, Nathalie; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Perron, Gabrielle; Ringuette, Lea-Jeanne; Philipson, Louis H.; Kiss, Robert S.; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Estall, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PPARGCA1, PGC-1) transcriptional coactivators control gene programs important for nutrient metabolism. Islets of type 2 diabetic subjects have reduced PGC-1α expression and this is associated with decreased insulin secretion, yet little is known about why this occurs or what role it plays in the development of diabetes. Our goal was to delineate the role and importance of PGC-1 proteins to β-cell function and energy homeostasis. Methods We investigated how nutrient signals regulate coactivator expression in islets and the metabolic consequences of reduced PGC-1α and PGC-1β in primary and cultured β-cells. Mice with inducible β-cell specific double knockout of Pgc-1α/Pgc-1β (βPgc-1 KO) were created to determine the physiological impact of reduced Pgc1 expression on glucose homeostasis. Results Pgc-1α and Pgc-1β expression was increased in primary mouse and human islets by acute glucose and palmitate exposure. Surprisingly, PGC-1 proteins were dispensable for the maintenance of mitochondrial mass, gene expression, and oxygen consumption in response to glucose in adult β-cells. However, islets and mice with an inducible, β-cell-specific PGC-1 knockout had decreased insulin secretion due in large part to loss of the potentiating effect of fatty acids. Consistent with an essential role for PGC-1 in lipid metabolism, β-cells with reduced PGC-1s accumulated acyl-glycerols and PGC-1s controlled expression of key enzymes in lipolysis and the glycerolipid/free fatty acid cycle. Conclusions These data highlight the importance of PGC-1s in coupling β-cell lipid metabolism to promote efficient insulin secretion. PMID:26629405

  10. Over-expression of miR375 reduces glucose-induced insulin secretion in Nit-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hua-Qiang; Pan, Yi; Peng, Ju; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19- to 25-nt fragments cleaved from 70- to 100-nt hairpin precursors. These molecules participate in essential biological processes. It was estimated that 30% of all protein-coding genes are miRNA targets. Thousands of miRNAs have already been identified in plants and animals, but little is known about their biological roles. MicroRNA375 (miR375) is highly expressed in pancreatic islets of humans and mice and regulates insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic cells. To improve our understanding of the biological roles of miR375, we constructed the plasmid pAAV-miR375 and transfected it into mouse Nit-1 cells. Real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis showed that the Nit-1 cells transfected with pAAV-miR375 over-expressed the mature miR375 compared with Nit-1 cells transfected with control plasmid or untransfected cells. The expression of myotrophin (Mtpn) decreased and insulin secretion was reduced in Nit-1 cells transfected with pAAV-miR375. In this study, we successfully established an over-expression system for miR375 and a technique to study the biological function of miRNAs by over-expression. We verified that miR375 reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion by down-regulating the expression of Mtpn in Nit-1 cells in vitro, suggesting that miR375 has potential therapeutic applications in type II diabetes. PMID:20221699

  11. Forced expression of PDX-1 gene makes hepatoma cells to acquire glucose-responsive insulin secretion while maintaining hepatic characteristic.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, H; Higuchi, Y; Kawai, K

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that forced expression of the PDX1 gene converts hepatoma cells, mouse liver epithelial cells (MLECs) and HepaRG cells, into insulin—producing cells, β—cells, or islets of Langerhans. However, no reports have investigated the characteristics of mouse or human hepatocytes introduced with the PDX1 gene over prolonged observation periods. In this study, we immunohistologically and molecularly investigated the alternative processes induced by PDX1 gene introduction in mouse and human hepatocytes over prolonged observation periods using immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescent observations showed that MLECs and HepaRG cells on 2 and 21 days after introduction of the PDX1 gene comprised cells double—positive for insulin and albumin. Additionally, they showed MAFA expression and glucose—responsive insulin secretion with glucokinase expression. However mouse embryonic fibroblasts introduced with PDX1—GFP could not acquire glucose—responsive insulin secretion and glucokinase expression. Subsequently, we hypothesized that the number of albumin—positive MLECs and HepaRG cells would decrease after introduction of PDX1 due to the conversion of MLECs and HepaRG cells into insulin—producing cells. However, FCM analysis indicated that the number of albumin—positive MLECs and HepaRG cells was not altered by the introduction of PDX1. We thought that MLECs and HepaRG cells introduced with the PDX1 gene could acquire a functional insulin secretory capacity without conversion to β—cells, or islets of Langerhans, and the acquisition could need glucokinase expression. PMID:25817342

  12. Intrinsic optical signal imaging of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in the insulin secreting INS-1 β-cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Cui, Wan-Xing; Wang, Xu-Jing; Amthor, Franklin; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging has been established for noninvasive monitoring of stimulus-evoked physiological responses in the retina and other neural tissues. Recently, we extended the IOS imaging technology for functional evaluation of insulin secreting INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells provide a popular model for investigating β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Our experiments indicate that IOS imaging allows simultaneous monitoring of glucose-stimulated physiological responses in multiple cells with high spatial (sub-cellular) and temporal (sub-second) resolution. Rapid image sequences reveal transient optical responses that have time courses comparable to glucose-evoked β-cell electrical activities.

  13. Mathematical Model of Metabolism and Electrophysiology of Amino Acid and Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion: In Vitro Validation Using a β-Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, Manuela; Neufeld, Zoltan; Newsholme, Philip

    2013-01-01

    We integrated biological experimental data with mathematical modelling to gain insights into the role played by L-alanine in amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion (AASIS) and in D-glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), details important to the understanding of complex β-cell metabolic coupling relationships. We present an ordinary differential equations (ODEs) based simplified kinetic model of core metabolic processes leading to ATP production (glycolysis, TCA cycle, L-alanine-specific reactions, respiratory chain, ATPase and proton leak) and Ca2+ handling (essential channels and pumps in the plasma membrane) in pancreatic β-cells and relate these to insulin secretion. Experimental work was performed using a clonal rat insulin-secreting cell line (BRIN-BD11) to measure the consumption or production of a range of important biochemical parameters (D-glucose, L-alanine, ATP, insulin secretion) and Ca2+ levels. These measurements were then used to validate the theoretical model and fine-tune the parameters. Mathematical modelling was used to predict L-lactate and L-glutamate concentrations following D-glucose and/or L-alanine challenge and Ca2+ levels upon stimulation with a non metabolizable L-alanine analogue. Experimental data and mathematical model simulations combined suggest that L-alanine produces a potent insulinotropic effect via both a stimulatory impact on β-cell metabolism and as a direct result of the membrane depolarization due to Ca2+ influx triggered by L-alanine/Na+ co-transport. Our simulations indicate that both high intracellular ATP and Ca2+ concentrations are required in order to develop full insulin secretory responses. The model confirmed that K+ATP channel independent mechanisms of stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels, via generation of mitochondrial coupling messengers, are essential for promotion of the full and sustained insulin secretion response in β-cells. PMID:23520444

  14. A New Method for Generating Insulin-Secreting Cells from Human Pancreatic Epithelial Cells After Islet Isolation Transformed by NeuroD1

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Chen, Shuyuan; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Takita, Morihito; Sugimoto, Koji; Itoh, Takeshi; Chujo, Daisuke; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The generation of insulin-secreting cells from nonendocrine pancreatic epithelial cells (NEPEC) has been demonstrated for potential clinical use in the treatment of diabetes. However, previous methods either had limited efficacy or required viral vectors, which hinder clinical application. In this study, we aimed to establish an efficient method of insulin-secreting cell generation from NEPEC without viral vectors. We used nonislet fractions from both research-grade human pancreata from brain-dead donors and clinical pancreata after total pancreatectomy with autologous islet transplantation to treat chronic pancreatitis. It is of note that a few islets could be mingled in the nonislet fractions, but their influence could be limited. The NeuroD1 gene was induced into NEPEC using an effective triple lipofection method without viral vectors to generate insulin-secreting cells. The differentiation was promoted by adding a growth factor cocktail into the culture medium. Using the research-grade human pancreata, the effective method showed high efficacy in the differentiation of NEPEC into insulin-positive cells that secreted insulin in response to a glucose challenge and improved diabetes after being transplanted into diabetic athymic mice. Using the clinical pancreata, similar efficacy was obtained, even though those pancreata suffered chronic pancreatitis. In conclusion, our effective differentiation protocol with triple lipofection method enabled us to achieve very efficient insulin-secreting cell generation from human NEPEC without viral vectors. This method offers the potential for supplemental insulin-secreting cell transplantation for both allogeneic and autologous islet transplantation. PMID:24845703

  15. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P < 0.001), subsequently gaining more during re-alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P < 0.001). Systemic insulin response to glucose administration was lower in RES in period 1 (P < 0.001) with no difference observed during period 2. The insulin signaling pathway in M. longissimus dorsi was enriched (P < 0.05) in response to dietary restriction but not during re-alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. PMID:26015430

  16. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in INS1E cells: effects on cell metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Rubí, Blanca; Antinozzi, Peter A; Herrero, Laura; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Asins, Guillermina; Serra, Dolors; Wollheim, Claes B; Maechler, Pierre; Hegardt, Fausto G

    2002-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the beta-cell is critical for the regulation of insulin secretion. Pancreatic beta-cells chronically exposed to fatty acids show higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) protein levels, higher palmitate oxidation rates and an altered insulin response to glucose. We examined the effect of increasing CPT I levels on insulin secretion in cultured beta-cells. We prepared a recombinant adenovirus containing the cDNA for the rat liver isoform of CPT I. The overexpression of CPT I in INS1E cells caused a more than a 5-fold increase in the levels of CPT I protein (detected by Western blotting), a 6-fold increase in the CPT activity, and an increase in fatty acid oxidation at 2.5 mM glucose (1.7-fold) and 15 mM glucose (3.1-fold). Insulin secretion was stimulated in control cells by 15 mM glucose or 30 mM KCl. INS1E cells overexpressing CPT I showed lower insulin secretion on stimulation with 15 mM glucose (-40%; P<0.05). This decrease depended on CPT I activity, since the presence of etomoxir, a specific inhibitor of CPT I, in the preincubation medium normalized the CPT I activity, the fatty-acid oxidation rate and the insulin secretion in response to glucose. Exogenous palmitate (0.25 mM) rescued glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in CPT I-overexpressing cells, indicating that the mechanism of impaired GSIS was through the depletion of a critical lipid. Depolarizing the cells with KCl or intermediary glucose concentrations (7.5 mM) elicited similar insulin secretion in control cells and cells overexpressing CPT I. Glucose-induced ATP increase, glucose metabolism and the triacylglycerol content remained unchanged. These results provide further evidence that CPT I activity regulates insulin secretion in the beta-cell. They also indicate that up-regulation of CPT I contributes to the loss of response to high glucose in beta-cells exposed to fatty acids. PMID:11988095

  18. Rapidly alternating photoperiods disrupt central and peripheral rhythmicity and decrease plasma glucose, but do not affect glucose tolerance or insulin secretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Tamara J; Gatford, Kathryn L; Voultsios, Athena; Salkeld, Mark D; Boden, Michael J; Rattanatray, Leewen; Kennaway, David J

    2014-09-01

    Disrupting circadian rhythms in rodents perturbs glucose metabolism and increases adiposity. To determine whether these effects occur in a large diurnal animal, we assessed the impact of circadian rhythm disruption upon metabolic function in sheep. Adult ewes (n = 7) underwent 3 weeks of a control 12 h light-12 h dark photoperiod, followed by 4 weeks of rapidly alternating photoperiods (RAPs) whereby the time of light exposure was reversed twice each week. Measures of central (melatonin secretion and core body temperature) and peripheral rhythmicity (clock and metabolic gene expression in skeletal muscle) were obtained over 24 h in both conditions. Metabolic homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance tests and 24 h glucose and insulin profiles. Melatonin and core body temperature rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the last photoperiod shift. High-amplitude Bmal1, Clock, Nr1d1, Cry2 and Per3 mRNA rhythms were apparent in skeletal muscle, which were phase advanced by up to 3.5 h at 2 days after the last phase shift, whereas Per1 expression was downregulated at this time. Pparα, Pgc1α and Nampt mRNA were constitutively expressed in both conditions. Nocturnal glucose concentrations were reduced following chronic phase shifts (zeitgeber time 0, -5.5%; zeitgeber time 12, -2.9%; and zeitgeber time 16, -5.7%), whereas plasma insulin, glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were not altered. These results demonstrate that clock gene expression within ovine skeletal muscle oscillates over 24 h and responds to changing photoperiods. However, metabolic genes which link circadian and metabolic clocks in rodents were arrhythmic in sheep. Differences may be due to the ruminant versus monogastric digestive organization in each species. Together, these results demonstrate that despite disruptions to central and peripheral rhythmicity following exposure to rapidly alternating photoperiods, there was minimal impact on glucose homeostasis in

  19. Thyroid Hormone Promotes Postnatal Rat Pancreatic β-Cell Development and Glucose-Responsive Insulin Secretion Through MAFA

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; El Khattabi, Ilham; Marsili, Alessandro; Weir, Gordon C.; Sharma, Arun; Larsen, P. Reed; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal β cells do not secrete glucose-responsive insulin and are considered immature. We previously showed the transcription factor MAFA is key for the functional maturation of β cells, but the physiological regulators of this process are unknown. Here we show that postnatal rat β cells express thyroid hormone (TH) receptor isoforms and deiodinases in an age-dependent pattern as glucose responsiveness develops. In vivo neonatal triiodothyronine supplementation and TH inhibition, respectively, accelerated and delayed metabolic development. In vitro exposure of immature islets to triiodothyronine enhanced the expression of Mafa, the secretion of glucose-responsive insulin, and the proportion of responsive cells, all of which are effects that were abolished in the presence of dominant-negative Mafa. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we show that TH has a direct receptor-ligand interaction with the Mafa promoter and, using a luciferase reporter, that this interaction was functional. Thus, TH can be considered a physiological regulator of functional maturation of β cells via its induction of Mafa. PMID:23305647

  20. Involvement of Exoc3l, a protein structurally related to the exocyst subunit Sec6, in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tetsuya; Shibasaki, Tadao; Seino, Susumu

    2008-04-01

    The exocyst is an octameric complex involved in docking or tethering of secretory vesicles to fusion sites of the plasma membrane. Sec6 is the core subunit of the exocyst complex. Here we identify an isoform of Sec6, deposited as Exocyst complex component 3-like (Exoc3l) in the database, by in silico screening using rat Sec6 as a probe. The amino acid sequence of Exoc3l has 31% identity and 53% similarity with that of Sec6. RT-PCR analysis reveals that Exoc3l is expressed in insulin-secreting MIN6 cells as well as in various tissues including pancreatic islets and brain. In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, Exoc3l was found to interact with Sec5, Sec8, and Sec10, all of which are binding partners of Sec6 in the exocyst complex. Furthermore, overexpression of a deletion mutant of Exoc3l in MIN6 cells suppressed glucose-stimulated secretion. These results suggest that Exoc3l is involved in regulated exocytosis of insulin granules. PMID:18480549

  1. Thyroid hormone promotes postnatal rat pancreatic β-cell development and glucose-responsive insulin secretion through MAFA.

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; El Khattabi, Ilham; Marsili, Alessandro; Weir, Gordon C; Sharma, Arun; Larsen, P Reed; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal β cells do not secrete glucose-responsive insulin and are considered immature. We previously showed the transcription factor MAFA is key for the functional maturation of β cells, but the physiological regulators of this process are unknown. Here we show that postnatal rat β cells express thyroid hormone (TH) receptor isoforms and deiodinases in an age-dependent pattern as glucose responsiveness develops. In vivo neonatal triiodothyronine supplementation and TH inhibition, respectively, accelerated and delayed metabolic development. In vitro exposure of immature islets to triiodothyronine enhanced the expression of Mafa, the secretion of glucose-responsive insulin, and the proportion of responsive cells, all of which are effects that were abolished in the presence of dominant-negative Mafa. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we show that TH has a direct receptor-ligand interaction with the Mafa promoter and, using a luciferase reporter, that this interaction was functional. Thus, TH can be considered a physiological regulator of functional maturation of β cells via its induction of Mafa. PMID:23305647

  2. Potentiation of Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion by the GPR40-PLC-TRPC Pathway in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masashi; Ito, Kiyonori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Yada, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, San-E; Kakei, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) contributes to medium- or long-chain fatty acid-induced amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and GPR40 agonists are promising therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide 1, a ligand of pancreatic GPCR, activates a class of nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) and enhances GSIS. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the GPR40 signal interacts with NSCCs. A GPR40 agonist (fasiglifam) potentiated GSIS at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose but not 2.8 mM glucose. The NSCC current was activated by fasiglifam at 5.6 mM glucose with 100 μM tolbutamide (-70 mV), and this activation was prevented by the presence of pyrazole-3 (transient receptor potential canonical; a TRPC3 channel blocker). Inhibitors of phospholipase C or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibited the increases in GSIS and the NSCC current induced by GPR40 stimulation. The present study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the regulation of insulin secretion by GPR40 agonist in pancreatic beta-cells. The stimulation of the GPR40-PLC/PKC-TRPC3 channel pathway potentiates GSIS by the depolarization of the plasma membrane in pancreatic beta-cell. PMID:27180622

  3. Systemic organ wasting induced by localized expression of the secreted insulin/IGF antagonist ImpL2.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young; Song, Wei; Droujinine, Ilia A; Hu, Yanhui; Asara, John M; Perrimon, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Organ wasting, related to changes in nutrition and metabolic activity of cells and tissues, is observed under conditions of starvation and in the context of diseases, including cancers. We have developed a model for organ wasting in adult Drosophila, whereby overproliferation induced by activation of Yorkie, the Yap1 oncogene ortholog, in intestinal stem cells leads to wasting of the ovary, fat body, and muscle. These organ-wasting phenotypes are associated with a reduction in systemic insulin/IGF signaling due to increased expression of the secreted insulin/IGF antagonist ImpL2 from the overproliferating gut. Strikingly, expression of rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes and central components of the insulin/IGF pathway is upregulated with activation of Yorkie in the gut, which may provide a mechanism for this overproliferating tissue to evade the effect of ImpL2. Altogether, our study provides insights into the mechanisms underlying organ-wasting phenotypes in Drosophila and how overproliferating tissues adapt to global changes in metabolism. PMID:25850671

  4. Disruption of KEX1 gene reduces the proteolytic degradation of secreted two-chain Insulin glargine in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Suma; Krishnaiah, Sateesh M; Shyam Mohan, Anil H; Mallikarjun, Niveditha; Govindappa, Nagaraja; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Sastry, Kedarnath N

    2016-02-01

    Insulin glargine is a slow acting analog of insulin used in diabetes therapy. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology in different hosts namely E. coli and Pichia pastoris. In our previous study, we have described the secretion of fully folded two-chain Insulin glargine into the medium by over-expression of Kex2 protease. The enhanced levels of the Kex2 protease was responsible for the processing of the glargine precursor with in the host. Apart from the two-chain glargine product we observed a small proportion of arginine clipped species. This might be due to the clipping of arginine present at the C-terminus of the B-chain as it is exposed upon Kex2 cleavage. The carboxypeptidase precursor Kex1 is known to be responsible for clipping of C-terminal lysine or arginine of the proteins or peptides. In order to address this issue we created a Kex1 knock out in the host using Cre/loxP mechanism of targeted gene deletion. When two-chain glargine was expressed in the Kex1 knock out host of P. pastoris GS115 the C-terminal clipped species reduced by ∼80%. This modification further improved the process by reducing the levels of product related impurities. PMID:26470649

  5. A recombinant slow-release PACAP-derived peptide alleviates diabetes by promoting both insulin secretion and actions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Fang, Shixiong; Zhao, Shaojun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Dongbo; Ma, Min; Luo, Tianjie; Hong, An

    2015-05-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuroendocrine factor that activates both the receptor VPAC1 and VPAC2. Although PACAP possesses insulinotropic activity, its therapeutic application is limited by the extremely short acting half-life and the stimulatory effects on glucagon production via a VPAC1-dependent mechanism. Here we have generated a recombinant PACAP-derived peptide (named as MHDBAY) comprising a 7-mer albumin-binding peptide identified by phage display screening (WQRPSSW), a cleavage peptide for Factor Xa (FXa) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), and a 31-amino acid PACAP-derived peptide (DBAY) that can specifically bind to the VPAC2 receptor. MHDBAY binds to albumin both in vitro and in animals, thereby leading to an orderly slow release of the active peptide DBAY via the protease cleavage. In db/db mice and New Zealand rabbits, the circulating half-life of MHDBAY is approximately 12.2 h, which is 146-fold longer than DBAY (∼5 min). A single injection of MHDBAY into db/db diabetic mice markedly increases insulin secretion, thereby leading to sustained alleviation of hyperglycemia. The potency and duration of MHDBAY in increasing insulin secretion and decreasing blood glucose levels is much greater than Exendin-4, an anti-diabetic drug via its insulinotropic actions. Furthermore, chronic administration of MHDBAY by daily injection for 8 weeks significantly improves both glucose and lipid profiles and also greatly increases insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. These findings suggest that serum albumin may act as a reservoir for slow-release of small bioactive peptides, and MHDBAY may represent a promising therapeutic peptide for diabetes. PMID:25771000

  6. Microcystin-LR induces dysfunction of insulin secretion in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells: Implications for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Shi, Kun; Su, Xiaomei; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2016-08-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequent cyanobacterial toxins observed in freshwater systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that MCs pose a serious threat to public health. However, the contributions of the exposure of MCs to the occurrence of human diseases remain largely unknown. This study provides the evidence of the effects of MC-LR on pancreatic β-cell function through the exposure of rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells to 0, 10, 20, or 40μM MC-LR for 72h and explores the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR for 72h suppresses cell viability, disturbs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and decreases the expression of insulin protein. Moreover, MC-LR disrupts the cell cycle distribution and increases cell apoptosis at 20 or 40μM for 72h, respectively, indicating that the β-cell mass would be decreased by MC-LR exposure. A transcriptomic analysis revealed several key genes (e.g., Pdx-1, Neurod1, and Abcc8) involved in insulin secretion are significantly differentially expressed in INS-1 cells in response to MC-LR exposure. In addition, several signal transduction pathways associated with diabetes (e.g., type 1 and 2 diabetes) were also identified compared with the control cells. We recommend that MC be considered as a new environmental factor that promotes diabetes development. The identified key genes or pathways may potentially contribute to the future therapies in the environmental contaminants induced β-cell damage. PMID:27107231

  7. The cytoprotective effects of oleoylethanolamide in insulin-secreting cells do not require activation of GPR119

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Virginia M; Dhayal, Shalinee; Smith, David M; Lenaghan, Carol; Brocklehurst, Katy J; Morgan, Noel G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE β-cells express a range of fatty acid-responsive G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR119, which regulates insulin secretion and is seen as a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. The long-chain unsaturated fatty acid derivative oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous agonist of GPR119 and, under certain conditions, some long-chain unsaturated fatty acids can promote β-cell cytoprotection. It is not known, however, if OEA is cytoprotective in β-cells. The present study has examined this and determined whether GPR119 is involved. METHODS Clonal rat insulin-secreting cell lines, BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E, were exposed to fatty acids complexed with BSA. cAMP levels, insulin release and cell viability were measured. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting and receptor expression by RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS GPR119 was expressed in both BRIN-BD11 and INS-1E cells and OEA was cytoprotective in these cells. However, cytoprotection was not reproduced by any of a range of selective, synthetic ligands of GPR119. The cytoprotective response to OEA was lost during exposure to inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) suggesting that OEA per se is not the cytoprotective species but that release of free oleate is required. Similar data were obtained with anandamide, which was cytoprotective only under conditions favouring release of free arachidonate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Activation of GPR119 is not required to mediate the cytoprotective actions of OEA in BRIN-BD11 or INS-1E cells. Rather, OEA is internalised and subjected to hydrolysis by FAAH to release free oleate, which then mediates the cytoprotection. PMID:22029844

  8. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Barrientos, Genaro; Valencia, Marco; Mears, David; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS. PMID:26046640

  9. Decreased insulin secretion and glucose clearance in exocrine pancreas-insufficient pigs.

    PubMed

    Lozinska, Liudmyla; Weström, Björn; Prykhodko, Olena; Lindqvist, Andreas; Wierup, Nils; Ahrén, Bo; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Pierzynowski, Stefan G

    2016-01-01

    The effect of exocrine pancreatic function on the glucose-mediated insulin response and glucose utilization were studied in an exocrine pancreas-insufficient (EPI) pig model. Five 10-week-old EPI pigs after pancreatic duct ligation and 6 age-matched, non-operated control pigs were used in the study. Blood glucose, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were monitored during meal (MGTT), oral (OGTT) and intravenous (IVGTT) glucose tolerance tests. Upon post-mortem examination, the pancreatic remnants of the EPI pigs showed acinar fibrotic atrophy but normal islets and β-cell morphology. The EPI pigs displayed increased fasting glucose concentrations compared with control animals (6.4 ± 0.4 versus 4.8 ± 0.1 mmol l(-1) , P < 0.0001) but unchanged insulin concentrations (2.4 ± 0.6 versus 2.1 ± 0.2 pmol l(-1) ). During the OGTT and IVGTT, the EPI pigs showed slower, impaired glucose utilization, with the disruption of a well-timed insulin response. Plasma C-peptide concentrations confirmed the delayed insulin response during the IVGTT in EPI pigs. Oral pancreatic enzyme supplementation (PES) of EPI pigs improved glucose clearance during IVGTT [AUC(glucose) 1295 ± 70 mmol l(-1) × (120 min) in EPI versus 1044 ± 32 mmol l(-1) × (120 min) in EPI + PES, P < 0.0001] without reinforcing the release of insulin [AUC(C-peptide) 14.4 ± 3.8 nmol l(-1) × (120 min) in EPI versus 6.4 ± 1.3 nmol l(-1) × (120 min) in EPI + PES, P < 0.002]. The results suggest the existence of an acino-insular axis regulatory communication. The presence of pancreatic enzymes in the gut facilitates glucose utilization in an insulin-independent manner, indicating the existence of a gut-derived pancreatic enzyme-dependent mechanism involved in peripheral glucose utilization. PMID:26663041

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  11. The circular RNA Cdr1as, via miR-7 and its targets, regulates insulin transcription and secretion in islet cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanyu; Guo, Sen; Li, Wei; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Among the identified thousands of circular RNAs (circRNA) in humans and animals, Cdr1as (also known as CiRS-7) was recently demonstrated to act as a powerful miR-7 sponge/inhibitor in developing midbrain of zebrafish, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulating microRNA functions. MiR-7 is abundantly expressed in islet cells, but overexpressing miR-7 in transgenic mouse β cells causes diabetes. Therefore, we infer that Cdr1as expression may inhibit miR-7 function in islet cells, which in turn improves insulin secretion. Here, we show the first characterization of Cdr1as expression in islet cells, which was upregulated by long-term forskolin and PMA stimulation, but not high glucose, indicating the involvement of cAMP and PKC pathways. Remarkably, both insulin content and secretion were significantly increased by overexpression of Cdr1as in islet cells. We further identified a new target Myrip in the Cdr1as/miR-7 pathway that regulates insulin granule secretion, and also another target Pax6 that enhances insulin transcription. Taken together, our findings revealed the effects of the strongly interacting pair of Cdr1as/miR-7 on insulin secretion, which may become a new target for improving β cell function in diabetes. PMID:26211738

  12. The circular RNA Cdr1as, via miR-7 and its targets, regulates insulin transcription and secretion in islet cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanyu; Guo, Sen; Li, Wei; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Among the identified thousands of circular RNAs (circRNA) in humans and animals, Cdr1as (also known as CiRS-7) was recently demonstrated to act as a powerful miR-7 sponge/inhibitor in developing midbrain of zebrafish, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulating microRNA functions. MiR-7 is abundantly expressed in islet cells, but overexpressing miR-7 in transgenic mouse β cells causes diabetes. Therefore, we infer that Cdr1as expression may inhibit miR-7 function in islet cells, which in turn improves insulin secretion. Here, we show the first characterization of Cdr1as expression in islet cells, which was upregulated by long-term forskolin and PMA stimulation, but not high glucose, indicating the involvement of cAMP and PKC pathways. Remarkably, both insulin content and secretion were significantly increased by overexpression of Cdr1as in islet cells. We further identified a new target Myrip in the Cdr1as/miR-7 pathway that regulates insulin granule secretion, and also another target Pax6 that enhances insulin transcription. Taken together, our findings revealed the effects of the strongly interacting pair of Cdr1as/miR-7 on insulin secretion, which may become a new target for improving β cell function in diabetes. PMID:26211738

  13. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  14. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) regulates metabolism and insulin secretion from a clonal rat pancreatic beta cell line BRIN-BD11 and mouse islets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Younan; Carlessi, Rodrigo; Walz, Nikita; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Keane, Kevin; John, Abraham N; Jiang, Fang-Xu; Carnagarin, Revathy; Dass, Crispin R; Newsholme, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein, associated with lipid catabolism and insulin resistance. In the present study, PEDF increased chronic and acute insulin secretion in a clonal rat β-cell line BRIN-BD11, without alteration of glucose consumption. PEDF also stimulated insulin secretion from primary mouse islets. Seahorse flux analysis demonstrated that PEDF did not change mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic function. The cytosolic presence of the putative PEDF receptor - adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) - was identified, and ATGL associated stimulation of glycerol release was robustly enhanced by PEDF, while intracellular ATP levels increased. Addition of palmitate or ex vivo stimulation with inflammatory mediators induced β-cell dysfunction, effects not altered by the addition of PEDF. In conclusion, PEDF increased insulin secretion in BRIN-BD11 and islet cells, but had no impact on glucose metabolism. Thus elevated lipolysis and enhanced fatty acid availability may impact insulin secretion following PEDF receptor (ATGL) stimulation. PMID:26868448

  15. Dual Actions of Apolipoprotein A-I on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Insulin-Independent Peripheral Tissue Glucose Uptake Lead to Increased Heart and Skeletal Muscle Glucose Disposal.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Espín, Joan; Lindahl, Maria; Nilsson-Wolanin, Oktawia; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Lagerstedt, Jens O

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) of HDL is central to the transport of cholesterol in circulation. ApoA-I also provides glucose control with described in vitro effects of apoA-I on β-cell insulin secretion and muscle glucose uptake. In addition, apoA-I injections in insulin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice lead to increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and peripheral tissue glucose uptake. However, the relative contribution of apoA-I as an enhancer of GSIS in vivo and as a direct stimulator of insulin-independent glucose uptake is not known. Here, DIO mice with instant and transient blockade of insulin secretion were used in glucose tolerance tests and in positron emission tomography analyses. Data demonstrate that apoA-I to an equal extent enhances GSIS and acts as peripheral tissue activator of insulin-independent glucose uptake and verify skeletal muscle as an apoA-I target tissue. Intriguingly, our analyses also identify the heart as an important target tissue for the apoA-I-stimulated glucose uptake, with potential implications in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Explorations of apoA-I as a novel antidiabetic drug should extend to treatments of diabetic cardiomyopathy and other cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. PMID:27207515

  16. Loss of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) in Beta Cells Enhances Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion Despite Profound Mitochondrial Defects*

    PubMed Central

    Swisa, Avital; Granot, Zvi; Tamarina, Natalia; Sayers, Sophie; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Philipson, Louis; Hodson, David J.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Rutter, Guy A.; Leibowitz, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is an important regulator of pancreatic β cell biology. LKB1-dependent phosphorylation of distinct AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) family members determines proper β cell polarity and restricts β cell size, total β cell mass, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the full spectrum of LKB1 effects and the mechanisms involved in the secretory phenotype remain incompletely understood. We report here that in the absence of LKB1 in β cells, GSIS is dramatically and persistently improved. The enhancement is seen both in vivo and in vitro and cannot be explained by altered cell polarity, increased β cell number, or increased insulin content. Increased secretion does require membrane depolarization and calcium influx but appears to rely mostly on a distal step in the secretion pathway. Surprisingly, enhanced GSIS is seen despite profound defects in mitochondrial structure and function in LKB1-deficient β cells, expected to greatly diminish insulin secretion via the classic triggering pathway. Thus LKB1 is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis in β cells and in parallel is a powerful negative regulator of insulin secretion. This study shows that β cells can be manipulated to enhance GSIS to supra-normal levels even in the face of defective mitochondria and without deterioration over months. PMID:26139601

  17. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Efanov, Alexander M.; Fang, Xiankang; Beavers, Lisa S.; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Jingru; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Ma, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a GPR142-dependent manner. In contrast, Phenylalanine improves in vivo glucose disposal independently of GPR142. Noteworthy, refeeding-induced elevations in insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are blunted in Gpr142 null mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate GPR142 is a Tryptophan receptor critically required for insulin and incretin hormone regulation and suggest GPR142 agonists may be effective therapies that leverage amino acid sensing pathways for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27322810

  18. [Continuous intravenous infusion of insulin to girls with hereditary tall growth and secretion of human growth hormone, prior to and during Deposiston treatment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Heine, W; Rudolf, K; Uhlmann, M

    1980-01-01

    Continuous intravenous insulin infusion tests, accompanied by growth hormone determination, were applied to 40 girls of tall growth whose final lengths were predicted to be in excess of 181 cm. The girls were aged between nine and half and 14 years and one month, all of them being in the premenarchic phase. The tests were conducted prior to and following at least one year of Deposiston therapy (oestrogen/gestagen). - Really effective inhibition of growth (7.4 +/- 0.6 cm) was obtained only from five girls, aged between nine years and ten months and eleven years, in whom basal secretion of HGH was lower with significance than that of the whole group, with their stimulation reaction being fully retained. Secretion of somatotropic hormone (STH) of the other girls remained unaffected, prior to and following treatment. The weekly oestrogen dose of 1 mg was relatively low, when compared to propositions made by other authors, but it seemed to be justified by the average reduction in expected final body length obtained for the probands reviewed (5.4 +/- 2.0 cm). PMID:7008461

  19. Suspension Culture Alters Insulin Secretion in Induced Human Umbilical Cord Matrix-Derived Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seyedi, Fatemeh; Farsinejad, Alireza; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Amirmahdi; Eslaminejad, Touba; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an ever-increasing metabolic disorder. A promising approach to the treatment of DM is the implantation of insulin producing cells (IPC) that have been derived from various stem cells. Culture conditions play a pivotal role in the quality and quantity of the differentiated cells. In this experimental study, we have applied various culture conditions to differentiate human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal cells (hUCMs) into IPCs and measured insulin production. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we exposed hUCMs cells to pancreatic medium and differentiated them into IPCs in monolayer and suspension cultures. Pancreatic medium consisted of serum-free Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium Nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) medium with 17.5 mM glucose supplemented by 10 mM nicotinamide, 10 nM exendin-4, 10 nM pentagastrin, 100 pM hepatocyte growth factor, and B-27 serum-free supplement. After differentiation, insulin content was analyzed by gene expression, immunocytochemistry (IHC) and the chemiluminesence immunoassay (CLIA). Results Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed efficient expressions of NKX2.2, PDX1 and INSULIN genes in both groups. IHC analysis showed higher expression of insulin protein in the hanging drop group, and CLIA revealed a significant higher insulin production in hanging drops compared with the monolayer group following the glucose challenge test. Conclusion We showed by this novel, simple technique that the suspension culture played an important role in differentiation of hUCMs into IPC. This culture was more efficient than the conventional culture method commonly used in IPC differentiation and cultivation. PMID:27054119

  20. Basal insulin secretion, PCL-R and recidivism among impulsive violent alcoholic offenders.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Kari P T; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tikkanen, Roope; Virkkunen, Matti

    2015-02-28

    Current risk assessment tools have a moderate predicting value for violence. Their power may be enhanced with certain biological indicators, which may serve as predictors of recidivistic violence itself. The aim of our study was to determine the strength of serum insulin levels to predict violence, and compare these results with those from the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). The study population consisted of 105 Finnish alcoholics who were severely violent offenders, recruited from 1991 to 1998. After exclusion, 75 cases were followed until March 2008, or until a new offense was registered. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of recidivism. The age and weight adjusted effect of insulin to recidivism risk showed a 7.2% increase for each International Unit (IU), or 19% for the mean difference (2.5IU) between recidivists and non-recidivist, which corresponds to a medium effect size (Cohen׳s d=0.46). Adjusting the insulin model with PCL-R factor 1 enhanced the predictive power slightly. Serum fasting insulin level was equivalent to the PCL-R factor 2 score as a predictor, and better than the total PCL-R score. However, the significance of these results was too low for predicting recidivism in the process of judicial decision-making. PMID:25537485

  1. Involvement of a mitochondrial phosphatase in the regulation of ATP production and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, David J; Wiley, Sandra E; Kimple, Michelle E; Dixon, Jesse R; Kelly, Patrick; Worby, Carolyn A; Casey, Patrick J; Dixon, Jack E

    2005-07-22

    Reversible phosphorylation is the cell's most prevalent form of posttranslational modification, yet its role in the regulation of mitochondrial functions is poorly understood. We have discovered that a member of the dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (DS-PTP) family, PTPMT1 (PTP localized to the Mitochondrion 1) resides nearly exclusively in mitochondria. PTPMT1 is targeted to the mitochondrion by an N-terminal signal sequence and is found anchored to the matrix face of the inner membrane. Knockdown of PTPMT1 expression in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line INS-1 832/13 alters the mitochondrial phosphoprotein profile and markedly enhances both ATP production and insulin secretion. These data define PTPMT1 as a potential drug target for the treatment of type II diabetes and strengthen the notion that mitochondria are an underappreciated site of signaling by reversible phosphorylation. PMID:16039589

  2. Insight into mechanism of in vitro insulin secretion increase induced by antipsychotic clozapine: role of FOXA1 and mitochondrial citrate carrier.

    PubMed

    Menga, A; Infantino, V; Iacobazzi, F; Convertini, P; Palmieri, F; Iacobazzi, V

    2013-08-01

    The use of clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs is known to be associated with a number of adverse metabolic side effects, including diabetes mellitus. These side effects could be, at least in part, the result of impaired islet cell function and abnormal insulin secretion, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study is the identification of targets for clozapine related to the abnormal insulin secretion. We identify a specific activation of the transcriptional factor FOXA1, but not FOXA2 and FOXA3, by clozapine in HepG2 cells. Clozapine enhances FOXA1 DNA-binding and its transcriptional activity, increasing mitochondrial citrate carrier gene expression, which contains a FOXA1 site in its promoter. Haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic drug, does not determine any increase of FOXA1 gene expression. We also demonstrate that clozapine upregulates FOXA1 and CIC gene expression in INS-1 cells only at basal glucose concentration. In addition, we find that abnormal insulin secretion in basal glucose conditions could be completely abolished by FOXA1 silencing in INS-1 cells treated with clozapine. The identification of FOXA1 as a novel target for clozapine may shed more light to understand molecular mechanism of abnormal insulin secretion during clozapine treatment. PMID:22959654

  3. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Li, Congyu; Hu, Ya-Fang; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Pant, Harish C

    2013-01-01

    Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG) results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs), however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs). Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5) with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24039692

  4. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S; Grace, C; Mattei, A A; Siemienowicz, K; Brownlee, W; MacCallum, J; McNeilly, A S; Duncan, W C; Rae, M T

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells. PMID:27265420

  5. RFamide peptides 43RFa and 26RFa both promote survival of pancreatic β-cells and human pancreatic islets but exert opposite effects on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Granata, Riccarda; Settanni, Fabio; Trovato, Letizia; Gallo, Davide; Gesmundo, Iacopo; Nano, Rita; Gallo, Maria Pia; Bergandi, Loredana; Volante, Marco; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Leprince, Jérôme; Papotti, Mauro; Vaudry, Hubert; Ong, Huy; Ghigo, Ezio

    2014-07-01

    RFamide peptides 43RFa and 26RFa have been shown to promote food intake and to exert different peripheral actions through G-protein-coupled receptor 103 (GPR103) binding. Moreover, 26RFa was found to inhibit pancreatic insulin secretion, whereas the role of 43RFa on β-cell function is unknown, as well as the effects of both peptides on β-cell survival. Herein, we investigated the effects of 43RFa and 26RFa on survival and apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and human pancreatic islets. In addition, we explored the role of these peptides on insulin secretion and the underlying signaling mechanisms. Our results show that in INS-1E β-cells and human pancreatic islets both 43RFa and 26RFa prevented cell death and apoptosis induced by serum starvation, cytokine synergism, and glucolipotoxicity, through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2-mediated signaling. Moreover, 43RFa promoted, whereas 26RFa inhibited, glucose- and exendin-4-induced insulin secretion, through Gαs and Gαi/o proteins, respectively. Inhibition of GPR103 expression by small interfering RNA blocked 43RFa insulinotropic effect, but not the insulinostatic action of 26RFa. Finally, 43RFa, but not 26RFa, induced cAMP increase and glucose uptake. In conclusion, because of their survival effects along with the effects on insulin secretion, these findings suggest potential for 43RFa and 26RFa as therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:24622796

  6. Geniposide acutely stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating GLP-1 receptor/cAMP signaling and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ding, Yaqin; Zhong, Xiangqin; Guo, Qing; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jingying; Bai, Tao; Ren, Lele; Guo, Yangyan; Jiao, Xiangying; Liu, Yunfeng

    2016-07-15

    Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside, has antidiabetic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate whether geniposide has direct effects on insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets. The results demonstrated that geniposide potentiated insulin secretion via activating the glucagon-like-1 receptor (GLP-1R) as well as the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP signaling pathway. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) suppressed the insulinotropic effect of geniposide. Geniposide also inhibited voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, and this effect could be attenuated by inhibition of GLP-1R or PKA. Current-clamp recording showed that geniposide prolonged action potential duration. These results collectively imply that inhibition of Kv channels is linked to geniposide-potentiated insulin secretion by acting downstream of the GLP-1R/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Moreover, activation of Ca(2+) channels by geniposide was observed, indicating that the Ca(2+) channel is also an important player in the geniposide effects. Together, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying geniposide-regulated insulin secretion. PMID:27126219

  7. Divergent effects of Sulforaphane on Basal and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in β-Cells: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Endogenous Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingqi; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Zheng, Hongzhi; Yang, Bei; Qu, Weidong; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress is implicated in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, yet clinical outcomes of antioxidant therapies on diabetes are inconclusive. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as signaling intermediates for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), we hypothesize that exogenously boosting cellular antioxidant capacity dampens signaling ROS and GSIS. Methods To test the hypothesis, we formulated a mathematical model of redox homeostatic control circuit comprising known feedback and feedforward loops and validated model predictions with plant-derived antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN). Results SFN acutely (30-min treatment) stimulated basal insulin secretion in INS-1(832/13) cells and cultured mouse islets, which could be attributed to SFN-elicited ROS as N-acetylcysteine or glutathione ethyl ester suppressed SFN-stimulated insulin secretion. The mathematical model predicted an adapted redox state characteristic of strong induction of endogenous antioxidants but marginally increased ROS under prolonged SFN exposure, a state that attenuates rather than facilitates glucose-stimulated ROS and GSIS. We validated the prediction by demonstrating that although 24-h treatment of INS-1(832/13) cells with low, non-cytotoxic concentrations of SFN (2-10 μM) protected the cells from cytotoxicity by oxidative insult, it markedly suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by 20 mM glucose. Conclusions Our study indicates that adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidants by exogenous antioxidants, albeit cytoprotective, inhibits GSIS in β-cells. PMID:23468051

  8. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, S.; Grace, C.; Mattei, A. A.; Siemienowicz, K.; Brownlee, W.; MacCallum, J.; McNeilly, A. S.; Duncan, W. C.; Rae, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells. PMID:27265420

  9. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: Role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Heart, Emma; Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce; Smith, Peter J.S.; Gray, Joshua P.

    2012-01-15

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4–7 mM) to stimulatory (8–16 mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H{sub 2}O{sub 2} via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1–10 μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and menadione on insulin secretion. -- Highlights: ► Menadione stimulation or inhibition of insulin secretion is dependent upon applied glucose levels. ► Menadione-dependent H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is proportional to applied glucose levels. ► Quinone-mediated redox cycling

  10. Desensitization of sulphonylurea- and nutrient-induced insulin secretion following prolonged treatment with glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Ball, A J; Flatt, P R; McClenaghan, N H

    2000-11-24

    Functional effects of prolonged exposure to the sulphonylurea glibenclamide were examined in a popular clonal pancreatic beta-cell line, denoted as BRIN-BD11. In acute 20-min incubations, 200 microM of tolbutamide or glibenclamide stimulated insulin release from non-depolarized and depolarized cells, which was dramatically reduced following 18-h culture with 100 microM glibenclamide. Sulphonylurea desensitization in non-depolarized cells was reversed following 6-36-h subsequent culture in the absence of glibenclamide. However, desensitization of insulinotropic effects of sulphonylureas in depolarized cells following glibenclamide culture and associated decline in cellular insulin content was not fully reversible. Culture with 100 microM glibenclamide also markedly reduced the acute insulinotropic actions of glucose, L-alanine, L-arginine, 2-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and KCl. These effects were almost completely reversed following 18-h culture in the absence of the sulphonylurea. PMID:11090651

  11. Complementary expression of SN1 and SAT2 in the islets of Langerhans suggests concerted action of glutamine transport in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Gammelsaeter, R; Jenstad, M; Bredahl, M K L; Gundersen, V; Chaudhry, F A

    2009-04-10

    Insulin and glucagon secretion from the islets of Langerhans is highly regulated. Although an increased plasma glucose level is the major stimulus for insulin exocytosis, roles for glutamine and glutamate have been suggested. Interestingly, the islet cells display elements associated with synaptic transmission. In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamine transport by SN1 and SAT2 sustain the generation of neurotransmitter glutamate. We hypothesized that the same transporters are essential for glutamine transport into the islet cells and for subsequent formation of glutamate acting as an intracellular signaling molecule. We demonstrate that islet cells express several transporters which can mediate glutamine transport. In particular, we show pronounced expression of SN1 and SAT2 in B-cells and A-cells, respectively. The cell-specific expression of these transporters together with their functional characteristics suggest an important role for glutamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:19233140

  12. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  13. Canine pancreatic islet cell tumours secreting insulin-like growth factor type 2: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Finotello, R; Ressel, L; Arvigo, M; Baroni, G; Marchetti, V; Romanelli, G; Burrow, R; Mignacca, D; Blackwood, L

    2016-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor type II (IGF-II) is the main cause of non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) and insulin is thought to be the only factor causing hypoglycaemia in insulinomas. However, two case reports of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) producing IGF-II have been previously published: a human and a canine patient. In this study, we investigated clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features, and biological behaviour of canine pancreatic IGF-II-omas, a subgroup of PNETs that has not been previously characterized. Case records of 58 dogs with confirmed PNETs and hypoglycaemia were reviewed: six patients were affected by IGF-II-omas. Surgery was performed in all cases and two dogs had metastases. Four patients remained alive and in remission at 370, 440, 560 and 890 days post-diagnosis; two died of non-tumour-related causes. IGF-II-omas can be differentiated from insulinomas through hypoinsulinaemia, IGF-II positive and insulin negative immunostaining. The prevalence of this neoplasia is low, accounting for just 6% of PNETs. PMID:24428588

  14. HPA axis and vagus nervous function are involved in impaired insulin secretion of MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Rosiane A; Torrezan, Rosana; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia C; Lisboa, Patrícia C; Moura, Egberto G; Mathias, Paulo C F

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunctions such as the hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis greatly contribute to obesity and hyperinsulinemia; however, little is known about these dysfunctions in the pancreatic β-cells of obese individuals. We used a hypothalamic-obesity model obtained by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity. To assess the role of the HPA axis and vagal tonus in the genesis of hypercorticosteronemia and hyperinsulinemia in an adult MSG-obese rat model, bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG) alone or combined surgeries (ADX-VAG) were performed. To study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and the cholinergic insulinotropic process, pancreatic islets were incubated with different glucose concentrations with or without oxotremorine-M, a selective agonist of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3AChR) subtype. Protein expression of M3AChR in pancreatic islets, corticosteronemia, and vagus nerve activity was also evaluated. Surgeries reduced 80% of the body weight gain. Fasting glucose and insulin were reduced both by ADX and ADX-VAG, whereas VAG was only associated with hyperglycemia. The serum insulin post-glucose stimulation was lower in all animals that underwent an operation. Vagal activity was decreased by 50% in ADX rats. In the highest glucose concentration, both surgeries reduced GIIS by 50%, whereas ADX-VAG decreased by 70%. Additionally, M3AChR activity was recovered by the individual surgeries. M3AChR protein expression was reduced by ADX. Both the adrenal gland and vagus nerve contribute to the hyperinsulinemia in the MSG model, although adrenal is more crucial as it appears to modulate parasympathetic activity and M3AChR expression in obesity. PMID:27113853

  15. Differential effects of three echovirus strains on cell lysis and insulin secretion in beta cell derived lines.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Luis; Medina, Anya; Aziz, Kosrat; Anagandula, Mahesh; Cabrera-Rode, Eduardo; Fex, Malin; Frisk, Gun; Cilio, Corrado M

    2016-06-01

    In an earlier study, infection of human pancreatic islets with epidemic strains of echovirus (E4, E16, E30), with proven but differently ability to induce islet autoimmunity, resulted either in a severe damage (i.e., E16 and E30) or proceeded without visible changes in infected islets (i.e., E4). In this study, the ability of these strains to replicate in beta cells and the consequence of such an infection for beta cell lysis and beta cell function was studied in the pancreatic beta cell lines INS-1, MIN6, and NIT-1. The strains of E16 and E30 did replicate in INS1, MIN6, and NIT1 cells and resulted in a pronounced cytopathic effect within 3 days following infection. By contrast, E4 replicated in all examined insulinoma cells with no apparent cell destruction. The insulin release in response to high glucose stimulation was hampered in all infected cells (P < 0.05) when no evidence of cytolysis was present; however, the adverse effect of E16 and E30 on insulin secretion appeared to be higher than that of the E4 strain. The differential effects of echovirus infection on cell lysis, and beta cell function in the rodent insulinoma INS1, MIN6, and NIT 1 cells reflect those previously obtained in primary human islets and support the notion that the insulin-producing beta cells can harbor a non-cytopathic viral infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:971-978, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629879

  16. Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Multi-Ethnic Vitamin D-Deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Claudia; Daly, Robin M.; Carpentier, André; Lu, Zhong X.; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Sikaris, Ken; Jean, Sonia; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. Design 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). Intervention Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000–6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. Measurements Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Results Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. Conclusions Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and

  17. Statins Promote the Degradation of Extracellular Amyloid β-Peptide by Microglia via Stimulation of Exosome-associated Insulin-degrading Enzyme (IDE) Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Irfan Y.; Barth, Esther; Christian, Leonie; Siepmann, Martin; Kumar, Sathish; Singh, Sandesh; Tolksdorf, Karen; Heneka, Michael T.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Wunderlich, Patrick; Walter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that intake of statins decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Cellular and in vivo studies suggested that statins might decrease the generation of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) from the β-amyloid precursor protein. Here, we show that statins potently stimulate the degradation of extracellular Aβ by microglia. The statin-dependent clearance of extracellular Aβ is mainly exerted by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) that is secreted in a nonconventional pathway in association with exosomes. Stimulated IDE secretion and Aβ degradation were also observed in blood of mice upon peripheral treatment with lovastatin. Importantly, increased IDE secretion upon lovastatin treatment was dependent on protein isoprenylation and up-regulation of exosome secretion by fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate a novel pathway for the nonconventional secretion of IDE via exosomes. The modulation of this pathway could provide a new strategy to enhance the extracellular clearance of Aβ. PMID:20876579

  18. In Vitro Differentiation of Insulin Secreting Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 1 Positive Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abouzaripour, Morteza; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Atlasi, Nader; Shahverdi, Abdol Hossein; Mahmoudi, Reza; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow has recently been recognized as a novel source of stem cells for the treatment of wide range of diseases. A number of studies on murine bone mar- row have shown a homogenous population of rare stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1) positive cells that express markers of pluripotent stem cells. This study focuses on SSEA-1 positive cells isolated from murine bone marrow in an attempt to differentiate them into insulin-secreting cells (ISCs) in order to investigate their differentiation potential for future use in cell therapy. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research. Mouse SSEA-1 positive cells were isolated by Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) followed by characteriza- tion with flow cytometry. Induced SSEA-1 positive cells were differentiated into ISCs with specific differentiation media. In order to evaluate differentiation quality and analysis, dithizone (DTZ) staining was use, followed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry and insulin secretion assay. Statistical results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results The results achieved in this study reveal that mouse bone marrow contains a population of SSEA-1 positive cells that expresses pluripotent stem cells markers such as SSEA-1, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4) detected by immunocytochem- istry and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and stem cell antigen-1 (SCA-1) detected by flow cytometric analysis. SSEA-1 positive cells can differentiate into ISCs cell clusters as evidenced by their DTZ positive staining and expression of genes such as Pdx1 (pancreatic transcription factors), Ngn3 (endocrine progenitor marker), Insulin1 and Insulin2 (pancreaticβ-cell markers). Additionally, our results demonstrate expression of Pdx1 and Glut2 protein and insulin secretion in response to a glucose challenge in the differentiated cells. Conclusion Our study clearly demonstrates the potential of SSEA-1 positive

  19. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. PMID:27221116

  20. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion correlates with changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca2+ in aequorin-expressing INS-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, E D; Rizzuto, R; Theler, J M; Pralong, W F; Bastianutto, C; Pozzan, T; Wollheim, C B

    1996-01-01

    Nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion is dependent upon the generation of metabolic coupling factors in the mitochondria of the pancreatic B cell. To investigate the role of Ca2+ in mitochondrial function, insulin secretion from INS-1 cells stably expressing the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin in the appropriate compartments was correlated with changes in cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]c) and mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]m). Glucose and KCl, which depolarize the cell membrane, as well as the Ca2+-mobilizing agonist, carbachol (CCh), cause substantial increases in [Ca2+]m which are associated with smaller rises in [Ca2+]c. The L-type Ca2+-channel blocker, SR7037, abolished the effects of glucose and KCl while attenuating the CCh response. Glucose-induced increases in [Ca2+]m, [Ca2+]c, and insulin secretion all demonstrate a pronounced initial peak followed by a sustained plateau. All three parameters are increased synergistically when glucose and CCh are combined. Finally, [Ca2+]m, [Ca2+]c, and insulin secretion also display desensitization phenomena following repeated additions of the three stimuli. The high sensitivity of [Ca2+]m to Ca2+ influx and the desensitization-resensitization effects can be explained by a model in which the mitochondria of INS-1 cells are strategically located to sense Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, the correlation of [Ca2+]m and [Ca2+]c with insulin secretion may indicate a fundamental role for Ca2+ in the adaptation of oxidative metabolism to the generation of metabolic coupling factors and the energy requirements of exocytosis. PMID:8958215

  1. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages. PMID:26683831

  2. Control of Hep G2-cell triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein B synthesis and secretion by polyunsaturated non-esterified fatty acids and insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, C D; Wang, T W; Hales, C N

    1992-01-01

    Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and insulin are important factors in the control of lipoprotein secretion, but the mechanism of action is unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine whether insulin and NEFAs modulated hepatic secretion of triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein B (apo-B) by regulation of hepatic intracellular apo-B content. The experiments were performed with the human hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2, for periods of up to 72 h in the presence and absence of NEFAs and insulin. Higher concentrations of eicosapentanoate (EPA) sustained for 72 h decreased cellular protein content (at 250 microM) or caused cell death (at 750 microM), and this effect was not observed with the other NEFAs studied, whereas 75 microM-EPA did not affect cell viability. Compared with the absence of NEFA, 75 microM-EPA did not alter the intracellular triacylglycerol content, but decreased the intracellular content of apo-B by 47% (P < 0.01) and decreased secreted triacylglycerol and secreted apo-B by 13% (P < 0.05) and 21% (P < 0.01) respectively, after 72 h. However 250 microM-oleate increased the intracellular triacylglycerol by 36% (P < 0.01), intracellular apo-B by 22% (P < 0.05) and secreted triacylglycerol and apo-B by 20-30% (P < 0.05-0.01). Insulin decreased secreted triacylglycerol and apo-B in the presence of each NEFA studied by 20-30%. There was no correlation between the changes in intracellular triacylglycerol and the rate of secretion. However, when the secreted triacylglycerol or apo-B was plotted against intracellular apo-B content a significant correlation was observed (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 for both analyses). Apo-B mRNA levels did not change after 72 h incubation with oleate or EPA. These results demonstrate that EPA can be toxic to hepatocytes and that NEFAs and insulin control secretion of triacylglycerol and apo-B by regulation of the intracellular apo-B concentration, thus controlling assembly of apo-B with triacylglycerol to form lipoproteins

  3. The protein level of isoenergetic formulae does not modulate postprandial insulin secretion in piglets and has no consequences on later glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Blat, Sophie; Morise, Anne; Sauret, Anne; Louveau, Isabelle; Macé, Katherine; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Sève, Bernard

    2012-07-14

    Early postnatal nutrition is involved in metabolic programming, an excess of protein being suspected to enhance early growth and the propensity to later develop insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that excessive protein intake during the suckling period would overstimulate the endocrine pancreas in the short term and alter durably its maturation, contributing to the later disruption of glucose homeostasis. Normal-birth-weight and low-birth-weight piglets were fed isoenergetic formulae providing an adequate-protein (AP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high-protein (HP, +48 %) supply between 7 and 28 d of age and were fed a standard diet until 70 d of age. During the formula-feeding period, the HP formula did not modify postprandial insulin secretion but transiently increased fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, P < 0·05). Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were restored to AP piglets' values 1 month after weaning. The structure of the endocrine pancreas was not affected by the protein content of the formula. The weight at birth had no major effect on the studied parameters. We concluded that a high-protein supply during the suckling period does not interfere with insulin secretion and endocrine pancreas maturation in the short term. It has no consequences either on glucose tolerance 1 month after weaning. The present study demonstrated that up-regulation of postprandial insulin secretion is not involved in higher growth observed in piglets fed a HP formula. PMID:22018265

  4. Synergistic interaction between insulin-like growth factors-I and -II in central regulation of pulsatile growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Harel, Z; Tannenbaum, G S

    1992-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II peptides, receptors, mRNAs, and binding proteins are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), yet their physiological role in the brain remains largely unknown. While earlier in vivo studies in the rat suggested that IGF-I may participate in feedback regulation of GH secretion at a CNS level, the preparations used were only partially pure. The recent availability of purified recombinant IGF-I and -II peptides prompted us to reexamine the involvement of the IGFs in vivo in central regulation of pulsatile GH secretion. Five groups of free-moving adult male rats bearing chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) and intracardiac venous cannulae were icv administered IGF-I (in doses of 0.5, 2, 3, and 10 micrograms) or the acid-saline vehicle; an additional group received 1 microgram of the potent IGF-I analog, long R3 IGF-I. Spontaneous 6-h plasma GH secretory profiles were obtained from all groups. Vehicle-injected control animals exhibited the typical pulsatile pattern of GH secretion, with most peak GH values above 150 ng/ml and trough levels below 1.2 ng/ml. Central administration of IGF-I alone or long R3 IGF-I at all doses tested failed to alter the pulsatile pattern of GH release; there were no significant differences in GH peak amplitude, GH trough level, GH interpeak interval, or mean 6-h plasma GH level compared to those in vehicle-injected controls. In a second study, designed to determine the effects of central administration of IGF-I and IGF-II, in combination, icv injection of 1 microgram IGF-I and 1 microgram IGF-II resulted in a marked suppression in the amplitude of spontaneous GH secretory bursts approximately 3 h after injection; both GH pulse amplitude (43.5 +/- 5.6 vs. 130.6 +/- 14.6 ng/ml; P less than 0.001) and mean plasma GH level (16.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 35.2 +/- 1.8 ng/ml; P less than 0.001) were severely reduced 3-6 h after injection compared to those in vehicle-injected controls. These results

  5. Influence of cytokines on Dmt1 iron transporter and ferritin expression in insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Lortz, S; Schröter, S; Stückemann, V; Mehmeti, I; Lenzen, S

    2014-06-01

    Free intracellular ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is essential for the generation of the extremely toxic hydroxyl radicals, which contribute to β-cell destruction by cytokines. Therefore the expression of the different divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) isoforms and ferritin (Ft) subunits, responsible for iron import and chelation, was analyzed under pro-inflammatory conditions (IL1β alone or together with TNFα+IFNγ). The Dmt1 isoforms (1A/1B and +IRE/-IRE) and the total Dmt1 expression in insulin-producing cells (RINm5F and INS-1E), in primary rat islets and, for comparison, in the neuroendocrine PC12 cell line were quantified by qRT-PCR. In addition, the expression of the light (L-Ft) and heavy Ft (H-Ft) subunits and the mitochondrial Ft isoform (Mtft) in insulin-producing cells under control conditions and after cytokine treatment was estimated. The 1B isoform was the predominant Dmt1 mRNA in all insulin-producing cells, accounting for almost 100% of the 1A/1B isoform expression. For the IRE variants, +IRE expression was higher than -IRE expression. Pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerated the expression of Dmt1 isoforms significantly with an overall 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the total Dmt1 expression. In contrast, the expression of the iron-buffering ferritin subunits L- and H-Ft was unaffected by IL1β and only slightly induced by the cytokine mixture. Mtft expression was also not increased. Dmt1 expression was significantly elevated through pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas Ft expression was marginally increased. This imbalance between the increased iron transport capacity and the almost unaffected iron storage capacity can foster cytokine-mediated formation of hydroxyl radicals and thus pro-inflammatory cytokine toxicity through elevated free iron concentrations. PMID:24850829

  6. Modulation of microRNA-375 expression alters voltage-gated Na+ channel properties and exocytosis in insulin-secreting cells

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, V A; Esguerra, J L S; Ofori, J K; Mollet, I G; Braun, M; Stoffel, M; Wendt, A; Eliasson, L

    2015-01-01

    Aim MiR-375 has been implicated in insulin secretion and exocytosis through incompletely understood mechanisms. Here we aimed to investigate the role of miR-375 in the regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channel properties and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in insulin-secreting cells. Methods MiR-375 was overexpressed using double-stranded mature miR-375 in INS-1 832/13 cells (OE375) or downregulated using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based anti-miR against miR-375 (LNA375). Insulin secretion was determined using RIA. Exocytosis and ion channel properties were measured using the patch-clamp technique in INS-1 832/13 cells and beta-cells from miR-375KO mice. Gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR, and protein levels were determined by Western blot. Results Voltage-gated Na+ channels were found to be regulated by miR-375. In INS-1 832/13 cells, steady-state inactivation of the voltage-gated Na+ channels was shifted by approx. 6 mV to a more negative membrane potential upon down-regulation of miR-375. In the miR-375 KO mouse, voltage-gated Na+ channel inactivation was instead shifted by approx. 14 mV to a more positive membrane potential. Potential targets differed among species and expression of suggested targets Scn3a and Scn3b in INS-1 832/13 cells was only slightly moderated by miR-375. Modulation of miR-375 levels in INS-1-832/13 cells did not significantly affect insulin release. However, Ca2+ dependent exocytosis was significantly reduced in OE375 cells. Conclusion We conclude that voltage-gated Na+ channels are regulated by miR-375 in insulin-secreting cells, and validate that the exocytotic machinery is controlled by miR-375 also in INS-1 832/13 cells. Altogether we suggest miR-375 to be involved in a complex multifaceted network controlling insulin secretion and its different components. PMID:25627423

  7. Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The manipulation of organic materials--cells, tissues, and even living organisms--offers many exciting possibilities for the future from organic computers to improved aquaculture. Commercial researchers are using the microgravity environment to produce large near perfect protein crystals Research on insulin has yielded crystals that far surpass the quality of insulin crystals grown on the ground. Using these crystals industry partners are working to develop new and improved treatments for diabetes. Other researchers are exploring the possibility of producing antibiotics using plant cell cultures which could lead to both orbital production and the improvement of ground-based antibiotic production.

  8. A low dose euglycemic infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I rapidly suppresses fasting-enhanced pulsatile growth hormone secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, M L; Clayton, P E; Johnson, M L; Celniker, A; Perlman, A J; Alberti, K G; Thorner, M O

    1993-01-01

    To determine if insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) inhibits pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion in man, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was infused for 6 h at 10 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 during a euglycemic clamp in 10 normal men who were fasted for 32 h to enhance GH secretion. Saline alone was infused during an otherwise identical second admission as a control. As a result of rhIGF-I infusion, total and free IGF-I concentrations increased three- and fourfold, respectively. Mean GH concentrations fell from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 0.59 +/- 0.07 micrograms/liter after 120 min. GH secretion rates, calculated by a deconvolution algorithm, decreased with a t 1/2 of 16.6 min and remained suppressed thereafter. Suppression of GH secretion rates occurred within 60 min when total and free IGF-I concentrations were 1.6-fold and 2-fold above baseline levels, respectively, and while glucose infusion rates were < 1 mumol.kg-1.min-1. During saline infusion, GH secretion rates remained elevated. Infusion of rhIGF-I decreased the mass of GH secreted per pulse by 84% (P < 0.01) and the number of detectable GH secretory pulses by 32% (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin and glucagon decreased to nearly undetectable levels after 60 min of rhIGF-I. Serum free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were unaffected during the first 3 h of rhIGF-I but decreased thereafter to 52, 32, and 50% of levels observed during saline. We conclude that fasting-enhanced GH secretion is rapidly suppressed by a low-dose euglycemic infusion of rhIGF-I. This effect of rhIGF-I is likely mediated through IGF-I receptors independently of its insulin-like metabolic actions. PMID:8514857

  9. Neuromedin U receptor 1 expression in the rat endocrine pancreas and evidence suggesting neuromedin U suppressive effect on insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Przemyslaw; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Szkudelski, Tomasz; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2006-11-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a regulatory peptide found in significant concentrations in both the brain and gut of the rat and is named according to its ability to powerfully contract the uterus. Two types of NmU receptors were recently identified and subsequent studies evidenced NmU involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Such a role of neuromedin U suggests that a polypeptide may also be involved in the regulation of adipoinsular axis function. Therefore in the present study we examined the expression of NmU receptors in pancreatic islets using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. We also investigated the role of NmU in regulation of insulin secretion in vitro using isolated pancreatic islets. We have confirmed that NmUR1 but not NmUR2 is specifically expressed in isolated rat pancreatic islets. In all tested doses (1, 10, 100 nmol/l) NmU dose- dependently decreased insulin output by isolated pancreatic islets. These inhibitory effects of NmU on insulin secretion may suggest the involvement of NmU in regulating the pancreatic branch of adipoinsular axis function. Thus, NmU can be included in that group of anorectic peptides, which are also involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:17016626

  10. Muscarinic activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in pancreatic islets. Temporal dissociation of kinase activation and insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Babb, E L; Tarpley, J; Landt, M; Easom, R A

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that glucose activates the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in isolated rat pancreatic islets in a manner consistent with a role of this enzyme in the regulation of insulin secretion [Wenham, Landt and Easom (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 4947-4952]. In the current study, the muscarinic agonist, carbachol, has been shown to induce the conversion of CaM kinase II into a Ca(2+)-independent, autonomous form indicative of its activation. Maximal activation (2-fold) was achieved by 15 s, followed by a rapid return to basal levels by 1 min. This response was primarily the result of the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores since it was not affected by a concentration (20 microM) of verapamil that completely prevented the activation of CaM kinase II by glucose. Surprisingly, carbachol added prior to, or simultaneously with, glucose attenuated nutrient activation of CaM kinase II. This effect was mimicked by cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and thapsigargin, suggesting its mediation by phospholipase C and the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. In contrast, carbachol, CCK-8 and thapsigargin markedly potentiated glucose (12 mM)-induced insulin secretion. These results suggest that CaM kinase II activation can be temporally dissociated from insulin secretion but do not exclude the potential dependence of insulin exocytosis on CaM kinase II-mediated protein phosphorylation. PMID:8694759

  11. Improved Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion by Selective Intraislet Inhibition of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Expression in Isolated Islets of db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Chunyan; Gan, Zhenhua; Yi, Qiuyan; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Yingzhijie; Lu, Bin; Du, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence supported the presence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pancreas, which is implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We utilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) knockdown on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets of db/db mice and to explore the potential mechanisms involved. We found that Ad-siAT1R treatment resulted in a significant decrease both in AT1R mRNA level and in AT1R protein expression level. With downexpression of AT1R, notable increased insulin secretion and decreased glucagon secretion levels were found by perifusion. Simultaneously, significant increased protein levels of IRS-1 (by 85%), IRS-2 (by 95%), PI3K(85) (by 112.5%), and p-Akt2 (by 164%) were found by western blot. And upregulation of both GLUT-2 (by 190%) and GCK (by 121%) was achieved after AT1R inhibition by Ad-siAT1R. Intraislet AT1R expression level is a crucial physiological regulator of insulin sensitivity of β cell itself and thus affects glucose-induced insulin and glucagon release. Therefore, the characteristics of AT1R inhibitors could make it a potential novel therapeutics for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24371439

  12. A malignant cause of hypoglycaemia: a metastatic insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony; Pagsisihan, Daveric; Berberabe, A'Ericson; Palugod-Lopez, Elaine Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Most cases of insulinomas are benign. We report a case of a malignant form of insulinoma. A 46-year-old man presented with behavioural changes associated with hypoglycaemia. Diagnostic work up revealed high serum insulin, high C-peptide and low glucose levels, compatible with endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed a pancreatic head mass and multiple liver masses. Biopsy of the pancreatic mass revealed a grade three pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Histological analysis of a liver mass showed that it was identical to the pancreatic mass, confirming its metastatic nature. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with en bloc splenectomy. There was persistence of hypoglycaemic symptoms after removal of the pancreatic mass, suggesting that the liver metastases were also functioning. Symptoms were controlled by diazoxide and octreotide long-acting release. The patient is already 1 year postsurgery with no recurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and he has good functional capacity and has returned to his office job. PMID:26994053

  13. The two pore channel TPC2 is dispensable in pancreatic β-cells for normal Ca²⁺ dynamics and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Cane, Matthew C; Parrington, John; Rorsman, Patrik; Galione, Antony; Rutter, Guy A

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are central to the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by glucose and other agents, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whilst Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels on the plasma membrane is a key trigger for glucose-stimulated secretion, mobilisation of Ca(2+) from acidic stores has been implicated in the control of more localised Ca(2+) changes and membrane potential. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), generated in β-cells in response to high glucose, is a potent mobiliser of these stores, and has been proposed to act through two pore channels (TPC1 and TPC2, murine gene names Tpcn1 and Tpcn2). Whilst the role of TPC1 in the control of Ca(2+) mobilisation and insulin secretion was recently confirmed, conflicting data exist for TPC2. Here, we used the selective and efficient deleter strain, Ins1Cre to achieve β-cell selective deletion of the Tpcn2 gene in mice. βTpcn2 KO mice displayed normal intraperitoneal and oral glucose tolerance, and glucose-stimulated Ca(2+) dynamics and insulin secretion from islets were similarly normal. GLP-1-induced Ca(2+) increases involved an increase in oscillation frequency from 4.35 to 4.84 per minute (p=0.04) at 8mM glucose, and this increase was unaffected by the absence of Tpcn2. The current data thus indicate that TPC2 is not absolutely required for normal glucose- or incretin-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell. Our findings suggest that TPC1, whose expression tended to increase in Tpcn2 null islets, might be sufficient to support normal Ca(2+) dynamics in response to stimulation by nutrients or incretins. PMID:26769314

  14. The two pore channel TPC2 is dispensable in pancreatic β-cells for normal Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cane, Matthew C.; Parrington, John; Rorsman, Patrik; Galione, Antony; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are central to the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by glucose and other agents, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Whilst Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane is a key trigger for glucose-stimulated secretion, mobilisation of Ca2+ from acidic stores has been implicated in the control of more localised Ca2+ changes and membrane potential. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), generated in β-cells in response to high glucose, is a potent mobiliser of these stores, and has been proposed to act through two pore channels (TPC1 and TPC2, murine gene names Tpcn1 and Tpcn2). Whilst the role of TPC1 in the control of Ca2+ mobilisation and insulin secretion was recently confirmed, conflicting data exist for TPC2. Here, we used the selective and efficient deleter strain, Ins1Cre to achieve β-cell selective deletion of the Tpcn2 gene in mice. βTpcn2 KO mice displayed normal intraperitoneal and oral glucose tolerance, and glucose-stimulated Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion from islets were similarly normal. GLP-1-induced Ca2+ increases involved an increase in oscillation frequency from 4.35 to 4.84 per minute (p = 0.04) at 8 mM glucose, and this increase was unaffected by the absence of Tpcn2. The current data thus indicate that TPC2 is not absolutely required for normal glucose- or incretin-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell. Our findings suggest that TPC1, whose expression tended to increase in Tpcn2 null islets, might be sufficient to support normal Ca2+ dynamics in response to stimulation by nutrients or incretins. PMID:26769314

  15. Stimulus-response coupling in insulin-secreting HIT cells. Effects of secretagogues on cytosolic Ca2+, diacylglycerol, and protein kinase C activity.

    PubMed

    Regazzi, R; Li, G D; Deshusses, J; Wollheim, C B

    1990-09-01

    The hamster islet B cell line HIT retains the ability to secret insulin in response to glucose and several receptor agonists. We used HIT cells to study the initial signaling events in glucose or receptor agonist-stimulated insulin secretion. Glucose stimulated insulin release from HIT cells in a dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect seen already at 1 mM. Insulin release was also stimulated by carbachol in a glucose-dependent manner. Glucose depolarized the HIT cell membrane potential as assessed with the fluorescent probe bisoxonol and raised intracellular Ca2+ as revealed by fura-2 measurements. Using a Mn2+ fura-2 quenching technique, we could show that the rise in intracellular Ca2+ was due to Ca2+ influx following opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Glucose is thought to increase the diacylglycerol (DAG) content of insulin-secreting cells. However, although HIT cells respond to glucose in terms of insulin secretion, membrane depolarization, and Ca2+ rise, the hexose was unable to increase the proportion of protein kinase C activity associated with membranes. In contrast, the membrane-associated protein kinase C activity increased in HIT cells exposed to the two receptor agonists carbachol and bombesin. Bombesin was shown to generate DAG with the expected fatty acid composition of activators of phospholipase C. Glucose, in contrast, only caused minor increases in DAG containing myristic and palmitic acid without affecting total DAG mass. The failure to detect stimulation of protein kinase C by glucose could be due to both the limited amount and to the different fatty acid composition of the metabolically generated DAG. The latter was in part supported by experiments performed on protein kinase C partially purified from HIT cells. Indeed, 1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol, presumed to be the main DAG species generated by glucose, was only one-third as active as 1,2-dioleoylglycerol and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonylglycerol in stimulating the isolated enzyme at

  16. Degradation, receptor binding, insulin secreting and antihyperglycaemic actions of palmitate-derivatised native and Ala8-substituted GLP-1 analogues.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian D; Gault, Victor A; Mooney, Mark H; Irwin, Nigel; Harriott, Patrick; Greer, Brett; Bailey, Cliff J; O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Flatt, Peter R

    2004-02-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is released in response to ingested nutrients and acts to promote glucose-dependent insulin secretion ensuring efficient postprandial glucose homeostasis. Unfortunately, the beneficial actions of GLP-1 which give this hormone many of the desirable properties of an antidiabetic drug are short lived due to degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) and rapid clearance by renal filtration. In this study we have attempted to extend GLP-1 action through the attachment of palmitoyl moieties to the epsilon-amino group in the side chain of the Lys26 residue and to combine this modification with substitutions of the Ala8 residue, namely Val or amino-butyric acid (Abu). In contrast to native GLP-1, which was rapidly degraded, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8, Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8 Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 all exhibited profound stability during 12 h incubations with DPP IV and human plasma. Receptor binding affinity and the ability to increase cyclic AMP in the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 were decreased by 86- to 167-fold and 15- to 62-fold, respectively compared with native GLP-1. However, insulin secretory potency tested using BRIN-BD11 cells was similar, or in the case of [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 enhanced. Furthermore, when administered in vivo together with glucose to diabetic (ob/ob) mice, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 did not demonstrate acute glucose-lowering or insulinotropic activity as observed with native GLP-1. These studies support the potential usefulness of fatty acid linked analogues of GLP-1 but indicate the importance of chain length for peptide kinetics and bioavailability. PMID:15101559

  17. Specific Silencing of the REST Target Genes in Insulin-Secreting Cells Uncovers Their Participation in Beta Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gesina, Emilie; Caille, Dorothee; Gjinovci, Asllan; Waeber, Gerard; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The absence of the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) in insulin-secreting beta cells is a major cue for the specific expression of a large number of genes. These REST target genes were largely ascribed to a function of neurotransmission in a neuronal context, whereas their role in pancreatic beta cells has been poorly explored. To identify their functional significance, we have generated transgenic mice expressing REST in beta cells (RIP-REST mice), and previously discovered that REST target genes are essential to insulin exocytosis. Herein we characterized a novel line of RIP-REST mice featuring diabetes. In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. Screening for REST target genes identified several anti-apoptotic genes bearing the binding motif RE-1 that were downregulated upon REST expression in INS-1E cells, including Gjd2, Mapk8ip1, Irs2, Ptprn, and Cdk5r2. Decreased levels of Cdk5r2 in beta cells of RIP-REST mice further confirmed that it is controlled by REST, in vivo. Using siRNA-mediated knock-down in INS-1E cells, we showed that Cdk5r2 protects beta cells against cytokines and palmitate-induced apoptosis. Together, these data document that a set of REST target genes, including Cdk5r2, is important for beta cell survival. PMID:23029270

  18. Specific silencing of the REST target genes in insulin-secreting cells uncovers their participation in beta cell survival.

    PubMed

    Martin, David; Allagnat, Florent; Gesina, Emilie; Caille, Dorothee; Gjinovci, Asllan; Waeber, Gerard; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The absence of the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) in insulin-secreting beta cells is a major cue for the specific expression of a large number of genes. These REST target genes were largely ascribed to a function of neurotransmission in a neuronal context, whereas their role in pancreatic beta cells has been poorly explored. To identify their functional significance, we have generated transgenic mice expressing REST in beta cells (RIP-REST mice), and previously discovered that REST target genes are essential to insulin exocytosis. Herein we characterized a novel line of RIP-REST mice featuring diabetes. In diabetic RIP-REST mice, high levels of REST were associated with postnatal beta cell apoptosis, which resulted in gradual beta cell loss and sustained hyperglycemia in adults. Moreover, adenoviral REST transduction in INS-1E cells led to increased cell death under control conditions, and sensitized cells to death induced by cytokines. Screening for REST target genes identified several anti-apoptotic genes bearing the binding motif RE-1 that were downregulated upon REST expression in INS-1E cells, including Gjd2, Mapk8ip1, Irs2, Ptprn, and Cdk5r2. Decreased levels of Cdk5r2 in beta cells of RIP-REST mice further confirmed that it is controlled by REST, in vivo. Using siRNA-mediated knock-down in INS-1E cells, we showed that Cdk5r2 protects beta cells against cytokines and palmitate-induced apoptosis. Together, these data document that a set of REST target genes, including Cdk5r2, is important for beta cell survival. PMID:23029270

  19. Separation and characterization of modified variants of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I derived from a fusion protein secreted from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, G; Palm, G; Ekebacke, A; Josephson, S; Hartmanis, M

    1990-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor I, IGF-I, was produced in Escherichia coli fused to a synthetic IgG-binding peptide The fusion protein is secreted into the medium during fermentation and was initially purified on an IgG-Sepharose column. After hydroxylamine cleavage, IGF-I was purified to homogeneity. During purification, impurities in the form of modified variants of IGF-I were detected and characterized. The closely related impurities were identified to be a misfolded form of IGF-I, having mismatched disulphide bonds, a form with the single methionine residue in IGF-I oxidized to methionine sulphoxide and a variant in which the methionine residue was substituted by a norleucine residue during protein synthesis. A form proteolytically cleaved between two arginine residue was also detected. These impurities were separated from the major component, native IGF-I, by using reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The modified molecules as well as native IGF-I were characterized both as intact molecules and as fragments, after pepsin digestion, using the techniques of plasma desorption m.s., N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis. The oxidized form was 90%, and the norleucine analogue was 70%, as potent as native IGF-I in a biological radioreceptor assay, and the form having mismatched disulphides lacked receptor affinity. PMID:2173560

  20. Integrator of Stress Responses Calmodulin Binding Transcription Activator 1 (Camta1) Regulates miR-212/miR-132 Expression and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Mollet, Inês Guerra; Malm, Helena Anna; Wendt, Anna; Orho-Melander, Marju; Eliasson, Lena

    2016-08-26

    Altered microRNA profiles have been demonstrated in experimental models of type 2 diabetes, including in islets of the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. Our bioinformatic analysis of conserved sequences in promoters of microRNAs, previously observed to be up-regulated in GK rat islets, revealed putative CGCG-core motifs on the promoter of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster, overexpression of which has been shown to increase insulin secretion. These motifs are possible targets of calmodulin binding transcription activators Camta1 and Camta2 that have been recognized as integrators of stress responses. We also identified putative NKE elements, possible targets of NK2 homeobox proteins like the essential islet transcription factor Nkx2-2. As Camtas can function as co-activators with NK2 proteins in other tissues, we explored the role of Camta1, Camta2, and Nkx2-2 in the regulation of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster and insulin secretion. We demonstrate that exposure of control Wistar or GK rat islets to 16.7 mm glucose increases miR-212/miR-132 expression but significantly less so in the GK rat. In addition, Camta1, Camta2, and Nkx2-2 were down-regulated in GK rat islets, and knockdown of Camta1 reduced miR-212/miR-132 promoter activity and miR-212/miR-132 expression, even under cAMP elevation. Knockdown of Camta1 decreased insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13 cells and Wistar rat islets but increased insulin content. Furthermore, knockdown of Camta1 reduced K(+)-induced insulin secretion and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents. We also demonstrate Camta1 and Nkx2-2 protein interaction. These results indicate that Camta1 is required not only for expression of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster but at multiple levels for regulating beta cell insulin content and secretion. PMID:27402838

  1. Control of Insulin Secretion by Production of Reactive Oxygen Species: Study Performed in Pancreatic Islets from Fed and 48-Hour Fasted Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Patrícia; Simões, Daniel; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and NADPH oxidase are important sources of reactive oxygen species in particular the superoxide radical (ROS) in pancreatic islets. These molecules derived from molecular oxygen are involved in pancreatic β-cells signaling and control of insulin secretion. We examined the involvement of ROS produced through NADPH oxidase in the leucine- and/or glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets from fed or 48-hour fasted rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets was evaluated at low (2.8 mM) or high (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations in the presence or absence of leucine (20 mM) and/or NADPH oxidase inhibitors (VAS2870–20 μM or diphenylene iodonium—DPI—5 μM). ROS production was determined in islets treated with dihydroethidium (DHE) or MitoSOX Red reagent for 20 min and dispersed for fluorescence measurement by flow cytometry. NADPH content variation was examined in INS-1E cells (an insulin secreting cell line) after incubation in the presence of glucose (2.8 or 16.7 mM) and leucine (20 mM). At 2.8 mM glucose, VAS2870 and DPI reduced net ROS production (by 30%) and increased GSIS (by 70%) in a negative correlation manner (r = -0.93). At 16.7 mM glucose or 20 mM leucine, both NADPH oxidase inhibitors did not alter insulin secretion neither net ROS production. Pentose phosphate pathway inhibition by treatment with DHEA (75 μM) at low glucose led to an increase in net ROS production in pancreatic islets from fed rats (by 40%) and induced a marked increase (by 144%) in islets from 48-hour fasted rats. The NADPH/NADP+ ratio was increased when INS-1E cells were exposed to high glucose (by 4.3-fold) or leucine (by 3-fold). In conclusion, increased ROS production through NADPH oxidase prevents the occurrence of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions, however, in the presence of high glucose or high leucine levels, the increased production of NADPH and the consequent enhancement of the activity of the antioxidant defenses

  2. Control of Insulin Secretion by Production of Reactive Oxygen Species: Study Performed in Pancreatic Islets from Fed and 48-Hour Fasted Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Ana Cláudia; Riva, Patrícia; Simões, Daniel; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and NADPH oxidase are important sources of reactive oxygen species in particular the superoxide radical (ROS) in pancreatic islets. These molecules derived from molecular oxygen are involved in pancreatic β-cells signaling and control of insulin secretion. We examined the involvement of ROS produced through NADPH oxidase in the leucine- and/or glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets from fed or 48-hour fasted rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets was evaluated at low (2.8 mM) or high (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations in the presence or absence of leucine (20 mM) and/or NADPH oxidase inhibitors (VAS2870-20 μM or diphenylene iodonium-DPI-5 μM). ROS production was determined in islets treated with dihydroethidium (DHE) or MitoSOX Red reagent for 20 min and dispersed for fluorescence measurement by flow cytometry. NADPH content variation was examined in INS-1E cells (an insulin secreting cell line) after incubation in the presence of glucose (2.8 or 16.7 mM) and leucine (20 mM). At 2.8 mM glucose, VAS2870 and DPI reduced net ROS production (by 30%) and increased GSIS (by 70%) in a negative correlation manner (r = -0.93). At 16.7 mM glucose or 20 mM leucine, both NADPH oxidase inhibitors did not alter insulin secretion neither net ROS production. Pentose phosphate pathway inhibition by treatment with DHEA (75 μM) at low glucose led to an increase in net ROS production in pancreatic islets from fed rats (by 40%) and induced a marked increase (by 144%) in islets from 48-hour fasted rats. The NADPH/NADP+ ratio was increased when INS-1E cells were exposed to high glucose (by 4.3-fold) or leucine (by 3-fold). In conclusion, increased ROS production through NADPH oxidase prevents the occurrence of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions, however, in the presence of high glucose or high leucine levels, the increased production of NADPH and the consequent enhancement of the activity of the antioxidant defenses mitigate

  3. Downregulation of Carnitine Acyl-Carnitine Translocase by miRNAs 132 and 212 Amplifies Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Mufaddal S.; Rabaglia, Mary E.; Bhatnagar, Sushant; Shang, Jin; Ilkayeva, Olga; Mynatt, Randall; Zhou, Yun-Ping; Schadt, Eric E.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Keller, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) 132 and 212 are differentially upregulated in response to obesity in two mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes. Here we show the overexpression of miRNAs 132 and 212 enhances insulin secretion (IS) in response to glucose and other secretagogues including nonfuel stimuli. We determined that carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT; Slc25a20) is a direct target of these miRNAs. CACT is responsible for transporting long-chain acyl-carnitines into the mitochondria for β-oxidation. Small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CACT in β-cells led to the accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines and enhanced IS. The addition of long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines promoted IS from rat insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) as well as primary mouse islets. The effect on INS-1 cells was augmented in response to suppression of CACT. A nonhydrolyzable ether analog of palmitoyl-carnitine stimulated IS, showing that β-oxidation of palmitoyl-carnitine is not required for its stimulation of IS. These studies establish a link between miRNA-dependent regulation of CACT and fatty acyl-carnitine–mediated regulation of IS. PMID:24969106

  4. FoxO1 Deacetylation Decreases Fatty Acid Oxidation in β-Cells and Sustains Insulin Secretion in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Kim, Young Jung R; Fan, Jason; Zhao, Shangang; Banks, Alexander S; Prentki, Marc; Accili, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction contributes to onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. In this state β-cells become metabolically inflexible, losing the ability to select between carbohydrates and lipids as substrates for mitochondrial oxidation. These changes lead to β-cell dedifferentiation. We have proposed that FoxO proteins are activated through deacetylation-dependent nuclear translocation to forestall the progression of these abnormalities. However, how deacetylated FoxO exert their actions remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed islet function in mice homozygous for knock-in alleles encoding deacetylated FoxO1 (6KR). Islets expressing 6KR mutant FoxO1 have enhanced insulin secretion in vivo and ex vivo and decreased fatty acid oxidation ex vivo Remarkably, the gene expression signature associated with FoxO1 deacetylation differs from wild type by only ∼2% of the >4000 genes regulated in response to re-feeding. But this narrow swath includes key genes required for β-cell identity, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial fatty acid and solute transport. The data support the notion that deacetylated FoxO1 protects β-cell function by limiting mitochondrial lipid utilization and raise the possibility that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in β-cells is beneficial to diabetes treatment. PMID:26984405

  5. Multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme based on the phase shift operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yu-tao; Bao, Wan-su

    2013-11-01

    Based on a kind of multiparty quantum secret sharing schemes with Bell states, we propose a novel collective attack strategy in this paper. In our strategy, the group of in-attackers can obtain the entire secret information without introducing any error. More interestingly, a new multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed based on the 3-element phase shift operations. The scheme can resist not only the existing attacks, but also the cheating attack from the dishonest agent. Meanwhile, the scheme improves the efficiency of scheme by reducing the number of the eavesdropping detections and the computation complexity.

  6. Allelic variations in the vitamin D receptor gene, insulin secretion and parents' heights are independently associated with height in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrarezi, Daniela A F; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Nicolau, Christiane; Cheurfa, Nadir; Guazzelli, Isabel C; Frazzatto, Eliana; Velho, Gilberto; Villares, Sandra M

    2012-10-01

    Polymorphisms in the VDR gene were reported to be associated with variations in intrauterine and postnatal growth and with adult height, but also with other traits that are strongly correlated such as the BMI, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Here, we assessed the impact of VDR polymorphisms on body height and its interactions with obesity- and glucose tolerance-related traits in obese children and adolescents. We studied 173 prepubertal (Tanner's stage 1) and 146 pubertal (Tanner's stages 2-5) obese children who were referred for a weight-loss program. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped: rs1544410 (BsmI), rs7975232 (ApaI) and rs731236 (TaqI). BsmI and TaqI genotypes were significantly associated with height in pubertal children, but the associations did not reach statistical significance in prepubertal children. In stepwise regression analyses, the lean body mass, insulin secretion, BsmI or TaqI genotypes and the father's and the mother's height were independently and positively associated with height in pubertal children. These covariables accounted for 46% of the trait variance. The height of homozygous carriers of the minor allele of BsmI was 0.65 z-scores (4cm) higher than the height of homozygous carriers of the major allele (P=.0006). Haplotype analyses confirmed the associations of the minor alleles of BsmI and TaqI with increased height. In conclusion, VDR genotypes were significantly associated with height in pubertal obese children. The associations were independent from the effects of confounding traits, such as the body fat mass, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. PMID:22551951

  7. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya; Hirose, Takahisa; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  8. The Thyroid Hormone-Inactivating Type III Deiodinase Is Expressed in Mouse and Human β-Cells and Its Targeted Inactivation Impairs Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Mayrin C.; Molina, Judith; Gadea, Yelena; Fachado, Alberto; Murillo, Monika; Simovic, Gordana; Pileggi, Antonello; Hernández, Arturo; Edlund, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Deiodinases are selenoproteins that activate or inactivate thyroid hormone. During vertebrate development, these pathways control thyroid hormone action in a cell-specific fashion explaining how systemic thyroid hormone can affect local control of tissue embryogenesis. Here we investigated the role of the thyroid hormone-inactivating deiodinase (D3) in pancreatic islet function and glucose homeostasis. D3 expression was determined by real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, and enzyme activity. Embryonic and adult wild-type mice and Mice with targeted disruption of Dio3 gene (D3KO) as well as human fetal pancreas and adult islets were studied. Insulin secretion was evaluated in adult mouse isolated islets. We found Dio3 gene expression and protein highly expressed in embryonic and adult pancreatic islets, predominantly in β-cells in both humans and mice. However, mRNA levels were barely detectable for both the thyroid hormone-activating deiodinases types 1 and 2. D3KO animals were found to be glucose intolerant due to in vitro and in vivo impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, without changes in peripheral sensitivity to insulin. D3KO neonatal (postnatal day 0) and adult pancreas exhibited reduced total islet area due to reduced β-cell mass, insulin content, and impaired expression of key β-cells genes. D3 expression in perinatal pancreatic β-cells prevents untimely exposure to thyroid hormone, the absence of which leads to impaired β-cell function and subsequently insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. An analogous role is likely in humans, given the similar D3 expression pattern. PMID:21828183

  9. Microarray analysis of novel candidate genes responsible for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β cell line MIN6.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Eiji; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic islet β cells is important for understanding and treating diabetes. MIN6 cells, a transformed β-cell line derived from a mouse insulinoma, retain GSIS and are a popular in vitro model for insulin secretion. However, in long-term culture, MIN6 cells' GSIS capacity is lost. We previously isolated a subclone, MIN6 clone 4, from the parental MIN6 cells, that shows well-regulated insulin secretion in response to glucose, glybenclamide, and KCl, even after prolonged culture. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for preserving GSIS in this subclone, we compared four groups of MIN6 cells: Pr-LP (parental MIN6, low passage number), Pr-HP (parental MIN6, high passage number), C4-LP (MIN6 clone 4, low passage number), and C4-HP (MIN6 clone 4, high passage number). Based on their capacity for GSIS, we designated the Pr-LP, C4-LP, and C4-HP cells as "responder cells." In a DNA microarray analysis, we identified a group of genes with high expression in responder cells ("responder genes"), but extremely low expression in the Pr-HP cells. Another group of genes ("non-responder genes") was expressed at high levels in the Pr-HP cells, but at extremely low levels in the responder cells. Some of the responder genes were involved in secretory machinery or glucose metabolism, including Chrebp, Scgn, and Syt7. Among the non-responder genes were Car2, Maf, and Gcg, which are not normally expressed in islet β cells. Interestingly, we found a disproportionate number of known imprinted genes among the responder genes. Our findings suggest that the global expression profiling of GSIS-competent and GSIS-incompetent MIN6 cells will help delineate the gene regulatory networks for insulin secretion. PMID:23560115

  10. Rapid Normalization of High Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibody Titers and Preserved Endogenous Insulin Secretion in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Furukawa, Tatsuo; Koike, Tadashi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old Japanese woman developed diabetes mellitus without ketoacidosis in the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) (24.7 U/mL). After the amelioration of her hyperglycemia, the patient had a relatively preserved serum C-peptide level. Her endogenous insulin secretion capacity remained almost unchanged during 5 years of insulin therapy. The patient's GADA titers normalized within 15 months. The islet-related autoantibodies, including GADA, are believed to be produced following the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells and are predictive markers of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the transient appearance of GADA in our patient may have reflected pancreatic autoimmune processes that terminated without progression to insulin deficiency. PMID:26935368

  11. Bile acids acutely stimulate insulin secretion of mouse β-cells via farnesoid X receptor activation and K(ATP) channel inhibition.

    PubMed

    Düfer, Martina; Hörth, Katrin; Wagner, Rebecca; Schittenhelm, Björn; Prowald, Susanne; Wagner, Thomas F J; Oberwinkler, Johannes; Lukowski, Robert; Gonzalez, Frank J; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Drews, Gisela

    2012-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with alterations in bile acid (BA) signaling. The aim of our study was to test whether pancreatic β-cells contribute to BA-dependent regulation of glucose homeostasis. Experiments were performed with islets from wild-type, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) knockout (KO), and β-cell ATP-dependent K(+) (K(ATP)) channel gene SUR1 (ABCC8) KO mice, respectively. Sodium taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) increased glucose-induced insulin secretion. This effect was mimicked by the FXR agonist GW4064 and suppressed by the FXR antagonist guggulsterone. TCDC and GW4064 stimulated the electrical activity of β-cells and enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)). These effects were blunted by guggulsterone. Sodium ursodeoxycholate, which has a much lower affinity to FXR than TCDC, had no effect on [Ca(2+)](c) and insulin secretion. FXR activation by TCDC is suggested to inhibit K(ATP) current. The decline in K(ATP) channel activity by TCDC was only observed in β-cells with intact metabolism and was reversed by guggulsterone. TCDC did not alter insulin secretion in islets of SUR1-KO or FXR-KO mice. TCDC did not change islet cell apoptosis. This is the first study showing an acute action of BA on β-cell function. The effect is mediated by FXR by nongenomic elements, suggesting a novel link between FXR activation and K(ATP) channel inhibition. PMID:22492528

  12. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases were likely caused by Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca(2+)]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. PMID:25817999

  13. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets*

    PubMed Central

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca2+-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic β cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic β cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca2+]i increases were likely caused by Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca2+]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO β cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic β cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. PMID:25817999

  14. Gliadin fragments and a specific gliadin 33-mer peptide close KATP channels and induce insulin secretion in INS-1E cells and rat islets of langerhans.

    PubMed

    Dall, Morten; Calloe, Kirstine; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Schmitt, Nicole; Josefsen, Knud; Buschard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, diabetes incidence is reduced by a gluten-free diet. Gluten peptides, such as the compound gliadin, can cross the intestinal barrier and may directly affect pancreatic beta cells. We investigated the effects of enzymatically-digested gliadin in NOD mice, INS-1E cells and rat islets. Six injections of gliadin digest in 6-week-old NOD mice did not affect diabetes development, but increased weight gain (20% increase by day 100). In INS-1E cells, incubation with gliadin digest induced a dose-dependent increase in insulin secretion, up to 2.5-fold after 24 hours. A similar effect was observed in isolated rat islets (1.6-fold increase). In INS-1E cells, diazoxide reduced the stimulatory effect of gliadin digest. Additionally, gliadin digest was shown to decrease current through KATP-channels. A specific gliadin 33-mer had a similar effect, both on current and insulin secretion. Finally, INS-1E incubation with gliadin digest potentiated palmitate-induced insulin secretion by 13% compared to controls. Our data suggest that gliadin fragments may contribute to the beta-cell hyperactivity observed prior to the development of type 1 diabetes. PMID:23785500

  15. Visceral adipose tissue is not increased in Pima Indians compared with equally obese Caucasians and is not related to insulin action or secretion.

    PubMed

    Gautier, J F; Milner, M R; Elam, E; Chen, K; Ravussin, E; Pratley, R E

    1999-01-01

    Pima Indians are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic compared with Caucasians. We investigated whether abdominal fat distribution was different between Pimas and Caucasians and whether differences in the amount of visceral fat explained metabolic differences between the groups. Total body fat (absorptiometry) and abdominal fat distribution at L4-L5 (magnetic resonance imaging) were compared in 20 Pima Indians (10 men/10 women) and 20 age-, sex- and BMI-matched Caucasians. Insulin action was measured as glucose disposal during a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic glucose clamp and insulin secretion was assessed in response to oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. By design, percent body fat was similar in Pimas and Caucasians. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were also similar in the two groups (151+/-16 vs 139+/-15 cm2 and 489+/-61 vs 441+/-7 cm2 respectively). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pimas than Caucasians in the fasting state (27+/-6 vs 11+/-2 mU/ml; p < 0.01) and after a 75-g oral glucose load (area under the curve 19975+/-2626 vs 9293+/-1847 mU x l(-1) x 180 min(-1); p < 0.005). Glucose disposal was lower in Pimas than Caucasians during both steps of the clamp and negatively correlated (after adjustment for percent body fat and sex) with visceral adipose tissue in Caucasians (partial r = -0.51, p = 0.03), but not in Pima Indians (r = -0.03, p = 0.92). Insulin secretion was not related to visceral fat independently of percent body fat in either group. We conclude that a relative increase in visceral fat does not explain insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in Pima Indians. PMID:10027574

  16. Glucose enhances insulin promoter activity in MIN6 beta-cells independently of changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, H J; Rafiq, I; Pouli, A E; Rutter, G A

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that glucose may activate insulin gene transcription through increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, possibly acting via the release of stored insulin. We have investigated this question by dynamic photon-counting imaging of insulin- and c-fos-promoter-firefly luciferase reporter construct activity. Normalized to constitutive viral promoter activity, insulin promoter activity in MIN6 beta-cells was increased 1.6-fold after incubation at 30 mM compared with 3 mM glucose, but was unaltered at either glucose concentration by the presence of insulin (100 nM) or the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, verapamil (100 microM). Increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] achieved by plasma membrane depolarization with KCl failed to enhance either insulin or c-fos promoter activity in MIN6 cells, but increased c-fos promoter activity 5-fold in AtT20 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that glucose can exert a direct effect on insulin promoter activity in islet beta-cells, via a signalling pathway which does not require increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] nor insulin release and insulin receptor activation. PMID:10455011

  17. Understanding Genetic Heterogeneity in Type 2 Diabetes by Delineating Physiological Phenotypes: SIRT1 and its Gene Network in Impaired Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafat; Nafis, Shazia; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease which shows an exponential increase in all parts of the world. However, the disease is controllable by early detection and modified lifestyle. A series of factors have been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, and genes are considered to play a critical role. The individual risk of developing T2D is determined by an altered genetic background of the en-zymes involved in several metabolism-related biological mechanisms, including glucose homeostasis, insulin metab-olism, the glucose and ion transporters involved in glucose uptake, transcription factors, signaling intermediates of insulin signaling pathways, insulin production and secretion, pancreatic tissue development, and apoptosis. However, many candidate genes have shown heterogeneity of associations with the disease in different populations. A possible approach to resolving this complexity and under-standing genetic heterogeneity is to delineate the physiological phenotypes one by one as studying them in combination may cause discrepancies in association studies. A systems biology approach involving regulatory proteins, transcription factors, and microRNAs is one way to understand and identify key factors in complex diseases such as T2D. Our earlier studies have screened more than 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to more than 60 globally known T2D candidate genes in the Indian population. We observed that genes invariably involved in the activity of pancreatic β-cells provide susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Encouraged by these results, we attempted to delineate in this review one of the commonest physiological phenotypes in T2D, namely impaired insulin secretion, as the cause of hyperglycemia. This review is also intended to explain the genetic basis of the pathophysiology of insulin secretion in the context of variations in the SIRT1 gene, a major switch that modulates insulin secretion, and a set of other genes such

  18. Variance of the SGK1 Gene Is Associated with Insulin Secretion in Different European Populations: Results from the TUEF, EUGENE2, and METSIM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stančáková, Alena; Wang, Jianjung; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Sesti, Giorgio; Succurro, Elena; Smith, Ulf; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Machicao, Fausto; Schäfer, Silke; Lang, Florian; Risler, Teut; Ullrich, Susanne; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase 1 (SGK1) is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and may represent a candidate gene for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. Methods Three independent European populations were analyzed for the association of SGK1 gene (SGK) variations and insulin secretion traits. The German TUEF project provided the screening population (N = 725), and four tagging SNPs (rs1763527, rs1743966, rs1057293, rs9402571) were investigated. EUGENE2 (N = 827) served as a replication cohort for the detected associations. Finally, the detected associations were validated in the METSIM study, providing 3798 non-diabetic and 659 diabetic (type 2) individuals. Results Carriers of the minor G allele in rs9402571 had significantly higher C-peptide levels in the 2 h OGTT (+10.8%, p = 0.04; dominant model) and higher AUCC-Peptide/AUCGlc ratios (+7.5%, p = 0.04) compared to homozygous wild type TT carriers in the screening population. As interaction analysis for BMI×rs9402571 was significant (p = 0.04) for the endpoint insulin secretion, we stratified the TUEF cohort for BMI, using a cut off point of BMI = 25. The effect on insulin secretion only remained significant in lean TUEF participants (BMI≤25). This finding was replicated in lean EUGENE2 rs9402571 minor allele carriers, who had a significantly higher AUCIns/AUCGlc (TT: 226±7, XG: 246±9; p = 0.019). Accordingly, the METSIM trial revealed a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.71–1.01; p = 0.065, dominant model) in rs9402571 minor allele carriers. Conclusions The rs9402571 SGK genotype associates with increased insulin secretion in lean non-diabetic TUEF/EUGENE2 participants and with lower diabetes prevalence in METSIM. Our study in three independent European populations supports the conclusion that SGK variability affects diabetes risk. PMID:18985156

  19. Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Najem, Dema; Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Yang, Ze; Zhang, Wandong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity, tau pathology, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, all of which play roles in neurodegeneration. Insulin has polytrophic effects on neurons and may be at the center of these pathophysiological changes. In this study, we investigated possible relationships among insulin signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis, along with the effects of Aβ42 on these pathways in vitro. We found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) (N2a-AβPP) produced Aβ and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 (p-IRS-S612) as compared to parental N2a cells. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ42 also increased p-IRS-S612, suggesting that Aβ42 is responsible for insulin resistance. The insulin resistance was alleviated when N2a-AβPP cells were treated with higher insulin concentrations. Insulin increased Aβ release from N2a-AβPP cells, by which it may promote Aβ clearance. Insulin increased cholesterol-synthesis gene expression in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, including 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2). While Aβ42-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited increased HMGCR expression and c-Jun phosphorylation as pro-inflammatory responses, they also showed down-regulation of neuro-protective/anti-inflammatory DHCR24. These results suggest that Aβ42 may cause insulin resistance, activate JNK for c-Jun phosphorylation, and lead to dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, and that enhancing insulin signaling may relieve the insulin-resistant phenotype and the dysregulated cholesterol-synthesis pathway to promote A

  20. 2-Oxocarboxylic acids and function of pancreatic islets in obese–hyperglycaemic mice. Insulin secretion in relation to 45Ca uptake and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lenzen, Sigurd; Panten, Uwe

    1980-01-01

    The effects of aliphatic 2-oxocarboxylic acids, at concentrations of up to 40mm, on the function of pancreatic islets from ob/ob (obese–hyperglycaemic) mice were investigated. 1. 2-Oxopentanoate, dl-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate and 2-oxohexanoate all induced insulin release by isolated incubated islets and a biphasic insulin-secretory pattern in perfused mouse pancreas. The last two substances were similar in potency to glucose. Pyruvate, 2-oxobutyrate, 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxo-octanoate did not induce insulin release significantly. 2. 2-Oxocarboxylic acids with significant insulin-secretory potency also induced significant 45Ca uptake by isolated incubated islets. 3. The rates of decarboxylation of [1-14C]pyruvate, 3-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]butyrate and 4-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]pentanoate were twice as high as the rates of oxidation of the corresponding U-14C-labelled compounds. However, whereas the rates of metabolism of labelled pyruvate and 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate steadily increased over the concentration range 1–40mm, those of labelled 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate and d-[U-14C]glucose levelled off at concentrations above 10mm. 4. Omission of 40CaCl2 from the incubation medium reduced the rate of oxidation of the insulin secretagogue [U-14C]4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, but left that of the non-(insulin secretagogue) [U-14C]3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate unaffected. 5. Only glucose, and not pyruvate, 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate and 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, significantly inhibited oxidation of endogenous fatty acids. 6. It is suggested that stimulus–secretion coupling and the resulting exocytosis of insulin in pancreatic β-cells may modulate both fuel oxidation and 45Ca uptake. PMID:6989358

  1. [Rapid differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells under the sole induction of biological products].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Chun; Zhang, Yuan; Duan, A-Lin; Lin, Wei-Xia; Zheng, Qiao-Dan; Xu, Wen-Lu

    2010-02-25

    In order to explore the feasibility of inducing the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells with biological products alone, hUC-MSCs were separated and purified from the whole umbilical cord by the sequent digestion of collagenase II and trypsin followed by two-step centrifugation. hUC-MSCs were induced with IMDM culture medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). Before and after the induction, the morphological changes were observed under inverse microscope; the islet-related genes were detected by RT-PCR; islet-like clusters (ILCs) were identified by dithizone (DTZ) staining; PDX-1 and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were examined by immunofluorescence method; the quantity and quality of IRI secretion were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay and Western blot respectively. The results showed that the purified hUC-MSCs presented long spindle-like shape and parallel or spiral arrangement which are typical morphological features of MSCs. After the indu