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Sample records for phase protein app

  1. Physiological Functions of APP Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ulrike C.; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic evidence establishes a central role of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Biochemically, deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides produced from proteolytic processing of APP forms the defining pathological hallmark of AD; genetically, both point mutations and duplications of wild-type APP are linked to a subset of early onset of familial AD (FAD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. As such, the biological functions of APP and its processing products have been the subject of intense investigation, and the past 20+ years of research have met with both excitement and challenges. This article will review the current understanding of the physiological functions of APP in the context of APP family members. PMID:22355794

  2. UV Irradiation Accelerates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Processing and Disrupts APP Axonal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Falzone, Tomas L.; Shen, Zhouxin; Lillo, Concepcion; Killian, Rhiannon L.; Arreola, Angela S.; Niederst, Emily D.; Ng, Kheng S.; Kim, Sonia N.; Briggs, Steven P.; Williams, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and/or abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular levels of APP or its processing, and the physiological and pathological consequences of altered processing are not well understood. Here, using mouse and human cells, we found that neuronal damage induced by UV irradiation leads to specific APP, APLP1, and APLP2 decline by accelerating their secretase-dependent processing. Pharmacological inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal activity partially protects UV-induced APP processing implying contribution of the endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments in this process. We found that a biological consequence of UV-induced γ-secretase processing of APP is impairment of APP axonal transport. To probe the functional consequences of impaired APP axonal transport, we isolated and analyzed presumptive APP-containing axonal transport vesicles from mouse cortical synaptosomes using electron microscopy, biochemical, and mass spectrometry analyses. We identified a population of morphologically heterogeneous organelles that contains APP, the secretase machinery, molecular motors, and previously proposed and new residents of APP vesicles. These possible cargoes are enriched in proteins whose dysfunction could contribute to neuronal malfunction and diseases of the nervous system including AD. Together, these results suggest that damage-induced APP processing might impair APP axonal transport, which could result in failure of synaptic maintenance and neuronal dysfunction. PMID:24573290

  3. Glial expression of the {beta}-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in global ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, R.B.; Gehrmann, J.; Kreutzberg, G.W. ||

    1995-07-01

    The {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) bears characteristics of an acute-phase protein and therefore is likely to be involved in the glial response to brain injury. In the brain, APP is rapidly synthesized by activated glial cells in response to comparatively mild neuronal lesions, e.g., a remote peripheral nerve injury. Perfusion deficits in the brain result largely in neuronal necrosis and are a common condition in elderly patients. This neuronal necrosis is accompanied by a pronounced reaction of astrocytes and microglia, which can also be observed in animal models. We have therefore studied in the rat, immunocytochemically, the induction of APP after 30 min of global ischemia caused by four-vessel occlusion. The postischemic brain injuries were examined at survival times from 12 h to 7 days. From day 3 onward, APP immunoreactivity was strongly induced in the CA{sub 1} and CA{sub 4} regions of the rat dorsal hippocampus as well as in the dorsolateral striatum. In these areas, the majority of APP-immunoreactive cells were reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, as shown by double-immunofluorescence labeling for GFAP and APP. Additionally, small ramified cells, most likely activated microglia, expressed APP immunoreactivity. In contrast, in the parietal cortex, APP immunoreactivity occurred focally in clusters of activated microglia rather than in astrocytes, as demonstrated by double-immunofluorescence labeling for APP and the microglia-binding lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B{sub 4}. In conclusion, following global ischemia, APP is induced in reactive glial cells with spatial differences in the distribution pattern of APP induction in actrocytes and microglia. 51 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  5. Biochemical isolation of Argonaute protein complexes by Ago-APP

    PubMed Central

    Hauptmann, Judith; Schraivogel, Daniel; Bruckmann, Astrid; Manickavel, Sudhir; Jakob, Leonhard; Eichner, Norbert; Pfaff, Janina; Urban, Marc; Sprunck, Stefanie; Hafner, Markus; Tuschl, Thomas; Deutzmann, Rainer; Meister, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    During microRNA (miRNA)-guided gene silencing, Argonaute (Ago) proteins interact with a member of the TNRC6/GW protein family. Here we used a short GW protein-derived peptide fused to GST and demonstrate that it binds to Ago proteins with high affinity. This allows for the simultaneous isolation of all Ago protein complexes expressed in diverse species to identify associated proteins, small RNAs, or target mRNAs. We refer to our method as “Ago protein Affinity Purification by Peptides“ (Ago-APP). Furthermore, expression of this peptide competes for endogenous TNRC6 proteins, leading to global inhibition of miRNA function in mammalian cells. PMID:26351695

  6. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Affects Global Protein Synthesis in Dividing Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuang; Rambo, Brittany; Skucha, Sylvia; Weber, Megan J.; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on Notch-1 signaling for survival. Targeting Notch-1 by means of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) proved effective in killing hypoxic NSCLC. Post-mortem analysis of GSI-treated, NSCLC-burdened mice suggested enhanced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at threonines 37/46 in hypoxic tumor tissues. In vitro dissection of this phenomenon revealed that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) inhibition was responsible for a non-canonical 4E-BP1 phosphorylation pattern rearrangement—a process, in part, mediated by APP regulation of the pseudophosphatase Styx. Upon APP depletion we observed modifications of eIF-4F composition indicating increased recruitment of eIF-4A to the mRNA cap. This phenomenon was supported by the observation that cells with depleted APP were partially resistant to silvestrol, an antibiotic that interferes with eIF-4A assembly into eIF-4F complexes. APP downregulation in dividing human cells increased the rate of global protein synthesis, both cap- and IRES-dependent. Such an increase seemed independent of mTOR inhibition. After administration of Torin-1, APP downregulation and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC-1) inhibition affected 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and global protein synthesis in opposite fashions. Additional investigations indicated that APP operates independently of mTORC-1. Key phenomena described in this study were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain. The presented data suggest that APP may be a novel regulator of protein synthesis in dividing human cells, both cancerous and primary. Furthermore, APP appears to affect translation initiation using mechanisms seemingly dissimilar to mTORC-1 regulation of cap-dependent protein synthesis. PMID:25283437

  7. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) affects global protein synthesis in dividing human cells.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Liang, Shuang; Rambo, Brittany; Skucha, Sylvia; Weber, Megan J; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    Hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on Notch-1 signaling for survival. Targeting Notch-1 by means of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) proved effective in killing hypoxic NSCLC. Post-mortem analysis of GSI-treated, NSCLC-burdened mice suggested enhanced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at threonines 37/46 in hypoxic tumor tissues. In vitro dissection of this phenomenon revealed that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) inhibition was responsible for a non-canonical 4E-BP1 phosphorylation pattern rearrangement-a process, in part, mediated by APP regulation of the pseudophosphatase Styx. Upon APP depletion we observed modifications of eIF-4F composition indicating increased recruitment of eIF-4A to the mRNA cap. This phenomenon was supported by the observation that cells with depleted APP were partially resistant to silvestrol, an antibiotic that interferes with eIF-4A assembly into eIF-4F complexes. APP downregulation in dividing human cells increased the rate of global protein synthesis, both cap- and IRES-dependent. Such an increase seemed independent of mTOR inhibition. After administration of Torin-1, APP downregulation and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC-1) inhibition affected 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and global protein synthesis in opposite fashions. Additional investigations indicated that APP operates independently of mTORC-1. Key phenomena described in this study were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain. The presented data suggest that APP may be a novel regulator of protein synthesis in dividing human cells, both cancerous and primary. Furthermore, APP appears to affect translation initiation using mechanisms seemingly dissimilar to mTORC-1 regulation of cap-dependent protein synthesis. PMID:25283437

  8. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  9. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage. PMID:26414661

  10. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function. PMID:26924205

  11. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function. PMID:26924205

  12. APP overexpression in the absence of NPC1 exacerbates metabolism of amyloidogenic proteins of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Mahua; Peake, Kyle; Chung, JiYun; Wang, Yanlin; Vance, Jean E; Kar, Satyabrata

    2015-12-15

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides originating from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) are critical in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cellular cholesterol levels/distribution can regulate production and clearance of Aβ peptides, albeit with contradictory outcomes. To better understand the relationship between cholesterol homeostasis and APP/Aβ metabolism, we have recently generated a bigenic ANPC mouse line overexpressing mutant human APP in the absence of Niemann-Pick type C-1 protein required for intracellular cholesterol transport. Using this unique bigenic ANPC mice and complementary stable N2a cells, we have examined the functional consequences of cellular cholesterol sequestration in the endosomal-lysosomal system, a major site of Aβ production, on APP/Aβ metabolism and its relation to neuronal viability. Levels of APP C-terminal fragments (α-CTF/β-CTF) and Aβ peptides, but not APP mRNA/protein or soluble APPα/APPβ, were increased in ANPC mouse brains and N2a-ANPC cells. These changes were accompanied by reduced clearance of peptides and an increased level/activity of γ-secretase, suggesting that accumulation of APP-CTFs is due to decreased turnover, whereas increased Aβ levels may result from a combination of increased production and decreased turnover. APP-CTFs and Aβ peptides were localized primarily in early-/late-endosomes and to some extent in lysosomes/autophagosomes. Cholesterol sequestration impaired endocytic-autophagic-lysosomal, but not proteasomal, clearance of APP-CTFs/Aβ peptides. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress were increased in vulnerable brain regions of ANPC mice and enhanced β-CTF/Aβ levels increased susceptibility of N2a-ANPC cells to H2O2-induced toxicity. Collectively, our results show that cellular cholesterol sequestration plays a key role in APP/Aβ metabolism and increasing neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress in AD-related pathology. PMID:26433932

  13. Cytoplasmic Fragment of Alcadein α Generated by Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis Enhances Amyloid β-Protein Precursor (APP) Transport into the Late Secretory Pathway and Facilitates APP Cleavage*

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Norio; Sobu, Yuriko; Kimura, Ayano; Urano, Satomi; Piao, Yi; Araki, Yoichi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Hata, Saori; Nakaya, Tadashi; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The neural type I membrane protein Alcadein α (Alcα), is primarily cleaved by amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) α-secretase to generate a membrane-associated carboxyl-terminal fragment (Alcα CTF), which is further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alcα peptides and generate an intracellular cytoplasmic domain fragment (Alcα ICD) in the late secretory pathway. By association with the neural adaptor protein X11L (X11-like), Alcα and APP form a ternary complex that suppresses the cleavage of both Alcα and APP by regulating the transport of these membrane proteins into the late secretory pathway where secretases are active. However, it has not been revealed how Alcα and APP are directed from the ternary complex formed largely in the Golgi into the late secretory pathway to reach a nerve terminus. Using a novel transgenic mouse line expressing excess amounts of human Alcα CTF (hAlcα CTF) in neurons, we found that expression of hAlcα CTF induced excess production of hAlcα ICD, which facilitated APP transport into the nerve terminus and enhanced APP metabolism, including Aβ generation. In vitro cell studies also demonstrated that excess expression of Alcα ICD released both APP and Alcα from the ternary complex. These results indicate that regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Alcα by γ-secretase regulates APP trafficking and the production of Aβ in vivo. PMID:25406318

  14. Cytoplasmic fragment of Alcadein α generated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis enhances amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transport into the late secretory pathway and facilitates APP cleavage.

    PubMed

    Takei, Norio; Sobu, Yuriko; Kimura, Ayano; Urano, Satomi; Piao, Yi; Araki, Yoichi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Hata, Saori; Nakaya, Tadashi; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The neural type I membrane protein Alcadein α (Alcα), is primarily cleaved by amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) α-secretase to generate a membrane-associated carboxyl-terminal fragment (Alcα CTF), which is further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alcα peptides and generate an intracellular cytoplasmic domain fragment (Alcα ICD) in the late secretory pathway. By association with the neural adaptor protein X11L (X11-like), Alcα and APP form a ternary complex that suppresses the cleavage of both Alcα and APP by regulating the transport of these membrane proteins into the late secretory pathway where secretases are active. However, it has not been revealed how Alcα and APP are directed from the ternary complex formed largely in the Golgi into the late secretory pathway to reach a nerve terminus. Using a novel transgenic mouse line expressing excess amounts of human Alcα CTF (hAlcα CTF) in neurons, we found that expression of hAlcα CTF induced excess production of hAlcα ICD, which facilitated APP transport into the nerve terminus and enhanced APP metabolism, including Aβ generation. In vitro cell studies also demonstrated that excess expression of Alcα ICD released both APP and Alcα from the ternary complex. These results indicate that regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Alcα by γ-secretase regulates APP trafficking and the production of Aβ in vivo. PMID:25406318

  15. Acute phase protein response in Alpine ibex with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Lecchi, Cristina; Fraquelli, Cristina; Sartorelli, Paola; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2010-03-25

    The acute phase proteins (APP) are a group of serum proteins that change their concentration in animals following external or internal challenges, such as infection, inflammation or stress. The concentrations of four APPs, including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were determined in serum collected from healthy Alpine ibexes (Capra ibex) and ibexes with Sarcoptes scabiei mange. Primary structures of all four APPs were determined by cDNA sequencing. The concentrations of all four APPs were higher in serum of animals with clinical signs of sarcoptic mange when compared to healthy animals. Two of the APPs, including SAA and AGP, acted as major APPs, since their serum concentrations were increased more than 10-folds when compared to healthy animals (P<0.001). The other two APPs, including Hp and Cp, acted as minor acute phase proteins, as their concentrations were increased from two to five folds (P<0.001). These findings provide a remarkable potential as diagnostic markers for the early detection of sarcoptic mange in free ranging animals. PMID:20036058

  16. Deposition of BACE-1 Protein in the Brains of APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Xu, Hongxia; Huang, Yinuo; Mo, Dapeng; Song, Ligang; Jia, Baixue; Wang, Bo; Jin, Zhanqiang; Miao, Zhongrong

    2016-01-01

    The main causes of Alzheimer's disease remain elusive. Previous data have implicated the BACE-1 protein as a central player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, many inhibitors of BACE-1 have failed during preclinical and clinical trials for AD treatment. Therefore, uncovering the exact role of BACE-1 in AD may have significant impact on the future development of therapeutic agents. Three- and six-month-old female APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were used to study abnormal accumulation of BACE-1 protein in brains of mice here. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and western blot were performed to measure the distributing pattern and expression level of BACE-1. We found obvious BACE-1 protein accumulation in 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice, which had increased by the time of 6 months. Coimmunostaining results showed BACE-1 surrounded amyloid plaques in brain sections. The abnormal protein expression might not be attributable to the upregulation of BACE-1 protein, as no significant difference of protein expression was observed between wild-type and APP/PS1 mice. With antibodies against BACE-1 and CD31, we found a high immunoreactive density of BACE-1 protein on the outer layer of brain blood vessels. The aberrant distribution of BACE-1 in APP/PS1 mice suggests BACE-1 may be involved in the microvascular abnormality of AD. PMID:27294139

  17. Arsenic affects expression and processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary neuronal cells overexpressing the Swedish mutation of human APP.

    PubMed

    Zarazúa, Sergio; Bürger, Susanne; Delgado, Juan M; Jiménez-Capdeville, Maria E; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated water and soil, mining waste, glass manufacture, select agrochemicals, as well as sea food, affects millions of people world wide. Recently, an involvement of arsenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hypothesized (Gong and O'Bryant, 2010). The present study stresses the hypothesis whether sodium arsenite, and its main metabolite, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), may affect expression and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), using the cholinergic cell line SN56.B5.G4 and primary neuronal cells overexpressing the Swedish mutation of APP, as experimental approaches. Exposure of cholinergic SN56.B5.G4 cells with either sodium arsenite or DMA decreased cell viability in a concentration- and exposure-time dependent manner, and affected the activities of the cholinergic enzymes acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase. Both sodium arsenite and DMA exposure of SN56.B5.G4 cells resulted in enhanced level of APP, and sAPP in the membrane and cytosolic fractions, respectively. To reveal any effect of arsenic on APP processing, the amounts of APP cleavage products, sAPPβ, and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, released into the culture medium of primary neuronal cells derived from transgenic Tg2576 mice, were assessed by ELISA. Following exposure of neuronal cells by sodium arsenite for 12h, the membrane-bound APP level was enhanced, the amount of sAPPβ released into the culture medium was slightly higher, while the levels of Aβ peptides in the culture medium were considerably lower as compared to that assayed in the absence of any drug. The sodium arsenite-induced reduction of Aβ formation suggests an inhibition of the APP γ-cleavage step by arsenite. In contrast, DMA exposure of neuronal cells considerably increased formation of Aβ and sAPPβ, accompanied by enhanced membrane APP level. The DMA-induced changes in APP processing may be the result of the enhanced APP expression. Alternatively, increased Aβ production

  18. Altered temporal patterns of anxiety in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Herring, Kamillya L.; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2011-01-01

    Both normal aging and dementia are associated with dysregulation of the biological clock, which contributes to disrupted circadian organization of physiology and behavior. Diminished circadian organization in conjunction with the loss of cholinergic input to the cortex likely contributes to impaired cognition and behavior. One especially notable and relatively common circadian disturbance among the aged is “sundowning syndrome,” which is characterized by exacerbated anxiety, agitation, locomotor activity, and delirium during the hours before bedtime. Sundowning has been reported in both dementia patients and cognitively intact elderly individuals living in institutions; however, little is known about temporal patterns in anxiety and agitation, and the neurobiological basis of these rhythms remains unspecified. In the present study, we explored the diurnal pattern of anxiety-like behavior in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We then attempted to treat the observed behavioral disturbances in the aged mice using chronic nightly melatonin treatment. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that time-of-day differences in acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase expression and general neuronal activation (i.e., c-Fos expression) coincide with the behavioral symptoms. Our results show a temporal pattern of anxiety-like behavior that emerges in elderly mice. This behavioral pattern coincides with elevated locomotor activity relative to adult mice near the end of the dark phase, and with time-dependent changes in basal forebrain acetylcholinesterase expression. Transgenic APP mice show a similar behavioral phenomenon that is not observed among age-matched wild-type mice. These results may have useful applications to the study and treatment of age- and dementia-related circadian behavioral disturbances, namely, sundowning syndrome. PMID:21709248

  19. Y682G Mutation of Amyloid Precursor Protein Promotes Endo-Lysosomal Dysfunction by Disrupting APP-SorLA Interaction.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Luca Rosario; Perrone, Lorena; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Calissano, Pietro; Andersen, Olav Michael; Matrone, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular transport and localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are critical determinants of APP processing and β-amyloid peptide production, thus crucially important for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, the C-terminal Y682ENPTY687 domain of APP binds to specific adaptors controlling APP trafficking and sorting in neurons. Mutation on the Y682 residue to glycine (Y682G) leads to altered APP sorting in hippocampal neurons that favors its accumulation in intracellular compartments and the release of soluble APPα. Such alterations induce premature aging and learning and cognitive deficits in APP Y682G mutant mice (APP (YG/YG) ). Here, we report that Y682G mutation affects formation of the APP complex with sortilin-related receptor (SorLA), resulting in endo-lysosomal dysfunctions and neuronal degeneration. Moreover, disruption of the APP/SorLA complex changes the trafficking pathway of SorLA, with its consequent increase in secretion outside neurons. Mutations in the SorLA gene are a prognostic factor in AD, and changes in SorLA levels in cerebrospinal fluid are predictive of AD in humans. These results might open new possibilities in comprehending the role played by SorLA in its interaction with APP and in the progression of neuronal degeneration. In addition, they further underline the crucial role played by Y682 residue in controlling APP trafficking in neurons. PMID:25904844

  20. Effects of APP 5-mer peptide analogue P165 on the synaptic proteins and insulin signal transduction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bo; Hu, Peng; Lu, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rong; Du, Yi-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our previous findings indicated that DE animals had impairment of learning and memory and degeneration of hippocampal neurons, which could be improved by neurotrophic peptide. APP 17-mer peptide is a synthesized peptide sequenced from soluble amyloid precursor protein. APP 17-mer peptide has neural protective effect, but is susceptible to enzyme degradation. Soluble APP 5-mer peptide is the active form of APP 17-mer peptide, and composed of arginine, glutamic acid, arginine, methionine and serine. P165, an APP 5-mer peptide analog reconstructed by our lab, is resistant to enzyme degradation, and can be orally used to protect neurons. In the present study, high glucose and Aβ25-35 were used to cause injury to human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in vitro, and streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in mice in vivo. The changes in synaptic proteins and proteins of insulin signal transduction which closely correlate with learning and memory were detected in these cells and the brain of mice. Results showed that P165 could up-regulate the expression of α-synuclein and insulin receptor (IR), down-regulate the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), PSD-95, Shank1 and MAPK expression. All these findings suggest that nicorandil might be a potential drug used for the treatment of AD. PMID:24753747

  1. Depletion of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) causes G0 arrest in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Weber, Megan J.; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) regulates global protein synthesis in a variety of human dividing cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. More specifically, APP depletion causes an increase of both cap- and IRES-dependent translation. Since growth and proliferation are tightly coupled processes, here we asked what effects artificial downregulation of APP could have elicited in NSCLC cells proliferation. APP depletion caused a G0/G1 arrest through destabilization of the cyclin-C protein and reduced pRb phosphorylation at residues Ser802/811. siRNA to cyclin-C mirrored the cell cycle distribution observed when silencing APP. Cells arrested in G0/G1 (and with augmented global protein synthesis) increased their size and underwent a necrotic cell death due to cell membrane permeabilization. These phenotypes were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain, indicating a novel role for APP in regulating early cell cycle entry decisions. It is seems that APP moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell clears growth factors- and nutrients-dependent checkpoint in mid G1. Our results raise questions on how such processes interact in the context of (at least) dividing NSCLC cells. The data presented here suggest that APP, although required for G0/G1 transitions, moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell fully commits to cell cycle progression following mechanisms, which seem additional to concurrent signals deriving from the PI3-K/Akt/mTORC-1 axis. APP appears to play a central role in regulating cell cycle entry with the rate of protein synthesis; and its loss-of-function causes cell size abnormalities and death. PMID:25502341

  2. Depletion of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) causes G0 arrest in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Weber, Megan J; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) regulates global protein synthesis in a variety of human dividing cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. More specifically, APP depletion causes an increase of both cap- and IRES-dependent translation. Since growth and proliferation are tightly coupled processes, here, we asked what effects artificial downregulation of APP could have elicited in NSCLC cells proliferation. APP depletion caused a G0/G1 arrest through destabilization of the cyclin-C protein and reduced pRb phosphorylation at residues Ser802/811. siRNA to cyclin-C mirrored the cell cycle distribution observed when silencing APP. Cells arrested in G0/G1 (and with augmented global protein synthesis) increased their size and underwent a necrotic cell death due to cell membrane permeabilization. These phenotypes were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain, indicating a novel role for APP in regulating early cell cycle entry decisions. It is seems that APP moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell clears growth factors- and nutrients-dependent checkpoint in mid G1. Our results raise questions on how such processes interact in the context of (at least) dividing NSCLC cells. The data presented here suggest that APP, although required for G0/G1 transitions, moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell fully commits to cell cycle progression following mechanisms, which seem additional to concurrent signals deriving from the PI3-K/Akt/mTORC-1 axis. APP appears to play a central role in regulating cell cycle entry with the rate of protein synthesis; and its loss-of-function causes cell size abnormalities and death. PMID:25502341

  3. Rare variants in β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Eva C; Fukumori, Akio; Mollenhauer, Brit; Hor, Hyun; Arzberger, Thomas; Perneczky, Robert; Kurz, Alexander; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Hüll, Michael; Lichtner, Peter; Eckstein, Gertrud; Zimprich, Alexander; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Pirker, Walter; Brücke, Thomas; Bereznai, Benjamin; Molnar, Maria J; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Pastor, Pau; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Estivill, Xavier; Meitinger, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Haass, Christian; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2015-10-01

    Many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop cognitive deficits, and a phenotypic and molecular overlap between neurodegenerative diseases exists. We investigated the contribution of rare variants in seven genes of known relevance to dementias (β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), PSEN1/2, MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau), fused in sarcoma (FUS), granulin (GRN) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)) to PD and PD plus dementia (PD+D) in a discovery sample of 376 individuals with PD and followed by the genotyping of 25 out of the 27 identified variants with a minor allele frequency <5% in 975 individuals with PD, 93 cases with Lewy body disease on neuropathological examination, 613 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 182 cases with frontotemporal dementia and 1014 general population controls. Variants identified in APP were functionally followed up by Aβ mass spectrometry in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. PD+D cases harbored more rare variants across all the seven genes than PD individuals without dementia, and rare variants in APP were more common in PD cases overall than in either the AD cases or controls. When additional controls from publically available databases were added, one rare variant in APP (c.1795G>A(p.(E599K))) was significantly associated with the PD phenotype but was not found in either the PD cases or controls of an independent replication sample. One of the identified rare variants (c.2125G>A (p.(G709S))) shifted the Aβ spectrum from Aβ40 to Aβ39 and Aβ37. Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, our data suggest a possible role for APP in modifying the PD phenotype as well as a general contribution of genetic factors to the development of dementia in individuals with PD. PMID:25604855

  4. Structural Studies of the Transmembrane C-Terminal Domain of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP): Does APP Function as a Cholesterol Sensor?†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Beel, Andrew J.; Mobley, Charles K.; Kim, Hak Jun; Tian, Fang; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Jap, Bing; Prestegard, James H.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is subject to alternative pathways of proteolytic processing, leading either to production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides or to non-amyloidogenic fragments. Here, we report the first structural study of C99, the 99-residue transmembrane C-terminal domain of APP liberated by β-secretase cleavage. We also show that cholesterol, an agent that promotes the amyloidogenic pathway, specifically binds to this protein. C99 was purified into model membranes where it was observed to homodimerize. NMR data show that the transmembrane domain of C99 is an α-helix that is flanked on both sides by mostly disordered extramembrane domains, with two exceptions. First, there is a short extracellular surface-associated helix located just after the site of α-secretase cleavage that helps to organize the connecting loop to the transmembrane domain, which is known to be essential for Aβ production. Second, there is a surface-associated helix located at the cytosolic C-terminus, adjacent to the YENPTY motif that plays critical roles in APP trafficking and protein–protein interactions. Cholesterol was seen to participate in saturable interactions with C99 that are centered at the critical loop connecting the extracellular helix to the transmembrane domain. Binding of cholesterol to C99 and, most likely, to APP may be critical for the trafficking of these proteins to cholesterol-rich membrane domains, which leads to cleavage by β- and γ-secretase and resulting amyloid-β production. It is proposed that APP may serve as a cellular cholesterol sensor that is linked to mechanisms for suppressing cellular cholesterol uptake. PMID:18702528

  5. The roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurogenesis, implications to pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer disease (AD)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Quan-hong; Xu, Xiao-hong

    2011-01-01

    The amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is the derivative of amyloid precursor protein (APP) generated through sequential proteolytic processing by β- and γ-secretases. Excessive accumulation of Aβ, the main constituent of amyloid plaques, has been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). It was found recently that the impairments of neurogenesis in brain were associated with the pathogenesis of AD. Furthermore recent findings implicated that APP could function to influence proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) and might regulate transcriptional activity of various genes. Studies demonstrated that influence of neurogenesis by APP is conferred differently via its two separate domains, soluble secreted APPs (sAPPs, mainly sAPPα) and APP intracellular domain (AICD). The sAPPα was shown to be neuroprotective and important to neurogenesis, whereas AICD was found to negatively modulate neurogenesis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated recently that microRNA could function to regulate APP expression, APP processing, Aβ accumulation and subsequently influence neurotoxicity and neurogenesis related to APP, which was implicated to AD pathogenesis, especially for sporadic AD. Based on data accumulated, secretase balances were proposed. These secretase balances could influence the downstream balance related to regulation of neurogenesis by AICD and sAPPα as well as balance related to influence of neuron viability by Aβ and sAPPα. Disruption of these secretase balances could be culprits to AD onset. PMID:21785276

  6. Analysis of the overall structure of the multi-domain amyloid precursor protein (APP).

    PubMed

    Coburger, Ina; Dahms, Sven O; Roeser, Dirk; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Hortschansky, Peter; Than, Manuel E

    2013-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its processing by the α-, β- and γ-secretases is widely believed to play a central role during the development of Alzheimer´s disease. The three-dimensional structure of the entire protein, its physiologic function and the regulation of its proteolytic processing remain, however, largely unclear to date. To gain a deeper understanding of the structure of APP that underlies all of its functions, we first cloned and recombinantly expressed different constructs in E. coli. Using limited proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation as well as analytical gel permeation chromatography coupled static light scattering, we experimentally analyzed the structural domain boundaries and determined that the large ectodomain of APP consists of exactly two rigidly folded domains - the E1-domain (Leu18-Ala190) and the E2-domain (Ser295-Asp500). Both, the acidic domain (AcD) connecting E1 and E2 as well as the juxtamembrane region (JMR) connecting E2 to the single transmembrane helix are highly flexible and extended. We identified in-between the E1-domain and the AcD an additional domain of conservation and partial flexibility that we termed extension domain (ED, Glu191-Glu227). Using Bio-layer interferometry, pull-down assays and analytical gel filtration experiments we demonstrated that the E1-domain does not tightly interact with the E2-domain, both in the presence and in the absence of heparin. APP hence forms an extended molecule that is flexibly tethered to the membrane. Its multi-domain architecture enables together with the many known functionalities the concomitant performance of several, independent functions, which might be regulated by cellular, compartment specific pH-changes. PMID:24324731

  7. The Golgi-Localized γ-Ear-Containing ARF-Binding (GGA) Proteins Alter Amyloid-β Precursor Protein (APP) Processing through Interaction of Their GAE Domain with the Beta-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1).

    PubMed

    von Einem, Bjoern; Wahler, Anke; Schips, Tobias; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Proepper, Christian; Boeckers, Tobias M; Rueck, Angelika; Wirth, Thomas; Hyman, Bradley T; Danzer, Karin M; Thal, Dietmar R; von Arnim, Christine A F

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the initial step in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), which accumulates in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Essential for this cleavage is the transport and sorting of both proteins through endosomal/Golgi compartments. Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding (GGA) proteins have striking cargo-sorting functions in these pathways. Recently, GGA1 and GGA3 were shown to interact with BACE1, to be expressed in neurons, and to be decreased in AD brain, whereas little is known about GGA2. Since GGA1 impacts Aβ generation by confining APP to the Golgi and perinuclear compartments, we tested whether all GGAs modulate BACE1 and APP transport and processing. We observed decreased levels of secreted APP alpha (sAPPα), sAPPβ, and Aβ upon GGA overexpression, which could be reverted by knockdown. GGA-BACE1 co-immunoprecipitation was impaired upon GGA-GAE but not VHS domain deletion. Autoinhibition of the GGA1-VHS domain was irrelevant for BACE1 interaction. Our data suggest that all three GGAs affect APP processing via the GGA-GAE domain. PMID:26053850

  8. The Golgi-Localized γ-Ear-Containing ARF-Binding (GGA) Proteins Alter Amyloid-β Precursor Protein (APP) Processing through Interaction of Their GAE Domain with the Beta-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1)

    PubMed Central

    Schips, Tobias; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Proepper, Christian; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Rueck, Angelika; Wirth, Thomas; Hyman, Bradley T.; Danzer, Karin M.; Thal, Dietmar R.; von Arnim, Christine A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the initial step in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), which accumulates in senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Essential for this cleavage is the transport and sorting of both proteins through endosomal/Golgi compartments. Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding (GGA) proteins have striking cargo-sorting functions in these pathways. Recently, GGA1 and GGA3 were shown to interact with BACE1, to be expressed in neurons, and to be decreased in AD brain, whereas little is known about GGA2. Since GGA1 impacts Aβ generation by confining APP to the Golgi and perinuclear compartments, we tested whether all GGAs modulate BACE1 and APP transport and processing. We observed decreased levels of secreted APP alpha (sAPPα), sAPPβ, and Aβ upon GGA overexpression, which could be reverted by knockdown. GGA-BACE1 co-immunoprecipitation was impaired upon GGA-GAE but not VHS domain deletion. Autoinhibition of the GGA1-VHS domain was irrelevant for BACE1 interaction. Our data suggest that all three GGAs affect APP processing via the GGA-GAE domain. PMID:26053850

  9. Early post parturient changes in milk acute phase proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Funmilola C; Waterston, Mary; Hastie, Peter; Haining, Hayley; Eckersall, P David

    2016-08-01

    The periparturient period is one of the most critical periods in the productive life of a dairy cow, and is the period when dairy cows are most susceptible to developing new intramammary infections (IMI) leading to mastitis. Acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been detected in milk during mastitis but their presence in colostrum and milk in the immediate postpartum period has had limited investigation. The hypothesis was tested that APP are a constituent of colostrum and milk during this period. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to determine each APP's concentration in colostrum and milk collected daily from the first to tenth day following calving in 22 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Haptoglobin was assessed in individual quarters and composite milk samples while M-SAA3 and CRP concentration were determined in composite milk samples. Change in Hp in relation to the high abundance proteins during the transition from colostrum to milk were evaluated by 1 and 2 dimension electrophoresis and western blot. In 80% of the cows all APPs were detected in colostrum on the first day following parturition at moderately high levels but gradually decreased to minimal values in the milk by the 6th day after calving. The remaining cows (20%) showed different patterns in the daily milk APP concentrations and when an elevated level is detected could reflect the presence of IMI. Demonstration that APP are present in colostrum and milk following parturition but fall to low levels within 4 days means that elevated APP after this time could be biomarkers of post parturient mastitis allowing early intervention to reduce disease on dairy farms. PMID:27600971

  10. Opposite Dysregulation of Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein and Heteronuclear Ribonucleoprotein C Protein Associates with Enhanced APP Translation in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Borreca, Antonella; Gironi, Katia; Amadoro, Giusy; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2016-07-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is overexpressed in familiar and sporadic Alzheimer Disease (AD) patients suggesting that, in addition to abnormalities in APP cleavage, enhanced levels of APP full length might contribute to the pathology. Based on data showing that the two RNA binding proteins (RBPs), Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) and heteronuclear Ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C), exert an opposite control on APP translation, we have analyzed whether expression and translation of these two RBPs vary in relation to changes in APP protein and mRNA levels in the AD brain at 1, 3, and 6 months of age. Here, we show that, as expected, human APP is overexpressed in hippocampal total extract from Tg2576 mice at all age points. APP overexpression, however, is not stable over time but reaches its maximal level in 1-month-old mutants in association with the stronger (i) reduction of FMRP and (ii) augmentation of hnRNP C. APP levels then decrease progressively as a function of age in close relationship with the gradual normalization of FMRP and hnRNP C levels. Consistent with the mouse data, expression of FMRP and hnRNP C are, respectively, decreased and increased in hippocampal synaptosomes from sporadic AD patients. Our findings identify two RBP targets that might be manipulated for reducing abnormally elevated levels of APP in the AD brain, with the hypothesis that acting upstream of amyloidogenic processing might contribute to attenuate the amyloid burden. PMID:26048669

  11. The APP-Interacting Protein FE65 is Required for Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Moon, Changjong; Hu, Qubai; Wang, Baiping; Martin, George; Sun, Zhongsheng; Wang, Hongbing

    2009-01-01

    FE65 is expressed predominantly in the brain and interacts with the C-terminal domain of [beta]-amyloid precursor protein (APP). We examined hippocampus-dependent memory and in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at the CA1 synapses with isoform-specific FE65 knockout (p97FE65[superscript -/-]) mice. When examined using the Morris water maze,…

  12. Age and gene overexpression interact to abolish nesting behavior in Tg2576 amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Daniel W; Wilson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the modulators of social behavioral is important in understanding the neural basis of behavior and in developing methods to enhance behavior in cases of disorder. The work here stems from the observation that the Alzheimer's disease mouse model Tg2576, overexpressing human mutations of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), fails to construct nests when supplied paper towels in their home cages. Experiments using commercially available cotton nesting material found similar results. Additional experiments revealed that the genotype effect is progressively modulated by age in APP mice but not their WT counterparts. There was no effect of sex on nesting behavior in any group. Finally, this effect was independent of ambient temperature - even when subjected to a cold environment, APP mice fail to build nests whereas WT mice do. These results suggest that the APP gene plays a role in affiliative behaviors and are discussed in relation to disorders characteristic of mutations in the APP gene and in affective dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20804789

  13. Holo-APP and G-protein-mediated signaling are required for sAPPα-induced activation of the Akt survival pathway.

    PubMed

    Milosch, N; Tanriöver, G; Kundu, A; Rami, A; François, J-C; Baumkötter, F; Weyer, S W; Samanta, A; Jäschke, A; Brod, F; Buchholz, C J; Kins, S; Behl, C; Müller, U C; Kögel, D

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that loss of physiologic amyloid precursor protein (APP) function leads to reduced neuronal plasticity, diminished synaptic signaling and enhanced susceptibility of neurons to cellular stress during brain aging. Here we investigated the neuroprotective function of the soluble APP ectodomain sAPPα (soluble APPα), which is generated by cleavage of APP by α-secretase along the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Recombinant sAPPα protected primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from cell death induced by trophic factor deprivation. We show that this protective effect is abrogated in neurons from APP-knockout animals and APP-depleted SH-SY5Y cells, but not in APP-like protein 1- and 2- (APLP1 and APLP2) depleted cells, indicating that expression of membrane-bound holo-APP is required for sAPPα-dependent neuroprotection. Trophic factor deprivation diminished the activity of the Akt survival pathway. Strikingly, both recombinant sAPPα and the APP-E1 domain were able to stimulate Akt activity in wild-type (wt) fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y cells and neurons, but failed to rescue in APP-deficient neurons or fibroblasts. The ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) inhibitor GI254023X exacerbated neuron death in organotypic (hippocampal) slice cultures of wt mice subjected to trophic factor and glucose deprivation. This cell death-enhancing effect of GI254023X could be completely rescued by applying exogenous sAPPα. Interestingly, sAPPα-dependent Akt induction was unaffected in neurons of APP-ΔCT15 mice that lack the C-terminal YENPTY motif of the APP intracellular region. In contrast, sAPPα-dependent rescue of Akt activation was completely abolished in APP mutant cells lacking the G-protein interaction motif located in the APP C-terminus and by blocking G-protein-dependent signaling with pertussis toxin. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights into the physiologic role of APP in

  14. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens. PMID:26908886

  15. Genomic mosaicism with increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number in single neurons from sporadic Alzheimer's disease brains

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Diane M; Kaeser, Gwendolyn E; Siddoway, Benjamin; Westra, Jurgen W; Rivera, Richard R; Rehen, Stevens K; Yung, Yun C; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that individual neurons of the brain can display somatic genomic mosaicism of unknown function. In this study, we report altered genomic mosaicism in single, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons characterized by increases in DNA content and amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number. AD cortical nuclei displayed large variability with average DNA content increases of ∼8% over non-diseased controls that were unrelated to trisomy 21. Two independent single-cell copy number analyses identified amplifications at the APP locus. The use of single-cell qPCR identified up to 12 copies of APP in sampled neurons. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting APP, combined with super-resolution microscopy detected primarily single fluorescent signals of variable intensity that paralleled single-cell qPCR analyses. These data identify somatic genomic changes in single neurons, affecting known and unknown loci, which are increased in sporadic AD, and further indicate functionality for genomic mosaicism in the CNS. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05116.001 PMID:25650802

  16. Phosphorylation of APP-CTF-AICD domains and interaction with adaptor proteins: signal transduction and/or transcriptional role--relevance for Alzheimer pathology.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Gennaro; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Rodriguez, Guido

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, the study of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its proteolytic products carboxy terminal fragment (CTF), APP intracellular C-terminal domain (AICD) and amyloid beta has been mostly focussed on the role of APP as a producer of the toxic amyloid beta peptide. Here, we reconsider the role of APP suggesting, in a provocative way, the protein as a central player in a putative signalling pathway. We highlight the presence in the cytosolic tail of APP of the YENPTY motif which is typical of tyrosine kinase receptors, the phosphorylation of the tyrosine, serine and threonine residues, the kinases involved and the interaction with intracellular adaptor proteins. In particular, we examine the interaction with Shc and Grb2 regulators, which through the activation of Ras proteins elicit downstream signalling events such as the MAPK pathway. The review also addresses the interaction of APP, CTFs and AICD with other adaptor proteins and in particular with Fe65 for nuclear transcriptional activity and the importance of phosphorylation for sorting the secretases involved in the amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic pathways. We provide a novel perspective on Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, focussing on the perturbation of the physiological activities of APP-CTFs and AICD as an alternative perspective from that which normally focuses on the accumulation of neurotoxic proteolytic fragments. PMID:21039524

  17. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

    PubMed Central

    Gånheim, C; Höglund, J; Waller, K Persson

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP) haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I) 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3) once daily for 2 consecutive days, II) 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III) 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals. PMID:15535088

  18. Nucleofection of Rat Pheochromocytoma PC-12 Cells with Human Mutated Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP-sw) Leads to Reduced Viability, Autophagy-Like Process, and Increased Expression and Secretion of Beta Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Pająk, Beata; Kania, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells are immune to physiological stimuli directed to evoke programmed cell death. Besides, metabolic inhibitors are incapable of sensitizing PC-12 cells to extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis unless they are used in toxic concentrations. Surprisingly, these cells become receptive to cell deletion after human APP-sw gene expression. We observed reduced cell viability in GFP vector + APP-sw-nucleofected cells (drop by 36%) but not in GFP vector − or GFP vector + APP-wt-nucleofected cells. Lower viability was accompanied by higher expression of Aβ 1-16 and elevated secretion of Aβ 1-40 (in average 53.58 pg/mL). At the ultrastructural level autophagy-like process was demonstrated to occur in APP-sw-nucleofected cells with numerous autophagosomes and multivesicular bodies but without autolysosomes. Human APP-sw gene is harmful to PC-12 cells and cells are additionally driven to incomplete autophagy-like process. When stimulated by TRAIL or nystatin, CLU protein expression accompanies early phase of autophagy. PMID:25821818

  19. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) triplicated gene impairs neuronal precursor differentiation and neurite development through two different domains in the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trazzi, Stefania; Fuchs, Claudia; Valli, Emanuele; Perini, Giovanni; Bartesaghi, Renata; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2013-07-19

    Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) appears to be related to severe proliferation impairment during brain development. Recent evidence shows that it is not only cellular proliferation that is heavily compromised in DS, but also cell fate specification and dendritic maturation. The amyloid precursor protein (APP), a gene that is triplicated in DS, plays a key role in normal brain development by influencing neural precursor cell proliferation, cell fate specification, and neuronal maturation. APP influences these processes via two separate domains, the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the soluble secreted APP. We recently found that the proliferation impairment of neuronal precursors (NPCs) from the Ts65Dn mouse model for DS was caused by derangement of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of patched1(Ptch1), its inhibitory regulator. Ptch1 overexpression was related to increased levels within the APP/AICD system. The overall goal of this study was to determine whether APP contributes to neurogenesis impairment in DS by influencing in addition to proliferation, cell fate specification, and neurite development. We found that normalization of APP expression restored the reduced neuronogenesis, the increased astrogliogenesis, and the reduced neurite length of trisomic NPCs, indicating that APP overexpression underpins all aspects of neurogenesis impairment. Moreover, we found that two different domains of APP impair neuronal differentiation and maturation in trisomic NPCs. The APP/AICD system regulates neuronogenesis and neurite length through the Shh pathway, whereas the APP/secreted AP system promotes astrogliogenesis through an IL-6-associated signaling cascade. These results provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying brain development alterations in DS. PMID:23740250

  20. Memantine treatment decreases levels of secreted Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A beta) peptide in the human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Banerjee, Pradeep K; Greig, Nigel H; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2010-02-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, is a FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have documented protective roles of memantine against amyloid beta (A beta) peptide-mediated damage to neurons in both in vitro and in vivo models. Memantine is also effective in reducing amyloid burden in the brain of APP transgenic mice. However, the exact mechanism by which memantine provides protection against A beta-mediated neurodegenerative cascade, including APP metabolism, remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effect of memantine on levels of the secreted form of A beta precursor protein (APP), secreted A beta and cell viability markers under short/acute conditions. We treated neuronal SK-N-SH cells with 10 microM memantine and measured levels of secreted total APP (sAPP), APP alpha isoform and A beta((1-40)) in a time dependent manner for up to 24h. Memantine significantly decreased the levels of the secreted form of sAPP, sAPP alpha and A beta((1-40)) compared to vehicle treated cells. This change started as early as 8h and continued for up to 24h of drug treatment. Unlike sAPP, a slight non-significant increase in total intracellular APP level was observed in 24-h treated memantine cells. Taken together, these results suggest a role for memantine in the transport or trafficking of APP molecules away from the site of their proteolytic cleavage by the secretase enzymes. Such a novel property of memantine warrants further study to define its therapeutic utility. PMID:19948208

  1. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Baybutt, Herbert; Diack, Abigail B.; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5). Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production. PMID:27447728

  2. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Isobel J; Brown, Deborah; Baybutt, Herbert; Diack, Abigail B; Kellett, Katherine A B; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C; Hooper, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5). Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production. PMID:27447728

  3. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli).

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Hammond, Elizabeth; Haefele, Holly

    2013-12-01

    Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli) are commonly kept in zoos and are subject to routine health monitoring and research studies. Recently, assays for acute phase proteins (APP) have been described in many wildlife species, and specific assays for serum amyloid A (SAA) have been well validated and studied in horses (Equus ferus caballus), in which it serves as a major APP. In the present study, serum samples from 26 Grant's zebra were subject to analysis by using assays for SAA, haptoglobin (HP), and protein electrophoresis. Reference intervals were calculated by using the robust method: SAA 1.8-31.4 mg/L and HP 0.37-1.58 mg/ml. Significant differences in SAA and HP were observed in clinically abnormal zebra; in some cases, these differences were marked and were noted in the absence of abnormal values for protein electrophoretic fractions. These data indicate that APP may be a valuable and sensitive tool in monitoring inflammation in this species. PMID:24450080

  4. Acute-phase protein response in pigs experimentally infected with Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Martín de la Fuente, A J; Carpintero, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Alava, M A; Lampreave, F; Gutiérrez Martín, C B

    2010-12-01

    The acute-phase protein (APP) response to an infection caused by Haemophilus parasuis, the etiological agent of Glässer's disease in pigs, was characterized measuring serum concentrations of pig major acute-phase protein (pig MAP), haptoglobin (HPT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in colostrum-deprived pigs. They were divided into six experimental groups: non-immunized control group (I); immunized with a non-commercial bacterin (II); with an OMP-vaccine (III); with a sublethal dose (IV); and with two commercial bacterins (V and VI). All groups were challenged intratracheally with 5 × 10(9)CFU of H. parasuis 37 days after immunisation. The highest levels of the positive APPs (pig MAP, HPT and CRP) and the lowest levels of the negative APPs (ApoA-I) were observed in the animals that died as a consequence of the infection, both those in the non-immunized and in the immunized groups. However, the surviving animals (all of them in groups II, V and VI, two pigs in group III, and three in group IV) showed a minor variation in APP response, mainly on day 1 post-challenge (p.c.), and then tended to recover the initial values. APP response was still less pronounced in the groups of pigs previously immunized with bacterins. In conclusion, APP response can reflect Glässer-disease ongoing, showing a correlation between the severity and duration of the clinical signs and lesions and the magnitude of changes in the APP levels. PMID:19117607

  5. Impaired theta-gamma coupling in APP-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhong, Wewei; Brankačk, Jurij; Weyer, Sascha W.; Müller, Ulrike C.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, but its physiological functions remain elusive. Importantly, APP knockout (APP-KO) mice exhibit cognitive deficits, suggesting that APP plays a role at the neuronal network level. To investigate this possibility, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the posterior parietal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex of freely moving APP-KO mice. Spectral analyses showed that network oscillations within the theta- and gamma-frequency bands were not different between APP-KO and wild-type mice. Surprisingly, however, while gamma amplitude coupled to theta phase in all recorded regions of wild-type animals, in APP-KO mice theta-gamma coupling was strongly diminished in recordings from the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but not in LFPs recorded from the prefrontal cortex. Thus, lack of APP reduces oscillatory coupling in LFP recordings from specific brain regions, despite not affecting the amplitude of the oscillations. Together, our findings reveal reduced cross-frequency coupling as a functional marker of APP deficiency at the network level. PMID:26905287

  6. Antibodies against acute phase proteins and their functions in the pathogenesis of disease: a collective profile of 25 different antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lakota, Katja; Zigon, Polona; Mrak-Poljsak, Katjusa; Rozman, Blaz; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Sodin-Semrl, Snezna

    2011-10-01

    The acute phase response is a defense system in which the innate immune response is activated following injury or infection. Positive and negative acute phase proteins (APPs) are crucial for protecting the host organism, as well as returning it to homeostatic levels, the first with elevated concentrations and the latter with decreased concentrations during the acute phase. Reports about the presence of antibodies against APPs are known, however their individual, as well as potentially collective, pathological or physiological roles are still emerging. Some of these autoantibodies are specifically connected with diseases (such as pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor and C3, C4 nephritic factors), while others have been reported as natural antibodies. The persistent presence (even if only minor) of autoantibodies in healthy blood donors indicates an overlapping category of autoantibodies, which could become pathogenic, depending on the autoantibody characteristics such as avidity, epitope specificity, changes in the microenvironment leading to different oxidative status and others. This review uses the novel approach of studying the overall autoantibody population against APPs, their functions and connections to diseases. The primary function of autoantibodies against APPs (anti-APPs) is thought to promote their clearance, however autoantibodies against negative APPs have also been found and applying the same role to those is doubtful. There is also the theory of consumption in the stage of inflammation, which could be relevant to anti-APPs. Reports about protective roles of autoantibodies are also emerging, showing lowered levels of antibodies in diseases, which could be interesting for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21718807

  7. Acute phase reactants in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition*

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Omer S. M.; Salih, Mustafa A. M.; Karrar, Zein A.; Mohammed, Abdelrahim O.; Helsing, Chrestover

    2011-01-01

    The pre-dietary rehabilitation levels of acute phase proteins (APP) namely, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), orosomucoid (ORO), haptoglobin (HAP), fibrinogen (FIB) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the plasma of Sudanese children with severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM) were compared with those of normal controls, and with the levels after dietary rehabilitation. Eighty one children were included in the study; 49 with severe PEM (23 with marasmus, 17 with marasmic-kwashiorkor and 9 with kwashiorkor), 13 with tuberculosis (TB) and 19 healthy children as controls. The study showed a high incidence of infections, especially acute respiratory infection (ARI), diarrhoeal diseases and intestinal parasites in the malnourished children. The mean plasma level of albumin was significantly lower in the malnourished children compared to controls (P<0.001), with kwashiorkor children showing the lowest mean level. This hypoalbuminaemia was significantly associated with the presence of ARI and intestinal parasites. The mean plasma levels of the APP, except FIB, were significantly higher in malnourished children than in controls, with higher levels associated with ARI and the presence of fever. Malnourished children with TB had significantly higher mean levels of the APP (AAT, HAP, FIB, CRP) compared to those without TB. The mean levels of HAP and AAT were significantly lower in the presence of diarrhoea, suggesting their loss in the stool. The mean levels of the APP after two weeks dietary rehabilitation and antimicrobial treatment showed a significant drop in only two of the APP, namely CRP, ORO, while FIB showed a significant rise.

  8. Increase in presenilin 1 (PS1) levels in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) may indirectly impair memory by affecting amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijaya B; Franko, Mark; Banks, William A; Kasinadhuni, Pranav; Farr, Susan A; Vyas, Kamlesh; Choudhuri, Veena; Morley, John E

    2009-02-01

    Senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) serve as a model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as they exhibit early loss of memory and increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression. APP is a ubiquitous membrane protein that is physiologically processed by site-specific proteolysis firstly by alpha- or beta-secretases, releasing a large fragment called APP(S) that contains most of the extracellular sequences of APP, a small extracellular stub, the transmembrane region and the cytoplasmic tail of APP (;AICD'-APP intracellular domain). These are subsequently cleaved by gamma-secretase at multiple sites in the transmembrane region, releasing small peptides, Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42), the major components of AD-associated amyloid fibrils. gamma-secretase is a high-molecular-mass complex composed of presenilin-1 (PS1), nicastrin, APH-1 and Pen-2. As PS1 has been shown to play a critical role in facilitating gamma-secretase activity, and mutations in this protein are associated with familial AD (FAD), we have cloned it from SAMP8 mouse hippocampus and compared its sequence with those of other species. Furthermore, changes in the expression of PS1 with age in the hippocampal tissue of SAMP8 were studied. The results showed that the SAMP8 PS1 cDNA sequence is identical to that of normal mice. However, its expression in the hippocampus of SAMP8 exhibited an increase, while CD-1 mice, a strain that does not exhibit premature memory loss, showed no change with age. An increased amount or mutation(s) in PS1, which alters the stoichiometric balance of the gamma-secretase complex, may be the cause of aberrant or increased processing of APP, resulting in Abeta accumulation leading to loss of memory. PMID:19181896

  9. ProtAnnot: an App for Integrated Genome Browser to display how alternative splicing and transcription affect proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Tarun; Eckstein, John; Norris, David; Vora, Hiral; Freese, Nowlan H.; Loraine, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: One gene can produce multiple transcript variants encoding proteins with different functions. To facilitate visual analysis of transcript variants, we developed ProtAnnot, which shows protein annotations in the context of genomic sequence. ProtAnnot searches InterPro and displays profile matches (protein annotations) alongside gene models, exposing how alternative promoters, splicing and 3′ end processing add, remove, or remodel functional motifs. To draw attention to these effects, ProtAnnot color-codes exons by frame and displays a cityscape graphic summarizing exonic sequence at each position. These techniques make visual analysis of alternative transcripts faster and more convenient for biologists. Availability and implementation: ProtAnnot is a plug-in App for Integrated Genome Browser, an open source desktop genome browser available from http://www.bioviz.org. Contact: aloraine@uncc.edu PMID:27153567

  10. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) May Act as a Substrate and a Recognition Unit for CRL4CRBN and Stub1 E3 Ligases Facilitating Ubiquitination of Proteins Involved in Presynaptic Functions and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Dolores; Rice, Richard C; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2016-08-12

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause Alzheimer disease, plays an important in vivo role and facilitates transmitter release. Because the APP cytosolic region (ACR) is essential for these functions, we have characterized its brain interactome. We found that the ACR interacts with proteins that regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system, predominantly with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases Stub1, which binds the NH2 terminus of the ACR, and CRL4(CRBN), which is formed by Cul4a/b, Ddb1, and Crbn, and interacts with the COOH terminus of the ACR via Crbn. APP shares essential functions with APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) but not APP-like protein-1 (APLP1). Noteworthy, APLP2, but not APLP1, interacts with Stub1 and CRL4(CRBN), pointing to a functional pathway shared only by APP and APLP2. In vitro ubiquitination/ubiquitome analysis indicates that these E3 ligases are enzymatically active and ubiquitinate the ACR residues Lys(649/650/651/676/688) Deletion of Crbn reduces ubiquitination of Lys(676) suggesting that Lys(676) is physiologically ubiquitinated by CRL4(CRBN) The ACR facilitated in vitro ubiquitination of presynaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, suggesting a mechanism by which APP tunes transmitter release. Other dementia-related proteins, namely Tau and apoE, interact with and are ubiquitinated via the ACR in vitro This, and the evidence that CRBN and CUL4B are linked to intellectual disability, prompts us to hypothesize a pathogenic mechanism, in which APP acts as a modulator of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase(s), shared by distinct neuronal disorders. The well described accumulation of ubiquitinated protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases and the link between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and neurodegeneration make this concept plausible. PMID:27325702

  11. Tau Protein Mediates APP Intracellular Domain (AICD)-Induced Alzheimer’s-Like Pathological Features in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Hana N.; Pimplikar, Sanjay W.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by gamma-secretase to simultaneously generate amyloid beta (Aβ) and APP Intracellular Domain (AICD) peptides. Aβ plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis but recent studies suggest that amyloid-independent mechanisms also contribute to the disease. We previously showed that AICD transgenic mice (AICD-Tg) exhibit AD-like features such as tau pathology, aberrant neuronal activity, memory deficits and neurodegeneration in an age-dependent manner. Since AD is a tauopathy and tau has been shown to mediate Aβ–induced toxicity, we examined the role of tau in AICD-induced pathological features. We report that ablating endogenous tau protects AICD-Tg mice from deficits in adult neurogenesis, seizure severity, short-term memory deficits and neurodegeneration. Deletion of tau restored abnormal phosphorylation of NMDA receptors, which is likely to underlie hyperexcitability and associated excitotoxicity in AICD-Tg mice. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type human tau aggravated receptor phosphorylation, impaired adult neurogenesis, memory deficits and neurodegeneration. Our findings show that tau is essential for mediating the deleterious effects of AICD. Since tau also mediates Aβ-induced toxic effects, our findings suggest that tau is a common downstream factor in both amyloid-dependent and–independent pathogenic mechanisms and therefore could be a more effective drug target for therapeutic intervention in AD. PMID:27459671

  12. γ-Secretase Modulators and APH1 Isoforms Modulate γ-Secretase Cleavage but Not Position of ε-Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP)

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Christian B.; Cottrell, Barbara A.; Maruyama, Hiroko; Suresh, Suraj; Golde, Todd E.; Koo, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The relative increase in Aβ42 peptides from familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) linked APP and PSEN mutations can be related to changes in both ε-cleavage site utilization and subsequent step-wise cleavage. Cleavage at the ε-site releases the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD), and perturbations in the position of ε-cleavage are closely associated with changes in the profile of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) species that are produced and secreted. The mechanisms by which γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) or FAD mutations affect the various γ-secretase cleavages to alter the generation of Aβ peptides have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies suggested that GSMs do not modulate ε-cleavage of APP, but the data were derived principally from recombinant truncated epitope tagged APP substrate. Here, using full length APP from transfected cells, we investigated whether GSMs modify the ε-cleavage of APP under more native conditions. Our results confirmed the previous findings that ε-cleavage is insensitive to GSMs. In addition, fenofibrate, an inverse GSM (iGSM), did not alter the position or kinetics of ε-cleavage position in vitro. APH1A and APH1B, a subunit of the γ-secretase complex, also modulated Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio without any alterations in ε-cleavage, a result in contrast to what has been observed with PS1 and APP FAD mutations. Consequently, GSMs and APH1 appear to modulate γ-secretase activity and Aβ42 generation by altering processivity but not ε-cleavage site utilization. PMID:26678856

  13. The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-2 (ABCA2) Overexpression Modulates Sphingosine Levels and Transcription of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Gene.

    PubMed

    Davis, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) is a member of a family of multipass transmembrane proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport substrates across membrane bilayers. ABCA2 has also been genetically linked with Alzheimer's disease but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this report, we hypothesized that ABCA2 modulation of sphingolipid metabolism activates a signaling pathway that regulates amyloid precursor protein transcription. We found that ABCA2 overexpression in N2a cells was associated with increased mass of the sphingolipid sphingosine, derived from the catabolism of ceramide. ABCA2 overexpression increased in vitro alkaline and acid ceramidase activity. Sphingosine is a physiological inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Pharmacological inhibition of ceramidase activity or activation PKC activity with 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or diacylglycerol (DAG) decreased endogenous APP mRNA levels in ABCA2 overexpressing cells. Treatment with PMA also decreased the expression of a transfected human APP promoter reporter construct, while treatment with a general PKC inhibitor, GF109203x, increased APP promoter activity. In N2a cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that a repressive complex forms at the AP-1 site in the human APP promoter, consisting of c-jun, c-jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) and HDAC3 and this complex was reduced in ABCA2 overexpressing cells. Activation of the human APP promoter in A2 cells was directed by the upstream stimulatory factors USF-1 and USF-2 that bound to an E-box element in vivo. These findings indicate that ABCA2 overexpression modulates sphingosine levels and regulates transcription of the endogenous APP gene. PMID:26510981

  14. RCSB PDB Mobile: iOS and Android mobile apps to provide data access and visualization to the RCSB Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gregory B.; Bi, Chunxiao; Christie, Cole H.; Pang, Kyle; Prlić, Andreas; Nakane, Takanori; Zardecki, Christine; Voigt, Maria; Berman, Helen M.; Rose, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB) resource provides tools for query, analysis and visualization of the 3D structures in the PDB archive. As the mobile Web is starting to surpass desktop and laptop usage, scientists and educators are beginning to integrate mobile devices into their research and teaching. In response, we have developed the RCSB PDB Mobile app for the iOS and Android mobile platforms to enable fast and convenient access to RCSB PDB data and services. Using the app, users from the general public to expert researchers can quickly search and visualize biomolecules, and add personal annotations via the RCSB PDB’s integrated MyPDB service. Availability and implementation: RCSB PDB Mobile is freely available from the Apple App Store and Google Play (http://www.rcsb.org). Contact: pwrose@ucsd.edu PMID:25183487

  15. A Membrane Proximal Helix in the Cytosolic Domain of the Human APP Interacting Protein LR11/SorLA Deforms Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard L.; Wang, Xingsheng; Tian, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, compelling evidence has linked the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to defective intracellular trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Faulty APP trafficking results in an overproduction of Aβ peptides, which is generally agreed to be the primary cause of AD-related pathogenesis. LR11 (SorLA), a type I transmembrane sorting receptor, has emerged as a key regulator of APP trafficking and processing. It directly interacts with APP and diverts it away from amyloidogenic processing. The 54-residue cytosolic domain of LR11 is essential for its proper intracellular localization and trafficking which, in turn, determines the fate of APP. Here, we have found a surprising membrane-proximal amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of LR11. Moreover, a peptide corresponding to this region folds into an α-helical structure in the presence of liposomes and transforms liposomes to small vesicles and tubule-like particles. We postulate that this amphipathic helix may contribute to the dynamic remodeling of membrane structure and facilitate LR11 intracellular transport. PMID:24866012

  16. A membrane proximal helix in the cytosolic domain of the human APP interacting protein LR11/SorLA deforms liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard L; Wang, Xingsheng; Tian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, compelling evidence has linked the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to defective intracellular trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Faulty APP trafficking results in an overproduction of Aβ peptides, which is generally agreed to be the primary cause of AD-related pathogenesis. LR11 (SorLA), a type I transmembrane sorting receptor, has emerged as a key regulator of APP trafficking and processing. It directly interacts with APP and diverts it away from amyloidogenic processing. The 54-residue cytosolic domain of LR11 is essential for its proper intracellular localization and trafficking which, in turn, determines the fate of APP. Here, we have found a surprising membrane-proximal amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of LR11. Moreover, a peptide corresponding to this region folds into an α-helical structure in the presence of liposomes and transforms liposomes to small vesicles and tubule-like particles. We postulate that this amphipathic helix may contribute to the dynamic remodeling of membrane structure and facilitate LR11 intracellular transport. PMID:24866012

  17. APP involvement in retinogenesis of mice.

    PubMed

    Dinet, Virginie; An, Na; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D; Bruban, Julien; Maoui, Agathe; Bellingham, Shayne A; Hill, Andrew F; Andersen, Olav M; Nykjaer, Anders; Jonet, Laurent; Cappai, Roberto; Mascarelli, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Very few studies have examined expression and function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the retina. We showed that APP mRNA and protein are expressed according to the different waves of retinal differentiation. Depletion of App led to an absence of amacrine cells, a 50% increase in the number of horizontal cells and alteration of the synapses. The retinas of adult APP(-/-) mice showed only half as many glycinergic amacrine cells as wild-type retinas. We identified Ptf1a, which plays a role in controlling both amacrine and horizontal cell fates, as a downstream effector of APP. The observation of a similar phenotype in sorLA knockout mice, a major regulator of APP processing, suggests that regulation of APP functions via sorLA controls the determination of amacrine and horizontal cell fate. These findings provide novel insights that indicate that APP plays an important role in retinal differentiation. PMID:20978902

  18. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  19. Increases in the serum acute phase proteins after ozone exposure are associated with induction of genes in the lung but not liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute Phase Response (APR), a systemic reaction to infection, trauma, and inflammation, is characterized by increases and decreases in plasma levels of positive and negative acute phase proteins (APP), respectively. Although the liver has been shown to contribute to APR in variou...

  20. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, A; Kumaresan, A; Jeyakumar, S; Mohanty, T K; Sejian, V; Kumar, Narender; Sreela, L; Prakash, M Arul; Mooventhan, P; Anantharaj, A; Das, D N

    2016-01-01

    Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs) production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle. PMID:27051191

  1. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Mohanty, T. K.; Sejian, V.; Kumar, Narender; Sreela, L.; Prakash, M. Arul; Mooventhan, P.; Anantharaj, A.; Das, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs) production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle. PMID:27051191

  2. Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

    2006-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

  3. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Nilsson, Sara K; Grossi, Anette B; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6, 16, 24 and 40–48 wk) of male and female Göttingen minipigs. In addition, minipigs were tested under 2 housing conditions, after acute LPS challenge, and after diet-induced obesity with and without mild diabetes. Changing the pigs to a new environment induced significant increases in CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli. PMID:26310463

  4. Bacterial expression, purification, and model membrane reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the human APP binding protein LR11/SorLA for NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingsheng; Gill, Richard L; Zhu, Qin; Tian, Fang

    2011-06-01

    LR11 (SorLA) is a recently identified neuronal protein that interacts with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a central player in the pathology of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Current estimates suggest that as many as 5.3 million Americans are living with AD. Recent investigations have uncovered the pathophysiological relevance of APP intracellular trafficking in AD. LR11 is of particular importance due to its role in regulating APP transport and processing. LR11 is a type I transmembrane protein and belongs to a novel family of Vps10p receptors. Using a new expression vector, pMTTH (MBP-MCS1 (multiple cloning site)-Thrombin protease cleavage site-MCS2-TEV protease cleavage site-MCS3-His(6)), we successfully expressed, purified and reconstituted the LR11 transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic (CT) domains into bicelles and detergent micelles for NMR structural studies. This new construct allowed us to overcome several obstacles during sample preparation. MBP fused LR11TM and LR11TMCT proteins are preferably expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli membrane, making a refolding of the protein unnecessary. The C-terminal His-tag allows for easy separation of the target protein from the truncated products from the C-terminus, and provides a convenient route for screening detergents to produce high quality 2D (1)H-(15)N TROSY spectra. Thrombin protease cleavage is compatible with most of the commonly used detergents, including a direct cleavage at the E. coli membrane surface. This new MBP construct may provide an effective route for the preparation of small proteins with TM domains. PMID:21320603

  5. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain regulates translation of p44, a short isoform of p53, through an IRES-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Pehar, Mariana; Liu, Yan; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Zhang, Su-Chun; O'Riordan, Kenneth J; Burger, Corinna; D'Adamio, Luciano; Puglielli, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    p44 is a short isoform of the tumor suppressor protein p53 that is regulated in an age-dependent manner. When overexpressed in the mouse, it causes a progeroid phenotype that includes premature cognitive decline, synaptic defects, and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The hyperphosphorylation of tau has recently been linked to the ability of p44 to regulate transcription of relevant tau kinases. Here, we report that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD), which results from the processing of the APP, regulates translation of p44 through a cap-independent mechanism that requires direct binding to the second internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the p53 mRNA. We also report that AICD associates with nucleolin, an already known IRES-specific trans-acting factor that binds with p53 IRES elements and regulates translation of p53 isoforms. The potential biological impact of our findings was assessed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, our study reveals a novel aspect of AICD and p53/p44 biology and provides a possible molecular link between APP, p44, and tau. PMID:26174856

  6. Acute γ-secretase Inhibition of Nonhuman Primate CNS Shifts Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Metabolism from Amyloid-β Production to Alternative APP Fragments without Amyloid-β Rebound

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jacquelynn J.; Wildsmith, Kristin R.; Gilberto, David B.; Holahan, Marie A.; Kinney, Gene G.; Mathers, Parker D.; Michener, Maria S.; Price, Eric A.; Shearman, Mark S.; Simon, Adam J.; Wang, Jennifer X.; Wu, Guoxin; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease is caused by an imbalance of production and clearance, which leads to increased soluble Aβ species and extracellular plaque formation in the brain. Multiple Aβ-lowering therapies are currently in development: an important goal is to characterize the molecular mechanisms of action and effects on physiological processing of Aβ, as well as other amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites, in models which approximate human Aβ physiology. To this end, we report the translation of the human in vivo stable-isotope-labeling kinetics (SILK) method to a rhesus monkey cisterna magna ported (CMP) nonhuman primate model, and use the model to test the mechanisms of action of a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI). A major concern of inhibiting the enzymes which produce Aβ (β- and γ-secretase) is that precursors of Aβ may accumulate and cause a rapid increase in Aβ production when enzyme inhibition discontinues. In this study, the GSI MK-0752 was administered to conscious CMP rhesus monkeys in conjunction with in vivo stable isotope labeling, and dose-dependently reduced newly generated CNS Aβ. In contrast to systemic Aβ metabolism, CNS Aβ production was not increased after the GSI was cleared. These results indicate that most of the CNS APP was metabolized to products other than Aβ, including C-terminal truncated forms of Aβ: 1–14, 1–15 and 1–16; this demonstrates an alternative degradation pathway for CNS amyloid precursor protein during γ-secretase inhibition. PMID:20463236

  7. Multiple protein stationary phases: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, N S; Habicht, K-L; Dossou, K S S; Shimmo, R; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cellular membrane affinity chromatography stationary phases have been extensively used to characterize immobilized proteins and provide a direct measurement of multiple binding sites, including orthosteric and allosteric sites. This review will address the utilization of immobilized cellular and tissue fragments to characterize multiple transmembrane proteins co-immobilized onto a stationary phase. This approach will be illustrated by demonstrating that multiple transmembrane proteins were immobilized from cell lines and tissue fragments. In addition, the immobilization of individual compartments/organelles within a cell will be discussed and the changes in the proteins binding/kinetics based on their location. PMID:24780640

  8. Coexistence of Phases in a Protein Heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Niemi, Antti J.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    A heterodimer consisting of two or more different kinds of proteins can display an enormous number of distinct molecular architectures. The conformational entropy is an essential ingredient in the Helmholtz free energy and, consequently, these heterodimers can have a very complex phase structure. Here, it is proposed that there is a state of proteins, in which the different components of a heterodimer exist in different phases. For this purpose, the structures in the protein data bank (PDB) have been analyzed, with radius of gyration as the order parameter. Two major classes of heterodimers with their protein components coexisting in different phases have been identified. An example is the PDB structure 3DXC. This is a transcriptionally active dimer. One of the components is an isoform of the intra-cellular domain of the Alzheimer-disease related amyloid precursor protein (AICD), and the other is a nuclear multidomain adaptor protein in the Fe65 family. It is concluded from the radius of gyration that neither of the two components in this dimer is in its own collapsed phase, corresponding to a biologically active protein. The UNRES energy function has been utilized to confirm that, if the two components are separated from each other, each of them collapses. The results presented in this work show that heterodimers whose protein components coexist in different phases, can have intriguing physical properties with potentially important biological consequences. PMID:22830730

  9. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer disease and its paralog, APLP2, modulate the Cu/Zn-Nitric Oxide-catalyzed degradation of glypican-1 heparan sulfate in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cappai, Roberto; Cheng, Fang; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D; Needham, B Elise; Masters, Colin L; Multhaup, Gerd; Fransson, Lars-Ake; Mani, Katrin

    2005-04-01

    Processing of the recycling proteoglycan glypican-1 involves the release of its heparan sulfate chains by copper ion- and nitric oxide-catalyzed ascorbate-triggered autodegradation. The Alzheimer disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its paralogue, the amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), contain copper ion-, zinc ion-, and heparan sulfate-binding domains. We have investigated the possibility that APP and APLP2 regulate glypican-1 processing during endocytosis and recycling. By using cell-free biochemical experiments, confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry of tissues and cells from wild-type and knock-out mice, we find that (a) APP and glypican-1 colocalize in perinuclear compartments of neuroblastoma cells, (b) ascorbate-triggered nitric oxidecatalyzed glypican-1 autodegradation is zinc ion-dependent in the same cells, (c) in cell-free experiments, APP but not APLP2 stimulates glypican-1 autodegradation in the presence of both Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, whereas the Cu(I) form of APP and the Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms of APLP2 inhibit autodegradation, (d) in primary cortical neurons from APP or APLP2 knock-out mice, there is an increased nitric oxide-catalyzed degradation of heparan sulfate compared with brain tissue and neurons from wild-type mice, and (e) in growth-quiescent fibroblasts from APLP2 knock-out mice, but not from APP knock-out mice, there is also an increased heparan sulfate degradation. We propose that the rate of autoprocessing of glypican-1 is modulated by APP and APLP2 in neurons and by APLP2 in fibroblasts. These observation identify a functional relationship between the heparan sulfate and copper ion binding activities of APP/APLP2 in their modulation of the nitroxyl anion-catalyzed heparan sulfate degradation in glypican-1. PMID:15677459

  10. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  11. Serum amyloid A in marine bivalves: An acute phase and innate immunity protein.

    PubMed

    Rosani, U; Domeneghetti, S; Gerdol, M; Franzoi, M; Pallavicini, A; Venier, P

    2016-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is among the most potent acute phase proteins (APP) in vertebrates. After injury, its early expression can dramatically increase to promote the recruitment of immuno-competent cells, expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and the activation of the innate immune defences. Although APP have been studied in many vertebrates, only recently their search was extended to invertebrates and the finding of SAA-like molecules has opened new questions on the immune-regulatory functions of these soluble proteins in the animal kingdom. Taking advantage of the considerable amount of genomic and transcriptomic data currently available, we retrieved 51 SAA-like proteins in several protostome taxa comprising 21 marine bivalve species and basal metazoans. In addition to vertebrate-like SAAs, we identified a second protein type with peculiar features. In the bivalves Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus galloprovincialis, both digital expression analysis and qPCR data indicated an induction of the classical SAA after bacterial challenge. PMID:26828389

  12. Progressive accumulation of amyloid-β oligomers in Alzheimer’s disease and APP transgenic mice is accompanied by selective alterations in synaptic scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Emiley; Crews, Leslie; Ubhi, Kiren; Hansen, Lawrence; Adame, Anthony; Cartier, Anna; Salmon, David; Galasko, Douglas; Michael, Sarah; Savas, Jeffrey N.; Yates, John R.; Glabe, Charles; Masliah, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease is closely associated with synaptic loss in the neocortex and limbic system. Although the neurotoxic effects of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers in Alzheimer’s disease have been widely studied in experimental models, less is known about the characteristics of these aggregates across the spectrum of Alzheimer’s disease. Here, postmortem frontal cortex samples from control and Alzheimer’s disease patients were fractioned and analyzed for levels of oligomers and synaptic proteins. We found that levels of oligomers correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment (Blessed score and Mini-Mental), and with the loss of synaptic markers. Reduced levels of the synaptic vesicle protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 and the postsynaptic protein post-synaptic density-95 (PSD95) correlated with levels of oligomers in the various fractions analyzed. The strongest associations were found with Aβ dimers and pentamers. Co-immunoprecipitation and double-labeling experiments support the possibility that Aβ and PSD95 interact at the synaptic sites. Similarly, in transgenic mice expressing high levels of neuronal amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ co-immunoprecipitated with PSD95. This was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of the post-synaptic proteins Shank1 and 3 in Alzheimer’s disease patients and in the brains of APP transgenic mice. In conclusion, this study suggests that the presence of a subpopulation of Aβ oligomers in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease might be related to alterations in selected synaptic proteins and cognitive impairment. PMID:20573181

  13. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress.

    PubMed

    Lomborg, S R; Nielsen, L R; Heegaard, P M H; Jacobsen, S

    2008-10-01

    Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P < 0.01 and 0.05 at 48 hours, respectively). Additionally, the animals had transient neutrophilia at 8 and 24 hours (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that SAA and haptoglobin may serve as markers of stress in adult cattle. PMID:18461465

  14. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Linda C; Arnlund, David; White, Thomas A; Katona, Gergely; DePonte, Daniel P; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R Bruce; Shoeman, Robert L; Lomb, Lukas; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Nass, Karol; Liang, Mengning; Andreasson, Jakob; Aquila, Andrew; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; Ekeberg, Tomas; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Fleckenstein, Holger; Foucar, Lutz; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hajdu, Janos; Hampton, Christina Y; Hartmann, Robert; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Hunter, Mark S; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A; Maia, Filipe R N C; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V; Reich, Christian; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Schlichting, Ilme; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M Marvin; Sierra, Raymond G; Soltau, Heike; Starodub, Dmitri; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Strüder, Lothar; Timneanu, Nicusor; Ullrich, Joachim; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wunderer, Cornelia; Fromme, Petra; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Neutze, Richard

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-feL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-feL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet. PMID:22286383

  15. The effect of transport stress on turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liver acute phase proteins gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andreia Tomás; Lecchi, Cristina; Grilli, Guido; Giudice, Chiara; Nodari, Sara Rota; Vinco, Leonardo J; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transport-related stress on the liver gene expression of four acute phase proteins (APP), namely α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and PIT54, in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A group of seven BUT BIG 6 commercial hens was subjected to a two-hour long road transportation and the quantitative gene expression of APP in the liver was compared to that of a non transported control group. The expression of AGP and CRP mRNA was found to be increased in animals slaughtered after road transport. The presence of AGP protein was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results of this study showed that road-transport may induce the mRNA expression of immune related proteins. The finding that AGP and CRP can be upregulated during transport could suggest their use as for the assessment of turkey welfare during transport. PMID:26850544

  16. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for Compound Profiling.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Nathan; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), also called reverse phase lysate arrays (RPLAs), involve immobilizing cell or tissue lysates, in small spots, onto solid supports which are then probed with primary antibodies specific for proteins or post-translational modifications of interest. RPPA assays are well suited for large-scale, high-throughput measurement of protein and PTM levels in cells and tissues. RPPAs are affordable and highly multiplexable, as a large number of arrays can readily be produced in parallel and then probed separately with distinct primary antibodies. This article describes a procedure for treating cells and preparing cell lysates, as well as a procedure for generating RPPAs using these lysates. A method for probing, imaging, and analyzing RPPAs is also described. These procedures are readily adaptable to a wide range of studies of cell signaling in response to drugs and other perturbations. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27622568

  17. Solid-phase preparation of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Pengo, Paolo; Veggiani, Gianluca; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Gallotta, Andrea; Beneduce, Luca; Fassina, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein conjugation is usually achieved by solution phase methods requiring concentrated protein solution and post-synthetic purification steps. In this report we describe a novel continuous-flow solid-phase approach enabling the assembly of protein complexes minimizing the amount of material needed and allowing the repeated use of the same solid phase. The method exploits an immunoaffinity matrix as solid support; the matrix reversibly binds the first of the complex components while the other components are sequentially introduced, thus allowing the complex to grow while immobilized. The tethering technique employed relies on the use of the very mild synthetic conditions and fast association rates allowed by the avidin-biotin system. At the end of the assembly, the immobilized complexes can be removed from the solid support and recovered by lowering the pH of the medium. Under the conditions used for the sequential complexation and recovery, the solid phase was not damaged or irreversibly modified and could be reused without loss of binding capacity. The method was specifically designed to prepare protein complexes to be used in immunometric methods of analysis, where the immunoreactivity of each component needs to be preserved. The approach was successfully exploited for the preparation of two different immunoaffinity reagents with immunoreactivity mimicking native squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M (SCCA-IgM) and alphafetoprotein-immunoglobulin M (AFP-IgM) immune complexes, which were characterized by dedicated sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. Besides the specific application described in the paper, the method is sufficiently general to be used for the preparation of a broad range of protein assemblies. PMID:21038355

  18. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 1. High abundance proteins, acute phase proteins and peptidomics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Funmilola Clara; Mullen, William; Tassi, Riccardo; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; McNeilly, Tom N; Zadoks, Ruth N; Burchmore, Richard; David Eckersall, P

    2016-08-16

    A peptidomic investigation of milk from an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy cows has incorporated a study of milk high abundance and acute phase (APP) proteins as well as analysis of low molecular weight peptide biomarkers. Intramammary infection (IMI) with S. uberis caused a shift in abundance from caseins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin to albumin, lactoferrin and IgG with the increase in lactoferrin occurring last. The APP response of haptoglobin, mammary associated serum amyloid A3 and C-reactive protein occurred between 30-48 hours post challenge with peak concentrations of APPs at 72-96 hours post challenge and declined thereafter at a rate resembling the fall in bacterial count rather than the somatic cell count. A peptide biomarker panel for IMI based on capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was developed. It comprised 77 identified peptides (IMI77) composed mainly of casein derived peptides but also including peptides of glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule and serum amyloid A. The panel had a biomarker classification score that increased from 36 hour to 81 hour post challenge, significantly differentiating infected from non-infected milk, thus suggesting potential as a peptide biomarker panel of bovine mastitis and specifically that of S. uberis origin. The use of omic technology has shown a multifactorial cross system reaction in high and low abundance proteins and their peptide derivatives with changes of over a thousand fold in analyte levels in response to S. uberis infection. PMID:27412456

  19. Alcadein Cleavages by Amyloid β-Precursor Protein (APP) α- and γ-Secretases Generate Small Peptides, p3-Alcs, Indicating Alzheimer Disease-related γ-Secretase Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Saori; Fujishige, Sayaka; Araki, Yoichi; Kato, Naoko; Araseki, Masahiko; Nishimura, Masaki; Hartmann, Dieter; Saftig, Paul; Fahrenholz, Falk; Taniguchi, Miyako; Urakami, Katsuya; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Martins, Ralph N.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Maeda, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tohru; Nakaya, Tadashi; Gandy, Sam; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Alcadeins (Alcs) constitute a family of neuronal type I membrane proteins, designated Alcα, Alcβ, and Alcγ. The Alcs express in neurons dominantly and largely colocalize with the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. Alcs and APP show an identical function as a cargo receptor of kinesin-1. Moreover, proteolytic processing of Alc proteins appears highly similar to that of APP. We found that APP α-secretases ADAM 10 and ADAM 17 primarily cleave Alc proteins and trigger the subsequent secondary intramembranous cleavage of Alc C-terminal fragments by a presenilin-dependent γ-secretase complex, thereby generating “APP p3-like” and non-aggregative Alc peptides (p3-Alcs). We determined the complete amino acid sequence of p3-Alcα, p3-Alcβ, and p3-Alcγ, whose major species comprise 35, 37, and 31 amino acids, respectively, in human cerebrospinal fluid. We demonstrate here that variant p3-Alc C termini are modulated by FAD-linked presenilin 1 mutations increasing minor β-amyloid species Aβ42, and these mutations alter the level of minor p3-Alc species. However, the magnitudes of C-terminal alteration of p3-Alcα, p3-Alcβ, and p3-Alcγ were not equivalent, suggesting that one type of γ-secretase dysfunction does not appear in the phenotype equivalently in the cleavage of type I membrane proteins. Because these C-terminal alterations are detectable in human cerebrospinal fluid, the use of a substrate panel, including Alcs and APP, may be effective to detect γ-secretase dysfunction in the prepathogenic state of Alzheimer disease subjects. PMID:19864413

  20. Emergence of the acute-phase protein hemopexin in jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Helen; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2010-01-01

    When released from damaged erythrocytes free heme not only provides a source of iron for invading bacteria but is also highly toxic due to its ability to catalyze free radical formation. Hemopexin (Hx) binds free heme with very high affinity and thus protects against heme toxicity, sequesters heme from pathogens, and helps conserve valuable iron. Hx is also an acute-phase serum protein (APP), whose expression is induced by inflammation. To date Hx has been identified as far back in phylogeny as bony fish where it is called Warm-temperature Acclimation-related 65 kDa Protein (WAP65), as serum protein levels are increased at elevated environmental temperatures as well as by infection. During analysis of nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) plasma we isolated a Ni2+-binding serum glycoprotein and characterized it as the APP Hx. We subsequently cloned Hx from nurse shark and another cartilaginous fish species, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea. Functional analysis showed shark Hx, like that of mammals, binds heme but is found at unusually high levels in normal shark serum. As an Hx orthologue could not be found in the genomes of jawless vertebrates or lower deuterostomes it appears to have arisen just prior to the emergence of jawed vertebrates, coincident with the second round of genome wide duplication and the appearance of tetrameric haemoglobin (Hb). PMID:20884052

  1. Acute phase proteins increase with sarcoptic mange status and severity in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838).

    PubMed

    Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Granados, José Enrique; Cerón, José Joaquín; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús María; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting both domestic and wild mammals, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate almost endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Acute phase proteins (APPs) could be an indicator of sarcoptic mange disease and severity in Iberian ibex. Serum samples from 131 healthy and sarcoptic mange-affected Iberian ibexes were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Sierra Nevada Natural Space in southern Spain. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were quantified, and statistically significant differences according to sarcoptic mange disease and severity were assessed. Both AGP and SAA were significantly higher in the sarcoptic mange-affected ibexes than in the healthy ones as well as in the severely affected ibexes as compared to those with less than 50 % of the body surface affected. For the first time, changes in APP are reported in relation to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex. It is also reported for the first time that the intensity of APP increase depends on the severity of sarcoptic mange, which could be related with the pathological secondary amyloidosis, leading to organ dysfunction in severely mange-affected animals. Species and population differences in the increase of APP in response to sarcoptic mange could indicate individual and population differences in the immune capability of each population to deal with mange, population prevalence and mortality being the last indicators of such sensitivity. PMID:26227139

  2. Smartphone apps for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D J; McKenzie, K; Cui, H W; Noble, J G; Turney, B W

    2015-02-01

    There are an increasing number of healthcare smartphone applications ('apps') available. Urolithiasis presents a major healthcare burden. Patients are increasingly keen to educate themselves regarding the diagnosis and management of their condition. There is no formal regulation of healthcare apps, including a large number of apps relating to urolithiasis. This review aims to examine the range of apps available, and the prevalence of healthcare professional input. Four international smartphone app stores were searched: Apple's App Store, Google Play (Android), BlackBerry App World and the Windows Phone App store. A total of 42 unique apps were downloaded and analysed. Recorded data included the cost (£/$), publisher information, number of ratings, average rating and any documentation of medical professional involvement. Twenty-one (50%) apps required payment for download. The mean cost was £3.58 ($6.04) with range £0.61-£34.90 ($1.03-$58.87). Thirty-three (79%) of the 42 apps were designed to be used by patients. Fifteen (36%) of the 42 apps had clear input from health professionals. Twenty-two apps offered patient information, including dietary advice on lowering calcium intake, which is contrary to current evidence-based practice. We conclude that urolithiasis apps have future potential to inform both patients and healthcare professionals on stone management. However, inaccuracies in the recommendations made by some apps can be misleading or even harmful due to a lack of specialist involvement. We recommend improving the usefulness of these apps by seeking a 'quality stamp' from recognised urological organisations and greater clinician involvement in future app development. PMID:25410731

  3. APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis in human cerebral cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Moore, Steven; Evans, Lewis D B; Andersson, Therese; Portelius, Erik; Smith, James; Dias, Tatyana B; Saurat, Nathalie; McGlade, Amelia; Kirwan, Peter; Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John; Zetterberg, Henrik; Livesey, Frederick J

    2015-05-01

    Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons. PMID:25921538

  4. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T.; Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications.

  5. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T.; Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications. PMID:26742890

  6. Understanding Mobile Apps

    MedlinePlus

    ... a device, you’re committed to using the operating system and the type of apps that go with it. The Android, Apple, Microsoft and BlackBerry mobile operating systems have app stores online where you can look ...

  7. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p < 0.05 to p < 0.001 level. Alpha 2-macroglobulin and C-reactive-protein levels were increased in captive versus wild bears in both active and hibernating states at the p < 0.01 to p < 0.0001 level. During hibernation with mild hypothermia, black bears do not show immunosuppression, but show an increased APP response similar to that in patients with major depression. This APP response is explained as an adaptive response to the underlying metabolic depression in both conditions. Metabolic depression in hibernating bears is suggested as a natural model for research to explain the neurobiology of depression.

  8. APP induces neuronal apoptosis through APP-BP1-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Z

    2004-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive dementia. This mini-review focuses on how the amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in AD and Down syndrome as the regulator of the APP-BP1/hUba3 activated neddylation pathway. It is argued that the physiological function of APP is to downregulate the level of beta-catenin. However, this APP function is abnormally amplified in patients with familial AD (FAD) mutations in APP and presenilins, resulting in the hyperactivation of neddylation and the decrease of beta-catenin below a threshold level. Evidence in the literature is summarized to show that dysfunction of APP in downregulating beta-catenin may underlie the mechanism of neuronal death in AD and Down syndrome. PMID:15192323

  9. Acute phase protein and antioxidant responses in dogs with experimental acute monocytic ehrlichiosis treated with rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Karnezi, Dimitra; Ceron, Jose J; Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Martinez, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Harrus, Shimon; Koutinas, Christos K; Pardali, Dimitra; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2016-02-29

    There is currently lack of information on the changes of acute phase proteins (APP) and antioxidant markers and their clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), ferritin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during treatment of dogs with acute CME with rifampicin. Blood serum samples from ten Beagle dogs with experimental acute CME were retrospectively examined. Five dogs (Group A) were treated with rifampicin (10mg/Kg/24h), per os, for 3 weeks and 5 dogs (Group B) received no treatment (infected controls). Two Beagle dogs served as uninfected controls. Blood serum samples were serially examined prior to Ehrlichia canis inoculation and on post-inoculation days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Significant changes of CRP, Hp, ferritin and PON-1 values were found in the majority of infected dogs. However, their concentrations did not differ between the two groups during the treatment observation period. The results of this study indicate that although several APP and PON-1 tend to significantly change in the majority of dogs with acute CME, they were of limited clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in this experimental setting. PMID:26854345

  10. Gas-Phase Photoionization Of A Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljevic, A. R.; Giuliani, A.; Nicolas, C.; Gil, J.-F.; Lemaire, J.; Refregiers, M.; Nahon, L.

    2010-07-01

    We present preliminary results on gas phase photoionization of electrosprayproduced multiply protonated cytochrome c protein (104 amino acids; ˜12.4 kDa), which has been achieved with a newly developed experimental system for spectroscopy of electrosprayed ions in a linear quadrupole ion trap using a monochromatized vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation and tandem mass spectrometry method. The investigation of proteins in the gas phase, where they are free of the influence of counterions and solvent molecules, offer a possibility to understand their intrinsic molecular properties. However, due to limited both ion densities and available number of photons, the use of synchrotron radiation for the trapped ions spectroscopy is a rather challenging task. The feasibility of coupling a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance ion trap with soft x-ray synchrotron beamline and the first successful use of synchrotron radiation for spectroscopy of electrosprayed negative ions stored in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap have been demonstrated only recently (R. Thissen et al., 2008, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 223001; A. Giulliani et al., Proc. 57th ASMS Conf., Philadelphia, 2009). The present results are the first reported on photoionization of kDa species in the gas phase and are valuable regarding both a fundamental interest of accessing physical properties of large biological ions isolated in vacuo and potential development of a new technique for proteomics.

  11. APP Overexpression Causes Aβ-Independent Neuronal Death through Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ning; Jiao, Song; Gumaste, Ankita; Bai, Li; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a central hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is thought to be the cause of the observed neurodegeneration. Many animal models have been generated that overproduce Aβ yet do not exhibit clear neuronal loss, questioning this Aβ hypothesis. We previously developed an in vivo mouse model that expresses a humanized amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) showing robust apoptosis and olfactory dysfunction by 3 weeks of age, which is consistent with early OSN loss and smell deficits, as observed in AD patients. Here we show, by deleting the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in two distinct transgenic mouse models, that hAPP-induced apoptosis of OSNs is Aβ independent and remains cell autonomous. In addition, we reveal that the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is responsible for hAPP-induced OSN death, as marked by mitochondrial damage and caspase-9 activation. Given that hAPP expression causes OSN apoptosis despite the absence of BACE1, we propose that Aβ is not the sole cause of hAPP-induced neurodegeneration and that the early loss of olfactory function in AD may be based on a cell-autonomous mechanism, which could mark an early phase of AD, prior to Aβ accumulation. Thus, the olfactory system could serve as an important new platform to study the development of AD, providing unique insight for both early diagnosis and intervention. PMID:27517085

  12. APP Overexpression Causes Aβ-Independent Neuronal Death through Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ning; Jiao, Song; Gumaste, Ankita; Bai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a central hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is thought to be the cause of the observed neurodegeneration. Many animal models have been generated that overproduce Aβ yet do not exhibit clear neuronal loss, questioning this Aβ hypothesis. We previously developed an in vivo mouse model that expresses a humanized amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) showing robust apoptosis and olfactory dysfunction by 3 weeks of age, which is consistent with early OSN loss and smell deficits, as observed in AD patients. Here we show, by deleting the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in two distinct transgenic mouse models, that hAPP-induced apoptosis of OSNs is Aβ independent and remains cell autonomous. In addition, we reveal that the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is responsible for hAPP-induced OSN death, as marked by mitochondrial damage and caspase-9 activation. Given that hAPP expression causes OSN apoptosis despite the absence of BACE1, we propose that Aβ is not the sole cause of hAPP-induced neurodegeneration and that the early loss of olfactory function in AD may be based on a cell-autonomous mechanism, which could mark an early phase of AD, prior to Aβ accumulation. Thus, the olfactory system could serve as an important new platform to study the development of AD, providing unique insight for both early diagnosis and intervention. PMID:27517085

  13. NGF controls APP cleavage by downregulating APP phosphorylation at Thr668: relevance for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Triaca, Viviana; Sposato, Valentina; Bolasco, Giulia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pelicci, Piergiuseppe; Bruni, Amalia C; Cupidi, Chiara; Maletta, Raffaele; Feligioni, Marco; Nisticò, Robert; Canu, Nadia; Calissano, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    NGF has been implicated in forebrain neuroprotection from amyloidogenesis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of NGF signalling in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in forebrain neurons using primary cultures of septal neurons and acute septo-hippocampal brain slices. In this study, we show that NGF controls the basal level of APP phosphorylation at Thr668 (T668) by downregulating the activity of the Ser/Thr kinase JNK(p54) through the Tyr kinase signalling adaptor SH2-containing sequence C (ShcC). We also found that the specific NGF receptor, Tyr kinase A (TrkA), which is known to bind to APP, fails to interact with the fraction of APP molecules phosphorylated at T668 (APP(pT668) ). Accordingly, the amount of TrkA bound to APP is significantly reduced in the hippocampus of ShcC KO mice and of patients with AD in which elevated APP(pT668) levels are detected. NGF promotes TrkA binding to APP and APP trafficking to the Golgi, where APP-BACE interaction is hindered, finally resulting in reduced generation of sAPPβ, CTFβ and amyloid-beta (1-42). These results demonstrate that NGF signalling directly controls basal APP phosphorylation, subcellular localization and BACE cleavage, and pave the way for novel approaches specifically targeting ShcC signalling and/or the APP-TrkA interaction in AD therapy. PMID:27076121

  14. Insight into inhibition of the human amyloid beta protein precursor (APP: PDB ID ) using (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamine (LR) models: structure elucidation of a family of ZnX2-LR complexes.

    PubMed

    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Kundu, Sajal; Singh, Palwinder; Shaveta; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C

    2015-02-01

    The amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and its neurotoxic cleavage product amyloid beta (Aβ) are a cause of Alzheimer's disease and appear essential for neuronal development and cell homeostasis. Proteolytic processing of APP is influenced by metal ions and protein ligands, however the structural and functional mechanism of APP regulation is not known so far. In this context, molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the molecular behavior of (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)arylamines (LR) with an E2 domain of the APP in its complex with zinc (APP; PDB ID: ). Docking results indeed confirmed that the LR interacts with Zn in the binding site of the protein between two α-helical chains. In view of these findings, LR was further investigated for complexation reactions with Zn(2+) in order to establish the structural models in solution and in the solid state. Five new Zn(2+) complexes of compositions viz. [Zn(Br)2(L2-Me)] (), [Zn(Br)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(i)2(L2-OMe)] (), [Zn(NO3)2(L2-OMe)(H2O)] () and [Zn(L4-Me)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 () were synthesized and their structures were ascertained by microanalysis, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The zinc atom in complex exhibits a distorted tetrahedral geometry while the crystal structures of complexes and show distorted square pyramidal geometries. The zinc cation in and has an octahedral coordination environment, but in the zinc coordination geometry is less distorted. The Zn(ii) cations take part in one ( and ) or two () 5-membered metallacycles imposed by the NN or NNO chelation modes of LR. The significant intermolecular ππ interactions are also discussed. PMID:25534782

  15. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-01-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis. PMID:26674303

  16. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Polepalle, Tejaswin; Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-11-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis. PMID:26674303

  17. A selected reaction monitoring-based analysis of acute phase proteins in interstitial fluids from experimental equine wounds healing by secondary intention.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, Louise; Bendixen, Emøke; Sørensen, Mette Aa; Harman, Victoria M; Beynon, Robert J; Petersen, Lars J; Jacobsen, Stine

    2016-05-01

    In horses, pathological healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) is a particular problem in limb wounds, whereas body wounds tend to heal without complications. Chronic inflammation has been proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of EGT. This study aimed to investigate levels of inflammatory acute phase proteins (APPs) in interstitial fluid from wounds in horses. A novel approach for absolute quantification of proteins, selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based mass spectrometry in combination with a quantification concatamer (QconCAT), was used for the quantification of five established equine APPs (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and plasminogen) and three proposed equine APPs (prothrombin, α-2-macroglobulin, and α-1-antitrypsin). Wound interstitial fluid was recovered by large pore microdialysis from experimental body and limb wounds from five horses at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 after wounding and healing without (body) and with (limb) the formation of EGT. The QconCAT included proteotypic peptides representing each of the protein targets and was used to direct the design of a gene, which was expressed in Escherichia coli in a media supplemented with stable isotopes for metabolically labeling of standard peptides. Co-analysis of wound interstitial fluid samples with the stable isotope-labeled QconCAT tryptic peptides in known amounts enabled quantification of the APPs in absolute terms. The concentrations of fibrinogen, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, prothrombin, and α-1-antitrypsin in dialysate from limb wounds were significantly higher than in dialysate from body wounds. This is the first report of simultaneous analysis of a panel of APPs using the QconCAT-SRM technology. The microdialysis technique in combination with the QconCAT-SRM-based approach proved useful for quantification of the investigated proteins in the wound interstitial fluid, and the results indicated that there is a state of sustained inflammation in

  18. SLiMScape 3.x: a Cytoscape 3 app for discovery of Short Linear Motifs in protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Olorin, Emily; O'Brien, Kevin T.; Palopoli, Nicolas; Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; Shields, Denis C.; Edwards, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Short linear motifs (SLiMs) are small protein sequence patterns that mediate a large number of critical protein-protein interactions, involved in processes such as complex formation, signal transduction, localisation and stabilisation. SLiMs show rapid evolutionary dynamics and are frequently the targets of molecular mimicry by pathogens. Identifying enriched sequence patterns due to convergent evolution in non-homologous proteins has proven to be a successful strategy for computational SLiM prediction. Tools of the SLiMSuite package use this strategy, using a statistical model to identify SLiM enrichment based on the evolutionary relationships, amino acid composition and predicted disorder of the input proteins. The quality of input data is critical for successful SLiM prediction. Cytoscape provides a user-friendly, interactive environment to explore interaction networks and select proteins based on common features, such as shared interaction partners. SLiMScape embeds tools of the SLiMSuite package for de novo SLiM discovery (SLiMFinder and QSLiMFinder) and identifying occurrences/enrichment of known SLiMs (SLiMProb) within this interactive framework. SLiMScape makes it easier to (1) generate high quality hypothesis-driven datasets for these tools, and (2) visualise predicted SLiM occurrences within the context of the network. To generate new predictions, users can select nodes from a protein network or provide a set of Uniprot identifiers. SLiMProb also requires additional query motif input. Jobs are then run remotely on the SLiMSuite server ( http://rest.slimsuite.unsw.edu.au) for subsequent retrieval and visualisation. SLiMScape can also be used to retrieve and visualise results from jobs run directly on the server. SLiMScape and SLiMSuite are open source and freely available via GitHub under GNU licenses. PMID:26674271

  19. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  20. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  1. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  2. Systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected with Eimeria zuernii.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Bangoura, Berit; Lepik, Triin; Orro, Toomas

    2015-09-15

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are APPs that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against Eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. We investigated the involvement of SAA and HP in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infected with either 150,000 or 250,000 Eimeria zuernii oocysts (group 1 (n=11) and group 2 (n=12), respectively). The calves were monitored for 28 days and data was collected on oocyst excretion, faecal score, animal weight, and SAA and Hp serum concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the clinical symptoms, indicated by an increase in the number of oocysts in the faeces and severe diarrhoea, manifested at patency for group 1 and 2. Serum Hp and SAA levels also increased during this period. Hp appeared to be a more sensitive marker than SAA, and differences between groups 1 and 2 were observed only for Hp. Linear regression models showed a negative association between weight gain and Hp concentrations, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) during the overall experimental period and the patency period. A similar result was seen for SAA only during the patency period. This result supports the assumption that reduced weight gain due to E. zuernii infection is an immunologically driven process that involves an increase in APPs. A random intercept regression model of oocyst shedding groups showed that calves shedding 1-500 oocysts had reduced concentrations of Hp, indicating that a different immunological reaction occurs during mild shedding of E. zuernii oocysts than during more intensive shedding. A similar model was used to examine associations between faecal scores and Hp concentrations for each group. Group 2 calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea displayed

  3. Charged states of proteins. Reactions of doubly protonated alkyldiamines with NH(3): solvation or deprotonation. Extension of two proton cases to multiply protonated globular proteins observed in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Michael; Blades, Arthur; Kebarle, Paul

    2002-09-25

    The apparent gas-phase basicities (GB(app)'s) of basic sites in multiply protonated molecules, such as proteins, can be approximately predicted. An approach used by Williams and co-workers was to develop an equation for a diprotonated system, NH(3)(CH(2))(7)NH(3)(2+), and then extend it with a summation of pairwise interactions to multiply protonated systems. Experimental determinations of the rates of deprotonation of NH(3)(CH(2))(7)NH(3)(2+) by a variety of bases B, in the present work, showed that GB(app) = GB(NH(3)) = 196 kcal/mol. This result is supported also by determinations of the equilibria: NH(3)(CH(2))(p)NH(3)(2+) + NH(3) = NH(3)(CH(2))(p)NH(3) x NH(3)(2+), for p = 7, 8, 10, 12. The described experimental GB(app) is 14 kcal/mol higher than the value predicted by the equation used by Williams and co-workers but in agreement with an ab initio result by Gronert. Equations based on electrostatics are developed for the two proton and multiproton systems which allow the evaluation of GB(app) of the basic sites on proteins. These are applied for the evaluation of GB(app) of the basic sites and of N(SB), the maximum number of protons that the nondenatured proteins, carbonic anhydrase (CAII), cytochrome c (CYC), and pepsin, can hold. The N(SB) values are compared with the observed charges, Z(obs)'s, when the nondenatured proteins are produced by electrospray and found in agreement with the proposal by de la Mora that Z(obs) is determined by the number of charges provided by the droplet that contains the protein, according to the charge residue model (CRM). The GB(app) values of proteins have many other applications. They can be compared with experimental measurements and are also needed for the understanding of the thermal denaturing of charged proteins and the thermal dissociation of charged protein complexes. PMID:12236767

  4. Assessing health apps.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A survey commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence aims to explore the way nurses and midwives engage with mobile technologies, such as smartphones, tablets and health apps. It is seeking opinions on how these apps should be evaluated, and about online patient feedback. Results will inform NICE's plan to develop a central process for evaluating and endorsing health apps, which will enable patients, healthcare professionals and hospitals to identify the most useful. Nurses or midwives practising in the UK, and involved with direct patient care are welcome to take part in the survey. PMID:27369711

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A M; Martínez-Subiela, S; Cerón, J J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs' immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses were monitored. A general idea of the degree of disease coverage was analysed by examining organ lesions postmortem. Haptoglobin (Hp) and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in meat juice samples. 72.13 per cent of pigs appeared to be seropositive for the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and almost 86.2 per cent of them had concomitant infections with other pathogens, such as Porcine circovirus type 2 or Swine influenza virus. Median Hp and CRP concentrations were significantly higher in diseased animals at different stages of the production chain, when compared with levels found in healthy finishing pigs (P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest sensitivity-specificity pairs, nearly 80-90 per cent, at cut-off levels of 83 and 10 µg/ml for Hp and CRP determinations, respectively, with high AUCs 0.9. This cut-off could be useful for veterinary inspections at the time of slaughter, to differentiate between the carcase of a healthy animal and the carcase of an animal suffering from a systemic disease, which should be completely condemned. PMID:26101294

  6. Altered Arginine Metabolism in Cells Transfected with Human Wild-Type Beta Amyloid Precursor ProteinAPP).

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Hilgier, Wojciech; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Lukiw, Walter J; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of enzymes linked to arginine metabolism have been recently implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite strong association of arginine changes with nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the impact of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides on arginine degradation and re-synthesis is unknown. In the present study we compared expression levels of arginases (ARG1, ARG2), neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthase isoforms (NNOS, ENOS, INOS), enzymes that metabolize arginine or resynthesize it from citrulline and the levels of corresponding amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells overexpressing human Aβ precursor protein (APPwt cells). Moreover, we investigated the changes in miRNAs responsible for modulation of arginine metabolism in AD brains. Real-time PCR analysis revealed in APPwt cells significant decreases of ARG1 and ARG2 which are responsible for lysing arginine into ornithine and urea; this reduction was followed by significantly lower enzyme activity. NNOS and ENOS mRNAs were elevated in APPwt cells while iNOS was undetectable in both cell lines. The expression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) that metabolizes citrulline was down-regulated without changes in argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which decarboxylates ornithine to form putrescine was also reduced. Arginine, the substrate for both arginases and NOS, was unchanged in APPwt cells. However, citrulline concentration was significantly higher. Elevated miRNA-9 and miRNA-128a found in AD brain tissues might modulate the expression of ASS and NOS, respectively. Our results indicate that Aβ affects arginine metabolism and this influence might have important role in the pathomechanism of AD. PMID:26971935

  7. Solid-liquid phase boundaries of lens protein solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Berland, C R; Thurston, G M; Kondo, M; Broide, M L; Pande, J; Ogun, O; Benedek, G B

    1992-01-01

    We report measurement of the solid-liquid phase boundary, or liquidus line, for aqueous solutions of three pure calf gamma-crystallin proteins: gamma II, gamma IIIa, and gamma IIIb. We also studied the liquidus line for solutions of native gamma IV-crystallin calf lens protein, which consists of 85% gamma IVa/15% gamma IVb. In all four proteins the liquidus phase boundaries lie higher in temperature than the previously determined liquid-liquid coexistence curves. Thus, over the range of concentration and temperature for which liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the coexistence of a protein crystal phase with a protein liquid solution phase is thermodynamically stable relative to the metastable separated liquid phases. The location of the liquidus lines clearly divides these four crystallin proteins into two groups: those in which liquidus lines flatten at temperatures greater than 70 degrees C: gamma IIIa and gamma IV, and those in which liquidus lines flatten at temperatures less than 50 degrees C: gamma II and gamma IIIb. We have analyzed the form of the liquidus lines by using specific choices for the structures of the Gibbs free energy in solution and solid phases. By applying the thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium between the two phases to the resulting chemical potentials, we can estimate the temperature-dependent free energy change upon binding of protein and water into the solid phase. PMID:1741375

  8. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  9. Apps I Have Loved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    According to a March estimate from Distimo, there were 653,614 apps in the iPhone, Android, iPad, BlackBerry, and Windows Mobile stores alone. So, is it any wonder that these busy people have found a few that come in handy on the job? Mobile apps are as indispensable to district IT executives as they are becoming in the classroom--for professional…

  10. The Cytoscape app article collection.

    PubMed

    Pico, Alexander R; Bader, Gary D; Demchak, Barry; Guitart Pla, Oriol; Hull, Timothy; Longabaugh, William; Lopes, Christian; Lotia, Samad; Molenaar, Piet; Montojo, Jason; Morris, John H; Ono, Keiichiro; Schwikowski, Benno; Welker, David; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    As a network visualization and analysis platform, Cytoscape relies on apps to provide domain-specific features and functions. There are many resources available to support Cytoscape app development and distribution, including the Cytoscape App Store and an online "cookbook" for app developers. This article collection is another resource to help researchers find out more about relevant Cytoscape apps and to provide app developers with useful implementation tips. The collection will grow over time as new Cytoscape apps are developed and published. PMID:25580224

  11. Endogenous APP accumulates in synapses after BACE1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Saket Milind; Xu, Shaohua; Ackermann, Frauke; Gregory, Joshua A; Lundkvist, Johan; Lendahl, Urban; Brodin, Lennart

    2016-08-01

    BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is a pivotal step in the production of the Alzheimer related Aβ peptide and inhibitors of BACE1 are currently in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). While processing and trafficking of APP has been extensively studied in non-neuronal cells, the fate of APP at neuronal synapses and in response to reduced BACE1 activity has not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the consequence of reduced BACE1 activity on endogenous synaptic APP by monitoring N- and C-terminal APP epitopes by immunocytochemistry. In control rodent primary hippocampal neuron cultures, labeling with antibodies directed to N-terminal APP epitopes showed a significant overlap with synaptic vesicle markers (SV2 or synaptotagmin). In contrast, labeling with antibodies directed to C-terminal epitopes of APP showed only a limited overlap with these proteins. In neurons derived from BACE1-deficient mice, and in control neurons treated with a BACE1 inhibitor, both the N-terminal and the C-terminal APP labeling overlapped significantly with synaptic vesicle markers. Moreover, BACE1 inhibition increased the proximity between the APP C-terminus and SV2 as shown by a proximity ligation assay. These results, together with biochemical observations, indicate that BACE1 can regulate the levels of full-length APP at neuronal synapses. PMID:26907521

  12. Acute phase glycoproteins: bystanders or participants in carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Eugene; Rudd, Pauline M

    2012-04-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a group of serum proteins that undergo dramatic changes in concentration during times of inflammation. Many APPs are heavily glycosylated, and their sugar content and complexity change in the presence of cancer-induced chronic inflammation. These changes in glycosylation are currently being exploited in the search for novel biomarkers of cancer. Like other posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation, changes in glycosylation can profoundly alter the function of a protein. We hypothesize that besides being a rich source of potential biomarkers APPs may also play an active role in tumorigenesis. The glycan content of the APPs haptoglobin and kininogen, for example, is altered in many types of cancer. These APPs can interact with a number of receptors on macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, potentially modulating macrophage activity and thereby contributing to tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. PMID:22352780

  13. Protein crystals on phase-separating model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, Suliana; Horton, Margaret; Leszczynski, Szymon; Gast, Alice

    2006-03-01

    We study the interplay between the crystallization of proteins tethered to membranes and separation within the membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of DOPC, sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol. These model membranes phase separate into coexisting liquid domains below a miscibility transition temperature. This phase separation captures some aspects of the formation of lipid rafts in cell membranes and demonstrates the influence of membrane composition on raft formation. Real cell membranes have a much more complicated structure. There are additional physical constraints present in cell membranes, such as their attachment to the cytoskeleton and the presence of membrane bound proteins. The self-association of membrane proteins can influence the membrane phase behavior. We begin to investigate these effects on model tethered protein- loaded membranes by incorporating a small amount of biotin-X- DPPE into our GUVs. The biotinylated lipid partitions into a cholesterol-poor phase; thus, streptavidin binds preferentially to one of the membrane phases. As streptavidin assembles to form crystalline domains, it restricts the membrane mobility. We examine the effect of this protein association on lipid phase separation, as well as the effect of the lipid phase separation on the crystallization of the tethered proteins.

  14. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users

    PubMed Central

    Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all P<.05). App users were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social

  15. Acute phase proteins in naturally occurring respiratory disease of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Idoate, Ignacio; Vander Ley, Brian; Schultz, Loren; Heller, Meera

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three acute phase proteins (APP) [haptoglobin (HPT), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and transferrin (Tf)] in feedlot cattle with naturally occurring respiratory disease diagnosed by a calf health scoring chart (CHSC). Seventy-seven beef calves were observed for signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) during the first 28 days after arrival at the feedlot. Fourteen cases and pen matched controls were selected based on the CHSC. BRD cases were defined as a score of ≥ 5, while controls were defined as a score ≤ 4. The mean CHSC score in cases was 6.9 which was significantly greater than the controls 2.8 (P < 0.01). Mean plasma LBP and HPT concentrations were significantly greater in cases than controls (P < 0.01). Our study results show that measurement of HPT and LBP could be useful in detecting respiratory disease in feedlot conditions. Transferrin concentrations between the two groups were not statistically different. PMID:25599608

  16. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  17. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  18. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. Objective The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. Methods We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search Results On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. Conclusions The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses

  19. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C.H.; Doak, R. Bruce; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L.; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Kirian, Richard A.; Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T.A.; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously-renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10 μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor. PMID:24525480

  20. How apps are changing family medicine.

    PubMed

    Lippman, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Medical applications for smartphones and tablets are so ubiquitous that it's easy to become a victim of app overload. Here's a look at FDA-approved apps, reference apps, and apps that FPs are "prescribing." PMID:23957029

  1. There's an App for that!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Important as training the sales force is, mobile training apps are being used for much more. Visual Eyes Inc., for example, has developed training apps for the U.S. military's combat medical teams that detail specific medical procedures, such as controlling hemorrhaging. Other apps, developed for corporations and government agencies, pass along…

  2. Smokefree Apps | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Get 24/7 help with a Smokefree app for your smartphone. These free apps give you the support and skills you need to get ready to quit and stay smokefree. Explore the apps to discover the features that will be most helpful for your smokefree journey.

  3. Hydrophobic Surfactant Proteins Induce a Phosphatidylethanolamine to Form Cubic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Chavarha, Mariya; Khoojinian, Hamed; Schulwitz, Leonard E.; Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C promote rapid adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air/water interface. Previous evidence suggests that they achieve this effect by facilitating the formation of a rate-limiting negatively curved stalk between the vesicular bilayer and the interface. To determine whether the proteins can alter the curvature of lipid leaflets, we used x-ray diffraction to investigate how the physiological mixture of these proteins affects structures formed by 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, which by itself undergoes the lamellar-to-inverse hexagonal phase transition at 71°C. In amounts as low as 0.03% (w:w) and at temperatures as low as 57°C, the proteins induce formation of bicontinuous inverse cubic phases. The proteins produce a dose-related shift of diffracted intensity to the cubic phases, with minimal evidence of other structures above 0.1% and 62°C, but no change in the lattice-constants of the lamellar or cubic phases. The induction of the bicontinuous cubic phases, in which the individual lipid leaflets have the same saddle-shaped curvature as the hypothetical stalk-intermediate, supports the proposed model of how the surfactant proteins promote adsorption. PMID:20409474

  4. Development of novel solid-phase protein formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo Ortiz, Brenda Liz

    Proteins are the next-generation drugs for the treatment of several diseases. However, the number of protein drugs is still limited due to the physical or chemical instability of proteins during processing, formulation, storage, and delivery. The formulation of proteins at the solid state has advantages over liquid state, such as improved stability during long-term storage and delivery and decreases transportation costs. In this dissertation, we developed new solid-phase protein formulations in which the integrity of the protein was not compromised. The long term goal of this research was to use these protein formulations to improve protein stability in drug delivery devices, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The first solid-phase protein formulation developed in this investigation was named "glassification". We proposed glassification as an alternative protein dehydration technique to the common used one, lyophilization, because this last method involves a series of steps which are detrimental to protein structure and stability. The glassification method consisted on protein dehydration by the use of organic solvents. As a result of the glassification process a small (micrometer size range) protein solid bead was obtained. The proteins used to study the glassification process were lysozyme (LYS), alpha-chymotrypsin (CHYMO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These studies revealed that the glassification process itself did not alter protein structure and the activity was preserved. Ethyl acetate was the most effective organic solvent for protein glassification because it led to the highest protein residual activity, no insoluble aggregate formation and is a relatively non-toxic solvent, which allow the incorporation of these protein microparticles in PLGA microspheres. The incorporation of spherical HRP microparticles into PLGA microspheres resulted in superior properties when compared with encapsulated lyophilized HRP powder, such as improved release

  5. Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

  6. Phase diagram of a model of the protein amelogenin.

    PubMed

    Haaga, Jason; Pemberton, Elizabeth; Gunton, J D; Rickman, J M

    2016-08-28

    There has been considerable recent interest in the self-assembly and phase behavior of models of colloidal and protein particles with anisotropic interactions. One example of particular interest is amelogenin, an important protein involved in the formation of dental enamel. Amelogenin is primarily hydrophobic with a 25-residue charged C-terminus tail. This protein undergoes a hierarchical assembly process that is crucial to mineral deposition, and experimental work has demonstrated that the deletion of the C-terminus tail prevents this self-assembly. A simplified model of amelogenin has been proposed in which the protein is treated as a hydrophobic sphere, interacting via the Asakura-Oosawa (AO) potential, with a tethered point charge on its surface. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Coulomb interaction between the point charges in altering the phase diagram of the AO model. For the parameter case specific to amelogenin, we find that the previous in vitro experimental and model conditions correspond to the system being near the low-density edge of the metastable region of the phase diagram. Our study illustrates more generally the importance of understanding the phase diagram for proteins, in that the kinetic pathway for self-assembly and the resulting aggregate morphology depends on the location of the initial state in the phase diagram. PMID:27586954

  7. All in the Family: How the APPs Regulate Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazarov, Orly; Demars, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent intriguing evidence suggests that metabolites of amyloid precursor protein (APP), mutated in familial forms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), play critical roles in developmental and postnatal neurogenesis. Of note is soluble APPα (sAPPα) that regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. The APP family encompasses a group of ubiquitously expressed and evolutionarily conserved, type I transmembrane glycoproteins, whose functions have yet to be fully elucidated. APP can undergo proteolytic cleavage by mutually exclusive pathways. The subtle structural differences between metabolites generated in the different pathways, as well as their equilibrium, may be crucial for neuronal function. The implications of this new body of evidence are significant. Miscleavage of APP would readily impact developmental and postnatal neurogenesis, which might contribute to cognitive deficits characterizing Alzheimer’s disease. This review will discuss the implications of the role of the APP family in neurogenesis for neuronal development, cognitive function, and brain disorders that compromise learning and memory, such as AD. PMID:22675290

  8. Acute-phase proteins investigation based on lectins affinity capture prior to 2-DE separation: application to serum from multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Robotti, Andrea; Natale, Massimo; Albo, Alessandra Giuliano; Lis, Katarzyna; Perga, Simona; Marnetto, Fabiana; Gilli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Plasma acute-phase proteins (APPs) glyco-isoforms are important biomarkers of inflammatory processes such as those occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific analysis of these proteins is often hampered by sample biochemical complexity. The aim of our study was to set up a method to accurately visualize, identify and quantify APPs glyco-isoforms in human serum. An enrichment strategy based on affinity chromatography using the carbohydrate-binding proteins concanavalin A (ConA) and erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) was applied to pooled serum samples from 15 patients and 9 healthy individuals. Image analysis of 2-DE detected 30 spots with a fold change higher than 1.5. A total of 14 were statistically significant (p value<0.05): 7 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated in MS samples. ESI LC-Nanospray IT mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that all of them were APPs isoforms supporting the idea that the accurate analysis of differential glycosylation profiles in these biomarkers is instrumental to distinguish between MS patients and healthy subjects. Additionally, overlaps in ConA/ECL maps protein patterns suggest how the used lectins are able to bind sugars harbored by the same oligosaccharide structure. Among identified proteins, the presence of complex and/or hybrid type N-linked sugar structures is well known. Performing galectin-3 binding and Western blotting, we were able to demonstrate a correlation between hybrid type glyco-isoforms of β-haptoglobin and MS. In conclusion, although the patho-physiological role of the identified species still remains unclear and further validations are needed, these findings may have a relevant impact on disease-specific marker identification approaches. PMID:20715125

  9. Oyster Fisheries App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Guerrero, Geraldo A.; Armstrong, Duane; Underwood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This project is creating a cloud-enabled, HTML 5 web application to help oyster fishermen and state agencies apply Earth science to improve the management of this important natural and economic resource. The Oyster Fisheries app gathers and analyzes environmental and water quality information, and alerts fishermen and resources managers about problems in oyster fishing waters. An intuitive interface based on Google Maps displays the geospatial information and provides familiar interactive controls to the users. Alerts can be tailored to notify users when conditions in specific leases or public fishing areas require attention. The app is hosted on the Amazon Web Services cloud. It is being developed and tested using some of the latest web development tools such as web components and Polymer.

  10. Is the Molten Globule a Third Phase of Proteins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Vijay S.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    1998-02-01

    The equilibrium properties of proteins are studied by Monte Carlo simulation of two simplified models of protein-like heteropolymers. These models emphasize the polymeric entropy of the fluctuating polypeptide chain. Our calculations suggest a generic phase diagram that contains a thermodynamically distinct ``molten globule'' state in addition to a rigid native state and a nontrivial unfolded state. The roles of side-chain packing and loop entropy are discussed.

  11. Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Brodzki, Piotr; Kostro, Krzysztof; Krakowski, Leszek; Marczuk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and acute phase proteins (APPs)--haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in serum and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis, and compare them to healthy animals. The study was performed on 24 cows on day 60 after delivery. The cows were divided into two groups based on the results of cytological tests: 12 cows with subclinical endometritis and 12 healthy cows. Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines in the study material were determined with ELISA: TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA. The results show that the levels of TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in the serum of cows with subclinical endometritis compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Uterine washings had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp in the experimental cows compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The demonstrated differences in the concentration of cytokines and APP between cows with subclinical endometritis and healthy cows, in both the serum and uterine washings, may suggest the usefulness of these parameters in the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in cows in the late postpartum period. PMID:25846950

  12. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays: Mapping the path towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Rosa I.; Espina, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) technology evolved from the advent of miniaturized immunoassays and gene microarray technology. Reverse phase protein arrays provide either a low throughput or high throughput methodology for quantifying proteins and their post-translationally modified forms in both cellular and non-cellular samples. As the demand for patient tailored therapies increases so does the need for precise and sensitive technology to accurately profile the molecular circuitry driving an individual patient’s disease. RPPAs are currently utilized in clinical trials for profiling and comparing the functional state of protein signaling pathways, either temporally within tumors, between patients, or within the same patients before/after treatment. RPPAs are generally employed for quantifying large numbers of samples on one array, under identical experimental conditions. However, the goal of personalized cancer medicine is to design therapies based on the molecular portrait of a patient’s tumor, which in turn result in more efficacious treatments with less toxicity. Therefore, RPPAs are also being validated for low throughput assays of individual patient samples. This review explores reverse phase protein array technology in the cancer research field, concentrating on its role as a fundamental tool for deciphering protein signaling networks and its emerging role in personalized medicine. PMID:25358623

  13. Protein phase diagrams: The physics behind their elliptic shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Harald; Hecht, Christoph; Friedrich, Josef

    2004-12-01

    We relate the condition for the elliptic shape of the phase diagram of proteins to the degree of correlation in the fluctuations of the changes of enthalpy and volume at the denaturing-refolding transition. Since this degree cannot be larger than 1, hyperbolically shaped diagrams are not likely to exist. Experiments show that the correlation factor is actually quite low for proteins implying that one-order parameter is not enough to describe the folding-denaturing transition. These findings seem to be the thermodynamic manifestation of the glasslike properties of proteins despite the fact that the transition itself is of first order.

  14. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals deliveredmore » by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.« less

  15. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is shown enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  16. MT5-MMP, just a new APP processing proteinase in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Baranger, Kévin; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We have recently identified in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) membrane-type 5-MMP (MT5-MMP) as a new player in Alzheimer's pathogenesis, which displays pro-amyloidogenic features and proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Another group has reported that MT5-MMP processing of APP may release a novel neurotoxic APP fragment. Although MT5-MMP-mediated APP processing appears to be a key pathogenic step, we hypothesize that MT5-MMP may also contribute to AD pathogenesis through complementary mechanisms that involve the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and/or APP trafficking. PMID:27349644

  17. Tuning protein-protein interactions using cosolvents: specific effects of ionic and non-ionic additives on protein phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jan; Platten, Florian; Wagner, Dana; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

    2016-04-21

    Cosolvents are routinely used to modulate the (thermal) stability of proteins and, hence, their interactions with proteins have been studied intensely. However, less is known about their specific effects on protein-protein interactions, which we characterize in terms of the protein phase behavior. We analyze the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl), glycerol, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We experimentally determined the crystallization boundary (XB) and, in combination with data on the cloud-point temperatures (CPTs), the crystallization gap. In agreement with other studies, our data indicate that the additives might affect the protein phase behavior through electrostatic screening and additive-specific contributions. At high salt concentrations, where electrostatic interactions are screened, both the CPT and the XB are found to be linear functions of the additive concentration. Their slopes quantify the additive-specific changes of the phase behavior and thus of the protein-protein interactions. While the specific effect of NaCl is to induce attractions between proteins, DMSO, glycerol and GuHCl (with increasing strength) weaken attractions and/or induce repulsions. Except for DMSO, changes of the CPT are stronger than those of the XB. Furthermore, the crystallization gap widens in the case of GuHCl and glycerol and narrows in the case of NaCl. We relate these changes to colloidal interaction models, namely square-well and patchy interactions. PMID:27020538

  18. Mutation in the 3'untranslated region of APP as a genetic determinant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gaël; Wallon, David; Goupil, Claudia; Richard, Anne-Claire; Pottier, Cyril; Dorval, Véronique; Sarov-Rivière, Mariana; Riant, Florence; Hervé, Dominique; Amouyel, Philippe; Guerchet, Maelenn; Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Bebene; Mbelesso, Pascal; Dartigues, Jean-François; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Hébert, Sébastien S; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aβ-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major cause of primary non-traumatic brain hemorrhage. In families with an early onset of the disease, CAA can be due to amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathogenic variants or duplications. APP duplications lead to a ~1.5-fold increased APP expression, resulting in Aβ overproduction and deposition in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels. We hypothesized that rare variants in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of APP might lead to APP overexpression in patients with CAA and no APP pathogenic variant or duplication. We performed direct sequencing of the whole APP 3'UTR in 90 patients with CAA and explored the functional consequences of one previously unreported variant. We identified three sequence variants in four patients, of which a two-base pair deletion (c.*331_*332del) was previously unannotated and absent from 175 controls of same ethnicity. This latter variant was associated with increased APP expression in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatics and functional assays showed that the APP c.*331_*332del variant affected APP messenger RNA (mRNA) structure and binding of two microRNAs (miR-582-3p and miR-892b), providing a mechanism for the observed effects on APP expression. These results identify APP 3'UTR sequence variants as genetic determinants of Aβ-CAA. PMID:25828868

  19. Protein Phase Behavior in Aqueous Solutions: Crystallization, Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation, Gels, and Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Dumetz, André C.; Chockla, Aaron M.; Kaler, Eric W.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    2008-01-01

    The aggregates and gels commonly observed during protein crystallization have generally been considered disordered phases without further characterization. Here their physical nature is addressed by investigating protein salting-out in ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride for six proteins (ovalbumin, ribonuclease A, soybean trypsin inhibitor, lysozyme, and β-lactoglobulin A and B) at 4°C, 23°C, and 37°C. When interpreted within the framework of a theoretical phase diagram obtained for colloidal particles displaying short-range attractive interactions, the results show that the formation of aggregates can be interpreted theoretically in terms of a gas-liquid phase separation for aggregates that are amorphous or gel-like. A notable additional feature is the existence of a second aggregation line observed for both ovalbumin and ribonuclease A in ammonium sulfate, interpreted theoretically as the spinodal. Further investigation of ovalbumin and lysozyme reveals that the formation of aggregates can be interpreted, in light of theoretical results from mode-coupling theory, as a kinetically trapped state or a gel phase that occurs through the intermediate of a gas-liquid phase separation. Despite the limitations of simple theoretical models of short-range attractive interactions, such as their inability to reproduce the effect of temperature, they provide a framework useful to describe the main features of protein phase behavior. PMID:18160663

  20. Standard reporting for medical apps.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Von Jan, Ute; Pramann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Apps running on mobile devices are continually gaining importance, for medical professionals as well as for patients. When used appropriately, they can support their users, have the potential to increase efficiency and to lower costs. However, the information available for "medical apps" that are currently being distributed in the official mobile app stores of different mobile platforms often rather raises than answers questions regarding important aspects such as functionality, limits, data integrity, security and privacy. In this paper, we analyze the current situation, including a basic overview over current reporting and regulatory mechanisms and propose the use of an app-synopsis as step in direction of transparency. PMID:23823422

  1. Binary-liquid phase separation of lens protein solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Broide, M L; Berland, C R; Pande, J; Ogun, O O; Benedek, G B

    1991-01-01

    We have determined the coexistence curves (plots of phase-separation temperature T versus protein concentration C) for aqueous solutions of purified calf lens proteins. The proteins studied, calf gamma IIIa-, gamma IIIb-, and gamma IVa-crystallin, have very similar amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. Both ascending and descending limbs of the coexistence curves were measured. We find that the coexistence curves for each of these proteins and for gamma II-crystallin can be fit, near the critical point, to the function /(Cc-C)/Cc/ = A [(Tc - T)/Tc]beta, where beta = 0.325, Cc is the critical protein concentration in mg/ml, Tc is the critical temperature for phase separation in K, and A is a parameter that characterizes the width of the coexistence curve. We find that A and Cc are approximately the same for all four coexistence curves (A = 2.6 +/- 0.1, Cc = 289 +/- 20 mg/ml), but that Tc is not the same. For gamma II- and gamma IIIb-crystallin, Tc approximately 5 degrees C, whereas for gamma IIIa- and gamma IVa-crystallin, Tc approximately 38 degrees C. By comparing the published protein sequences for calf, rat, and human gamma-crystallins, we postulate that a few key amino acid residues account for the division of gamma-crystallins into low-Tc and high-Tc groups. Images PMID:2062844

  2. Quantitative analysis of APP axonal transport in neurons: role of JIP1 in enhanced APP anterograde transport

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Kyoko; Araseki, Masahiko; Nozawa, Keisuke; Furukori, Keiko; Araki, Yoichi; Matsushima, Takahide; Nakaya, Tadashi; Hata, Saori; Saito, Yuhki; Uchida, Seiichi; Okada, Yasushi; Nairn, Angus C.; Davis, Roger J.; Yamamoto, Tohru; Kinjo, Masataka; Taru, Hidenori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) associates with kinesin-1 via JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1); however, the role of JIP1 in APP transport by kinesin-1 in neurons remains unclear. We performed a quantitative analysis to understand the role of JIP1 in APP axonal transport. In JIP1-deficient neurons, we find that both the fast velocity (∼2.7 μm/s) and high frequency (66%) of anterograde transport of APP cargo are impaired to a reduced velocity (∼1.83 μm/s) and a lower frequency (45%). We identified two novel elements linked to JIP1 function, located in the central region of JIP1b, that interact with the coiled-coil domain of kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), in addition to the conventional interaction of the JIP1b 11–amino acid C-terminal (C11) region with the tetratricopeptide repeat of KLC1. High frequency of APP anterograde transport is dependent on one of the novel elements in JIP1b. Fast velocity of APP cargo transport requires the C11 domain, which is regulated by the second novel region of JIP1b. Furthermore, efficient APP axonal transport is not influenced by phosphorylation of APP at Thr-668, a site known to be phosphorylated by JNK. Our quantitative analysis indicates that enhanced fast-velocity and efficient high-frequency APP anterograde transport observed in neurons are mediated by novel roles of JIP1b. PMID:25165140

  3. Mobile Apps in Cardiology: Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. Objective The aim of this paper is to study the literature on mobile systems and applications currently available, as well as the existing apps related to cardiology from the leading app stores and to then classify the results to see what is available and what is missing, focusing particularly on commercial apps. Methods Two reviews have been developed. One is a literature review of mobile systems and applications, retrieved from several databases and systems such as Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Knowledge. The other is a review of mobile apps in the leading app stores, Google play for Android and Apple’s App Store for iOS. Results Search queries up to May 2013 located 406 papers and 710 apps related to cardiology and heart disease. The most researched section in the literature associated with cardiology is related to mobile heart (and vital signs) monitoring systems and the methods involved in the classification of heart signs in order to detect abnormal functions. Other systems with a significant number of papers are mobile cardiac rehabilitation systems, blood pressure measurement, and systems for the detection of heart failure. The majority of apps for cardiology are heart monitors and medical calculators. Other categories with a high number of apps are those for ECG education and interpretation, cardiology news and journals, blood pressure tracking, heart rate monitoring using an external device, and CPR instruction. There are very few guides on cardiac rehabilitation and apps for the management of the

  4. App-synopsis - standard reporting for medical apps.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; von Jan, Ute; Jungnickel, Tobias; Pramann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The market for medical apps is rapidly expanding - both for professional use as well as for patient centered apps. There are numerous medical apps, but relevant information about their limitations and dangers is rarely available. In an exemplary evaluation of n=8 medical apps, deficits regarding data integrity, one half had security and privacy issues. Since standard users usually have neither the equipment, know-how nor time for such analyses before entrusting them with their data, ideally, manufacturers should provide information regarding the functionality and limits of their products. Mandatory information should cover data management, data protection and privacy issues. To increase transparency, a standardized reporting tool in the form of an app synopsis could be helpful for providing the necessary information. PMID:23920928

  5. Phase transitions in the assembly of multivalent signalling proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Pilong; Banjade, Sudeep; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Baoyu; Guo, Liang; Llaguno, Marc; Hollingsworth, Javoris V; King, David S; Banani, Salman F; Russo, Paul S; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Nixon, B Tracy; Rosen, Michael K

    2012-03-15

    Cells are organized on length scales ranging from ångström to micrometres. However, the mechanisms by which ångström-scale molecular properties are translated to micrometre-scale macroscopic properties are not well understood. Here we show that interactions between diverse synthetic, multivalent macromolecules (including multi-domain proteins and RNA) produce sharp liquid-liquid-demixing phase separations, generating micrometre-sized liquid droplets in aqueous solution. This macroscopic transition corresponds to a molecular transition between small complexes and large, dynamic supramolecular polymers. The concentrations needed for phase transition are directly related to the valency of the interacting species. In the case of the actin-regulatory protein called neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) interacting with its established biological partners NCK and phosphorylated nephrin, the phase transition corresponds to a sharp increase in activity towards an actin nucleation factor, the Arp2/3 complex. The transition is governed by the degree of phosphorylation of nephrin, explaining how this property of the system can be controlled to regulatory effect by kinases. The widespread occurrence of multivalent systems suggests that phase transitions may be used to spatially organize and biochemically regulate information throughout biology. PMID:22398450

  6. Phase transitions in the assembly of multivalent signalling proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pilong; Banjade, Sudeep; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Baoyu; Guo, Liang; Llaguno, Marc; Hollingsworth, Javoris V.; King, David S.; Banani, Salman F.; Russo, Paul S.; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Nixon, B. Tracy; Rosen, Michael K.

    2013-04-08

    Cells are organized on length scales ranging from angstrom to micrometers. However, the mechanisms by which angstrom-scale molecular properties are translated to micrometer-scale macroscopic properties are not well understood. Here we show that interactions between diverse synthetic, multivalent macromolecules (including multi-domain proteins and RNA) produce sharp liquid-liquid-demixing phase separations, generating micrometer-sized liquid droplets in aqueous solution. This macroscopic transition corresponds to a molecular transition between small complexes and large, dynamic supramolecular polymers. The concentrations needed for phase transition are directly related to the valency of the interacting species. In the case of the actin-regulatory protein called neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) interacting with its established biological partners NCK and phosphorylated nephrin1, the phase transition corresponds to a sharp increase in activity towards an actin nucleation factor, the Arp2/3 complex. The transition is governed by the degree of phosphorylation of nephrin, explaining how this property of the system can be controlled to regulatory effect by kinases. The widespread occurrence of multivalent systems suggests that phase transitions may be used to spatially organize and biochemically regulate information throughout biology.

  7. Effects of supplementation with dietary green tea polyphenols on parasite resistance and acute phase protein response to Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rong Zhen; Li, Hao Yang; Sun, Hai Xia; Zhou, Dao Wei

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with dietary green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on parasite resistance and acute phase protein (APP) response to Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs. Thirty male Ujumqin lambs were randomly assigned to five treatment groups for an 8-week feeding period. Treatments included: (1) uninfected as control, (2) infected but not given GTP (INFGTP0) and (3)-(5) infected and fed 2, 4, or 6g GTP/kg feed (dry matter basis; INFGTP2, INFGTP4, and INFGTP6, respectively). Fecal and blood samples were collected to determine fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), and APP concentrations. Live weight was measured once every 2 weeks. At the end of the feeding period, lambs were slaughtered to determine the adult H. contortus burden. The results demonstrated interaction effects between treatment and sampling time on the average daily gain (ADG; P=0.0005), FEC (P<0.0001), PCV (P=0.0005), and concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGP) (P<0.0001). From days 0 to 56, the ADG values for all infected lambs were lower than that of uninfected lambs, but the ADG values for all GTP-fed lambs were higher than that of INFGTP0 lambs, especially from days 28 to 42. The FECs of all GTP-fed lambs were higher than those of uninfected lambs but lower than that of INFGTP0 lambs. The PCVs of all infected lambs were lower than those of uninfected lambs, but PCV increased with increasing amounts of GTP supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation with different concentrations of GTP significantly reduced the numbers of adult H. contortus, including both males and females (P<0.0001), and the H. contortus burden in INFGTP6 lambs was reduced to uninfected levels. Overall, the SAA, Hp, LBP, and α1AGP concentrations of all infected lambs were higher than those of uninfected lambs from days 0 to 56. Two peaks in expression were observed

  8. Shedding of APP limits its synaptogenic activity and cell adhesion properties

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Ronny; Schilling, Sandra; Soba, Peter; Rupp, Carsten; Hartmann, Tobias; Wagner, Katja; Merdes, Gunter; Eggert, Simone; Kins, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has essential synapse promoting functions. Synaptogenic activity as well as cell adhesion properties of APP presumably depend on trans-cellular dimerization via its extracellular domain. Since neuronal APP is extensively processed by secretases, it raises the question if APP shedding affects its cell adhesion and synaptogenic properties. We show that inhibition of APP shedding using cleavage deficient forms of APP or a dominant negative α-secretase strongly enhanced its cell adhesion and synaptogenic activity suggesting that synapse promoting function of APP is tightly regulated by α-secretase mediated processing, similar to other trans-cellular synaptic adhesion molecules. PMID:25520622

  9. Subtyping of breast cancer using reverse phase protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Johanna; Schlüter, Kerstin; Bernhardt, Stephan; Korf, Ulrike

    2014-12-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs) present a robust and sensitive high capacity platform for targeted proteomics that relies on highly specific antibodies to obtain a quantitative readout regarding phosphorylation state and abundance of proteins of interest. This review summarizes the current state of RPPA-based proteomic profiling of breast cancer in the context of existing preanalytical strategies and sample preparation protocols. RPPA-based subtypes identified so far are compared to those obtained by other approaches such as immunohistochemistry, genomics and transcriptomics. Special attention is given to discussing the potential of RPPA for biomarker discovery and biomarker validation. PMID:25400094

  10. A Year with Google Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Robin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2008, the Missouri River Regional Library (MRRL), where the author serves as information technology coordinator, switched over from an internally hosted Microsoft Exchange email server to the Google Apps product. As the person who led the charge to use Google Apps and the person who actually flipped the switch, he was responsible for…

  11. Three phase partitioning: concentration and purification of proteins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, C; Lovrien, R

    1997-11-01

    Three phase partitioning (TPP) uses t-butanol and ammonium sulfate to precipitate enzymes and proteins from aqueous solutions. The method is useful both upstream with crude samples and downstream where a scaleable simple step is needed. About 25 enzymes and proteins have been isolated by various laboratories using TPP-t-butanol. The relation of t-butanol used in TPP, with n-butanol used as an extraction agent from Morton's work, is reviewed. Some t-butanol appears bound to TPP-precipitated proteins which are actually protein-t-butanol coprecipitates. They float above denser aqueous salts because bound t-butanol increases their buoyancy, similar to the behavior of many lipoproteins. On redissolving TPP-precipitated enzymes, total and specific activities usually are regained and sometimes increased. Sulfate ion-in large concentrations-likely exerts itself through its kosmotropic action as in conventional salting out. t-Butanol likewise appears to be a kosmotrope and crowding agent at room temperature or above, whereas C1 and C2 cosolvents (e.g., ethanol) do not so behave except at near or below zero temperatures. However, kosmotropy is not the entire origin of TPP, nor probably of conventional salting out. Electrostatic forces, capacity to force protein conformation tightening and protein hydration shifts, also contribute. Electrostatic forces, and the tendency for salt ions to bind and tighten protein molecule conformation, are indicated by the sharp pH dependency of both conventional salting out and TPP, around pH regions where proteins undergo conformation changes. Sulfate anion is densely-perhaps extraordinarily-hydrated, adding much to its effective size, and therefore it has a tendency to crowd or exclude proteins, when sulfate concentrations are in the 0.5 to 3 M range. PMID:9367811

  12. Truncating mutations in APP cause a distinct neurological phenotype.

    PubMed

    Klein, Steven; Goldman, Alexander; Lee, Hane; Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Bhakta, Viraj; Nelson, Stanley F; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2016-09-01

    Dominant missense mutations in the amyloid β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) gene have been implicated in early onset Alzheimer disease. These mutations alter protein structure to favor the pathologic production of Aβ. We report that homozygous nonsense mutations in APP are associated with decreased somatic growth, microcephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, thinning of the corpus callosum, and seizures. We compare the phenotype of this case to those reported in mouse models and demonstrate multiple similarities, strengthening the role of amyloid precursor protein in normal brain function and development. Ann Neurol 2016;80:456-460. PMID:27422356

  13. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  14. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C H; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-09-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP-SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP-SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein. PMID:26306196

  15. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    PubMed Central

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein. PMID:26306196

  16. Acute phase protein response in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Bernal, Luis; Feser, Mariane; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; García-Martínez, Juan D; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the acute phase protein response in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Three animal groups were used: 1) healthy animals (n=30), 2) a group in which experimental inflammation with turpentine was induced (n=6), and 3) a group affected with sarcoptic scabies (n=14) in which 10 animals were treated with ivermectin. Haptoglobin (Hp), acid-soluble glycoprotein (ASG) and albumin were analyzed in all animals. In those treated with turpentine, Hp reached its maximum value at 2 wk with a 2.7-fold increase, whereas ASG increased 1.75-fold and albumin decreased 0.87-fold 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Capybaras affected with sarcoptic scabies presented increases in Hp and ASG of 4.98- and 3.18-fold, respectively, and a 0.87-fold decrease in albumin, compared with healthy animals. Haptoglobin and ASG can be considered as moderate, positive acute phase proteins in capybaras because they showed less than 10-fold increases after an inflammatory process and reached their peak concentrations 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Conversely, albumin can be considered a negative acute phase protein in capybaras because it showed a reduction in concentration after inflammatory stimulus. PMID:22102653

  17. The acute phase protein haptoglobin regulates host immunity

    PubMed Central

    Huntoon, Kristin M.; Wang, Yanping; Eppolito, Cheryl A.; Barbour, Karen W.; Berger, Franklin G.; Shrikant, Protul A.; Baumann, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of acute phase plasma proteins to host immune responses remains poorly characterized. To better understand the role of the acute phase reactant and major hemoglobin-binding protein haptoglobin (Hp) on the function of immune cells, we generated Hp-deficient C57BL/6J mice. These mice exhibit stunted development of lymphoid organs associated with lower counts of mature T and B cells in the blood and secondary lymphoid compartments. Moreover, these mice show markedly reduced adaptive immune responses as represented by reduced accumulation of IgG antibody after immunization with adjuvant and nominal antigen, abrogation of Th1-dominated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, loss of mitogenic responses mounted by T cells, and reduced T cell responses conveyed by APCs. Collectively, these defects are in agreement with the observations that Hp-deficient mice are not capable of generating a recall response or deterring a Salmonella infection as well as failing to generate tumor antigen-specific responses. The administration of Hp to lymphocytes in tissue culture partially ameliorates these functional defects, lending further support to our contention that the acute phase response protein Hp has the ability to regulate immune cell responses and host immunity. The phenotype of Hp-deficient mice suggests a major regulatory activity for Hp in supporting proliferation and functional differentiation of B and T cells as part of homeostasis and in response to antigen stimulation. PMID:18436583

  18. New age app doctors.

    PubMed

    Casey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Junior doctors of today are being issued with an Apple iPad when they start their education. They will be the senior consultants of the future. The junior doctors rate of adoption in new technology is far greater than before as they have been born in a digital age. This is fortunate, because every country with sophisticated health care is exposed to greater demands on the service either through increased numbers of elderly patients or more sophisticated treatments. Doctors need to be more mobile to flexibly treat their patients. They need to be able to access patient details while they are on the move. They need to be part of the innovation revolution. They are born in the digital world and need to be central to the design of clinical applications and technology in health care--they are "new age app doctors." PMID:24377144

  19. The mechanical properties of phase separated protein droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawerth, Louise; Ijavi, Mahdiye; Patel, Avinash; Saha, Shambaditya; Jülicher, Frank; Hyman, Anthony

    In vivo, numerous proteins associate into liquid compartments by de-mixing from the surrounding solution, similar to oil molecules in water. Many of these proteins and their corresponding liquid compartments play a crucial role in important biological processes, for instance germ line specification in C. elegans or in neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, despite their importance, very little is known about the physical properties of the resulting droplets as well as the physical mechanisms that control their phase separation from solution. To gain a deeper understanding of these aspects, we study a few such proteins in vitro. When these proteins are purified and added to a physiological buffer, they phase separate into droplets ranging in size from a few to tens of microns with liquid-like behavior similar to their physiological counterparts. By attaching small beads to the surface of the droplets, we can deform the droplets by manipulating the beads directly using optical tweezers. By measuring the force required to deform the droplets we determine their surface tension, elasticity and viscosity as well as the frequency response of these properties. We also measure these properties using passive micro-rheology.

  20. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  1. The A-B-C for SORting APP.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Elizabeth J; Andersen, Olav M

    2015-10-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Hermey and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry. In their study, the authors provide novel insights into single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Alzheimer's disease and linked to the SorCS1 gene, toward a better understanding of the interaction of sorting receptor proteins which physically interact with the amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP). SorCS1, sortilin-related VPS10 domain-containing receptor 1; SorLA, sortilin-related Receptor with A-type Repeats. Read the full article 'SorCS1 variants and amyloid precursor protein (APP) are co-transported in neurons but only SorCS1c modulates anterograde APP transport' on page 60. PMID:26414457

  2. The role of lipoprotein receptors on the physiological function of APP.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Timo; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we will primarily focus on the role of members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family that are involved in trafficking and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We will discuss the role of the LDL-receptor family members, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), LRP1b, apolipoprotein E receptor 2, sortilin-related receptor (SorLA/LR11) and megalin/LRP2 on the physiological function of APP and its cellular localization. Additionally, we will focus on adaptor proteins that have been shown to influence the physiological function of LDL-R family members in combination with APP processing. The results in this review emphasize that the physiological function of APP cannot be explained by the focus on the APP protein alone but rather in combination with various direct or indirect interaction partners within the cellular environment. PMID:21947084

  3. Reconstruction of Protein Networks Using Reverse-Phase Protein Array Data.

    PubMed

    von der Heyde, Silvia; Sonntag, Johanna; Kramer, Frank; Bender, Christian; Korf, Ulrike; Beißbarth, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe an approach to reconstruct cellular signaling networks based on measurements of protein activation after different stimulation experiments. As experimental platform reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA) are used. RPPA allow the measurement of proteins and phosphoproteins across many samples in parallel with minimal sample consumption using a panel of highly target protein-specific antibodies. Functional interactions of proteins are modeled using a Boolean network. We describe the Boolean network reconstruction approach ddepn (dynamic deterministic effects propagation networks), which uses time course data to derive protein interactions based on perturbation experiments. We explain how the method works, give a practical application example, and describe how the results can be interpreted. Furthermore prior knowledge on signaling pathways is essential for network reconstruction. Here we describe the use of our software rBiopaxParser to integrate prior knowledge on protein signaling available in public databases. All applied methods are freely available as open-source R software packages. We describe the preparation of RPPA data as well as all relevant programming steps to format the RPPA data, to infer the prior knowledge, and to reconstruct and analyze the protein signaling networks. PMID:26519181

  4. Creating Innovative Student Projects with App Smashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The potential for using various apps to improve student learning is tremendous. Yet, despite the iPad's possibilities, apps are often limited in their functionality. No one has created that magical, one-size-fits-all app that accomplishes all of the tasks that you had in mind. Luckily, there is an answer to this common problem: app smashing.…

  5. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice ... try on the new ones. Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A ...

  6. Reverse phase protein microarrays advance to use in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2010-12-01

    Individualizing cancer therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors requires a new class of molecular profiling technology that can map the functional state of the cancer cell signal pathways containing the drug targets. Reverse phase protein microarrays (RPMA) are a technology platform designed for quantitative, multiplexed analysis of specific phosphorylated, cleaved, or total (phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) forms of cellular proteins from a limited amount of sample. This class of microarray can be used to interrogate tissue samples, cells, serum, or body fluids. RPMA were previously a research tool; now this technology has graduated to use in research clinical trials with clinical grade sensitivity and precision. In this review we describe the application of RPMA for multiplexed signal pathway analysis in therapeutic monitoring, biomarker discovery, and evaluation of pharmaceutical targets, and conclude with a summary of the technical aspects of RPMA construction and analysis. PMID:20974554

  7. Femtosecond crystallography of membrane proteins in the lipidic cubic phase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wacker, Daniel; Wang, Chong; Abola, Enrique; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent technological advances in heterologous expression, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins (MPs), their structural studies remain difficult and require new transformative approaches. During the past two years, crystallization in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has started gaining a widespread acceptance, owing to the spectacular success in high-resolution structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and to the introduction of commercial instrumentation, tools and protocols. The recent appearance of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled structure determination from substantially smaller crystals than previously possible with minimal effects of radiation damage, offering new exciting opportunities in structural biology. The unique properties of LCP material have been exploited to develop special protocols and devices that have established a new method of serial femtosecond crystallography of MPs in LCP (LCP-SFX). In this method, microcrystals are generated in LCP and streamed continuously inside the same media across the intersection with a pulsed XFEL beam at a flow rate that can be adjusted to minimize sample consumption. Pioneering studies that yielded the first room temperature GPCR structures, using a few hundred micrograms of purified protein, validate the LCP-SFX approach and make it attractive for structure determination of difficult-to-crystallize MPs and their complexes with interacting partners. Together with the potential of femtosecond data acquisition to interrogate unstable intermediate functional states of MPs, LCP-SFX holds promise to advance our understanding of this biomedically important class of proteins. PMID:24914147

  8. Relating gas phase to solution conformations: Lessons from disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Rebecca; Phillips, Ashley S.; Denbigh, Laetitia; Saleem, Hassan M.; MacPhee, Cait E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years both mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM‐MS) have been developed as techniques with which to study proteins that lack a fixed tertiary structure but may contain regions that form secondary structure elements transiently, namely intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). IM‐MS is a suitable method for the study of IDPs which provides an insight to conformations that are present in solution, potentially enabling the analysis of lowly populated structural forms. Here, we describe the IM‐MS data of two IDPs; α‐Synuclein (α‐Syn) which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, and Apolipoprotein C‐II (ApoC‐II) which is involved in cardiovascular diseases. We report an apparent discrepancy in the way that ApoC‐II behaves in the gas phase. While most IDPs, including α‐Syn, present in many charge states and a wide range of rotationally averaged collision cross sections (CCSs), ApoC‐II presents in just four charge states and a very narrow range of CCSs, independent of solution conditions. Here, we compare MS and IM‐MS data of both proteins, and rationalise the differences between the proteins in terms of different ionisation processes which they may adhere to. PMID:25920945

  9. Relating gas phase to solution conformations: Lessons from disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Rebecca; Phillips, Ashley S; Denbigh, Laetitia; Saleem, Hassan M; MacPhee, Cait E; Barran, Perdita E

    2015-08-01

    In recent years both mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) have been developed as techniques with which to study proteins that lack a fixed tertiary structure but may contain regions that form secondary structure elements transiently, namely intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). IM-MS is a suitable method for the study of IDPs which provides an insight to conformations that are present in solution, potentially enabling the analysis of lowly populated structural forms. Here, we describe the IM-MS data of two IDPs; α-Synuclein (α-Syn) which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, and Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) which is involved in cardiovascular diseases. We report an apparent discrepancy in the way that ApoC-II behaves in the gas phase. While most IDPs, including α-Syn, present in many charge states and a wide range of rotationally averaged collision cross sections (CCSs), ApoC-II presents in just four charge states and a very narrow range of CCSs, independent of solution conditions. Here, we compare MS and IM-MS data of both proteins, and rationalise the differences between the proteins in terms of different ionisation processes which they may adhere to. PMID:25920945

  10. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    PubMed

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Mueller, Benjamin F; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network. PMID:27092780

  11. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Benjamin F.; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network. PMID:27092780

  12. Acute phase proteins in salmonids: evolutionary analyses and acute phase response.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L E; Hiney, M P; Shields, D C; Uhlar, C M; Lindsay, A J; Whitehead, A S

    1997-01-01

    Inflammation induces dramatic changes in the biosynthetic profile of the liver, leading to increased serum concentrations of positive acute phase (AP) proteins and decreased concentrations of negative AP proteins. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and the pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) are major AP proteins: their serum levels can rise by 1000-fold, indicating that they play a critical role in defense and/or the restoration of homeostasis. We have cloned SAA and a SAP-like pentraxin from salmonid fish species. The salmonid SAA shares approximately 70% amino acid identity with mammalian AP SAA. When salmonids are challenged with an AP stimulus, i.e., Aeromonas salmonicida, SAA responds dramatically as a major AP reactant. The salmonid pentraxin shows approximately 40% amino acid identity to both mammalian SAP and CRP. Evolutionary analysis suggests the presence of only a single such protein in teleosts and lower animal species. Surprisingly, the salmonid pentraxin behaves as a negative AP reactant, reminiscent of the SAP-like Syrian hamster female protein, in that hepatic mRNA concentrations decline to 50% of prestimulus levels. This study reinforces the hypothesis that SAA induction is an essential and universal feature of the vertebrate AP response and that it represents part of an ancient host defense system. Conversely, the species-dependent heterogeneity of pentraxin expression during the vertebrate AP response supports the possibility that its most important ancestral (and perhaps present) function is not related to its AP behavior. PMID:8977214

  13. The AppScale Cloud Platform

    PubMed Central

    Krintz, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AppScale is an open source distributed software system that implements a cloud platform as a service (PaaS). AppScale makes cloud applications easy to deploy and scale over disparate cloud fabrics, implementing a set of APIs and architecture that also makes apps portable across the services they employ. AppScale is API-compatible with Google App Engine (GAE) and thus executes GAE applications on-premise or over other cloud infrastructures, without modification. PMID:23828721

  14. APP and APLP2 interact with the synaptic release machinery and facilitate transmitter release at hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Fanutza, Tomas; Del Prete, Dolores; Ford, Michael J; Castillo, Pablo E; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause familial Alzheimer’s disease, interacts with the synaptic release machinery, suggesting a role in neurotransmission. Here we mapped this interaction to the NH2-terminal region of the APP intracellular domain. A peptide encompassing this binding domain -named JCasp- is naturally produced by a γ-secretase/caspase double-cut of APP. JCasp interferes with the APP-presynaptic proteins interaction and, if linked to a cell-penetrating peptide, reduces glutamate release in acute hippocampal slices from wild-type but not APP deficient mice, indicating that JCasp inhibits APP function.The APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) also binds the synaptic release machinery. Deletion of APP and APLP2 produces synaptic deficits similar to those caused by JCasp. Our data support the notion that APP and APLP2 facilitate transmitter release, likely through the interaction with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Given the link of APP to Alzheimer’s disease, alterations of this synaptic role of APP could contribute to dementia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09743.001 PMID:26551565

  15. Keratinocytes from APP/APLP2-deficient mice are impaired in proliferation, adhesion and migration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Siemes, Christina; Quast, Thomas; Kummer, Christiane; Wehner, Sven; Kirfel, Gregor; Mueller, Ulrike; Herzog, Volker . E-mail: Herzog@uni-bonn.de

    2006-07-01

    Growing evidence shows that the soluble N-terminal form (sAPP{alpha}) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) represents an epidermal growth factor fostering keratinocyte proliferation, migration and adhesion. APP is a member of a protein family including the two mammalian amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. In the mammalian epidermis, only APP and APLP2 are expressed. APP and APLP2-deficient mice die shortly after birth but do not display a specific epidermal phenotype. In this report, we investigated the epidermis of APP and/or APLP2 knockout mice. Basal keratinocytes showed reduced proliferation in vivo by about 40%. Likewise, isolated keratinocytes exhibited reduced proliferation rates in vitro, which could be completely rescued by either exogenously added recombinant sAPP{alpha}, or by co-culture with dermal fibroblasts derived from APP knockout mice. Moreover, APP-knockout keratinocytes revealed reduced migration velocity resulting from severely compromised cell substrate adhesion. Keratinocytes from double knockout mice died within the first week of culture, indicating essential functions of APP-family members for survival in vitro. Our data indicate that sAPP{alpha} has to be considered as an essential epidermal growth factor which, however, in vivo can be functionally compensated to a certain extent by other growth factors, e.g., factors released from dermal fibroblasts.

  16. Correlation of statin-increased platelet APP ratios and reduced blood lipids in AD patients.

    PubMed

    Baskin, F; Rosenberg, R N; Fang, X; Hynan, L S; Moore, C B; Weiner, M; Vega, G L

    2003-06-24

    Platelets, like neurons, contain 120- to 130- and 110-kd amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). Their ratio is reduced in AD, further reductions correlating with reduced Mini-Mental Status Examination scores [r(11) = 0.69, p < 0.05]. As statins alter APP processing, platelet APPs were analyzed in patients with AD given anticholesterol drugs for 6 weeks. APP ratios increased [t(37) = -3.888, p = 0.0004], proportionally with reduced cholesterol [r(36) = -0.45, p = 0.005]. Longer trials may reveal slowed cognitive loss, validating this index. PMID:12821755

  17. Characterization of protein expression levels with label-free detected reverse phase protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuexue; Deng, Yihong; Zhu, Chenggang; Cai, Junlong; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P; Zheng, Fengyun; Cheng, Xunjia; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-09-15

    In reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA), one immobilizes complex samples (e.g., cellular lysate, tissue lysate or serum etc.) on solid supports and performs parallel reactions of antibodies with immobilized protein targets from the complex samples. In this work, we describe a label-free detection of RPPA that enables quantification of RPPA data and thus facilitates comparison of studies performed on different samples and on different solid supports. We applied this detection platform to characterization of phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT) expression levels in Acanthamoeba lysates treated with artemether and the results were confirmed by Western blot studies. PMID:27372609

  18. MCP-1 involvement in glial differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells through APP signaling.

    PubMed

    Vrotsos, Emmanuel George; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E; Sugaya, Kiminobu

    2009-04-29

    Previously it has been reported that neural stem cells undergoing apoptotic stress have increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and increased APP expression results in glial differentiation. APP activity was also shown to be required for staurosporine-induced glial differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that is expressed early during inflammation. The binding of MCP-1 to its chemokine receptor induces expression of novel transcription factor MCP-1-induced protein (MCPIP). MCPIP expression subsequently leads to cell death. Previous studies have shown that pro-apoptotic factors have the ability to induce neural differentiation. Therefore, we investigated if MCPIP expression leads to differentiation of NT2 neuroprogenitor cells. Results showed that MCPIP expression increased glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) expression and also caused distinct morphological changes, both indicative of glial differentiation. Similar results were observed with MCP-1 treatment. Interestingly, APP expression decreased in response to MCPIP. Instead, we found APP activity regulates expression of both MCP-1 and MCPIP. Furthermore, inhibition of either p38 MAPK or JAK signaling pathways significantly reduced APP's effect on MCP-1 and MCPIP. These data demonstrates the role APP has in glial differentiation of NT2 cells through MCP-1/MCPIP signaling. It is possible that increased APP expression after CNS injury could play a role in MCP-1 production, possibly promoting astrocyte activation at injured site. PMID:19185603

  19. DISC1 regulates trafficking and processing of APP and Aβ generation.

    PubMed

    Shahani, N; Seshadri, S; Jaaro-Peled, H; Ishizuka, K; Hirota-Tsuyada, Y; Wang, Q; Koga, M; Sedlak, T W; Korth, C; Brandon, N J; Kamiya, A; Subramaniam, S; Tomoda, T; Sawa, A

    2015-07-01

    We report the novel regulation of proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by DISC1, a major risk factor for psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and schizophrenia. RNAi knockdown of DISC1 in mature primary cortical neurons led to a significant increase in the levels of intracellular α-C-terminal fragment of APP (APP-CTFα) and the corresponding N-terminal-secreted ectodomain product sAPPα. DISC1 knockdown also elicited a significant decrease in the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ)42 and Aβ40. These aberrant proteolytic events were successfully rescued by co-expression of wild-type DISC1, but not by mutant DISC1 lacking the amino acids required for the interaction with APP, suggesting that APP-DISC1 protein interactions are crucial for the regulation of the C-terminal proteolysis. In a genetically engineered model in which a major full-length DISC1 isoform is depleted, consistent changes in APP processing were seen: an increase in APP-CTFα and decrease in Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels. Finally, we found that knockdown of DISC1 increased the expression of APP at the cell surface and decreased its internalization. The presented DISC1 mechanism of APP proteolytic processing and Aβ peptide generation, which is central to Alzheimer's disease pathology, suggests a novel interface between neurological and psychiatric conditions. PMID:25224257

  20. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Felzen, Marc; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the perspective of medical experts and end-users. Objective The study aims to assess the quality of current mobile apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and real incident support from expert as well as end-user perspective. Methods Two independent medical experts evaluated the medical content of CPR apps from the Google Play store and the Apple App store. The evaluation was based on pre-defined minimum medical content requirements according to current Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines. In a second phase, non-medical end-users tested usability and appeal of the apps that had at least met the minimum requirements. Usability was assessed with the System Usability Scale (SUS); appeal was measured with the self-developed ReactionDeck toolkit. Results Out of 61 apps, 46 were included in the experts’ evaluation. A consolidated list of 13 apps resulted for the following layperson evaluation. The interrater reliability was substantial (kappa=.61). Layperson end-users (n=14) had a high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation 1 [ICC1]=.83, P<.001, 95% CI 0.75-0.882 and ICC2=.79, P<.001, 95% CI 0.695-0.869). Their evaluation resulted in a list of 5 recommendable apps. Conclusions Although several apps for resuscitation training and real incident support are available, very few are designed according to current BLS guidelines and offer an acceptable level of usability and hedonic quality for laypersons. The results of this study are intended to optimize the development of CPR mobile apps. The app ranking supports the informed selection of mobile apps for training situations and CPR campaigns as well as for real incident support. PMID:24647361

  1. Influence of racing on the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins and bone metabolism biomarkers in racing greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Buczinski, S

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of racing on the serum concentrations of the acute-phase proteins (APPs) C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in 32 endurance-racing greyhounds. The study also aimed to investigate the effect of a 7 km race on the bone biomarkers osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD). Total white blood cell (WBC) count, and the serum concentrations of cortisol, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vitamin D and testosterone were also determined. Blood samples were collected 24 h prior to (T0) and within 2 h of completion of the race (T1). Compared to baseline values, WBC count did not change significantly (P = 0.2300), serum cortisol, Hp and SAA increased, while TNF-α and CRP decreased (P <0.0001 for each). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-race serum concentrations of OC and PYD (P = 0.9500 and P = 0.2600, respectively), but serum b-ALP increased significantly (P = 0.0004). Serum concentrations of vitamin D and testosterone increased after racing (P = 0.0100 and P <0.0001, respectively). In this study, a 7 km race stimulated an acute-phase response, demonstrated by significant increases in the serum concentrations Hp and SAA in racing greyhounds. Increased serum b-ALP post-race probably indicates a change in bone metabolism and deserves further study. PMID:25294662

  2. Lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol in APP trafficking and proteolytic processing, implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Marzolo, Maria-Paz; Bu, Guojun

    2009-04-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide accumulation in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta is produced through proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by beta- and gamma-secretases. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that alterations in APP cellular trafficking and localization directly impact its processing to Abeta. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, including LRP, LRP1B, SorLA/LR11, and apoER2, interact with APP and regulate its endocytic trafficking. Additionally, APP trafficking and processing are greatly affected by cellular cholesterol content. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the roles of lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol in APP trafficking and processing and their implication for AD pathogenesis and therapy. PMID:19041409

  3. Visualization of APP and BACE-1 approximation in neurons: new insights into the amyloidogenic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Das, Utpal; Wang, Lina; Ganguly, Archan; Saikia, Junmi M.; Wagner, Steven L.; Koo, Edward H.; Roy, Subhojit

    2016-01-01

    Cleavage of APP (amyloid precursor protein) by BACE-1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1) is the rate-limiting step in amyloid-beta (Aβ) production and a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus physical approximation of this substrate-enzyme pair is a critical event with broad biological and therapeutic implications. Despite much research, neuronal locales of APP/BACE-1 convergence and APP-cleavage remain unclear. Here we report an optical assay – based on fluorescence complementation – to visualize in-cellulo APP/BACE-1 interactions as a simple on/off signal. Combined with other assays tracking the fate of internalized APP in hippocampal neurons, we found that APP/BACE-1 interact in both biosynthetic and endocytic compartments; particularly along recycling-microdomains such as dendritic spines and presynaptic boutons. In axons, APP and BACE-1 are co-transported, and also interact during transit. Finally, our assay reveals that the AD-protective “Icelandic” mutation greatly attenuates APP/BACE-1 interactions, suggesting a mechanistic basis for protection. Collectively, the data challenge canonical models and provide concrete insights into long-standing controversies in the field. PMID:26642089

  4. Visualizing APP and BACE-1 approximation in neurons yields insight into the amyloidogenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Das, Utpal; Wang, Lina; Ganguly, Archan; Saikia, Junmi M; Wagner, Steven L; Koo, Edward H; Roy, Subhojit

    2016-01-01

    Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by BACE-1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1) is the rate-limiting step in amyloid-β (Aβ) production and a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; thus, physical approximation of this substrate-enzyme pair is a crucial event with broad biological and therapeutic implications. Despite much research, neuronal locales of APP and BACE-1 convergence and APP cleavage remain unclear. Here we report an optical assay, based on fluorescence complementation, for visualizing in cellulo APP-BACE-1 interactions as a simple on/off signal. Combining this with other assays tracking the fate of internalized APP in hippocampal neurons, we found that APP and BACE-1 interacted in both biosynthetic and endocytic compartments, particularly along recycling microdomains such as dendritic spines and presynaptic boutons. In axons, APP and BACE-1 were cotransported, and they also interacted during transit. Finally, our assay revealed that the Alzheimer's disease-protective 'Icelandic' mutation greatly attenuates APP-BACE-1 interactions, suggesting a mechanistic basis for protection. Collectively, the data challenge canonical models and provide concrete insights into long-standing controversies in the field. PMID:26642089

  5. 77 FR 72337 - Apps for Vehicles Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Apps for Vehicles Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... Vehicles: improving safety and fuel efficiency through technology innovation''. DATES: See, 1. Key Challenge Dates & Deadlines in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The Apps for Vehicles Challenge...

  6. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-11-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level. PMID:26390327

  7. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-11-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level.

  8. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level. PMID:26390327

  9. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  10. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. Objective This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Methods Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Results In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over

  11. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  12. Smartphone use in neurosurgery? APP-solutely!

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Michael; Drazin, Doniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of smartphone medical apps have recently emerged that may be helpful for the neurosurgical patient, practitioner, and trainee. This study aims to review the current neurosurgery-focused apps available for the iPhone, iPad, and Android platforms as of December 2013. Methods: Two of the most popular smartphone app stores (Apple Store and Android Google Play Store) were surveyed for neurosurgery-focused apps in December 2013. Search results were categorized based on their description page. Data were collected on price, rating, app release date, target audience, and medical professional involvement in app design. A review of the top apps in each category was performed. Results: The search resulted in 111 unique apps, divided into these 7 categories: 16 (14%) clinical tools, 17 (15%) conference adjunct, 27 (24%) education, 18 (16%) literature, 15 (14%) marketing, 10 (9%) patient information, and 8 (7%) reference. The average cost of paid apps was $23.06 (range: $0.99-89.99). Out of the 111 apps, 71 (64%) were free, 48 (43%) had reviews, and 14 (13%) had more than 10 reviews. Seventy-three (66%) apps showed evidence of medical professional involvement. The number of apps being released every year has been increasing since 2009. Conclusions: There are a number of neurosurgery-themed apps available to all audiences. There was a lack of patient information apps for nonspinal procedures. Most apps did not have enough reviews to evaluate their quality. There was also a lack of oversight to validate the accuracy of medical information provided in these apps. PMID:25101208

  13. Illuminating Apps for Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennex, Lesia; Bodenlos, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science is chock-full of wonderful experiences for students. Do children see iPads as a tool for learning about science? Using Prensky (2010) as a guide, the researchers decided to see if "assessing students with their own" tools (p.178) using iPad apps would support learning discrete knowledge for electricity and light…

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  15. Overexpression of Swedish mutant APP in aged astrocytes attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Ii, Miyuki; Nakano, Sachiko; Tatsumi, Chihiro; Kubota, Kaori; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein, has different aspects, namely, performs essential physiological functions and produces β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Overexpression of neuronal APP is responsible for synaptic dysfunction. In the central nervous system, astrocytes - a major glial cell type - have an important role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Although APP is expressed in astrocytes, it remains unclear whether astrocytic overexpression of mutant APP affects synaptic transmission. In this study, the effect of astrocytic overexpression of a mutant APP on the excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated using coculture system of the transgenic (Tg) cortical astrocytes that express the human APP695 polypeptide with the double mutation K670N + M671L found in a large Swedish family with early onset Alzheimer's disease, and wild-type hippocampal neuron. Significant secretion of Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 was observed in cultured cortical astrocytes from the Tg2576 transgenic mouse that genetically overexpresses Swedish mutant APP. Under the condition, Tg astrocytes did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission of cocultured wild-type neurons. However, aged Tg astrocytes cultured for 9 weeks elicited a significant decrease in excitatory synaptic transmission in cocultured neurons. Moreover, a reduction in the number of readily releasable synaptic vesicles accompanied a decrease in the number of excitatory synapses in neurons cocultured with aged Tg astrocytes. These observations indicate that astrocytic expression of the mutant APP is involved in the downregulation of synaptic transmission with age. PMID:26733247

  16. Loss of presenilin function is associated with a selective gain of APP function

    PubMed Central

    Deyts, Carole; Clutter, Mary; Herrera, Stacy; Jovanovic, Natalia; Goddi, Anna; Parent, Angèle T

    2016-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) is an essential γ-secretase component, the enzyme responsible for amyloid precursor protein (APP) intramembraneous cleavage. Mutations in PS1 lead to dominant-inheritance of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD). Although expression of FAD-linked PS1 mutations enhances toxic Aβ production, the importance of other APP metabolites and γ-secretase substrates in the etiology of the disease has not been confirmed. We report that neurons expressing FAD-linked PS1 variants or functionally deficient PS1 exhibit enhanced axodendritic outgrowth due to increased levels of APP intracellular C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF). APP expression is required for exuberant neurite outgrowth and hippocampal axonal sprouting observed in knock-in mice expressing FAD-linked PS1 mutation. APP-CTF accumulation initiates CREB signaling cascade through an association of APP-CTF with Gαs protein. We demonstrate that pathological PS1 loss-of-function impinges on neurite formation through a selective APP gain-of-function that could impact on axodendritic connectivity and contribute to aberrant axonal sprouting observed in AD patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15645.001 PMID:27196744

  17. APP-dependent glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression drives neuromuscular junction formation.

    PubMed

    Stanga, Serena; Zanou, Nadège; Audouard, Emilie; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Contino, Sabrina; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; René, Frédérique; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Clotman, Frédéric; Gailly, Philippe; Dewachter, Ilse; Octave, Jean-Noël; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Besides its crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the knowledge of amyloid precursor protein (APP) physiologic functions remains surprisingly scarce. Here, we show that APP regulates the transcription of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). APP-dependent regulation of GDNF expression affects muscle strength, muscular trophy, and both neuronal and muscular differentiation fundamental for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) maturation in vivo In a nerve-muscle coculture model set up to modelize NMJ formation in vitro, silencing of muscular APP induces a 30% decrease in secreted GDNF levels and a 40% decrease in the total number of NMJs together with a significant reduction in the density of acetylcholine vesicles at the presynaptic site and in neuronal maturation. These defects are rescued by GDNF expression in muscle cells in the conditions where muscular APP has been previously silenced. Expression of GDNF in muscles of amyloid precursor protein null mice corrected the aberrant synaptic morphology of NMJs. Our findings highlight for the first time that APP-dependent GDNF expression drives the process of NMJ formation, providing new insights into the link between APP gene regulatory network and physiologic functions.-Stanga, S., Zanou, N., Audouard, E., Tasiaux, B., Contino, S., Vandermeulen, G., René, F., Loeffler, J.-P., Clotman, F., Gailly, P., Dewachter, I., Octave, J.-N., Kienlen-Campard, P. APP-dependent glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression drives neuromuscular junction formation. PMID:26718890

  18. mHealthApps: A Repository and Database of Mobile Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Background The market of mobile health (mHealth) apps has rapidly evolved in the past decade. With more than 100,000 mHealth apps currently available, there is no centralized resource that collects information on these health-related apps for researchers in this field to effectively evaluate the strength and weakness of these apps. Objective The objective of this study was to create a centralized mHealth app repository. We expect the analysis of information in this repository to provide insights for future mHealth research developments. Methods We focused on apps from the two most established app stores, the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. We extracted detailed information of each health-related app from these two app stores via our python crawling program, and then stored the information in both a user-friendly array format and a standard JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. Results We have developed a centralized resource that provides detailed information of more than 60,000 health-related apps from the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. Using this information resource, we analyzed thousands of apps systematically and provide an overview of the trends for mHealth apps. Conclusions This unique database allows the meta-analysis of health-related apps and provides guidance for research designs of future apps in the mHealth field. PMID:25786060

  19. SNX15 Regulates Cell Surface Recycling of APP and Aβ Generation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tuancheng; Niu, Mengmeng; Ji, Chengxiang; Gao, Yuehong; Wen, Jing; Bu, Guojun; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Yun-Wu

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) through sequential proteolytic cleavages by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Trafficking dysregulation of APP, BACE1, and γ-secretase may affect Aβ generation and disease pathogenesis. Sorting nexin 15 (SNX15) is known to regulate protein trafficking. Here, we report that SNX15 is abundantly expressed in mouse neurons and astrocytes. In addition, we show that although not affecting the protein levels of APP, BACE1, and γ-secretase components and the activity of BACE1 and γ-secretase, overexpression and downregulation of SNX15 reduce and promote Aβ production, respectively. Furthermore, we find that overexpression of SNX15 increases APP protein levels in cell surface through accelerating APP recycling, whereas downregulation of SNX15 has an opposite effect. Finally, we show that exogenous expression of human SNX15 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus by adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection can significantly reduce Aβ pathology in the hippocampus and improve short-term working memory in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 double transgenic AD model mice. Together, our results suggest that SNX15 regulates the recycling of APP to cell surface and, thus, its processing for Aβ generation. PMID:26115702

  20. Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-09-14

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  1. Use of smartphone apps by paediatric trainees.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, Srinivas; Halton, Fiona; Goodyear, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Over 70% of the population owns a smartphone and there are now millions of apps available. This study looks at smartphone and app use among paediatric trainees, in particular whether they are accessing medical apps to help with clinical practice. PMID:26255919

  2. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  3. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  4. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  5. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  6. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  7. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  8. Fibrinogen-like protein 1, a hepatocyte derived protein is an acute phase reactant

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhilin; Ukomadu, Chinweike

    2008-01-25

    Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1) is a hepatocyte derived protein that is upregulated in regenerating rodent livers following partial hepatectomy. It has been implicated as a mitogen for liver cell proliferation. In this study, we show that recombinant human IL-6 induces FGL1 expression in Hep G2 cells in a pattern similar to those of acute phase reactants. Following induction of acute inflammation in rats by subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil, serum FGL1 levels are also enhanced. Although, a recent report suggests that FGL1 associates almost exclusively with the fibrin matrix, we report here that approximately 20% of the total plasma FGL1 remains free. The enhancement of FGL1 levels in vitro by IL-6 and its induction after turpentine oil injection suggest that it is an acute phase reactant. Its presence in bound and free forms in the blood also implies biological roles that extend beyond the proposed autocrine effect it has on hepatocytes during regeneration.

  9. Interactions between APP secretases and inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Magdalena; Walter, Jochen; Gentleman, Steve M

    2008-01-01

    There is now a large body of evidence linking inflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association manifests itself neuropathologically in the presence of activated microglia and astrocytes around neuritic plaques and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in the brains of AD patients. It is considered that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is derived from the processing of the longer amyloid precursor protein (APP), could be the most important stimulator of this response, and therefore determining the role of the different secretases involved in its generation is essential for a better understanding of the regulation of inflammation in AD. The finding that certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can affect the processing of APP by inhibiting β- and γ-secretases, together with recent revelations that these enzymes may be regulated by inflammation, suggest that they could be an interesting target for anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review we will discuss some of these issues and the role of the secretases in inflammation, independent of their effect on Aβ formation. PMID:18564425

  10. Are You Connected to the Best Apps?

    PubMed

    Gaudette, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    While the vast majority of pharmacists use computers to access medical information, many prefer a mobile device to find information quickly. This review discusses pharmacists' use of mobile device applications (apps) and highlights an assortment of apps that are particularly helpful. Epocrates, which provides drug information and clinical content, was the first popular smartphone app developed in this area and was used to introduce the concept. Today, apps that provide a wide range of drug information can be supplemented with apps that fine-tune specific information about drug monitoring, disease states, and cost. PMID:26629799

  11. Changes in the levels of some acute-phase proteins in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected patients, following interleukin-2 treatment.

    PubMed

    Barbai, V H; Ujhelyi, E; Szlávik, J; Vietorisz, I; Varga, L; Fey, E; Füst, G; Bánhegyi, D

    2010-07-01

    Intermittent interleukin (IL)-2 administration to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients is well documented and generally used, but there is limited information about the changes of acute-phase protein (APP) levels in response to this treatment. Fifteen patients undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) treatment, with undetectable viral load, but low CD4+ cell count (<300/microl), have been treated with 3.6 M IU Proleukine administered twice daily by subcutaneous injection over 5 days. C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, C3, C9, C1-inh and alpha-2HS glycoprotein levels were measured immediately before IL-2 administration, as well as on day 5 and 2-3 weeks thereafter. After IL-2 administration, both mean D-dimer and CRP levels increased significantly (P<0.001), but returned (P<0.001) to baseline within the subsequent 2-3 weeks. Alpha-2HS glycoprotein decreased immediately after IL-2 administration. No significant differences were detected in the levels of C3, C9 and C1-inh. A significant, positive correlation (r=0.5178, P=0.0008) was ascertained between the changes of CRP level, measured immediately before as well as 5 days after IL-2 administration, and changes in CD4 T cell counts measured 2-3 weeks before and after treatment, respectively. IL-2 administration induces rapid elevation of two major APPs (CRP, D-dimer). The positive correlation observed between the changes of CRP levels and CD4+ cell counts after IL-2 administration may indicate that the abrupt, but transitory overproduction of CRP might contribute to the CD4+ cell count-increasing effect of the drug and/ or may be associated with serious side effects. PMID:20408859

  12. LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPPα) released following α-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the β-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPPα production and increased Aβ peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling. PMID:21795536

  13. Protein-coat dynamics and cluster phases in intracellular trafficking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Greg; Wang, Hui; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2011-09-01

    Clustering of membrane proteins is a hallmark of biological membranes' lateral organization and crucial to their function. However, the physical properties of these protein aggregates remain poorly understood. Ensembles of coat proteins, the example considered here, are necessary for intracellular transport in eukaryotic cells. Assembly and disassembly rates for coat proteins involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking must be carefully controlled: their assembly deforms the membrane patch and drives vesicle formation, yet the protein coat must rapidly disassemble after vesiculation. Motivated by recent experimental findings for protein-coat dynamics, we study a dynamical Ising-type model for coat assembly and disassembly, and demonstrate how simple dynamical rules generate a robust, steady-state distribution of protein clusters (corresponding to intermediate budded shapes) and how cluster sizes are controlled by the kinetics. We interpret the results in terms of both vesiculation and the coupling to cargo proteins.

  14. Proteomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum core metabolism: relative protein expression profiles and growth phase-dependent changes in protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium thermocellum produces H2 and ethanol, as well as CO2, acetate, formate, and lactate, directly from cellulosic biomass. It is therefore an attractive model for biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Optimization of end-product yields and titres is crucial for making biofuel production economically feasible. Relative protein expression profiles may provide targets for metabolic engineering, while understanding changes in protein expression and metabolism in response to carbon limitation, pH, and growth phase may aid in reactor optimization. We performed shotgun 2D-HPLC-MS/MS on closed-batch cellobiose-grown exponential phase C. thermocellum cell-free extracts to determine relative protein expression profiles of core metabolic proteins involved carbohydrate utilization, energy conservation, and end-product synthesis. iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based protein quantitation was used to determine changes in core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase. Results Relative abundance profiles revealed differential levels of putative enzymes capable of catalyzing parallel pathways. The majority of proteins involved in pyruvate catabolism and end-product synthesis were detected with high abundance, with the exception of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-dependent Ech-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase, and RNF-type NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Using 4-plex 2D-HPLC-MS/MS, 24% of the 144 core metabolism proteins detected demonstrated moderate changes in expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Notably, proteins involved in pyruvate synthesis decreased in stationary phase, whereas proteins involved in glycogen metabolism, pyruvate catabolism, and end-product synthesis increased in stationary phase. Several proteins that may directly dictate end-product synthesis patterns, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and a putative bifurcating hydrogenase

  15. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  16. Transgenic APP expression during postnatal development causes persistent locomotor hyperactivity in the adult

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transgenic mice expressing disease-associated proteins have become standard tools for studying human neurological disorders. Transgenes are often expressed using promoters chosen to drive continuous high-level expression throughout life rather than temporal and spatial fidelity to the endogenous gene. This approach has allowed us to recapitulate diseases of aging within the two-year lifespan of the laboratory mouse, but has the potential for creating aberrant phenotypes by mechanisms unrelated to the human disorder. Results We show that overexpression of the Alzheimer’s-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during early postnatal development leads to severe locomotor hyperactivity that can be significantly attenuated by delaying transgene onset until adulthood. Our data suggest that exposure to transgenic APP during maturation influences the development of neuronal circuits controlling motor activity. Both when matched for total duration of APP overexpression and when matched for cortical amyloid burden, animals exposed to transgenic APP as juveniles are more active in locomotor assays than animals in which APP overexpression was delayed until adulthood. In contrast to motor activity, the age of APP onset had no effect on thigmotaxis in the open field as a rough measure of anxiety, suggesting that the interaction between APP overexpression and brain development is not unilateral. Conclusions Our findings indicate that locomotor hyperactivity displayed by the tet-off APP transgenic mice and several other transgenic models of Alzheimer’s disease may result from overexpression of mutant APP during postnatal brain development. Our results serve as a reminder of the potential for unexpected interactions between foreign transgenes and brain development to cause long-lasting effects on neuronal function in the adult. The tet-off APP model provides an easy means of avoiding developmental confounds by allowing transgene expression to be delayed until the

  17. Protein transfer through polyacrylamide hydrogel membranes polymerized in lyotropic phases.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Michael J; Hall, Geoff; Gee, Sarah; Xie, Li

    2004-01-01

    A way to control the average pore size in cross-linked polyacrylamide-based membranes is by altering the ratio of cross-linker to acylamide monomer. Larger pore sizes are prepared with a minimum amount of cross-linker, resulting in membranes that are mechanically weak and have short lifetimes. The aim of this study was to prepare cross-linked polyacrylamide membranes with large pore sizes and with good mechanical integrity. The methodology was to carry out the polymerization in a template, formed from the self-aggregation of surfactant. Two surfactant templates were used, and their pore size was examined with proteins of different sizes. The surfactants chosen for this study were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, ionic surfactant) and TERIC BL8 (nonionic surfactant), both of which have very different aggregation properties. The data showed that at 10% and greater of TERIC BL8, a very different and open gel structure is formed, in which the pore size was significantly increased. SDS seemed to have little effect on the pore size. The data suggests that the gel structures for both surfactants up to 4% (w/v) are similar and micellular, because SDS is known to favor a micelle structure. Above 4% (w/v), TERIC BL8 then goes through a change in its lyotropic phase, thus, producing membranes of a large pore size. In conclusion, the pore size and gel structure of polyacrylamide hydrogel membranes can be significantly increased using TERIC BL8 (nonionic) surfactant. This allows large-pore-size membranes with a high cross-link density and consequently high mechanical strength to be prepared for the separation of large biomolecules. PMID:15360267

  18. Neuronal-Targeted TFEB Accelerates Lysosomal Degradation of APP, Reducing Aβ Generation and Amyloid Plaque Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingli; Yan, Ping; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Perez, Ronaldo; Zhu, Alec; Gonzales, Ernesto; Tripoli, Danielle L.; Czerniewski, Leah; Ballabio, Andrea; Cirrito, John R.

    2015-01-01

    In AD, an imbalance between Aβ production and removal drives elevated brain Aβ levels and eventual amyloid plaque deposition. APP undergoes nonamyloidogenic processing via α-cleavage at the plasma membrane, amyloidogenic β- and γ-cleavage within endosomes to generate Aβ, or lysosomal degradation in neurons. Considering multiple reports implicating impaired lysosome function as a driver of increased amyloidogenic processing of APP, we explored the efficacy of targeting transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal pathways, to reduce Aβ levels. CMV promoter-driven TFEB, transduced via stereotactic hippocampal injections of adeno-associated virus particles in APP/PS1 mice, localized primarily to neuronal nuclei and upregulated lysosome biogenesis. This resulted in reduction of APP protein, the α and β C-terminal APP fragments (CTFs), and in the steady-state Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid. In aged mice, total Aβ levels and amyloid plaque load were selectively reduced in the TFEB-transduced hippocampi. TFEB transfection in N2a cells stably expressing APP695, stimulated lysosome biogenesis, reduced steady-state levels of APP and α- and β-CTFs, and attenuated Aβ generation by accelerating flux through the endosome-lysosome pathway. Cycloheximide chase assays revealed a shortening of APP half-life with exogenous TFEB expression, which was prevented by concomitant inhibition of lysosomal acidification. These data indicate that TFEB enhances flux through lysosomal degradative pathways to induce APP degradation and reduce Aβ generation. Activation of TFEB in neurons is an effective strategy to attenuate Aβ generation and attenuate amyloid plaque deposition in AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A key driver for AD pathogenesis is the net balance between production and clearance of Aβ, the major component of amyloid plaques. Here we demonstrate that lysosomal degradation of holo-APP influences Aβ production by limiting the availability of

  19. Seeded strain-like transmission of β-amyloid morphotypes in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Heilbronner, Götz; Eisele, Yvonne S; Langer, Franziska; Kaeser, Stephan A; Novotny, Renata; Nagarathinam, Amudha; Åslund, Andreas; Hammarström, Per; Nilsson, K Peter R; Jucker, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphic β-amyloid lesions present in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are collectively known as cerebral β-amyloidosis. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models similarly develop β-amyloid depositions that differ in morphology, binding of amyloid conformation-sensitive dyes, and Aβ40/Aβ42 peptide ratio. To determine the nature of such β-amyloid morphotypes, β-amyloid-containing brain extracts from either aged APP23 brains or aged APPPS1 brains were intracerebrally injected into the hippocampus of young APP23 or APPPS1 transgenic mice. APPPS1 brain extract injected into young APP23 mice induced β-amyloid deposition with the morphological, conformational, and Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio characteristics of β-amyloid deposits in aged APPPS1 mice, whereas APP23 brain extract injected into young APP23 mice induced β-amyloid deposits with the characteristics of β-amyloid deposits in aged APP23 mice. Injecting the two extracts into the APPPS1 host revealed a similar difference between the induced β-amyloid deposits, although less prominent, and the induced deposits were similar to the β-amyloid deposits found in aged APPPS1 hosts. These results indicate that the molecular composition and conformation of aggregated Aβ in APP transgenic mice can be maintained by seeded conversion. PMID:23999102

  20. Icariin Decreases the Expression of APP and BACE-1 and Reduces the β-amyloid Burden in an APP Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Shen, Cong; Chu, Jin; Zhang, Ruyi; Li, Yali; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and pharmacological mechanisms of icariin, which is the main component in the traditional Chinese herb Epimedium, on β-amyloid (Aβ) production in an amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (Tg) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: APPV717I Tg mice were randomly divided into a model group and icariin-treated (30 and 100 μmol/kg per day) groups. Learning-memory abilities were determined by Morris water maze and object recognition tests. Aβ contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunohistochemistry. Amyloid plaques were detected by Congo red staining and Bielschowsky silver staining. The levels of expression of APP and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1) were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Ten-month-old Tg mice showed obvious learning-memory impairments, and significant increases in Aβ contents, amyloid plaques, and APP and BACE-1 levels in the hippocampus. The intragastric administration of icariin to Tg mice for 6 months (from 4 to 10 months of age) improved the learning-memory abilities and significantly decreased the Aβ contents, amyloid plaques, and APP and BACE-1 levels in the hippocampus. Conclusion: Icariin reduced the Aβ burden and amyloid plaque deposition in the hippocampus of APP transgenic mice by decreasing the APP and BACE-1 levels. These novel findings suggest that icariin may be a promising treatment in patients with AD. PMID:24550686

  1. The E2 Domains of APP and APLP1 Share a Conserved Mode of Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    S Lee; Y Xue; J Hulbert; Y Wang; X Liu; B Demeler; Y Ha

    2011-12-31

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. APP is a type I membrane protein, and its oligomeric structure is potentially important because this property may play a role in its function or affect the processing of the precursor by the secretases to generate amyloid {beta}-peptide. Several independent studies have shown that APP can form dimers in the cell, but how it dimerizes remains controversial. At least three regions of the precursor, including a centrally located and conserved domain called E2, have been proposed to contribute to dimerization. Here we report two new crystal structures of E2, one from APP and the other from APLP1, a mammalian APP homologue. Comparison with an earlier APP structure, which was determined in a different space group, shows that the E2 domains share a conserved and antiparallel mode of dimerization. Biophysical measurements in solution show that heparin binding induces E2 dimerization. The 2.1 {angstrom} resolution electron density map also reveals phosphate ions that are bound to the protein surface. Mutational analysis shows that protein residues interacting with the phosphate ions are also involved in heparin binding. The locations of two of these residues, Arg-369 and His-433, at the dimeric interface suggest a mechanism for heparin-induced protein dimerization.

  2. Phase feeding crude protein to decrease ammonia emissions from finishing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dietary protein requirement of cattle decreases as animals grow, and mature. Thus, it maybe possible to decrease the protein content of finishing diets to conserve nitrogen, and decrease ammonia emissions. This publicatoin gives a brief review of research conducted on phase feeding protein to ...

  3. Could People Get Quality Apps They Intend to Get? Taking Finding Stroke Apps for Example.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Fu, Chen; Chang, Hong; Wu, Ying; Chang, Polun

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate what apps could people get and what quality these apps were when different searching keywords were used to search in different platforms. We took Stroke apps as an example with "Stroke" "Cerebrovascular Disease" and "Zhongfeng" (in Chinese) as the keywords. Two reviewers evaluated apps independently with revised MARS scale. It was interesting to see that people would get different apps from different platforms with different keywords. The results show that a good mechanism is needed to safeguard people obtain right apps from any source with any term in China. PMID:27332472

  4. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14–18 h after lung infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14–18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, pig major acute phase protein, and transferrin in peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:19236838

  5. FE65 as a link between VLDLR and APP to regulate their trafficking and processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies found that FE65, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, interacts with APP and LRP1, altering the trafficking and processing of APP. We have previously shown that FE65 interacts with the ApoE receptor, ApoER2, altering its trafficking and processing. Interestingly, it has been shown that FE65 can act as a linker between APP and LRP1 or ApoER2. In the present study, we tested whether FE65 can interact with another ApoE receptor, VLDLR, thereby altering its trafficking and processing, and whether FE65 can serve as a linker between APP and VLDLR. Results We found that FE65 interacted with VLDLR using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays in COS7 cells and in brain lysates. This interaction occurs via the PTB1 domain of FE65. Co-transfection with FE65 and full length VLDLR increased secreted VLDLR (sVLDLR); however, the levels of VLDLR C-terminal fragment (CTF) were undetectable as a result of proteasomal degradation. Additionally, FE65 increased cell surface levels of VLDLR. Moreover, we identified a novel complex between VLDLR and APP, which altered trafficking and processing of both proteins. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that the presence of FE65 increased the interaction between APP and VLDLR in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that FE65 can regulate VLDLR trafficking and processing. Additionally, the interaction between VLDLR and APP altered both protein's trafficking and processing. Finally, our data suggest that FE65 serves as a link between VLDLR and APP. This novel interaction adds to a growing body of literature indicating trimeric complexes with various ApoE Receptors and APP. PMID:22429478

  6. HuD regulates coding and noncoding RNA to induce APP → Aβ processing

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Ju; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mitchell, Sarah J.; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Guo, Rong; Noh, Ji Heon; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Lee, Eun Kyung; Faghihi, Mohammad A.; Wahlestedt, Claes; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pletnikova, Olga; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Resnick, Susan M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattson, Mark P.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The primarily neuronal RNA-binding protein HuD is implicated in learning and memory. Here, we report the identification of several HuD target transcripts linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. HuD interacted with the 3’-untranslated regions (UTRs) of APP mRNA (encoding amyloid precursor protein) and BACE1 mRNA (encoding β-site APP-cleaving enzyme) and increased the half-lives of these mRNAs. HuD also associated with and stabilized the long noncoding (lnc)RNA BACE1AS, which partly complements BACE1 mRNA and enhances BACE1 expression. Consistent with HuD promoting production of APP and APP-cleaving enzyme, the levels of APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ were higher in the brain of HuD-overexpressing mice. Importantly, cortex (superior temporal gyrus) from AD patients displayed significantly higher levels of HuD, and accordingly elevated APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ than did cortical tissue from healthy age-matched individuals. We propose that HuD jointly promotes the production of APP and the cleavage of its amyloidogenic fragment, Aβ. PMID:24857657

  7. The liquid protein phase in crystallization: a case study—intact immunoglobulins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yurii G.; Malkin, Alexander J.; McPherson, Alexander

    2001-11-01

    A common observation by protein chemists has been the appearance, for many proteins in aqueous solutions, of oil like droplets, or in more extreme cases the formation of a second oil like phase. These may accompany the formation of precipitate in "salting out" or "salting in' procedures, but more commonly appear in place of any precipitate. Such phase separations also occur, with even greater frequency, in the presence of polymeric precipitants such as polyethyleneglycol (PEG). In general the appearance of a second liquid phase has been taken as indicative of protein aggregation, though an aggregate state distinctly different from that characteristic of amorphous precipitate. While the latter is thought to be composed of linear and branched assemblies, polymers of a sort, the oil phase suggests a more compact, three-dimensional, but fluid state. An important property of an alternate, fluid phase is that it can mediate transitions between other states, for example, between protein molecules free in solution and protein molecules immobilized in amorphous precipitate or crystals. The "liquid protein" phase can be readily observed in many crystallization experiments either prior to the appearance of visible crystals, or directly participating in the crystal growth process. In some cases the relationship between the liquid phase and developing crystals is intimate. Crystals grow directly from the liquid phase, or appear only after the visible formation of the liquid phase. We describe here our experience with a class of macromolecules, immunoglobulins, and particularly IDEC-151, an IgG specific for CD4 on human lymphocytes. This protein has been crystallized from a Jeffamine-LiSO 4 mother liquor and, its crystallization illustrates many of the features associated with the liquid protein, or protein rich phase.

  8. The Ames dwarf mutation attenuates Alzheimer's disease phenotype of APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Puig, Kendra L; Kulas, Joshua A; Franklin, Whitney; Rakoczy, Sharlene G; Taglialatela, Giulio; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Combs, Colin K

    2016-04-01

    APP/PS1 double transgenic mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) demonstrate robust brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide containing plaque deposition, increased markers of oxidative stress, behavioral dysfunction, and proinflammatory gliosis. On the other hand, lack of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone due to a recessive mutation in the Prop 1 gene (Prop1df) in Ames dwarf mice results in a phenotype characterized by potentiated antioxidant mechanisms, improved learning and memory, and significantly increased longevity in homozygous mice. Based on this, we hypothesized that a similar hormone deficiency might attenuate disease changes in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. To test this idea, APP/PS1 mice were crossed to the Ames dwarf mouse line. APP/PS1, wild-type, df/+, df/df, df/+/APP/PS1, and df/df/APP/PS1 mice were compared at 6 months of age through behavioral testing and assessing amyloid burden, reactive gliosis, and brain cytokine levels. df/df mice demonstrated lower brain growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. This correlated with decreased astrogliosis and microgliosis in the df/df/APP/PS1 mice and, surprisingly, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 concentrations. The df/df/APP/PS1 mice also demonstrated significantly elevated brain levels of multiple cytokines in spite of the attenuated gliosis. These data indicate that the df/df/APP/PS1 line is a unique resource in which to study aging and resistance to disease and suggest that the affected pituitary hormones may have a role in regulating disease progression. PMID:26973101

  9. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Very little information is available in the literature concerning the experimental heavy-atom phasing of membrane-protein structures where the crystals have been grown using the lipid cubic phase (in meso) method. In this paper, pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine labelling as applied to an integral membrane kinase crystallized in meso are described. An assay to assess cysteine accessibility for mercury labelling of membrane proteins is introduced. Despite the marked increase in the number of membrane-protein structures solved using crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase or in meso method, only ten have been determined by SAD/MAD. This is likely to be a consequence of the technical difficulties associated with handling proteins and crystals in the sticky and viscous hosting mesophase that is usually incubated in glass sandwich plates for the purposes of crystallization. Here, a four-year campaign aimed at phasing the in meso structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) from Escherichia coli is reported. Heavy-atom labelling of this small hydrophobic enzyme was attempted by pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine incorporation. Strategies and techniques for special handling are reported, as well as the typical results and the lessons learned for each of these approaches. In addition, an assay to assess the accessibility of cysteine residues in membrane proteins for mercury labelling is introduced. The various techniques and strategies described will provide a valuable reference for future experimental phasing of membrane proteins where crystals are grown by the lipid cubic phase method.

  10. Enhanced neurofibrillary degeneration in transgenic mice expressing mutant tau and APP.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J; Dickson, D W; Lin, W L; Chisholm, L; Corral, A; Jones, G; Yen, S H; Sahara, N; Skipper, L; Yager, D; Eckman, C; Hardy, J; Hutton, M; McGowan, E

    2001-08-24

    JNPL3 transgenic mice expressing a mutant tau protein, which develop neurofibrillary tangles and progressive motor disturbance, were crossed with Tg2576 transgenic mice expressing mutant beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), thus modulating the APP-Abeta (beta-amyloid peptide) environment. The resulting double mutant (tau/APP) progeny and the Tg2576 parental strain developed Abeta deposits at the same age; however, relative to JNPL3 mice, the double mutants exhibited neurofibrillary tangle pathology that was substantially enhanced in the limbic system and olfactory cortex. These results indicate that either APP or Abeta influences the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The interaction between Abeta and tau pathologies in these mice supports the hypothesis that a similar interaction occurs in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:11520987

  11. Using the Relevance Vector Machine Model Combined with Local Phase Quantization to Predict Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Yong; Meng, Fan-Rong; You, Zhu-Hong; Fang, Yu-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel computational method known as RVM-LPQ that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the LPQ feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM), reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) based classifier. We perform 5-fold cross-validation experiments on Yeast and Human datasets, and we achieve very high accuracies of 92.65% and 97.62%, respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the Yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-LPQ method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool for future proteomics research. PMID:27314023

  12. Using the Relevance Vector Machine Model Combined with Local Phase Quantization to Predict Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji-Yong; Meng, Fan-Rong; You, Zhu-Hong; Fang, Yu-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel computational method known as RVM-LPQ that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the LPQ feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM), reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) based classifier. We perform 5-fold cross-validation experiments on Yeast and Human datasets, and we achieve very high accuracies of 92.65% and 97.62%, respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the Yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-LPQ method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool for future proteomics research. PMID:27314023

  13. Fanconi anemia proteins and the s phase checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, Pietro; Rosselli, Filippo

    2004-06-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) repair represents a formidable task for mammalian cells. Indeed, such DNA lesions, bridging both opposite DNA helices, function as a road-block for every DNA transaction, in particular DNA replication. The eight Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins interact in a common pathway that is thought to be central in ICLs sensing/repair. Interestingly, FA cells, either mutated in one of the proteins composing the FA core complex or in the downstream FA protein FANCD2, exhibited a partial intra-S checkpoint defect in response to crosslinked DNA. Most importantly, the FA proteins work in the ATR-NBS1 branch of the ICL-induced checkpoint pathway as demonstrated by knocking-down CHK1 or MRE11 expression in a FA background. Even though our data disclose a clear functional role for the FA proteins in the intra-S checkpoint response it does not give a definite answer on what FA proteins do in this process and how they participate in the suppression/restart of DNA synthesis. It seems conceivable that FA proteins participate in the process involved in the recovery of stalled replication forks, a common event in proliferating cells, possibly ensuring correct replication fork repair by homologous recombination. PMID:15136767

  14. Hypnosis--there's an app for that: a systematic review of hypnosis apps.

    PubMed

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J; Green, Joseph P; Montgomery, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%); 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use. PMID:23957263

  15. Hypnosis: There’s an App for that. A systematic review of hypnosis apps

    PubMed Central

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B.; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J.; Green, Joseph P.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    The study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were: weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%). 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence-based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use. PMID:23957263

  16. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells. PMID:26447826

  17. Redefining Cheminformatics with Intuitive Collaborative Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alex M; Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers has recently been extended to include a growing ecosystem of increasingly sophisticated chemistry software packages, commonly known as apps. The capabilities that these apps can offer to the practicing chemist are approaching those of conventional desktop-based software, but apps tend to be focused on a relatively small range of tasks. To overcome this, chemistry apps must be able to seamlessly transfer data to other apps, and through the network to other devices, as well as to other platforms, such as desktops and servers, using documented file formats and protocols whenever possible. This article describes the development and state of the art with regard to chemistry-aware apps that make use of facile data interchange, and some of the scenarios in which these apps can be inserted into a chemical information workflow to increase productivity. A selection of contemporary apps is used to demonstrate their relevance to pharmaceutical research. Mobile apps represent a novel approach for delivery of cheminformatics tools to chemists and other scientists, and indications suggest that mobile devices represent a disruptive technology for drug discovery, as they have been to many other industries. PMID:23198002

  18. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  19. Modulation of APP Expression Reduces Aβ Deposition in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Asuni, Ayodeji A.; Guridi, Maitea; Pankiewicz, Joanna E.; Sanchez, Sandrine; Sadowski, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Prolonged accumulation of Aβ in the brain underlies the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is regarded as a principal target for development of disease-modifying therapeutics. Methods Using CHO APP751SW cells we identified and characterized effects of 2-[(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-phenol (2-PMAP) on APP steady-state level and Aβ production. Outcomes of 2-PMAP treatment on Aβ accumulation and associated memory deficit were studied in APPSW/PS1dE9 AD transgenic model mice. Results In CHO APP751SW cells, 2-PMAP in a dose-response manner lowered the steady-state APP level and inhibited Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 production with minimum effective concentration ≤0.5μM. The inhibitory effect of 2-PMAP on translational efficiency of APP mRNA into protein was directly confirmed using 35S-methionine/cysteine metabolic labeling technique, while APP mRNA level remained unaltered. Administration of 2-PMAP to APPSW/PS1dE9 mice reduced brain levels of full length APP and its C-terminal fragments along with lowering levels of soluble Aβx-40 and Aβx-42. Four-month chronic treatment of APPSW/PS1dE9 mice revealed no observable toxicity and improved animals’ memory performance. 2-PMAP treatment also caused significant reduction in brain Aβ deposition determined by both unbiased quantification of Aβ plaque load and biochemical analysis of formic acid extracted Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 levels and the level of oligomeric Aβ. Interpretation We demonstrate the potential of modulating APP steady-state expression level as a safe and effective approach for reducing Aβ deposition in AD transgenic model mice. PMID:24687915

  20. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins in the peripheral blood and uterine washings in cows with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Ziętek, J

    2015-06-01

    The development of pyometra in cows depends largely on the state of local immunity of the uterus. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentration of the following proinflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6); anti-inflammatory cytokine: interleukin-10 (IL-10); and acute-phase proteins (APPs): haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), in serum and uterine washings in cows with pyometra and healthy animals. The study was performed on 20 cows divided into two groups based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests: a pyometra and a healthy group (10 cows per group). Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA, in the study material were determined by ELISA. The results showed that the values of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in serum of cows with pyometra compared to controls (p < 0.001). The uterine washings had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp in pyometra cows compared to the control (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that it is possible to monitor the course of pyometra in cows based on the evaluation of the concentration of cytokines and Hp in the serum and uterine washings. Simultaneous evaluation of selected indicators of antagonistic interaction can be helpful in determining the current status of local immunity of the uterus. On this basis, it could be possible to properly select an adjunctive therapy in the form of immunomodulating preparations. PMID:25704413

  1. Quantum Dots-based Reverse Phase Protein Microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Shingyoji, Masato; Gerion, Daniele; Pinkel, Dan; Gray, Joe W.; Chen, Fanqing

    2005-07-15

    CdSe nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (Qdots) are a novel class of fluorophores, which have a diameter of a few nanometers and possess high quantum yield, tunable emission wavelength and photostability. They are an attractive alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes. Quantum dots can be silanized to be soluble in aqueous solution under biological conditions, and thus be used in bio-detection. In this study, we established a novel Qdot-based technology platform that can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of protein concentration in a crude cell lysate background. Protein lysates have been spiked with a target protein, and a dilution series of the cell lysate with a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude has been used for this proof-of-concept study. The dilution series has been spotted in microarray format, and protein detection has been achieved with a sensitivity that is at least comparable to standard commercial assays, which are based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogenesis. The data obtained through the Qdot method has shown a close linear correlation between relative fluorescence unit and relative protein concentration. The Qdot results are in almost complete agreement with data we obtained with the well-established HRP-DAB colorimetric array (R{sup 2} = 0.986). This suggests that Qdots can be used for protein quantification in microarray format, using the platform presented here.

  2. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease. PMID:25314816

  3. Comparison of colorimetric methods for the quantification of model proteins in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Glyk, Anna; Heinisch, Sandra L; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2015-05-15

    In the current study, the quantification of different model proteins in the presence of typical aqueous two-phase system components was investigated by using the Bradford and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays. Each phase-forming component above 1 and 5 wt% had considerable effects on the protein quantification in both assays, respectively, resulting in diminished protein recoveries/absorption values by increasing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/salt concentration and PEG molecular weight. Therefore, a convenient dilution of both components (up to 1 and 5 wt%) before protein quantification is recommended in both assays, respectively, where the BCA assay is favored in comparison with the Bradford assay. PMID:25684109

  4. A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology has transformed the way consumers access and use information. The exponential growth of mobile apps makes finding suitable, easy-to-use nutrition and health-related apps challenging. A guide for consumers helps them ask important questions before downloading apps. The guide can be adapted for other Extension disciplines.

  5. Prediction of salt effects on protein phase behavior by HIC retention and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Kai; Großhans, Steffen; Schütz, Juliane; Suhm, Susanna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry it is mandatory to know and ensure the correct protein phase state as a critical quality attribute in every process step. Unwanted protein precipitation or crystallization can lead to column, pipe or filter blocking. In formulation, the formation of aggregates can even be lethal when injected into the patient. The typical methodology to illustrate protein phase states is the generation of protein phase diagrams. Commonly, protein phase behavior is shown in dependence of protein and precipitant concentration. Despite using high-throughput methods for the generation of phase diagrams, the time necessary to reach equilibrium is the bottleneck. Faster methods to predict protein phase behavior are desirable. In this study, hydrophobic interaction chromatography retention times were correlated to crystal size and form. High-throughput thermal stability measurements (melting and aggregation temperatures), using an Optim(®)2 system, were successfully correlated to glucose isomerase stability. By using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and thermal stability determinations, glucose isomerase conformational and colloidal stability were successfully predicted for different salts in a specific pH range. PMID:27268946

  6. Conserved interdomain linker promotes phase separation of the multivalent adaptor protein Nck

    PubMed Central

    Banjade, Sudeep; Wu, Qiong; Mittal, Anuradha; Peeples, William B.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The organization of membranes, the cytosol, and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells can be controlled through phase separation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Collective interactions of multivalent molecules mediated by modular binding domains can induce gelation and phase separation in several cytosolic and membrane-associated systems. The adaptor protein Nck has three SRC-homology 3 (SH3) domains that bind multiple proline-rich segments in the actin regulatory protein neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and an SH2 domain that binds to multiple phosphotyrosine sites in the adhesion protein nephrin, leading to phase separation. Here, we show that the 50-residue linker between the first two SH3 domains of Nck enhances phase separation of Nck/N-WASP/nephrin assemblies. Two linear motifs within this element, as well as its overall positively charged character, are important for this effect. The linker increases the driving force for self-assembly of Nck, likely through weak interactions with the second SH3 domain, and this effect appears to promote phase separation. The linker sequence is highly conserved, suggesting that the sequence determinants of the driving forces for phase separation may be generally important to Nck functions. Our studies demonstrate that linker regions between modular domains can contribute to the driving forces for self-assembly and phase separation of multivalent proteins. PMID:26553976

  7. Changes in protein structure monitored by use of gas‐phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, Helen S.; Ault, James R.; Pringle, Steven D.; Brown, Jeffery M.

    2015-01-01

    The study of protein conformation by solution‐phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled to MS is well documented. This involves monitoring the exchange of backbone amide protons with deuterium and provides details concerning the protein's tertiary structure. However, undesired back‐exchange during post‐HDX analyses can be difficult to control. Here, gas‐phase HDX‐MS, during which labile hydrogens on amino acid side chains are exchanged in sub‐millisecond time scales, has been employed to probe changes within protein structures. Addition of the solvent 2,2,2‐trifluoroethanol to a protein in solution can affect the structure of the protein, resulting in an increase in secondary and/or tertiary structure which is detected using circular dichroism. Using a Synapt G2‐S ESI‐mass spectrometer modified to allow deuterated ammonia into the transfer ion guide (situated between the ion mobility cell and the TOF analyser), gas‐phase HDX‐MS is shown to reflect minor structural changes experienced by the proteins β‐lactoglobulin and ubiquitin, as observed by the reduction in the level of deuterium incorporation. Additionally, the use of gas‐phase HDX‐MS to distinguish between co‐populated proteins conformers within a solution is demonstrated with the disordered protein calmodulin; the gas‐phase HDX‐MS results correspond directly with complementary data obtained by use of ion mobility spectrometry‐MS. PMID:25603979

  8. Epic Allies: Development of a Gaming App to Improve Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Young HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, Kathryn Elizabeth; McNulty, Tobias; Soni, Karina; Knudtson, Kelly; Lemann, Alex; Nwoko, Nkechinyere; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men (YMSM). For HIV-positive individuals, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for achieving optimal health outcomes and reducing secondary transmission of HIV. However, YMSM often struggle with ART adherence. Novel mobile phone apps that incorporate game-based mechanics and social networking elements represent a promising intervention approach for improving ART adherence among YMSM. Objective This study used a multiphase, iterative development process to create an ART adherence app for YMSM. Methods The three-phase development process included: (1) theory-based concept development jointly by public health researchers and the technology team, (2) assessment of the target population’s ART adherence needs and app preferences and development and testing of a clickable app prototype, and (3) development and usability testing of the final app prototype. Results The initial theory-based app concept developed in Phase One included medication reminders, daily ART adherence tracking and visualization, ART educational modules, limited virtual interactions with other app users, and gamification elements. In Phase Two, adherence needs, including those related to information, motivation, and behavioral skills, were identified. Participants expressed preferences for an ART adherence app that was informational, interactive, social, and customizable. Based on the findings from Phase Two, additional gaming features were added in Phase Three, including an interactive battle, superhero app theme, and app storyline. Other features were modified to increase interactivity and customization options and integrate the game theme. During usability testing of the final prototype, participants were able to understand and navigate the app successfully and rated the app favorably. Conclusions An iterative development process was critical for the

  9. Protein kinases paralleling late-phase LTP formation in dorsal hippocampus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wan, Jia; Sase, Sunetra; Gröger, Marion; Pollak, Arnold; Korz, Volker; Lubec, Gert

    2014-10-01

    Hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP), representing a cellular model for learning and memory formation, can be dissociated into at least two phases: a protein-synthesis-independent early phase, lasting about 4h and a protein-synthesis-dependent late phase LTP lasting 6h or longer, or even days. A large series of protein kinases have been shown to be involved and herein, a distinct set of protein kinases proposed to be involved in memory retrieval in previous work was tested in dorsal hippocampus of the rat following induction of late-phase LTP. A bipolar stimulation electrode was chronically implanted into the perforant path, while two monopolar recording electrodes were implanted into the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus. The recording electrode was measuring extracellular excitatory postsynaptic potentials, while the other one measured population spikes. Protein kinases were determined by immunoblotting and immunoflourescence on hippocampal areas showed the distribution pattern of protein kinases PKN1 and NEK7. Induction of LTP was proven, elevated levels for protein kinases PKN1, RPS6KB1, STK4, CDC42BPB, PRKG, TLK, BMX and decreased levels for NEK7, MAK14 and PLK1 were observed. A remarkable overlap of protein kinases observed in spatial memory processes with those proposed in LTP formation was demonstrated. The findings may be relevant for design of future studies on protein kinases and for the interpretation of previous work. PMID:24911953

  10. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the marked increase in the number of membrane-protein structures solved using crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase or in meso method, only ten have been determined by SAD/MAD. This is likely to be a consequence of the technical difficulties associated with handling proteins and crystals in the sticky and viscous hosting mesophase that is usually incubated in glass sandwich plates for the purposes of crystallization. Here, a four-year campaign aimed at phasing the in meso structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) from Escherichia coli is reported. Heavy-atom labelling of this small hydrophobic enzyme was attempted by pre-labelling, co-crystallization, soaking, site-specific mercury binding to genetically engineered single-cysteine mutants and selenomethionine incorporation. Strategies and techniques for special handling are reported, as well as the typical results and the lessons learned for each of these approaches. In addition, an assay to assess the accessibility of cysteine residues in membrane proteins for mercury labelling is introduced. The various techniques and strategies described will provide a valuable reference for future experimental phasing of membrane proteins where crystals are grown by the lipid cubic phase method. PMID:25615865