Sample records for phenolphthalein

  1. Molecular Structure of Phenolphthalein

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Phenolphthalein was first made in 1880. The compound is a good pH indicator because it turns red in a solution with a pH above 8. Phenolphthalein can also be used as a laxative. When used for therapeutic purposes it can cause hypersensitivity. Phenolphthalein also colors urine and other bodily excretions a pink or red color when it is present in the body.

  2. Plasticized phenolphthalein polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Phenolphthalein polycarbonate was successfully plasticized with polychlorinated biphenyls (e.g., Aroclor 1231) or tricresyl phosphate and cast from tetrahydrofuran to give clear films without loss of fire resistance. At loadings of 20 to 30 percent plasticizer the Tg was lowered to approximately 100 C which would render phenolphthalein polycarbonate easily moldable. Although these materials had some mechanical integrity as shown by their film forming ability, the room temperature toughness of the plasticized polymer was not significantly improved over unmodified polymer.

  3. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  4. FAILURE OF PHENOBARBITAL TO INDUCE RAT HEPATIC MICROSOMAL UDP-GLUCURONYLTRANSFERASE TOWARD PHENOLPHTHALEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phenobarbital pretreatment was found not to induce Triton X-100 activated hepatic microsomal neonatal UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity towards phenolphthalein in male, female and pregnant female rats....

  5. Synthesis of optically clear polymeric materials for high temperature windows. [preparation of phenolphthalein polycarbonate resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pannell, C. E.; Magner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A polymer has been developed that has excellent potential for use as windows in spacecraft as well as conventional aircraft. This polymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, has outstanding thermal properties, e.g., in place of melting or burning, it produces an insulating charred foam that closes off transmission of radiant heat through the window. This fact, coupled with an oxygen index of 0.43 and a 177 C tensile strength of 58 mega Newtons/sq m, makes this polymer a prime candidate for further development. Pilot plant preparation in a 20 gallon Pfaudler kettle was accomplished and large test specimens were prepared for evaluations.

  6. Cyclodextrin-poly(?-caprolactone) based nanoparticles able to complex phenolphthalein and adamantyl carboxylate

    PubMed Central

    Ailincai, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Summary A new compound composed of poly(?-caprolactone) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was synthesized by click chemistry. This compound was used to obtain stable nanoparticles, which have been proven to be able to complex phenolphthalein and adamantyl carboxylate. The nanoparticles are characterized by a distinct morphology, i.e., a hydrophobic core formed by the polyester chain and a shell containing the CD part. Moreover, the formed nanoparticles have been proven to encapsulate umbelliferone in the polyester phase, which may serve as an example for the uptake of a drug. The formed nanoparticles were characterized in terms of sizes and morphology by both DLS and TEM. PMID:24991501

  7. Critical anomalies of alkaline fading of phenolphthalein in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongyu; Yin, Handi; Hao, Zhiguo; Zheng, Peizhu; Shen, Weiguo

    2013-12-14

    We have used three-wavelength UV-spectrophotometry to study the reaction of the alkaline fading of phenolphthalein in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water. It was found that when the temperature was far away from the critical point, the values of the natural logarithm of the rate constant k and the natural logarithm of the chemical equilibrium K determined in our experiments had good linear relationships with the reciprocal of temperature, which served as the backgrounds and were used for correcting k and K in the critical region. The critical slowing down of the reaction and the critical anomaly of the chemical equilibrium were detected near the critical point. The value of the critical exponent characterizing the slowing down effect of the reaction rate was obtained to be 0.156, which was close to the value 0.11 associated with the heat capacity divergence and agreed with the theoretical prediction. The experimental result also confirmed the theoretical prediction of 0.11 for the critical exponent characterizing the weak divergence of the singularity of the chemical equilibrium. PMID:24329072

  8. Critical anomalies of alkaline fading of phenolphthalein in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhongyu; Yin, Handi; Hao, Zhiguo; Zheng, Peizhu; Shen, Weiguo

    2013-12-01

    We have used three-wavelength UV-spectrophotometry to study the reaction of the alkaline fading of phenolphthalein in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water. It was found that when the temperature was far away from the critical point, the values of the natural logarithm of the rate constant k and the natural logarithm of the chemical equilibrium K determined in our experiments had good linear relationships with the reciprocal of temperature, which served as the backgrounds and were used for correcting k and K in the critical region. The critical slowing down of the reaction and the critical anomaly of the chemical equilibrium were detected near the critical point. The value of the critical exponent characterizing the slowing down effect of the reaction rate was obtained to be 0.156, which was close to the value 0.11 associated with the heat capacity divergence and agreed with the theoretical prediction. The experimental result also confirmed the theoretical prediction of 0.11 for the critical exponent characterizing the weak divergence of the singularity of the chemical equilibrium.

  9. Phenolphthalein-based Poly(arylene ether sulfone nitrile)s Multiblock Copolymers As Anion Exchange Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ao Nan; Wang, Li Sha; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhuo, Yi Zhi; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2015-04-22

    A series of phenolphthalein-based poly(arylene ether sulfone nitrile)s (PESN) multiblock copolymers containing 1-methylimidazole groups (ImPESN) were synthesized to prepare anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for alkaline fuel cells. The ion groups were introduced selectively and densely on the unit of phenolphthalein as the hydrophilic segments, allowing for the formation of ion clusters. Strong polar nitrile groups were introduced into the hydrophobic segments with the intention of improving the dimensional stability of the AEMs. A well-controlled multiblock structure was responsible for the well-defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic phase separation and interconnected ion-transport channels, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. The ImPESN membranes with low swelling showed a relatively high water uptake, high hydroxide ion conductivity together with good mechanical, thermal and alkaline stability. The ionic conductivity of the membranes was in the range of 3.85-14.67 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) from 30 to 80 °C. Moreover, a single H2/O2 fuel cell with the ImPESN membrane showed an open circuit voltage of 0.92 V and a maximum power density of 66.4 mW cm(-2) at 60 °C. PMID:25825954

  10. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  11. Simultaneous multiwavelength study of the reaction of phenolphthalein with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tam, K Y; Chau, F T

    1992-01-01

    A photodiode array (PDA) spectrophotometer was used to study the fading reaction of phenolpthalein in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was employed to identify the number of light absorbing species in the kinetics system. The target factor analysis (TFA) procedure, coupled with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfard-Shanno (BFGS) optimization method, was applied to the observed data to deduce the rate constants and the concentration-time profile of the reaction. The internal referencing method was shown to be essential in improving the quality of data obtained by a single beam PDA spectrophotomer. PMID:18924946

  12. The Chicago Academy of Science and its Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum http://www.caosclub.org/totalcaos/members/caosho33.html

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    large, rubber bands · 1 box of baking soda · 1 gallon of vinegar · 1 red cabbage (or phenolphthalein (phenolphthalein can be used as a substitute for the cabbage juice) 3. Put 4 teaspoon baking soda into plastic bags of topsoil q 2 thermometers q plastic wrap q 2 large, rubber bands q 1 box of baking soda q 1 gallon

  13. The Best Enzyme Investigation Ever? Probably.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Uses alkaline phosphate to remove the phosphate group from phenolphthalein diphosphate. Discusses problems which include the interference of ambient light and temperature variation. Provides detailed information about the apparatus and the experimental procedure. (ASK)

  14. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere hour nickel cadmium spacecraft cells with design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    All evaluation tests were performed at room ambient pressure and temperature, with discharges at a 2 hour rate. Tests consisted of phenolphthalein leak tests, three capacity tests, an auxiliary electrode test, a charge retention test, an internal short test, a charge efficiency test, overcharge tests, and a pressure versus capacity test. Results of the tests and recommendations for improvements in manufacturing are presented.

  15. Evaluation of vibrational spectroscopic methods to identify and quantify multiple adulterants in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Jeremy S; McDowell, Arlene; Strachan, Clare J; Gordon, Keith C

    2015-06-01

    To counter the growth of herbal medicines adulterated with pharmaceuticals crossing borders, rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive analytical techniques, that can handle complex matrices, are required. Since mid-infrared (MIR), near infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques meet these criteria, their performance in identifying adulterants in seized weightloss herbal medicines is definitively determined. Initially a validated high pressure liquid chromatography methodology was used for reference identification and quantification of the adulterants sibutramine H2O·HCl, fenfluramine HCl and phenolphthalein. Of 38 products, only sibutramine and phenolphthalein were detected by HPLC. The spectroscopic measurements showed Raman was ill-suited due to sample burning and emission while NIR lacked adulterant selectivity. Conversely, MIR demonstrated apt identification performance, which manifested as spectrally meaningful separation based on the presence and type of adulterant during principal component analysis (test set validated). Partial least squares regression models were constructed from the MIR training sets for sibutramine and phenolphthalein - both models fitted the training set data well. Average test set prediction errors were 0.8% for sibutramine and 2.2% for phenolphthalein over the respective concentration ranges of 1.7-11.7% and 0.9-34.4%. MIR is apposite for the screening of anorectic and laxative adulterants and is the most viable technique for wider adulterant screening in herbal medicines. PMID:25863375

  16. The Plague Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity to simulate the geometries of a spreading pathogen such as HIV throughout a generation. Students exchange "bodily fluids" three times and are then tested for the presence of "infection." Materials used include base solutions (NaOH or KOH), phenolphthalein (pH indicator), clear plastic cups, and an eye dropper. (PR)

  17. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  18. "Mud" + "Blood"--A Very Colorful Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which a bloodred-colored solution of hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, and phenolphthalein indicator is added to a mud-colored solution of potassium permanganate, hydrated manganous chloride, and sulfuric acid. The mixture turns clear when added together. Draws parallels between the demonstration and the Old…

  19. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...dissolve, and dilute to the mark with distilled water at room temperature. Transfer a 25 ml aliquot of the solution to a titration flask, add 10 ml of 1 percent barium chloride solution, 0.2 ml of 1 percent phenolphthalein indicator, and 50...

  20. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere hour nickel cadmium spacecraft cells with design variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Harkness

    1979-01-01

    All evaluation tests were performed at room ambient pressure and temperature, with discharges at a 2 hour rate. Tests consisted of phenolphthalein leak tests, three capacity tests, an auxiliary electrode test, a charge retention test, an internal short test, a charge efficiency test, overcharge tests, and a pressure versus capacity test. Results of the tests and recommendations for improvements in

  1. ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY IN MINE DRAINAGE: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl S. Kirby; Charles A. Cravotta

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and

  2. Carbonation of low heat portland cement paste precured in water for different time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deping Chen; Etsuo Sakai; Masaki Daimon; Yoko Ohba

    2007-01-01

    The carbonation technique was applied to accelerate the hydration of low heat portland cement (LHC). Before carbonation, the demoulded pastes were precured in water for 0, 2, 7, and 21 d, respectively. The results show that procuring time in water strongly influences the carbonation process. The phenolphthalein test indicates that the paste precured in water for a shorter time is

  3. The pore solution phase of carbonated cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Anstice; C. L. Page; M. M. Page

    2005-01-01

    Samples of hydrated cement pastes were exposed to atmospheres with various carbon dioxide concentrations at relative humidities controlled by different saturated salt solutions. When carbonated throughout their thickness, as indicated by the phenolphthalein test, they were resaturated with water and subjected to pore solution expression and analysis. The effects of the various carbonating environments on the pore solution composition and

  4. Colorblindness and Titrations with Visual Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Harvey; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various issues related to colorblind students performing titrations with visual indicators. Includes tables showing precisions in the titration of a weak acid by colorblind students using phenolphthalein and thymolphthalein and in the titration of a weak base by colorblind persons using methyl red and bromcresol green. (JN)

  5. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of ?-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Çetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    ?-Glucuronidase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in living systems and plays an essential role in the detoxification pathway of toxic materials incorporated into the metabolism. Some organs, especially liver and some tumour tissues, have high level of ?-glucuronidase activity. As a result the enzymatic activity of some kind of tumour cells, the radiolabelled glucuronide conjugates of cytotoxic, as well as radiotoxic compounds have potentially very valuable diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer research. For this reason, a sensitive measurement of ?-glucuronidase levels in normal and tumour tissues is a very important step for these kinds of applications. According to the classical measurement method of ?-glucuronidase activity, in general, the quantity of phenolphthalein liberated from its glucuronide conjugate, i.e. phenolphthalein-glucuronide, by ?-glucuronidase has been measured by use of the spectrophotometric technique. The lower detection limit of phenolphthalein by the spectrophotometric technique is about 1 3 ?g. This means that the ?-glucuronidase levels could not be detected in biological samples having lower levels of ?-glucuronidase activity and therefore the applications of the spectrophotometric technique in cancer research are very seriously limited. Starting from this consideration, we recently attempted to develop a new nuclear technique to measure much lower concentrations of ?-glucuronidase in biological samples. To improve the detection limit, phenolphthalein-glucuronide and also phenyl-N-glucuronide were radioiodinated with 131I and their radioactivity was measured by use of the counting technique. Therefore, the quantity of phenolphthalein or aniline radioiodinated with 131I and liberated by the deglucuronidation reactivity of ?-glucuronidase was used in an attempt to measure levels lower than the spectrophotometric measurement technique. The results obtained clearly verified that 0.01 pg level of phenolphthalein or aniline could easily be detected at least 106 times more sensitively. The preliminary results obtained on some biological samples have shown that ?-glucuronidase levels could reasonably be measured by use of the nuclear technique. In addition, our results also indicate the potential application of the radiolabelling technique to measure very low ?-glucuronidase levels in different biological samples in cancer research and other related fields. The objective of our study is to demonstrate the potential application of the nuclear measurement technique in different biological samples.

  6. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of ?-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Çetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    ?-Glucuronidase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in living systems and plays an essential role in the detoxification pathway of toxic materials incorporated into the metabolism. Some organs, especially liver and some tumour tissues, have high level of ?-glucuronidase activity. As a result the enzymatic activity of some kind of tumour cells, the radiolabelled glucuronide conjugates of cytotoxic, as well as radiotoxic compounds have potentially very valuable diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer research. For this reason, a sensitive measurement of ?-glucuronidase levels in normal and tumour tissues is a very important step for these kinds of applications. According to the classical measurement method of ?-glucuronidase activity, in general, the quantity of phenolphthalein liberated from its glucuronide conjugate, i.e. phenolphthalein-glucuronide, by ?-glucuronidase has been measured by use of the spectrophotometric technique. The lower detection limit of phenolphthalein by the spectrophotometric technique is about 1-3 ?g. This means that the ?-glucuronidase levels could not be detected in biological samples having lower levels of ?-glucuronidase activity and therefore the applications of the spectrophotometric technique in cancer research are very seriously limited. Starting from this consideration, we recently attempted to develop a new nuclear technique to measure much lower concentrations of ?-glucuronidase in biological samples. To improve the detection limit, phenolphthalein-glucuronide and also phenyl-N-glucuronide were radioiodinated with 131I and their radioactivity was measured by use of the counting technique. Therefore, the quantity of phenolphthalein or aniline radioiodinated with 131I and liberated by the deglucuronidation reactivity of ?-glucuronidase was used in an attempt to measure levels lower than the spectrophotometric measurement technique. The results obtained clearly verified that 0.01 pg level of phenolphthalein or aniline could easily be detected at least 106 times more sensitively. The preliminary results obtained on some biological samples have shown that ?-glucuronidase levels could reasonably be measured by use of the nuclear technique. In addition, our results also indicate the potential application of the radiolabelling technique to measure very low ?-glucuronidase levels in different biological samples in cancer research and other related fields. The objective of our study is to demonstrate the potential application of the nuclear measurement technique in different biological samples.

  7. Effect of thermoplastic coating on interfacial adhesion of oxygen-plasma-pretreated PBO/PPESK composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Chen, Ping; Han, Debin; Yu, Qi; Ding, Zhenfeng; Zhu, Xiuling

    2013-02-01

    To improve the interfacial adhesion of PBO/PPESK composite, thermoplastic resins were coated onto the fiber surface after plasma pretreatment. Two coating resins applied in this study were chemically linked with the plasma pretreated fibers, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fiber surface morphologies and wettability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The interfacial adhesion performance of the PBO fiber-reinforced PPESK composite was measured by interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and water absorption tests. Fracture mechanisms of the composites were examined by SEM. The results indicated that after coating the surface wettability was improved and the ILSS had an increment of 80.8% for phenolphthalein poly (ether ketone) coating and 30.3% for phenolphthalein poly (ether sulfone) coating.

  8. Molecular Models of Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The article by Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk on "Colorful Chemical Fountains" (1) reminds us that color—the colors of acid–base indicators or of metal complexes—is responsible for many of us developing an interest in chemistry. The featured molecules this month are the acid and base forms of three common indicators–phenolphthalein, methyl orange, and methyl red. These three substances display interesting structural features as the pH-induced transformation from one form to another takes place in three different ways. In the case of phenolphthalein, the lactam ring is cleaved on deprotonation to produce a carboxyl group with the concomitant removal of a proton from a phenolic group. In methyl orange, one of the nitrogen atoms is protonated in the acid form, and that proton is lost in the base form. In methyl red, a carboxylic acid function is deprotonated. There are many other interesting aspects of acid–base indicators. Since most plants and fruits contain pigments that show a color change in some pH range, it is difficult to state with any degree of certainty when these changes were first put to use in a systematic fashion. The Spanish alchemist Arnaldus de Villa Nova (Arnold of Villanova) is purported to have used litmus in the early 14th century. In general systematic use of indicators is traced to the latter half of the nineteenth century with the development of the three synthetic indicators described above. Many students will be familiar with the use of phenolphthalein to identify blood—often shown on the various forensic chemistry TV dramas by dropping some solution on a cotton swab that has been used to pick up some of the sample in question. If the swab turns red we frequently hear "It's blood". The reality of using phenolphthalein in this way is more complicated. The test is presumptive for the presence of blood, but not conclusive. It is not an acid–base reaction but rather, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, relies on hemoglobin to catalyze the oxidation of phenolphthalein. An interesting assignment for students in a high-school or non-majors course would be to have them explore the details of this Kastle–Meyers test to see just what is involved in the correct application of the test, and what factors complicate the process. For example, would tomato juice infused with asparagus juice give a positive Kastle–Meyers test? Historically phenolphthalein was used in a variety of laxatives. Recently that usage has been discontinued due to concern about the carcinogenic nature of the substance. A review of the history of the controversy surrounding the use of phenolphthalein in laxatives would make a good research paper at the high-school level. Lastly, students with some practice building structures and performing calculations might wish to explore the structures of two other forms of phenolphthalein—one found in very acidic solutions, having an orange color, and one found in very basic solutions that is colorless.

  9. Thermoplastic polymers for improved fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermomechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in anaerobic and oxidative environments, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers that were evaluated included: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene polycarbonatepoly (dimethyl siloxane) block polymer, phenolphthalein bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters, including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and relative ranking of some of the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties are presented.

  10. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermal mechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in an anaerobic and oxidative environment, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers which were evaluated included: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, bisphenol fluorenone carbonatedimethylsiloxane block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke and toxicity properties are presented.

  11. Rapid discrimination of slimming capsules based on illegal additives by electronic nose and flash gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-02-01

    The discrimination of counterfeit and/or illegally manufactured medicines is an important task in the pharmaceutical industry for pharmaceutical safety. In this study, 22 slimming capsule samples with illegally added sibutramine and phenolphthalein were analyzed by electronic nose and flash gas chromatography. To reveal the difference among the different classes of samples, principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed to analyze the data acquired from electronic nose and flash gas chromatography, respectively. The samples without illegal additives can be discriminated from the ones with illegal additives by using electronic nose or flash gas chromatography data individually. To improve the performance of classification, a data fusion strategy was applied to integrate the data from electronic nose and flash gas chromatography data into a single model. The results show that the samples with phenolphthalein, sibutramine and both can be classified well by using fused data. PMID:25447122

  12. Inhibition of housefly oxidative detoxication by phthaleins, fluoresceins and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T W; Smith, J N

    1981-01-01

    1. Phenolphthalein, halogenated fluoresceins, and other triphenylmethane and diphenylmethane derivatives inhibited biphenyl hydroxylation, aldrin epoxidation and several O-dealkylations in insect abdomen homogenates. Phenolphthalein and eosin (50 muM) were 2-3 times more effective than SKF 525-A and piperonyl butoxide (50 muM) as inhibitors of biphenyl hydroxylation in vitro. 2. The phthaleins, Aurin and Aluminon, inhibited both epoxidation and hydroxylation to similar extents, but fluoresceins, Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and basic diphenylmethane derivatives preferentially inhibited hydroxylation. 3. Tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester and bis-(N-dimethyl-4-aminophenyl-methane inhibited biphenyl hydroxylation in vivo. Bis-(N-dimethyl-4-aminophenyl) methane synergized the toxic effects of 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate in live houseflies. PMID:7222726

  13. Phosphatase activity is a constant feature of all isolates of all major species of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Satta, G; Pompei, R; Grazi, G; Cornaglia, G

    1988-01-01

    In this study we evaluated phosphatase activity in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by conventional methods and by a novel method. The novel method is based on the formation of bright-green-strained colonies by phosphatase-positive, but not phosphatase-negative, strains in the presence of a phosphate substrate, such as phenolphthalein monophosphate or 6-benzoylnaphthyl phosphate (6-BNP), and methyl green. A total of 1,055 strains belonging to 65 different species of Enterobacteriaceae were tested for green staining of the colonies in the presence of methyl green and either phenolphthalein monophosphate or 6-BNP and for phosphatase activity by three different conventional methods. With the sole exception of one Leminorella richardii type strain, all isolates of all of the species formed green-stained colonies in the presence of the substrate 6-BNP. All strains were phosphatase positive by all of the conventional methods. Images PMID:2466048

  14. Visualization of solid-state reactions of anisylmercury and triphenylphosphinegold derivatives of phthaleins with bromides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Nikanorov; L. N. Saitkulova; E. S. Shubina; L. M. Epstein; A. V. Usatov; E. I. Smyslova

    1993-01-01

    The visualization of solid-state reactions of bis-O-metallated phenolphthaleins and xylenolphthaleins (M=HgC6H4OMe, AuPPh3) with bromides, which has been discovered for the first time, was studied by IR and electronic reflectance spectroscopy. The appearance of intense coloration (purple, violet, or blue) after short-term grinding of colorless or faintly colored solid samples with salts is due to their ionization with the formation of

  15. Analysis of plasma isoflavones by reversed-phase HPLC-multiple reaction ion monitoring-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Coward; Marion Kirk; Nicolas Albin; Stephen Barnes

    1996-01-01

    A HPLC-MS procedure for the rapid, sensitive and specific measurement of the isoflavones, daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, O-desmethylangolensin and genistein, in human plasma has been developed. Synthetic radiolabeled genistein conjugates were used for evaluation of optimum conditions for solid phase extraction. Biochanin A was added to plasma as a recovery marker for isoflavones and phenolphthalein glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferone sulfate were added to

  16. Passive mixing in a three-dimensional serpentine microchannel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin H. Liu; Mark A. Stremler; Kendra V. Sharp; Michael G. Olsen; Juan G. Santiago; Ronald J. Adrian; Hassan Aref; David J. Beebe

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional serpentine microchannel design with a “C shaped” repeating unit is presented in this paper as a means of implementing chaotic advection to passively enhance fluid mixing. The device is fabricated in a silicon wafer using a double-sided KOH wet-etching technique to realize a three-dimensional channel geometry. Experiments using phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide solutions demonstrate the ability of flow

  17. The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

  18. Validation studies of rapid stain identification-blood (RSID-blood) kit in forensic caseworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Turrina; Giulia Filippini; Renzo Atzei; Elisabetta Zaglia; Domenico De Leo

    2008-01-01

    When bloodstains are detected at crime scene using presumptive tests (e.g. luminol, phenolphthalein, leuchomalachite green), it is important to establish the real human nature of each stain. This is possible using confirmatory tests. One of these is rapid stain identification-blood (RISD-blood) a lateral flow immuno-chromatographic strip test format which allows the identification of human blood by detection of glycophorin A,

  19. The experimental investigation of concrete carbonation depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Feng Chang; Jing-Wen Chen

    2006-01-01

    Phenolphthalein indicator has traditionally been used to determine the depth of carbonation in concrete. This investigation uses the thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA) method, which tests the concentration distribution of Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3, while the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRDA) tests the intensity distribution of Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3. The Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) test method detects the presence of C–O in concrete

  20. Carbonation and pH in mortars manufactured with supplementary cementitious materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. McPolin; P.A.M. Basheer; A. E. Long

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of carbonation in mortars and methods of measuring the degree of carbonation and pH change is presented. The mortars were manufactured using ordinary portland cement, pulverized fuel ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, metakaolin, and microsilica. The mortars were exposed to a carbon dioxide-rich environment (5% CO) to accelerate carbonation. The resulting carbonation was measured using phenolphthalein indicator and

  1. Structure in turbulent mixing layers and wakes using a chemical reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Breidenthal

    1981-01-01

    Plane turbulent mixing between two streams of water which contained dilute chemical reactants was studied in a new blow-down water tunnel. In a diffusion-limited reaction, a pH indicator, phenolphthalein, in one stream mixed and reacted with a base, sodium hydroxide, in the other stream to form a visible reaction product. The product was found to exist, as expected, in concentrated

  2. Witches' Potion Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Science House

    2014-01-28

    In this chemistry demonstration, learners will discover that phenolphthalein is an acid/base indicator. One learner will read a poem about four witches making a potion. Four learners will act out the parts, adding chemicals and water to different beakers (with adult supervision). Learners will enjoy the poem as the indicators react with the substances and change color. This is a fun chemistry demonstration to use during Halloween.

  3. Nanocontainer-based corrosion sensing coating.

    PubMed

    Maia, F; Tedim, J; Bastos, A C; Ferreira, M G S; Zheludkevich, M L

    2013-10-18

    The present paper reports on the development of new sensing active coating on the basis of nanocontainers containing pH-indicating agent. The coating is able to detect active corrosion processes on different metallic substrates. The corrosion detection functionality based on the local colour change in active cathodic zones results from the interaction of hydroxide ions with phenolphthalein encapsulated in mesoporous nanocontainers which function as sensing nanoreactors. The mesoporous silica nanocontainers are synthesized and loaded with pH indicator phenolphthalein in a one-stage process. The resulting system is mesoporous, which together with bulkiness of the indicator molecules limits their leaching. At the same time, penetration of water molecules and ions inside the container is still possible, allowing encapsulated phenolphthalein to be sensitive to the pH in the surrounding environment and outperforming systems when an indicator is directly dispersed in the coating layer.The performed tests demonstrate the pH sensitivity of the developed nanocontainers being dispersed in aqueous solutions. The corrosion sensing functionality of the protective coatings with nanocontainers are proven for aluminium- and magnesium-based metallic substrates. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in a new generation of active protective coatings with corrosion-sensing coatings. PMID:24045136

  4. Acid-base titrations using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Karita, Shingo; Kaneta, Takashi

    2014-12-16

    Rapid and simple acid-base titration was accomplished using a novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (?PAD). The ?PAD was fabricated by wax printing and consisted of ten reservoirs for reaction and detection. The reaction reservoirs contained various amounts of a primary standard substance, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHPth), whereas a constant amount of phenolphthalein was added to all the detection reservoirs. A sample solution containing NaOH was dropped onto the center of the ?PAD and was allowed to spread to the reaction reservoirs where the KHPth neutralized it. When the amount of NaOH exceeded that of the KHPth in the reaction reservoirs, unneutralized hydroxide ion penetrated the detection reservoirs, resulting in a color reaction from the phenolphthalein. Therefore, the number of the detection reservoirs with no color change determined the concentration of the NaOH in the sample solution. The titration was completed within 1 min by visually determining the end point, which required neither instrumentation nor software. The volumes of the KHPth and phenolphthalein solutions added to the corresponding reservoirs were optimized to obtain reproducible and accurate results for the concentration of NaOH. The ?PADs determined the concentration of NaOH at orders of magnitude ranging from 0.01 to 1 M. An acid sample, HCl, was also determined using Na2CO3 as a primary standard substance instead of KHPth. Furthermore, the ?PAD was applicable to the titrations of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and ammonia solutions. The ?PADs were stable for more than 1 month when stored in darkness at room temperature, although this was reduced to only 5 days under daylight conditions. The analysis of acidic hot spring water was also demonstrated in the field using the ?PAD, and the results agreed well with those obtained by classic acid-base titration. PMID:25423320

  5. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  6. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9 - 8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  7. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9-8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  8. Tracking a Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

  9. Webcam camera as a detector for a simple lab-on-chip time based approach.

    PubMed

    Wongwilai, Wasin; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Grudpan, Supara; Grudpan, Kate

    2010-05-15

    A modification of a webcam camera for use as a small and low cost detector was demonstrated with a simple lab-on-chip reactor. Real time continuous monitoring of the reaction zone could be done. Acid-base neutralization with phenolphthalein indicator was used as a model reaction. The fading of pink color of the indicator when the acidic solution diffused into the basic solution zone was recorded as the change of red, blue and green colors (%RBG.) The change was related to acid concentration. A low cost portable semi-automation analysis system was achieved. PMID:20298905

  10. Ammonia (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ammonia fountain: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In an ammonia fountain, a flask is filled with ammonia gas. A tube from the flask extends into a pan of water that contains phenolphthalein. When a rubber bulb full of water is squeezed, the water squirts into the flask. Water from the pan then is pushed into the flask and the indicator changes color. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  11. Structure-Based Discovery of Inhibitors of Thymidylate Synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoichet, Brian K.; Stroud, Robert M.; Santi, Daniel V.; Kuntz, Irwin D.; Perry, Kathy M.

    1993-03-01

    A molecular docking computer program (DOCK) was used to screen the Fine Chemical Directory, a database of commercially available compounds, for molecules that are complementary to thymidylate synthase (TS), a chemotherapeutic target. Besides retrieving the substrate and several known inhibitors, DOCK proposed putative inhibitors previously unknown to bind to the enzyme. Three of these compounds inhibited Lactobacillus caser TS at submillimolar concentrations. One of these inhibitors, sulisobenzone, crystallized with TS in two configurations that differed from the DOCK-favored geometry: a counterion was bound in the substrate site, which resulted in a 6 to 9 angstrom displacement of the inhibitor. The structure of the complexes suggested another binding region in the active site that could be exploited. This region was probed with molecules sterically similar to sulisobenzone, which led to the identification of a family of phenolphthalein analogs that inhibit TS in the 1 to 30 micromolar range. These inhibitors do not resemble the substrates of the enzyme. A crystal structure of phenolphthalein with TS shows that it binds in the target site in a configuration that resembles the one suggested by DOCK.

  12. Determination of Chlorinity of Water without the Use of Chromate Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae-Kee; Kim, Myung-Hoon; Czae, Myung-Zoon

    2010-01-01

    A new method for determining chlorinity of water was developed in order to improve the old method by alleviating the environmental problems associated with the toxic chromate. The method utilizes a mediator, a weak acid that can form an insoluble salt with the titrant. The mediator triggers a sudden change in pH at an equivalence point in a titration. Thus, the equivalence point can be determined either potentiometrically (using a pH meter) or simply with an acid-base indicator. Three nontoxic mediators (phosphate, EDTA, and sulfite) were tested, and optimal conditions for the sharpest pH changes were sought. A combination of phosphate (a mediator) and phenolphthalein (an indicator) was found to be the most successful. The choices of the initial pH and the concentration of the mediator are critical in this approach. The optimum concentration of the mediator is ca. 1~2?mM, and the optimum value of the initial pH is ca. 9 for phosphate/phenolphthalein system. The method was applied to a sample of sea water, and the results are compared with those from the conventional Mohr-Knudsen method. The new method yielded chlorinity of a sample of sea water of (17.58 ± 0.22)?g/kg, which is about 2.5% higher than the value (17.12 ± 0.22) g/kg from the old method. PMID:21461358

  13. Thermochemical characterization of some thermoplastic materials. [flammability and toxicity properties for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use or being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included thermomechanical properties such as glass-transition and melt temperature, changes in polymer enthalpy, thermogravimetric analysis in anerobic and oxidative environments, oxygen index, smoke evolution, relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and selected physical properties. The generic polymers evaluated included acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, 9,9 bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene polycarbonate-poly (dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters, including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers, are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke, and toxicity properties are presented. Under these test conditions, some of the advanced polymers evaluated were significantly less flammable and toxic than or equivalent to polymers in current use.

  14. Active oxygen doctors the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Corella, Dolores; Verdú, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    Investigation at the scene of a crime begins with the search for clues. In the case of bloodstains, the most frequently used reagents are luminol and reduced phenolphthalein (or phenolphthalin that is also known as the Kastle-Meyer colour test). The limitations of these reagents have been studied and are well known. Household cleaning products have evolved with the times, and new products with active oxygen are currently widely used, as they are considered to be highly efficient at removing all kinds of stains on a wide range of surfaces. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of these new cleaning products on latent bloodstains that may be left at a scene of a crime. To do so, various fabrics were stained with blood and then washed using cleaning agents containing active oxygen. The results of reduced phenolphthalein, luminol and human haemoglobin tests on the washed fabrics were negative. The conclusion is that these new products alter blood to such an extent that it can no longer be detected by currently accepted methods employed in criminal investigations. This inability to locate bloodstains means that highly important evidence (e.g. a DNA profile) may be lost. Consequently, it is important that investigators are aware of this problem so as to compensate for it.

  15. Identification and Determination of Synthetic Pharmaceuticals as Adulterants in Eight Common Herbal Weight Loss Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Khazan, Marjan; Hedayati, Mehdi; Kobarfard, Farzad; Askari, Sahar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adulterated herbal weight loss products with containing undeclared synthetic drugs are common and responsible for many serious health damages. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine five synthetic adulterants in eight common herbal weight loss supplements, which are currently sold in Iran markets, to verify their presence in supplements, without mentioning on the labels. Materials and Methods: Eight common herbal weight loss samples were obtained from the Iran pharmaceutical market after advertising in the Persian language on satellite channels and internet. Five pharmacological classes of drugs used for weight loss, namely sibutramine, phenolphthalein, phenytoin, bumetanide and rimonabant, were investigated and quantified by GC-MS for the first three and LC-MS for the last two medications. Results: The most undeclared ingredients, which were illegally added include sibutramine, phenolphthalein, bumetanide, and phenytoin in the original super slim, herbaceous essence, super slim green lean, and fat loss, supplements, respectively. Rimonabant was not found. Caffeine, pseudoephedrine, theobromine and amfepramone were also found in the supplements using GC-MS assay. Conclusions: Adulterated synthetic substances were detected in the herbal weight loss products. Health care professionals should make people aware of the risks of taking herbal weight-loss supplements. PMID:24829782

  16. Prediction of corrosion rates of water distribution pipelines according to aggressive corrosive water in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, W S; Yu, M J; Lee, H D

    2004-01-01

    The drinking water network serving Korea has been used for almost 100 years. Therefore, pipelines have suffered various degrees of deterioration due to aggressive environments. The pipe breaks were caused by in-external corrosion, water hammer, surface loading, etc. In this paper, we focused on describing corrosion status in water distribution pipes in Korea and reviewing some methods to predict corrosion rates. Results indicate that corrosive water of lakes was more aggressive than river water and the winter was more aggressive compared to other seasons. The roughness growth rates of Dongbok lake showed 0.23 mm/year. The high variation of corrosion rates is controlled by the aging pipes and smaller diameter. Also the phenolphthalein test on a cementitious core of cement mortar lined ductile cast iron pipe indicated the pipes over 15 years old had lost 50-100% of their lime active cross sectional area. PMID:14982159

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and controllable drug release of pH-sensitive hybrid magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lilin; Yuan, Jinying; Yuan, Weizhong; Sui, Xiaofeng; Wu, Sizhu; Li, Zhaolong; Shen, Dezhong

    2009-09-01

    The synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles coated with pH-sensitive poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for use as novel potential carriers for targeted drug delivery and controllable release is reported. The organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles were obtained with a narrow molecular weight distribution. The pH-sensitivity of the nanoparticles was investigated by the measurement of the pH dependence of hydrodynamic radius and the superparamagnetism was illustrated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The behavior of model drug phenolphthalein released from the nanoparticles indicated that the rate of drug release could be effectively controlled by altering the pH values of the environment.

  18. Visualization of turbulent reactive mixing in a planar microscale confined impinging-jet reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanxiang; Somashekar, Vishwanath; Fox, Rodney O.; Olsen, Michael G.

    2011-11-01

    Turbulent reactive mixing in a rectangular microscale confined impinging-jet reactor was investigated using the pH indicator phenolphthalein in this study for three different jet Reynolds numbers Rej = 25, 1000 and 1500. Laminar flow was observed at Rej = 25 whereas the flow was turbulent at Rej = 1000 and 1500. An image processing technique was applied to instantaneous images to extract quantitative mixing data by identifying regions with pH >= 9.3 and regions with pH < 9.3. Ensemble averages were computed using these thresholded images to compare mixing performance between different Reynolds numbers. Finally, the spatial auto-correlation fields of the thresholded image fluctuations were evaluated, based on which large-scale turbulent structures were analyzed.

  19. Phosphatase Activity Among Candida Species and Other Yeasts Isolated from Clinical Material

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rodney F.; Blasi, Dianna; Dayton, Sandra L.

    1973-01-01

    A group of 277 yeasts isolated from burned children and 14 reference strains were tested for phosphatase activity by using phenolphthalein phosphate substrates. Phosphatase activity was widely distributed among various species and strains representing seven genera. Candida albicans, which was the most common yeast isolated from clinical material, was notably absent in producing the enzyme, whereas Candida tropicalis was the most consistent, strong, and rapidly active phosphatase-producing organism. The characteristic enzyme activity of a selected isolate of C. tropicalis was demonstrated in the presence of concentrations of inorganic phosphate which inhibited enzyme activity of other species. The greater enzyme activity of C. tropicalis was not related to more rapid or greater cell growth or decrease in the pH of culture media. Extracellular constitutive heat-labile acid phosphatase was found in broth filtrates of C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:4584579

  20. Erosive Potential of Sugar Free and Sugar Containing Pediatric Medicines Given Regularly and Long Term to Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruchi Arora; Utsav Mukherjee; Vivek Arora

    Objective  To assess the erosive potential of 94 pediatric medicines of various therapeutic groups in vitro.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro measurement of endogenous pH and titratable acidity (mmol) of 94 formulations was done. Endogenous pH was measured using\\u000a a pH meter, followed by titration with 0.1-M NaOH using phenolphthalein as indicator.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Overall, 55 (59%) formulations had an endogenous pH of <5.5. The

  1. Flammability and Photo-Stability of Selected Polymer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Jeelin

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to the improvement of the flammability of epoxy resins, bisphenol-A polycarbonate poly(butylene terephthalate), and Nylon 6.6 by introducing halogens and loop functionality into the flame retardants is described. The phthalides (the loop functionality containing molecules) include 3,3-bis(4-bromophenyl)-phthalide, 3,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)phthalide, and phenolphthalein. The phthalide containing epoxy resins are synthesized and characterized in comparison with the bisphenol-A epoxy resins in terms of flammability in the copolymer systems. The resins include diglycidyl ethers of phenolphthalein, bisphenol-A. tetrabromobisphenol-A, and tetraoromophenolphthalein. The vaporization of the phthalide additive in the polymers is observed in Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The flame retardancy is primarily due to the presence of halogens. In the poly(butylene terephthalate) system, the cleavage of the C(sub aromatic) -B bond of the flame retardant additive enhances the crosslinking react ions between the aromatic rings resulting in an increase of char formation. In the epoxy resin systems, loop functionality contributes to char formation to a larger extent. The interaction between the epoxy resin and poly-(butylene terephthalate) follows the mechanism of insertion of the oxirane ring into the ester bond. This mechanism is studied by FT-IR. The investigation of the thermal properties of the char-forming phenol-formaldehyde resins is conducted to provide information for the systematic design of high temperature flame-resistant phenolics. NMR and FT-IR are used to characterize the oligomeric resins and the cured resins. The curing agents used in the study include formaldehyde, s-trioxane and terephthaloyl chloride. The brominated phenolic resins are found to have higher oxygen indices with lower char yields.

  2. Opioid receptors and associated regulator of G protein signaling are involved in the cathartic colon of rats

    PubMed Central

    WU, JINSONG; LIU, BAOHUA; TONG, WEIDONG; ZHANG, ANPING; LI, FAN; LIN, JING; WANG, LI

    2015-01-01

    A cathartic colon is characteristic of slow transit constipation (STC), which can result following the long-term use of irritant laxatives. In the present study, the involvement of three opioid receptor subtypes (?, MOR; ?, DOR; and ?, KOR), regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS-4) and ?-arrestin-2 were investigated in the cathartic colon of rats. A rat model of a cathartic colon was established by feeding the animals with phenolphthalein, while normal rats were used as a control. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the opioid receptors, RGS-4 and ?-arrestin-2 were detected in the rat colon using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The rat model of a cathartic colon was successfully established using the phenolphthalein stimulus, and was shown to result in shrunken myenteric neurons and loose muscle fibers in the intestinal wall. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the three opioid receptor subtypes, RGS-4 and ?-arrestin-2 were significantly higher in the cathartic colon group when compared with the levels in the normal control group (all P<0.01). With regard to the protein expression levels, MOR protein increased 2.4 fold, DOR expression increased 1.5 fold, KOR levels increased 1.5 fold, RGS-4 protein increased 3.5 fold and ?-arrestin-2 expression increased 2.0 fold. Therefore, the expression levels of opioid receptors were found to increase in the cathartic colons of the rats, indicating that opioid receptors and downstream RGS-4 and ?-arrestin-2 signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of STC.

  3. Quantitative estimation of carbonation and chloride penetration in reinforced concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Shuzo; Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Fujii, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2014-11-01

    The penetration profile of chlorine in a reinforced concrete (RC) specimen was determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The concrete core was prepared from RC beams with cracking damage induced by bending load and salt water spraying. LIBS was performed using a specimen that was obtained by splitting the concrete core, and the line scan of laser pulses gave the two-dimensional emission intensity profiles of 100 × 80 mm2 within one hour. The two-dimensional profile of the emission intensity suggests that the presence of the crack had less effect on the emission intensity when the measurement interval was larger than the crack width. The chlorine emission spectrum was measured without using the buffer gas, which is usually used for chlorine measurement, by collinear double-pulse LIBS. The apparent diffusion coefficient, which is one of the most important parameters for chloride penetration in concrete, was estimated using the depth profile of chlorine emission intensity and Fick's law. The carbonation depth was estimated on the basis of the relationship between carbon and calcium emission intensities. When the carbon emission intensity was statistically higher than the calcium emission intensity at the measurement point, we determined that the point was carbonated. The estimation results were consistent with the spraying test results using phenolphthalein solution. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation by LIBS of carbonation depth and chloride penetration can be performed simultaneously.

  4. Effects of subacute treatment with cocaine on activities of n-demethylase, UDP-glucuronyltransferase and sulfotransferase in WKY and SHR rat liver - sex and strain differences

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.K.; Hoskins, B.; Ho, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of subacute treatment with cocaine on activities of cocaine N-demethylase, UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GT) toward 4-nitrophenol and phenolphthalein and sulfotransferase (ST) toward androsterone and 4-nitrophenol in livers from Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. Hepatic metabolism of cocaine was different between the sexes (with males having higher N-demethylase activity) and the strains (with WKY rats having higher activity). The effects of subacute cocaine administration on the activity of cocaine N-demethylase were also sex- and strain-related. Whereas cocaine administration increased activity of hepatic N-demethylase in both female strains, it decreased activity in male WKY and had no effect on activity in male SHR. Sex and strain-related as well as cocaine-induced differences were also found in activities of hepatic GT toward 4-nitrophenol and phenolphtalein as well as in activity of hepatic ST towards andersterone and 4-nitrophenol. These results suggest that some of the individual variation in the effects of cocaine may be due to sex and genetic differences in the hepatic metabolism of cocaine and/or in sexually and/or genetically-determined differences in how cocaine affects hepatic metabolism of other xenobiotics. 20 references, 4 figures.

  5. High Performance Microreactor for Rapid Fluid Mixing and Redox Reaction of Ascorbic Acid

    E-print Network

    Fang, Wei-Feng

    2008-01-01

    A novel micro device with a mechanism of split and recombination (SNR) for rapid fluidic mixing and reaction, named a SNR micro-reactor, was designed, fabricated and systematically analyzed. This SNR micro-reactor possessing an in-plane dividing structure requires only simple fabrication. We investigated this reactor and compared it numerically and experimentally with a slanted-groove micromixer (SGM). From the numerical results the mixing indices and mixing patterns demonstrated that the mixing ability of the SNR micro-reactor was much superior to that of the SGM. From a mixing test with phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide solutions, the mixing lengths of the SNR micro-reactor were less than 4 mm for a Reynolds number over a wide range (Re = 0.1 - 10). From a comparison of mixing lengths, the results revealed also that the SNR micro-reactor surpassed the SGM in mixing performance by more than 200 %. As a reaction length is a suitable test of the performance of a reactor, we introduced a redox reaction betwe...

  6. Observations on the accessibility of acceptor substrates to the active centre of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Illing, H P; Benford, D

    1976-05-13

    The partition coefficients between octanol and pH 7.4 buffer for eleven substrates of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.17) have been determined. They range between 1.1 and 690 in the order p-aminophenol less than phenol less than (o-aminobenzoic acid = o-aminophenol = p-aminobenzoic acid) less than p-nitrophenol less than 4-methylumbelliferone less than mercaptobenzothiazole less than harmol less than phenolphthalein less than 1-naphthol. The effect of Triton X-100, used as a model membrane pertubant, on the enzyme activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in rat liver homogenates towards these substrates was determined and compared with the partition coefficients. Enzyme activities towards p-aminophenol and phenol were decreased by Triton X-100, the enzyme activities towards other acceptor substrates were enhanced maximally with 0.025% (w/v) Triton. "Native" enzyme activity (except for amino containing compounds) and activation could be related to partition coefficient of the substrate. An increase in lipid solubility resulted in reduced enzyme activity in untreated homogenates and greater activation. These results suggest UDP-glucuronosyltransferase lies behind a partially lipid-impenetrable abrrier and it is suggested that this barrier is broken up by membrane perturbants to permit free access of the more lipid-soluble substrates. In addition, the formation in vitro of a glucuronide from mercaptobenzothiazole was demonstrated. PMID:817745

  7. Enzyme induction in the uremic liver.

    PubMed

    Leber, H W; Gleumes, L; Schütterle, G

    1978-06-01

    Forty-five days after subtotal nephrectomy or sham-operation of male rats, microsomal enzymes were investigated in vitro. The activities (per milligram) of microsomal protein of two esterases and of two glucuronyltransferases were normal in the uremic rats. The mixed-function oxidation system had lower activities per milligram of protein than that in sham-operated controls. Due to a decrease of the microsomal protein content of the uremic liver, the activities of these enzymes were decreased when calculated for the whole liver. In contrast, the glucoronidation of phenolphthalein remained normal when related to the whole liver, due to an increased activity per mg of protein. Treatment with the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate caused a significant increase of the liver wet weight, the microsomal protein content, and the activity per mg of protein for the demethylation of aminopyrine in subtotally nephrectomized rats but was without influence on the liver of sham-operated controls. It is concluded that uremia itself does not induce liver microsomal enzymes. The microsomal enzymes, however, remain inducible by foreign compounds even under uremic conditions. PMID:99598

  8. Functional heterogeneity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase as indicated by its differential development and inducibility by glucocorticoids. Demonstration of two groups within the enzyme's activity towards twelve substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, G J

    1978-01-01

    1. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity towards 12 substrates has been assessed in rat liver during the perinatal period. 2. Between days 16 and 20 of gestation, enzyme activities towards the substrates 2-aminophenol, 2-aminobenzoate, 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol, 4-methylumbelliferone and 5-hydroxytryptamine (the 'late foetal' group) surge to reach adult values, while activities towards bilirubin, testosterone, beta-oestradiol, morphine, phenolphthalein, and chloramphenicol (the 'neonatal' group) remain negligible or at less than 10% of adult values. 3. By the second postnatal day, enzyme activities towards the neonatal group have attained, or approached adult values. 4. Dexamethasone precociously stimulates in 17-day foetal liver in utero transferase activities in the late foetal, but not the neonatal group. A similar inductive pattern is found for 15-day foetal liver in organ culture. 5. It is suggested that foetal glucocorticoids, whose synthesis markedly increases between days 16 and 20 of gestation, are responsibile for triggering the simultaneous surge of all the hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in the late foetal group. The neonatal group of activities apparently require a different or additional stimulus for their appearance. 6. The relationship of these two groups of transferase activities to other similar groups observed during induction by xenobiotics and enzyme purification is discussed. PMID:101211

  9. Net primary productivity of some aquatic macrophytes in sewage-sullage mixture.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, V K; Sinha, S; Naik, M L

    2001-07-01

    Sewage-sullage mixture from Raipur city is spread over a vast area surrounding the city. This mixture has a pH always above neutrality with high turbidity. Transparency was nil with the absence of phenolphthalein alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Hardness was high with low nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. Human consumable. acquatic macrophytes are cultivated in such waste water. Net primary productivity of three macrophytes: Ipomoea aquatica, Marsilea quadrifolia and Nelumbo nucifera were evaluated while being cultivated in such sewage-sullage mixture. Productivity was determined either with periodic biomass removal (I. aquatica and M. quadrifolia) or through removing the biomass only once at the time of growing season (N. nucifera). Growing season productivity of up to 27.48. 19.81 and 9.49 g m(-2) and day(-1) and extrapolated productivity of up to 100.30, 72.31 and 34.64 mt. ha(-1) yr(-1) was recorded for I. aquatica. M. quadrifolia and N. nucifera respectively. Thus, these macrophytes are yielding a high amount of human consumable biomass from an area which neither be a useless wetland. PMID:12017265

  10. Solvothermal synthesis of V{sub 4}O{sub 9} flake-like morphology and its photocatalytic application in the degradation of methylene blue

    SciTech Connect

    Chine, M.K. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEITunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEITunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia); Sediri, F., E-mail: faouzi.sediri@ipeit.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEITunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université, Tunis-Elmanar, 2092 Elmanar, Tunis (Tunisia); Gharbi, N. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEITunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEITunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B.P. 229 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Flake-like nanocrystalline V{sub 4}O{sub 9} was synthesized by a solvothermal route. ? Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. ? V{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoflakes exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity two times higher than the bulk V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. -- Abstract: Flake-like nanocrystalline V{sub 4}O{sub 9} has been successfully synthesized by solvothermal process using V{sub 2}O{sub 5} as vanadium source and phenolphthalein as a reducing agent and a structure-directing template. Techniques X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, the morphology and the composition of the material. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 93.54% bleaching was observed, with V{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoflakes yielding more photodegradation compared to that of bulk V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This presents a degradation percentage of about 44.67%.

  11. Design and characterization of a plastic optical fiber pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Licínio; Simões, Pedro; Carvalho, Rui S.; Lopes, Paulo; Ferreira, Mário

    2013-11-01

    In this paper are present the design and characterization of a pH sensor using plastic optical fiber (POF) technology and a material produced by the sol-gel process with TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) to immobilize universal indicator of pH (comprised of Thymol Blue, Methyl Red, Bromothymol Blue and Phenolphthalein) inside the silica matrix. This matrix is positioned between two extensions of plastic optical fiber tightly positioned at each side with both fibers aligned and sharing a common optical axis. This set will work as a pH sensor since the matrix embedded with indicator and in the presence of a solution (basic or acid solution) will change the optical transmittance properties. The optical source is a superluminescent white LED and the receiver is a photodiode having a good and linear responsivity in the visible spectrum. This pH sensitive matrix has large pores which allow the diffusion of the surrounding fluid molecules into the matrix and thus the close contact of these to the indicator molecules. This contact causes the change of color of the whole matrix allowing proper colorimetric detection by the photodiode. This variation of color associated with the detector wavelength linear response is the base of operation of the proposed device. This pH sensor presents many advantages over the standard and commercial pH meters namely, lightweight, portability and a low cost.

  12. Structure and properties of PVDF membrane with PES-C addition via thermally induced phase separation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lishun; Sun, Junfen

    2014-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and PVDF membrane with phenolphthalein polyethersulfone (PES-C) addition were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method by using diphenyl carbonate (DPC) and dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as mixed diluents. The effects of coagulation temperature and pre-evaporation time on structure and properties of membranes were studied. The changes of sewage flux in MBR and the attenuation coefficient of sewage flux were investigated. The resistance distributions of PVDF and PVDF/PES-C membranes were compared by resistance analysis. Membrane composition and structure were characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM and AFM. The foulant on membranes was analyzed by FTIR. The contact angle of PVDF/PES-C membrane was lower than that of PVDF membrane. A thinner skin layer and a porous cellular support layer formed in PVDF/PES-C membrane and resulted in a higher porosity and pure water flux. The pure water flux and porosity of PVDF/PES-C membrane increased with rising coagulation temperature and decreased with extending pre-evaporation time. The flux attenuation coefficient, the cake layer resistance and internal fouling resistance of PVDF/PES-C membrane in MBR were smaller than those of PVDF membrane in MBR. The FTIR spectrum of foulant on membrane indicated that the foulant on PVDF/PES-C membrane was mostly composed of protein and polysaccharide, while the foulant on pure PVDF membrane included biopolymer clusters besides protein and polysaccharide.

  13. Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 ?L of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time. PMID:24460103

  14. Polymeric redox-responsive delivery systems bearing ammonium salts cross-linked via disulfides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary A redox-responsive polycationic system was synthesized via copolymerization of N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEAAm) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). N,N’-bis(4-chlorobutanoyl)cystamine was used as disulfide-containing cross-linker to form networks by the quaternization of tertiary amine groups. The insoluble cationic hydrogels become soluble by reduction of disulfide to mercaptanes by use of dithiothreitol (DTT), tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) or cysteamine, respectively. The soluble polymeric system can be cross-linked again by using oxygen or hydrogen peroxide under basic conditions. The redox-responsive polymer networks can be used for molecular inclusion and controlled release. As an example, phenolphthalein, methylene blue and reactive orange 16 were included into the network. After treatment with DTT a release of the dye could be recognized. Physical properties of the cross-linked materials, e.g., glass transition temperature (T g), swelling behavior and cloud points (T c) were investigated. Redox-responsive behavior was further analyzed by rheological measurements. PMID:24062825

  15. Carbonation and pH in mortars manufactured with supplementary cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    McPolin, D.O.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Long, A.E. [Queens University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    An investigation of carbonation in mortars and methods of measuring the degree of carbonation and pH change is presented. The mortars were manufactured using ordinary portland cement, pulverized fuel ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, metakaolin, and microsilica. The mortars were exposed to a carbon dioxide-rich environment (5% CO{sub 2}) to accelerate carbonation. The resulting carbonation was measured using phenolphthalein indicator and thermogravimetric analysis. The pH of the pore fluid and a powdered sample, extracted from the mortar, was measured to give an accurate indication of the actual pH of the concrete. The pH of the extracted powder mortar sample was found to be similar to the pH of the pore fluid expressed from the mortars. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested two distinct regions of transport of CO{sub 2} within mortar, a surface region where convection was prevalent and a deeper region where diffusion was dominant. The use of microsilica has been shown to decrease the rate of carbonation, while pulverized fuel ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag have a detrimental effect on carbonation. Metakaolin has little effect on carbonation.

  16. Effects of the use of ultrasonic waves on biodiesel production in alkaline transesterification of bleached tallow and vegetable oils: Cavitation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alape Benitez, Fabio

    Experiments of biodiesel production via methanolysis were performed at methanol/triglyceride molar ratios of 3, 4.5, and 6 and temperatures of 25°C, 40°C and 60°C; the reaction was monitored by HPLC, X-Ray, and GC-MS until equilibrium. A mathematical model called CAVITATION MODEL was developed to deal with mass transfer aspects of the alkaline transesterification reaction of vegetable oils; a comparison between the cavitation model and diffusion through spherical pores was made. Gas-vapor bubble dynamics for the methanol-soybean oil and methanol-tallow system were examined at 40°C and 42°C, respectively. The Rayleight-Plesset equations were used to describe the isothermal growth and adiabatic collapse of the bubble formed when a field of ultrasound at 20 KHz is applied. Temperatures of 2265 K and 426 K were estimated for a bubble in soybean oil-methanol and tallow-methanol systems, respectively. These "Hot Spots" could be responsible for the increment of the temperature occurred and the acoustic streaming observed during the alkaline transesterification reaction. Also, a diffusion analysis with the pore model was made to predict the concentration profile of the triglycerides within the liquid drops of alcohol created after the collapse of the gas-vapor bubbles; spherical shapes were studied. A computational model was made in MathCad to evaluate the effectiveness at different Thiele modulus values in order to estimate mass transfer coefficients for the most critical conditions of pure diffusion and these coefficients were compared with those found by the cavitation model estimation. Pictures of the reactant system soybean oil-methanol-potassium hydroxide, with the red dyed methanol using phenolphthalein, showed that the alkalinity of the system represented by potassium hydroxide remains in the interface alcohol-oil and then is displaced into the glycerol or down layer. The present study serves as a basis for the analysis of heterogeneous reactions with immiscible liquids using ultrasonic agitation.

  17. Reductive metabolism of nabumetone by human liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions: exploratory prediction using inhibitors and substrates as marker probes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kaori; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Kamei, Tomoyo; Koyanagi, Junichi; Takahashi, Tamiko; Akimoto, Masayuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2014-03-22

    The metabolic reduction of nabumetone was examined by inhibition and correlation studies using human liver microsomes and cytosol. This reduction was observed in both fractions, with the V max values for reduction activity being approximately fourfold higher, and the V max /K m values approximately three-fold higher, in the microsomes than in the cytosol. The reduction of nabumetone was inhibited by 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid, an 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) inhibitor, in the microsomal fraction. The reduction activity was also inhibited by quercetin and menadione [carbonyl reductase (CBR) inhibitors], and by phenolphthalein and medroxyprogesterone acetate [potent inhibitors of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C1, 1C2 and 1C4] in the cytosol. A good correlation (r (2) = 0.93) was observed between the reduction of nabumetone and of cortisone, as a marker of 11?-HSD activity, in the microsomal fractions. There was also an excellent relationship between reduction of nabumetone and of the AKR1C substrates, acetohexamide, and ethacrynic acid (r (2) = 0.92 and 0.93, respectively), in the cytosol fractions. However, a poor correlation was observed between the formation of 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-butan-2-ol (MNBO) from nabumetone and CBR activity (with 4-benzoyl pyridine reduction as a CBR substrate) in the cytosol fractions (r (2) = 0.24). These findings indicate that nabumetone may be metabolized by 11?-HSD in human liver microsomes, and primarily by AKR1C4 in human liver cytosol, although multiple enzymes in the AKR1C subfamily may be involved. It cannot be completely denied that CBR is involved to some extent in the formation of MNBO from nabumetone in the cytosol fraction. PMID:24659525

  18. Determination of direct and fugitive PM emissions in a Mediterranean harbour by means of classic and novel tracer methods.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Natalia; Viana, Mar; Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Chinchón, Servando; Pinto, Juan Francisco; Torres, Federico; Díez, Juan Manuel; Saéz, José

    2009-10-01

    Remodelling works are frequent in harbour areas, given that they must adapt to rapidly changing market requirements. Depending on their nature (construction, demolition, etc.), these works may be carried out during long periods of time and thus exert a significant impact on the air quality at the harbours and their surroundings. The air quality at the Valencia harbour was studied during an enlargement project. Four sampling stations aimed to cover the major dust-emitting activities in the harbour. In addition, a sampling campaign was carried out to collect dust materials at their emission sources (e.g., loading and unloading of clinker and petroleum coke, as well as the enlargement works). Differences obtained between PM levels at the monitoring sites were correlated with the distance between sampling stations and enlargement works and/or harbour operations, as well as with the preferential wind direction. In all cases, the days with the highest PM_10 levels were linked to wind directions coinciding with the location of the enlargement works or the clinker and petroleum coke stocks. Classic source apportionment methodologies (PCA and CMB) were applied to the data, but their interpretation was complex due to the similar chemical signatures of PM originating from direct and fugitive emissions from stocked materials (e.g., clinker), and the enlargement works. To overcome this difficulty, a novel non-statistical approach was used to obtain quantitative estimations of the contributions from sources (petroleum coke and clinker), based on the correlation between specific PM components (e.g., carbonaceous species) and source tracers (e.g., V). Finally, a qualitative test using phenolphthalein was devised to identify the presence of clinker on the filters, which provided positive results. This novel tracer approach is thus recommended for harbour authorities. PMID:19716644

  19. Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M

    2007-12-03

    Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for Rayleigh?Taylor instability-induced mixing are discussed.

  20. Study of dynamics and crystallization kinetics of 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile at ambient and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrjanowicz, K.; Kaminski, K.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.; Yu, Lian

    2012-06-01

    The organic liquid ROY, i.e., 5-methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile, has been a subject of detailed study in the last few years. One interest in ROY lies in its polymorph-dependent fast crystal growth mode below and above the glass transition temperature. This growth mode is not diffusion controlled, and the possibility that it is enabled by secondary relaxation had been suggested. However, a previous study by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy had not been able to find any resolved secondary relaxation. The present paper reports new dielectric measurements of ROY in the liquid and glassy states at ambient pressure and elevated pressure, which were performed to provide more insight into the molecular dynamics as well as the crystallization tendency of ROY. In the search of secondary relaxation, a special glassy state of ROY was prepared by applying high pressure to the liquid state, from which secondary relaxation was possibly resolved. Thus, the role of secondary relaxation in crystallization of ROY remains to be clarified. Notwithstanding, the secondary relaxation present is not necessarily the sole enabler of crystallization. In an effort to search for possible cause of crystallization other than secondary relaxation, we also performed crystallization kinetics studies of ROY at different T and P combinations while keeping the structural relaxation time constant. The results show that crystallization of ROY speeds up with pressure, opposite to the trend found in the crystallization of ibuprofen studied up to 1 GPa. The dielectric relaxation and thermodynamic properties of ROY with phenolphthalein dimethylether (PDE) are similar in many respects, but PDE does not crystallize. Taking all the above into account, besides the secondary relaxation, the specific chemical structure, molecular interactions and packing of the molecules are additional factors that could affect the kinetics of crystallization found in ROY.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  2. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a standard method "hot peroxide" acidity titration, provided that labs report negative values. The authors recommend the third approach; i.e., net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.