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Sample records for philostomella cigarra crustacea

  1. An annotated checklist of the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kotov, Alexey A; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the revision of available literature on the Colombian Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), we present an annotated checklist, with taxonomical comments for all taxa recorded since the start of research on this group in the country in 1913. We have listed 101 valid taxa, of which most records belong to the Caribbean region of Colombia. The situation in Colombian Cladocera taxonomy is, at present, unfavorable for any realistic conclusions on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography. PMID:26624722

  2. Ancylomenes australis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2013-01-01

    The holotype specimen of Ancylomenes australis, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from Sodwana Bay, South Africa, is described and illustrated. It is the only species of the genus reported from south east Africa. It is an associate of cerianthid anemones and has a species specific colour pattern. Closely similar to A. venustus (Bruce, 1990) it is readily distinguished from it and all other species of the genus by its characteristic rostrum and blunt inferior orbital angle. PMID:26171516

  3. Collecting and Preserving Marine and Freshwater Isopoda (Crustacea: Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Isopoda are the most diverse Crustacea. In order to encourage the study of isopod crustaceans and their use in biodiversity studies, systematics, ecology, physiology and more, one needs to know who the isopods are and where to find them. New information This is a short “how to” guide focusing on the free-living marine and freshwater isopods: where they live and how to collect and preserve them. The tools and techniques described here are simple, but invaluable in accessing the natural history of these remarkable creatures. PMID:26023284

  4. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  9. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state in Borneo Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinev, Artem Y; Yusoff, Fatimah M

    2015-01-01

    Fauna of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state of Malaysia, Borneo Island, was evaluated for the first time. Samples from 40 locations were studied, and 31 species of Cladocera were revealed, including three species of Sididae, one species of Daphnidae, one species of Moinidae, four species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 20 species of Chydoridae. One species of Ilyocryptidae, Ilyocryptus yooni Jeong, Kotov and Lee, 2012, is recorded for Malaysia for the first time, and one more, Anthalona sp., is probably new for science. Of 31 species recorded for Sabah, only three are true planktonic species and 28 are substrate-associated species. Absence of large natural lakes, habitats with most rich cladoceran fauna, can be an important factor limiting diversity of Cladocera in Sabah. PMID:26623748

  10. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) from Jejudo, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Chan; Lee, Jimin; An, Sung Min; Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of an ecologically important crustacean mud shrimp, Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) was sequenced. We used next generation sequencing strategy for total genomic DNA and organelle genome pipeline for mitogenome assembly. A newly determined mitogenome was 16,063 bp in total length with 28% of GC content. Thirty-seven genes were identified including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. We found ten case of overlapping between neighboring genes. Based on genome comparison, the mitogenome of U. yokoyai shows general crustacean gene content and identical synteny to the sister species, such as U. major and U. pusilla. Our results will provide useful information for mitochondrial genome diversity and evolution of the Crustacea. PMID:25423527

  12. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-01

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus. PMID:24872280

  13. Distribution and diversity patterns of asellote isopods (Crustacea) in the deep Norwegian and Greenland Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svavarsson, Jörundur; Brattegard, Torleiv; Strömberg, Jarl-Ove

    Distribution and diversity patterns of asellote isopods (Crustacea) of the deep Norwegian and Greenland Seas are described. The asellotes show the same pattern of rapid faunal change across the upper continental slope as commonly described elsewhere. Here the rate of species replacement is maximum at depths of 800-1000m, but decreases towards greater depths. The distribution of the asellotes shows some correlations to the distribution of sediment types. Species diversity is maximum at 800m and decreases with depth. The species diversity pattern is related here to heterogeneity of the sediments and different species immigration rates into shallow and deep Arctic waters.

  14. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-01-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3–4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2–6 articles. PMID:26868713

  15. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters.

    PubMed

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3-4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2-6 articles. PMID:26868713

  16. Comparative study of cadmium and lead accumulations in Cambarus bartoni (Fab. ) (Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic and a neutral lake

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mysid shrimp, Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida).

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sanghee; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the mitogenome sequence of Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida), which is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the order Mysida. The mitogenome of N. japonica is 17,652 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region (CR). Mitogenome analysis of N. japonica revealed a novel gene order that included inversions in three PCGs and five tRNAs, compared with H. americanus, the ancestral pancrustacean ground pattern. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Malacostraca. As seen from the phylogenetic tree, N. japonica belongs to the order Mysida within Malacostraca. PMID:26114317

  18. Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), a parasite of Talorchestia brito (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Duarte, Daniella; Santos, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) is described from the body-cavity and under the dorsal plates of the sandy beach amphipod Talorchestia brito Stebbing (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal. The new species differs from previously described members of the genus by a combination of the following characters: four medium-sized cephalic setae; base of stoma with three blunt denticles; posterior dilated portion of stoma absent; amphids small, with width less than quarter of corresponding body width; amphids located less than two labial widths from anterior extremity; uterine eggs elliptical and unembryonated; gubernaculum lacks caudal process; and male tail with two separated pairs of postcloacal papillae and a single subterminal seta-like papilla. This is the first representative of the family Monhysteridae parasitic in the body-cavity of crustaceans. Approximately 48% of the amphipods examined contained various stages of H. parasitica. PMID:20012518

  19. A new echiuran-associated snapping shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Komai, Tomoyuki; Marin, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) is described based on material from Japan (Ryukyu Islands) and Vietnam (Nha Trang Bay); an additional, morphologically slightly different specimen from Madagascar (Nosy-Bé) is preliminarily referred to A. cf. echiurophilus sp. nov., awaiting collection of additional material and/or genetic comparison. All specimens of the new species were collected from burrows of thalassematid echiurans, either on intertidal and shallow subtidal sand-mud flats or in the mixed sand-gravel-rock intertidal. Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. belongs to the A. leviusculus species group, being morphologically closest to the Indo-West Pacific A. leviusculus Dana, 1852, A. hululensis Coutière, 1905, A. ladronis Banner, 1956, and the western Atlantic A. zimmermani Anker, 2007. The new species can be separated from all of them by a combination of morphological characters and also appears to have a diagnostic colouration. PMID:25661953

  20. The First Record of Argulus foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura) Infestation on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noaman, V; Chelongar, Y; Shahmoradi, AH

    2010-01-01

    Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus), taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administration, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran. PMID:22347247

  1. The complete mitogenome of the fairy shrimp Phallocryptus tserensodnomi (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Peng; Lu, Bo; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fairy shrimp Phallocryptus tserensodnomi Alonso & Ventura 2013 (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae) has been determined. It is 16,493 bp with an AT-content of 65.4%, which encodes information of the typical 37 genes as all other metazoan mitogenomes. Both AT-content and putative control region of the genome show moderate values among all mitogenomes of the Branchiopoda sequenced to date. The mitochondrial gene order shows the same arrangement with the Artemiidae which is different from the pancrustacean ancestral pattern, due to translocation and inversion of two tRNA genes. Our results will provide important materials for not only phylogenetic but also biogeographic studies of the Anostraca. PMID:25707412

  2. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics. PMID:26171873

  3. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  4. The complete mitogenome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Chen; Li, Hua-Wei; Jermnak, Usuma; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we amplified, sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae). The full-length of the S. sirindhornae mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,887 bp in size with an A + T content of 64.5%. It has the largest putative control region (2794 bp) with the lowest A + T content (62.6%) for all determined branchiopod mitogenomes. The genome consisted of 37 genes that are involved in the respiration chain as well as the mitochondrial translation system. The S. sirindhornae mitogenome exhibits an identical gene arrangement as the Artemia pattern, which shows translocation and inversion of two transfer-RNA genes compared to the pancrustacean ancestral pattern. This is by far the first determined mitogenome of a freshwater fairy shrimp. The results of our study will provide significant data for reconstructing the consensus Branchiopoda tree of life. PMID:25693703

  5. Catoessa boscii (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) parasitic on Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae) from India. Taxonomy and host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy

    2012-06-01

    Catoessa boscii (Bleeker, 1857) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), is redescribed according to the type specimen observed by Schioedte and Meinert (1884) extant in the Rijksmuseum von Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden (RMNH) and from many additional specimens recently collected in India from Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae). This study allows an updating of the diagnosis of the genus Catoessa and of the species Catoessa boscii. Some parasite-host relationships were studied during the year. Prevalence and sex ratio of parasites varied according to the month, and the sex and size of hosts. PMID:22807055

  6. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. New information This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters. PMID:27099562

  7. Seawater Ca2+ concentration influences solar orientation in Talitrus saltator (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto; Ungherese, Giuseppe; Mercatelli, Luca; Saer, Doumett; Lepri, Luciano

    2009-03-01

    The role of salinity in the ecophysiology of many intertidal invertebrates has been extensively investigated. Calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), potassium (K(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) are the major constituents of seawater and it has been demonstrated that sandhoppers tested under the sun in diluted seawater (3.5 per thousand) head seaward, instead of going landward as expected. Therefore, the variation in seawater salinity (from 35 per thousand to 3.5 per thousand) influences their directional choice. This paper investigates the contribution of different cations to the sea-land directional choice of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea, Amphipoda) by the sun compass orientation mechanism. Results of releases carried out in basic seawater selectively deprived of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) or K(+) and containing the same concentration of Na(+) indicate that only the reduction in Ca(2+) concentration affects the capacity of solar orientation. The pH does not influence the directional choice of sandhoppers and nor do small variations in salinity in the range 32-39 per thousand. Moreover, the clear photopositive tendency registered in experiments of phototaxis in Ca(2+)-deprived seawater indicates that the absence of Ca(2+) does not affect the normal functioning of the visual cells. Therefore, our results show that Ca(2+) seawater concentration is important for the correct functioning of one of the principal mechanisms of orientation in supralittoral amphipods and it could affect their survival in the field. PMID:19251995

  8. Biology of Plesionika narval(Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) Around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Tuset, V. M.; Lozano, I. J.; Santana, J. I.

    1997-03-01

    The biology of Plesionika narval(Fabricius, 1787) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic) was studied, based on a total of 41 679 shrimps of size range 2-30 mm carapace length (CL) collected over a 20-year period. This species carries out seasonal migrations; shrimps concentrate in deep waters in the autumn, move to shallower waters during winter and spring, and return to deep waters in summer. The growth parameters of males were L 0nfin;=29·47 mm CL and k=0·54 year -1, and of females were L 0nfin;=31·90 mm CL and k=0·66 year -1, with size generally increasing gradually with depth. Carapace length/wet weight relationships showed negative allometry. Ovigerous females occur year round but a spawning peak was determined from April to June when the population is found in shallower waters (26-175 m). Ovigerous females decrease in number as the depth increases. The size at maturity in females was 11·96 mm CL. The study of the sex ratio by depth and the seasonal migrations, as well as the sex differences in growth, confirm that this species conforms to the reproductive pattern of tropical pandalids, in which dioecy occurs.

  9. Feeding by asellote isopods (Crustacea) on foraminifers (Protozoa) in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svavarsson, J.; Gudmundsson, G.; Brattegard, T.

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of gut contents of two deep-sea asellote isopod species, Ilyarachna hirticeps and Eurycope inermis (Munnopsidae, Asellota, Isopoda, Crustacea), showed that they were preying on benthic foraminifers. Benthic foraminifers with hard tests were more frequent in I. hirticeps guts than in E. inermis. I. hirticeps, having robust mandibles, is capable of crushing large calcareous and agglutinating foraminifers with hard tests. The presence of foraminiferal fecal pellets (stercomata), along with fine mineral particles and globigerinacean tests in I. hirticeps guts, shows that it was preying on the large, loosely agglutinating foraminifer, Oryctoderma sp. A. E. inermis swallowed whole, medium sized, calcareous foraminifers, which it apparently was unable to crush with its slender mandibles. The guts of E. inermis contained an abundance of mineral particles and globigerinacean tests. These are conjectured to be mashed remains of certain agglutinating foraminifers with soft tests, rather than being evidence of detritivory. It is suggested that feeding on foraminifers by asellotes may be common and may significantly affect the foraminiferal community.

  10. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework. PMID:23929682

  11. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Szabó, Péter; Mrak, Polona; Strus, Jasna; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) have adapted to land life by diverse morphological, physiological and behavioral changes. Woodlice species exhibit a large variety in this respect, their preferences ranging from moist to dry habitats. These moisture preference values are related to various morphological adaptations, rendering terrestrial isopods amenable to studying morphological adaptations to terrestrial life. We performed a comparison of four Armadillidium species (Armadillidium zenckeri, Armadillidium nasatum, Armadillidium versicolor, Armadillidium vulgare), by quantifying two morphological traits: the extent of the interfacial endothelium between the respiratory space and the hemolymph within pleopodal lungs and the thickness of tergite cuticle, which are 'key factors' in determining protection from desiccation. These values were measured from light micrographs of cross-sectioned lungs. The cosmopolitan A. vulgare, as a habitat generalist, seems to be the most resistant against desiccation and other environmental conditions, while A. zenckeri is the most sensitive one. Light microscopic studies revealed that the four species can be ordered similarly, if we compare them by the extension of the endothelial interface and cuticle thickness, suggesting that these morphological traits are important determinants of their distribution on habitat, microhabitat scales and through the existence of suitable habitats - together with many other factors - the geographical pattern of species occurence. PMID:23376766

  12. A new phyllocarid (Crustacea: Malacostraca) from the Silurian Fossil-Lagerstätte of Herefordshire, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Sutton, Mark D.; Siveter, David J.; Siveter, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    A new three-dimensionally preserved arthropod, Cinerocaris magnifica, from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Herefordshire, UK, is described and assigned to the Phyllocarida (Crustacea). The description and reconstruction are based on specimens that have been serially ground, reconstructed by computer and rendered in three dimensions as coloured virtual models. Cinerocaris magnifica displayed the tagmosis characteristic of phyllocarids, with eight thoracic and seven abdominal somites, terminating in a telson with furca. The remarkable preservation of the appendages makes this the earliest completely known malacostracan crustacean. Two pairs of antennae (the first with two flagella) were followed by a mandible and first maxilla, each with a slender palp-like ramus. The second maxilla consisted of a limb stem with endites and an endopod that tapered distally. There was no exopod. The thoracopods comprised a limb stem with six or seven endites, an arrangement previously known only in entomostracans, and an endopod with about five endites. Flap-like outer rami correspond to an exopod and epipods. The pleopods bore two long slender oar-blade-like rami. Cladistic analysis places C. magnifica as a plesion within the Echinocaridina. It provides critical evidence of the limb morphology of an early malacostracan, which will be important in understanding crustacean evolution. PMID:15058388

  13. The summer assemblage of large pelagic Crustacea in the Gully submarine canyon: Major patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIsaac, K. G.; Kenchington, T. J.; Kenchington, E. L. R.; Best, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the trawl-vulnerable crustacean micronekton and macrozooplankton of the Gully, a large, shelf-incising submarine canyon off Nova Scotia, Canada, and a Marine Protected Area. Over 68 species of pelagic crustacea were collected with an International Young Gadoid Pelagic Trawl during three annual summer surveys at one fixed station in the canyon. Depths sampled ranged from the surface to the upper bathypelagic zone, concentrated in the upper 1250 m, with a maximum depth of 1500 m. The crustacean fauna was dominated by cold temperate species typical of mid- to higher-latitudes in the North Atlantic. Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Eusergestes arcticus were particularly dominant in terms of both observed biomass and abundance above 750 m depth. At least 17 species were new records for Canadian waters. The species assemblage of the station varied primarily with depth and diel cycle, the only dominant members of the assemblage showing pronounced inter-annual variations in catch being M. norvegica and Themisto gaudichaudii, both relatively shallow living species.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, mussels and crustacea around a former gasworks site in Shoreham-by-Sea, UK.

    PubMed

    Law, R J; Kelly, C A; Baker, K L; Langford, K H; Bartlett, T

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in sediments, mussels and crustacea in the vicinity of a former gasworks site by Shoreham Harbour, UK. Very high concentrations of PAH were found in the substrate, an ash-like material deposited on the former gasworks site, which exhibited a profile consistent with the major source of contamination being coal or coke tar produced during the period of gas production at the site. Elevated PAH concentrations were also found in mussels both from the beach below the former gasworks site, and from sites further to the east in Portslade and Hove. The significance of these concentrations were assessed using an approach which involved the calculation of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent conoentrations (BaPEs), summing concentrations of individual PAH on the basis of their comparative potency as carcinogens. BaPE ranged from values of, or close to, zero for crustacea, to 336 microg kg(-1) wet weight in mussels from Southwick Beach. The contaminated mussels are not exploited commercially but may be taken by casual gatherers, and notices have been posted to warn potential consumers. PMID:12405215

  15. Structure and Ultrastructure of the Endodermal Region of the Alimentary Tract in the Freshwater Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Poprawa, Izabela; Binkowski, Marcin; Śróbka, Joanna; Kamińska, Karolina; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Chajec, Łukasz; Zajusz, Bartłomiej; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda) originates from Asia and is one of the species that is widely available all over the world because it is the most popular shrimp that is bred in aquaria. The structure and the ultrastructure of the midgut have been described using X-ray microtomography, transmission electron microscopy, light and fluorescence microscopes. The endodermal region of the alimentary system in N. heteropoda consists of an intestine and a hepatopancreas. No differences were observed in the structure and ultrastructure of males and females of the shrimp that were examined. The intestine is a tube-shaped organ and the hepatopancreas is composed of two large diverticles that are divided into the blind-end tubules. Hepatopancreatic tubules have three distinct zones – proximal, medial and distal. Among the epithelial cells of the intestine, two types of cells were distinguished – D and E-cells, while three types of cells were observed in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas – F, B and E-cells. Our studies showed that the regionalization in the activity of cells occurs along the length of the hepatopancreatic tubules. The role and ultrastructure of all types of epithelial cells are discussed, with the special emphasis on the function of the E-cells, which are the midgut regenerative cells. Additionally, we present the first report on the existence of an intercellular junction that is connected with the E-cells of Crustacea. PMID:25996951

  16. A sampling optimization analysis of soil-bugs diversity (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Messina, Giuseppina; Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Droutsa, Angeliki; Barchitta, Martina; Pezzino, Elisa; Agodi, Antonella; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Biological diversity analysis is among the most informative approaches to describe communities and regional species compositions. Soil ecosystems include large numbers of invertebrates, among which soil bugs (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) play significant ecological roles. The aim of this study was to provide advices to optimize the sampling effort, to efficiently monitor the diversity of this taxon, to analyze its seasonal patterns of species composition, and ultimately to understand better the coexistence of so many species over a relatively small area. Terrestrial isopods were collected at the Natural Reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Italy), using pitfall traps monthly monitored over 2 years. We analyzed parameters of α- and β-diversity and calculated a number of indexes and measures to disentangle diversity patterns. We also used various approaches to analyze changes in biodiversity over time, such as distributions of species abundances and accumulation and rarefaction curves. As concerns species richness and total abundance of individuals, spring resulted the best season to monitor Isopoda, to reduce sampling efforts, and to save resources without losing information, while in both years abundances were maximum between summer and autumn. This suggests that evaluations of β-diversity are maximized if samples are first collected during the spring and then between summer and autumn. Sampling during these coupled seasons allows to collect a number of species close to the γ-diversity (24 species) of the area. Finally, our results show that seasonal shifts in community composition (i.e., dynamic fluctuations in species abundances during the four seasons) may minimize competitive interactions, contribute to stabilize total abundances, and allow the coexistence of phylogenetically close species within the ecosystem. PMID:26811784

  17. Cell Death in the Epithelia of the Intestine and Hepatopancreas in Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal region of the digestive system in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca) consists of a tube-shaped intestine and large hepatopancreas, which is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous studies, while here we focused on the cell death processes and their effect on the functioning of the midgut. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes to describe and detect cell death, while a quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is the relationship between cell death and the inactivation of mitochondria. Three types of the cell death were observed in the intestine and hepatopancreas–apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. No differences were observed in the course of these processes in males and females and or in the intestine and hepatopancreas of the shrimp that were examined. Our studies revealed that apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy only involves the fully developed cells of the midgut epithelium that have contact with the midgut lumen–D-cells in the intestine and B- and F-cells in hepatopancreas, while E-cells (midgut stem cells) did not die. A distinct correlation between the accumulation of E-cells and the activation of apoptosis was detected in the anterior region of the intestine, while necrosis was an accidental process. Degenerating organelles, mainly mitochondria were neutralized and eventually, the activation of cell death was prevented in the entire epithelium due to autophagy. Therefore, we state that autophagy plays a role of the survival factor. PMID:26844766

  18. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine

  19. Evasion of predators contributes to the maintenance of male eyes in sexually dimorphic Euphilomedes ostracods (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Speiser, Daniel I; Lampe, Rebecca I; Lovdahl, Valerie R; Carrillo-Zazueta, Brenna; Rivera, Ajna S; Oakley, Todd H

    2013-07-01

    Sexual dimorphisms have long drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists. However, we still have much to learn about the evolutionary, genetic, and developmental drivers of sexual dimorphisms. Here, we introduce ostracods of the genus Euphilomedes (Myodocopida, Ostracoda, and Crustacea) as a promising new system in which to investigate why and how sexual dimorphisms evolve. First, we ask whether male-skewed selective pressure from pelagic predators may help explain a dramatic sexual dimorphism in which male Euphilomedes have compound eyes, but females do not. Manipulative experiments demonstrate that blindfolding reduces the survival rate of male Euphilomedes when they are exposed to predatory fish. Blindfolding of the female rudimentary eyes (rudiments) does not, however, similarly influence the survival rate of brooding females. Further, numerical estimates of sighting distances, based on reasonable extrapolations from Euphilomedes's eye morphology, suggest that the eyes of male Euphilomedes are useful for detecting objects roughly the size of certain pelagic predators, but not conspecifics. We conclude that eyes do not mediate direct interactions between male and female Euphilomedes, but that differences in predation pressure-perhaps associated with different reproductive behaviors-contribute to maintaining the sexually dimorphic eyes of these ostracods. Second, through transcriptome sequencing, we examined potential gene regulatory networks that could underlie sexual dimorphism in Euphilomedes' eyes. From the transcriptome of juvenile male Euphilomedes' eyes, we identified phototransduction genes and components of eye-related developmental networks that are well characterized in Drosophila and other species. The presence of suites of eye regulatory genes in our Euphilomedes juvenile male transcriptome will allow us, in future studies, to test how ostracods regulate the development of their sexually dimorphic eyes. PMID:23652199

  20. Ischnomesus harrietae sp. nov., a new benthic asellote (Crustacea: Isopoda: Ischnomesidae) from bathyal bottoms of the southern Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Fiona A; Frutos, Inmaculada; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Ischnomesidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota), Ischnomesus harrietae sp. nov. is described from the southern Bay of Biscay. This new species is distinctive due to the presence of numerous pedestal setae arranged in longitudinal rows on pereonite 5. Because of this morphological peculiarity, it can be easily distinguished from the four other Ischnomesus species previously reported from bathyal/abyssal bottoms of the European continental margin. Within its known distributional area, the new species inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms between 619 and 1099 m, with a maximum abundance of 41.8 individuals per 100 m2 recorded at approximately 700 m on the Arcachon Plateau. Another new species is also reported, Ischnomesus sp.1, represented by one specimen only and briefly described. An identification key to European species of Ischnomesus is provided. PMID:25661606

  1. The complete mitogenome of the Atlantic hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata Williams & Rona 1986 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alvinocarididae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Li, Hua-Wei; Lu, Bo; Fan, Yu-Peng; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    In this study we completely determined and analyzed the mitochondrial genome of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal-vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alvinocarididae). The circular molecule is 15,902 bp in size with an AT content of 65.7%, composed of the same 37 mitochondrial genes as in all other known metazoan mitogenomes. Sequence composition of the R. exoculata mitogenome is exceptionally similar to that of its Indian-Ocean congener R. kairei, which suggests the fact that they might diverge at a quite recent age. The genome exhibits an ancestral pancrustacean arrangement of mitochondrial genes that presents only the translocation/inversion of trnL-UUR from the ancestral arthropod pattern. Determination of the R. exoculata mitogenome can help to resolve the consensus Decapoda tree of life. It also provides more genetic information available for phylogenetics as well as population genetics on this extensively studied species from hydrothermal vents. PMID:25665594

  2. Composition and distribution of selected munnopsid genera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Sarah; Brandt, Angelika; Brix, Saskia; Fiorentino, Dario; Malyutina, Marina; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-02-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a major topographic feature, extending from Greenland to Scotland. It constrains the water exchange between the northernmost North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GIN Seas) and thus forms a potential barrier for faunal exchange from the Arctic to the North Atlantic (and vice versa). Recently an increase in Atlantic water inflow has been observed, leading to changes in physical parameters (i.e. temperature and salinity), which may have an impact on the resident fauna. In this study, we analyzed the composition and distribution of six selected genera of the isopod family Munnopsidae (Crustacea) occurring north and south of the GSR. We examined 82 epibenthic sledge samples and 26 additional sub-samples taken in the course of the Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters (BIOICE) and Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology (IceAGE) projects, respectively, covering a total depth range from 103 to 2752 m depth. Overall, 58 of the evaluated stations originated in the area north of the GSR, while the remaining 50 samples were collected south of the ridge. In total, 10517 individuals could be assigned to 15 species, most belonging to the genus EurycopeSars, 1864. Due to the presence of the GSR as well as differences in the environment, we expected significant dissimilarities in faunal composition between the two study areas. However, most species (8) occurred on both sides of the ridge, while four species were restricted to the region north of Iceland, and three to the region south of the ridge. Depth (or factors related to depth) appeared to be the most important factor in driving distributional patterns of the studied species. Temperature was also an important driver, but not to the same extent as depth. On the contrary, salinity and sediment type did not have much influence on munnopsid distribution patterns. Hence, the presence of the ridge does not restrict faunal exchange between the northern

  3. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the

  4. External morphology of Lightiella monniotae (Crustacea, Cephalocarida) in the light of Cambrian 'Orsten' crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    The species-poor meiofaunal Cephalocarida have played an important role in discussions of the phylogeny and evolution of Crustacea since their discovery in 1955. One reason may be that the morphology of cephalocarids includes some aspects of putatively ancient appearance, such as the simple roof-shaped head shield, the anterior three head appendages resembling those of a nauplius larva, or the trunk-limb-like second maxilla. Cephalocarida have even been suggested to represent the sister taxon to all other Eucrustacea. Presence of possibly plesiomorphic characters, however, does not necessarily point to a basal position in the system. Growing evidence demonstrates that the modification of the fourth post-antennular cephalic appendage, the 'maxilla', into a "mouth part" may have occurred independently in the different eucrustacean lineages, so a trunk-limb-like maxilla is an ancient feature that does not hold only for cephalocarids. Retention of its plesiomorphic shape and function in the Cephalocarida remains, however, noteworthy. Cephalocarids are still little studied and incompletely known, especially their external morphology. By examining several adults and one young specimen of Lightiella monniotae Cals and Delamare Deboutteville, 1970 from New Caledonia, we aimed to a) document as many details as possible, and b) compare these data with other species of Cephalocarida. We also aimed to reconstruct aspects of the ground pattern of Cephalocarida, which is a pre-requisite for any comparisons in a broader perspective of crustacean phylogeny. Among the new findings or conclusions are: (1) Lightiella is in need of a revision since several assumed differences between the species are questionable or subject to intra-specific variability; (2) the cuticle of the trunk-limb basipod is sub-divided into a number of smaller sclerotized areas as in various exceptionally 3D preserved fossil crustaceans from Cambrian 'Orsten' faunal assemblages; (3) a small transitional portion

  5. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G.; Magyari, Enikö K.

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years bp) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  6. Lunar-Rhythmic Molting in Laboratory Populations of the Noble Crayfish Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Astacidea): An Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Robert; Hoerstgen-Schwark, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile noble crayfish, Astacusastacus (Crustacea, Astacidea) in the second year of age were kept in the laboratory for a twelve-month period under continuing “summer conditions” (LD 16:8, 19°C). Molting processes in this population could be synchronized by artificial moonlight cycles. Peaks of exuviations occurred at “new moons”. Males showed a slightly higher degree of synchronization than females. A phase-shift of the artificial lunar cycle in relation to the natural cycle resulted in a corresponding shift of the molting cycle. This clearly demonstrates that changes in the nocturnal light regime provide the primary external information for the lunar-monthly molting rhythm. There is a first indication that lunar photic stimuli do not act directly but as a zeitgeber which entrains an endogenous molting rhythm to the lunar cycle. Moreover, the results of the long-term experiments suggest that the hibernal resting period of A. astacus in the field (no molts between October and April) may also involve some endogenous programming. Continuing artificial summer conditions can delay but not completely suppress this resting period. The adaptive significance of the phenomena and how the findings may be applied to improve the management of crowded crayfish stocks are discussed. PMID:23840899

  7. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2016-05-01

    Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955 bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr). PMID:25405910

  8. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  9. Petalophthalmus papilloculatus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae), a new bathyal suprabenthic mysid from the Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Carlos San; Frutos, Inmaculada; Cartes, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Petalophthalmus (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae) is described, based on specimens collected from the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic Ocean). This species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus Petalophthalmus by the presence of an ocular papilla on its eyes. P. papilloculatus sp. nov. is morphologically close to the cosmopolitan species P. armiger Willemoes-Suhm, 1875, but can be easily distinguished by the presence of an ocular papilla, the longer antennal scales bearing an apical lobe, the unique chitinous ridge on the molar process, the outwards lengthening of the three cuspidate setae on the outer margin of the uropodal exopod and the armature of the telson. This new species lives on fine and very fine sandy bottoms at the bank flanks, between 1536 and 1809 m depths. Probably related to the special biogeographic characteristics of seamounts, the morphological affinity between the new species and P. armiger supports the hypothesis on a common ancestry and recent divergence between both deep sea mysids. An identification key to world species of Petalophthalmus is provided. PMID:24870886

  10. Behavioural and Physiological Implications of a Burrow-dwelling Lifestyle for Two Species of Upogebiid Mud-shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astall, C. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.

    1997-02-01

    Upogebia stellataand U. deltaura(Crustacea: Thalassinidea) construct burrows in nearshore sediments in U.K. waters. Burrow structure is similar in both species; the basic burrow consisting of a two-opening, U-shaped section with a vertical shaft descending from the mid-point of the U. This structure may be variously elaborated. Burrow cross-section is circular, dilations allow turning by somersaulting and surface openings are often constricted. Conditions within the burrows are usually hypoxic and hypercapnic. Burrow water PO 2in the parts normally occupied by the mud-shrimp was between 80-110 Torr, but was much lower (10-45 Torr) in the deepest, poorly-irrigated parts. Both species irrigate their burrows by episodes of pleopod beating of variable duration (mean=8·5±3·5 min and 2·8±0·5 min for U. deltauraand U. stellata, respectively), which draws oxygenated water into the burrow and also particulate food for suspension feeding. When exposed to hypoxia, U. deltauraand U. stellatawere able to maintain their rates of oxygen consumption approximately constant over a wide range of PO 2( Pc=30-50 Torr). Under these conditions, there was a pronounced increase in scaphognathite beat rate but heart rate remained relatively constant. Below the Pc, however, both rates declined.

  11. The impact of historic isolation on the population biogeography of Melita plumulosa (Crustacea: Melitidae) in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Pann Pann; Hyne, Ross V.; Mann, Reinier M.; Ballard, J. William O.

    2013-09-01

    The genetic structure of populations is impacted by environmental factors of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors can affect dispersion, gene flow and selective pressures. We test whether natural environmental factors or anthropogenic factors influence the genetic structure of the amphipod, Melita plumulosa (Crustacea: Melitidae), which serves as an indicator of environmental health in estuaries along eastern Australia. Sequence data from one mitochondrial and two nuclear loci were collected and analyzed from eight geographically distinct populations spanning the known distribution of this species. We identified two major clades corresponding to the east and south coasts of Australia, and populations also largely grouped according to geography within each clade. Population differentiation indicated all sampling localities to be distinct from one another and sequence divergences suggested ancient divergence, with the deepest genetic divergences between the eastern and southern populations. Reproductive compatibility did not indicate cryptic speciation between populations. Sequence divergence and population differentiation suggest historic geographic isolation dating back to the Pleistocene to have influenced the population biogeography of M. plumulosa.

  12. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea): identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; De Wasch, Katia; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2002-04-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and metabolized administered testosterone extensively. At least 11 polar testosterone metabolites (R(f,metabolite) < R(f,testosterone)), androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone were produced in vivo by N. integer. A sex-specific testosterone metabolism was also observed, although this observation requires further confirmation. The anabolic steroid beta-boldenone was also identified for the first time in invertebrates. The metabolic pathway leading to the formation of beta-boldenone remains unknown, since the steroidal precursor androstadienedione could not be detected. These results reveal interesting similarities in enzyme systems in invertebrate and vertebrate species. Alterations in steroid hormone metabolism may be used as a new biomarker for the effects of endocrine disruptors in invertebrates. PMID:12030775

  13. Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral community (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capezzuto, Francesca; Maiorano, Porzia; Panza, Michele; Indennidate, Antonella; Sion, Letizia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) were recorded by means of the MEMO lander equipped with two digital cameras and deployed in the cold-water coral community of the Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea). A total of 14 individuals were observed at depths between 547 and 648 m; 10 in the coral habitat on coral mounds and 4 off the coral habitat on muddy bottoms. Thirteen specimens recorded were females, one male and all were shown to scavenge the bait. All the specimens carried a sponge on their exoskeleton using the fifth pereiopods. The specimens were distinguishable by the size and shape of the carried sponge. The present observations demonstrate both passive covering behaviour and active behaviour of discouraging approach and attack from competitors or predators, respectively. This study represents the first in situ documentation of Paromola cuvieri behaviour interacting with other deep-sea species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. A new species of Siphonoecetes Krøyer, 1845 Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) from the western Mediterranean, coast of Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    De-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Martí, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    An undescribed species of Siphonoecetes Krøyer, 1845 was found on Mediterranean coast of Iberian Peninsula. It was collected at the depth of 10 and 15 m near Alicante. Though it was previously found in Chafarinas Islands, this new species was not named and fully described. In the present paper, Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. is described. The species belongs to Centroloecetes subgenus, since it possesses bulbous ventroapical projection on peduncle of uropod 1 in males and a row of long pectinate setae on distal margin of peduncle of uropod 3. Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) is easily distinguishable from the other Siphonoecetes reported in Iberian Mediterranean coast by presence of bulbous subrostral projection. PMID:24870885

  15. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  16. Uca (Xeruca), a new subgenus for the Taiwanese fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-01-01

    The fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), restricted to the western part of Taiwan and the offshore Penghu (Pescadores) Islands in the Taiwan Strait, has been placed under the subgenus Uca (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817 (= Uca (Thalassuca) Crane, 1975) based on only less than a dozen specimens, but later suggested under the subgenus Tubuca Bott, 1973 because the similarity of external morphology. A suite of characters of carapace, major cheliped, gastric mill, male first gonopod, and chela handedness, as well as the phylogenic relationships (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA), nevertheless support this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Xeruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. formosensis. PMID:26249894

  17. A revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera) in the Holarctic with description of a new species from Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Kotov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Our study is aimed at a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera: Eurycercidae) in the Holarctic based on the morphology of parthenogenetic females. Three species were revealed and described: (1) E. glacialis Lilljeborg, 1887 which is relatively widely distributed in the north portion of Atlantic and Pacific regions; (2) E. nigracanthus Hann, 1990 which is apparently present in Labrador and Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia and (3) Eurycercus chernovi sp. nov. from Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia, Russia. Main differences of the latter taxon from other species are: (1) more proximal position of sensory seta on the antenna I and (2) surface of cuticle of major head pore forms a low projection in middle. A revision of this subgenus in Arctic Siberia and Canada needs to be continued. PMID:27515623

  18. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae), is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae) such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side) associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two suggest that B. latro has

  19. Position of the dentifera-group in the Coronatella-branch and its relocation to a new genus: Magnospina gen. n. (Crustacea, Chydoridae, Aloninae)

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R.; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes Maria Abdu; Santos, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnospina gen. n. was created to relocate species of the dentifera-group from Alona sensu lato (Crustacea: Cladocera) and include Magnospina dentifera comb. n. and Magnospina siamensis comb. n. The synapomorphies of the Magnospina gen. n. are (1) basal spines longer than 2/3 of the postabdominal claw, (2) presence of 1–4 large denticles, broad at their bases, protruding downwards, without setules between them. Morphological traits such as habitus, rostrum and postabdomen shape, armature of IDL setae, number of setae on the exopod of limb III are also important in the distinction between Magnospina gen. n. and other genera from the Coronatella-branch. The morphology of Magnospina dentifera comb. n. male confirms the closer relationship with the clade composed by the elgans-group from Alona sensu lato, Ovalona and Leberis, but the external morphology, morphology of the postabdominal claw, basal spine and setae 2–3 of IDL support their separation from any of the group cited. It is concluded that the Coronatella-lineage of Aloninae is composed of the genera Coronatella, Anthalona, Karualona, Bergamina, Extremalona, Ovalona, Celsinotum, Leberis and Magnospina gen. n. The elegans-group from Alona sensu lato also belongs to Coronatella-lineage, but still need formal allocation. PMID:27199609

  20. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death. PMID:25538026

  1. SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

  2. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): life cycle and DNA barcode with implications for the taxonomy of the Aloninae subfamily.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26'05″ S and 46°10'57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL-1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  3. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): Life Cycle and DNA Barcode with Implications for the Taxonomy of the Aloninae Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26′05″ S and 46°10′57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL−1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  4. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification. PMID:25907711

  5. Ontogeny of the ventral nerve cord in malacostracan crustaceans: a common plan for neuronal development in Crustacea, Hexapoda and other Arthropoda?

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen

    2003-08-01

    This review sets out to summarize our current knowledge on the structural layout of the embryonic ventral nerve cord in decapod crustaceans and its development from stem cell to the mature structure. In Decapoda, neuronal stem cells, the neuroblasts, mostly originate from ectodermal stem cells, the ectoteloblast, via a defined lineage. The neuroblasts undergo repeated asymmetric division and generate ganglion mother cells. The ganglion mother cells later divide again to give birth to ganglion cells (neurons) and there is increasing evidence now that ganglion mother cells divide again not only once but repeatedly. Various other aspects of neuroblast proliferation such as their temporal patterns of mitotic activity and spatial arrangement as well as the relation of neurogenesis to the development of the segmental appendages and maturation of motor behaviors are described. The link between cell lineage and cell differentiation in Decapoda so far has only been established for the midline neuroblast. However, there are several other identified early differentiating neurons, the outgrowing neurites of which pioneer the axonal scaffold within the neuromeres of the ventral nerve cord. The maturation of identified neurons as examined by immunohistochemistry against their neurotransmitters or engrailed, is briefly described. These processes are compared to other Arthropoda (including Onychophora, Chelicerata, Diplopoda and Hexapoda) in order to shed light on variations and conserved motifs of the theme 'neurogenesis'. The question of a 'common plan for neuronal development' in the ventral nerve cords of Hexapoda and Crustacea is critically evaluated and the possibility of homologous neurons arising through divergent developmental pathways is discussed. PMID:18088994

  6. Control of molting in crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Mykles, D.L.; Soumoff, C.; Yamaoka, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    The single, overriding event that occurs during all proecdysial periods in crustaceans is the synthesis of a new exoskeleton that encompasses an enlarged animal when the old shell is cast off. Regeneration of missing appendages and larval or puberty metamorphoses also occur during proecdysis. Proecdysial periods have been divided into substages defined by the occurrence of specific events. Although a number of factors must be postulated to account for individual proecdysial events, only the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, has been identified and isolated. Much evidence indicates that the X-organ sinus glands complex, a neurosecretory tissue located in the eyestalks, is the source of a molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) responsible for maintaining animals in anecdysis. An exuviation factor has been proposed to support the extrication of the animal from the old exoskeleton. There is evidence for a limb growth inhibitory factor (LGIF) that affects the rate of growth of regenerating limbs. We are proposing an anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub an/) that propels into precocious molts anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub pro/) that interrupts the proecdysial period of animals that lose one or more normal or partially regenerated pereopods before a critical time in proecdysis.

  7. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  8. CRABS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA: BRACHYURA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of a few major pollutants on crabs are described. Because of their sensitivity to many forms of man-made pollution, crabs can often be used to predict adverse influences on the environment and to evaluate their effects. Crabs are viewed as having unaltered or 'normal'...

  9. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  10. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971-1980, 1991-2000, 2001-2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  11. Phylogenetics of Cancer crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Harrison, M K; Crespi, B J

    1999-07-01

    We used morphological, mitochondrial DNA sequence, paleontological, and biogeographical information to examine the evolutionary history of crabs of the genus Cancer. Phylogenies inferred from adult morphology and DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were each well resolved and well supported, but differed substantially in topology. Four lines of evidence suggested that the COI data set accurately reflected Cancer phylogeny: (1) in the phylogeny inferred from morphological data, each Atlantic species was sister taxon to an ecologically similar Pacific species, suggesting convergence in morphology; (2) a single trans-Arctic dispersal event, as indicated by the phylogeny inferred from COI, is more parsimonious than two such dispersal events, as inferred from morphology; (3) test and application of a maximum likelihood molecular clock to the COI data yielded estimates of origin and speciation times that fit well with the fossil record; and (4) the tree inferred from the combined COI and morphology data was closely similar to the trees inferred from COI, although notably less well supported by the bootstrap. The phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood analysis of COI suggested that Cancer originated in the North Pacific in the early Miocene, that the Atlantic species arose from a North Pacific ancestor, and that Cancer crabs invaded the Atlantic from the North Pacific 6-12 mya. This inferred invasion time is notably prior to most estimates of the date of submergence of the Bering Strait and the trans-Arctic interchange, but it agrees with fossil evidence placing at least one Cancer species in the Atlantic about 8 mya. PMID:10381321

  12. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  13. Taxonomic Review of the Orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  14. Sound production in the aquatic isopod Cymodoce japonica (Crustacea: Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Takeru; Ishida, Hideki; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and/or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 2500-3000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 μm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and/or reproductive competitions. PMID:26504157

  15. Phylogenetic position of Antarctic Scalpelliformes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Fitzcharles, Elaine; Sands, Chester J.; Buckeridge, John S.

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of seven Antarctic barnacle species, one verrucomorph and six scalpelliforms from the Scotia, Weddell and Ross seas were investigated using DNA sequences from two nuclear genes (18 S and 28 S) and one mitochondrial gene (COI), with a combined total length of 3,151 base pairs. Analyses of these new sequences, together with those of previously published ibliform, lepadiform, scalpelliform, balanomorph and verrucomorph species, confirm that the Scalpelliformes are not monophyletic. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses consistently recovered a monophyletic group which comprised Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (Sars) and the Southern Ocean scalpellomorphs; Arcoscalpellum sp. from the Weddell Sea, Arcoscalpellum africanum from Elephant Island, A. bouveti from Bouvet Island, the circum-Antarctic Litoscalpellum discoveryi, Litoscalpellum sp. from Shag Rocks and Scalpellum sp. from the Falkland Trough. We also used multiple fossil constraints in a relaxed clock Bayesian framework to estimate divergence times for the 18 S+28 S phylogeny. Our results indicate a mid Cretaceous divergence for the Weddell Sea Arcoscalpellum sp, followed by a late Cretaceous divergence from the North Atlantic O. stroemii. Subsequent to this, the Antarctic scalpellomorphs began to radiate at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Monophyly within the scalpellid genera Arcoscalpellum, Litoscalpellum and Scalpellum was strongly rejected by all loci. Our results show incongruence between taxonomy and molecular systematics and highlight the need for more species to be sequenced as well as taxonomic revisions to resolve uncertainties in the phylogenetic relationships of the stalked barnacles.

  16. EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION OF PELAGIC LARVAE OF CRUSTACEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larvae of six species, Cancer irroratus, C. borealis and Homarus americanus of coastal waters (high salinity), and Palaemonetes pugio, Pagurus longicarpus and Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the estuarine region (variable salinity) were studied. Larvae were cultured at various com...

  17. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  18. Involvement of tryptophan metabolism in the body color of crustacea.

    PubMed

    Negishi, S; Hasegawa, Y; Naito, J; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare is usually grey or black in color, however, red ones are occasionally found in the field. This is caused by the mutation of the ommochrome genesis in the integument. We focused our experiments on the mechanism of pigment genesis in which tryptophan metabolism had been expected to be different from the grey or black wild types. We obtained the result that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid content was significantly higher in the red phenotype than in the wild type, and kynureninase activity was also higher in the red phenotype. PMID:10721114

  19. The Australian Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) II. Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Mckinnon, A David

    2016-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods collected during the past two decades from zooplankton surveys in reef and coastal areas of Australia were analyzed. A first contribution included the taxonomic analysis of three genera of the Monstrilloida, Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921, Maemonstrilla Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008, and the newly described Australomonstrillopsis Suárez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014. In this document a taxonomic analysis of the species belonging to the genus Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888 is provided. A total of 28 species were found, most of them being undescribed. Seventeen species were described based on females only and eight on male specimens while three species were described from both sexes. Males of Australian species of Cymbasoma are distinguished by details of the genital complex, body size and proportions, ornamentation and processes of the cephalic region, number of caudal setae, and the characteristic structure or ornamentation of the genital lappets. Two main groups of males were distinguished on the basis of the number of caudal setae (3 or 4). As for the females, 20 of the 25 new species of Cymbasoma have fifth legs with an unarmed inner lobe and three setae on the outer lobe; one of these species (C. jinigudira sp. nov.) belongs to the C. longispinosum species-group (sensu Üstün et al. 2014). Another group, consisting of five species, has only two setae on the outer (exopodal) lobe. There were no Australian species of Cymbasoma with a single lobe. A species group, named after C. agoense, is proposed to include species sharing a globose body and a female fifth leg with a large endopodal lobe and an outer (exopodal) lobe with two setae. The females of the new species of Cymbasoma from Australia can be distinguished from their known congeners by unique combinations of characters including the type of body ornamentation, body size and shape, antennule armature and proportions, the presence of distinctive features of the legs 1-4, the presence/absence of processes on the genital compound somite, and the presence/absence of a constriction of the anal somite. We report the occurrence of two previously described species, C. agoense Sekiguchi, 1982 from Japan and C. bali Desai & Krishnaswamy, 1962 from India in Australian waters. Considering the addition of the 25 new species here described, the number of nominal species of the genus is now 66. A key to the Australian species of Cymbasoma (males and females) and a map showing their occurrence in Australia are also provided. PMID:27394608

  20. Anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) zoogeography I. North American bioregions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Nine anostracan biogeographical regions are defined for North America: Appalachia/Ozark, Southwest Arid, Great Plains, Coastal Plain, Neotropical, California, Cold Deserts, Beringia/Canadian Shield, and Transmontane. These regions are quantitatively defined using species distributions compared through Jaccard's Coefficient of Community Similarity, and qualitatively defined using climate data, following the ecoregions protocol of the US Environmental Protection Agency for North America and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for Mexico. Community assemblages are quantified using Fager's Index of Recurring Species Groups. The average Fager's Index for each bioregion, as well as the percentage of taxa co-occurring, generally decreases with the length of time the region has been available for colonisation. The strong Fager's Index/colonisation time availability relationship suggests that the Monopolization Hypothesis of De Meester et al. may function at larger landscape scales. PMID:25081776

  1. The Amphipoda of Sea City, Kuwait.-The Senticaudata (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A; Nithyanandan, Manickam

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen species of Amphipoda Senticaudata were collected in Sea City, Kuwait using a Van Veen grab and an Ocklemann sledge. Of these seven species were new to science and are described and figured in this contribution. PMID:27395936

  2. Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindström

    2000-03-30

    Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(lambda)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(lambda) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(lambda) maxima, [S(lambda)(max)], were in the wavelength-bands of 525-535, 505-515 and 520-530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant species Hemimysis anomala had a S(lambda)(max) around 500 nm and high sensitivity at 393 nm, possibly indicating UV-sensitivity. S(lambda) of the pelagic species Mysis mixta and Mysis relicta sp. II was at about 505-520 nm. M. relicta sp. I from Pojoviken Bay and fresh water humic Lake Pääjärvi had S(lambda)(max) at approximately 550 nm and 570 nm respectively. This is in accordance with a similar long-wavelength shift in light transmittance of the respective waters. The eyes of the latter population were also damaged by strong light. The pontocaspian neoimmigrant H. anomala is clearly adapted to waters transmitting more blue light. PMID:10699220

  3. Redescription of three cirolanid isopods (Crustacea: Peracarida) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L

    2016-01-01

    Three species of Cirolanidae described by Nierstrasz in 1931 are redescribed from the type material: Cirolana indica Nierstrasz, 1931, with new material from Singapore and Lombok Island, Indonesia; C. vanhoeffeni Nierstrasz, 1931; and C. stebbingi Nierstrasz, 1931, which is here transferred to the genus Politolana Bruce, 1981 based on the elongate body, long peduncle of pleopod 1, narrow and slender frontal lamina, flat and robust carpus of pereopod 7, long and acute robust setae on merus-propodus pereopod 1, secondary unguis on dactylus, and antenna peduncle articles 1-2 shorter than the subequal articles 3-5. PMID:27395130

  4. Chemoreceptors and feeding in calanoid copepods (Arthropoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M M; Strickler, J R

    1975-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the mouthparts of the calanoid copepod Diaptomus pallidus have revealed the presence of numerous chemoreceptors, and the apparent absence of mechanoreceptors. The setae contain no muscles, and the setules are noncellular extensions of their chitin wall. This allows a new insight into the selective feeding of zooplankters. Images PMID:1060099

  5. Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Parasite altered micro-distribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Calum; Fielding, Nina J; Hume, Kevin D; Dick, Jaimie T A; Elwood, Robert W; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    In a river survey, Gammarus pulex amphipods both unparasitised and parasitised with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae were distributed similarly with respect to flow regimen, tending to be more abundant in faster, shallower, riffle patches. However, there was a higher prevalence of parasitism in faster, shallower areas than in slower, deeper areas and abundance correlated with macrophyte coverage for unparasitised but not parasitised amphipods, indicating subtle differences in habitat usage. A laboratory 'patch' simulation indicated that parasitism influenced micro-distribution. There were higher proportions of unparasitised amphipods in/under stone substrates and within weed. In contrast, there were higher proportions of parasitised amphipods in the water column and at the water surface. As the experiment progressed, unparasitised but not parasitised amphipod habitat usage shifted from those micro-habitats above the substrate and in the water column to those in/under the substrates. Experiments also demonstrated that parasitised amphipods were more active and had a greater preference for illumination. Previous studies of the effects of acanthocephalan parasitism of amphipod hosts have focussed on how drift behaviour is altered, now we show that subtle differences in micro-habitat usage could translate to greatly increased vulnerability to fish predation. We discuss how aggregation of parasitised individuals within specific habitats could promote parasite transmission. PMID:12547346

  7. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    PubMed

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters. PMID:23831457

  8. Porcelain crabs from Brazil (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luciane Augusto De Azevedo; De Melo, Gustavo Augusto Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Twenty species of porcelain crabs are reported on the basis of material collected from Brazilian coasts. Considering the lack of systematic studies comprehending the Brazilian porcellanids, the present work presents a review of the regional species based on the current taxonomic information. New records, information about variation between specimens and a taxonomic discussion are given for porcellanid crabs from Brazil. PMID:27394448

  9. Cryptic Species in Putative Ancient Asexual Darwinulids (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    PubMed Central

    Schön, Isa; Pinto, Ricardo L.; Halse, Stuart; Smith, Alison J.; Martens, Koen; Birky, C. William

    2012-01-01

    Background Fully asexually reproducing taxa lack outcrossing. Hence, the classic Biological Species Concept cannot be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings We used DNA sequences from the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear ITS2 region to check species boundaries according to the evolutionary genetic (EG) species concept in five morphospecies in the putative ancient asexual ostracod genera, Penthesilenula and Darwinula, from different continents. We applied two methods for detecting cryptic species, namely the K/θ method and the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC). We could confirm the existence of species in all five darwinulid morphospecies and additional cryptic diversity in three morphospecies, namely in Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Darwinula stevensoni and in P. aotearoa. The number of cryptic species within one morphospecies varied between seven (P. brasiliensis), five to six (D. stevensoni) and two (P. aotearoa), respectively, depending on the method used. Cryptic species mainly followed continental distributions. We also found evidence for coexistence at the local scale for Brazilian cryptic species of P. brasiliensis and P. aotearoa. Our ITS2 data confirmed that species exist in darwinulids but detected far less EG species, namely two to three cryptic species in P. brasiliensis and no cryptic species at all in the other darwinulid morphospecies. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly demonstrate that both species and cryptic diversity can be recognized in putative ancient asexual ostracods using the EG species concept, and that COI data are more suitable than ITS2 for this purpose. The discovery of up to eight cryptic species within a single morphospecies will significantly increase estimates of biodiversity in this asexual ostracod group. Which factors, other than long-term geographic isolation, are important for speciation processes in these ancient asexuals remains to be investigated. PMID:22802945

  10. The tropical talitrid genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-01-01

    Floresorchestia floresiana (Weber, 1892) from Flores, F. anomala (Chevreux, 1901) from the Seychelles, F. malayensis (Tattersall, 1922) from Singapore and F. thienemanni (Schellenberg, 1931) from Java are redescribed based on original type material or newly collected material from near the type locality. Nine new species are described, in the widespread Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean talitrid genus Floresorchestia: F. andrevo sp. nov. and F. itampolo sp. nov. from Madagascar; F. kalili sp. nov. from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; F. laurenae sp. nov. from Timor-Leste; F. oluanpi sp. nov. from southern Taiwan; F. papeari sp. nov. from Tahiti; F. serejoae sp. nov. from far north Queensland, Australia; F. seringat sp. nov. from Singapore; and F. yap sp. nov. from Micronesia; plus Floresorchestia sp. 1 from Hainan Island, South China Sea, Floresorchestia sp. 2 from Kilakarai and other sites in south-eastern India and Floresorchestia sp. 3 from Phuket Island, Thailand. Floresorchestia contains 28 species. In this paper all are catalogued and diagnosed. PMID:25781854

  11. Fennerosquilla heptacantha (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lucatelli, Débora

    2015-01-01

    Fennerosquilla is a monotypic genus that belongs to the family Squillidae, which has the highest generic diversity within Stomatopoda. This genus has been recorded in the north Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, between 105 and 458 m depth. The present specimen was collected during the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", in 2011, from the continental slope region of Brazil. In this expedition Fennerosquilla heptacantha was found at 178-193 m depth, and represents the first record of the species in the south Atlantic Ocean (Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil), expanding the southern limit distribution. The specimen is the largest recorded, measuring 149 mm total length. The pigmentation zone on median region of telson and all diagnostic characters are still preserved and agree with the original description. Fennerosquilla heptacantha has a disjunct deep water distribution (more than 100 m) in the tropical western Atlantic, mostly along the continental slope. PMID:26624302

  12. Global Biodiversity and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Remipedia (Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Neiber, Marco T.; Hartke, Tamara R.; Stemme, Torben; Bergmann, Alexandra; Rust, Jes; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Koenemann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Remipedia is one of the most recently discovered classes of crustaceans, first described in 1981 from anchialine caves in the Bahamas Archipelago. The class is divided into the order Enantiopoda, represented by two fossil species, and Nectiopoda, which contains all known extant remipedes. Since their discovery, the number of nectiopodan species has increased to 24, half of which were described during the last decade. Nectiopoda exhibit a disjunct global distribution pattern, with the highest abundance and diversity in the Caribbean region, and isolated species in the Canary Islands and in Western Australia. Our review of Remipedia provides an overview of their ecological characteristics, including a detailed list of all anchialine marine caves, from which species have been recorded. We discuss alternative hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Remipedia within Arthropoda, and present first results of an ongoing molecular-phylogenetic analysis that do not support the monophyly of several nectiopodan taxa. We believe that a taxonomic revision of Remipedia is absolutely essential, and that a comprehensive revision should include a reappraisal of the fossil record. PMID:21625553

  13. Description of three species of Halmyrapseudes (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Parapseudidae), with a discussion of biogeography.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi; Angsupanich, Saowapa

    2013-01-01

    We describe Halmyrapseudes gutui sp. nov. from a mangrove area on Lidee Island, southern Thailand. This species closely resembles H. cooperi, H. killaiyensis, and H. thaumastocheles, but differs in having the lacinia mobilis with three teeth, and the pereopod 1 carpus with 0,1 or 1,1 ventral simple setae proximal to each spiniform seta. We redescribed and synonymized two species of questionable affiliation, Apseudes cooperi and A. digitalis, placing them in Halmyrapseudes, and partly redescribed Halmyrapseudes killaiyensis. Halmyrapseudes and Pseudohalmyrapseudes have disjunct distributions. Halmyrapseudes is similar in distribution to two freshwater fish taxa whose distributions are considered to reflect the breakup of Gondwana and subsequent continental drift. Pseudohalmyrapseudes occurs around Australia, and its distribution seems to be separated from that of Halmyrapseudes by Wallace's Line or Huxley's Line, which are distributional barriers for both terrestrial organisms and an amphidromous shrimp. The adjacent distributions and morphological similarities suggest that Halmyrapseudes and Pseudohalmyrapseudes are sister taxa. PMID:25112634

  14. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  15. Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Fouad; Hafez, Sherif; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva; Taleb, Hoda Abu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird) (C. novaezelandiae), sub-class Ostracoda, obtained from the Nile, Egypt for its predatory activity on snail, Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and on the free-living larval stages of this parasite (miracidia and cercariae). Methods The predatory activity of C. novaezelandiae was determined on B. alexandrina snail (several densities of eggs, newly hatched and juveniles). This activity was also determined on S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae using different volumes of water and different numbers of larvae. C. novaezelandiae was also tested for its effect on infection of snails and on the cercarial production. Results C. novaezelandiae was found to feed on the eggs, newly hatched and juvenile snails, but with significant reduction in the consumption in the presence of other diet like the blue green algae (Nostoc muscorum). This ostracod also showed considerable predatory activity on the free-living larval stages of S. mansoni which was affected by certain environmental factors such as volume of water, density of C. novaezelandiae and number of larvae of the parasite. Conclusions The presence of this ostracod in the aquatic habitat led to significant reduction of snail population, infection rate of snails with schistosme miracidia as well as of cercarial production from the infected snails. This may suggest that introducing C. novaezelandiae into the habitat at schistosome risky sites could suppress the transmission of the disease. PMID:23620849

  16. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  17. Gaetice depressus (Crustacea, Varunidae): Species profile and its role in organic carbon and nitrogen flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, A'an. J.; Wada, Shigeki; Aoki, Masakazu; Hama, Takeo

    2015-06-01

    Gaetice depressus is one of the most dominant macrozoobenthos species in boulder shores of intertidal coastal ecosystems in Japan. As recorded in previous studies, this species is also considered as having high density and biomass. Consequently, it is thought to be one of the more important species in the organic matter flow of boulder shores, especially through the food web. In this study, some taxonomic problems related to G. depressus were tackled and the autoecology and ecological processes in the intertidal ecosystem of G. depressus, such as organic matter flow, were investigated. Furthermore, in order to clarify the taxonomy description, resolve inconsistencies in the scientific name, and learn about the life history, a literature review was conducted. Seasonal changes in density, morphology pattern and population structure were determined based on the data obtained in Ebisu Island, Japan. Then, the role of G. depressus was determined by estimating the intake and emittance fluxes of organic carbon and nitrogen through ingestion and egestion process in the boulder shores of Ebisu Island. A feeding rate experiment was also conducted in order to estimate the intake flux by using the catch-release-recapture method. Meanwhile, to estimate the emittance flux, a defecation rate experiment was conducted by catching some individuals of G. depressus, and then incubating them in the laboratory. The feeding rate measured by the speed of diet consumption of G. depressus was about 12.6 mg ind-1 h-1. Considering the average density, the intake flux through the feeding process could be estimated as 25.2 mgC m-2 h-1 and 2.6 mgN m-2 h-1. On the other hand, G. depressus egested fecal pellet at the rate of 5.4 mg ind-1 h-1. The average emittance flux through the fecal pellet egesting process is estimated at 5.6 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.7 mgN m-2 h-1. Therefore, it can be estimated that about 25% of organic matter from diet is egested as fecal pellet, which means that about 75% of the intake flux of organic carbon and nitrogen is used for the total assimilation of G. depressus. Intake flux was also considered as affecting the high dynamism of primary producer consumption. The total population of G. depressus is estimated to consume about 18.4% of primary producer in average throughout the year. Therefore, the turnover time of primary producer by consumption of G. depressus was about five days.

  18. The iron-encrusted microbial community of Urothoe poseidonis (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, David C.; Ribesse, Jérôme; de Ridder, Chantal

    2004-06-01

    A rust-coloured coating frequently covers the appendages and sternites of Urothoe poseidonis, an amphipod living in the burrow of the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum. Up to 80% of the collected amphipods were coated. In winter, coated amphipods were always more abundant than uncoated ones. In summer, uncoated specimens predominated. The aspect, location and development of the coating are similar in juveniles and adults. EDAX analyses and Prussian blue testing indicate that the rust-coloured coating contains iron oxyhydroxide minerals with trace metals and phosphorus. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the iron coating harbours bacterial filaments related to Beggiatoaceae (3 morphotypes were observed). Protozoans, possibly Peritrichia of the families Rovinjellidae or Vaginicolidae (one morphotype), were also observed on pereopods VI and VII. The formation of the iron coating and its potential role in the biology of the amphipod are discussed.

  19. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  20. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea).

    PubMed

    Ashelby, Christopher W; De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  1. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Luquet, Gilles; Fernández, María S.; Badou, Aïcha; Guichard, Nathalie; Roy, Nathalie Le; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Arias, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow.Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish) elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca): three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components. PMID:24970155

  2. [Thermal preference and avoidance in cladoceran Daphnia magna strauss (Crustacea, Cladocera) acclimated to constant temperature].

    PubMed

    Verbitskiĭ, V B; Verbitskaia, T I

    2012-01-01

    The final preferable temperature (FPT) and avoidance temperature (AT) were determined in parthenogenetic females of the crustacean Daphnia magna Strauss. The animals were preliminary acclimated to constant temperature of 23.4 degrees C followed by keeping them in a thermo-gradient device for 24 days. It was revealed that daphnia select FPT with overshoot. In the first four days, daphnia selected temperatures 0.6-1.6 degrees C higher than the acclimation temperature and 4-7.4 degrees C higher than FPT. Two zones of FPT are revealed: the first zone by the time of 5-13 days (17.6 +/- 1.2 degrees C); the second, by 16-24 days (20 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The dynamics of AT diapason followed the dynamics of FPT. Two zones of the AT plateau were observed: over five to 17 days (temperatures < 14 degrees C and > 25.8 degrees C were avoided) and for 21-24 days (< 8.5 degrees C and 26 degrees C). PMID:22567878

  3. An integrated study on Gammarus elvirae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): perspectives for toxicology of arsenic-contaminated freshwater.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Chimenti, Claudio; Ronci, Lucilla; Setini, Andrea; Iannilli, Valentina; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; De Matthaeis, Elvira

    2015-10-01

    The Italian region Latium is characterized by extensive quaternary volcanic systems that contribute greatly to arsenic (As) contamination of freshwater, including drinking water supplies. However, knowledge of the possible toxic effects in these aquatic environments is, despite being highly relevant to public health, still limited. In this paper, we approach this issue using Gammarus elvirae, an amphipod species that inhabits rivers and streams in central Italy, including Latium. We explored the possibility of using G. elvirae in the toxicology of freshwater by addressing the most relevant issues. First, we tested the usefulness of hemocytes from G. elvirae in determining non-specific DNA damage by means of the Comet assay after exposure (24 h and 7 days) to different river water samples in Latium; second, we provided an interpretative overview of the usefulness of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells of G. elvirae as a means of assessing toxicity after long-term exposure to As and other pollutants; third, the LC (50-240 h) value for G. elvirae was estimated for arsenate, which is usually the dominant arsenic species in surface waters. Our study sheds light on G. elvirae at different levels, providing a background for future toxicological research of freshwater. PMID:26013740

  4. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended. PMID:20217223

  5. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1–P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  6. A new species of Paratanais Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Tanaidacea, Paratanaidae) from Puerto Rico, northwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G.; Heard, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Paratanais rosadi sp. n. described from Puerto Rican coastal waters represents the first species of the genus from the northwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from the other Paratanais species by a combination of characters, including article-2 of the maxilliped palp with a geniculate, finely-serrulate seta on inner margin; chela with stiff, geniculate, seta arising from propodus between fixed finger and dactylus and with short, stout, finely serrulate, seta on inner distal face of propodus adjacent to base of dactylus; carpus of pereopods 4−6 having three, instead of four stout modified spiniform setae distally, uropodal exopod distinctly shorter than endopodal article-1; and uropodal endopod with articles of about of equal in length. A key for the separation of Paratanais species from the Atlantic Ocean is presented. PMID:24715797

  7. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  8. Large branchiopod (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) egg morphology of Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Sameer; Timms, Brian; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    The eggs of many large branchiopods have taxonomic value and are commonly used as traits in species and/or generic descriptions. In this paper we present detailed descriptions and SEMs of resting eggs of seven of the eight species of large branchiopods found in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. We highlight the inter- and intrapopulation egg morphological variation in Streptocephalus. PMID:27396003

  9. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. PMID:26965954

  10. Ingolfiella maldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiella maldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces. PMID:25408614

  11. Effects of late-cenozoic glaciation on habitat availability in Antarctic benthic shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Dambach, Johannes; Thatje, Sven; Rödder, Dennis; Basher, Zeenatul; Raupach, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates inhabiting the high Antarctic continental shelves are challenged by disturbance of the seafloor by grounded ice, low but stable water temperatures and variable food availability in response to seasonal sea-ice cover. Though a high diversity of life has successfully adapted to such conditions, it is generally agreed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the large-scale cover of the Southern Ocean by multi-annual sea ice and the advance of the continental ice sheets across the shelf faced life with conditions, exceeding those seen today by an order of magnitude. Conditions prevailing at the LGM may have therefore acted as a bottleneck event to both the ecology as well as genetic diversity of today's fauna. Here, we use for the first time specific Species Distribution Models (SDMs) for marine arthropods of the Southern Ocean to assess effects of habitat contraction during the LGM on the three most common benthic caridean shrimp species that exhibit a strong depth zonation on the Antarctic continental shelf. While the shallow-water species Chorismus antarcticus and Notocrangon antarcticus were limited to a drastically reduced habitat during the LGM, the deep-water shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes found refuge in the Southern Ocean deep sea. The modeling results are in accordance with genetic diversity patterns available for C. antarcticus and N. lanceopes and support the hypothesis that habitat contraction at the LGM resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in shallow water benthos. PMID:23029463

  12. Harpacticoida (crustacea: copepoda) from the California continental shelf. Final report, September 1990-October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, P.A.; Burgess, R.; Fiers, F.

    1995-10-01

    Specimens of new Harpacticoida species were obtained during the California Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Phase II, Monitoring Program (CAMP) between November 1986 and May 1989. The CAMP project was a multidisciplinary study to detect and evaluate the long-term biological impacts of continental shelf oil drilling and production. The study was centered around a proposed platform site named Julius, which was never put into service. Samples were collected in the Santa Maria Basin on a regional scale (10-20 km). Harpacticoids are the second most abundant meiofaunal taxa in the Santa Maria Basin. Harpacticoids have been intensively studied in the Atlantic OCS. However, Pacific studies are limited to collections made in shallow water. There are a great number of undescribed species in the CAMP samples taken from the Santa Maria Basin. The present study is rather limited in scope and only touches on some of the dominate species found. It contains full taxonomic descriptions of six species, a pictorial key of 18 dominant species, and drawings of 42 other unknown species.

  13. Ecology and systematics of a new species of Uromunna (Crustacea: Isopoda) from Spanish eelgrass beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquete, Patricia; Wilson, George D. F.; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2014-06-01

    Uromunna naherba sp. nov. is described from eelgrass beds ( Zostera marina and Z. noltii) of the NW Iberian Peninsula. This is the second species of the genus reported from the NE Atlantic, after U. petiti. The new species was more abundant on rhizomes than on the leaves of the plants. Seasonal samples show that ovigerous females are present throughout the year, but become more abundant in late spring and summer, when adult males decrease in frequency. Ovigerous females appear in only one size class. Owing to the yearly productivity cycle of the eelgrasses, these data suggest that the species is semelparous and completes its lifecycle within 1 year. The taxonomic characters of the genus are discussed.

  14. Community structure of caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) on seagrasses from southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, A. R.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Maestre, M. J.; Ruiz-Tabares, A.; Espinosa, F.; Gordillo, I.; Sánchez-Moyano, J. E.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    The community structure of caprellids inhabiting two species of seagrass ( Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera marina) was investigated on the Andalusian coast, southern Spain, using uni and multivariate analyses. Three meadows were selected (Almería, AL; Málaga, MA; Cádiz, CA), and changes in seagrass cover and biomass were measured from 2004 to 2005. Four caprellid species were found; the density of Caprella acanthifera, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma was correlated to seagrass biomass. No such correlation was found for Pariambus typicus, probably because this species inhabits sediments and does not cling to the seagrass leaves. We recorded a significant decrease in seagrass cover and biomass in MA due to illegal bottom trawling fisheries. Phtisica marina and P. typicus were favoured by this perturbation and increased their densities after the trawling activities. A survey of reports on caprellids in seagrass meadows around the world showed no clear latitudinal patterns in caprellid densities (ranging from 6 to 1,000 ind/m2 per meadow) and species diversity. While caprellid abundances in seagrass meadows are often very high, the number of species per meadow is low (range 1-5).

  15. Checklist of copepods (Crustacea: Calanoida, Cyclopoida,Harpacticoida) from Wyoming, USA, with new state records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presentation of a comprehensive checklist of the copepod fauna of Wyoming, USA with 41 species of copepods; based on museum specimens, literature reviews, and active surveillance. Of these species 19 were previously unknown from the state. This checklist includes species in the families Centropagida...

  16. Evolution of osmoregulatory patterns and gill ion transport mechanisms in the decapod Crustacea: a review.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John Campbell; Faria, Samuel Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit a wide range of osmoregulatory patterns and capabilities from marine osmoconformers to brackish and freshwater hyperregulators to terrestrial hyporegulators. The principal gill salt transport mechanisms proposed to underlie the ability of the better-known taxa to occupy these specific habitats are examined here. Traditional thinking suggests that a graduated series of successively stronger adaptive mechanisms may have driven the occupation of ever more dilute osmotic niches, culminating in the conquest of freshwater and dry land. However, when habitat and osmoregulatory parameters are analyzed quantitatively against the phylogenies of the taxa examined, as illustrated here using a palaemonid shrimp clade, their association becomes questionable and may hold true only in specific cases. We also propose a putative evolution for gill epithelial ion pump and transporter arrangement in a eubrachyuran crab clade whose lineages occupy distinct osmotic niches. By including the systematics of these selected groups, this review incorporates the notion of a protracted time scale, here termed 'phylophysiology', into decapod osmoregulation, allowing the examination of putative physiological transformations and their underlying evolutionary processes. This approach assumes that species are temporally linked, a factor that can impart phylogenetic structuring, which must be considered in comparative studies. Future experimental models in decapod osmoregulatory physiology should contemplate the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa chosen to better allow comprehension of the transformations arising during their evolution. PMID:22534792

  17. A new Stenothoe species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Stenothoidae) living on Boloceropsis platei (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp-Schickel, T.; Häussermann, V.; Vader, W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new species of Stenothoe (Amphipoda, Stenothoidae), S. boloceropsis sp. nov., collected among the tentacles of the sea anemone Boloceropsis platei Mc Murrich, 1904, found on sublittoral sand of Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile.

  18. Silver nanoparticles impact the functional role of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Andreï, Jennifer; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Felten, Vincent; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure; Mehennaoui, Kahina; Cambier, Sebastien; Gutleb, Arno C; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are widely used in consumer products and the risk associated with their potential release into freshwater ecosystems needs to be addressed using environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Here, the effects of low concentrations (0.5-5 μg L(-1)) of two different sized nAg (10 and 60 nm) and a silver nitrate positive control were evaluated in Gammarus roeseli following exposure for 72 h. Cellular, individual and functional endpoints were independently studied and the most striking results were reported for functional endpoints. Indeed, without a change in their feeding activity, the gammarids produced significantly fewer fine particles of organic matter when exposed to nAg, even at 0.5 μg L(-1) of 10 nm nAg. These functional endpoints seem to be efficient markers for detecting the early effects of nAg on G. roeseli. PMID:26552543

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Niphargus boskovici (Crustacea: Amphipoda) reveals a new species from epikarst.

    PubMed

    Švara, Vid; Delić, Teo; Rađa, Tonći; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of an amphipod Niphargus zagorae sp. n. and redescribe its nearest relative and morphologically similar species N. boskovici S. Karaman, 1952. We present the geographic distributions of both species, morphological diagnoses and infer their phylogenetic position within the genus based on COI, 28S and H3 markers. PMID:26250278

  20. Cyclestheria hislopi (Crustacea: Branchiopoda): a group of morphologically cryptic species with origins in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Martin; Clavier, Simon; Fritsch, Martin; Olesen, Jørgen; Padhye, Sameer; Timms, Brian V; Richter, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclestheria hislopi is thought to be the only extant species of Cyclestherida. It is the sister taxon of all Cladocera and displays morphological characteristics intermediate of Spinicaudata and Cladocera. Using one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (EF1α and 28S rRNA) markers, we tested the hypothesis that C. hislopi represents a single circumtropic species. South American (French Guiana), Asian (India, Indonesia, Singapore) and several Australian populations were included in our investigation. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses revealed remarkable intercontinental genetic differentiation (uncorrected p-distances COI>13%, EF1α>3% and 28S>4%). Each continent was found to have at least one distinct Cyclestheria species, with Australia boasting four distinct main lineages which may be attributed to two to three species. The divergence of these species (constituting crown group Cyclestherida) was, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of COI and EF1α combined with molecular clock estimates using several fossil branchiopod calibration points or a COI substitution rate of 1.4% per million years, dated to the Cretaceous. This was when the South American lineage split from the Asian-Australian lineage, with the latter diverging further in the Paleogene. Today's circumtropic distribution of Cyclestheria may be best explained by a combination of Gondwana vicariance and later dispersal across Asia and Australia when the tectonic plates of the two continents drew closer in the early Miocene. The lack of morphological differentiation that has taken place in this taxon over such a long evolutionary period contrasts with the high level of differentiation and diversification observed in its sister taxon the Cladocera. Further insights into the evolution of Cyclestheria may help us to understand the evolutionary success of the Cladocera. PMID:23178560

  1. Empirical calibration of shell chemistry of Cyprideis torosa (Jones, 1850) (Crustacea: Ostracoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Barba, J.; Ito, E.; Carbonell, E.; Mesquita-Joanes, F.

    2012-09-01

    Cyprideis torosa is a species of ostracode that inhabits a wide range of aquatic habitats in which its low Alk/Ca requirement is met. Its fossil remains are widely used in palaeoecological studies of coastal environments and inland salt lakes. We collected C. torosa from 20 water bodies near Valencia, Spain. Temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, electrical conductivity, and the concentration of major ions and oxygen isotopes were measured at each site. Between 2 and 20 live individuals of C. torosa were collected per site, their instar stage and sex determined and their shell chemistry (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and carbon and oxygen isotope composition) analyzed. Three of these sites were sampled monthly for one year, and ostracode population structure and shell chemistry (20-40 shells) were analyzed. The water chemistry varied widely between sites. TDS (total dissolved solids) ranged from 0.5 to 71.8 g/L but chloride was always the dominant anion. There is a significant positive relationship between ostracode and water δ18O except at high TDS (>20 g/L) when shell δ18O values are lower than expected. No effect of either temperature or water Mg/Ca is observed on the Mg/Ca in the ostracode calcite in waters with Mg/Ca < 6 (molar ratio). Ostracode shell Sr/Ca is strongly and significantly related to water Sr/Ca. δ13C values in C. torosa shells are ˜2‰ lower than observed δ13CDIC. These results provide new and more accurate quantification tools to reconstruct past hydrochemistry from C. torosa shells.

  2. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Crustacea, Maxillopoda, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Baek, Ye-Seul; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae). The genome sequence is 15,502 bp in size. Except for CO1, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with an ATN initiation codon (ATA, ATG, ATC and ATT). Twelve PCGs were terminated with TAA or TAG stop codon, whereas ND1 possessed an incomplete termination codon (T- -). We compared the mitogenome structure of L. australis to those of other cirripeds and a typical arthropod Homarus americanus. The PCGs in the L. australis mtgenome showed a typical gene arrangement, identical to the arthropod pattern in other cirriped genomes. However, at least 8 tRNA genes were translocated and 2 tRNA genes were inverted in the coding polarity. Unique differences in L. australis mtgenome included translocation of trnS2, trnD and trnI. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among cirripedians, and additional mtgenome information of barnacles including the polar species would allow exploration of the thoracican relationships and mtgenome modifications in the barnacle evolution. PMID:25228375

  4. Haplotype Frequency Distribution in Northeastern European Saduria entomon (Crustacea: Isopoda) Populations. A Phylogeographic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Jerzy

    2003-11-01

    The distribution pattern of mtDNA haplotypes in distinct populations of the glacial relict crustacean Saduria entomon was examined to assess phylogeographic relationships among them. Populations from the Baltic, the White Sea and the Barents Sea were screened for mtDNA variation using PCR-based RFLP analysis of a 1150 bp fragment containing part of the CO I and CO II genes. Five mtDNA haplotypes were recorded. An analysis of geographical heterogeneity in haplotype frequency distributions revealed significant differences among populations. The isolated populations of S. entomon have diverged since the retreat of the last glaciation. The geographical pattern of variation is most likely the result of stochastic (founder effect, genetic drift) mechanisms and suggests that the haplotype differentiation observed is probably older than the isolation of the Baltic and Arctic seas.

  5. Decapod Crustacea of the Central Paratethyan Ottnangian Stage (middle Burdigalian): implications for systematics and biogeography

    PubMed Central

    HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ; HARZHAUSER, MATHIAS; DANNINGER, WOLFGANG

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans from the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, Lower Miocene) of the Western and Central Paratethys remain poorly known. In this study, we review and re-describe mud shrimps (Jaxea kuemeli), ghost shrimps (Gourretia sp., Calliax michelottii) and brachyuran crabs of the families Leucosiidae, Polybiidae and Portunidae. A dorsal carapace of the genus Calliax is reported for the first time in the fossil record. Re-examination of the type material of Randallia strouhali (Leucosiidae) and Geryon ottnangensis (Geryonidae) resulted in a transfer of these species into Palaeomyra (Leucosiidae) and Liocarcinus (Polybiidae), respectively. Achelous vindobonensis, originally described as a chela of a portunid crab, probably belongs to a member of Polybiidae and is provisionally treated as Liocarcinus sp. Only two species, J. kuemeli and C. michelottii, are also known from the Karpatian, the succeeding Paratethyan stage. In most cases, the decapod assemblages of the Ottnangian consist of rather shallow-water taxa whereas the assemblages of the Karpatian consist of deep-water taxa from the middle and outer shelf. The Central Paratethyan assemblages show similarities in genus composition to the Proto-Mediterranean and recent Indo-Pacific regions. Gourretia sp. represents the earliest occurrence of the respective genus in the fossil record. The Oligocene–Early Miocene appearance of Palaeomyra and Liocarcinus in the circum-Mediterranean implies that sources of present-day diversity hotspots in the Indo-Pacific trace to the Western Tethys (as for other decapod genera), although coeval decapod assemblages in the Indo-Pacific remain poorly known. PMID:26688670

  6. Neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain of the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Kress, Timm; Harzsch, Steffen; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain in the water flea Daphnia magna by use of classical neuroanatomical techniques such as semi-thin sectioning and neuronal backfilling, as well as immunohistochemical markers for synapsins, various neuropeptides and the neurotransmitter histamine. We provide structural details of distinct neuropiles, tracts and commissures, many of which were previously undescribed. We analyse morphological details of most neuron types, which allow for unravelling the connectivities between various substructural parts of the optic ganglia and the central brain and of ascending and descending connections with the ventral nerve cord. We identify 5 allatostatin-A-like, 13 FMRFamide-like and 5 tachykinin-like neuropeptidergic neuron types and 6 histamine-immunoreactive neuron types. In addition, novel aspects of several known pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons are re-examined. We analyse primary and putative secondary olfactory pathways and neuronal elements of the water flea central complex, which displays both insect- and decapod crustacean-like features, such as the protocerebral bridge, central body and lateral accessory lobes. Phylogenetic aspects based upon structural comparisons are discussed as well as functional implications envisaging more specific future analyses of ecotoxicological and endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals. PMID:26391274

  7. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Robinson, Carlos J; Kawaguchi, So; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-02-17

    The diversity of parasites found on Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Order Euphausiacea) was compared during 10 oceanographic cruises made off both coasts of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that N. simplex has a more diverse parasitic assemblage than N. difficilis because it is a neritic species, has larger population abundance, and tends to form denser and more compact swarms than N. difficilis. These biological and behavioral features may enhance parasite transmission within swarms. We detected 6 types of ectoparasites: (1) epibiotic diatoms Licmophora sp.; (2) Ephelotidae suctorian ciliates; (3) Foettingeriidae exuviotrophic apostome ciliates; (4) an unidentified epicaridean cryptoniscus larvae (isopoda); and 2 castrators: (5) the ectoparasitic Dajidae isopod Notophryxus lateralis and (6) the ellobiopsid mesoparasite Thalassomyces fagei. We also detected 7 types of endoparasites: (1) an undescribed Collinia ciliate (Apostomatida); 3 types of Cestoda: (2) a Tetrarhynchobothruium sp. (Trypanorhyncha), (3) Echinobothrium sp. (Diphyllidea: Echinobothyriidae), and (4) unidentified metacestode; (5) a Trematoda Paronatrema-like metacercaria (Syncoeliidae); (6) the nematode Anisakis simplex (L3); and (7) Polymorphidae acantocephalan larvae (acanthor, acanthella, and cystacanth larval stages). N. simplex is affected by all types of parasites, except the isopod N. lateralis, having a considerably larger parasitic diversity and prevalence rates than N. difficilis, which is only infested with 3 types of ectoparasites and T. fagei. Euphausiid swarming is an adaptive behavior for reproduction, protection against predators, and increased efficiency in food searching, but has a negative effect due to parasitism. Although the advantages of aggregation must overcome the reduction of population and individual fitness induced by parasites, we demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex individuals. Collinia spp. endoparasitoids must occasionally have a significant influence on population mortality with potential epizootic events. PMID:20377014

  8. Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramírez; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters. PMID:24699609

  9. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  10. First cytochemical study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Matozzo, V.; Marin, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a morphological study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii was carried out by means of light microscopy and differing cytochemical assays. Analysis of haemocyte size frequency distribution (performed by means of a Coulter Counter) revealed the presence of two distinct haemocyte fractions in C. aestuarii haemolymph, depending on cell size. The first fraction was of about 3–5 µm in diameter and 30–50 fL in volume, the second was of about 6–12 µm in diameter and over 200 fL in volume. Mean cell diameter and volume were 8.20±1.7 µm and 272.30±143.5 fL, respectively. Haemocytes observed under light microscope were distinguished in three cell types: granulocytes (28%; 11.94±1.43 µm in diameter) with evident cytoplasmic granules, semigranulocytes (27%; 12.38±1.76 µm in diameter) with less granules than granulocytes, and hyalinocytes (44%; 7.88±1.6 µm in diameter) without granules. In addition, a peculiar cell type was occasionally found (about 1%): it was 25–30 µm in diameter and had a great vacuole and a peripheral cytoplasm with granules. Granulocyte and semigranulocyte granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. Giemsa’s dye confirmed that granulocytes and semigranulocytes were larger than hyalinocytes. Pappenheim’s panoptical staining and Ehrlich’s triacid mixture allowed to distinguish granule-containing cells (including semigranulocytes) in acidophils (64%), basophils (35%) and neutrophils (1%). Hyalinocytes showed always a basophilic cytoplasm. Haemocytes were positive to the PAS reaction for carbohydrates, even if cytoplasm carbohydrate distribution varied among cell types. Lastly, lipids were found on cell membrane and in cytoplasm of all haemocyte types in the form of black spots produced after Sudan Black B staining. The morphological characterisation of C. aestuarii haemocytes by light microscopy was necessary before performing both ultrastructural and functional studies of circulating cells. PMID:20353916

  11. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  12. A new species of Leptestheria (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata) from Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Sameer; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Leptestheria from a rock pool in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. This species is distinguished from all other Indian congeners by its distinct telson characters and occipital condyle. We also present a comparative table of useful morphological characters of all described Indian Leptestheria species. PMID:27395627

  13. Total mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp, Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Eun; Kim, Jung Nyun; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. The short non-coding region (210 bp) between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) may be the good candidate as the molecular marker to discriminate S. leptosequilla from other stomatopods. PMID:26176982

  14. Living males of the ‘ancient asexual’ Darwinulidae (Ostracoda: Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robin J; Kamiya, Takahiro; Horne, David J

    2006-01-01

    Three living male darwinulid ostracods of a new species of the genus Vestalenula have been found in Yakushima, Japan. This is the first report of living darwinulid males for over 100 years and their morphology casts doubt on the two previous records from the late 1800s. The presence of male darwinulids also calls into question the hypothesis that the family Darwinulidae is an exclusively ancient asexual group, reproducing without sex for over 200 million years (Myr). Male carapaces are of similar size and shape to A-1 juvenile females of the same species, suggesting that males may have been dismissed as A-1 juveniles in other living and fossil species. The antennae and fifth limbs are sexually dimorphic: the male antennae have six segments compared with five in the female and a series of putative chemical receptors originating at the extra segment boundary, while the male fifth limbs have well-developed grasping hooks, as in males of many ostracod groups. The lack of Zenker's Organ and of complex internal structures within the hemipenis contradicts previous hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of darwinulids. PMID:16777754

  15. Mechanisms of apoptosis in Crustacea: what conditions induce versus suppress cell death?

    PubMed Central

    Menze, Michael A.; Fortner, Grady; Nag, Suman; Hand, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species. Our knowledge about regulation of apoptosis in this phylum is largely based on findings for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with crustaceans shows that apoptotic proteins, and presumably mechanisms of cell death regulation, are more diverse in arthropods than appreciated based solely on the excellent work with fruit flies. Crustacean homologs exist for many major proteins in the apoptotic networks of mammals and D. melanogaster, but integration of these proteins into the physiology and pathophysiology of crustaceans is far from complete. Whether apoptosis in crustaceans is mainly transcriptionally regulated as in D. melanogaster (e.g., RHG ‘killer’ proteins), or rather is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as in vertebrates needs to be clarified. Some phenomena like the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) are apparently lacking in crustaceans and may represent a vertebrate invention. We speculate that differences in regulation of the intrinsic pathway of crustacean apoptosis might represent a prerequisite for some species to survive harsh environmental insults. Pro-apoptotic stimuli described for crustaceans include UV radiation, environmental toxins, and a diatom-produced chemical that promotes apoptosis in offspring of a copepod. Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. Characterization of the players, pathways, and their significance in the core machinery of crustacean apoptosis is revealing new insights for the field of cell death. PMID:20043212

  16. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H. J. M.; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group. PMID:27246395

  17. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity in the North Eurasian Moina Species (Crustacea: Cladocera)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Moina Baird (Cladocera: Moinidae) often dominate freshwater crustacean communities in temporary water bodies. Several species of Moina are used as food for fish larvae in aquaculture, as bioindicators in toxicological studies, and as common subjects for physiological studies. The aim of this paper is to estimate biodiversity of Moina in northern Eurasia using the standard DNA barcoding approach based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We analysed 160 newly obtained and 157 existing COI sequences, and found evidence for 21 phylogroups of Moina, some of which were detected here for the first time. Our study confirmed the opinion that the actual species diversity of cladocerans is several times higher than is presently accepted. Our results also indicated that Moina has the second richest species diversity among the cladoceran genera (with only Daphnia O. F. Mueller having a greater diversity of species). Our study strongly supports division of Moina into two faunistic groups: European-Western Siberian and Eastern Siberian-Far Eastern, with a transitional zone at the Yenisey River basin (Eastern Siberia). Here, we refrain from taxonomic descriptions of new species, as this requires a thorough morphological and taxonomic study for each putative taxon. PMID:27556403

  18. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    PubMed

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs. PMID:21069772

  19. G-protein alpha subunits distribution in the cyprid of Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite) (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Gallus, Lorenzo; Ferrando, Sara; Gambardella, Chiara; Amaroli, Andrea; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Masini, Maria Angela

    2012-12-01

    The acorn barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a marine crustacean with six nauplius and one cyprid larval stages and a sessile adult, that represent one of the main constituents of sea biofouling. The cyprid is the last larval stage, specialized for settlement, and the study of its biology is interesting also in the frame of antifouling strategies. In this study, a novel approach to the neurobiology of B. amphitrite cyprid has undertaken, studying immunohistochemically the distribution of some G-protein α subunits (Gαs, Gαo Gαi, and Gαq) on B. amphitrite cyprid. Gαs-like immunoreactivity was observed in the intestinal mucosa, oral cone, epithelial cells along the outer face of the mantle and thorax; Gαo into the fibers of the neuropile of the central nervous system; Gαi in oil cells, epithelial cells, and limbs and thorax muscles; Gαq was not detected. The results suggest the involvement of the G-protein α subunits in different tissues and functions that seem to be in agreement with the distribution of the ones from the same class of G-proteins in vertebrates. PMID:22833248

  20. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae).

    PubMed

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1-P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  1. Indoapseudes bamberi sp. nov. (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Pagurapseudidae: Hodometricinae) from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    We describe Indoapseudes bamberi sp. nov., based on a specimen from Funaura Bay, Iriomote Island, Japan. This species can be distinguished from its five congeners by having the combination of the antenna with a squama and pereopods 1 and 2 with one dorsal spine on the basis. We also determined part of the nucleotide sequence for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in I. bamberi, and present a key to Indoapseudes species. PMID:26250310

  2. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance of the inland copepod fauna of Costa Rica requires more detailed surveys. PMID:25561828

  3. Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galván-Villa, Cristian M; Ayón-Parente, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A new species of caprellid, Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov., is described based on several specimens collected from Bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico. All specimens were found in association with the scorpionfish Scorpaena mystes. Caprellids are set on the dorsal surface of fishes. The species is distinguished by head with a short dorsal projection, eyes distinctive, body slender and smooth, peduncular articles of antenna 1 not setose, antenna 2 with swimming setae, gnathopod 2 with three ventral projections in males. The species is close to C. californica, C. mercedesae, and C. scaura for a sharp spine on the forehead but can be distinguished by gnathopod 2 finely setose, and basis of gnathopod 2 shorter. PMID:26248940

  4. Amphipoda (crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: families Dexaminidae, Eusiridae, Hyalidae, Ischyroceridae, Leucothoidae and Lysianassidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen species of amphipod in the families Dexaminidae (1), Eusiridae (1), Hyalidae (1), Ischyroceridae (1), Leucothoidae (8) and Lysianassidae (1) are recorded from Palau in Micronesia. Of these, Ventojassa palauensis sp. nov., Leucothoe beobeldabensis sp.nov., L. pseudepidemos sp. nov., L. serratissima sp. nov., L. tumida sp. nov., L. whiteae sp. nov and Paranamixis dentidactylus sp. nov. are new to science and are described and figured. PMID:25277573

  5. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: families Melphidippidae, Oedicerotidae, Photidae, Pleustidae, Podoceridae, Stenothoidae, Synopiidae and Talitridae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species belonging to the families Melphidippidae, Oedicerotidae, Photidae, Pleustidae, Podoceridae, Stenothoidae, Synopiidae and Talitridae are recorded from Palau, Micronesia. Eight species are figured. One species is new to science and is described and figured. One species was previously known only from Australia, one only from Madagascar and one only from Fiji. PMID:24943185

  6. Amphipoda (crustacea) from palau, micronesia: families ampeliscidae, ampithoidae, aoridae, colomastigidae and cyproideidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    12 species of amphipod in 5 families, collected from shallow reefs in Palau by S. DeGrave during 2002, are reported here. Of these, five species are new to science and Microdeutopus tridens Schellenberg (1938) is redescribed and transferred to the genus Bemlos Shoemaker (1925). The collection included several additional species in the genera Amphilochus Bate, 1862, Ampithoe Leach (1814), Bemlos, Byblis Boeck (1871), Colomastix Grube (1861) and Notopoma Lowry & Berents (1996), that were either incomplete or juvenile and could therefore not adequately be described. In addition, two new species of Plumithoe Barnard & Karaman (1991) are erected from the literature. Other families collected in Palau will be considered in later contributions. PMID:22679377

  7. The complete mitogenome of the Australian land crayfish Engaeus lyelli (Clark 1936) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic freshwater crayfish Engaeus lyelli was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The mitogenome has 16,027 bp consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of E. lyelli is 29.01% for T, 27.13% for C, 31.43% for A, and 12.44% for G, with an AT bias of 60.44%. The species has the distinctive gene order characteristic of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving the tRNA genes. PMID:24730605

  8. The complete mitogenome of the Australian crayfish Geocharax gracilis Clark 1936 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenome of the black yabby, Geocharax gracilis, was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer. It has 15,924 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of G. gracilis mitogenome is 32.18% for T, 22.32% for C, 34.83% for A, and 10.68% for G, with an AT bias of 67.01%. The mitogenome gene order is typical for that of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving tRNA genes. PMID:24845437

  9. Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) parasitic on Algerian fishes.

    PubMed

    Ramdane, Zouhir; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen female specimens of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) were recently collected from the Algerian coast. As until now this species was poorly described, this contribution redescribes this species with more precise drawings on the general morphology and appendages, using this fresh material. For the first time, two new hosts are identified. Host specificity and some ecological data are also reported. PMID:21987102

  10. Evolution of freshwater crab diversity in the Aegean region (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Jesse, Ruth; Grudinski, Melanie; Klaus, Sebastian; Streit, Bruno; Pfenninger, Markus

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of the palaeogeographic and climatic history of the Aegean region on the diversity of freshwater crabs of the genus Potamon and to test whether this area served as source or reservoir in species diversity. Necessary species delimitation was accomplished by phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial markers COX1 and ND1, partial 16S rRNA gene and the tRNALeu gene. We found 14 genetic lineages of which nine could be assigned to previously recognised species. Temporal estimates of the splitting pattern in the phylogeny of Potamon indicated that a combination of geological and climatic events influenced their diversification. Within Potamon, the lineages separated into a western group and an eastern group. This first split in the genus occurred approximately 8.3-5.5 Mya, thus possibly correlated with the Messinian salinity crisis. A likelihood approach to geographic range evolution suggested for most species, occurring in the Aegean area, an origin in the Middle East. Moreover, there were no insular endemics in the central Aegean archipelago, therefore low sea-levels during the Pleistocene glacial periods possibly enabled dispersal to these islands, but subsequent rise in sea-level did not cause speciation. Nevertheless, the diversification of most lineages occurred during the Pleistocene epoch thus coinciding with Quaternary fluctuations of the climate. PMID:21216297

  11. Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) as a model organism to study the effects of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehennaoui, Kahina; Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Felten, Vincent; Andreï, Jennifer; Garaud, Maël; Cambier, Sébastien; Serchi, Tommaso; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Guérold, François; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure; Gutleb, Arno C

    2016-10-01

    Amphipods are one of the most important components of freshwater ecosystems. Among them, gammarids are the most widespread group in Europe and are often used as bioindicators and model organisms in ecotoxicology. However, their use, especially of Gammarus fossarum for the study of the environmental impact of nanoparticles, has been rather limited so far. G. fossarum was selected to assess effects of well-characterized chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 20nm and 200nm) and "green" laboratory synthetized (from plant leaf extracts) AgNPs (AgNPs 23nm and 27nm). AgNO3 was used as a positive control to compare AgNPs effects and silver ions effects. A multibiomarker approach was used to investigate the sub-lethal effects of AgNPs on physiological and behavioural responses of G. fossarum. Two different experiments were carried out. In a preliminary experiment, two populations of G. fossarum (G.f1 and G.f2) were tested for sensitivity differences and the most sensitive one was exposed, in a final experiment, to sub-lethal concentrations of AgNO3 and the most toxic AgNPs. AgNO3 and AgNPs 23nm led to a significant decrease in survival rates, osmoregulation and locomotor activity. Ag internalisation, performed with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), showed the presence of silver in gills of G.f2 exposed to AgNPs 23 and 27nm. This study highlighted the influence of method of synthesis on ion release, uptake and toxic effects of AgNPs on G. fossarum. Osmoregulation appeared to be an effective biomarker indicating the physiological health status of G. fossarum. Locomotor activity, which was the most impacted response, reflects the potential effects of released ions from AgNPs 23nm at the population level as locomotion is necessary for foraging, finding mates and escaping from predators. Therefore, we propose G. fossarum as a suitable model for environmental nanotoxicology, providing information both at individual and population levels. PMID:27328878

  12. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  13. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle. PMID:26276088

  14. Review of the buccal-attaching fish parasite genus Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    Two species of Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 are known from Australia: Glossobius anctus Bruce & Bowman, 1989 and Glossobius impressus (Say, 1818), the latter recorded here for the first time from Australia and southern Africa. Glossobius ogasawarensis Nunomura, 1994 is here placed in synonymy with Glossobius auritus Bovallius, 1885; whereas Glossobius crassa (Dana, 1853) is removed from synonymy with G. auritus and placed into nomen dubium. Glossobius arimae Nunomura, 2001 is transferred to the genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852. A key to the species of Glossobius is presented. PMID:26249863

  15. First occurrence of Norileca triangulata (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2015-03-01

    An ectoparasitic isopod, Norileca triangulata was found in the branchial cavity of Sardinella gibbosa at Parangipettai coastal waters. The present findings represent the first record of N. triangulata and herein reported. Until now, this species was distributed from Tanimdao Island, Philippines and from Queensland-Eel Reef, Cape York; Michaelmas Cay, near Cairns and Mooloobah, south-eastern Queensland. The range is here extended and now includes to the Southeast coast of India. The materials examined were deposited at the Annamalai University, India (collection Ravichandran). The parasites has been found on 16 out of 16 specimens of S. gibbosa. The prevalence of N. triangulata on S. gibbosa was 7.5 % and mean intensity was 1. The host fish length ranges from 140 to 182 mm. It is further confirmed that the parasites were specific in the selection of host S. gibbosa. Previously N. triangulata was reported from two hosts Parexocoetus brachypterus. Females of N. triangulata ranges 12-18 mm but not found in males. As summarized comparative characteristic feature of two species of parasitic isopods of Norileca indica and N. triangulata. Host species were captured on pelagic region from the coast of Parangipettai. N. triangulata can be distinguished from N. indica by several characters. A related species N. indica has the head to the anterior, and the abdomen facing outwards, pressed against the gill operculum, positioned ventrally in the gill cavity. PMID:25698856

  16. Local and regional species diversity of benthic Isopoda (Crustacea) in the deep Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, George D. F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies of deep-sea faunas considered the influence of mid-domain models in the distribution of species diversity and richness with depth. In this paper, I show that separating local diversity from regional species richness in benthic isopods clarifies mid-domain effects in the distribution of isopods in the Gulf of Mexico. Deviations from the randomised implied species ranges can be informative to understanding general patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. The isopods from the GoMB study contained 135 species, with a total of 156 species including those from an earlier study. More than 60 species may be new to science. Most families of deep-sea isopods (suborder Asellota) were present, although some were extremely rare. The isopod family Desmosomatidae dominated the samples, and one species of Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) was found in many samples. Species richness for samples pooled within sites ranged from 1 to 52 species. Because species in pooled samples were highly correlated with individuals, species diversity was compared across sites using the expected species estimator ( n=15 individuals, ES 15). Six depth transects had idiosyncratic patterns of ES 15, and transects with the greatest short-range variation in topography, such as basins and canyons, had the greatest short-range disparity. Basins on the deep slope did not have a consistent influence (i.e., relatively higher or lower than surrounding areas) on the comparative species diversity. ES 15 of all transects together showed a weak mid-domain effect, peaking around 1200-1500 m, with low values at the shallowest and deepest samples (Sigsbee Abyssal Plain); no longitudinal (east-west) pattern was found. The regional species pool was analyzed by summing the implied ranges of all species. The species ranges in aggregate did not have significant patterns across longitudes, and many species had broad depth ranges, suggesting that the isopod fauna of the Gulf of Mexico is well dispersed. The summed ranges, as expected, had strong mid-domain patterns, contrasting with the local species richness estimates. The longitudinal ranges closely matched a randomized pattern (species ranges placed randomly, 1000 iterations), with significant deviations in the east attributable to lower sampling effort. The depth pattern, however, deviated from the mid-domain model, with a bimodal peak displaced nearly 500 m shallower than the mode of the randomized distribution. The deviations from random expectation were significantly positive above 1600 m and negative below 2000 m, with the result that regional species richness peaked between 800 and 1200 m, and decreased rapidly at deeper depths. The highest species richness intervals corresponded to the number of individuals collected. Residuals from a regression of the deviations on individual numbers, however, still deviated from the randomized pattern. In this declining depth-diversity pattern, the Gulf of Mexico resembles other partially enclosed basins, such as the Norwegian Sea, known to have suffered geologically recent extinction events. This displaced diversity pattern and broad depth ranges implicate ongoing re-colonization of the deeper parts of the Gulf of Mexico. The Sigsbee Abyssal Plain sites could be depauperate for historical reasons (e.g., one or more extinction events) rather than ongoing ecological reasons (e.g., low food supply).

  17. Are foraminifers (Protozoa) important food for small isopods (Crustacea) in the deep sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; von Schmalensee, Menja; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2000-11-01

    Gut contents of three small (<6 mm) species of munnopsid asellote isopod crustaceans ( Echinozone arctica, Ilyarachna bergendali and I. torleivi) from bathyal depths in the Nordic Seas were examined. The species feed mainly on benthic foraminifers, and their gut contents reflect the functional capability of the mouthparts in partitioning the food. Fragments of small and fragile calcareous foraminifer protozoans and small hard agglutinating foraminifers were most important in the guts of Echinozone arctica, which has rounded mandibular molar process, suited for crunching the foraminifers. Dark- and light-gray stercomata (foraminifer fecal pellets) from soft agglutinating foraminifers were most important in the guts of Ilyarachna bergendali, whose molar process has a wide crunching cusp and a sharp cutting edge. The gut contents of Ilyarachna torleivi were similar to the contents of I. bergendali, but differed somewhat from those of E. arctica. The results indicate that foraminiferivory may be common among small munnopsid asellote isopods and that the isopods may specialize in certain foraminifer species or genera. The strength of the foraminifer test may be an important aid against predation. This study indicates that small, yet poorly known, soft-shelled and agglutinating foraminifers with a low nutritional value may be important as food for deep-water isopods and that foraminifers may be an important link between phytodetritus and the macrofauna.

  18. Multiple colonization of the deep sea by the Asellota (Crustacea: Peracarida: Isopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Held, Christoph; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    Despite its extreme environmental conditions the deep sea harbors a unique and species-rich fauna of mostly unknown age and phylogeny. Asellote isopods have undergone their most impressive radiation in the deep sea, being found at all depths down to the deepest trench. Here we present the first molecular evidence for the phylogenetic origin of this remarkable array of deep-sea crustaceans, based on 30 new DNA-sequences of the complete 18s rRNA gene of specimens collected at depths down to 4543 m in the South Atlantic and South Polar Ocean. The results show that most of these isopod lineages belong to a single ancient clade. They evolved in situ in large oceanic depths and survived several climatic changes, but the lack of fossils and of a suitable molecular clock model prevents a precise dating of this radiation. The monophyly of typical deep-sea families, for example the Haploniscidae, Ischnomesidae or Munnopsidae, is well supported by different methods of analysis, while the monophyly of the Janiridae is rejected.

  19. Diversity of Southern Ocean deep-sea Isopoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca) — a comparison with shelf data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Brökeland, Wiebke; Brix, Saskia; Malyutina, Marina

    2004-07-01

    Samples were taken during the expeditions ANDEEP I & II (ANT XIX/3-4) (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) with RV Polarstern for the analysis of the Southern Ocean (SO) deep-sea isopod biodiversity in the Drake Passage, off Elephant Island, along the South Shetland Islands, in the northwestern Weddell Sea, and at the South Sandwich Islands. In total 5525 specimens of Isopoda were sampled and 317 species were discriminated. Isopoda were the most abundant peracarid taxon, with 38% of all Peracarida, 98% of the Isopoda belonging to the suborder Asellota. Species richness was highest in the northwestern Weddell Sea; diversity and evenness were relatively high at all stations. The Munnopsididae were the most dominant isopod family, with 61% of the specimens, 118 species divided among 28 genera; the Haploniscidae comprised 15% of all isopods with 36 species from four genera, followed by the Ischnomesidae with 7% and 30 species from five genera. The families Desmosomatidae, Macrostylidae and Nannoniscidae comprised 10% of the isopod specimens. The Desmosomatidae were the second most diverse family, with 48 species from 12 genera. Species of the suborder Valvifera or the family Serolidae were much rarer in the SO deep-sea than on the shelf. 141 of isopod species (46% of the total number) were rare, occurring only at one of the 21 epibenthic-sledge stations. A cluster analysis showed no clear relation between isopod communities and geographic area. Depth was the most important factor for differences in isopod community patterns. The species accumulation curve shows that the SO deep sea was not sampled representatively during ANDEEP I & II and further sampling is necessary. The SO deep-sea differs in faunal composition from the shelf.

  20. Assimilation of zinc by Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) exposed to zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Bibic, A.; Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of terrestrial isopods to accumulate high amounts of metals, to survive in industrially polluted areas and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose-dependent manner makes them one of the most favorite experimental organisms for terrestrial ecotoxicology. Understanding metal uptake, assimilation and loss by these animals is important to explain how they cope with polluted environments. Metal uptake depends on the rate of food consumption, on metal availability in the food, on the pH inside the gut and some other factors. Isopods respond to high metal concentrations in the food in different ways and try to avoid the negative effects of metal poisoning. Zinc is one of the metals present in high concentrations in industrially polluted areas. Zinc poisoning may be avoided by the regulation of the consumption rate, by behavioral response, by storing metals in the hepatopancreas as insoluble granules, and by fecal, and possibly urinary, excretion. Zinc in organisms is a constituent of more than 200 metalloenzymes and other metabolic compounds and assures stability of biological molecules and structures. High Zn levels in food cause a reduction of feeding rate, affect growth and reproduction, cause changes in the structure of the digestive glands and influence the duration of the molting cycle. The present study investigated zinc assimilation by Porcellio scaber exposed to leaves contaminated with radioactively labeled zinc at five different concentrations. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Takereana, a new genus of Idoteidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Valvifera) from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Hurley, Desmond E

    2015-01-01

    Takereana n. gen. is erected for the New Zealand species, Idotea festiva Chilton, 1885, which is redescribed. Takereana, Austridotea Poore, 2001 and Idotea Fabricius, 1798 are the only idoteid genera in which both pleonites 1 and 2 are truly articulating. In all other genera of Idoteidae pleonite 2 is variously fused to pleonite 1 and visible only laterally. The new genus differs from Austridotea in that maxillipedal palp articles 2-3 and 4-5 are fused and operculate whereas in Austridotea the palp is of five free articles or has only articles 4-5 fused. All species of Austridotea are smooth with laterally expanded coxae, a quite different habitus from ornamented Takereana festiva. Takereana differs from Idotea in having two uropodal rami rather than one, greater fusion of maxillipedal palp articles, lacking spiniform setae on the pereopods, and unusual narrow pleopods 1. Takereana has an obsolete setose mandibular molar while it is columnar and toothed in both these genera. PMID:26701503

  2. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  3. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  4. A new Chthamalus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) from the challengeri subgroup on Taiwan rocky intertidal shores.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Cheang, Chi Chiu

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes a new barnacle, Chthamalus williamsi sp. nov., from rocky shores in Taiwan. Chthamalus williamsi sp. nov. belongs to the challengeri subgroup of Chthamalus due to cirrus I having no conical spines and the setae on cirri II having no basal guards. Within the challengeri sub-group, C. williamsi sp. nov. differs from C. challengeri Hoek, 1883, C. dalli Pilsbry, 1916 and C. montagui Southward, 1976 by its scutum and the tergum both having straight articular margins. Chthamalus moro Pilsbry, 1916 differs from C. williamsi sp. nov. in having strong ribbing on the shell surface, and C. williamsi sp. nov. differs from C. antennatus Darwin, 1854 by having a normal form cirrus III, rather than an antenniform cirrus III as in C. antennatus. The external morphology and size of C. williamsi sp. nov. are similar to C. sinensis Ren, 1984 (C. neglectus Yan & Chan, 2004 is a synonym of C. sinensis, from molecular data presented in the present study) but the scutum of C. williamsi sp. nov. has a height similar to its width, whilst the scutum of C. sinensis is much depressed, being wider than high. From molecular analysis of a mitochondrial COI region, C. williamsi sp. nov. formed a distinct clade (divergence >15%) from other described species in the challengeri subgroup including C. challengeri, C. sinensis, C. moro, C. montagui and C. dalli, suggesting that it is a new species. PMID:26623745

  5. The functional and physiological status of Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea; Amphipoda) exposed to secondary treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict lower flow rates during summer that may lead to higher proportions of wastewater in small and medium sized streams. Moreover, micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and other contaminants) continuously enter aquatic environments via treated wastewater. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, whether extended exposure to secondary treated wastewater disrupts important ecosystem functions, e.g. leaf breakdown. Therefore, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was exposed to natural stream water (n=34) and secondary treated wastewater (n=32) for four weeks in a semi-static test system under laboratory conditions. G. fossarum exposed to wastewater showed significant reductions in feeding rate (25%), absolute consumption (35%), food assimilation (50%), dry weight (18%) and lipid content (22%). Thus, high proportions of wastewater in the stream flow may affect both the breakdown rates of leaf material and thus the availability of energy for the aquatic food web as well as the energy budget of G. fossarum. PMID:20932616

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro). PMID:24397766

  7. The complete mitogenome of the soldier crab Mictyris longicarpus (Latreille, 1806) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Mictyridae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The Mictyris longicarpus (soldier crab) complete mitochondrial genome sequence is reported making it the first for the family Mictyridae and the second for the superfamily Ocypodoidea. The mitogenome is 15,548 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The soldier crab mitogenome gene order is characteristic of brachyuran crabs with a base composition of 36.58% for T, 19.15% for C, 32.43% for A and 11.83% for G, with an AT bias of 69.01%. PMID:25423510

  8. The complete mitogenome of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs. PMID:25423512

  9. The complete mitogenome of the freshwater crayfish Cherax cainii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherax cainii was recovered from partial genome sequencing data using the HiSeq platform. The mitogenome consists of 15,801 base pairs (69% A + T content) containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a 783 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the second completely sequenced mitogenome from the genus Cherax after the first reported Cherax destructor mitogenome nearly a decade ago. PMID:24438281

  10. The complete mitogenome of the crayfish Cherax glaber (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherax glaber was sequenced using the HiSeq platform. The mitogenome consists of 15,806 base pairs containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The Cherax glaber has a base composition of 32.39% for T, 22.42% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.46% for G, with an AT bias of 66.12%. PMID:24484586

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the American lobster, Homarus americanus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

    2011-06-01

    Although relatively a large number of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been determined from various decapod species (29 mtDNA sequences reported so far), the information for the infraorder Astacidea (including lobsters, crayfishes, and their relatives) is very limited and represented by only one complete sequence from the Australian freshwater crayfish species Cherax destructor. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Homarus americanus, the first representative of the family Nephropidae to be fully characterized. Comparison of the gene arrangement reveals that H. americanus mtDNA is identical to those of other pancrustacean species but differs from the other astacidean species (C. destructor). Based on these data, it can be assumed that an idiosyncratic gene order discovered in C. destructor mtDNA may be secondarily acquired from the ancestral lineage of the Astacidea. PMID:21740340

  12. The complete mitogenome of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Von Martens, 1868) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The commercial freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus complete mitochondrial genome was recovered from partial genome sequencing using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer. The mitogenome has 15,869 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of C. quadricarinatus is 32.16% for T, 23.39% for C, 33.26% for A, and 11.19% for G, with an AT bias of 65.42%. PMID:24617485

  13. The complete mitogenome of Cherax monticola (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae), a large highland crayfish from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Eprilurahman, Rury; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a highland freshwater crayfish, Cherax monticola, was recovered by shotgun sequencing. The mitogenome consists of 15,917 base pairs containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of C. monticola is 33.46% for T, 21.48% for C, 33.71% for A and 11.35% for G, with an AT bias of 67.17%. PMID:24617471

  14. A new genus of Trachelipodidae Strouhal, 1953 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Giovanna Monticelli; Taiti, Stefano; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Levantoniscus n. gen. is erected for two new species from Cyprus: Levantoniscus bicostulatus n. sp. and Levantoniscus makrisi n. sp. Levantoniscus wahrmani (Strouhal, 1968) n. comb. from Israel and southern Turkey is transferred from the genus Bathytropa Budde-Lund, 1885 and family Bathytropidae. The new genus is included in the family Trachelipodidae and is characterized by distinct dorsal ornamentation, interlocking pleopods and uncovered pleopodal lungs which are located in invaginations on pleopod 3-5 exopodites. PMID:26624647

  15. Seasonal variability of metabolic markers and oxidative balance in freshwater amphipod Hyalella kaingang (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Braghirolli, Fernando Machado; Oliveira, Maiara Rodriguez; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-08-01

    Amphipods are widely used as bioindicator organisms, in view of their ease of collection and cultivation, sexual dimorphism and abundance, in aquatic environments. In the present study male (n=30) and female (n=30) amphipod Hyalella kaingang were collected during the middle of each season from a nature preserve (Research Center PRÓ-MATA) in São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil. Proteins, glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, and lipid peroxidation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activity) were measured. The results obtained for the markers of energy metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation revealed a clear seasonal variation. The patterns of proteins, glycerol, and glutathione S-transferase activity did not differ between sexes; conversely, differential responses in males and females over the year were observed for all other parameters (glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity). These responses appear to be strongly influenced by a prolonged reproductive period (autumn through spring, peaking in autumn); by the degree of exploratory activity, particularly in the summer and autumn; and by abiotic factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. The responses observed in the summer and autumn (decrease in levels of proteins, glycogen and fats, and increase in lipid peroxidation levels and glutathione S-transferase activity), suggest that this season represents a critical time point for these animals. The parameters studied herein may be used as biomarkers to assess the environmental conditions in the aquatic habitat. PMID:27107775

  16. Identification and characterisation of hemocyanin of the fish louse Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Pinnow, Pauline; Fabrizius, Andrej; Pick, Christian; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Hemocyanin transports oxygen in the hemolymph of many arthropod species. Within the crustaceans, this copper-containing protein was thought to be restricted to Malacostraca, while other crustacean classes were assumed to employ hemoglobin or lack any respiratory protein. Only recently it has become evident that hemocyanins also occur in Remipedia and Ostracoda. Here we report for the first time the identification and characterisation of hemocyanin in the fish louse Argulus, which belongs to the class of Branchiura. This finding indicates that hemocyanin was the principal oxygen carrier in the stem lineage of the pancrustaceans, but has been lost independently multiple times in crustacean taxa. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of two hemocyanin subunits of Argulus foliaceus by a combination of RT-PCR, RACE and Illumina sequencing of the transcriptome. In addition, one full-length and one partial cDNA sequence were derived from the transcriptome data of Argulus siamensis. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of at least two hemocyanin subunits in A. foliaceus, which are expressed at the mRNA level at a 1:3.5 ratio. The addition to the branchiuran hemocyanin subunits to a multiple sequence alignment of arthropod, hemocyanins improved the phylogenetic resolution within the pancrustacean hemocyanins. Malacostracan, ostracod and branchiuran hemocyanins are distinct from the hexapod and remipede hemocyanins, reinforcing the hypothesis of a close relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda. Notably, the ostracod hemocyanins are paraphyletic with respect to the branchiuran hemocyanins, indicating ancient divergence and differential loss of distinct subunit types. PMID:26515963

  17. Two new species of Asellota (Crustacea, Isopoda) from coral reefs on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pleurocope iriomotensis sp. n. and Prethura tuberculata sp. n. are described from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. These are the first records of Pleurocope from the Pacific and of Prethura from the Asian Pacific coast. Pleurocope iriomotensis differs from its congeners in having lateral spine-like processes on pereonite 4 and coxal plates of pereonite 7. Prethura tuberculata can be distinguished from its single congener in having a lateral short projection of protopod of pleopod 2. PMID:26448712

  18. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O2 consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment.

  19. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. S.; Chan, J. C. L.; Cheng, W. C.; Tai, S. L.; Wong, P. W.

    2007-08-01

    This study examines the convection distribution associated with 18 TCs that made landfall along the South China coast during 1995 and 2005. Cloud-top temperatures from high-resolution satellite imageries of the Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite 5 are used as proxy of strong convection. It is found that convection tends to be enhanced on the western side of the TC as it makes landfall in 10 of the cases, in agreement with the conclusion of some previous studies. Four cases have stronger convection on the eastern side. This “deviation” from the general rule appears to be related to the TCs being more slow-moving or their interaction of the TC with another land surface prior to its making landfall along the South China coast. For the remaining cases in which no significant asymmetries in convection can be identified, the vertical wind shear appears to enhance convection on the east side.

  20. Responses of the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni (crustacea) to saline sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Johnson, I.

    Soon after the openiing of the Looe sewage treatment works (Cornwall, southwest England) in 1973, it became colonized by the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni Liljeborg. The works is unusual as it operates with saline sewage and has a tidally-based pattern of salinity fluctuation (S=13 to 34). Various responses of this unique amphipod population (sewage amphipods) have been compared with G. duebeni from the adjacent Looe River estuary (estuarine amphipods) in an attempt to identify long-term responses to sewage. Sewage amphipods were significantly smaller than their estuarine equivalents; the sewage population was biased significantly to males, whereas the sex ratio of the estuarine population significantly favours females. Compared with the estuary, the consistently lower oxygen levels in the works were reflected in significant differences in metabolism. Sewage amphipods maintained high levels of activity under hypoxia ( e.g. swimming), and the higher survival and lower rates of lactic acid accumulation under anoxia than estuarine individuals. In addition, sewage amphipods recovered more rapidly from anoxia and had a lower critical oxygen tension (p c) than estuarine amphipods. Sewage amphipods are exposed to higher levels of heavy metals associated with the domestic sewage and zinc concentrations are particularly elevated in the works. Exposure to elevated zinc concentrations resulted in similar patterns of body zinc uptake for sewage and estuarine Gammarus at high (30) and low (10) salinity, with zinc regulation apparently occuring to an external threshold of 200 γmgZn·dm -3. No consistent interpopulational differences in the effect ofzinc on zinc uptake or on osmoregulation have been identified. However, sewage amphipods had higher survival at all zinc/salinity combinations compared with estuarine individuals. These indicate that sewage amphipods are adapted to the unusual combination of conditions prevailing in the treatment works and, if reproductive isolation is confirmed, suggest that the speciation process may have commenced.

  1. Reproductive pattern of the epifaunal amphipod Pontogeneia rostrata (Crustacea) on dolsando sandy shore in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ok Hwan; Jeong, Seung Jin; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2008-09-01

    Reproductive patterns of an epifaunal amphipod, Pontogeneia rostrata, were studied on Dolsando sandy shore in Korea. The life history pattern was iteroparous, with recruitment mainly occurring from winter to spring. The sex ratio was male-biased, especially during breeding periods. The mean body length of females was significantly larger than that of males. Brood size and egg volume were positively related to the body length of ovigerous females. There was no significant difference in brood size between successive breeding periods, but egg volumes were significantly higher in early winter (December) than in late spring breeding (May and June), increasing the probability of survival to hatching. These traits contribute to more reproductive potential in early winter than in late spring breeding. The mean brood size of epifaunal P. rostrata was larger but the mean egg volume smaller than that of infaunal amphipods in this sampling area. We suggest that reproductive effort for epifaunal species may be proportionally greater than for infaunal species in risky environments.

  2. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  3. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  4. Egg envelopes of Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille, 1804) (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea): Ultrastructure and lectins binding.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Sinatra, F; Villaggio, G; Longo, G

    2016-09-01

    The ultrastructural study carried out on (a) oocytes of Armadillidium vulgare during vitellogenesis, (b) mature eggs taken from the ovaries during the parturial moult of the posterior half of the body, and (c) fertilized eggs collected within a few hours of their release into the brood pouch, has clearly demonstrated that before the fertilization the chorion is the only envelope present in the egg of oniscidean isopods. In the mature eggs, the chorion appears as a uniformly electron-dense lamina, about 0.4-0.5 µm thick, which does not show any specialized area. A second envelope, described by other authors as vitelline envelope, is formed above the oolemma only right after fertilization and appears separated from the chorion by a space full of liquid. The ways in which the genesis of this envelope is realized are not yet clear; it could be interpreted rather as a fertilization membrane. The investigations carried out with the aid of a battery of FITC-lectins have highlighted the presence at the chorion surface of unfertilized eggs of various saccharide residues distributed in uniform way. No significant change was observed in the pattern of lectins binding to the chorion of eggs taken from the brood pouch, thus demonstrating how, after the fertilization, no significant rearrangement in the distribution of saccharide residues present on the egg surface occurs in A. vulgare. The ways in which, therefore, the recognition, the binding and the entry of the peculiar sperm of oniscidean isopods into the egg occur, still remain all to be deciphered. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:792-798, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324273

  5. Structure and evolution of the atypical mitochondrial genome of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Marcadé, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Doublet, Vincent; Debenest, Catherine; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Roland

    2007-12-01

    The crustacean isopod Armadillidium vulgare is characterized by an unusual approximately 42-kb-long mitochondrial genome consisting of two molecules co-occurring in mitochondria: a circular approximately 28-kb dimer formed by two approximately 14-kb monomers fused in opposite polarities and a linear approximately 14-kb monomer. Here we determined the nucleotide sequence of the fundamental monomeric unit of A. vulgare mitochondrial genome, to gain new insight into its structure and evolution. Our results suggest that the junction zone between monomers of the dimer structure is located in or near the control region. Direct sequencing indicated that the nucleotide sequences of the different monomer units are virtually identical. This suggests that gene conversion and/or replication processes play an important role in shaping nucleotide sequence variation in this mitochondrial genome. The only heteroplasmic site we identified predicts an alloacceptor tRNA change from tRNA(Ala) to tRNA(Val). Therefore, in A. vulgare, tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Val) are found at the same locus in different monomers, ensuring that both tRNAs are present in mitochondria. The presence of this heteroplasmic site in all sequenced individuals suggests that the polymorphism is selectively maintained, probably because of the necessity of both tRNAs for maintaining proper mitochondrial functions. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for the tRNA gene recruitment model of tRNA evolution. Moreover, interspecific comparisons showed that the A. vulgare mitochondrial gene order is highly derived compared to the putative ancestral arthropod type. By contrast, an overall high conservation of mitochondrial gene order is observed within crustacean isopods. PMID:17906827

  6. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed. PMID:15081839

  7. Discontinuous ammonia excretion and glutamine storage in littoral Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda): testing tidal and circadian models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maya; Wright, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    A key evolutionary development facilitating land colonization in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is the intermittent liberation of waste nitrogen as volatile ammonia. Intermittent ammonia release exploits glutamine (Gln) as an intermediary nitrogen store. Here, we explore the relationship between temporal patterns of ammonia release and Gln accumulation in three littoral oniscideans from Southern California. Results are interpreted in terms of water availability, habitat, activity patterns, and ancestry. A two-way experimental design was used to test whether ammonia excretion and Gln accumulation follow a tidal or diel periodicity. Ammonia excretion was studied in the laboratory using chambers with or without available seawater and using an acid trap to collect volatile ammonia. Ligia occidentalis releases ammonia directly into seawater and accumulates Gln during low tide (48.9 ± 6.5 μmol g⁻¹ at low tide, 24.1 ± 3.0 μmol g⁻¹ at high tide), indicating that excretion is tidally constrained. Alloniscus perconvexus and Tylos punctatus can excrete ammonia directly into seawater or utilize volatilization. Both species burrow in sand by day and show a diel excretory pattern, accumulating Gln nocturnally (31.8 ± 2.7 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 21.8 ± 2.3 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for A. perconvexus; 85.7 ± 15.1 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 25.4 ± 2.9 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for T. punctatus) and liberating ammonia diurnally. Glutaminase shows higher activity in terrestrial (0.54-0.86 U g⁻¹) compared to intertidal (0.25-0.31 U g⁻¹) species, consistent with the need to generate high PNH₃ for volatilization. The predominant isoform in Armadillidium vulgare is phosphate dependent and maleate independent; phosphate is a plausible regulator in vivo. PMID:22836297

  8. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  9. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Polona; Bogataj, Urban; Štrus, Jasna; Žnidaršič, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial manca, possibly related also to different environments, as mancae develop in marsupial fluid. Bacteria, evenly distributed within the homogenous electron dense material in the hindgut lumen, were observed only in one specimen of early marsupial manca. The morphological features of gut cuticle renewal are evident in the late marsupial mancae, and are similar to those observed in the exoskeleton. PMID:26261443

  10. A new species of Monoliropus Mayer, 1903 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Caprellidae) from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Sang; Heo, Jun-Haeng; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Monoliropus belonging to the family Caprellidae was collected from the Yellow Sea, Korea. The new species differs from Monoliropus agilis Mayer, 1903, Monoliropus kazemii Momtazi & Sari, 2013, and Triprotella amica Arimoto, 1970 as follows: 1) gnathopod 1 subrectangular; 2) pereonites 2–3 with acute triangular processes anterolaterally; 3) mandibular palp, apical article with four simple setae subdistally. The new species is fully illustrated and extensively compared with related species. This is the first record of the genus Monoliropus from Korean waters. A key to Monoliropus species is also given. PMID:26312030

  11. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: Families Ampeliscidae, Ampithoidae, Aoridae, Colomastigidae and Cyproideidae

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Alan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract 12 species of amphipod in 5 families, collected from shallow reefs in Palau by S. DeGrave during 2002, are reported here. Of these, five species are new to science and Microdeutopus tridens Schellenberg (1938) is redescribed and transferred to the genus Bemlos Shoemaker (1925). The collection included several additional species in the genera Amphilochus Bate, 1862, Ampithoe Leach (1814), Bemlos, Byblis Boeck (1871), Colomastix Grube (1861) and Notopoma Lowry & Berents (1996), that were either incomplete or juvenile and could therefore not adequately be described. In addition, two new species of Plumithoe Barnard & Karaman (1991) are erected from the literature. Other families collected in Palau will be considered in later contributions. PMID:22679377

  12. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the blind vent crab Gandalfus puia (Crustacea: Bythograeidae) from the Tonga Arc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Moon, Jai-Woon; Ju, Se-Jong

    2016-07-01

    The brachyuran crab Gandalfus puia is a species endemic to the hydrothermal vent fields in the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. In order to understand G. puia at the genomic level, we sequenced its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) and then compared to other bythograeids. The mitogenome is 15,548 bp in length and exhibits brachyuran-typical gene arrangement. Its protein-coding genes were very similar to other bythograeid species with respect to length, AT content and start and stop codons. Additionally, we compared the mitogenomes of Gandalfus and the closely related Austinograea. The inter-specific nucleotide divergence was 13.4% in Gandalfus and 13.7-14.0% in Austinograea. The inter-generic nucleotide divergence between Gandalfus and Austinograea was 16.3-19.7%. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, bythograeid crabs were recognized as the monophyletic taxon with the high supporting values (100% bootstrap proportions and 1.00 posterior probabilities). These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of bythograeid crabs. PMID:26057012

  14. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  15. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H J M; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group. PMID:27246395

  16. Lamprops donghaensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Cumacea, Lampropidae), a new species from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Cumacea belonging to the genus Lamprops Sars was collected from the East Sea of Korea. This new species resembles Lamprops comatus Zimmer, Lamprops carinatus Hart, Lamprops flavus Harada, Lamprops pumilio Zimmer, Lamprops tomalesi Gladfelter, and Lamprops obfuscatus (Gladfelter) in lacking lateral oblique ridges on the carapace and lateral setae on the telson. The new species, however, is distinguished from its congeners by having a dorsal concave groove and a lateral rounded depressed area on pereonite 2. The new species is fully illustrated and compared with related species. A key to the world Lamprops species lacking lateral ridges on the carapace is also provided. PMID:26312026

  17. Thermal biology of the sub-polar-temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae).

    PubMed

    Cumillaf, Juan P; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34-36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5-6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  18. A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010 (Crustacea: Alpheidae) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando; Iliffe, Thomas M; Villalobos, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010, is described based on material collected in a marine cave off Caye Chapel, Belize. Triacanthoneus chapelianus sp. nov. is the fifth species in the genus and can be distinguished from the other four species by the position of the dorsolateral teeth on the carapace, which in the new species have an anterior (= submarginal) position, and by the configuration of the posterior margin of the telson, with a notch in the middle portion and two pairs of spines and one pair of plumose setae. A key to the five species of Triacanthoneus is provided. PMID:24871168

  19. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  20. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  1. Agononida Baba and de saint Laurent, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheoidea: Munididae) from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    The present paper reports five species of squat lobster, genus Agononida Baba and de Saint Laurent, 1996, of which A. squamosa (Henderson, 1885) and A. cf. variabilis (Baba, 1988) were not previously reported in Chinese waters. All the specimens are kept in the Marine Biological Museum collection in the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. To date, there have been 11 species of this genus recorded from China's seas. A key to those species is provided in this paper.

  2. First record of the Nephropid genus Acanthacaris Bate, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Ching; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2015-01-01

    The giant deep-sea lobster genus Acanthacaris Bate, 1888 is reported for the first time from Taiwan. The single specimen with a total length of 36 cm was collected near a cold seep off southwestern Taiwan at about 1300 m deep and identified as A. tenuimana Bate, 1888. PMID:26624388

  3. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  4. The complete mitogenome of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene. PMID:25648918

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Joong-Ki; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Slipper lobsters are a unique group of decapod crustaceans; they have cylindrical or flattened bodies and belong to the family Scyllaridae. The genus Ibacus (Leach, 1815) (Achelata, Scyllaridae, Ibacinae) consists of eight recognized species to date, all of which occur in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and are commercially important seafood species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Von Siebold, 1824) is 15,696 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 783 bp. The base composition of I. ciliatus is 35.8% A, 34.7% T, 19.0% C, and 10.5% G, with an overall AT content of 70.5%. The mitogenome of I. ciliatus was found to have gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the American lobster Homarus americanus, showing the pancrustacean ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of I. ciliatus; it is the first mitogenome information from the subfamily Ibacinae, and represents the second for the family Scyllaridae. PMID:25329294

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius (Crustacea, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-05-01

    The violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius Holthuis, 1983 (Decapoda, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) is found in the tropical reef areas of the Indo-Pacific region, and is a highly prized and very popular species in the aquarium trade industry. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. debelius has 15,641 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 746 bp. The base composition of E. debelius is 36.4% A, 35.3% T, 18.1% C, 10.3% G, and the species has an AT content of 71.7%. The E. debelius mitogenome was found to have a gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the Homarus americanus mitogenome, a representative of the arthropod ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of E. debelius, which is the first in the superfamily Enoplometopoidea. These data will provide a useful molecular resource for the phylogenetic study of the infraorder Astacidea/order Decapoda. PMID:25264838

  7. Effects of heavy metal accumulation on some reproductive characters in Armadillidium granulatum Brandt (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2013-12-01

    The impact of heavy metal bioaccumulation on reproduction of the isopod Armadillidium granulatum was studied by exposing the animals to food contaminated with various sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc salts over a period of three weeks. The analysis carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry on whole body and on isolated female and male genital systems highlighted that, although metal's bioaccumulation was always concentration-dependent, it varies considerably depending on the metal (Cd>Zn>Pb) as pointed out by the respective values of the concentration factor. The heavy metals bioaccumulation has influenced in different ways the reproductive characters observed; while no significant difference was found with regard to the length of the incubation period and the number of broods--A. granulatum has an iteroparous reproductive strategy--the onset and the length of the reproductive season were negatively affected by the increase in concentration of the tested metals, in particular of Cd. The rate of gravid females, instead, was negatively affected by the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn while in the groups treated with the highest concentrations of Pb all females produced at least one brood. The number of juveniles released from the brood pouch at the end of incubation resulted considerably higher and it was always positively correlated to the increase of the concentration of each metal, except for the highest Pb concentration. The explanation of this result, apparently anomalous, could be the object of a future research. PMID:24119710

  8. A review of the Australian endemic clam shrimp, Paralimnadia Sars 1896 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata).

    PubMed

    Timms, Brian V

    2016-01-01

    Paralimnadia was recently re-erected to accommodate Australian limnadiids formally placed in Limnadia. They are characterised by the lack of a spine on the posterior ventral corner of the telson, a cercopod divided by a spine midlength into a cylindrical seta bearing basal section and a narrowing denticle bearing distal section, males amplex females on the posterior body margin keeping the body in line, and gonochoristic reproduction, so typically sex ratios are broadly 1:1. These characters separate Paralimnadia from the closely related Eulimandia. Paralimnadia is endemic to and diverse in Australia, and includes the transferred P. stanleyana (King), P. sordida (King), P. badia (Wolf), P. cygnorum (Dakin) and P. urukhai (Webb & Bell) as well as 10 new species. All are variable morphologically, the most conservative characters being the morphology of their eggs and the cercopod setae. Although found across Australia, there are hot spots of diversity in the coast and montane areas of New South Wales and southwest of areas of Western Australia and few in the vast inland arid zone. As in Eulimnadia, a few occur in rock pools. However those in sandy coastal pools subject to urbanisation or mining are becoming rare. PMID:27615945

  9. A new species of the genus Paracypria (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cypridoidea) from the Fiji Islands.

    PubMed

    Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions. PMID:27615895

  10. Morphology and evolution of the respiratory apparatus in the family Eubelidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Pasquino; Ferrara, Franco; Taiti, Stefano

    2002-09-01

    The morphology of the respiratory apparatus in the pleopodal lungs of the family Eubelidae was investigated. The family is a monophyletic group including more than 240 species in 53 genera (three of which are nomina dubia), mostly distributed in the Afrotropical Region (tropical Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In all the Eubelidae, except for the monospecific genus Parelumoides and two species of the genus Elumoides, the exopods of pleopods have lungs. All the pulmonary morphologies present in the entire suborder Oniscidea are found: 1) uncovered lungs, composed of a pleated respiratory surface, directly exposed to the air (Atracheodillo-type) or partially enclosed within the appendage (Synarmadilloides-type); 2) covered lungs with several spiracles and respiratory trees, housed within the appendages, with spiracles surrounded by a specialized, nonrespiratory, structure (perispiracular area) (Eubelum- and Somaloniscus-types); 3) covered lungs with only one spiracle, with or without perispiracular area, and one respiratory tree (Aethiopopactes- and Periscyphis-types), which in taxa with Periscyphis-type lung crosses the insertion of the appendage and penetrates into the pleon with bundles of respiratory tubules. The evolution of the various types of lungs is discussed. It is concluded that the two main evolutionary lines, i.e., uncovered lungs and covered lungs, originated independently from an ancestral respiratory structure-the semilunar area. A first mechanism of development of the semilunar area by folding of its surface produced the Atracheodillo-type (all folds coplanar with the surface of the exopod) and Synarmadilloides-type (folds partly coplanar and partly intraflexed inside the exopod) uncovered lungs. A second mechanism of development by tubular invagination of the cuticle of the semilunar area produced the polyspiracular Eubelum-type lungs (numerous arborescent invaginations) and the monospiracular Aethiopopactes-type lungs (only one arborescent invagination), probably passing through a common intermediate pattern. From the common pattern, both the poly- and monospiracular types would have inherited the characteristic concave cell arrangement of the perispiracular area. The Somaloniscus-type and Periscyphis-type lungs are forms specialized for arid environments, directly derived from the Eubelum-type and Aethiopopactes-type, respectively. PMID:12125066

  11. Heavy metal toxicity in Exosphaeroma gigas (Crustacea, Isopoda) from the coastal zone of Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Comoglio, Laura; Amin, Oscar

    2007-11-01

    Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc on isopod Exosphaeroma gigas was evaluated at 20 per thousand and 30 per thousand salinity. Six concentrations were assayed to estimate effective concentration of the toxicant that affects 50% of tested animal (EC50), while physiological responses and bioaccumulation were determined at 0.42 and 1.95 mg L(-1) of each metal. The following toxicity orders were obtained: Cd>or=Cu>Zn at 20 per thousand salinity and Cu>Zn>or=Cd at 30 per thousand salinity. Copper treatments showed a reduction in oxygen consumption at 30 per thousand salinity, while an opposite trend was observed at 20 per thousand salinity. Zinc caused dissimilar effects, while in cadmium significant reduction was only registered in 0.42(20 per thousand) mg L(-1). Ammonia excretion was generally higher in treatments than control at 20 per thousand salinity. At 30 per thousand salinity, excretion did not change in relation to control or diminished. In general terms, O:N atomic ratios indicated a preponderant protein metabolism. Bioaccumulation of assayed metals was higher at lowest salinity and increased with increasing toxic concentrations. PMID:17223192

  12. Multiple origins of deep-sea Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda) from shallow waters revealed by molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Mayer, Christoph; Malyutina, Marina; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The Asellota are a highly variable group of Isopoda with many species in freshwater and marine shallow-water environments. However, in the deep sea, they show their most impressive radiation with a broad range of astonishing morphological adaptations and bizarre body forms. Nevertheless, the evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea Asellota are poorly known because of difficulties in scoring morphological characters. In this study, the molecular phylogeny of the Asellota is evaluated for 15 marine shallow-water species and 101 deep-sea species, using complete 18S and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences. Our molecular data support the monophyly of most deep-sea families and give evidence for a multiple colonization of the deep sea by at least four major lineages of asellote isopods. According to our molecular data, one of these lineages indicates an impressive radiation in the deep sea. Furthermore, the present study rejects the monophyly of the family Janiridae, a group of plesiomorphic shallow-water Asellota, and several shallow-water and deep-sea genera (Acanthaspidia, Ianthopsis, Haploniscus, Echinozone, Eurycope, Munnopsurus and Syneurycope). PMID:19033145

  13. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species. PMID:26624192

  14. Population Genetic History of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M.; D’Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from “virgin” deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective ‘rescue effect’ contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman’s coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly relevant to sample the deepest ones directly. PMID:25775363

  15. Reproductive variability of Parapandalus narval (Crustacea: Decapoda) along a depth gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    1992-12-01

    The variations of the reproductive parameters of Parapandalus narval are studied from a population off Rhodos Island, Greece. Female size (CL), dry weight (FDW) and depth of occurrence are examined as determinants of the reproductive parameters such as the percentage of ovigerous females, the stage of egg maturation, the brood size and the reproductive effort. The percentage of the ovigerous females and the egg maturation are related to depth. More ovigerous, older females with larger eggs in earlier stages of development are found in deeper waters. Nevertheless, brood size or brood dry weight regressions on female size and dry weight, respectively, show that the shallow water reproductive output increases more steeply with size or weight of the females than does that in deeper waters. Finally, the reproductive effort of Parapandalus narval does not seem to be directly related to depth but it is related to the size of the female. Small females have smaller reproductive effort than bigger ones that reach a maximum value.

  16. From time-to space-traveller -tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Notostraca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierold, Thorid

    The Notostraca is a small ancient crustacean order dating back to the Carboniferous and possibly up to the Devonian period. In fact, there are Upper Triassic Triops fossils from Germany which are almost indistinguishable from the present Triops cancriformis and thus Triops is considered to be one of the best examples of evolutionary stasis or `living fossil'. Fossil records have shown that the occurrence of Triops is linked to strata resulting from inland freshwater bodies with alternating phases of flooding and drying out. Still today Notostraca species are known from ephemeral ponds and puddles throughout the world. Several Large Branchiopod species such as the European T. cancriformis present adaptations to desiccation, the main one being the production of thick-walled resting cysts. A high number of resting cysts is laid during the flooded period into the pond sediment or is fixed on plants during the adulthood. The drought resistant portion of cysts undergoes an extreme form of diapause. During this resting time the embryo is protected by different (cement)-layers against desiccation, UV-radiation and pressure. Thus their life cycle is perfectly adapted to extreme environments which resulted in the survival of more than 200 Million years. Among the Notostraca a wide range of reproductive modes are present including bisexual -the putatively ancestral state -, androdioecious and hermaphrodite populations. As hermaphroditism and androdioecy confer a colonisation advantage, Triops are suitable for populating experiments whatsoever. Triops is an ideal model organism due to their easy culture and breeding in the lab. Without any impact on the hatching success the resting cysts can easily be extracted from the soil and prepared for controlled experiments. Furthermore their biology has been studied in depth and optimal breeding conditions are known. The ancient group "travelled" successfully through time and is now ready for experiments in the outer space. At the moment Triops is considered to be included in upcoming astrobiolog-ical programs "Bio-Phobos" and "Biorisk-3" scheduled for 2010-2013. Questions focusing on the effects of cosmic rays on diapause, development without gravity, and the influence of the immense g forces during take off are of main interest.

  17. The life history and sexual biology of Pseudunciola obliquua (crustacea: amphipoda) in the New York Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. A.; Woodhead, P. M. J.

    1984-06-01

    Pseudunciola obliquua is the most abundant subtidal amphipod of the near-shore macrobenthos in the New York Bight south of Fire Island. It has an annual life-cycle. Breeding occurs in March and April, and a single brood of between 8 and 20 eggs per female is produced. Fecundity is linearly proportional to maternal length. The eggs take about two months to develop; the juveniles emerge in June and July. Initial recruitment in the study area was estimated to be 2980 and 5850 per m 2 for the 1979-1980 and 1980-1981 year classes, respectively. Of the initial recruits only about 10% survive to form the reproductive stock of the following spring. Females and males grow at similar rates and are equally abundant as juveniles and initially as adults, until they reach sexual maturity. After breeding, the abundance of males decreases rapidly due to post-reproductive death. Females continue to live, carrying the developing eggs in their brood pouches. Mean female growth increases throughout the brooding period until the young are released, shortly after which adult females also die. The entire generation of reproductive adults has died by September.

  18. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscus manuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiioscia rapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered ‘disturbance relicts’ and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species. PMID:26261438

  19. Temporal Expression of the Clock Genes in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr P; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Sikora, Anna; Polanska, Marta A; Pijanowska, Joanna; Bębas, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The timekeeping mechanisms that operate at the core of circadian clocks (oscillators) are based on interacting molecular feedback loops consisting of clock and clock-associated genes. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on the expression of clock genes (particularly those forming its core) in single crustacean species at the mRNA and protein levels, and these studies could serve as a basis for constructing a model of the crustacean molecular oscillator. Studies on Daphnia pulex are well suited to fill this gap because this species is the only representative crustacean whose genome has been sequenced. We analyzed the abundance of 20 gene transcripts throughout the day in the whole bodies of D. pulex (single clone); we found that 15 of these genes were transcriptionally active, and most had daily expression level changes. According to the functional classification of their homologues in insects, these genes may represent elements of the Daphnia molecular oscillator core and its input and output pathways. Studies of PERIOD (PER) protein, one of the main clock components, revealed its rhythmic expression pattern in the epidermis, gut, and ovaries. Finally, the cycling levels of many of these clock components observed in animals reared in continuous light led to the conclusion that the Daphnia oscillator, even if it is structurally similar to the oscillators of other arthropods, can be considered a particularly important adaptive mechanism for living in environments with extreme photoperiods. PMID:27170555

  20. Nutritional status of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) influences susceptibility to contaminant exposure.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Jones, Malcolm B

    2008-08-11

    Using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a model, this study tested the hypothesis that nutritional status influences susceptibility of adult crabs (>60mm carapace width (CW)) to environmental contamination. In the laboratory, crabs were either starved, given a restricted diet (fed on alternate days) or fully fed (fed each day). In addition, crabs under each feeding regime were exposed to a sublethal concentration (200microgl(-1)) of pyrene (PYR) as a model organic (PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon)) contaminant. Various physiological end points were measured after 7 and 14 days. Results indicated that adult shore crab physiology was relatively robust to short-term (7 days) nutritional changes as multivariate analysis (ANOSIM) showed no significant difference in shore crab physiological condition between control and pyrene-exposed crabs, irrespective of dietary feeding regime [Global R=0.018, P (%)=19.2]. After 14 days, however, starved crabs showed significant impacts to physiological condition (as revealed by multivariate analysis) [Global R=0.134, P (%)=0.1], [R=0.209, P (%)=0.1]; starved individuals had significantly lower antioxidant status (F(2,48)=5.35, P<0.01) compared to crabs under both types of feeding regime. Exposure to pyrene resulted in significantly elevated pyrene metabolite concentrations in the urine at 7 and 14 days compared with control individuals (P<0.001), validating contaminant bioavailability, and this was found for all dietary treatments. Also, exposed crabs had significantly increased protein levels (proteinuria) than controls (P<0.001) in their urine after 7 and 14 days, irrespective of dietary regime. After 7 days, pyrene-exposed crabs showed significantly increased antioxidant status (P<0.001) and cellular functioning (increased cellular viability and decreased phagocytosis) (P<0.001) compared to control crabs; however, after 14 days, antioxidant status (P<0.01) and cellular viability (P<0.001) were significantly decreased in pyrene-exposed compared to unexposed crabs. Results indicate that differences in nutritional status of adult crabs result in shore crabs being robust to short-term sublethal (7 days) pyrene exposure. Susceptibility to contaminant exposure, however, was measured after prolonged exposure (14 days) as indicated by reduced ability to combat oxidative stress. These results indicate that ecotoxicological studies need to take into account the nutritional state of the test organism to achieve the full assessment of contaminant impact. In addition, the results highlight that subtle seasonal biotic features of an organism can influence biomarker responses, and these need to be considered when interpreting field data and during the routine application of biological-effects tools in environmental monitoring. PMID:18606465

  1. The complete mitogenome of the New Zealand freshwater crayfish Paranephrops planifrons White 1842 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lys, Isabelle; Page, Rachel; Dias Wanigasekera, Beatrice; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitogenome of Paranephrops planifrons, was obtained by next generation sequencing. This crayfish has a mitochondrial genome of 16,174 base pairs with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and a non-coding AT-rich region of 771 bp. The P. planifrons nucleotide composition is: 33.63% for T, 21.92% for C, 34.46% for A, and 9.98% for G and has a 68.09% AT bias. While the mitogenome gene order for this species is consistent with aspects of the highly distinctive parastacid crayfish mitogenome gene arrangement, it has a novel gene order involving the rearrangements of a protein coding and several tRNA genes. PMID:25707411

  2. Let’s be pals again: major systematic changes in Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Charles H.J.M.; Page, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the systematic position of genera in the shrimp families Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae has been under debate, with phylogenetic studies suggesting the families are not real family level units. Here, we review the molecular evidence as well as the morphological characters used to distinguish both families, leading to the conclusion that neither family is valid. Further, we studied the structural details of the single morphological character which distinguishes the two subfamilies (Palaemoninae, Pontoniinae) in Palaemonidae, as well as their phylogenetic relationship. As the supposed character distinction plainly does not hold true and supported by the phylogenetic results, the recognition of subfamilies in Palaemonidae is not warranted. As a consequence, all three supra-generic taxa (Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, Pontoniinae) are thus herein formally synonymised with Palaemonidae. PMID:26339545

  3. Lilliput effect in a retroplumid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda) across the K/Pg boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Phillips, George E.; Nyborg, Torrey; Espinosa, Belinda; Távora, Vladimir de Araújo; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2016-08-01

    The genus Costacopluma (Brachyura: Decapoda: Retroplumidae) had a wide distribution during the early Paleogene and is currently represented by 14 species across the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Described early Paleogene species have a smaller mean body size compared to Campanian-Maastrichtian populations of Africa, northeastern Mexico, and southeastern United States. Originally described from the Paleocene and Eocene of Alabama, Costacopluma grayi Feldmann and Portell, 2007, is now documented from the uppermost Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) of northeastern Mexico and Mississippi and Lower Paleocene of Arkansas, all representing medium size specimens. The morphological features of latest Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) individuals are identical to those observed among populations of C. grayi from the Paleogene of Alabama and Arkansas, which have a smaller mean size. This size reduction, or dwarfism, in C. grayi across the K-Pg boundary is an example of the Lilliput effect. Dwarfism has been documented in several invertebrate groups as a response to environmental stress, but this is the first record of the Lilliput effect in brachyuran crustaceans. The stratigraphic and geographic range for Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989, is extended to the upper Campanian in northeastern Mexico and lower Maastrichtian in Mississippi and is suggested as a possible ancestor of C. grayi. Different preservational modes for this species in northeastern Mexico are discussed.

  4. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  5. Histological and ultrastructural investigation of the female reproductive system of Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirban; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand branchiuran reproductive biology, it is imperative to know the sites of oogenesis and oocyte maturation, locate the accessory reproductive glands, and identify the fertilization site with the present knowledge of the sperm transfer mechanism of the genus Argulus. With these objectives, we attempted to describe the female reproductive system of Argulus bengalensis using serial histological sections through the ovaries and associated ducts in the transverse, longitudinal, and sagittal planes. The reproductive organs include a median ovary, one pair of ovarian lumina, a median oviduct, and a pair of collateral accessory glands. A duct from each of the collateral accessory glands leads into the proximal part of the median oviduct, which opens to the exterior through a genital opening at the distal end. The glandular secretion presumably contributes to the jelly coat of the egg. The ovary is bound with a tunica propria which extends further diametrically inside the ovary forming the paired lumina. The lumina are confluent into the median oviduct. Two distinct areas, the germarium and differentiating zones, are clearly distinguishable within the ovary. The tunica propria itself houses the oogonia within a matrix, serving as the germarium. Transmission electron micrograph reveals that the matrix is made of collagen. The collagen matrix confers elasticity to the tunica propria to accommodate the postvitellogenic oocytes within the ovarian lumen. The differentiating zone is situated in between the germarium: dorsally it is covered with a chromatophore layer. The ovary is ensheathed by a circum ovarian striated muscle. The presence of spermatophores in the ovarian lumen indicates the fertilization site. J. Morphol. 277:707-716, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991011

  6. [Abundance and body size of Menippe mercenaria (Crustacea: Brachyura), in artificial refuges in Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Martínez, A; Ramírez-González, A

    2001-01-01

    In Florida and Cuba the stone crab Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818) is under strong fishing-pressure; nevertheless in the Mexican Caribbean it is considered as sub-utilized and poorly known resource. Artificial shelters ("condominios cubanos") were used to study relative abundance, age structure, claw length-carapace amplitude relation, and population in three seasons and four sectors at Bahía Ascension, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The abundance varied according to the sector and sampling season: population was higher in the south and during the north wind ("Nortes") season (January to March). The carapace amplitude was directly proportional to claw length (r2 = 0.83, 0.97 and 0.89; p < 0.05 in females, males and total, respectively). The results suggest that specimens with 37.5 and 67.5 mm of carapace amplitude are the most limited regarding refuge availability in the Bay. PMID:12189819

  7. Caprellid assemblages (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in shallow waters invaded by Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea from southeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Luis, M.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.; Bayle-Sempere, J. T.

    2009-06-01

    Growth of the invasive algae Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in shallow habitats may influence the faunal assemblage composition. We studied its effects on caprellid assemblages associated with shallow-water habitats of hard and soft bottoms from the SE Iberian Peninsula (native rocky-bottom algae, C. racemosa from hard and soft bottoms, and Caulerpa prolifera, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica from soft bottoms). Samples were taken in two different sampling periods (September 2004 and March 2005). A total of seven caprellid species were identified, with important differences in their distribution in different habitats. Total abundance of caprellids was very high in March on native algae on hard bottoms, and on C. racemosa on both soft and hard bottoms. On both hard and soft bottoms, abundances of Caprella hirsuta recorded from C. racemosa were low. On the other hand, a higher abundance of other species, namely C. acanthifera, C. santosrosai, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma, was recorded from C. racemosa. The results indicate that C. racemosa may have a positive influence on some caprellid species, while seasonal changes are also evident. It is concluded that introduced C. racemosa may serve as a new habitat, promoting and maintaining caprellid populations in shallow Mediterranean habitats.

  8. Morphologically Conservative but Physiologically Diverse: The Mode of Stasis in Anostraca (Crustacea: Branchiopoda).

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The essay discusses whether biotic and abiotic environments differ in their ability to speed up or slow down morphological change and the generation of new lineages. Examples from the class Branchiopoda show that morphological conservatism is associated with enemy free space in species-poor habitats dominated by abiotic factors, while Red Queen mechanisms are predominant in larger systems with complex biotic interactions. Splitting of Branchiopod main lineages is associated with increased fish predation during the Devonian. The order Cladocera adapted and remained in larger aquatic systems, and subsequently generated a variety of new families, genera and species. The order Anostraca, on the other hand, maintained its ancestral morphology and survived only as "living fossils" in isolated ponds of harsh habitats. Despite their archaic morphology, however, they possess highly sophisticated adaptations to local physicochemical properties of their extreme environment. Hence, although morphologically conservative and possessing traits typical for "living fossils", anostracan physiological abilities are closely adapted to the challenging and variable physicochemical conditions of ponds and ephemeral pools. PMID:25152547

  9. A new species of Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from the Northwest Indian Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Li, Xinzheng; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Munidopsis militaris n. sp., from the Carlsberg Ridge, Northwest Indian Ocean Ridge is described herein. The species belongs to a group of species having a pair of epigastric spines, mesial and lateral eye-spines, abdominal tergites unarmed, five or six spines on the lateral margin of the carapace, and a denticulate carina on the distolateral margin of the P1 fixed finger. It can be distinguished from its relatives by the spinous lateral margin of the palm and dorsal carinae on the P2-4 propodus. The Munidopsis fauna of the Indian Ocean Ridge is seldom reported on; this new species is the sixth member of this genus found inhabiting the Indian Ocean Ridge. PMID:27615853

  10. Ingolfiellamaldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiellamaldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces. PMID:25408614

  11. A new genus and new species of Agathotanaidae (Crustacea, Tanaidacea) from West Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jakiel, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of Tanaidacea – Bunburia,collected from the region of Ningaloo in the vicinity of Bunbury (Western Australia), is erected to accommodate the new species – Bunburia prima sp. n. This genus is classified in the family Agathotanaidae and it can be distinguished from the other members of the family by having a combination of antennulae covered with minute setae, reduced uropods and unusual setation of the propodus of pereopods 4 to 6. Bunburia prima is the second species of Agathotanaidae known so far from Australia. PMID:23372417

  12. Two new species of Urothoe (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea) from the East Johor Islands Archipelago, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azman, B.A.R.; Melvin, C.W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of urothoid amphipods from Pulau Sibu and Pulau Tinggi, Johor are described and illustrated. The specimens of Urothoe sibuensis new species were collected by vertical haul plankton net and is distinctively different from other existing Urothoe species by these combination of special characters; similar gnathopods 1–2 with short and stout propodus expanded into poorly defined palms; large eyes and epimeron 3 smooth. Urothoe tinggiensis new species as collected using an airlift suction sampler at seagrass area is characterized by its different gnathopodal configuration with setose dactylus of 5th pereopod; eyes minute; carpus is wider than merus in the 5th pereopod; subquadrate coxa 4; merus and carpus of pereopods 6–7 are linear. PMID:21594101

  13. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods. PMID:24963774

  15. A comprehensive and integrative reconstruction of evolutionary history for Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The infraorder Anomura has long captivated the attention of evolutionary biologists due to its impressive morphological diversity and ecological adaptations. To date, 2500 extant species have been described but phylogenetic relationships at high taxonomic levels remain unresolved. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history—phylogeny, divergence times, character evolution and diversification—of this speciose clade. For this purpose, we sequenced two mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and three nuclear (H3, 18S and 28S) markers for 19 of the 20 extant families, using traditional Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing methods. Molecular data were combined with 156 morphological characters in order to estimate the largest anomuran phylogeny to date. The anomuran fossil record allowed us to incorporate 31 fossils for divergence time analyses. Results Our best phylogenetic hypothesis (morphological + molecular data) supports most anomuran superfamilies and families as monophyletic. However, three families and eleven genera are recovered as para- and polyphyletic. Divergence time analysis dates the origin of Anomura to the Late Permian ~259 (224–296) MYA with many of the present day families radiating during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that carcinization occurred independently 3 times within the group. The invasion of freshwater and terrestrial environments both occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Diversification analyses found the speciation rate to be low across Anomura, and we identify 2 major changes in the tempo of diversification; the most significant at the base of a clade that includes the squat-lobster family Chirostylidae. Conclusions Our findings are compared against current classifications and previous hypotheses of anomuran relationships. Many families and genera appear to be poly- or paraphyletic suggesting a need for further taxonomic revisions at these levels. A divergence time analysis provides key insights into the origins of major lineages and events and the timing of morphological (body form) and ecological (habitat) transitions. Living anomuran biodiversity is the product of 2 major changes in the tempo of diversification; our initial insights suggest that the acquisition of a crab-like form did not act as a key innovation. PMID:23786343

  16. A new species of Praebebalia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Leucosiidae) from East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui-Lian; Fang, Shao-Hua

    2000-12-01

    A new species of the genus Praebebalia from the East China Sea, belonging to the subfamily Ebaliinae Stimpson, 1871, is described. It is characterized by carapace being broader than long, the dorsal surface without sharp granules near borders, the median part of anterolateral borders with a notch, the junction of anterolateral and posterolateral borders with a tubercle, the posterior border with a triangular tubercle on each side, the propodi of anterior 3 pairs of ambulatory legs with a tubercle and the fingers of chelipeds being longer than palm.

  17. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Soumoff, C.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D/sub 3/. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D/sub 4/ through postmolt stage A/sub 2/, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low.

  18. The Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of western Amazonia (Solimões Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna (e.g., molluscs, ostracods). Among ostracods, the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400-m-long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. Ostracod index species enabled a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones (late middle to early late Miocene age). The current study underlines once more Cyprideis' remarkable capability to produce species flocks and western Amazonian Cyprideis comply with the criteria of a species flock: i) endemicity: up to now not a single species is recorded in adjacent areas; ii) monophyly: although hardly verifiable to date and probably Amazonian Cyprideis is not monophyletic s.str., several closely related, quite rapidly evolving species are proved; iii) speciosity: due to the present study, 30 formally described species exist; several further species, left in open nomenclature, are recorded in the literature, which strongly hints to a much higher, still unrecorded species richness; iv) ecological diversity: based on rare sedimentologic cross-references, ecological diversity within a highly structured wetland is possible; the current results demonstrate the sympatric occurrence of up to 12 Cyprideis species, which may indicate adaptations to different microhabitats; v) habitat dominance: regularly Cyprideis holds more than >90 % in western Amazonian ostracod assemblages during the early and middle Miocene. Explanations for this extreme habitat monopolisation are still arguable and touch the highly disputed question about the nature of western Amazonia's environments during the Miocene. It seems, however, evident that a strictly actualistic approach to endemic Neogene Amazonian biota is highly problematic. This study was funded by Austrian Science Fund (FWF project P21748-N21).

  19. Diversity and zoogeography of Icelandic deep-sea Ampeliscidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Alizier, Sandrine; Weppe, Adeline; Guðmundsson, Guðmundur

    2012-10-01

    A large collection of ampeliscids (15,454 specimens from 366 sampling sites) from Icelandic waters was identified to species and distributional patterns analysed. The specimens were sampled during the BIOICE programme, the main objective of which was to map the invertebrate species diversity within the Icelandic economical zone (758,000 km2). Nineteen species were identified: ten Ampelisca (8018 specimens), six Byblis (4887 specimens), three Haploops (1673 specimens), plus a complex of Haploops spp. (876 specimens). Four of these 19 species are new records for Icelandic waters: A. dalmatina Karaman, 1975 was previously known around the Faroe Islands; B. abyssi Sars, 1879 and B. affinis Sars, 1879 were known from the NE Atlantic and B. medialisMills (1971) from the NW Atlantic. The three most abundant species were B. minuticornis Sars, 1879, B. gaimardi (Kröyer, 1846) and A. uncinata Chevreux, 1887, while the three most frequently occurring species at all stations were H. setosa Boeck, 1871, A. uncinata and A. macrocephala Lilljeborg, 1852. Species were grouped according to three geographical patterns: northern species (six species), southern species (nine species) and circum-Icelandic species (four species). The species were also grouped according to three depth categories: nine species were confined to the continental shelf and the upper part of the continental slopes around Iceland; nine species had a wide bathymetric range and one species (A. islandica) occurred only in deep waters. Factors related to water depth exerted the main influence on ampeliscid distribution patterns around Iceland. A comparison of the Icelandic Ampeliscidae fauna with five areas of the North Atlantic Ocean showed a strong similarity to the fauna of Faroe Islands and a lesser similarity to the NW Atlantic fauna.

  20. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 is revised for Australian waters. Cymothoa hermani Hadfield, Bruce & Smit, 2011, previously known from Tanzania on the host Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793) is new to Australian waters. Cymothoa carangi Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa epimerica Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa parupenei Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa propria Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa rotunda Avdeev, 1979 and Cymothoa pulchrum Lanchester, 1902 are redescribed. Cymothoa curta Schioedte & Meinert, 1884, first described from the host Anableps anableps (Linnaeus, 1758); and Cymothoa plebeia Schioedte & Meinert, 1884, first described from Cape Verde; are redescribed and excluded from the Australian fauna. Cymothoa limbata Schioedte & Meinert, 1884 is placed into junior synonymy with Cymothoa eremita (Brünnich, 1783). A key to the Australian species of Cymothoa is presented. PMID:27395199

  1. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  2. Evidence of cryptic and pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus species complex (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many marine planktonic crustaceans such as copepods have been considered as widespread organisms. However, the growing evidence for cryptic and pseudo-cryptic speciation has emphasized the need of re-evaluating the status of copepod species complexes in molecular and morphological studies to get a clearer picture about pelagic marine species as evolutionary units and their distributions. This study analyses the molecular diversity of the ecologically important Paracalanus parvus species complex. Its seven currently recognized species are abundant and also often dominant in marine coastal regions worldwide from temperate to tropical oceans. Results COI and Cytochrome b sequences of 160 specimens of the Paracalanus parvus complex from all oceans were obtained. Furthermore, 42 COI sequences from GenBank were added for the genetic analyses. Thirteen distinct molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) and two single sequences were revealed with cladistic analyses (Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian Inference), of which seven were identical with results from species delimitation methods (barcode gaps, ABDG, GMYC, Rosenberg’s P(AB)). In total, 10 to 12 putative species were detected and could be placed in three categories: (1) temperate geographically isolated, (2) warm-temperate to tropical wider spread and (3) circumglobal warm-water species. Conclusions The present study provides evidence of cryptic or pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus complex. One major insight is that the species Paracalanus parvus s.s. is not panmictic, but may be restricted in its distribution to the northeastern Atlantic. PMID:24581044

  3. Behavioural adaptations of argulid parasites (Crustacea: Branchiura) to major challenges in their life cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2015-01-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp.) are obligate ectoparasites, which contrary to most aquatic parasites, retain the ability to swim freely throughout the whole of their life. In fish farms, they can quickly increase in numbers and without effective control cause argulosis, which results in the reduced growth and survival of their fish hosts. The morphology of Argulus spp, including their sensory organs, is suitable for both parasitism and free-swimming. By spending a considerable amount of time away from their host, these parasites risk being excessively dispersed, which could endanger mating success. Here we present a review of recent studies on the behaviour of Argulus spp, especially the aggregative behaviour that mitigates the dilution of the parasite population. Aggregation of parasites, which is especially important during the period of reproduction, occurs on different scales and involves both the aggregation of the host and the aggregation of the parasites on the host. The main behavioural adaptations of Argulus spp, including searches for hosts and mates, host manipulation and host choice, are all focused on the fish. As these ectoparasites repeatedly change hosts and inflict skin damage, they can act as vectors for fish pathogens. The development of environmentally friendly measures for the control and prevention of argulosis needs to take into account the behaviour of the parasites. PMID:26205259

  4. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  5. TAXONOMY OF 'CERIODAPHNIA' (CRUSTACEA:CLADOCERA) IN U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CULTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study investigated the taxonomy of three groups of the cladoceran genus Ceriodaphnia in cultures being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One taxonomic group, having heavy, triangular denticles in a pecten on the postabdominal claw and very short male antennule...

  6. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny K. K.; Chen, H. -N.; Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  7. The complete mitogenome of the rock pool prawn Palaemon serenus (Heller, 1862) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda. PMID:25693708

  8. Linking Eye Design with Host Symbiont Relationships in Pontoniine Shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Nicola C.; De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis is prevalent in the marine environment with many studies examining the effects of such interactions between host and symbiont. Pontoniine shrimps are a group whose ecology is characterised by symbiotic interactions. This investigation examines the gross morphology of Pontoniinae compound eyes and superficial optical parameters with reference to their symbiotic relationship or lifestyle category; free-living, ectosymbiont, endosymbiont (bivalves) or endosymbiont (non-bivalves). The eye morphologies of free-living and ectosymbiotic species are very similar, yet differ from both forms of endosymbiotic species. Endosymbionts have significantly smaller and simpler eyes with larger facets and bigger interommatidial angles and eye parameters for increased sensitivity levels. However bivalve endosymbionts form an intermediary group between non-bivalve endosymbionts and ectosymbionts as a result of their more active lifestyle. The accessory eye or “nebenauge”, although of uncertain function, commonly occurs in free-living Pontoniinae species but rarely in endosymbionts apart from in more primitive species. The variation in morphology reflects tensions between functional requirements and ecological pressures that have strongly influenced eye design in Pontoniinae. PMID:24950292

  9. A new species of Cyphocarididae (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea) from off the northeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rayane; Alves, Jessika; Johnsson, Rodrigo; Senna, André R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a species of the genus Cyphocaris Boeck, 1871, the first record of the family Cyphocarididae Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 from Brazil. Two specimens, both females, were found in the stomach contents of a tuna caught in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago. The new species is characterized by coxae 4 and 5 both large, coxa 4 partially overlapping coxae 2-3; coxa of pereopod 5 with ventral laminar projection and well-developed anteroventral lobe, broadly rounded and apically folded backwards, basis with anterior margin broadly rounded and posterior margin with large subacute naked projection (or spur); uropod 3, outer ramus paddle-shaped; and telson elongate and deeply cleft, with a nail. PMID:27615935

  10. Insights into the morphology of symbiotic shrimp eyes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae); the effects of habitat demands.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Nicola C; Johnson, Magnus L; De Grave, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric differences in the optical morphology of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps can be observed among species symbiotic with different host organisms. Discriminant functional analysis revealed three distinct groups within the species examined. Of these, bivalve symbionts appear to have an eye design that is solely unique to this host-symbiont grouping, a design that spans across multiple genera of phylogenetically unrelated animals. Although some taxonomic effects may be evident, this does not explain the difference and similarities in eye morphology that are seen within these shrimps. Therefore evolutionary pressures from their host environments are having an impact on the optical morphology of their eyes however, as indicated by host-hopping events there ecological adaptations occur post host invasion. PMID:27168962

  11. Life History Traits of the Invader Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Moselle River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devin, Simon; Piscart, Christophe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Moreteau, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    The latest threatening invader in European freshwaters is Dikerogammarus villosus, a large gammarid of Ponto-Caspian origin exhibiting a predatory behaviour. Its biology and population dynamics were studied over a one-year period in a recipient ecosystem to determine bio/ecological traits having facilitated its rapid establishment. The study revealed that D. villosus reaches sexual maturity early, at six mm in length, and produces three reproductive peaks, though the species reproduces all year long, hence reflecting its multivoltine character. The study also revealed a female-biased sex ratio, exceptional growth rates of up to 2.6 mm in two-weeks in spring, and one of the highest fecundities of Western Europe gammarids. D. villosus exhibits a biological profile suggesting that only a few individuals can rapidly establish a new population in a recipient ecosystem, and allow this gammarid to become cosmopolitan in the near future. (

  12. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating holdfasts suggests that limnoriids could successfully reproduce during rafting journeys in floating kelp, facilitating long-distance dispersal. We propose that the coexistence of different modes of dispersal (short distance local migrations and long-distance regional dispersal) within these kelp-dwelling isopods might be advantageous in an environment where unpredictable El Niño events can cause extinction of local kelp forests.

  13. Dominant infaunal communities at risk in shoreline habitats: Burrowing Thalassinid Crustacea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.L.; Griffis, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    Oil contamination and physical perturbation of intertidal and shallow subtidal substrates threaten mass mortalities of ghost shrimp (Lepidophthalmus and Callichirus) that occur in extensive populations in coastal habitats of the northern Gulf of Mexico. These species may play important ecological roles in determining coastal habitat quality and reductions in densities may substantially alter the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of benthic habitats. In the Gulf of Mexico, ghost shrimp burrows form traps for entrainment of oil into sediments and beachfront oil accumulations may result in mass mortalities. This study documents the population biology and ecological role of ghost shrimp in beachfront and bay habitats of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Seasonal variation in breeding, recruitment, growth, abundance and biomass is presented for two species. Restoration of diminished populations occurs through planktonic recruitment and relocation of burrowed postlarvae. Populations increase the sediment-water interface by adding 1-2 sq m of burrow wall beneath each sq m sediment surface, and increase the flux of nutrients from sediments to the water column by pumping nutrient-rich water from burrows.

  14. A new species of Elpidium (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ricardo L.; Jocqué, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Passively dispersing aquatic invertebrates such as Ostracoda in restricted aquatic habitats such as bromeliads remain an intriguing observation considering the highly specialised dispersal vectors needed for efficient colonisation. Here we describe a new species of Elpidium, Elpidium merendonense sp. n., collected from bromeliads in the cloud forest from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Elpidium merendonense sp. n. is a small to medium-sized species that can be easily distinguished from its congeners by its unique outgrowth at the posterior end of the left valve, visible especially in females. The species was common all through the park occurring at a wide range of altitudes and in different species of bromeliads. This finding is the first freshwater ostracod species described from Honduras and is in agreement with the prediction that the genus Elpidium contains a large number of species with small geographic distributions. We update the list of described species of Elpidium and present a key to species. PMID:23840164

  15. Copepod (Crustacea) emergence from soils from everglades marshes with different hydroperiods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, W.F.; Reid, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    During a severe drought period in the winter and spring of 1989, we made three collections of dried marsh soils from freshwater sloughs in Everglades National Park, Florida, at sites characterized by either long or intermediate annual periods of flooding (hydroperiod). After rehydrating the soils in aquaria, we documented the temporal patterns of copepod emergence over two-week periods. The species richness of copepods in the rehydrated soils was lower than in pre-drought samples from the same slough sites. Only six of the 16 species recorded from the Everglades emerged in the aquarium tests. The long hydroperiod site had a slightly different assemblage and higher numbers of most species than the intermediate-hydroperiod sites. More individuals and species emerged from the early dry-season samples compared with samples taken later in the dry season. The harpacticoid, Cletocamptus deitersi, and the cyclopoid, Microcyclops rubellus, were abundant at most sites. The cyclopoids - Ectocyclops phaleratus, Homocyclops ater, and Paracyclops chiltoni - are new records for the Everglades. We infer that 1) only a subset of Everglades copepod species can survive drought by resting in soils; and that 2) survival ability over time differs by species.

  16. Paleolimnological inferences based on Oligocene ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Tremembé Formation, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini T; Maranhão, Maria da Saudade A S; Fauth, Gerson

    2015-09-01

    Non-marine Oligocene ostracods from Tremembé Formation (Taubaté Basin, Southeast Brazil) are studied for the first time. The study reveals rich assemblages which are probably composed of many new taxa, two of which are described here. The sixteen ostracod species registered are classified in the generaCypretta Vávra, Strandesia Stuhlmann,Potamocypris Brady, Heterocypris Claus,Eucypris Vávra, Herpetocypris Brady and Norman, Cytheridella Daday and LimnocythereBrady. Two new species of the latter are herein proposed: L. mandubi sp. nov. and L. katu sp. nov. The succession of ostracod assemblages along the studied core changes conspicuously in composition, abundance and preservation, and are characterized by the following associations: Herpetocypris-Cytheridella (lower), Limnocythere-Cypretta (middle) andPotamocypris-Heterocypris (upper). It is assumed that these associations represent different ecological phases of the paleolake Taubaté which is in accordance to previous stratigraphic and paleontological studies in the basin. The results from this pioneering taxonomic and paleoecological study on ostracods from Tremembé Formation reinforce the potential of these fossils for paleolimnological researches in Brazilian Cenozoic deposits. PMID:26221982

  17. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Guerra-García, José Manuel; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  18. Some biological aspects of Mysidopsis juniae (Crustacea:Mysidacea) and its use in chronic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Badaro-Pedroso, C. Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the joint effort to develop marine toxicity tests with organisms abundant at the Brazilian coast, some aspects for the laboratory culture of M. juniae and its sensitivity to single chemicals were studied. Organisms fed a mixture of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana reached sexual maturity 10 days before animals fed brine shrimp nauplii only. Under best conditions, sexual maturity was reached on the 9th--11th day and newborn mysids hatched on the 16th--18th day, Short-term chronic toxicity tests were initiated with 7-day old mysids and exposure time was 11 days, with growth (length and dry weight) as test endpoints. Experiments were undertaken with zinc, copper, and ammonia. Zinc did not affect the organisms at concentrations between 0.018 and 0.1 mg/L, which were one order of magnitude lower than the average 96-h; LC50 value. The NOEC and LOEC values were the same for length and weight in some tests with copper and ammonia (Cu: 0.006 and 0.015 mg/L; NH{sub 3}: 0.32 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively), but revealed length as a more sensitive endpoint than weight in others (length NOEC and LOEC: 0.23 and 0.53 mgNH{sub 3}/L; weight: 0.53 and 0.99 mgNH{sub 3}/L, respectively). The authors speculate that this could be caused by time-dependent variations in the lipid content of the organisms. Length would be a steadier and more reliable endpoint for chronic toxicity tests with M. juniae. The results show that the method has potential applications for the evaluation and monitoring of contaminated marine systems along the Brazilian coast.

  19. Morphometric and preliminary genetic characteristics of Branchinecta orientalis populations from Iran (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Atashbar, Behroz; Agh, Naser; Manaffar, Ramin; Stappen, Gilbert Van; Mohamadyari, Ali; Mertens, Johan; Beladjal, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    Branchinecta orientalis is a fairy shrimp endemic to the Palearctic region, from Mongolia to Spain. The patchy nature of its habitat is thought to result in a high degree of subdivision among populations, potentially promoting speciation. We combined morphometric characteristics with molecular phylogeny of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) to test whether B. orientalis could be a species complex and whether there is any correlation between the genetic variation, morphometric characteristics and geographical variables. We studied six populations from Iran based on the comparison of morphometric and molecular datasets, we confirmed that the Aigher Goli (AIG) population is biometrically well separated from the Akh Gol, Hassar, Rashakan, Khaslou and Garagojanlou populations in northwestern Iran. The relatively high genetic divergence in the AIG from the other populations and its congruence with morphometric data were observed in B. orientalis populations. However, as these results were generated using a small sample size and on a limited sampling range, they should be considered as preliminary. PMID:27394849

  20. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, B.H.R.; Toda, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  1. A new species of Moraria (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.

    2003-01-01

    Moraria hudsoni n. sp. is described from Trails End Bay in Lake Michigan and Prentiss Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan, USA. The new species differs from its congeners in chaetotaxy, body ornamentation, and other characters. We review published records of members of Moraria from North and Central America; no species is known from South America. Species of this genus have been found in the mountains of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, but none of these has been validly described. In North America, eight species have been recorded from Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous USA as far south as North Carolina. We report new geographical records of M. affinis from Virginia, and of both M. cristata and M. virginiana from Maryland and Virginia. We provide a tabular key to aid in identification of the named species of Moraria in North America.

  2. Lysmata rafa, a new species of peppermint shrimp (Crustacea, Caridea, Hippolytidae) from the subtropical western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Anker, Arthur

    2007-12-01

    Lysmata rafa n. sp. is described from freshly collected specimens from the Keys West Lakes, Florida Keys, and from a museum specimen collected at Bear Cut, Biscayne Bay, Florida. The new species is morphologically most similar to the western Atlantic Lysmata rathbunae Chace, 1970 and the eastern Pacific Lysmata gracilirostris Wicksten, 2000, but can be distinguished from them by the number of carpal segments in the second pereiopod; the length and dentition of the rostrum; the shape and number of spines on the dactylus of the third to fifth pereiopods; and the absence of a tooth on the pterygostomial margin of the carapace. Despite being a shallow-water species, L. rafa n. sp. has extremely elongate walking legs and third maxilliped that are more typical to deep-water or cave dwelling carideans.

  3. Insights into the morphology of symbiotic shrimp eyes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae); the effects of habitat demands

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Magnus L.; De Grave, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric differences in the optical morphology of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps can be observed among species symbiotic with different host organisms. Discriminant functional analysis revealed three distinct groups within the species examined. Of these, bivalve symbionts appear to have an eye design that is solely unique to this host-symbiont grouping, a design that spans across multiple genera of phylogenetically unrelated animals. Although some taxonomic effects may be evident, this does not explain the difference and similarities in eye morphology that are seen within these shrimps. Therefore evolutionary pressures from their host environments are having an impact on the optical morphology of their eyes however, as indicated by host-hopping events there ecological adaptations occur post host invasion. PMID:27168962

  4. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  5. Distribution of two species of Nephropsis Wood-Mason, 1872 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Nephropidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves-Júnior, Flavio De Almeida; Araújo, Marina De Sá Leitão Câmara De; Souza-Filho, Jesser F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nephropsis Wood-Mason, 1872 has been reported from Brazil by Tavares (1998), Tavares & Young (2002), Silva et al. (2003), Dall´Occo et al. (2007) and Serejo et al. (2007), recording Nephropsis aculeata Smith, 1881, N. rosea Bate, 1888 and N. agassizii A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, the last of which occurs in both northeastern and southeastern of Brazil. PMID:27395116

  6. New records of Bodotriidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from Puerto Rico with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Iorgu; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to describe the cumacean fauna of Puerto Rico we describe three new species of Bodotriidae, a family that has never been reported from Puerto Rico before.  While finding and describing new microcrustacean species may not be an impossible task, if there is available taxonomic expertise, the currently described species were found in large numbers within a short distance from the Marine Laboratories of the University of Puerto Rico where the local reefs have been studied for over half a century, highlighting the large gaps that exist in our estimates of Caribbean marine diversity.  The three new species, Cyclaspis gurui sp. nov., Cyclaspis mariae sp. nov. and Vaunthompsonia budaii sp. nov. are reported from a fringing reef off La Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico and Vaunthompsonia cristata Bate, 1858 represents a new record for Puerto Rico from the mesophotic reefs. PMID:25544235

  7. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

  8. The complete mitogenome of the Australian freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis Kemp, 1917 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis, is presented, which is the fourth for genera of the superfamily Atyoidea and the first atyid from the southern hemisphere. The base composition of the P. australiensis, mitogenome is 33.55% for T, 18.24% for C, 35.16% for A, and 13.06% for G, with an AT bias of 71.58%. It has a mitogenome of 15,990 base pairs comprised of 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal subunit and 22 transfer RNAs genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome gene order for the species is typical for atyid shrimps, which conform to the primitive pan crustacean model. PMID:25693707

  9. A new species of gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing teleosts from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2009-10-01

    During March 2002 and November 2005, teleost fishes were collected at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Gnathiid isopod juveniles were allowed to detach from these host fishes and were maintained in fresh seawater until they molted into adults. Adult males emerged 5 days post-detachment (d.p.d.) and females 10 d.p.d. of juveniles from host fish. The adults and juveniles were identified as new to science and described as Gnathia aureamaculosa n. sp. The species description is based on brightfield and scanning electron microscopy observations primarily of males, since the taxonomy of gnathiids is based on male morphology. This species has been widely employed in various studies on the Great Barrier Reef, from its involvement in feeding patterns in reef fish to its role in transmitting blood parasites, and has been referred to as Gnathia sp. A. Distinctive features of the male include gold-spotted pigmentation on the dorsal pereon of live specimens, a cephalosome with a conical superior fronto-lateral process, an inferior and conical medio-frontal process, and mandibles, each with an armed carina and an internal lobe. The female is characterized by its broad, rounded shape and cephalosome setae. The mandible of the third stage juvenile has 2 small teeth on the tip and 7 large teeth on the mesial margin. Differential pigmentation occurs in live male and female third-stage juveniles; females have greenish-yellow spots distributed over the pereon and males have white blotches and light brown and yellow spots on the pereon. PMID:19895161

  10. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cumillaf, Juan P.; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E.; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  11. Diversity of Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) in the World's Oceans – How Far Have We Come?

    PubMed Central

    Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Bamber, Roger; Anderson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Tanaidaceans are small peracarid crustaceans which occur in all marine habitats, over the full range of depths, and rarely into fresh waters. Yet they have no obligate dispersive phase in their life-cycle. Populations are thus inevitably isolated, and allopatric speciation and high regional diversity are inevitable; cosmopolitan distributions are considered to be unlikely or non-existent. Options for passive dispersion are discussed. Tanaidaceans appear to have first evolved in shallow waters, the region of greatest diversification of the Apseudomorpha and some tanaidomorph families, while in deeper waters the apseudomorphs have subsequently evolved two or three distinct phyletic lines. The Neotanaidomorpha has evolved separately and diversified globally in deep waters, and the Tanaidomorpha has undergone the greatest evolution, diversification and adaptation, to the point where some of the deep-water taxa are recolonizing shallow waters. Analysis of their geographic distribution shows some level of regional isolation, but suffers from inclusion of polyphyletic taxa and a general lack of data, particularly for deep waters. It is concluded that the diversity of the tanaidomorphs in deeper waters and in certain ocean regions remains to be discovered; that the smaller taxa are largely understudied; and that numerous cryptic species remain to be distinguished. Thus the number of species currently recognized is likely to be an order of magnitude too low, and globally the Tanaidacea potentially rival the Amphipoda and Isopoda in diversity. PMID:22496741

  12. The complete mitogenome of the Australian tadpole shrimp Triops australiensis (Spencer & Hall, 1895) (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian tadpole shrimp, Triops australiensis is presented (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024439) and compared with other Triops species. Triops australiensis has a mitochondrial genome of 15,125 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The T. australiensis mitogenome is composed of 36.4% A, 16.1% C, 12.3% G and 35.1% T. The mitogenome gene order conforms to the primitive arrangement for Branchiopod crustaceans, which is also conserved within the Pancrustacean. PMID:25329290

  13. [Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Anostracea) as intermediate host of Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gabrion, C; MacDonald, G

    1980-01-01

    Examination of Artemia sp. (Crustacé, Anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides, Cestode of the Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the Flamingo in the hemocoele of the Branchiopode. A fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of Eurycestus avoceti, Clark, 1954, which parasitizes the Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta). The systematic position of this Cestode is always unknown. This report shows the importance of Artemia in the life cycle of Cestodes of Anseriforms and Charadriiforms birds in saline lagoons. PMID:7406422

  14. Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part II: sponge-dwellers

    PubMed Central

    White, Kristine N.; Reimer, James Davis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the canals of their sponge hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Eleven new species are described in the genus Leucothoe with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to sponge-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided. PMID:22328858

  15. A new species of Elpidium (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ricardo L; Jocqué, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Passively dispersing aquatic invertebrates such as Ostracoda in restricted aquatic habitats such as bromeliads remain an intriguing observation considering the highly specialised dispersal vectors needed for efficient colonisation. Here we describe a new species of Elpidium, Elpidium merendonense sp. n., collected from bromeliads in the cloud forest from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Elpidium merendonense sp. n. is a small to medium-sized species that can be easily distinguished from its congeners by its unique outgrowth at the posterior end of the left valve, visible especially in females. The species was common all through the park occurring at a wide range of altitudes and in different species of bromeliads. This finding is the first freshwater ostracod species described from Honduras and is in agreement with the prediction that the genus Elpidium contains a large number of species with small geographic distributions. We update the list of described species of Elpidium and present a key to species. PMID:23840164

  16. Butyltin concentrations along the Japanese coast from 1997 to 1999 monitored by Caprella spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ichiro; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-06-01

    The concentrations of butyltins along the Japanese coastline were investigated from 1997 to 1999, 7 to 9 years after implementation of legislation limiting the use of tributyltin (TBT) in Japan. Seawater was sampled at 0.5 m depth, and Caprella spp. were collected from Sargassum spp. and aquaculture facilities from 18 areas within four broad areas along the coastline of Japan, i.e., the Pacific coast of northern Japan, the coast along the Sea of Japan, Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, and western Japan. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in 32 of the 63 seawater samples with average concentrations of 4.6 ng MBT/l, 4.5 ng DBT/l and 6.8 ng TBT/l, respectively. Butyltin concentrations in seawater from western Japan indicate "hot spots" even in unpopulated areas. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in all samples of Caprella spp., varying from 2.3 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. penantis R-type from Tobishima Island in the Sea of Japan to 464 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. decipiens Mayer from Amakusa, western Kyushu. The BT concentrations in Caprella spp. form western Japan were significantly higher than those from other areas, including Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, where large scale industry and international ports are located. These results indicate that butyltin contamination still remains even in unpopulated areas after the regulation on TBT usage, and that the regulation governing TBT usage since 1990 has not been effective enough to concede recovery of shallow water ecosystems around Japan. PMID:14967521

  17. A new distinctive species of pagurid hermit crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, T; Osawa, M

    2001-12-01

    A new species of pagurid hermit crab, Pagurus decimbranchiae, is described and illustrated based on 20 specimens collected from shallow waters of the Pacific coast of Japan ranging from Boso Peninsula to Tanegashima Island. It is quite distinctive in having the rudimentary arthrobranch on the third maxilliped represented by a single bud, however close morphological similarity is found between the new species and P. moluccensis Haig and Ball. Comparisons are also made among other species, including P. boriaustraliensis Morgan, P. sp. cf. boriaustraliensis sensu Rahayu and Komai (2000) and the members of the P. anachoretus group. The present generic assignment of the new species should be considered provisional, as more extensive study is needed to investigate phylogenetic relationships of the new species and the other species of Pagurus. PMID:11911085

  18. Further records of species of Gennadas (Crustacea, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) in the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2015-01-01

    Additional material of species of Gennadas was collected off western Mexico during the TALUD survey aboard the R/V "El Puma". Gennadas sordidus was by far the most common species collected and only a few specimens of the other three species, G. incertus, G. propinquus and G. scutatus, were obtained. New and previous records indicate that Gennadas sordidus is widely distributed along the west coast of Mexico, although there is only one record for it south of the Gulf of California. In this study it was collected in as many as 35 localities, both in the Gulf of California and off the west coast of Southern Baja California. Numbers of specimens also confirmed that it is the dominant species of Gennadas in the area. Gennadas incertus was found in six samples, all from off the west coast of northern Baja California. The other two species occurred each in two samples only, with sampling localities widely spread along the Baja California Peninsula. Compared with the rest of the eastern Pacific, the diversity of Gennadas in Mexican waters is intermediate (6 species) vs. 9 in Chile and 4 in the NW Pacific. PMID:26249961

  19. Five Sarsiellidae ostracods (Crustacea: Myodocopida) from the South Coast of Korea (East China Sea).

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Ivana; Soh, Ho-Young

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is part of the Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific zoogeographic province and, as such, has a high biodiversity and many tropical and subtropical biotic elements. Nevertheless, many invertebrate groups from this area remain poorly studied. Ostracods are one of them, especially those belonging to the subclass Myodocopa. In this paper we provide the first data on a diverse myodocopid family, Sarsiellidae, not only for the East China Sea, but also for Korea. Five species are reported in this paper from three Korean islands (Jeju, Chuja, and Maemul), and they are only a part of the ostracods collected during this study, indicating a high diversity of the group in this region. Three new species, Eurypylus koreanus sp. nov., Eusarsiella hanguk sp. nov., and Sarsiella nereis sp. nov., clearly stand apart from their respective congeners, mostly by prominent shell characters but also by details of the soft part morphology. Their affinity though clearly indicates a close connection of the region with the more southern zoogeographical realms, especially Central Indo Pacific and partly Temperate Australasia. Two species previously known from Japan (north part of the Sea of Japan and southeastern part of the Pacific Coast of Japan), Sarsiella japonica Hiruta, 1977 and S. misakiensis Kajiyama, 1912, are redescribed. Based on 11 newly obtained COI sequences we construct a preliminary phylogenetic tree, which supports previous hypotheses based on the morphological data, that Eusarsiella Cohen & Kornicker, 1975 is a polyphyletic taxon. With the maps of species distribution provided for each of the three genera, we give an overview of their current zoogeography, and clearly indicate areas that have no data, mostly due to the lack of investigation. PMID:25947749

  20. The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Korovchinsky, Nikolai M; Petkovski, Trajan K

    2014-01-01

    Diaphanosoma macedonicum sp. nov. is described from material collected from the ancient Lakes Dojran and Prespa, located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It can be regarded as a member of the "D. mongolianum" species group. It is characterized by specific, but not readily visible features, such as the absence of a thorn near the posterior valve margins, as well as setules between setae of the ventral valve inflection, and the presence of more chitinized integument. The discovery of this new species previously identified as "Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin)" highlights the necessity of more detailed investigations of the zooplankton of Balkan lakes potentially populated by greater numbers of endemic cladoceran species. A short overview of the ancient lakes in the Central Balkans is provided. PMID:24872071

  1. The Australian Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) I. Monstrillopsis Sars, Maemonstrilla Grygier & Ohtsuka, and Australomonstrillopsis gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Mckinnon, A David

    2014-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods were collected during zooplankton surveys in reef and coastal areas of Australia. Representatives of all four genera of the Monstrilloida (Monstrilla Dana, Monstrillopsis Sars, Cymbasoma Thompson, and Maemonstrilla Grygier & Ohtsuka) were recorded. In this contribution a taxonomic analysis of specimens belonging to the latter two genera is provided, and a new genus described. The genus Monstrillopsis was represented exclusively by male specimens, on the basis of which three new species are described: Mon. hastata sp. nov., Mon. boonwurrungorum sp. nov., and Mon. nanus sp. nov. These are distinguished from each other and previously described species of this genus by details of the genital complex (or genital apparatus), body size, ornamentation of the cephalic surface, number of caudal setae, and characteristic modifications of the fifth antennular segment. All have distinctive characters not associated with sexual modifications, which will ease the task of matching females collected in future studies. Australomonstrillopsis gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate a male specimen with a unique combination of characters including massively developed caudal rami, cephalic perioral protuberances, and absence of an inner seta on the first exopodal segment of legs 1-4, among other characters. The new genus is monotypic and contains A. crassicaudata sp. nov. Three of the four new species of Maemonstrilla (Mae. ohtsukai sp. nov., Mae. hoi sp. nov., and Mae. protuberans sp. nov.) belong to the Mae. hyottoko species group, and the remaining one, Mae. crenulata sp. nov., belongs to the Mae. turgida group. Each of the new species of Maemonstrilla from Australia can be distinguished from its known congeners by a unique combination of characters including the type of body reticulation, body size, antennule and body proportions, distinctive characters of the swimming legs, details of the antennular armature, and the presence/absence of a posteroventral process on the genital compound somite. With the addition of the four new species of Monstrillopsis and the four of Maemonstrilla described herein, the number of species in these genera has increased to 13 and 11 species, respectively. In no case did congeneric species co-occur, hinting that there may be a rich species diversity yet to be discovered within the Australian Monstrilloida. PMID:24871727

  2. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26701562

  3. A new species of Jesogammarus from the Iki Island, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Anisogammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of anisogammarid amphipod, Jesogammarus (Jesogammarus) ikiensis sp. n., is described from freshwaters in the Iki Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is distinguished from all members of the genus by the combination of small number of setae on dorsal margins of pleonites 1–3, short and small number of setae on posterior margins of peduncular articles of antennae, mandibular article 1 without setae, well developed posterior lobes of accessory lobes of coxal gills on gnathopod 2 and pereopods 3–5, and pectinate setae on palmar margin of female gnathopod 2. A key to all the species of Jesogammarus is provided. PMID:26692798

  4. The toxicological effects of thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis (Schellenberg 1937) (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Pelin; Ünlü, Erhan; Satar, Elif İpek

    2015-03-01

    Neonicotinoids are a new group of insecticides, and little is known about their toxicity to nontarget freshwater organisms an potential effects on freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study is to establish the acute toxicity and histopathological effects of thiamethoxam-based pesticide on the gill tissue of Gammarus kischineffensis. In this study G. kischineffensis samples were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100mg/l of commercial grade thiamethoxam for 96 h. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were determined as 75.619, 23.505, 8.048 and 3.751 mg/l respectively. In histopathological study the individuals were exposed to 0.004, 0.04 and 0.4 mg/l thiamethoxam concentrations for 14 days. The results showed that the most common changes at all doses of thiamethoxam were vacuolization and hemostatic infiltration in the gill tissue of G. kischineffensis. PMID:25710849

  5. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae. PMID:27395949

  6. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O(2) consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment. PMID:17487466

  7. Revision of the spider crab genus Sargassocarcinus Ward, 1936 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Epialtidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lin, Chia-Wei; Naruse, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The Western Pacific epialtid genus Sargassocarcinus Ward, 1936, is revised. The genus had been regarded as monotypic but is here shown to contain three species: S. sublimis (Rathbun, 1916), S. cristatus (Balss, 1924), and S. foliatus Ward, 1936 (type species). The many unusual characters possessed by Sargassocarcinus are figured and discussed; and diagnostic features of the three species are clarified. The taxonomy of the three species and aspects of their ecology are discussed. Sargassocarcinus species are found free-living on coral rubble habitats and not associated with macrophytic algae. PMID:27615976

  8. New deep-sea Paratanaoidea (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Drumm, David T; Bird, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    One new genus is erected and four new species of paratanaoidean tanaidaceans are described from deep waters in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: one in each of the genera Collettea, Tanaella, and Pseudomacrinella, and one as a new genus in the family Anarthruridae. Keys to species in the genera Collettea, Tanaella, and the genera of the Anarthruridae are provided. PMID:27615848

  9. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species. PMID:26261438

  10. A new species of Paraproto (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    A new species of amphipod crustacean (Amphipoda: Phtisicidae), Paraproto mccaini n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from south of Elephant Island, the South Shetland Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. This species was first reported as Paraproto condylata (Haswell, 1885) [sensu lato], recorded from a temperate region of Australia. P. mccaini n. sp. is distinct from P. condylata [sensu stricto] by an elongated head with pereonite 1, presence of a mid-lateral projection on pereonites 2-4, and lack of a distal round projection on the propodus of gnathopod 2. Paraproto differs from Pseudoprotomima, the most phylogenetically similar genus, in having gills on pereonites 3 and 4.

  11. Eleven nominal species of Burmoniscus are junior synonyms of B. kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Holotypes, paratypes, and specimens newly collected from the type localities (i.e., topotypes) of Burmoniscus aokii (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus boninensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus daitoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus hachijoensis Nunomura, 2007, Burmoniscus japonicus (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus kagoshimaensis Nunomura, 2003, Burmoniscus murotoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus okinawaensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus shibatai (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus tanabensis Nunomura, 2003, and Burmoniscus watanabei (Nunomura, 1986) were examined in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Observation of 13 morphological characters that were purposed to show species-level diagnostic variations in the original descriptions suggests that all eleven nominal species are identical, and molecular analysis based on three gene fragments supports this suggestion. Additionally, the morphology of the carpus of pereopod 1 and of the endo- and exopodites of pleopod 1 of these species are consistent with those of Burmoniscus kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983). The eleven above-mentioned species of Burmoniscus described from Japan are therefore relegated to junior synonyms of Burmoniscus kathmandius, originally reported from Nepal. PMID:27551227

  12. Assessing the importance of alien macro-Crustacea (Malacostraca) within macroinvertebrate assemblages in Belgian coastal harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Harbours, which are often characterised by anthropogenic stress in combination with intensive international ship traffic, tend to be very susceptible to aquatic invasions. Since alien macrocrustaceans are known to be very successful across many European waters, a study was made on their distribution and impact in the four Belgian coastal harbours (Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge). Biological and physical-chemical data were gathered at 43 sampling sites distributed along a salinity gradient in the four harbours. One-fourth of all crustacean species recorded were alien and represented on average 30% of the total macrocrustacean abundance and 65% of the total macrocrustacean biomass. The large share of alien crustaceans in the total macrocrustacean biomass was mainly due to several large alien crab species. Most alien species were found in the oligohaline zone, whereas the number of indigenous species slightly increased with increasing salinity. The low number of indigenous species present at low salinities was probably not only caused by salinity, but also by the lower water quality in this salinity range. Based on the site-specific biocontamination index (SBCI), which was used to assess the ecological water quality, the harbour of Nieuwpoort and Ostend scored best and were classified as good, indicating the limited abundance and the low number of alien macrocrustaceans. Sampling locations situated more inland generally had a higher SBCI and a lower ecological water quality. Zeebrugge and Blankenberge were characterised by a severe biocontamination. For Zeebrugge, this is probably related to the intensive transcontinental commercial ship traffic, whereas for Blankenberge, this could be due to introduction of alien species via recreational crafts or due to its geographical location in the proximity of Zeebrugge. Consistent monitoring of estuarine regions and harbours, which are seen as hotspots for introductions, could help in understanding and predicting the impact of alien species on native biota.

  13. Not "Alona" monacantha Sars, 1901, but Coronatella hardingi (Brehm, 1957) Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) in the Afrotropics.

    PubMed

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-01-01

    Many taxa formerly housed in the lump genus Alona Baird, 1843 remain data-deficient. These species are often overlooked or wrongly identified during faunistic and ecological studies. "Alona" hardingi (Brehm, 1957) is a lesser known taxon, hidden for decades under records of "Alona" monacantha Sars, 1901. Both taxa have recently been allocated to the genus Coronatella Dybowski & Grochowski, 1894, yet without revision of the former. The morphology of Coronatella hardingi (Brehm, 1957), a widespread and abundant species in Afrotropical freshwater habitats, is examined here for the first time, including the first description of the male. The species is redescribed, based on populations from Southern Africa and confirmed as a good species and a valid sibling of the Neotropical C. monacantha (Sars, 1901) and the SE Asian C. acuticostata (Sars, 1903). The study of the Afrotropical C. hardingi allows a better understanding of this small tropical species complex, for which a diagnosis is included. PMID:27470800

  14. Bodotria jejuensis sp. nov. (Crustacea, Cumacea, Bodotriidae), a new Korean cumacean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Mok; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Cumacea belonging to the genus Bodotria Goodsir, 1843 was collected from the Jeju-do Island, Korea. The new speices, Bodotria jejuensis sp. nov. is similar to B. similis Calman, 1907, B. rugosa Gamô, 1963, B. carinata Gamô, 1964, and B. biplicata Gamô, 1964 in having a pitted carapace, prominent dorso-lateral carina, and unarticulated endopod of uropod. However, longish elliptical shape of carapace, well-developed dorso-lateral carina and distinct lateral ridge are the major characteristics which serve to distinguish the new species from its congeners. The new species is fully illustrated and extensively compared with related species. A key to the Korean Bodotria species is also provided. PMID:27615936

  15. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Othman, B H R; Toda, T; Kikuchi, T

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  16. Linderiella jebalae sp. nov. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca), a new species from the Rif mountains (northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    Boix, Dani; Sala, Jordi; Escoriza, Daniel; Alonso, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A new species of fairy shrimp, Linderiella jebalae sp. nov., was found in temporary ponds located in the Rif region of northern Morocco. Morphological characters of females, such as the basal long warty outgrowth of the antennae, the highly developed cuticular papillae in the second genital segment, and the presence of a keel-shaped process directed posteriorly in dorsal side of the brood pouch, clearly distinguish this species from the others of the genus. In the case of males, the basiomedial antennal outgrowth and the distal segment of the antenna are diagnostic features for the species. Cyst ornamentation, characterized by thick, blunt and sometimes truncated spines, also separate this species. This is the fourth known Palaearctic Linderiella species, all of them described recently (from 1980s onwards) and located in a restricted area, from south-eastern France to Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. PMID:27470776

  17. Lysmata leptodactylus, a new species of lysmatid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-01-01

    A new species of lysmatid shrimp, Lysmata leptodactylus n. sp., is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the subtidal zone in Guangdong province, South China Sea. The new species bears distinctly unequal second pereiopods and uniquely elongated gracile dactyli of the ambulatory pereiopods. These characters, combined with the rostral formula, and stylocerite proportion, immediately distinguish Lysmata leptodactylus n. sp. from all known species of lysmatid shrimp. PMID:27470759

  18. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity in the North Eurasian Moina Species (Crustacea: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Karabanov, Dmitry P; Galimov, Yan R; Kotov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Moina Baird (Cladocera: Moinidae) often dominate freshwater crustacean communities in temporary water bodies. Several species of Moina are used as food for fish larvae in aquaculture, as bioindicators in toxicological studies, and as common subjects for physiological studies. The aim of this paper is to estimate biodiversity of Moina in northern Eurasia using the standard DNA barcoding approach based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We analysed 160 newly obtained and 157 existing COI sequences, and found evidence for 21 phylogroups of Moina, some of which were detected here for the first time. Our study confirmed the opinion that the actual species diversity of cladocerans is several times higher than is presently accepted. Our results also indicated that Moina has the second richest species diversity among the cladoceran genera (with only Daphnia O. F. Mueller having a greater diversity of species). Our study strongly supports division of Moina into two faunistic groups: European-Western Siberian and Eastern Siberian-Far Eastern, with a transitional zone at the Yenisey River basin (Eastern Siberia). Here, we refrain from taxonomic descriptions of new species, as this requires a thorough morphological and taxonomic study for each putative taxon. PMID:27556403

  19. Eleven nominal species of Burmoniscus are junior synonyms of B. kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Holotypes, paratypes, and specimens newly collected from the type localities (i.e., topotypes) of Burmoniscus aokii (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus boninensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus daitoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus hachijoensis Nunomura, 2007, Burmoniscus japonicus (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus kagoshimaensis Nunomura, 2003, Burmoniscus murotoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus okinawaensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus shibatai (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus tanabensis Nunomura, 2003, and Burmoniscus watanabei (Nunomura, 1986) were examined in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Observation of 13 morphological characters that were purposed to show species-level diagnostic variations in the original descriptions suggests that all eleven nominal species are identical, and molecular analysis based on three gene fragments supports this suggestion. Additionally, the morphology of the carpus of pereopod 1 and of the endo- and exopodites of pleopod 1 of these species are consistent with those of Burmoniscus kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983). The eleven above-mentioned species of Burmoniscus described from Japan are therefore relegated to junior synonyms of Burmoniscus kathmandius, originally reported from Nepal. PMID:27551227

  20. Anchistropus spp. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae): a new distribution record for Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Marlene S.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    This note extends the known Great Lakes distribution of Anchistropus sp. from Lake Michigan, Huron, Superior, and St. Clair to Rondeau Harbor in Lake Erie. Anchistropus sp. was collected in benthic samples where it occurred as epibionts on hydra. Previous studies, which are briefly reviewed, have noted the parasitic nature of Anchistropus. Although only one species of Anchistropus (A. minor) is known from North America, our specimens cannot be positively identified as that species: the structure of the postabdomen and first leg differs from the original taxonomic description of A. minor. Others have noted differences between the original description of A. minor and the morphology of specimens collected over the succeeding years.

  1. Growth and reproductive dynamics of the South American red shrimp, Pleoticus muelleri (Crustacea: Solenoceridae), from the southeastern coast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, A. L.; Wolf, M. R.; Simões, S. M.; Bochini, G. L.; Fransozo, V.; Costa, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in the fishing fleet in southeastern Brazil and the decrease in the landings of profitable shrimp species have contributed to the incorporation of additional species into those fisheries, such as Pleoticus muelleri. The goal of the present study is to investigate the growth and reproductive dynamics of P. muelleri in the Southeastern coast of Brazil over a period of two years. Monthly collections were conducted in Ubatuba (UB) and Caraguatatuba (CA) using a commercial shrimp fishing boat equipped with “double-rig” nets. Each region was divided into 7 sampling stations up to 35 m deep. Population parameters from size frequency distributions (carapace length = CL), growth, longevity, sex ratio, and abundance of individuals in each life period (demographic class), from both sampling areas were analyzed and compared. The relationship between abiotic factors and abundance of each demographic class was assessed using a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCorrA). A total of 19,816 individuals were collected, of which 5341 were measured, with an estimated longevity of 2.02 (UB) and 2.15 (CA) years for females and 1.80 (UB) and 1.96 (CA) years for males. There was a statistically significant bias in sex ratio toward females (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) in both regions. The CCorrA resulted in a canonical correlation coefficient of 0.32 (p < 0.00001). Both temperature and grain size composition of the sediment showed high correlation mainly with the presence of reproductive females, followed spermatophore-bearing males and recruits. In general, these demographic classes were most common in conditions of low temperature and fine sediments. These findings, as well as other studies carried out in colder regions with the same species, are consistent with the classical paradigm of lower longevity at lower latitudes. However, our results also suggest that this species maintained abiotic preference as populations located in cold temperate regions, mainly with temperature, indicating a different behavior from other shrimp species explored by fishery in the same region.

  2. The taxonomy of Speodromia platyarthrodes (Stebbing, 1905) (Crustacea: Brachyura), an unusual dromiid crab endemic to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2016-01-01

    The poorly known dromiid crab Speodromia platyarthrodes (Stebbing, 1905), endemic to South Africa, is redescribed and figured. Speodromia is unique among dromiids in possessing a large cavity on the anterior part of the sub-branchial region, which is believed to be associated with respiration. The systematics of the genus is discussed and is confirmed to be a member of Dromiinae De Haan, 1833, s. str. PMID:27395089

  3. Parhyale darvishi, a new widely distributed amphipod species, in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Hyalidae).

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Parhyale darvishi sp. nov., is described. The new species is characterized by a naked posterior margin on the propodus of pereopods 5-7, a special arrangement of robust setae on the first male gnathopod and a lack of dense fine setae on the second antennae. Parhyale darvishi sp. nov. is distributed from the western coasts of the Persian Gulf to the eastern coasts of Gulf of Oman. PMID:27395677

  4. Confirmation through Genetic Analysis of the Existence of Many Local Phyloclades of the Genus Simocephalus (Crustacea, Cladocera) in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaona; Shi, Xinlu; Kotov, Alexey A.; Gu, Fukang

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a series of Simocephalus taxa (Cladocera: Daphniidae) from China were described. Most were proposed to be junior synonyms in the last revision of the genus. Using original material from China and data from GenBank, we investigate the biodiversity and phylogeny of Simocephalus using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear 18S genes. In both cases, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses led to highly congruent tree topologies. The grouping of the deeper clades agrees with the inter-generic classification of Orlova-Bienkowskaja (2001). Only the populations of S. serrulatus from Eurasia and North America seem to be closely related, and there are no other shared species between the two continents. Our study unambiguously confirms the existence of many lineages from the subgenera of Simocephalus (Echinocaudus) and Simocephalus s.str. in China, but their morphology needs to be reexamined by taking a wider range of characters (e.g., of female thoracic limbs and adult males) into consideration. PMID:25393020

  5. A checklist of Recent non-marine ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Thailand, including descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip; Suttajit, Maitree

    2016-01-01

    A checklist covering a total of 67 Recent non-marine ostracod species from Thailand, belonging to 33 genera and seven families (Cyprididae, Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Darwinulidae, Limnocytheridae, Loxoconchidae), is presented. Twenty-five of these are considered endemic to the Oriental region, 17 of which are Thai endemics. Two        species (Hemicypris exiqua Broodbakker, 1983, and Notodromas sinensis Neal & Zhao, 1991) are new records for the Oriental region, and four species (Cypretta seurati Gauthier, 1929, Chrissia ceylonica (Daday, 1898), Chrissia formosa (Klie, 1938), and Dolerocypris fasciata (O.F. Müller, 1776)) are new record for Thailand. The most diverse subfamily in Thailand is the Cypricercinae, with 22 species. The most diverse genera are Strandesia Stuhlmann, 1888 (eight species), followed by Pseudostrandesia Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009 (seven species) and Stenocypris Sars, 1889 (five species). Other enigmatic groups and new taxa occur in the checklist, but these need to be described elsewhere in the future. For example, several species of Cypridopsinae Kaufmann, 1900, Cyclocypridinae Kaufmann, 1900, Candoninae Kaufmann, 1900 and other groups await description. Considering regional distributions based on frequency of occurrences, rare      species constitute a large fraction, whereas very common species are minor elements. Most of the records were reported from the Northern and Northeastern parts of Thailand. Sampled habitat types ranged from ponds, (oxbow) lakes, swamps, reservoirs, springs, canals, rivers, rice fields, waterfalls, and damp leaf litter. Most of the Thai ostracod fauna exists in a wide range of habitats. A brief discussion on the distribution of described species is included with the list.       Additionally, in the present contribution, we describe two new species, Dolerocypris sisaketensis n. sp. and           Hungarocypris suranareeae n. sp., from the Northeastern part of Thailand. The main character of Dolerocypris                   sisaketensis n. sp. is the presence of a spine on the postero-ventral part of the right valve; this feature sets it apart from other Dolerocypris species. Hungarocypris suranareeae n. sp. is the second species of this genus in Thailand and the third one in Southeast Asia. It is clearly distinguished from other Hungarocypris species by the serration on both valves. The genera Dolerocypris and Hungarocypris are briefly discussed and a key to the species of Hungarocypris is provided. PMID:27395859

  6. Parathelphusa pardus, a new species of lowland freshwater crab from swamps in central Sumatra, Indonesia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Riady, Rikhi; Windarti, Windarti

    2016-01-01

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters. PMID:27394277

  7. Two new species of Munidopsis (Crustacea: Anomura: Munidopsidae) from the Kermadec and Louisville ridge systems off New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Kareen E; Ahyong, Shane T

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Munidopsis are described from the wider New Zealand region. Munidopsis bamberi sp. nov. is described from the Havre Trough adjacent to the Kermadec Volcanic Arc north-east of the New Zealand continental shelf, and is named in honour of Roger Bamber for his contributions to arthropod taxonomy and systematics. The second species is M. sculpo sp. nov. from Forde Seamount on the Louisville Ridge east of New Zealand. This brings the number of Munidopsis species known in New Zealand waters to 17 and a key to the New Zealand species is provided. PMID:26250316

  8. The supergiant amphipod Alicella gigantea (Crustacea: Alicellidae) from hadal depths in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, A. J.; Lacey, N. C.; Lörz, A.-N.; Rowden, A. A.; Piertney, S. B.

    2013-08-01

    Here we provide the first record of the 'supergiant' amphipod Alicella gigantea Chevreux, 1899 (Alicellidae) from the Southern Hemisphere, and extend the known bathymetric range by over 1000 m to 7000 m. An estimated nine individuals were observed across 1500 photographs taken in situ by baited camera at 6979 m in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean. Nine specimens, ranging in length from 102 to 290 mm were recovered by baited trap at depths of 6265 m and 7000 m. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences obtained indicate a cosmopolitan distribution for the species. Data and observations from the study are used to discuss the reason for gigantism in this species, and its apparently disjunct geographical distribution.

  9. Aletheiana tenella, a new genus and new species of freshwater hymenosomatid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lukhaup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and new species of free-living hymenosomatid crab, Aletheiana tenella, is described from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The two known Sulawesi hymenosomatid species, Cancrocaeca xenomorpha Ng, 1991, and Sulaplax ensifer Naruse, Ng & Guinot, 2008, are both from cave habitats. Aletheiana gen. nov. is most similar to Neorhynchoplax Sakai, 1938 (from freshwater and intertidal habitats in the Indo-West Pacific), and Sulaplax, but can be distinguished by its front possessing only one subventral rostral lobe, the base of the antenna is positioned between the base of the ocular peduncle and antennular fossa, the posterior margin of the epistome has two low, rounded median lobes, the merus of the third maxilliped is elongated, the ambulatory dactylus has a prominent subdistal spine, the cutting edges of the chela are armed with distinct teeth proximally, and the male abdomen is slender and elongate with the telson linguiform. PMID:26624469

  10. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  11. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  12. High genetic differentiation of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) populations in southern Brazil revealed by multi-loci microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartholomei-Santos, M L; Roratto, P A; Santos, S

    2011-01-01

    Species with a broad distribution rarely have the same genetic make-up throughout their entire range. In some cases, they may constitute a cryptic complex consisting of a few species, each with a narrow distribution, instead of a single-, widely distributed species. These differences can have profound impacts for biodiversity conservation planning. The genetic differentiation of four populations of Aegla longirostri, a freshwater crab found in two geographically isolated basins in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, was investigated by analyzing pentanucleotide multi-loci microsatellites in a heteroduplex assay. Although no morphological differences were evident, we found significant genetic differentiation among the four populations, based on F(ST) values and clustering analysis. This high level of differentiation may be indicative of cryptic species in these populations. If this hypothesis is correct, then the species occurring in the Ibicuí-Mirim River, at the southern limit of the Atlantic Rain Forest, would be under threat, considering its very restricted distribution. PMID:22179994

  13. Mitochondrial genome rearrangements at low taxonomic levels: three distinct mitogenome gene orders in the genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Stokkan, Morten; Jurado-Rivera, Jose A; Juan, Carlos; Jaume, Damià; Pons, Joan

    2016-09-01

    A comparison of mitochondrial genomes of three species of the amphipod Pseudoniphargus revealed the occurrence of a surprisingly high level of gene rearrangement involving protein-coding genes that is a rare phenomenon at low taxonomic levels. The three Pseudoniphargus mitogenomes also display a unique gene arrangement with respect to either the presumed Pancrustacean order or those known for other amphipods. Relative long non-coding sequences appear adjacent to the putative breakage points involved in gene rearrangements of protein coding genes. Other details of the newly obtained mitochondrial genomes - e.g., gene content, nucleotide composition and codon usage - are similar to those found in the mitogenomes of other amphipod species studied. They all contain the typical mitochondrial genome set consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAS, as well as a large control region. The secondary structures and characteristics of tRNA and ribosomal mitochondrial genes of these three species are also discussed. PMID:26329687

  14. Caprellidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from the Red Sea and Suez Canal, with the redescription of Metaprotella africana and Paradeutella multispinosa.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Amr F; Guerra-García, José M

    2016-01-01

    The Caprellidae from the Red Sea are reviewed based on the literature data and new collections from the Hurghada coasts. So far, only six valid species has been reported from the Red Sea and Suez Canal: Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, Hemiaegina minuta Mayer, 1890, Metaprotella africana Mayer, 1903, Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 and Paradeutella multispinosa Schellenberg, 1928 and Pseudocaprellina pambanensis Sundara Raj, 1927. The type material of M. africana (deposited in the Muséum nacional d'Histoire naturelle, Paris) and Paradeutella multispinosa (deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) are redescribed and illustrated in detail. P. pambanensis and H. minuta were the most abundant species in the collections along the northern coast. Most of the sampling effort has been focused on algae from shallow waters; additional substrates such as sediments, hydroids and coral rubble, especially from areas deeper than 15 meters should be explored. The number of caprellid species in the Red Sea is low compared to adjacent waters, as the Mediterranean Sea. However, further research and more extensive caprellid collections should be conducted along the coasts of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan and Eritrea, which are still unexplored. PMID:27394584

  15. First record of Tanaidacea (Crustacea) from a deep-sea coral reef in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jakiel, Aleksandra; Stępień, Anna; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Serigstad, Bjørn; Błażewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Four undescribed species of Tanaidacea were discovered during a baseline monitoring program conducted off the coast of Ghana. The specimens came from a deep-water reef largely composed of the ahermatypic coral, Lophelia pertusa. The tanaidacean material was collected during November 2012 onboard the RV Dr Fridtjof Nansen using a van Veen grab in depths of between 375 and 386 m. Three of the new species described herein are tanaidomorphans belonging to the genera Bathyleptochelia (Leptocheliidae), Pseudotanais (Pseudotanaidae) and Cryptocopoides (Cryptocopidae). The fourth species, an apseudomorphan, belongs to Calozodion (Metapseudidae), a genus hitherto known only from shallow waters (<200 m). This report constitutes the first records of tanaidaceans from a deep-sea Lophelia reef. PMID:26250314

  16. Additional records of the laomediid mud-shrimp genus Naushonia Kingsley, 1897 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea), with a revised identification key.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Anker, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Six species of the peculiar mud-shrimp genus Naushonia Kingsley, 1897 (Laomediidae) from various localities in the world are treated in this study: N. carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006 (newly recorded from Japan); N. japonica Komai, 2004 (second record since the original description); N. lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 (newly recorded from Papua New Guinea); N. portoricensis (Rathbun, 1901) (newly recorded from the French Antilles); N. serratipalma Komai & Anker, 2010 (newly recorded from Saudi Arabia); and N. draconis Anker, 2014 (newly recorded from Cuba). A detailed description and new illustrations are provided for N. portoricensis, a species for which a modern description was hitherto unavailable. Gill formula was re-examined in all six species. Colour photographs of living or fresh specimens are provided for most species. A revised key to all known species of Naushonia is presented, a eliminating misinterpretation of an important character in previous keys. PMID:26249909

  17. Oxidative Status Profile in Different Tissues of Parastacus brasiliensis promatensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) over a Seasonal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ludimila Carneiro; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess annual redox balance by quantifying activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as measuring lipid peroxidation levels by determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in different tissues of male and female crayfish collected from an area little affected by anthropogenic impacts. A total of 37 male and 32 female of Parastacus brasiliensis promatensis were collected over an annual cycle, and gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gonad samples were harvested and subjected to the aforementioned analyses via spectrophotometry. Comparison of the annual oxidative status response profile in gill and in hepatopancreas between males and females revealed differences only in SOD activity. In abdominal muscle, this comparison revealed a distinct profile of SOD and GST activity, as well as of lipid peroxidation. SOD activity in gonads of females increased in the summer when compared to autumn; conversely, CAT and GST levels did not differ over the year. During reproduction, a possible increase of the energy requirements led to an increase in lipid peroxidation in all tested tissues, in males and females alike. It was least evident in female gonad tissue, which suggests this tissue type is relatively protected; within this context, one may establish a tissue-specific grading of Lipid Peroxidation intensity in females of the species during the spring: gonads < muscle < gills < hepatopancreas. Our results show that the responses of the defenses analyzed antioxidants, as well as lipid peroxidation levels, were sex and tissue dependent and a clear pattern of seasonal variation. PMID:27256498

  18. The Effect of the Crayfish Orconectes virilis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) in the Decomposition and Succession of Submerged Small Mammal Carrion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, G. D.; Chadwick, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    The role of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in the decomposition of submerged rat carrion and succession of other benthic macroinvertebrates was experimentally investigated in Slaughterhouse Gulch, a small, urban stream in Littleton, Colorado. Crayfish participation in carrion decomposition significantly altered the decomposition rate of the carrion. Nine carcasses were exposed in anchored minnow traps at three degrees of crayfish access: crayfish always present, crayfish having free access, and crayfish excluded. These three treatments required 23 days, 29 days, and 65 days, respectively, for complete decomposition of the rat carrion (<2% original biomass). Sample variability increased with number of crayfish present, especially as decomposition proceeded. Seven other macroinvertebrate taxa were collected from the carcasses, but their presence or absence could not be correlated with crayfish presence. The leech Haemopis marmoratus was generally the first macroinvertebrate to arrive at the carrion, being present in densities of <5 individuals/carcass early in succession and in larger densities (up to 25 individuals/carcass) after extensive decomposition and exposure of the viscera.

  19. Redescription of poorly known species of Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), based on original type material

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to the difficulty in accurately identifying cymothoids, these parasitic isopods are often incorrectly named or confused with other species. Within the genus Ceratothoa, a number of recent studies have aimed at clarifying some of the problematic species; however, several of the less studied species still require revision. This paper redescribes, from type material, several poorly known Ceratothoa species including Ceratothoa angulata, Ceratothoa capri, Ceratothoa carinata, Ceratothoa collaris, Ceratothoa gilberti, Ceratothoa gobii, Ceratothoa guttata, Ceratothoa italica, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Ceratothoa verrucosa, further resolving taxonomic uncertainties within the genus. PMID:27408544

  20. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented. PMID:26249444

  1. Taking their breath away: metabolic responses to low-oxygen levels in anchialine shrimps (Crustacea: Atyidae and Alpheidae).

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weeks, Jeffrey R; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Hidaka, Michio; Santos, Scott R; Henry, Raymond P

    2014-12-01

    Crustaceans generally act as oxy-regulators, maintaining constant oxygen uptake as oxygen partial pressures decrease, but when a critical low level is reached, ventilation and aerobic metabolism shut down. Cave-adapted animals, including crustaceans, often show a reduced metabolic rate possibly owing in part to the hypoxic nature of such environments. However, metabolic rates have not been thoroughly explored in crustaceans from anchialine habitats (coastal ponds and caves), which can experience variable oxygenic regimes. Here, an atypical oxy-conforming pattern of oxygen uptake is reported in the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra, along with other unusual metabolic characteristics. Ventilatory rates are near-maximal in normoxia and did not increase appreciably as PO₂ declined, resulting in a decline in VO₂ during progressive hypoxia. Halocaridina rubra maintained in anoxic waters survived for seven days (the duration of the experiment) with no measureable oxygen uptake, suggesting a reliance on anaerobic metabolism. Supporting this, lactate dehydrogenase activity was high, even in normoxia, and oxygen debts were quickly repaid by an unusually extreme increase in oxygen uptake upon exposure to normoxia. In contrast, four related anchialine shrimp species from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, exhibited physiological properties consistent with previously studied crustaceans. The unusual respiratory patterns found in H. rubra are discussed in the context of a trade-off in gill morphology for osmoregulatory ion transport vs. diffusion of respiratory gasses. Future focus on anchialine species may offer novel insight into the diversity of metabolic responses to hypoxia and other physiological challenges experienced by crustaceans. PMID:25193179

  2. A new species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Eupontonia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Minemizu, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    A third species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Eupontonia Bruce, 1971, E. gracilipes n. sp., is described and illustrated on the basis of a single female specimen collected from shallow water of Ishigaki Island, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The new species is readily distinguished from the two congeneric species, E. noctalbata Bruce, 1971 and E. oahu Bruce, 2010, by a number of morphological characters, including the presence of a distinct postrostral median ridge and of the postrostral median tooth on the carapace. It is considered to be a free-living species. The generic diagnosis of Eupontonia is slightly emended to accommodate the present new species. A key in aid of identification of species of Eupontonia is provided. PMID:24872045

  3. Two new species of the genus Anisomysis (Anisomysis) (Crustacea, Mysida, Mysidae) from coral reef waters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Mitsuyasu; Srinui, Khwanruan; Sawamoto, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Anisomysis Hansen, 1910 (Mysida, Mysidae), Anisomysis (Anisomysis) spinaintus sp. n. and Anisomysis (Anisomysis) phuketensis sp. n., from coral-reef waters in Thailand are described. Anisomysis (Anisomysis) spinaintus, collected in the Chaolao Beach, Chanthaburi Province, is distinguished from the closely allied species Anisomysis (Anisomysis) incisa Tattersall, 1936, and Anisomysis (Anisomysis) hawaiiensis Murano, 1995, by the presence of 6–9 spines on the apical cleft of telson, which are absent in the latter two allied species. The new species can also be distinguished from Anisomysis (Anisomysis) aikawai Ii, 1964, by the presence of a deep telson cleft and a large number of spines on the lateral margin of telson. Anisomysis (Anisomysis) phuketensis sp. n., collected in Ko Lon, Phuket, is distinguished from the allied species Anisomysis (Anisomysis) robustispina Panampunnayil, 1984, by having a short telson and a pair of long spines on the apical part of the telson. Keys to the subgenera and species of Anisomysis, including the two new species, are presented. PMID:26487820

  4. Two new species and new records of Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomomi; Anker, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the spongicolid shrimp genus Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected recently in Australia and Japan. Type specimens of Microprosthema ningaloo sp. nov. were collected on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, whereas type specimens of Microprosthema pallidum sp. nov. were collected on a coral reef off Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Microprosthema ningaloo sp. nov. and M. pallidum sp. nov. differ from all other species of the genus by a combination of morphological characters, including the gill-exopod formulae, and by their diagnostic colour patterns. This study increases the total number of species described in the genus Microprosthema to 16, nine of them in the Indo-West Pacific. In addition, new records are provided for M. lubricum Saito & Okuno, 2011 (Guam), M. plumicorne (Richters, 1880) (Red Sea, Mariana and Marshall Islands, French Polynesia), M. scabricaudatum (Richters, 1880) (Red Sea, Glorieuses and Tuamotu Islands), and M. validum Stimpson, 1860 (Red Sea, Madagascar, Singapore, French Polynesia), significantly extending their previously known distribution ranges.  PMID:25283104

  5. The complete mitogenome of the Australian spiny crayfish Euastacus yarraensis (McCoy, 1888) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian crayfish, Euastacus yarraensis, is documented and compared with other Australian crayfish genera. Euastacus yarraensis has a mitogenome of 15,548 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of E. yarraensis mitogenome is 32.39% for T, 22.45% for C, 34.43% for A, and 10.73% for G, with an AT bias of 66.82%. The mitogenome gene order conforms to what is considered the primitive arrangement for parastacid crayfish. PMID:24938115

  6. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  7. A scanning electron microscopy study of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Algerian coast.

    PubMed

    Ider, Djamila; Ramdane, Zouhir; Courcot, Lucie; Amara, Rachid; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of the Algerian Branchiura, Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) was conducted using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). New morphological features are reported for the first time (mouth con, first maxilla, second maxilla, structures and ornamentation of thoracic segments, structure of semen papillae, etc.). The morphology of small and large female specimens was compared. Two new hosts, Pagellus erythrinus L. and Sparus aurata L., are reported for this species. Until now, six host species were reported for A. vittatus, and stenoxenic specificity for Sparid fishes was observed for Algerian specimens. The biogeographical distribution of this species seems to be restricted to the eastern coast of Algeria. Additional information about the host specificity, ecology, and life cycle of this parasitic species were given. PMID:24728522

  8. Terrathelphusa secula, a new species of semiterrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Sabah, East Malaysia, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Tan, Leo W H

    2015-01-01

    A new species of semiterrestrial gecarcinucid freshwater crab, Terrathelphusa secula, is described from Danum Valley in Sabah, East Malaysia, eastern Borneo. In the form of its carapace, third maxilliped, and male second gonopod, it most closely resembles T. ovis Ng, 1997, and T. telur Ng, 1997, from eastern Sarawak and Brunei, respectively. It differs markedly from these and other congeners in its proportionately much wider carapace, and a male first gonopod that is strongly curved and sickle-shaped. PMID:26623825

  9. Pinnotheres orcutti Rathbun, 1918, a new Eastern Tropical Pacific species of Tumidotheres Campos, 1989 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Ernesto; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a protuberance in the basal antennal article in the holotype of Pinnotheres orcutti Rathbun, 1918, allows its removal from Pinnotheres Bosc, 1802 [type species, P. pisumn (Linnaeus, 1767)]. The species is instead included in Tumidotheres Campos, 1989, because of the presence of a thick, tumid and firm carapace, and its surface covered with a short, dense, and deciduous tomentum; the third maxilliped having a propodus larger than the carpus; and the presence of a subspatulate dactylus of the third maxilliped medially inserted into a notch on the ventral margin of the propodus. Tumidotheres orcutti new combination can be separated from its sole Pacific Ocean congener, T. margarita Smith, 1870, by its unique dentition on the inner margin of the cheliped pollex, which is armed with a blunt proximal lobe and a row of small teeth, the two distal teeth being conspicuously the largest. In contrast, the pollex dentition of T. margarita consists of very small teeth, all similar in size. PMID:26217839

  10. A new species of Macrophthalmus Desmarest, 1823 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae) from Taiwan, with notes on four new records.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shao-Jyun; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sentinel crab (family Macrophthalmidae), Macrophthalmus (Mareotis) purpureocheir sp. nov., from coral reefs is herein described from southern and eastern Taiwan. The new species can be distinguished from other species by a suite of characters, including the narrower and more convex carapace, the first anterolateral tooth protruding forward, the short and stout chelipeds, and the male first gonopod with short apical process, as well as the distinctive reddish purple chelae of the male. The identity of this new species is also supported by molecular evidence using the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Three additional species of Macrophthalmus, viz. M. crinitus Rathbun, 1913, M. definitus Adams & White, 1849, and M. milloti Crosnier, 1965, as well as Ilyograpsus paludicola (Rathbun, 1909) of the subfamily Ilyograpsinae Števčić, 2005, are also confirmed from Taiwan. PMID:26701540

  11. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  12. Uptake, Accumulation and Excretion by Corophium volutator(Crustacea: Amphipoda) of Zinc, Cadmium and Cobalt Added to Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, M. Galay; Rainbow, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    Zinc, cadmium and cobalt associated with digested sewage sludge are available to the benthic deposit-feeding amphipodCorophium volutator(Pallas). Accumulation by the amphipod of radioactively labelled metals adsorbed onto a 5% sludge-sediment mixture increased with time of exposure up to 15 days, but irregularly so as pulses of labelled metal were excreted into faecal pellets. The three labelled metals were accumulated and excreted apparently almost synchronously by individual amphipods, although great variability between different individuals was found. This intraspecific variability could not be attributed to differences between male and female amphipods. Net accumulation of labelled metals from the sludge increased with increased labelled metal concentration in the sludge, but not with time beyond an initial period of 15-30 days. It is proposed that the metal excretion patterns might reflect the breakdown of epithelial cells of the ventral caeca following a cell cycle, releasing accumulated stores of detoxified metals into the gut lumen and out of the body through faeces.

  13. Potential exposure routes and accumulation kinetics for poly- and perfluorinated alkyl compounds for a freshwater amphipod: Gammarus spp. (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Delphine; Labadie, Pierre; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Sapin, Alexandre; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier; Budzinski, Hélène; Babut, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Gammarids were exposed to sediments from a deposition site located on the Rhône River (France) downstream of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Gammarids accumulated to various extents four long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) from C9 to C13, one sulfonate, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and three of its precursors (the perflurooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), the N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFOSAA), the N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA) and the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA). Whatever the compound, the steady state was not achieved after a 3-week exposure; elimination was almost complete after a 3-week depuration period for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFOS, the three precursors and the 6:2FTSA. However, this was not the case for long-chain PFCAs, whose elimination rates decreased with increasing chain length. PFAS accumulation in gammarids occurred via the trophic and respiratory pathways, in proportions varying with the carbon chain length and the terminal moiety. PMID:27139118

  14. Reproductive biology of the Suez Canal spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834: Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae).

    PubMed

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Ibrahim, Nesreen K; Al-Misned, Fahad A

    2015-11-01

    A reproductive biology study of the spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) was conducted in the Suez Canal from July 2012 to June 2013. The annual sex ratio (Male:Female) of S. aspera was female biased with values of 1:1.25. Out of the four ovarian development stages of this crab, two stages were observed in the Suez Canal throughout the whole year. The ovigerous crab's carapace width varied from 28 to 52 mm. This crab species can spawn during most of the year in the canal water, with a peak during late spring and early winter. The fecundity of ovigerous females ranged between 2349 and 13600 eggs with a mean of 5494 ± 1486 eggs. Female crabs that reached sexual maturity exhibited a minimum carapace width varying between 22 and 46 mm, and fifty percentage of all ovigerous females showed a carapace width of 36 mm. PMID:26587008

  15. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool. PMID:22536109

  16. Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura,
    Xanthidae) from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993, are described based on material collected from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf during the present study, from Bahrain by the 1937/38 Danish Expedition, and from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf by Michael Apel in 1992-1995. Palapedia persica n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having distinctly large denticles on the upper margin of the palm and fingers of the chelae and anterior margin of the ambulatory dactyli, and by the markedly sickle-shaped dactylus of the ambulatory legs. Palapedia apeli n. sp. is similar to P. valentini Ng, 1993, and P. nitida (Stimpson, 1858), by having relatively smooth appendages. PMID:26250272

  17. Two new species, Caenanthura koreana sp. nov. and Apanthura koreaensis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Min, Gi-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of anthuroid isopods, Caenanthura koreana sp. nov. and Apanthura koreaensis sp. nov. are described from the southern and western coasts of the Korean Peninsula. A key to the species and the type locality of Caenanthura are provided. Additionally, we determined the partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) from two new species. PMID:25947475

  18. Paguristione uniuropodus, a new genus and a new species of Pseudioninae infesting hermit crabs from China (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae).

    PubMed

    An, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiuping; Markham, John C

    2016-01-01

    Paguristione uniuropodus gen. n., sp. n. infests Paguristes sp. in the East China Sea. Paguristione gen. n. differs from the closely related genera Pseudione and Pagurion by its females having indistinct lateral plates on the last two pleomeres and its male with a long tapering pleon of six pleomeres, lacking both pleopoda and uropoda. PMID:27110188

  19. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  20. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex. PMID:26623914

  1. Description of a species of Fabaeformiscandona (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from Kushiro Marsh, Hokkaido, Japan, with the nearly complete mitochondrial genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hiruta, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background So far, 16 species of non-marine ostracods have been reported from Kushiro Marsh, Kushiro Shitsugen National Park, eastern Hokkaido, Japan (Hiruta and Smith 2001, Smith and Hiruta 2004). Nine of these species are in Candonidae, the second-most diverse family of non-marine ostracods. This family contains ca. 550 species, or around 25% of the total number of non-marine ostracod species (Martens et al. 2008). New information We sampled ostracods in Kushiro Marsh on 27 December 2012 and identified an undescribed species in the family Candonidae, herein described as Fabaeformiscandona kushiroensis sp. nov. This species belongs to the F. acuminata species group and is characterized by the shapes of the elongate, dorsally directed medial and outer lobes on the distal end of each hemipenis. We also determined for this species the sequence of the nearly complete mitochondrial genome, the first record from the order Podocopa. The genome (ca. 17 kbp) contains two ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes, as also found in other arthropods for which the mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. The gene arrangement is similar to the pancrustacean ground pattern, except that in the control region there is an approximately 2 kbp tandem repeat region composed of 220-bp motif sequences. We describe the genetic features of the mitochondrial genome, including nucleotide composition and the secondary structures of tRNAs and rRNAs, and compare them with the genome of Vargula hilgendorfii (Myodocopa, Ostracoda). PMID:26751633

  2. Parallels between two geographically and ecologically disparate cave invasions by the same species, Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Konec, M; Prevorčnik, S; Sarbu, S M; Verovnik, R; Trontelj, P

    2015-04-01

    Caves are long-known examples of evolutionary replications where similar morphologies (troglomorphies) evolve independently as the result of strong natural selection of the extreme environment. Recently, this paradigm has been challenged based on observations that troglomorphies are inconsistent across taxa and different subterranean habitats. We investigated the degree of replicated phenotypic change in two independent cave invasions by the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus; the first in a sulphidic aquifer in Romania, the second in a sinking river in the Dinaric Karst in Slovenia. Both ancestral surface populations still live alongside the subterranean ones. Phylogenetic analyses show independence of the two colonization events, and microsatellite analysis shows no evidence of ongoing genetic exchange between surface and subterranean ecomorphs. The overall morphology has changed dramatically at both sites (50 of 62 morphometric traits). The amount of phenotypic change did not reflect differences in genetic diversity between the two ancestral populations. Multivariate analyses revealed divergent evolution in caves, not parallel or convergent as predicted by the current paradigm. Still, 18 traits changed in a parallel fashion, including eye and pigment loss and antennal elongation. These changes might be a consequence of darkness as the only common ecological feature, because Romanian caves are chemoautotrophic and rich in food, whereas Slovenian caves are not. Overall, these results show that morphologically alike surface populations can diverge after invading different subterranean habitats, and that only about one-third of all changing traits behave as troglomorphies in the traditional sense. PMID:25728816

  3. A new deep-water species of Myopiarolis Bruce, 2009 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Serolidae) from New Zealand waters.

    PubMed

    Spong, Keren; Bruce, Niel L

    2015-01-01

    Myopiarolis tona sp. nov. is described from the Challenger Plateau, southern Lord Howe Rise and the west coast of the North Island, New Zealand at depths of 634-1250 m. M. tona sp. nov. can be identified by the prominent posteriorly directed dorsal nodule on fused pereonites 5-7. There are nine species in four genera of the cold-water, epibenthic family Serolidae recorded from New Zealand waters, three species of Myopiarolis Bruce, 2009, one undescribed species of Acutiserolis Brandt, 1988, four of Brucerolis Poore and Storey, 2009 and the monotypic Spinoserolis Brandt, 1988. PMID:26701478

  4. Prediction of the neuropeptidomes of members of the Astacidea (Crustacea, Decapoda) using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequence data.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-12-01

    The decapod infraorder Astacidea is comprised of clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish. Due to their economic importance and their use as models for investigating neurochemical signaling, much work has focused on elucidating their neurochemistry, particularly their peptidergic systems. Interestingly, no astacidean has been the subject of large-scale peptidomic analysis via in silico transcriptome mining, this despite growing transcriptomic resources for members of this taxon. Here, the publicly accessible astacidean transcriptome shotgun assembly data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; these sequences were used to predict the structures of mature neuropeptides. One hundred seventy-six distinct peptides were predicted for Procambarus clarkii, including isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide (ACP), allatostatin A (AST-A), allatostatin B, allatostatin C (AST-C) bursicon α, bursicon β, CCHamide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)/ion transport peptide (ITP), diuretic hormone 31 (DH31), eclosion hormone (EH), FMRFamide-like peptide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, RYamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP). Forty-six distinct peptides, including isoforms of AST-A, AST-C, bursicon α, CCHamide, CHH/ITP, DH31, EH, intocin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, red pigment concentrating hormone, sNPF and TRP, were predicted for Pontastacus leptodactylus, with a bursicon β and a neuroparsin predicted for Cherax quadricarinatus. The identification of ACP is the first from a decapod, while the predictions of CCHamide, EH, GSEFLamide, intocin, neuroparsin and RYamide are firsts for the Astacidea. Collectively, these data greatly expand the catalog of known astacidean neuropeptides and provide a foundation for functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this decapod infraorder. PMID:26070255

  5. New data on the Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Canary Islands, with a description of a new species of Apseudopsis.

    PubMed

    Esquete, Patricia; Ramos, Eva; Riera, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Benthic samples from two harbours at El Hierro and Tenerife (Canary Islands) yielded three species of Tanaidacea. Tanais dulongii and Leptochelia savignyi are recorded for the first time in Tenerife and El Hierro, respectively. A new species of Apseudomorpha, Apseudopsis rogi, was collected in both harbours and can be differentiated from other species of the genus by the male having a cheliped merus with a distinctive, cylindrical dorso-proximal spur. This is the first species of Apseudopsis described for the Macaronesian region. A key to the Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Apseudopsis is provided. PMID:27394493

  6. Rare and new cumaceans (Crustacea, Peracarida) from the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay)

    PubMed Central

    Corbera, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new cumacean genus and species, Ithyleucon sorbei gen. et sp. n., was described from material collected in the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic). Although the new genus resembles Pseudoleucon Zimmer, 1903, in terms of the general aspect of the carapace and the pseudo-rostrum position, it shows important differences in the uropod structure and in the size of the antenna 1 accessory flagellum. In addition, some comments regarding the morphology of certain rare species (Mesolamprops denticulatus Ledoyer, 1983, Hemilamprops normani Bonnier, 1896 and Schizocuma spino-culatum (Jones, 1984)) are also provided. PMID:23226964

  7. Effects of temperature and salinity on larval development of Elminius modestus (Crustacea, Cirripedia) from Helgoland (North Sea) and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.

    1986-12-01

    Larvae of Elminius modestus (Darwin) from four different populations (Portobello, Leigh, Doubtless Bay [New Zealand] and Helgoland [North Sea]) were reared at different salinity and temperature combinations. The larvae of E. modestus from Helgoland developed successfully at a wide range of temperature (6° to 24 °C) and salinity (20 to 50 ‰ S). Mortality was highest at 10 ‰ S; only at 12° and 18 °C did a small percentage develop to the cypris. The larvae from New Zealand were reared at a temperature range of 12° 24 °C at 20, 30 and 40 ‰ S; mortality increased in all populations at all salinities with decreasing temperature and was extremely high at 12 °C and 40 ‰ S. The temperature influence on larval duration could be described in all cases by a power function. No significant differences in temperature influences on developmental times between the tested salinities were found, except for the Portobello population at 20 ‰ S. Significant differences were found in the temperature influence on larval development between the populations from Helgoland and the North Island of New Zealand (Leigh, Doubtless Bay). No differences were found between the Helgoland and Portobello population. The pooled data for the temperature influence on the larval development of the three tested New Zealand populations at 20, 30 and 40 ‰ S and the pooled Helgoland data at 20, 30 and 40 ‰ S show highly significant differences. Larval size (stage VI) was influenced by experimental conditions. The larvae grew bigger at low temperatures and attained their maximum size at 30 ‰ S (Helgoland). There was a strong reduction in larval size at temperatures from 18° to 24 °C. The larvae of the New Zealand populations were smaller than those from Helgoland. The greatest difference in size existed between the larvae from Portobello and Helgoland.

  8. Redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) and description of a new subspecies from southern Iran (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam; Zamanpoore, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study focused on redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) based on new materials from Zagros Mountains and describes a new subspecies of freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n., from the southern Zagros Mountains. The work is based on morphological and morphometric comparisons. This new subspecies has features similar to Gammarus pseudosyriacus. The distinct features that distinguish Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n. from Gammarus pseudosyriacus are the smaller eyes, shorter body length, and shorter flagellum of antenna 1 and 2. PMID:27408590

  9. Postsettlement growth of two estuarine crab species, Chasmagnathus granulata and Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Grapsidae): laboratory and field investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppi, T. A.; Spivak, E. D.; Anger, K.

    2002-02-01

    The estuarine grapsid crabs Chasmagnathus granulata and Cyrtograpsus angulatus belong to the most typical and dominant inhabitants of brackish coastal lagoons in southeastern South America. In a combined laboratory and field investigation of juvenile growth, we measured the increase in body size in these species under controlled conditions as well as in field experiments (in Mar Chiquita lagoon, Argentina), seasonal changes in size frequency distribution of a natural population, and growth related changes in selected morphometric traits of male and female juveniles (relations between carapace width, carapace length, propodus height and length of the cheliped, and pleon width). At 24°C, Cy. angulatus grew faster than Ch. granulata; it reached the crab-9 instar (C9; 13 mm carapace width) after 92 days, while Ch. granulata required 107 days to reach the C8 instar (7.4 mm). At 12°C, growth ceased in both species. The pleon begins to show sexual differences in the C5 ( Cy. angulatus) and C8 instar ( Ch. granulata), respectively, while the chelae differentiate earlier in Ch. granulata than in Cy. angulatus (in C4 vs C6). In the field, growth was maximal in summer, and was generally faster than in laboratory cultures. However, there is great individual variability in size (about 25% even in the first crab instar) and in size increments at ecdysis, increasing throughout juvenile growth. Our data indicate that, in the field, small-scale and short-term variations in feeding conditions, temperature, and salinity account for an extremely high degree of variability in the absolute and relative rates of growth as well as in the time to sexual differentiation.

  10. Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae) at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Bruno S; Borges, Roberto P; Hattori, Gustavo Y; Pinheiro, Marcelo A A

    2014-09-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is one of the most exploited crustaceans in Brazil. The present study investigated the breeding season of this species and the period of the "andada" phenomenon, when the crabs are active outside their burrows and perform agonistic behaviors. Furthermore related them to environmental factors, in a mangrove on the coast of Brazil, with inferences about management of this crab. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The "andada" occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods, and was influenced positively by the air and soil temperature, luminosity, and tidal amplitude, and negatively by salinity. Based on the results of the present study, the period when the "andada" occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moon, including January. PMID:25211111

  11. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E.

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ18O- and δ13C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, “brackish” water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  12. Effects of algal concentration and initial density on the population growth of Diaphanosoma celebensis Stingelin (Crustacea, Cladocera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Ningxia; Wang, Weiliang

    2009-09-01

    The effects of algal concentration and initial density on the population growth of the estuarine cladocera, Diaphanosoma celebensis Stingelin, were evaluated in an indoor experiment. A 2 × 4 layout that included two algal concentrations ( Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 1 × 106 and 3 × 106 cell/mL) and four inoculation densities (100, 200, 300 and 400 ind./L) were established. Diaphanosoma celebensis were reared in 150 mL flasks containing 50 mL of algal medium at 22°C, under salinity of 10 and a photoperiod of 12 h L: 12 h D. The lag phase required to initiate continuous population growth following inoculation was shorter for D. celebensis fed 1 × 106 cell/mL and inoculated at 300 or 400 ind./L than that for D. celebensis fed 3 × 106 cell/mL and inoculated at 100 or 200 ind./L. However, D. celebensis fed 3 × 106 cell/mL and inoculated at 100 or 200 ind./L exhibited longer periods of positive population growth. The maximum population densities were 5 875 ± 324, 6 690 ± 691, 7 735 ± 1,121 and 6 365 ± 691 ind./L for D. celebensis fed 1 × 106 cell/mL and inoculated at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ind./L, respectively, and 15 070 ± 379, 12 215 ± 648, 11 960 ± 2,551 and 16 130 ± 880 ind./L for D. celebensis fed 3 × 106 cell/mL and inoculated at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ind./L, respectively. The average daily increasing rates of population were 0.076 ± 0.001, 0.065 ± 0.002, 0.055 ± 0.002 and 0.048 ± 0.003 for D. celebensis fed 1×106 cell/mL and inoculated at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ind./L, respectively, and 0.098 ± 0.001, 0.078 ± 0.002, 0.072 ± 0.003 and 0.067 ± 0.003 for D. celebensis fed 3 × 106 cell/mL and inoculated at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ind./L, respectively. The maximum population density and average daily increasing rate of population increased as the algal concentration increased, whereas an increase in the inoculation density led to a linear decrease in the daily increasing rate of population under both algal concentrations. The results of the present experiment indicate that the algal concentration and inoculation density significantly affect population growth of D. celebensis. Furthermore, the results suggest that the optimal algal concentration and inoculation density for the mass culture of D. celebensis should be 3 × 106 cell/mL and 100 ind./L.

  13. The tidal exchange of Callianassa californiensis (Crustacea, Decapoda) larvae between the ocean and the Salmon River estuary, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Gonor, J. J.

    1982-05-01

    This study estimated the net flux of larvae of the anomuran crustacean Callianassa californiensis between the ocean and the Salmon River Estuary, Oregon (45°N, 124°W). Measurements of tidal current velocity, temperature and salinity were made concurrently with plankton sampling through eight weekly daylight tidal cycles. Zoea I larvae released in the estuary are flushed into the ocean on ebb tides before further development. Zoea I density and tidal discharge are highest early in the ebb. The ebb flux is greater than the flood flux of larvae from the ocean, resulting in a net flux out of the estuary. No retention of larvae in the estuary was found. Megalopae entered the estuary on flood tides in August and did not leave on the following ebb tides. These recruits to the benthic population spent most of the larval period in the nearshore oceanic plankton during the upwelling season. The Salmon River estuary hydrography is typical for Pacific north-west estuarine embayments. Tidal flushing of larvae into the ocean, development in coastal waters and exchange between embayments is probably common for lower estuarine benthic species with planktonic larvae.

  14. The Distribution of Talitrid Amphipods (Crustacea) on a Salt Marsh in Southern Tasmania, in relation to Vegetation and Substratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. M. M.; Mulcahy, M. E.

    1996-12-01

    Supralittoral and terrestrial talitrid amphipods were collected from a salt marsh in Southern Tasmania by pitfall trapping along transects from the mid-tidal level to above the high-tide mark, and by hand collecting from sites chosen to represent the full range from salt marsh to terrestrial vegetation. At each site, the cover of all major plant species was recorded, and soil samples were collected from which soil moisture, organic content and salinity were measured. Eight talitrid species from four ecological groups were collected; one palustral species, one beachflea, three coastal landhoppers and three eastern forest landhoppers. There was substantial overlap in the distributions of these groups. The undescribed beachflea had the widest distribution, from the wettest, most saline sites to the Schoenus nitenstussock grassland at the extreme high-tide mark. The palustral species, Eorchestia palustris, overlapped substantially with the beachflea, but was found within a narrower band of salinities (though not in the most saline sites) and in more poorly-drained sites than the beachflea. Coastal landhoppers, Austrotroides maritimus, Keratroides rexand an undescribed species of Tasmanorchestia, were found mainly in the S. nitenstussock grassland, where they overlapped with forest landhoppers, Keratroides vulgaris, Mysticotalitrus tasmaniaeand M. cryptus, which were found mainly in non-saltmarsh terrestrial sites, well above the high-tide mark. These distributions are discussed in terms of the likelihood that salt marshes provided the route by which talitrid amphipods colonized land. There is no reason from these data to reject salt marshes as the route to land, and it is suggested that they are a more likely route than via rocky or sandy shores.

  15. Lifespan and population dynamics of the endemic South American shrimp Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea: Penaeidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Antonio L; Grabowski, Raphael C; Simões, Sabrina M; Santos, Ana Paula F; Costa, Rogério C; Fransozo, Adilson

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the growth, longevity and reproductive dynamics of Artemesia longinaris in the southeastern coast of Brazil over a two-year period. Monthly collections were conducted in Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba using a shrimp fishing boat equipped with "double-rig" nets. Each region was divided into 7 sampling stations up to 35 m deep. Size frequency distributions, growth, longevity, sex ratio, and abundance of individuals in each demographic class, were compared. The relationship between abiotic factors and abundance of each demographic class was assessed using a Canonical Correlation Analysis. A total of 64,641 individuals were collected (6,928 measured) with an estimated longevity of 1.30 (Ubatuba) and 1.14 (Caraguatatuba) years for females and 1.03 years for males in both regions. There was a statistically significant bias in sex ratio toward females (Chi-squared test, p < 0.05) in both regions. The Canonical Correlation Analysis resulted in a canonical correlation coefficient of 0.31 (p = 0.00002). Salinity and temperature showed high correlation mainly with the presence of reproductive females. In general, this demographic class was most common in conditions of low temperature and high salinity. These findings, as well as other studies carried out in colder regions with the same species, are consistent with classical latitudinal paradigm. PMID:26628032

  16. Temporal Variability in the Vertical and Mesoscale Spatial Distribution of Crab Megalopae (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abello, P.; Guerao, G.

    1999-07-01

    The vertical and mesoscale horizontal patterns of the distribution of crab megalopae were studied from samples taken during two consecutive cruises in the spring of 1992 off the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) and are analysed in relation to environmental data. The spring hydrography in the study area, which included the waters along the shelf and slope over a submarine canyon, is characterized by high hydrographic variability. The most abundant species was an undescribed portunid (coded as SP02), followed by Liocarcinus depurator and Carcinus aestuarii. Some species were mainly present in neuston samples during night-time hours, such as Atelecyclus sp., Goneplax rhomboides, Ebalia sp. or the anomuransPisidia longicornis and Porcellana platycheles; other species were present in the neuston throughout the day and night, with a slight tendency to increase their abundance during the night, such as L. depurator and C. aestuarii. The distribution of megalopae showed a high temporal variability and reflected the hydrographic structure at the surface. The variability in the geographical position of the shelf-slope hydrographic front clearly affected the distribution of the larvae. Most megalopae were associated with the inshore waters of lower salinity than open seawaters.

  17. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Elisabeth; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season. PMID:26261445

  18. Radiation injury and acute death in Armadillidium vulgare (terrestrial isopod, Crustacea) subjected to ionizing radiation. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuchi, Y.; Egami, N.

    1981-01-01

    From whole- and partial-body irradiation experiments with adult Armadillidium vulgare, the following conclusions were drawn: the LD/sub 50/-30 days for this animal when subjected to ..gamma.. radiation at 25 +- 2/sup 0/C was about 30 kR. Radiosensitivity of the animal changed during the molt cycle. Ionizing radiation increased mortality at ecdysis and during intermolt stages. Anatomical and histological observations indicated that (1) gastrointestinal injury as the major cause of acute death does not apply to this animal because the intestine is not a cell-proliferative organ: (2) the epidermis may be the critical target organ.

  19. Sperm storage, sperm translocation and genitalia formation in females of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Peracarida, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sperm storage, sperm transfer from the oviduct to the seminal receptacle, and formation of the cuticular genitalia in female Armadillidium vulgare using light and electron microscopy. Apolysis of the genitalia within the oviduct forms a circum-genital lumen. During insemination this space is filled with immobile spermatozoa. Sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle takes place before oviposition. Within a peculiar proximal neck region of the oviduct spermatozoa are bundled and enveloped by a folded epicuticular layer. The envelope tightly surrounds the spermatozoa probably forming a seal against the main part of the circum-genital lumen. We propose that hydrostatic pressure produced by the muscle cells surrounding the oviduct leads to sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle. Within the seminal receptacle the sperm bundle forms a ring just around the orifice to the oviduct. At one side sheath-like extensions of epithelial cells surround the ring of spermatozoa holding it in place. At the other side oocytes would have access to the sperm during oviposition, probably allowing for fertilisation when they pass right through the ring of spermatozoa. After oviposition the new genitalia are formed from epicuticular folds, and cuticle secreted by the epithelial cells. PMID:20659586

  20. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states. PMID:22776477

  1. Widespread atypical mitochondrial DNA structure in isopods (Crustacea, Peracarida) related to a constitutive heteroplasmy in terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Raimond, Roland; Grandjean, Frédéric; Lafitte, Alexandra; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Marcadé, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Metazoan mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of circular monomeric molecules. However, a few exceptions do exist and among them two terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus have an atypical mtDNA composed of linear monomers associated with circular "head-to-head" dimers: a very unusual structure for animal mtDNA genome. To assess the distribution of this atypical mtDNA among isopods, we performed RFLP and Southern blot analyses on mtDNA of 16 terrestrial (Oniscidea family) and two aquatic isopod species: the marine Sphaeroma serratum (suborder Flabellifera, sister group of Oniscidea) and the freshwater Asellus aquaticus (Asellota, early derived taxon of isopod). The atypical mtDNA structure was observed in 15 terrestrial isopod species and A. aquaticus, suggesting a wide distribution of atypical mtDNA among isopods. However, a typical metazoan mtDNA structure was detected in the marine isopod S. serratum and the Oniscidea Ligia oceanica . Our results suggest two possible scenarios: an early origin of the atypical mtDNA in isopods followed by reversion to the typical ancestral mtDNA structure for several species, or a convergent appearance of the atypical mtDNA structure in two isopod suborders. We compare this distribution of the atypical mtDNA structure with the presence of a heteroplasmy also observed in the mtDNA of several terrestrial isopod species. We discuss if this transmitted heteroplasmy is vectored by the atypical mtDNA and its impact on the maintenance of the atypical mtDNA in isopods. PMID:22376074

  2. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  3. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: Prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Almerão, Mauricio Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; de Araújo, Paula Beatriz; Verne, Sébastien; Grandjean, Frédéric; Bouchon, Didier; Araújo, Aldo Mellender

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts. PMID:23413179

  4. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of microsatellite loci for two sub-species of terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Michaud, Caroline; Chupeau, Cassandre; Bech, Nicolas; Thierry, Magali; Sicard, Mathieu; Greve, Pierre; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Several microsatellite markers have already been developed for different terrestrial isopod species such as Armadillidium vulgare, A. nasatum and Porcellionides pruinosus. In all these species, the endosymbiont Wolbachia has a feminizing effect that generates a female bias in sex ratio and reduces the number of reproductive males. Thus this can potentially decrease the genetic diversity of host populations. However, in some other isopod species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI); the most commonly described effect of Wolbachia in arthropods. The CI by rendering some crossings incompatible can reduce the gene flow and strengthen genetic differentiation between isopod populations. To date, the influence of Wolbachia inducing CI on population structure of terrestrial isopods has never been investigated. In this study, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers shared by two sub-species of Porcellio dilatatus. Crossings between the two sub-species are partially incompatible due to two CI-inducing Wolbachia strains. These new microsatellite markers will allow us to investigate the effect of CI on host genetic differentiation in this species complex. PMID:26943350

  5. Giselinidae fam. nov., a new monophyletic group of cyclopoid copepods (Copepoda, Crustacea) from the Atlantic deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2000-12-01

    Four new species of Cyclopoida from deep-sea waters are described and placed in two new genera: Giselina gen. n. and Sensogiselina gen. n. The new genera and species belong to a new monophyletic group within the cyclopinid cyclopoids. A new name, Giselinidae, is proposed for this monophylum. The new family is characterised by the combination of the following characters: (1) tergite of leg 1 fused to cephalosome dorsally, but incompletely fused laterally, (2) absence of aesthetascs on ancestral antennulary segments XVI, XXI and XXV, (3) absence of antennary exopodal setae, (4) presence of only three spines on distal exopodal segment of leg 1, (5) absence of inner setae on first endopodal segments of legs 1-4, (6) outer terminal and distal inner elements of distal endopodal segment of leg 4 transformed into spines, (7) distal outer element of leg 5 exopod transformed into a spine, (8) leg 6 with only one seta, and (9) furcal setae I and III located on dorsal margin.

  6. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E.

    2013-01-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ18O- and δ13C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, “brackish” water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene. PMID:26523090

  7. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Niel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region. PMID:25878536

  8. Corophiine amphipods of the genera Chelicorophium and Paracorophium from the lower Gulf of Thailand (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Corophiidae, Corophiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Wongkamhaeng, Koraon; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat; Towatana, Prawit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two species of corophiine amphipods from Songkhla Lake, in the lower Gulf of Thailand, are described and illustrated. Chelicorophium madrasensis (Nayar, 1950), found in the mangrove forest, has not previously been observed in Thai waters. Paracorophium angsupanichae sp. n. is characterized by its chelate male gnathopod 2, obtuse palm with subrectangular distomedial elevation, and urosomites 1-3 free. This is the first record of the genus Chelicorophium and Paracorophium in Thai waters. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand and the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. PMID:26052237

  9. Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., a new species of commensal leucothoid amphipod from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines. PMID:26448700

  10. Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2005-11-01

    Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

  11. Dubinectes infirmus, a new species of deep-water Munnopsidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Argentine Basin, South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dubinectes infirmus sp. n., Munnopsidae, is described from the Argentine Basin, southwest Atlantic, at depths between 4586–4607 m. The new species is distinguished by a narrow rim of the pleotelson posterior margin which is not raising over its dorsal surface; article 3 of the antennula is subequal in length to article 2; distomedial lobes of male pleopod 1 are of same size as distolateral lobes; stylet of male pleopod 2 is subequal in length to protopod; uropod exopod is more than a half of endopod length. Some generic characters which are weakly pronounced in the new species or have different state are defined more precisely in the revised diagnosis of Dubinectes. The modified diagnosis of the genus, a key to the species of Dubinectes as well as the distribution of the genus are presented. PMID:22207784

  12. Submarine ridges do not prevent large-scale dispersal of abyssal fauna: A case study of Mesocletodes (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lena; George, Kai Horst; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez

    2011-08-01

    We examined the large-scale distribution of deep-sea harpacticoid copepods at the species level, in order to clarify the underlying processes of copepod dispersal. The study was based on samples collected from 12 regions and a total of 113 stations: 57 stations at depths between 1107 and 5655 m on abyssal plains in the South and North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, southern Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean, and 56 stations above 900 m in the North Atlantic and eastern Mediterranean Sea. We chose the genus Mesocletodes Sars, 1909 as an ideal group to study the large-scale distribution of harpacticoid copepods in the deep oceans. Clear apomorphies and a comparatively large body size of about 1 mm allow rapid recognition of allied species in meiofauna samples. In addition, Mesocletodes represents more than 50% of the family Argestidae Por, 1986, one of the most abundant harpacticoid families in the deep sea. The geographical distributions of 793 adult females of Mesocletodes belonging to 61 species throughout the South and North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, southern Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and eastern Mediterranean Sea indicated that most species are cosmopolitan. Neither the topography of the sea bottom nor long distances seem to prevent species from dispersing. Passive transport by bottom currents after resuspension is likely the propulsive factor for the dispersal of Harpacticoida, while plate tectonics and movement of individuals in the sediment may play relatively minor roles.

  13. An appraisal of Typilobus Stoliczka, 1871 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Leucosioidea), with description of a new family and genus.

    PubMed

    Artal, Pedro; Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    Since its description, Typilobus Stoliczka, 1871, has become something like a catch-all taxon to accommodate fossil leucosioid crabs with uncertain affinities. As many as 17 species have been assigned to Typilobus, recorded from the Eocene to Miocene strata of Europe, Africa, and Asia. The re-examination of the type species, Typilobus granulosus Stoliczka, 1871, from the Miocene of Pakistan, has shown inconsistency in its description and published figures leading to the need of a revision of all species assigned to Typilobus. Typilobus boscoi Vía Boada, 1959, from the Middle Eocene of Spain, is revised and assigned to Folguerolesia n. gen. Characters present on ventral portions of male and female specimens differ from all known representatives of Leucosioidea, although the general morphology supports inclusion in this superfamily. A new family, Folguerolesiidae n. fam. is thus erected to accommodate Folguerolesia boscoi comb. nov., leading to recognition of three families of leucosioid crabs, including Iphiculidae and Leucosiidae. PMID:27395181

  14. A new species of Leucothoid Amphipod, Anamixis bananarama, sp. n., from Shallow Coral Reefs in French Polynesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Leucothoidae)

    PubMed Central

    James Darwin, Thomas; Krapp-Schickel, Traudl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Both leucomorph and anamorph developmental stages of Anamixis bananarama sp. n., are illustrated and described from shallow back reef environments of Moorea, French Polynesia. Distinguished by vestigial first gnathopods that persist in post-transformational adult males, this is the second species in the genus to exhibit this unusual character. In other features such as coxae and second gnathopods Anamixis bananarama sp. n. resembles other Pacific Plate endemics of Anamixis known from the region. Specific host association is not documented but suspected to be small calcareous asconoid sponges associated with coral rubble. PMID:21594109

  15. A new species of Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874 (Crustacea: Anomura: Galatheoidea: Munidopsidae) from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo; Lemaitre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A new species of squat lobster, Munidopsis shulerae sp. nov., from the Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean, is fully described and illustrated. This new species is named in honor of the late Barbara Shuler Mayo (1945-1988), who first recognized this new taxon in her 1974 unpublished doctoral dissertation, but never formalized it. This new species is placed in the Anoplonotus group based on the presence of simple, narrow rostrum, spineless eyes, fused sternites 3 and 4, well-marked carapace regions, unarmed pleonal tergites, and smooth dactyls of pereopods 2-4. Among western Atlantic congeners, M. shulerae sp. nov. is most similar to M. polita (Smith, 1883), from which it can be distinguished by the straight shape of the rostrum with a tuberculate dorsal carina extending to the epigastric region, coarse ornamentation of the carapace, and a conspicuous submarginal protuberance on each side of the carapace between the antennal and ocular peduncles. PMID:24989749

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the red-banded lobster Metanephrops thomsoni (Crustacea, Astacidea, Nephropidae): a novel gene order.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the red-banded lobster, Metanephrops thomsoni (Decapoda, Astacidea, Nephropidae), is 19,835 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs (including additional copies of trnW and trnL1), and 2 control regions (CR). The mitogenome of M. thomsoni has 10 long intergenic sequences (71-237 bp) with a high AT content (70.0%). The two CRs show 59.6% similarity and have an identical sequence region with a length of 295 bp. The mitogenome of M. thomsoni shows a novel gene arrangement compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern and is identical to that of M. sibogae, except for the two additional tRNAs (trnW and trnL1). Phylogenetic tree from maximum likelihood analysis using the concatenated sequences of 13 PCGs depicted M. thomsoni as one of the members of the superfamily Nephropoidea within Astacidea. PMID:26258503

  17. Uroptychus minutus Benedict, 1902 and a closely related new species (Crustacea: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary

    2015-01-01

    A new squat lobster, Uroptychus marissae, is described based upon two specimens taken associated with the antipatharian Tanacetipathes sp. from the northern Gulf of Mexico, at a depth of about 90 m. It closely resembles U. minutus Benedict, 1902, known only from the type material from off Trinidad. The original description is so brief that an opportunity is taken here to redescribe it to help discriminate between the two species. PMID:26249067

  18. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk.

    PubMed

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12-12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  19. Evolutionary morphology of the organ systems in squat lobsters and porcelain crabs (crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala): an insight into carcinization.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Jonas; Richter, Stefan; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) are one of three taxa within anomuran crustaceans (Anomala) which possess a crab-like body form. Curiously, these three lineages evolved this shape independently from true crabs (Brachyura) in the course of the evolutionary process termed carcinization. The entire pleon in porcelain crabs is flexed under the cephalothorax and the carapace is approximately as broad as long. Despite their crab-like habitus, porcelain crabs are phylogenetically nested within squat lobsters (Munidopsidae, Munididae, Galatheidae). With a pleon which is only partly flexed under the cephalothorax and a cephalothorax which is longer than it is broad, squat lobsters represent morphologically intermediate forms between lobster-like and crab-like body shapes. Carcinization has so far mostly been studied with respect to outer morphology; however, it is evident that internal anatomical features are influenced through this change of body shape too. In this paper, the situation in Galatheoidea is elucidated by adding more taxa to existing descriptions of the hemolymph vascular systems and associated structures and organs. Micro-computer tomography and 3D reconstruction provide new insights. Autapomorphic states of various internal anatomical characters are present in nearly all the studied species, also reflecting some degree of anatomical disparity found within Galatheoidea. The ventral vessel system of porcelain crabs differs distinctly from that of squat lobsters. The differences in question are coherent (i.e. structural dependent) with morphological transformations in the integument, such as the shortening of the sternal plastron, which evolved in the course of carcinization. Shifts in the gonads and the pleonal neuromeres are coherent with the loss of the caridoid escape reaction, which in turn is a consequence of carcinization. The arterial transformations, however, are minor compared to other instances of carcinization in anomuran crustaceans since the last common ancestor of squat lobsters and porcelain crabs was already "half carcinized". PMID:25156549

  20. The polyhedra of the occluded baculoviruses of marine decapod crustacea: A unique structure, crystal organization, and proposed model

    PubMed

    Bonami; Aubert; Mari; Poulos; Lightner

    1997-11-01

    The baculoviruses of marine penaeid shrimp, PmSNPV and PvSNPV (MBV type and BP type, respectively), have distinctly different occlusion bodies (OBs) from those of the insect baculoviruses. In contrast to insect baculovirus, the penaeid baculovirus OB is unenveloped and formed by large subunits (SuOBs), as observed by electron microscopy after negative staining. The polyhedrin subunits measure 17 to 23 nm in diameter and appear icosahedral, resembling full and empty viral particles. Although these SuOBs look similar in morphometrics to shrimp parvoviruses, their density, polypeptide composition, and UV spectra are more characteristic of proteins than nucleoproteins. Common to the two shrimp baculovirus OBs that were investigated is the aggregation of three icosahedral SuOBs into a triplet. The observed difference in their crystalline structure is directly related to the way in which triplets attach to each other to form the OB. In the BP-type OB, the triplets form alternating parallel rows in all three dimensions. On the other hand, in the MBV-type OB, four triplets form a hollow sphere which we call a "rosette," the building blocks of the MBV-type OB. We assembled models for the penaeid baculovirus OB as an alternative to those hypothesized for insect baculovirus OBs. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997 Academic Press PMID:9417978

  1. Cirolana songkhla, a new species of brackish-water cirolanid isopod (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) from the lower Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rodcharoen, Eknarin; Bruce, Niel L.; Pholpunthin, Pornsilp

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cirolana songkhla sp. n. was collected from brackish-water habitats including lagoons and estuaries in the coastal zone of the lower Gulf of Thailand. C. songkhla sp. n. is described and fully illustrated; C. songkhla sp. n. can be recognized by the presence of abundant chromatophores dorsally, lack of ornamentation on the posterior pereonites, pleonites and pleotelson, the number of robust setae on the uropodal and pleotelson margins (uropod exopod lateral margin with 12–14 RS, mesial margin with 5–8 RS; endopod lateral margin with 8–10 RS, mesial margin with 11–13 RS; pleotelson with 12–15 RS) and lack of setae on the endopods of pleopods 3–5. A dichotomous key of brackish Cirolana species in Thailand is given. PMID:24526843

  2. Effect of Roundup® (glyphosate formulation) in the energy metabolism and reproductive traits of Hyalella castroi (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae).

    PubMed

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser; Fernandes, Felipe Amorim; Failace, Daniela Motta; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2011-01-01

    Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) is a nonselective and posts emergent herbicide used for controlling aquatic weeds and different concentrations are used in cultures around the world. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) on the biochemical composition, levels of lipoperoxidation, Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity and reproductive traits in the Hyalella castroi. Amphipods were collected in summer 2009, in the southern Brazilian highlands. In the laboratory, the animals were kept in aquariums under controlled conditions for 7 days, and after this period they were exposed to 0.36, 0.52, 1.08 and 2.16 mg/l of glyphosate for 7 days. After the period of exposure, the animals were immediately frozen for determination of glycogen, proteins, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, levels of lipoperoxidation, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. During each day of the cultivation reproductive traits (number of reproductive pairs, ovigerous females and eggs in the marsupium) were observed. All concentrations of Roundup(®) induced significant decreases in all biochemical parameters and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity, and significant increase in lipoperoxidation levels. Showing this form a potentially toxic effect at very low concentrations, this pattern of results can lead to significant changes in trophic structure of limnic environments because these amphipods are important links in food chain in these habitats. PMID:21086158

  3. Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the Greenbrier River basin of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax is a stream-dwelling crayfish that appears to be endemic to the Greenbrier River basin in the Valley and Ridge province of West Virginia. Within the Greenbrier system it occurs primarily in tributaries to the Greenbrier mainstem, with stable populations in the East and West Fork, and Thorny, Knapp, and Deer creeks. The new species is morphologically most similar to C. (P.) robustus, from which it can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: adult palm length comprising 73–76% of palm width as opposed to 63–70% in C. (P.)robustus; ventral surface of chela of cheliped with 0–2 subpalmar tubercles compared to 3–6 subpalmar tubercles in C. (P.) robustus; lack of tubercles on the dorsal surface of chela; longer, more tapering, less rectangular rostrum (47–52% rostrum width/length ratio) compared to C. (P.) robustusshorter, less tapering rectangular rostrum (54–63% rostrum width/length ratio); and the central projection of the form-I male gonopod curved ≤90 degrees to the shaft.

  4. Evaluation of Costa Rican copepods (Crustacea: Eudecapoda) for larval Aedes aegypti control with special reference to Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    PubMed

    Schaper, S

    1999-12-01

    This study attempted to find organisms for the biological control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Costa Rica. Copepods of the genera Arctodiaptomus, Eucylops, Mesocyclops, Megacyclops, and Thermocyclops were collected in several parts of the country and cultured for laboratory evaluations. Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides was the most successful species in reducing the number of larval Ae. aegypti (7.3 larvae in 24 h at a density of 200 Aedes/liter). Arctodiaptomus dorsalis, Eucyclops cf. bondi, Eucyclops leptacanthus, Megacyclops sp., and Thermocyclops decipens were not effective predators. In cage simulation trials, M. thermocyclopoides showed 100% larval reduction after 4 wk and adult mosquitoes disappeared after 7 wk. The copepod was able to survive in Aechmea sp. bromeliads under laboratory conditions. In field trials under 3 different climatic conditions M. thermocyclopoides survived 2-5 months in bromeliad leaf axils and 3-6 months in used car tires. In tires, this species reduced the number of larval Ae. aegypti 79, 90, and 99% in tropical dry, moderate, and humid climates, respectively. An El Niño phenomenon affected the results by drought, which apparently also caused a decline in the population of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis superbus. Considering these severe test conditions, M. thermocyclopoides might be a promising predator for mosquito control in Costa Rica. PMID:10612615

  5. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of "de la Plata" River Basin (South America).

    PubMed

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from "de la Plata" River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  6. Redescription of poorly known species of Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), based on original type material.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Kerry A; Bruce, Niel L; Smit, Nico J

    2016-01-01

    Due to the difficulty in accurately identifying cymothoids, these parasitic isopods are often incorrectly named or confused with other species. Within the genus Ceratothoa, a number of recent studies have aimed at clarifying some of the problematic species; however, several of the less studied species still require revision. This paper redescribes, from type material, several poorly known Ceratothoa species including Ceratothoa angulata, Ceratothoa capri, Ceratothoa carinata, Ceratothoa collaris, Ceratothoa gilberti, Ceratothoa gobii, Ceratothoa guttata, Ceratothoa italica, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Ceratothoa verrucosa, further resolving taxonomic uncertainties within the genus. PMID:27408544

  7. Redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) and description of a new subspecies from southern Iran (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam; Zamanpoore, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) based on new materials from Zagros Mountains and describes a new subspecies of freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n., from the southern Zagros Mountains. The work is based on morphological and morphometric comparisons. This new subspecies has features similar to Gammarus pseudosyriacus. The distinct features that distinguish Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n. from Gammarus pseudosyriacus are the smaller eyes, shorter body length, and shorter flagellum of antenna 1 and 2. PMID:27408590

  8. The complete mitogenome of the invasive spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque, 1817) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Grandjean, Frederic; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The invasive freshwater crayfish Orconectes limosus mitogenome was recovered by genome skimming. The mitogenome is 16,223 base pairs in length consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The O. limosus mitogenome has an AT bias of 71.37% and base composition of 39.8% for T, 10.3% for C, 31.5% for A, and 18.4% for G. The mitogene order is identical to two other genera of northern hemisphere crayfish that have been sequenced for this organelle. PMID:25648916

  9. The complete mitogenome of the endangered white-clawed freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidae).

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Frederic; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The Austropotamobius pallipes complete mitogenome has been recovered using Next-Gen sequencing. Our sample of A. pallipes has a mitogenome of 15,679 base pairs (68.44% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 877 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequenced for a crayfish from the family Astacidae and the 4(th) for northern hemisphere genera. PMID:25738217

  10. Distribution, life cycle and demography in a brackish water population of the isopod Cyathura carinata (Kröyer) (Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Einar B.; Persson, Lars-Eric

    1986-11-01

    Cyathura carinata, an infaunal, fossorial, isopod is a dominant member of a brackish, shallow water macrobenthic community on the south coast of Sweden. It has a bi-annual life-cycle. Breeding occurs in June-July, and a single brood of between 18-63 eggs per female is produced. The eggs take about 3-4 weeks to develop, the juveniles emerge in mid-late July. Initial recruitment in the study area was estimated to be 1480-1850 juveniles m -2 for 1981-1983 year classes. About 5% of the recruits survive to reproductive age two years later. Growth was characterized by fast growth during summer-autumn, stagnation in winter, and a slow start in spring. Females and males were not separated until just prior to reproduction (i.e. in June of the second year). At this stage males were larger than females and sex ratio was 1:1. During the breeding season, the abundance of males decreased rapidly due to post-reproductive death. Females continued to live, carrying the developing eggs in their brood pouches. Adult females die shortly after the young are released. The entire generation of reproductive adults (two years of age) has died by mid August. No evidence of the stated protogynous hermaphroditism was found in our study. Cohort production was 1·83 g wet wt m -2 for the 1980 cohort and 1·33 for the 1981 cohort. P/B-ratios were 2·12 for the 1980 cohort and 2·48 for the 1981 cohort. The P/B-ratios found were closest to those calculated by the method of Waters when an accurate estimate of mortality was available.

  11. Seasonal differences in the physiology of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) from estuaries with varying levels of anthropogenic contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jones, Malcolm B.

    2011-07-01

    This study reports the seasonal variability in aspects of the physiology of the shore crab Carcinus maenas from three estuaries in South-west England, each with varying anthropogenic inputs: Avon Estuary ('relatively low' impact), Yealm Estuary ('intermediate' impact) and Plym Estuary ('relatively high' impact). Crabs collected over 12 months from the Avon had a significantly 'lower' physiological condition in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn; in particular, haemocyte phagocytic capability (a general indicator of immune function) was significantly higher in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn, and total haemolymph antioxidant status (an indicator of oxidative stress) was significantly lower in winter compared to the remainder of the year. Potentially, shore crabs may be more susceptible to the effects of contaminant exposure, such as increased immunotoxicity (thus, reduction of immune function) and/or oxyradicals (or reactive oxygen species) exposure) especially in seasons of increased susceptibility i.e. summer/autumn (lower phagocytic capability) and winter (lowest antioxidant function). As the Avon was taken to represent the 'reference' site, this pattern is considered to reflect the 'normal' seasonal variability in shore crab physiology. Shore crab physiological condition from the 'relatively high' impact estuary (Plym) revealed increased cellular viability and antioxidant status in autumn and winter compared with that of the 'standard' pattern (Avon) However, crabs from the intermediate impact estuary (Yealm) only demonstrated significant physiological differences in summer as shown by a lower cellular viability. All crabs had been exposed to PAHs (confirmed by the presence of PAH metabolites in their urine) which may account for the observed differences in shore crab physiology. In conclusion, to aid understanding of the potential contaminant impacts on biota it is imperative that the 'normal' seasonal variability of physiological condition be established. Biological effects-based monitoring studies should therefore be employed seasonally to potentially highlight 'windows of sensitivity' to contaminant impact.

  12. Sites of release of Putative Sex Pheromone and Sexual Behaviour in Female Carcinus maenas(Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, S. D.; Naylor, E.

    1997-02-01

    Pre-moult female Carcinus maenasurine was confirmed as a source of putative sex pheromone. The sexual and temporal specificity of bioactivity in pre-moult female urine was demonstrated when urine samples taken from inter-moult and pre-moult male crabs, and inter-moult females, failed to generate a sexual response from receptive males. Detection sensitivity of male crabs to pre-moult female urine was established at a dilution factor of 1 μl of urine in 10 ml of seawater. Experimental blockage of the site of urine release (the antennal gland opercula) failed to diminish the chemical attractiveness of pre-moult female crabs to test males, implicating at least one further site of putative pheromone release. Observations of female sexual behaviour demonstrated an active role by pre-moult and post-moult female crabs when introduced to male crabs whose locomotor movement had been temporarily restricted.

  13. How do fish ectoparasites Argulus spp. (Crustacea: Branchiura) match with their hosts at the behavioural and ecological scales?

    PubMed

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2003-01-01

    Features of the Argulus foliaceus and A. coregoni life cycles including spatial distribution and hatching patterns of the resting eggs as well as their host searching behaviour were analyzed on the basis of field and experimental data obtained in lakes and a fish farm in the Central Finland. Published data on behaviour and ecology of these parasites were also used. The main point of this analysis was an ecological adjustment of the life cycles of parasites to that of their fish hosts at different spatial and temporal scales. Due to different spatial distribution of overwintering eggs, the newly hatched larvae of A. coregoni are more likely to attach to salmonids, which are their main hosts, while A. foliaceus to percids and cyprinids. The main peak of argulid hatching occurs in late spring-early summer and coincides with the period when most of freshwater fishes concentrate close to the shore, either for spawning, or, foraging. Nevertheless, despite the general coincidence, the parasite-host encounter rate could still be very low. The main peak of hatching is followed by a long "tail". We suggest that under fluctuating and uncertain environmental conditions characterised by both abiotic stochasticity and poor predictability of the hosts, an optimal recruitment strategy is to hedge a bet, with a proportion of eggs synchronously hatching and a proportion remaining dormant and hatching at much lower rate during an extended period. One of the main behavioural adaptations to match with the hosts is all-over-the-day searching activity of argulids. The boreal A. coregoni relies primarily on vision, which is most effective in transparent waters during long polar days in summer. Vision is also important in the behavioural repertoire of the temperate A. foliaceus in the light, but olfaction and mechanoreception in the dark provide the highest host searching rate. The two generally sympatric species of argulids segregated on the finer habitat scale. Partially overlapping on salmonid hosts, they prefer ecologically distinct categories of fish, and use different microhabitats for egg laying and searching for hosts. PMID:12815941

  14. Natural humic substances effects on the life history traits of Latonopsis australis SARS (1888) (Cladocera--Crustacea).

    PubMed

    de Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana Soares de Andrade; Santos, Thirza de Santana; Pestana, Edilene M S; Souza, Fábio Neves; Lage, Vivian Marina Gomes Barbosa; Nunesmaia, Bárbara Janaína Bezerra; Sena, Palloma Thaís Souza; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes

    2015-02-01

    Cultivation medium is one of the first aspects to be considered in zooplankton laboratory cultivation. The use of artificial media does not concern to reproduce natural conditions to the cultivations, which may be achieved by using natural organic compounds like humic substances (HS). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a concentrate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Negro River (NR(1)) and an extraction of humic acids (HA) from humus produced by Eisenia andrei on the life history traits of laboratory-based Latonopsis australis SARS (1888). A cohort life table approach was used to provide information about the effectiveness of NR and HA as supplements for the artificial cultivation of L. australis. Additionally, we seek to observe a maximization of L. australis artificial cultivation fitness by expanding the range of HS concentrations. The first experiment demonstrated that the females of L. australis reared under NR10 (mgDOCL(-1)) may have experienced an acceleration of the population life cycle, as the females have proportionally reproduced more and lived shorter than controls. By contrast, the use of the HA did not improve life history traits considered. The expansion of the concentration range (5, 10, 20 and 50 mgDOCL(-1)) corroborated the patterns observed on the first assay. Results for the fitness estimates combined with shorter lifespans than controls demonstrated trade-offs between reproductive output and female longevity reared under NR conditions, with NR20 been suggested as the best L. australis cultivation medium. This response might be associated with hormone-like effects. PMID:25025739

  15. Description of Alpheus cedrici sp. n., a strikingly coloured snapping shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda, Alpheidae) from Ascension Island, central Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Arthur; Grave, Sammy De

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Alpheus cedrici sp. n. is described based on two specimens collected under rocks while scuba diving off the coast of Ascension Island, central Atlantic Ocean. The new species belongs to the Alpheus macrocheles (Hailstone, 1835) species complex and appears to be most closely related to the eastern–central Atlantic Alpheus macrocheles, the western Atlantic Alpheus amblyonyx Chace, 1972, and the eastern Pacific Alpheus bellimanus Lockington, 1877 and Alpheus rectus Kim & Abele, 1988. However, it differs from all these species by a combination of morphological characters and by a diagnostic and striking colour pattern. PMID:22573945

  16. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of Ptychophallus is provided.  PMID:25661214

  17. Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of larvicides used in the control of Aedes aegypti to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Abe, Flavia Renata; Coleone, Ana Carla; Machado, Angela Aparecida; Gonçalves Machado-Neto, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, species aegypti, is a major public health concern in Brazil. The chemical control of the mosquito larvae has been performed with the larvicide temephos since 1967. However, vector resistance was reported to temephos in several Brazilian states, and the Ministry of Health ordered the replacement of this larvicide by diflubenzuron (DFB), an inhibitor of chitin synthesis. Both insecticides are diluted in water with larvae and are able to reach aquatic environments in which they subsequently adversely damage nontarget organisms. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity (EC50) and environmental risk (RQ) of DFB and temephos to the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, and (2) evaluate the chronic toxicity (no-observed-effect concentration [NOEC] and lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]) of these larvicides to D. magna. The experiments were performed according to a completely randomized design. The estimated 48-h EC50 of temephos was 0.15 μg/L (lower limit = 0.1 and upper limit = 0.2 μg/L) and the 48-h EC50 of DFB was 0.06 μg/L (lower limit = 0.03 and upper limit = 0.1 μg/L). RQ values were 4.166.7 to DFB and 6.666.6 to temephos. NOEC and LOEC values were respectively 2.5 and 5 ng/L for DFB, and respectively 6.2 and 12.5 ng/L for temephos. Thus, temephos and DFB are classified as highly toxic to Daphnia magna and pose a high environmental risk to this species. Mortality of D. magna was observed at concentrations lower than those used in the field to control A. aegypti larvae. PMID:24555645

  18. Origin and occurrence of sexual and mating systems in Crustacea: a progression towards communal living and eusociality.

    PubMed

    Subramoniam, T

    2013-12-01

    Crustaceans are known for their unrivalled diversity of sexual systems, as well as peculiar mating associations to achieve maximum mating success and fertilization accomplishment. Although sexes are separate in most species, various types of hermaphroditism characterize these predominantly aquatic arthropods. A low operational sex ratio between female and male, together with temporally limited receptivity of females towards males, imposes restrictions on the structuring of mating systems in crustaceans. The basic mating systems consist of monogamy, polygamy, mate guarding and pure searching. Understandably, ecological influences may also play a determinative role in the evolution of such sexual and mating systems in crustaceans. An important outcome of the crustacean sexual biology is the development of complex social structures in many aquatic species, in much the same way insects have established them in terrestrial conditions. In addition, groups like isopods and certain families of brachyuran crabs have shown terrestrial adaptation, exhibiting peculiar reproductive modes, sometimes reminiscent of their terrestrial counterparts, insects. Many caridean shrimps, living in symbiotic relationship with other marine invertebrates in the coral reef habitats, have reached pinnacle of complexity in sexuality and peculiar mating behaviours, resulting in communal living and establishing advanced social systems, such as eusociality. PMID:24296898

  19. On the trophic ecology of Gammaridea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in coastal waters: A European-scale analysis of stable isotopes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Gammaridean amphipods are found throughout a diverse range of coastal and brackish environments and are generally considered macrophagous herbivores/detritivores. While predation and cannibalism have been shown to be common in freshwater species, motivating a revision of the group functional role, only qualitative information is available on marine Gammaridea. In this study, a survey was conducted of the available literature on stable C and N isotopic signatures of macrophagous, fully aquatic Gammaridea and their potential basal resources in European brackish and coastal environments. The contribution of intra- and inter-specific predation to the signatures of gammarideans was verified by a mixing model procedure where the diet-tissue enrichment constant was not set a priori. Specifically, for each study included in the survey the minimum and maximum diet-tissue nitrogen enrichment factors (Δ15Nmin and Δ15Nmax) providing a non-zero solution were calculated for a range of carbon enrichment factors, assuming that both metrics would increasingly differ from the values expected for a single trophic level as predation and/or cannibalism increased in the diet of the consumer. The minimum enrichment factors Δ15Nmin estimated for a Δ13C of -2.6‰ and +0.5‰ were found to be independent from resource-related artefacts and provided the highest number of successful model runs. Δ15Nmin values were consistent with a diet based on living or decaying primary producers and not compatible with cannibalism or intra-guild predation. However, they showed a bimodal distribution and were on average far below the range found in the literature, matching the enrichment factors of gammarideans measured under laboratory conditions. These results are discussed considering the interaction of the distinctive isotopic features of basal resources in coastal habitats and the biology and ecology of gammaridean amphipods. Particular emphasis is placed on the high variability of nitrogen enrichment factors, and on their crucial role in attaining reliable results from isotopic models used for food web studies.

  20. Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

  1. Two new paratanaid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Hawaiian Islands, with illustrated taxonomic keys.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Pelleteri, Sara; Heard, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Two new tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans, Aparatanais hawaiensis, sp. nov. and Metatanais spinipropodus, sp. nov. represent the first members of the Family Paratanaidae to be described from the Hawaiian Islands. Aparatanais hawaiensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus by the setation of the antenna, maxilliped, chela, and pereopods. Metatanais spinipropodus is distinguished from the other three members of its genus by its chela having a strongly developed, chisel-like, spiniform seta on the inner face of propodus near the sub-distal margin of the fixed finger. The Hawaiian occurrence of M. spinipropodus extends the range for the genus Metatanais well-eastward into the mid-Pacific Ocean. This study presents the first description of a male attributable to the genus Aparatanais. PMID:27615684

  2. A new species of Streptocephalus (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae) from the Western Ghats, India, with a key to the Asian species.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Padhye, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We present and describe the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sahyadriensis sp. nov. from the Western Ghats of India. This species is most similar to S. simplex Gurney, 1906 and S. dichotomus Baird, 1860 sharing similar basic antennal appendage morphology. However, S. sahyadriensis sp. nov. differs in the form of the ornamentation on the peduncle and the arrangement and form of spines on the antennal appendage. The three species also have different egg surface morphologies. The Asian species of Streptocephalus are discussed and a key to species is provided. PMID:24870993

  3. Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca).

    PubMed Central

    Badaracco, G; Landsberger, N; Benfante, R

    1992-01-01

    The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1311554

  4. Genetic connectivity between land and sea: the case of the beachflea Orchestia montagui (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We examined patterns of genetic divergence in 26 Mediterranean populations of the semi-terrestrial beachflea Orchestia montagui using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I), microsatellite (eight loci) and allozymic data. The species typically forms large populations within heaps of dead seagrass leaves stranded on beaches at the waterfront. We adopted a hierarchical geographic sampling to unravel population structure in a species living at the sea-land transition and, hence, likely subjected to dramatically contrasting forces. Results Mitochondrial DNA showed historical phylogeographic breaks among Adriatic, Ionian and the remaining basins (Tyrrhenian, Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea) likely caused by the geological and climatic changes of the Pleistocene. Microsatellites (and to a lesser extent allozymes) detected a further subdivision between and within the Western Mediterranean and the Tyrrhenian Sea due to present-day processes. A pattern of isolation by distance was not detected in any of the analyzed data set. Conclusions We conclude that the population structure of O. montagui is the result of the interplay of two contrasting forces that act on the species population genetic structure. On one hand, the species semi-terrestrial life style would tend to determine the onset of local differences. On the other hand, these differences are partially counter-balanced by passive movements of migrants via rafting on heaps of dead seagrass leaves across sites by sea surface currents. Approximate Bayesian Computations support dispersal at sea as prevalent over terrestrial regionalism. PMID:23618554

  5. Two new species of South American freshwater crayfish genus Parastacus Huxley, 1879 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Felipe Bezerra; Buckup, Ludwig; Gomes, Kelly Martinez; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Parastacus Huxley, 1879 are described from material collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: Parastacus fluviatilis sp. nov. from highland streams and Parastacus caeruleodactylus sp. nov. from wetlands. Parastacus fluviatilis sp. nov. is distinguished mainly by large chelipeds with dense setae cover on the cutting edge of fingers, telson subtriangular with two lateral blunt spines and strongly concave ventral surface of lateral process of thoracic sternites 6 and 7. Parastacus caeruleodactylus sp. nov. is distinguished mainly by blue cheliped fingers and a large gap between them, reduced abdomen, dorsal and ventral margins of dactylus, propodus and carpus of second pair of pereiopods with tufts of long setae and mid-dorsal carina of exopod of uropods unarmed. According to IUCN Red List criteria both species are considered endangered. Habitat characterization and a method for defining the shape of second abdominal pleura are also provided. PMID:27615888

  6. Flying with the birds? Recent large-area dispersal of four Australian Limnadopsis species (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata)

    PubMed Central

    Schwentner, Martin; Timms, Brian V; Richter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Temporary water bodies are important freshwater habitats in the arid zone of Australia. They harbor a distinct fauna and provide important feeding and breeding grounds for water birds. This paper assesses, on the basis of haplotype networks, analyses of molecular variation and relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimates, the phylogeographic history, and population structure of four common temporary water species of the Australian endemic clam shrimp taxon Limnadopsis in eastern and central Australia (an area of >1,350,000 km2). Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences of 413 individuals and a subset of 63 nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences were analyzed. Genetic differentiation was observed between populations inhabiting southeastern and central Australia and those inhabiting the northern Lake Eyre Basin and Western Australia. However, over large parts of the study area and across river drainage systems in southeastern and central Australia (the Murray–Darling Basin, Bulloo River, and southern Lake Eyre Basin), no evidence of population subdivision was observed in any of the four Limnadopsis species. This indicates recent gene flow across an area of ∼800,000 km2. This finding contrasts with patterns observed in other Australian arid zone taxa, particularly freshwater species, whose populations are often structured according to drainage systems. The lack of genetic differentiation within the area in question may be linked to the huge number of highly nomadic water birds that potentially disperse the resting eggs of Limnadopsis among temporary water bodies. Genetically undifferentiated populations on a large geographic scale contrast starkly with findings for many other large branchiopods in other parts of the world, where pronounced genetic structure is often observed even in populations inhabiting pools separated by a few kilometers. Due to its divergent genetic lineages (up to 5.6% uncorrected p-distance) and the relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimates obtained, Limnadopsis parvispinus is assumed to have inhabited the Murray–Darling Basin continuously since the mid-Pliocene (∼4 million years ago). This means that suitable temporary water bodies would have existed in this area throughout the wet–dry cycles of the Pleistocene. PMID:22957166

  7. [Changes in the behaviour of Moina macrocopa (Crustacea: Cladocera) under the influence of Gurleya sp. (Microsporidia: Gurleyidae)].

    PubMed

    Makrushin, A V

    2010-01-01

    It is established, that infestation with Gurleya sp. (Microsporidia, Gurleyidae) changes the behaviour of its host Moina macrocopa (Straus, 1820), a crustacean inhabiting pools. Heavily infested host individuals attach to surface film of water before their death by senescence. As a consequence, their dead bodies filled with spores of the parasite adhere to objects dipped in water that probably facilitates the transfer of spores by birds and cattle to other pools. Weakly infested or uninfested individuals drown after the end of their ontogenesis. Distribution of the microsporidian spores by two different ways (with attached dead bodies of the hosts or with bottom sediments) makes invasion of a new host more probable. PMID:21309152

  8. First description of the soft part anatomy of Ilyocypris ramirezi Cusminsky & Whatley (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, D Sabina; Díaz, Analía R; García, Adriana; Claps, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the soft parts of Ilyocypris ramirezi Cusminsky & Whatley, 1996 is described and illustrated for the first time, based on findings of this species from water bodies in the shallow areas of the Llancanelo basin, south-west of Mendoza Province, Argentina. This species is common in Quaternary and extant environments of the Pampa and Patagonian regions. Its distribution is now extending in Argentina to the Central-West area, locally named "Cuyo region". Ilyocypris ramirezi is a good environmental indicator and constitutes a useful tool in paleolimnological studies. PMID:26249053

  9. Report on two deep-water caridean shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae, Acanthephyridae) from the northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    Two deep-water species of caridean shrimps collected during recent dives by the Chinese manned submersible "Jiaolong" represents new records for the South China Sea: Alvinocaris longirostris Kikuchi & Ohta, 1995 (Alvinocarididae) and Acanthephyra faxoni Calman, 1939 (Acanthephyridae). Specimens of these two species were collected from Jiaolong Cold Seep I, off Guangdong Province, China (depth 1138 m). Alvinocaris longirostris is known to be associated with chemosynthetic community, whereas Acanthephyra faxoni is a bathypelagic inhabitant, of which the occurrence in seep site is merely opportunistic. An identification key to species of Alvinocaris is provided.  PMID:25661601

  10. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Paradynomene tuberculata Sakai, 1963 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Dynomenidae): Synapomorphies with dromiid sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, B. G. M.; Guinot, D.; de Forges, B. Richer

    1993-10-01

    The dynomenid spermatozoon, exemplified here by Paradynomene tuberculata, resembles the spermatozoa of the Dromiidae, Homolidae and lyreidine raninoids and differs markedly from those of other crabs (the heterotreme, thoracotremes, raninines and raninoidines) in the depressed, discoidal form of the acrosome and the capitate form of the perforatorium. Four or five apparent dynomenid—dromiid sperm synapomorphies are recognizable. (1) Dynomenids ( P. tuberculata) and dromiids differ from homolids and lyreidines in the greater depression of the acrosome (ratio of length to width=0.3); (2) the capitate head of the perforatorium is bilaterally prolonged in P. tuberculata as in dromiids though symmetrical in homolids; (3) dynomenid and dromiid sperm lack the—albeit variably developed—posterior median process of the nucleus seen in homolids, anomurans, raninoids and lower heterotremes; (4) P. tuberculata, like dromiids and less distinctly homolids, has an apical protuberance of subopercular material through the opercular perforation, unknown in other crabs, being distinct from the apical button of thoracotreme sperm; (5) a less certain synapomorphy is the anterolateral electron-pale peripheral zone of the acrosome. These synapomorphies endorse a sister-group relationship of dynomenids and dromiids, P. tuberculata sperm differs notably from the sperm of dromiids in the more complex zonation of the acrosome. The perforatorium lacks the radial rays (“spiked wheel”) of homolid sperm and does not show the “amoeboid” form seen in lyreidines. Absence of internal corrugations of the perforatorial chamber is a major difference from all examined raninids. Centrioles are only very tentatively identifiable. Nuclear arms are absent in glutaraldehyde fixed spermatozoa of P. tuberculata and have not been observed in the dromiid Petalomera lateralis but are present as three small radial vertices in the dromiid Dromidiopsis edwardsi and in homolids. P. tuberculata resembles Petalomera lateralis in the large size of the sperm nucleus relative to the acrosome compared with D. edwardsi and homolids.

  11. A new species of Raninoides (Crustacea: decapoda: raninidae) from off the Southeastern coast of Hainan Island and Nansha Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui-Lian; Türkay, Michael

    2001-12-01

    Raninoides longifrons new species, off SE coast of Hainan Island, dorsal surface of carapace with an arched granular edge across carapace between the anterolateral teeth, median frontal tooth longest, second frontal teeth subquadrate.

  12. Sub-Decadal Resolution in Sediments of Late Miocene Lake Pannon Reveals Speciation of Cyprideis (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-01-01

    Late Miocene "Lake Pannon" (~11.3 Ma) was a remnant of the Central Paratethyan Sea. Successive freshening and constantly changing environmental conditions, like oxygenation, nutrition and substrate led to a well-documented radiation in molluscs and ostracods. Among ostracods (small crustaceans), Cyprideis is one of the most common genera in "Lake Pannon", as well as in several other ancient lakes, showing numerous adaptations and speciations. Here, we present high-resolution data from an early transgression of "Lake Pannon" in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria). Mataschen clay pit is in the focus of geologic and paleontologic research since 20 years and its geologic and paleoecologic evolution is well-documented. We drilled five cores covering a ~2.3 m long section and completely sampled it in 5-mm thick intervals to reconstruct minute changes in the ostracod fauna over a transgression of a brackish water body. The dominant genus, Cyprideis, is represented by three species C. mataschensis, C. kapfensteinensis and C. ex gr. pannonica. Through morphometric analyses we highlight the variance of each taxon and suggest that there is no direct ecologic control on size or shape. Furthermore, we found a second, co-occurring morphotype of C. kapfensteinensis which is directly related to an elevation of salinities above 13 psu. The presence of two intermediate specimens between the two morphotypes in the sample directly below the first appearance of C. kapfensteinensis B leads us to the conclusion that we are facing a speciation event leading to four sympatric species of Cyprideis. PMID:25902063

  13. Population biology and color patterns of the blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille 1828) (Crustacea: Gecarcinidae) in the Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, C C; Schwamborn, R; Lins Oliveira, J E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the population biology and color patterns of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 in a mangrove area in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Crabs were collected monthly between February 2010 and January 2012 and totaled 1,837 individuals. Sex ratios were similar between males and females in the first year and differed in the second. Sex ratios by size class differed statistically in the extremes of the distribution, with an abundance of males in the large size classes. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in carapace width between males and females in the first year, but in the second year, males were larger than females (p = 0.003), showing the importance of considering interannual variation in such studies. Both sexes presented a unimodal distribution. The size of first maturing of the females was 6.00 cm. Asymptotic carapace width for males was 9.4 cm and females for 9.2 cm, using the Wetherall method. There was no defined modal progression, which made the determination of the Von Bertalanffy growth parameter K impossible. Juveniles were found throughout all months of the year, demonstrating that there was no defined period of recruiting, although slightly fewer juveniles were found in the dry season. Four color patterns were observed, the three first patterns were the same for both sexes, while the fourth pattern was observed in females only. The four color patterns identified could be clearly related to the stage of development (size) and sexual maturity of the animal. PMID:25627608

  14. Morphometric and molecular analyses for populations of Palaemon longirostris and Palaemon garciacidi (Crustacea, Palaemonidae): Evidence for a single species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartaxana, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Authors have disagreed on the taxonomic status of the white prawns along the coasts of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The present study compares variation in morphology and mtDNA in populations of white prawns, identified as Palaemon longirostris and P. garciacidi, from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and Tunisia. Differences in morphology among populations were tested using a multiple discriminant analyses (DA) on morphometric data. In order to resolve variation in mtDNA, 16S and COI mitochondrial (mt) genes were used. The morphometric analyses do not support their separation into distinct species, since individual prawns could not be assigned unequivocally to one of the various studied populations and a geographic pattern could be detected only in females. Molecular data corroborate the morphological analyses, since no geographic structure was found and the levels of sequence divergence observed among haplotypes from distinct populations (0.1-0.8%) are consistent with other 16S and COI intraspecific divergences of decapod crustaceans. Therefore, findings from this study do not support the distinction of P. longirostris and P. garciacidi as different species.

  15. Folk classification of the crabs and swimming crabs (Crustacea – Brachyura) of the Mamanguape river estuary, Northeastern – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Emmanoela N; da S Mourão, José; Rocha, Pollyana D; Nascimento, Douglas M; da S Q Bezerra, Dandara Monalisa Mariz

    2009-01-01

    Background Folk taxonomy is a sub-area of ethnobiology that study the way of how traditional communities classify, identify and name their natural resources. The work present was undertaken in two traditional communities (Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia). The objective of this study was investigate the ethnobiological classification of the local crabs and swimming crabs used by the crustaceous gatherers of the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba State, Brazil. Methods The methodology used here involved a combination of qualitative methods (open interviews, semi-structured interviews, direct observations, guided tours, surveys, and interviews in synchronic and diachronic situations that crossed-checked and repeated identifications) and quantitative methods (Venn diagram). A total of 32 men and women were interviewed in the two communities. Specimens of the local crustaceans were collected and identified by the harvesters themselves, subsequently fixed in formalin, conserved in 70% ethyl alcohol, identified using appropriate specialized literature, and then deposited in the laboratory of the Zoology Department of the University State of Paraiba. Results The crustaceous gatherers we studied were observed to group crustaceans according to their similarities and differences, producing a hierarchical classification system containing four levels of decreasing taxonomic order: unique beginner, life-form, generic, and specific. A sequential and/or semantic system classification system that is used to classify the ontogeny of the female swimming crab was also identified. Of the nine folk generics identified, 44.5% were monotypic. 55.5% were polytypic and were subdivided into 15 folk specifics. An identification key was elaborated with the data obtained about the folk polytypics generics. Conclusion The detailed knowledge concerning the crabs and swimming crabs revealed by the MRE crustaceous gatherers demonstrates that these people detain a vast knowledge concerning these marine resources. This local knowledge provides a rich but little-known source of information that will aid future ecological and/or zoological studies in the region that will be indispensable for producing management plans to help guarantee the sustainability of these local natural resources. PMID:19671153

  16. Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Matzen da Silva, Joana; Creer, Simon; dos Santos, Antonina; Costa, Ana C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families). Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. Conclusions/Significance Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of existing decapod biodiversity, as well as elucidating the mechanisms and constraints shaping the patterns observed. PMID:21589909

  17. A new species of Paracleistostoma De Man, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Camptandriidae) from Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han Lun; Huang, Jian Rong

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paracleistostoma De Man, 1895, P. meilanense n. sp. is reported from mangroves forests in Haikou, Hainan Province, China. The new species inhabits mud burrows in the upper intertidal zone and is sympatric with P. tomentosa Yang & Sun, 1993, and P. depressum De Man, 1895. The slender chelipeds as well as the characteristic morphology of the male first pleopod easily distinguishes the species from congeners. PMID:27395229

  18. DNA barcoding reveals new insights into the diversity of Antarctic species of Orchomene sensu lato (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havermans, C.; Nagy, Z. T.; Sonet, G.; De Broyer, C.; Martin, P.

    2011-03-01

    Recent molecular analyses revealed that several so-called "circum-Antarctic" benthic crustacean species appeared to be complexes of cryptic species with restricted distributions. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in order to detect possible cryptic diversity and to test the circumpolarity of some lysianassoid species. The orchomenid genus complex consists of the genera Abyssorchomene, Falklandia, Orchomenella, Orchomenyx and Pseudorchomene. Species of this genus complex are found throughout the Southern Ocean and show a high species richness and level of endemism. In the majority of the studied species, a genetic homogeneity was found even among specimens from remote sampling sites, which indicates a possible circum-Antarctic and eurybathic distribution. In four investigated species ( Orchomenella ( Orchomenopsis) acanthurus, Orchomenella ( Orchomenopsis) cavimanus, Orchomenella ( Orchomenella) franklini and Orchomenella ( Orchomenella) pinguides), genetically divergent lineages and possible cryptic taxa were revealed. After a detailed morphological analysis, O. ( O.) pinguides appeared to be composed of two distinct species, formerly synonymized under O. ( O.) pinguides. The different genetic patterns observed in these orchomenid species might be explained by the evolutionary histories undergone by these species and by their different dispersal and gene flow capacities.

  19. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits of the oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in a non-native population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M. Guadalupe; Bas, Claudia C.; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude of variations in reproductive traits of Palaemon macrodactylus females throughout a breeding season was studied in a non-native population at Mar del Plata harbor, Argentina. Fecundity, egg size, reproductive output, weight and elemental composition of eggs, and larvae were analyzed in females collected at the beginning, in the mid point, and near the end of a reproductive season and designated as early, middle season, and late females. The highest reproductive output was observed in early females, while the highest fecundity and egg volume occurred in middle season females. Eggs and larvae showed larger body mass in early than in late females. Embryos from early females contained and consumed more carbon during development than embryos from late females, and they also used part of the available nitrogen. Differences in reproduction were observed among the three groups of females. On the one hand, late females matured early but had a poor first reproduction, with few embryos and high egg loss; however, they had longer reproductive life and an enhanced reproductive output in the following season when they became early females. On the other hand, females collected at the midpoint in the reproductive season matured later and had the highest fecundity and egg volume. In addition, larvae with different characteristics resulted from each type of female and were presumably well adapted to the conditions prevailing at the moment they hatched. The extended reproductive period and the diversity of embryos and larvae produced may favor the invading ability of the species.

  20. Reproduction and development in Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Atyidae) clarifies larval ecology in the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R

    2015-10-01

    Larvae in aquatic habitats often develop in environments different from those they inhabit as adults. Shrimp in the Atyidae exemplify this trend, as larvae of many species require salt or brackish water for development, while adults are freshwater-adapted. An exception within the Atyidae family is the "anchialine clade," which are euryhaline as adults and endemic to habitats with subterranean fresh and marine water influences. Although the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra is a strong osmoregulator, its larvae have never been observed in nature. Moreover, larval development in anchialine species is poorly studied. Here, reproductive trends in laboratory colonies over a 5-y period are presented from seven genetic lineages and one mixed population of H. rubra; larval survivorship under varying salinities is also discussed. The presence and number of larvae differed significantly among lineages, with the mixed population being the most prolific. Statistical differences in reproduction attributable to seasonality also were identified. Larval survivorship was lowest (12% settlement rate) at a salinity approaching fresh water and significantly higher in brackish and seawater (88% and 72%, respectively). Correlated with this finding, identifiable gills capable of ion transport did not develop until metamorphosis into juveniles. Thus, early life stages of H. rubra are apparently excluded from surface waters, which are characterized by lower and fluctuating salinities. Instead, these stages are restricted to the subterranean (where there is higher and more stable salinity) portion of Hawaii's anchialine habitats due to their inability to tolerate low salinities. Taken together, these data contribute to the understudied area of larval ecology in the anchialine ecosystem. PMID:26504154

  1. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E T; Berumen, Michael L; Paulay, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, and from Symphyllia recta from reefs in the Gulf of Oman. This is the second cryptochirid species with the Red Sea as type locality. It can be separated from its congeners by the subrectangular carapace, raised midline and the complete division of the carapace depressions, and reddish black colour pattern of these concavities in live specimens. This new species is the seventh assigned to Fizesereneia. A DNA barcode for the new species has been deposited in GenBank. PMID:25781848

  2. Paguristione uniuropodus, a new genus and a new species of Pseudioninae infesting hermit crabs from China (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae)

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiuping; Markham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Paguristione uniuropodus gen. n., sp. n. infests Paguristes sp. in the East China Sea. Paguristione gen. n. differs from the closely related genera Pseudione and Pagurion by its females having indistinct lateral plates on the last two pleomeres and its male with a long tapering pleon of six pleomeres, lacking both pleopoda and uropoda. PMID:27110188

  3. Morphological differentiation of seven parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) populations from China, with special emphasis on ploidy degrees.

    PubMed

    Asem, Alireza; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2016-04-01

    Parthenogenetic Artemia from seven Chinese locations with different elevations and various ploidies are characterized by phenotypic and morphometric analyses. Our findings show that the studied populations exhibit dissimilar patterns of ovisac. Four phenotypic patterns of furca are qualified and one of them is shared among di-, tetra- and pentaploid Artemia. Results of discriminant analysis based on morphometric data reveal that tetra- and pentaploid populations are grouped together, but the Aqqikkol Lake population is clearly differentiated. Previous hypothesis/conclusion that polyploid Artemia are larger than diploids is only partly supported by the present results, which show that pentaploid and tetraploid populations are larger than the mostly diploid populations in terms of the total length, but the body size of the Aibi Lake triploids has not significant difference with the sympatric diploids and the mostly diploid Aqqikkol population that inhabit in very high altitude has the largest body size among all parthenogenetic populations. The founding confirms that body size of Artemia is following with Bergmann's rule. PMID:26777727

  4. Effect of gender on physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda) to salinity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sornom, Pascal; Felten, Vincent; Médoc, Vincent; Sroda, Sophie; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The importance of potentially interacting factors in organisms responses to a stress are often ignored or underestimated in ecotoxicology. In laboratory experiments we investigated how gender, temperature and age influence the behaviour and the physiology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli under salinity stress. Our results revealed a significant higher sensitivity of females in survival, ventilation and ionoregulation whereas no inter-age differences were reported. Water temperature also exerted a significant effect in survival and ventilation of G. roeseli. Some of those factors appeared to interact significantly. This study provides evidence that gender can affect organisms responses to a stressor and consequently has to be considered while assessing a stress impact. We discussed the potential relationships between biological and behavioural responses. PMID:20176423

  5. A new gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing two species of requiem sharks from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2008-06-01

    Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) of Gnathia grandilaris n. sp. were collected from the gill filaments and septa of 5 requiem sharks, including a white tip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, and 4 grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in March 2002. Some juvenile gnathiids were then maintained in fresh sea water until they molted to adults. Adult males appeared 19 days following detachment of juveniles from host fishes, but no juveniles molted successfully into females. The current description is based, therefore, on bright field and scanning electron microscopy observations of adult males and third-stage juveniles. Unique features of the male include the triangular-shaped inferior medio-frontal process, 2 areolae on the dorsal surface of the pylopod, and a slender pleotelson (twice as long as wide) with lateral concavities. The third-stage juvenile has distinctive white pigmentation on the black pereon when alive, while the mandible has 9 triangular backwardly directed teeth. This species has the largest male and third-stage juvenile of any Gnathia spp. from Australia and of any gnathiid isopods associated with elasmobranchs. PMID:18605791

  6. Platycuma bamberconfabulor sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cumacea: Nannastacidae) from Antarctica, with a note on the gut of Platycuma.

    PubMed

    Gerken, Sarah; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    Platycuma bamberconfabulor sp. nov. is based on a specimen from the Ross Sea. The species can be distinguished from the other species in the genus through the combination of a laterally expanded and somewhat dorsoventrally flattened carapace, anterior margin of the carapace excavate in dorsal view, uropod peduncles less than twice as long as pleonite 6, and subequal pleonites 4 and 5. PMID:26250309

  7. Epithelial thickness and lipid droplets in the hepatopancreas of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) in different physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Vilhar, Barbara; Kladnik, Ales; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the morphometric characteristics of the hepatopancreatic epithelium in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber during acclimatization to laboratory conditions, during the daily cycle, the molt cycle, and fasting. The hepatopancreatic epithelium was analyzed using computer-assisted microscopy of serial sections of the hepatopancreatic tubes. In addition, the abundance, the distribution, and the size of lipid droplets in the hepatopancreatic epithelium were recorded. The experimental animals were collected in the field and transferred to the laboratory. The hepatopancreatic epithelium was thinner and lipid droplets reduced after 2 months of acclimatization to laboratory conditions. The daily cycle and the molt cycle affected neither the epithelial thickness nor the abundance of lipid droplets. But in animals fasted for 2 weeks, these two parameters were significantly reduced. Based on both the epithelial thickness and the abundance of lipid droplets in B cells, we propose criteria for estimating the stress status of the animals. With the possibility to determine the stress status, many studies on isopods gain in relevance. PMID:18656333

  8. Cheiriphotis trifurcata, new species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Corophiidae, Protomedeiinae) from the Seagrass Bed of the Lower Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongkamhaeng, K.; Azman, B.A.R.; Puttapreecha, R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of corophiid Amphipoda, Cheiriphotis trifurcata, collected from the seagrass bed of the Lower Gulf of Thailand, is described. Cheiriphotis trifurcata is characterized by its trifurcated tip of the modified setae on the outer ramus in male pleopod 3. In this paper, the new species is fully described and compared with related species and a complete key of the 16 valid species in the genus Cheiriphotis is given. PMID:22577331

  9. The formation of the nervous system during larval development in Triops cancriformis (Bosc) (crustacea, Branchiopoda): An immunohistochemical survey.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Richter, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    We provide data of the development of thenervous system during the first five larval stages of Triops cancriformis. We use immunohistochemical labeling (against acetylated α-tubulin, serotonin, histamine, and FMRFamide), confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and 3D-reconstruction. The development of the nervous system corresponds with the general anamorphic development in T. cancriformis. In larval stage I (L I), all brain parts (proto-, deuto-, and tritocerebrum), the circumoral connectives, and the mandibular neuromere are already present. Also, the frontal filaments and the developing nauplius eye are already present. However, until stage L III, the nauplius eye only consists of three cups. Throughout larval development, the protocerebral network differentiates into distinct subdivisions. In the postnaupliar region, additional neuromeres and their commissures emerge in an anteroposterior gradient. The larval nervous system in L V consists of a differentiated protocerebrum including a central body, a nauplius eye comprising four cups, a circumoral nerve ring, mandibular- and postnaupliar neuromeres up to the seventh thoracic segment, each featuring an anterior and a posterior commissure, and two parallel connectives. The presence of a protocerebral bridge is questionable. The distribution of neurotransmitters in L I is restricted to the naupliar nervous system. Over the course of the five stages of development, neurotransmitter distribution also follows an anteroposterior gradient. Each neuromere is equipped with two ganglia innervating the locomotional appendages and possesses a specific neurotransmitter distribution pattern. We suggest a correlation between neurotransmitter expression and locomotion. PMID:20938985

  10. The Mysidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Mysida) in fresh and oligohaline waters of the Mediterranean. Taxonomy, biogeography, and bioinvasion.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Karl J; Ariani, Antonio P; Daneliya, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    A census of Mysidae yielded a total of twelve species plus two non-nominotypical subspecies found so far in fresh and oligohaline waters of the Mediterranean, all belonging to the subfamily Mysinae. Among the nine species in fresh-waters, three are stenoendemics, namely of a single lake (Diamysis lacustris), of two neighbouring river systems (Paramysis kosswigi) or of karstic cave waters (Troglomysis vjetrenicensis). Four species-T. vjetrenicensis, D. lacustris, D. fluviatilis, and Paramysis adriatica sp. nov. described in this paper-are confined to freshwater tributaries of the Adriatic Sea (NE-Mediterranean). This strengthens previous findings about the outstanding role of the Adriatic basin for the endemic diversity of freshwater Mysidae within the Mediterranean. This is possibly related to alternating marine and freshwater-terrestrial phases during the Pliocene-Pleistocene in this semi-enclosed basin. Based on current knowledge, freshwater populations of D. mesohalobia heterandra are also confined to the Adriatic basin; this taxon, however, shows many more populations in brackish waters of the E-Mediterranean and Marmora basins. Two freshwater species (Limnomysis benedeni, Hemimysis anomala) are wide-range invaders of Ponto-Caspian origin, with recent expansion into fresh and brackish waters of the NW-Mediterranean. A further immigrant to this part of the Mediterranean, Neomysis integer, is of NE-Atlantic origin and occurs only marginally in fresh-water.        Five among the nine species found at least once in fresh-water were also reported in oligohaline conditions, mostly also at even higher salinities. A total of eight species plus two subspecies were recorded in oligohaline waters (S = 0.5-5). Among these, only one oligohalobious stenoendemic, Diamysis hebraica, inhabits streams at the Levantine coast.        In the historical biogeographical context, the current distribution of only one out of nine indigenous species in an- to oligohaline waters of the Mediterranean, namely the mainly meso- to polyhalobious Mesopodopsis slabberi, may date back to the early Pliocene flooding of the Mediterranean by Atlantic waters and to later events. For most species, the biogeographical pattern points to a primary origin in the brackish (Miocene) Paratethys; solely the cave-dwelling T. vjetrenicensis has more ancient roots in the Tethyan (Mesogeic) Sea. Both these hypotheses are supported by chorological data and mainly the mineral composition of statoliths. The statoliths are composed of CaCO3 as the metastable crystal phase vaterite in nine species plus two subspecies considered versus the otherwise more common CaF2 (fluorite) in only three species (or in 7 + 2 versus two Mediterranean indigenes).        All 12 + 2 Mediterranean taxa are figured and described in detail, particularly regarding P. adriatica sp. nov. and the substantially redescribed T. vjetrenicensis Stammer, 1933. Supplementary descriptions are given for P. kosswigi Băcescu, 1948, D. hebraica Almeida Prado-Por, 1981, and N. integer (Leach, 1814). A key to the 14 taxa is given including additional three species of potential future invaders. The tribe Mysini Haworth, 1825, is revised by detachment of the newly defined tribe Paramysini and of the revalidated Hemimysini Czerniavsky, 1882. A key to the resulting six tribes of the subfamily Mysinae is given. PMID:27470833

  11. TLR and IMD signaling pathways from Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda): in silico gene expression and SNPs discovery.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2014-02-01

    The Toll and IMD signaling pathways represent one of the first lines of innate immune defense in invertebrates like Drosophila. However, for crustaceans like Caligus rogercresseyi, there is very little genomic information and, consequently, understanding of immune mechanisms. Massive sequencing data obtained for three developmental stages of C. rogercresseyi were used to evaluate in silico the expression patterns and presence of SNPs variants in genes involved in the Toll and IMD pathways. Through RNA-seq analysis, which used 20 contigs corresponding to relevant genes of the Toll and IMD pathways, an overexpression of genes linked to the Toll pathway, such as toll3 and Dorsal, were observed in the copepod stage. For the chalimus and adult stages, overexpression of genes in both pathways, such as Akirin and Tollip and IAP and Toll9, respectively, were observed. On the other hand, PCA statistical analysis inferred that in the chalimus and adult stages, the immune response mechanism was more developed, as evidenced by a relation between these two stages and the genes of both pathways. Moreover, 136 SNPs were identified for 20 contigs in genes of the Toll and IMD pathways. This study provides transcriptomic information about the immune response mechanisms of Caligus, thus providing a foundation for the development of new control strategies through blocking the innate immune response. PMID:24389530

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese spiny lobster Panulirus stimpsoni (Crustacea: Decapoda): genome characterization and phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2011-01-01

    The genetics and molecular biology of the commercially important Chinese spiny lobster, Panulirus stimpsoni are little known. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. stimpsoni, determined by the long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking sequencing method. The entire genome is 15,677 bp in length, encoding the standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The overall A+T content of the genome is 65.6%, lower than most malacostracan species. The gene order is consistent with the pancrustacean ground pattern. Several conserved elements were identified from P. stimpsoni control region, viz. one [TA(A)]n-block, two GA-blocks and three hairpin structures. However, the position of [TA(A)]n-block and number of hairpin structure are different from those in the congeneric P. japonicus and other decapods. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes do not support the monophyly of suborder Pleocyemata, which is in contrast to most morphological and molecular results. However, the position of Palinura and Astacidea is unstable, as represented by the basal or sister branches to other Reptantia species. P. stimpsoni, as the second species of Palinura with complete mitochondrial genome available, will provide important information on both genomics and conservation biology of the group. PMID:20352347

  13. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas wetland via fluvial connections, small biota (e.g. P. curupira sp. nov.) were phoretically freighted and developed freshwater tolerance over long timescales. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:886C6476-393D-4323-8C0E-06BB8BD02FD9 PMID:27453692

  14. Reproductive biology of the Suez Canal spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834: Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Serehy, Hamed A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.; Ibrahim, Nesreen K.; Al-Misned, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    A reproductive biology study of the spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) was conducted in the Suez Canal from July 2012 to June 2013. The annual sex ratio (Male:Female) of S. aspera was female biased with values of 1:1.25. Out of the four ovarian development stages of this crab, two stages were observed in the Suez Canal throughout the whole year. The ovigerous crab’s carapace width varied from 28 to 52 mm. This crab species can spawn during most of the year in the canal water, with a peak during late spring and early winter. The fecundity of ovigerous females ranged between 2349 and 13600 eggs with a mean of 5494 ± 1486 eggs. Female crabs that reached sexual maturity exhibited a minimum carapace width varying between 22 and 46 mm, and fifty percentage of all ovigerous females showed a carapace width of 36 mm. PMID:26587008

  15. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-01-01

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888. PMID:25543942

  16. First occurrence of Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on off-coast fish farm cages in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2014-03-01

    The non-indigenous caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836, native to the western Indian Ocean, was firstly recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in 1994, and all Mediterranean populations discovered to date are related to shoreline areas. A total of ten fish farms were sampled off the coasts of Spain (4), Italy (1), Croatia (2), Greece (1) and Malta (2). This is the first time that C. scaura has been reported from off-coast areas. Reproducing populations have been detected in fouling communities of three tuna farms off the coast of Croatia and Malta, which also signifies the first confirmed record of this species in both countries. The occurrence of successfully established and thriving populations of C. scaura Templeton, 1836 at floating off-coast fish farms underlines the importance of these structures as stepping stones in the species.

  17. Revision of Southern Hemisphere taxa referred to Fosterella (Crustacea: Cirripedia), and their extinction in response to Pleistocene cooling.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2015-11-01

    Extensive barnacle coquinas (barnamols) formed around New Zealand's North and Chatham Islands during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The inner-shelf megabalanine Fosterella is the primary constituent of these lithofacies, which also include epifaunal bivalves, bryozoans and less modified balanids like Notobalanus and Notomegabalanus. The status of genus Fosterella is reviewed, 3 species are retained and a new genus, Porobalanus, is proposed for Fosterella hennigi, a species restricted to the Early Pliocene of Cockburn Island, Antarctica. Significantly, Fosterella did not survive the New Zealand Pleistocene, although Notobalanus and Notomegabalanus, which have fossil records extending back to the Early Miocene, remain important components of present day cool-temperate Southern Hemisphere faunas. Extinction of Fosterella, in shelf waters off Argentina, is explained through a combination of changing circulatory and sedimentary regimes, competition for food and space, predation and physiological constraints. The driver of these factors was rapid regional cooling. Zoobank registration: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DBB1CB34-83E4-48BA-AA10-81823017F37A. PMID:26331637

  18. Five new species of lichomolgid copepods associated with ascidians from Korea, with proposal of two new genera (Crustacea, Copepoda, Lichomolgidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Seong Yong; Kim, Il-Hoi

    2011-09-01

    Five new species of the family Lichomolgidae associated with solitary ascidians are described from the east coast of Korea. Two new genera are proposed: Protomolgus n. gen. to incorpotate Protomolgus duplex n. sp. and P. singularis n. sp., and Dontimolgus n. gen. to incorporate Dontimolgus brevicaudatus n. sp. Protomolgus n. gen. characteristically has a four-segmented female maxilliped and a bipartite mandible. Dontimolgus n. gen. possesses a large, tooth-like process on the first maxillary segment and three spines on the third exopodal segment of leg 3. Other two new species described are Lichomolgus infirmus n. sp. and L. pectinatus n. sp.

  19. Tissue specific structural variations of mitochondria of fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura): Functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anirban; Saha, Samar K.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the fine structure of some classical and six variant mitochondria from different tissues viz. proboscis gland, spinal gland, ovary, testis, and muscle of a fish ectoparasite, Argulus bengalensis. In the proboscis gland and spinal gland, mitochondria are protected within vesicle to preserve their structure and activity from exposure to glandular synthesis for its parasitic mode of feeding. In the oocytes, mitochondria are larger and cylindrical in appearance. Oocyte mitochondria are highly dynamic and exhibit frequent fission and fusion. Those are clustered in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic oocytes which prepare for different synthetic activities for successful reproductive investment. In contrast, mitochondrial abundance is less in the male gametic lineage. The spermatocytes and the nurse cells in the testis have an unusual type of mitochondria, nebenkern which is formed by the fusions of number of mitochondria. A completely different type of mitochondrion is discovered in the flagellum of the spermatozoa. It is provided with fifteen numbers of singlet microtubules at its outer periphery which is a salient feature of the flagellum of this Branchiuran genus. This unique mitochondrion uses the microtubule tract for its movement to distribute energy efficiently along the axoneme. Such mitochondrion and microtubular association provide evidence in favor of phylogenetic relationship between Argulus and pentastomid Raillietiella. In striated muscle of thoracic appendages, mitochondria maintain tight junctions with the endoplasmic reticulum and remain in close apposition of the myofibrils which helps in Ca2+ uptake for stimulating continuous muscular activity required for ventilation of respiratory structures of the parasites. PMID:25685499

  20. [Fertility and Embryonic Mortality Level of the Japanese Mitten Crab Eriocheir japonica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae) in Primorye].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, M V

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive biology of the Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonica (de Haan, 1835) was studied in the northern part of its habitat. It was revealed that E. japonica from the water bodies of Primorye, in contrast to crabs in the central part of the habitat on the Japanese Islands, lays fewer eggs in the first clutch, does not have direct dependence between the size-weight characteristics of females and the number of eggs in the third clutch, and shows higher level of embryonic mortality. The loss of eggs during the embryonic period in each of three sequentially laid clutches was 16, 34, and 52%, respectively (28% in total during the period of reproduction). Fecundity was approximately 43%. It was registered that the specifics of reproductive biology of E. japonica (monocyclicity, prolonged period of reproduction, portion spawning, indirect embryonic development, high fertility, relatively small and yolk enriched eggs, pelagic planktotrophic larva, high level of energy costs on reproduction, egg bearing on the pleopods, high level of embryonic mortality), an intermediate strategist, is in a good agreement with its life strategy, thereby enabling this species to realize its reproductive potential in the northern part of the habitat. PMID:26859967

  1. Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., a new species of commensal leucothoid amphipod from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Thomas, James Darwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines. PMID:26448700

  2. Light-dependent genetic and phenotypic differences in the squat lobster Munida tenuimana (Crustacea: Decapoda) along deep continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguzzi, J.; Costa, C.; Ketmaier, V.; Angelini, C.; Antonucci, F.; Menesatti, P.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The levels of environmental light experienced by organisms during the behavioral activity phase deeply influence the performance of important ecological tasks. As a result, their shape and coloring may experience a light-driven selection process via the day-night rhythmic behavior. In this study, we tested the phenotypic and genetic variability of the western Mediterranean squat lobster (Munida tenuimana). We sampled at depths with different photic conditions and potentially, different burrow emergence rhythms. We performed day-night hauling at different depths, above and below the twilight zone end (i.e., 700 m, 1200 m, 1350 m, and 1500 m), to portray the occurrence of any burrow emergence rhythmicity. Collected animals were screened for shape and size (by geometric morphometry), spectrum and color variation (by photometric analysis), as well as for sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding for the NADH dehydrogenase subunit I. We found that a weak genetic structuring and shape homogeneity occurred together with significant variations in size, with the smaller individuals living at the twilight zone inferior limit and the larger individuals above and below. The infra-red wavelengths of spectral reflectance varied significantly with depth while the blue-green ones were size-dependent and expressed in smaller animals, which has a very small spectral reflectance. The effects of solar and bioluminescence lighting are discussed as depth-dependent evolutionary forces likely influencing the behavioral rhythms and coloring of M. tenuimana.

  3. Effect of temperature on the fatty acid composition and temporal trajectories of fatty acids in fasting Daphnia pulex (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Schlechtriem, Christian; Arts, M T; Zellmer, I D

    2006-04-01

    Poikilothermic organisms accumulate highly unsaturated FA (HUFA) in their lipids at reduced temperatures to maintain cell membrane fluidity. In this study we investigated the effect of temperature on temporal trajectories of FA of fasting Daphnia pulex cultured on a HUFA-free diet. Daphnia pulex populations were maintained for 1 mon at 22 and 11 degrees C and were fed the chlorophyte Ankistrodesmus falcatus. We observed conversion of C18 FA precursors to EPA (20:5n3) and arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) in D. pulex. We showed that long-term exposure to cold temperature causes a significant increase in EPA. HUFA such as ARA and EPA are highly conserved during starvation. Therefore, D. pulex has the biosynthetic capacity to adjust and to maintain the content of HUFA required to survive at low temperatures. PMID:16808154

  4. Population dynamics of the tropical cladoceran Ceriodaphnia rigaudi Richard, 1894 (Crustacea: Anomopoda). Effect of food type and temperature.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Jeronimo, Fernando; Ventura-Lopez, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    The knowledge of population effects of food on tropical, filter-feeding cladocerans is scarce because a reduced number of species has been extensively studied. Ceriodaphnia rigaudi Richard 1894, a small-sized cladoceran distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, was studied. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the reproductive biology of a poor-known Cladoceran; for this we assessed the effect of feeding and temperature on the reproduction and life cycle of this species. Three microalga species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Chlorella vulgaris) were supplied as food each at a concentration of 12 mg l(-1) (dry weight, equivalent to 1.3 x 10(6), 0.4 x 10(6) and 1.35 x 10(6) cell m1(-1), respectively, and equivalent to 7.8 microg C ml(-1), at two temperatures (20 and 25 degrees C). We evaluated, among other responses, longevity, total progeny, survival, life expectancy at birth and fecundity. Organisms fed with the microalgae A. falcatus and P subcapitata presented both higher longevity (30.7 +/- 5.91, 26.6 +/- 3.59 days, respectively) and total progeny (45 +/- 13.80, 40.7 +/- 0.66 neonates female (-1) values than those organisms fed C. vulgaris (13.5 +/- 4.63 days and 17.6 +/- 6.19 neonates female (-1), respectively). On the other hand, temperature affected significantly the population parameters of C. rigaudi, recording maximal longevity values (56.1 +/- 9.41 days) at 20 degrees C in organisms fed A. falcatus; however, age at first reproduction and total progeny were negatively affected by this temperature: sexual maturation of the females was delayed until the age of 16 days and the number of neonates produced was smaller (9.8 +/- 3.45 with C. vulgaris; 24.7 +/- 6.01 with P subcapitata, and 35.5 +/- 8.59 neonates female(-1) with A. falcatus). The best reproductive responses for C. rigaudi in this study were obtained with A. falcatus at degrees 25 degrees C. PMID:22315831

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk

    PubMed Central

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M. Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12–12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  6. The description of a new species of the Neotropical land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perger, Robert; Wall, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution a new species of the land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814, from the Neotropical Pacific coast of South America is described and illustrated. In addition to its unique body color, Gecarcinus nobilii sp. n. is distinguished from congeners by a distinctly wider carapace front and differences in the shape of the infraorbital margin. The new species is not isolated from Gecarcinus populations from the Pacific coast of Central America by an insurmountable geographic barrier. Considering the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus as a calibration point for morphological divergence between the trans-isthmian mainland populations of Gecarcinus, the virtual lack of morphological differentiation (other than color) between them and the distinctness of G. nobilii sp. n. suggests that G. nobilii sp. n. evolved from a common ancestor before the Isthmus closed. PMID:25152688

  7. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of “de la Plata” River Basin (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from “de la Plata” River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  8. The atyid shrimps from Lake Lindu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia with description of two new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Annawaty; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    The atyid shrimp Caridina linduensis Roux, 1904, has not been reported since its description more than a century ago. We here redescribe and figure this poorly known species based on new material from its type locality, Lake Lindu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Two new species, C. dali sp. nov. and C. kaili sp. nov. are also found in this lake and they are described and illustrated. Compared to C. linduensis, C. dali sp. nov. is distinguished by its relatively shorter rostrum which only overreaches the end of basal segment of antennular peduncle and the fewer teeth on the incisor process of the mandible. Caridina kaili sp. nov. can be separated from C. linduensis by its extremely short rostrum, which reaches almost or just reaches the end of the basal segment of the antennular peduncle, proportionately stouter second pereiopod and larger egg size. The two new species also prefer different habitats; C. linduensis is a true lake inhabitant, C. dali sp. nov. can be found both in the lake itself and associated streams while C. kaili sp. nov. is an obligate stream species. PMID:26249092

  9. High genetic diversity and variability of bacterial communities associated with the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengoni, A.; Focardi, A.; Bacci, G.; Ugolini, A.

    2013-10-01

    The microbiome present in individuals of Talitrus saltator belonging to seven populations distributed along the Tuscan coast (Italy) was assessed by using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Talitrus saltator is one of the key species of the damp band of European sandy beaches and despite of the large interest on animal-associated bacteria, only a few and preliminary data were present. Results showed a high diversity of the microbiome, composed mainly by members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacillales and Clostridiales classes. The microbiome fingerprints were highly variable among individuals, even from the same populations, the inter-individual differences accounting for 88.7% of total fingerprint variance. However, statistically significant population-specific microbiome signatures were detected, and accounted for the remaining 11.3% of total fingerprint variance. These population-specific differences were mainly attributed to sequences from members of known host-associated bacteria such as Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia and Spirochaetia. This study showed the high complexity of the microbiome associated with an amphipod species and on the inter-individual microbiome variation with potential importance for understanding amphipod trophic and ecologic processes.

  10. A new species of the genus Typton Costa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) from the eastern tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E; Galvan-Villa, Cristian Moises

    2015-01-01

    A new species of commensal shrimp of the genus Typton from holothurians is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected from a single specimen of Holothuria (Halodeima) inornata Semper, 1868 at a depth of 7 m. This is the first record of an association between a shrimp of the genus Typton and echinoderms. With this record, five species of Typton are now known from the eastern Pacific region and four of them are found in the Mexican Pacific. In Typton granulosus sp. nov., the distal part of the outer margin of the uropodal exopod is serrated, a feature shared with T. fapespae Almeida et al., 2014, T. holthuisi De Grave, 2010, T. prionurus Holthuis, 1951, T. serratus Holthuis, 1951, and T. spongicola Costa, 1844. However, the new species can be separated from the other five species of the genus by several morphological characters. PMID:25781793

  11. Distribution of Acanthephyra brevicarinata Hanamura, 1984 and A. brevirostris Smith, 1885 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Acanthephyridae), in Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E; Ríos-Elósegui, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Two species of the Acanthephyridae, Acanthephyra brevicarinata Hanamura, 1984, and A. brevirostris Smith, 1885, are reported for the Pacific coast of Mexico. The number of known localities for A. brevicarinata, a species endemic to the eastern Pacific, is increased from 24 to 70 and the number of specimens on records from 160 to 363. New distribution limits are provided for this species, from 25°02'N; 112°54'W to 16°58'N; 100°55'W, including the central and northern Gulf of California from 28°01'N; 112°17'W southwards. Based on previous information related to its capture and the morphology of its first larval stage, A. brevicarinata is considered to be part of the nektobenthic fauna. New records for A. brevirostris confirm its presence within the Gulf of California.  PMID:24870924

  12. Spermatozoal ultrastructure in four genera of Homolidae (crustacea, decapoda): Exemplified by Homologenus sp., Latreillopsis sp., Homolomannia sibogae and Paromolosis boasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, B. G. M.; Guinot, D.; Forges, B. Richer De

    1993-10-01

    The spermatozoa of Homologenus sp., Latreillopsis sp., Homolomannia sibogae and Paromolopsis boasi confirm characteristics of a distinctive homolid spermatozoon previously established for Homola sp., Paromola sp. and Paromola petterdi. Homolid features are (1) moderate anteroposterior depression of the acrosome (ratio of length: width 0.4 0.6) as in lyreidine raninids (0.5), depression being greater in dromiids and dynomenids (both 0.3); (2) the capitate form of the perforatorium, shared with dromiids, dynomenids and lyreidine raninids; (3)the autapomorphic spiked-wheel form of the anterior expansion of the perforatorium; (4) horizontal zonation of the acrosome is possibly a unique synapomorphy of homolids with dromiids and dynomenids, and therefore an autapomorphy of the dromioid-homolid assemblage. In dromiids the posterior zone is proportionately the larger, while in homolids the anterior zone is the larger. The anterior zone is complexly subdivided in dynomenids; (5) the autapomorphic presence of numerous radial arranged extension of the acrosomal operculum into the perforatorium; (6) presence of nuclear arms, a symplesiomorphy of all investigated crabs, but small or questionably sometimes absent in Dromiidae; (7) absence of microtubules from the nuclear arms, as in dromiids, raninids, higher heterotremes and thoracotremes; (8) transient presence of a posterior median process of the nucleus. The process is not seen in dromiids but occurs in anomurans and lower heterotremes; (9) apical perforation of the operculum, also seen, apparently symplesiomorphically, in dromiids, raninids, and lower heterotreme families; (10) absence of an acrosome ray zone, probably homoplasic with absence in raninids; (11) location of most of the cytoplasm, including tortuous membranes and degenerating mitochondria, below the acrosome, also seen in Lyreidus; (12) presence, in at least some species, of centrioles, unknown in dromiids and raninids and variable in occurrence in heterotremes.

  13. Antennulary sensory organs in cyprids of Octolasmis and Lepas (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica): a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Høeg, Jens T; Jeffries, William B; Lagersson, Niklas C

    2004-05-01

    Cypris larvae of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata (Poecilasmatidae), Lepas australis, L. pectinata, and Dosima fascicularis (Lepadidae) were studied with scanning electron microscopy, focusing on the sensory setae and the attachment disc on the antennules. The antennules of O. angulata did not exhibit any remarkable trait, but carry the same number of setae as seen in most other thoracicans. The third segment is bell-shaped and quite distinct from the second and its attachment disc is surrounded by a skirt. We found several potential synapomorphies in antennulary morphology between cyprids of the lepadid species but none of them were shared with the cyprids of Octolasmis; the list of unique lepadid characters includes: one additional, preaxial seta on the second segment; multiple similar (up to eight) postaxial setae (PS3) on the third segment, unlike all other thoracicans, where there is only a single PS3; the third segment consists almost entirely of the attachment disc, which is distended and surrounded by two parallel rows of radial setae; on the fourth segment the terminal seta E is diminutive. We found no traits in cyprids of Octolasmis that seem to be adaptations to their attachment site within the branchial chamber of swimming crabs and, in particular, no similarities with cyprids of rhizocephalan barnacles, many of which also attach in the gill chamber. The synapomorphies between cyprids of the lepadid species may be adaptations to their life in the neuston. PMID:15108154

  14. Metabolism of Antarctic micronektonic crustacea across a summer ice-edge bloom: respiration, composition, and enzymatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Joseph; Kawall, Helena; Geiger, Stephen P.; Torres, Joseph J.

    2004-08-01

    The Antarctic marginal ice zone is an important oceanic front separating the pack-ice and open-water environments. During summer, the retreating pack ice creates a meltwater lens in the euphotic zone, allowing primary producers and microheterotrophs to flourish in a discrete bloom just seaward of the retreating ice edge that lasts about 60 days. The purpose of the present study was to see if the ice-edge bloom had a discernible effect on the metabolism and physiological condition of Antarctic micronekton similar to that observed in zooplankton species. We also wished to assess the importance of the summer season to species' life cycles. Two major data sets were collected on 25 species in the following taxonomic groups: amphipods, cephalopods, decapods, euphausiids, isopods, mysids, ostracods, and polychaetes. The first data set described the metabolic rates of individuals in areas of the marginal ice zone with widely different levels of chlorophyll biomass to investigate the effect of the ice-edge bloom on metabolism. Additionally, summer metabolic rates were compared with data from other seasons. The second data set detailed the levels of protein, water, ash, RNA and DNA, and the activities of metabolic enzymes (citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase) to examine the efficacy of biochemical indices as predictive tools for metabolism. Results suggested that the mobility of the micronektonic species eliminated most direct effects of the bloom on metabolism. Individuals captured in very different productivity regimes showed few significant differences in the metabolic indicators listed above. Isolated cases of changes in body composition and enzyme activity, however, implied that longer-term effects of the bloom may be exhibited. Seasonal increases in metabolism from winter to summer were observed in the euphausiids Euphausia superba, E. triacantha, and Thysanoessa macrura and the amphipod Vibilia stebbingi. It was concluded that the seasonal shifts were indicative of a "type 2" or compromise overwintering strategy whereby metabolism drops without an accompanying dormant state. Protein content and MDH activity were found to be the best predictors of respiration rate, while nucleic acid measures only correlated with respiration in immature specimens.

  15. Comparison of molecular species identification for North Sea calanoid copepods (Crustacea) using proteome fingerprints and DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Laakmann, S; Gerdts, G; Erler, R; Knebelsberger, T; Martínez Arbizu, P; Raupach, M J

    2013-09-01

    Calanoid copepods play an important role in the pelagic ecosystem making them subject to various taxonomic and ecological studies, as well as indicators for detecting changes in the marine habitat. For all these investigations, valid identification, mainly of sibling and cryptic species as well as early life history stages, represents a central issue. In this study, we compare species identification methods for pelagic calanoid copepod species from the North Sea and adjacent regions in a total of 333 specimens. Morphologically identified specimens were analysed on the basis of nucleotide sequences (i.e. partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and complete 18S rDNA) and on proteome fingerprints using the technology of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). On all three molecular approaches, all specimens were classified to species level indicated by low intraspecific and high interspecific variability. Sequence divergences in both markers revealed a second Pseudocalanus species for the southern North Sea identified as Pseudocalanus moultoni by COI sequence comparisons to GenBank. Proteome fingerprints were valid for species clusters irrespective of high intraspecific variability, including significant differences between early developmental stages and adults. There was no effect of sampling region or time; thus, trophic effect, when analysing the whole organisms, was observed in species-specific protein mass spectra, underlining the power of this tool in the application on metazoan species identification. Because of less sample preparation steps, we recommend proteomic fingerprinting using the MALDI-TOF MS as an alternative or supplementary approach for rapid, cost-effective species identification. PMID:23848968

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Euphausia superba (Prydz Bay) (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) reveals a novel gene arrangement and potential molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Haiqing; Ren, Jianfeng; Tian, Mei; Wang, Minxiao

    2010-02-01

    Euphausiid krill are dominant organisms in the zooplankton population and play a central role in marine ecosystems. In this paper, we described the gene organization, gene rearrangement and codon usage in the mitochondrial genome of Euphausia superba Dana 1852 (sampling from Prydz Bay, PB). The mitochondrial genome of E. superba is more than 15,498 bp in length (partial non-coding region was not determined). Translocation of four tRNAs (trnL ( 1 ), trnL ( 2 ), trnW and trnI) and duplication of one tRNA (trnN) were founded in the mitochondrial genome of E. superba when comparing its genome with the pancrustacean ground pattern. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship within Malacostraca, phylogenetic trees based on currently available malacostracan mitochondrial genomes were built with the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian models. All analyses based on nucleotide and amino acid data strongly support the monophyly of Stomatopoda, Penaeidae, Caridea, and Brachyura, which is consistent with previous research. However, the taxonomic position of Euphausiacea within Malacostraca is unstable. From comparing the mitochondrial genome between E. superba (PB) and E. superba (sampling from Weddell Sea, WS), we found that nad2 gene contains maximal variation with 61 segregating sites, following by nad5 gene which has 12 segregating sites. Thus, nad2 and nad5 genes may be used as potential molecular markers to study the inherit diversity among different E. superba groups, which would be helpful to the exploitation and management of E. superba resources. PMID:19578978

  17. Change in life cycle parameters and feeding rate of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii Daday (Crustacea, Cladocera) exposure to dietary copper.

    PubMed

    Rodgher, Suzelei; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; Melão, Maria da Graça Gama; Tonietto, Alessandra Emanuelle

    2008-11-01

    Changes in life cycle parameters (survival, growth, reproduction) and feeding rate of the tropical cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii as affected by Cu contaminated algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. The dietary copper exposure ranged from 3 x 10(-15) to 68 x 10(-15) g Cu algal cell(-1). Low waterborne copper exposure (around 10(-10) mol l(-1) free Cu2+ ions) was kept in the experiments. The results show an increasing toxic effect on C. silvestrii with copper increase in algal cells; at the highest copper exposure, all life cycle parameters were significantly affected. A concentration of 38 x 10(-15) g Cu algal cell(-1) reduced egg hatching percentile and the number of neonates produced per female, but did not cause any statistically significant effect on animals survival nor to the number of eggs produced per female. The following sequence of events was observed from the lowest to the highest copper contamination: reproduction, feeding rate, body length and, at last, survival was affected. We conclude that algal cells are an important route of copper exposure and toxicity to cladocerans. PMID:18648932

  18. An unusual new species of paguroid (Crustacea, Anomura, Paguridae) from deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rafael; Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Tomopaguropsis ahkinpechensis sp. n., is described from deep waters (780–827 m) of the Gulf of Mexico. This is the second species of Tomopaguropsis known from the western Atlantic, and the fifth worldwide. The new species is morphologically most similar to a species from Indonesia, Tomopaguropsis crinita McLaughlin, 1997, the two having ocular peduncles that diminish in width distally, reduced corneas, dense cheliped setation, and males lacking paired pleopods 1. The calcified figs on the branchiostegite and anterodorsally on the posterior carapace, and the calcified first pleonal somite that is not fused to the last thoracic somite, are unusual paguroid characters. A discussion of the affinities and characters that define this new species is included, along with a key to all five species of Tomopaguropsis. PMID:25408613

  19. Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-04-01

    The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S mesoplanktonic carnivores ( Rhachotropis spp.) had higher P/Bs. We conclude that on the north slope the influence of frontal systems and more active flow dynamics of different water masses (WIW and LIW) increases natural disturbance in the area, increasing productivity and diversity of suprabenthic peracarids in the Benthic Boundary Layer. Also, species showed a displacement of their average distributions (their Centres of Gravity, CoG) to shallower depths along N, which is another indicator of more favorable habitat conditions for suprabenthos in the 400-500 m range at N.

  20. Globospongicola jiaolongi Jiang, Kou & Li, 2015, a junior subjective synonym of G. spinulatus Komai & Saito, 2006 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng-Wei; Komai, Tomoyuki; Chen, Chien-Lin; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and genetic analyses both showed that the abundant material of deep-sea sponge associated Globospongicola shrimps collected off southwestern Taiwan belongs to the same species as G. spinulatus Komai & Saito, 2006 described from the Southwest Pacific and G. jiaolongi Jiang, Kou & Li, 2015 recently described from the South China Sea. Thus, G. jiaolongi is treated as a junior subjective synonym of G. spinulatus. Moreover, it is confirmed that G. spinulatus inhabits general deep-sea area but not in chemosynthetic environment. PMID:27395947

  1. Chronic effect of NaCl salinity on a freshwater strain of Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea: Cladocera): a demographic study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Laura

    2007-07-01

    Daphnia magna is mainly recognized as a freshwater cladoceran, but there are some strains that grow in brackish waters. The tolerance to salinity of a freshwater strain was assessed at NaCl concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 7 g L(-1). The green microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus was fed at optimal concentration (4 x 10(5)cells mL(-1)). Reproduction and survival were recorded in two experimental series: in the first one, 20 female neonates were individually studied for each treatment. In the second, cohorts of 10 female neonates were distributed in each of five replicates per treatment. In both cases, experiments were conducted over a full life-cycle. The determined 48-h LC(50) for NaCl was 5.48 g L(-1), but we recorded reproduction at up to 7 g NaCl L(-1). The average clutch size, total progeny, number of clutches, and longevity were significantly reduced by the NaCl concentration (P<0.01); total progeny ranged from 467 to 25 neonates as edge values for NaCl concentrations of 0-7 g L(-1). Inter-brood time was significantly higher for females grown at 7 g NaCl L(-1) (3.9 days). The Life Table analysis demonstrates that average lifespan, life expectancy at birth, net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of growth were also significantly reduced according to NaCl concentration. Based on the results for the two highest NaCl concentrations (6 and 7 g L(-1)), we conclude that the used D. magna strain was acclimated to develop satisfactorily under concentrations of up to 6 g NaCl L(-1); however, the established salinity conditions reduced significantly reproduction and survival in this strain. PMID:17055052

  2. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in a Miocene oxygen minimum zone, Trinidad, West Indies: A test of the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent; Coimbra, João C.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2014-10-01

    Studies of Recent ostracodes around the area of South America shed little light on the paleoenvironmental interpretation of Miocene assemblages. Consequently, interpretations of the Miocene ostracode assemblages must be supplemented using evidence from better documented taxa. Benthic foraminifera in samples from the Lower to Middle Miocene Brasso Formation at Brasso Village, Trinidad, have previously been used to distinguish three sample groupings (Beneath, Within and Above) around an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), this being a layer of water within which dissolved oxygen concentrations can be as low as 0.1-1.0 mL/L. Using these same samples and the foraminiferal assemblage demarcations relative to the OMZ, this paper examines the associated and rich ostracode fauna of the Brasso Formation. The mean recovery of ostracode valves per sample was approximately three times greater in the Within OMZ sample group than in either of the Beneath OMZ or Above OMZ groups, perhaps reflecting the exclusion of macro-predators from within the OMZ. Individual rarefaction of species richness S to N = 300 valves was conducted for each sample group. This showed that S did not differ between the sample groups, ranging from 22.4 to 24.8. We used all ostracode species to model group separation. Based upon the Mahalanobis' criterion, we obtained significant group separation using a model with four taxa: Munseyella ex gr. minuta, Argilloecia posterotruncata, Munseyella sp. and Xestoleberis sp., while a fifth, Argilloecia spp., provided a significant but minor increase in separation probabilities over all groups. The two most abundant species (Bradleya sp., Gangamocytheridea reticulata) were thus not the best species for detecting the OMZ. Platycopid ostracodes of the genus Cytherella were found throughout the section, rather than concentrated within the OMZ, which contradicts the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis that OMZs are characterized by platycopid dominance. The total distribution and turnover of both ostracodal and foraminiferal assemblages were compared and contrasted quantitatively using a total assemblage turnover index (ATI) and the paleoenvironmental importance evaluated. The correlated between-sample ATI is for both groups lowest within the OMZ.

  3. A new species of the rare genus Priscomilitaris from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Priscomilitaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko; Tanaka, Hayato; Nakano, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the priscomilitarid amphipod, Priscomilitaris heike, from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, is named and described. This new species is the third species of Priscomilitaridae and the second species of Priscomilitaris. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from its holotype were determined. Priscomilitaris heike sp. n. is distinguished from its congener, Priscomilitaris tenuis Hirayama, 1988, by having deep antennal sinus, long flagellar article 1 of antennae 1 and 2, long mandibular palp article 2, 10 robust setae on outer ramus of maxilla 1, and rounded epimeral plates. A key to the species of Proscomilitaridae is provided. PMID:27551228

  4. On the genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae), with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tin-Yam; Cleva, Régis; Chu, Ka Hou

    2016-01-01

    The penaeid genus Trachysalambria Burkenroad, 1934a is revised with the aid of sequence data on the 12S and 16S rRNA genes. The species generally reported as "T. longipes" in recent literature was found to be not the true T. longipes (Paul'son, 1875) but a new species, herein named T. dentata sp. nov. To fix the identity of T. longipes, a neotype is selected and this action effectively synonymizes T. villaluzi (Muthu & Motoh, 1979) with T. longipes. Moreover, T. fulva (Dall, 1957) is synonymized with T. malaiana (Balss, 1933) while T. starobogatovi (Ivanov & Hassan, 1976) is confirmed to be a valid species. Two more new species are discovered, with T. parvispina sp. nov., widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, and T. crosnieri sp. nov., restricted to Australia. Altogether 12 species are recognized in Trachyalambria. The other valid species in this genus are T. curvirostris (Stimpson, 1860), T. aspera (Alcock, 1905), T. palaestinensis (Steinitz, 1932), T. brevisuturae (Burkenroad, 1934a), T. albicoma (Haysahi & Toriyama, 1980), and T. nansei Sakaji & Hayashi, 2003. Most characters previously used for separating the species of this genus are rather variable and their distinguishing characters are redefined. PMID:27515656

  5. Three new species and one new genus of abyssal Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenteva, Anna V.; Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Only two species of crustacean Cumacea have been reported in publications for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area after nine expeditions on board of the RV "Vityaz". During the KuramBio expedition 2012 to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain at depths 4830-5780 m no less than 72 species of cumaceans from 23 genera and 6 families were sampled. Five genera were recorded for the first time in the studied region: the genera Pseudoleptostyloides and Platycuma were detected for the first time for the Pacific Ocean; Cyclaspoides, Bathylamprops and Styloptocuma were firstly sampled in North Pacific. About 90% of the sampled species appear to be new to science. Three new deep-sea cumacean species and one new genus from the Kurile Kamchatka area are described in the present paper: Abyssoleucon tzarevae gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the family Leuconidae, Cyclaspoides borisovetsi sp. n. and Bathycuma sonne sp. n. of the family Bodotriidae. A distribution map for the species of the genus Cyclaspoides is provided.

  6. A new species of the rare genus Priscomilitaris from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Priscomilitaridae).

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, Ko; Tanaka, Hayato; Nakano, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the priscomilitarid amphipod, Priscomilitaris heike, from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, is named and described. This new species is the third species of Priscomilitaridae and the second species of Priscomilitaris. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from its holotype were determined. Priscomilitaris heike sp. n. is distinguished from its congener, Priscomilitaris tenuis Hirayama, 1988, by having deep antennal sinus, long flagellar article 1 of antennae 1 and 2, long mandibular palp article 2, 10 robust setae on outer ramus of maxilla 1, and rounded epimeral plates. A key to the species of Proscomilitaridae is provided. PMID:27551228

  7. Carcinoplax fasciata, a new species of deep-water goneplacid crab from southwestern India (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Goneplacoidea).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Carcinoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1852 (family Goneplacidae) is described from southern India. Carcinoplax fasciata n. sp. is closest to C. specularis Rathbun, 1914, but can be distinguished by its different coloration in life as well as structures of the carapace surface, anterolateral armature, supraorbital margin, chela and male first gonopod. PMID:27515615

  8. Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-02-01

    The trophic ecology of non-native species is a key aspect to understand their invasion success and the community effects. Despite the important role of caprellid amphipods as trophic intermediates between primary producers and higher levels of marine food webs, there is very little information on their feeding habits. This is the first comprehensive study on the trophic strategies of two co-occurring introduced caprellids in the Spanish coasts: Caprella scaura and Paracaprella pusilla. The diet of 446 specimens of C. scaura and 230 of P. pusilla was analyzed to investigate whether there were differences in the feeding habits in relation to habitat characteristics (natural vs artificial hard substrata), type of host substrata (bryozoans and hydroids) and native vs introduced distribution ranges (Brazil vs Spain). Results revealed differences in diet preferences of the two species that have important implications for their trophic behaviour and showed a limited food overlap, which may favour their coexistence in introduced areas. In general terms, P. pusilla is a predator species, showing preference by crustacean prey in all of its life stages, while C. scaura feeds mainly on detritus. Although no sex-related diet shifts were observed in either of the species, evidence of ontogenetic variation in diet of C. scaura was found, with juveniles feeding on more amount of prey than adults. No diet differences were found between native and introduced populations within the same habitat type. However, P. pusilla exhibited a shift in its diet when different habitats were compared in the same distribution area, and C. scaura showed a flexible feeding behaviour between different host substrata in the same habitat type. This study shows that habitat characteristics at different scales can have greater influence on the feeding ecology of exotic species than different distribution ranges, and support the hypothesis that a switch between feeding strategies depending on habitat characteristics could favour invasion success.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in Squilla mantis (L.) (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) from the gulf of cadiz evaluation of the impact of the Aznalcollar mining spill.

    PubMed

    Blasco, J; Arias, A M; Sáenz, V

    2002-04-01

    After the Aznalcóllar mining spill (25th April 1998), considerable social concern arose amongst the inhabitants of the SW Iberian Peninsula concerning the consumption of local seafood. Squilla mantis was collected in four regions of the Gulf of Cádiz with a dual objective: to analyze the heavy metal levels for human consumption and as part of biomonitoring program. Heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were analyzed in soft tissues and cuticle. The highest values were found in the soft tissues for zinc, copper and cadmium and in the cuticle for iron, manganese and lead. The mean copper concentration in the soft tissue, corresponding to the edible part, was 27.1 microg x g(-1) wet weight. Approximately 80% of stations showed values higher than 20 microg x g(-1) wet weight of copper, the Spanish legal limit for the concentration of this metal in the crustacean for human consumption. For Zn and Cu no significant differences were found between regions, probably related with the capacity for regulation of S. mantis. The highest values found for copper in the Gulf of Cádiz compared to other areas is likely to be related with contamination from terrestrial mining activities (copper and pyrites) in the region, dating back to the times of Tartessians and Romans, rather than the effects of mining spill which was shown not to create any significant increases in heavy metal concentrations of organisms of the Guadalquivir River or the adjacent coastal area. PMID:12046947

  10. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  11. Natural diet of the spiny lobster, Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae), from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Góes, C A; Lins-Oliveira, J E

    2009-02-01

    The natural diet of the spiny lobster (Panulirus echinatus) from the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago was determined by stomach contents analysis of sixty-eight adult lobsters collected during October 2002, March, July and August 2003. Food items were grouped by gross taxa representing 11 food categories. Analysis included a qualitative (Frequency of Occurrence of item i--FOi) and a quantitative method (Volume of item i--Vi). A Feed Index (FI = FOi x Vi / 100) proposed by Lauzanne (1975) was also used to indicate the importance of each food category (> 50: dominant, 25-50: essential, 10-25: unimportant, < 10: secondary). The most important food category determined by % FOi and % Vi, was fish, followed by crustaceans, green algae, calcareous algae, and rocks. The remaining food categories contributed to less than 30% of FOi and 10% of Vi. Although the Feed Index revealed no dominant food category in the diet of P. echinatus, fish was considered essential, crustaceans unimportant, and the remaining food categories were classified as secondary. According to the analysis, P. echinatus can be properly classified as an omnivorous and a generalist species, because it consumes a great diversity of organisms in several trophic levels. This species presents an opportunistic behaviour, feeding on the prey available at substratum. Future studies should address variations in natural diet related to sex, reproductive cycle, and seasonality. PMID:19347157

  12. Description and scanning electron microscopic observation of a new species of the genus Polycopetta (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cladocopina) from an interstitial habitat in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hayato; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Polycopetta Chavtur, 1981, Polycopetta quadrispinata sp. n. is described from the interstitial environment of Mihomasaki Beach in Japan. These observations showed some morphological peculiarities of Polycopetta quadrispinata sp. n. compared with its congeners; Polycopetta monneroni Chavtur, 1979, Polycopetta curva Chavtur, 1979, Polycopetta bransfieldensis (Hartmann, 1987), and Polycopetta pax Kornicker and Harrison-Nelson, 2005. Three characteristics are described for the first time: (1) a seta with serrated tip on the male antennula, (2) the endopodite of the fifth limb consisting of two podomeres, (3) the long spermatozoa in the male posterior body. More detailed observations of the type species are needed in order to update the generic diagnosis. PMID:23794873

  13. Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands.

    PubMed

    Redon, Stella; Berthelemy, Nicole J; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Amat, Francisco; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski, 1905) (adults parasitic in grebes), Hymenolepis (sensu lato) californicus Young, 1950 (adults parasitic in gulls), Wardium sp. (definitive host unknown, probably charadriiform birds), and one dilepidid, Fuhrmannolepis averini Spassky et Yurpalova, 1967 (adults parasitic in phalaropes). In addition, an unidentified nematode of the family Acuariidae was recorded. Confluaria podicipina is the most prevalent and abundant parasite at all sampling sites, followed by H. (s. l.) californicus. The species composition of the parasites and the spatial variations in their prevalence and abundance reflect the abundance and distribution of aquatic birds serving as their definitive hosts. The temporal dynamics of the overall helminth infections exhibits the highest prevalence in the last month of study at each site (August or September). This native population of A. franciscana from GSL is characterised with higher prevalence, intensity and abundance of the overall cestode infection compared to the introduced populations of this species in the Palaearctic Region. The values of the infection descriptors in the native population of A. franciscana are slightly lower or in some cases similar to those of the Palaearctic species Artemia parthenogenetica Barigozzi (diploid populations) and Artemia salina (Linnaeus) in their native habitats. PMID:26040582

  14. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Duchet, C; Caquet, Th; Franquet, E; Lagneau, C; Lagadic, L

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 microg L(-1)) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 microL L(-1)) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. PMID:19939529

  15. The combined effects of heavy metals (copper and zinc), temperature and food (Chlorella vulgaris) level on the demographic characters of Moina macrocopa (Crustacea: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Nandini, S; Picazo-Paez, E A; Sarma, S S S

    2007-08-01

    In this work we evaluated the effect of temperature (22 degrees and 27 degrees C), algal density (Chlorella vulgaris 0.5 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(6) cells/mL) and different combinations of 2 heavy metals (Zn at 25.25-101.0 microg/L and Cu at 17.75-71.0 microg/L) on the population level variables of Moina macrocopa. Median lethal concentration (24 h bioassay at 1 x 10(6) cells/mL of algal diet) of Zn and Cu for M. macrocopa were 1010 microg/L and 710 microg/L, respectively. In the survivorship curves at 27 degrees C there was a reduction in the survival of cladocerans exposed to Cu compared to controls or Zn. The fecundity curves (m(x)) indicated a steady reproductive output throughout the life span of M. macrocopa, but the negative impact of copper was more than that of zinc. Reproductive phase of M. macrocopa was longer at 22 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. The average lifespan was higher at 22 degrees C and at the higher food level. It was significantly affected by temperature, food level and toxicant concentration, as well as their interaction. The net reproductive rate was also influenced by food and temperature but not by the toxicant level. The generation time ranged between 4-8 days and was lower at 27 degrees C. The population growth rate (r) derived from life table experiments varied from 0.6 to 0.9 per day, depending on the treatment. Regardless of the toxicant level, at 22 degrees C, the population growth was higher at the higher food level. In treatments containing only Cu, the population growth of M. macrocopa was lower than when present together with Zn. Peak population densities of around 30 ind./mL were reached under high food conditions. Higher temperature and lower food level had an adverse effect on M. macrocopa in treatments containing only Cu. In the presence of higher food density, the adverse impact of copper was not evident. The r derived from growth study ranged from 0.25 to 0.64 per day depending on the test conditions. Data were interpreted in terms of sensitivity M. macrocopa for its possible use as a complement, but not as an alternative to Daphnia magna for evaluating the toxicity of heavy metals. PMID:17680482

  16. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, is revised for Australian waters. Ceratothoa is represented in Australia by nine species, including two new species: Ceratothoa barracuda sp. nov. described from Cairns and Ceratothoa globulus sp. nov. described from Lord Howe Island. Ceratothoa imbricata Fabricius, 1775 is redescribed, with Ceratothoa trillesi (Avdeev, 1979) and Ceratothoa huttoni Filhol, 1885 placed into junior synonymy; the preferred hosts are species of the genus Trachurus (Carangidae). Ceratothoa banksii (Leach, 1818) is validated and brought out of synonymy with Ceratothoa imbricata; host species are from the families Kyphosidae, Scombridae, Latridae, Carangidae, Mugilidae, Salmonidae, Scatophagidae, Pomatomidae and Hemiramphidae. Species excluded from the Australian fauna are Ceratothoa trigonocephala (Leach, 1818) with an unknown host identity and type locality; and Ceratothoa lineata Miers, 1876a, that here is transferred to the genus Mothocya Costa, 1851, with Mothocya ihi Bruce, 1986 placed into junior synonymy. Ceratothoa contracta (Miers, 1880), the New Zealand Ceratothoa novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885 and the East Pacific Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Milne Edwards, 1840) are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Australian species of Ceratothoa is presented. PMID:26249402

  17. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Isopoda, Cymothoidae, Crustacea) from the southwestern Indian Ocean, including a new species from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Kerry A; Bruce, Niel L; Smit, Nico J

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 is revised for southwestern Indian Ocean waters. Cymothoa borbonica Schioedte & Meinert, 1884 and C. eremita Brünnich, 1783 are redescribed. Cymothoa rotundifrons Haller, 1880, from Mauritius lacks type material and the host is unknown, therefore it is here relegated to nomen dubium. Cymothoa sodwana sp. nov., from Trachinotus botla (Carangidae), collected from the Kwazulu-Natal coast of South Africa, is described and is distinguished by the large, ovoid, hunched body with rugose dorsal surfaces; the anterolateral angles of pereonite 1 are narrow and rounded reaching half the length of the cephalon; the ischium of pereopod 7 has a large protrusion and pereonite 7 which laterally overlaps the pleon margins, extending posteriorly to the pleotelson. PMID:26000410

  18. Isolation and characterization of 8 microsatellite loci for the "killer shrimp'', an invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Rémi A; Rigaud, Thierry; Bacela-Spychalska, Karolina; Grabowski, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Dikerogammarus villosus is a freshwater amphipod of the Ponto-Caspian origin recognized as one of the 100 worst alien species in Europe, having negative impact on biodiversity and functioning of the invaded aquatic ecosystems. The species has a wide ecophysiological tolerance and during the last 20 years it has rapidly spread throughout European inland waters. In consequence, it presents a major conservation management problem. We describe eight polymorphic microsatellite loci developed for D. villosus by combining a biotin-enrichment protocol and new generation 454GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. When genotyped in 64 individuals from two locations, the loci exhibited a mean diversity of 4.87 alleles per locus (2-13). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were, respectively, 0.439 (0.091-0.844) and 0.468 (0.089-0.843). Gametic disequilibrium was not detected for any pair of loci. The microsatellite markers will be a valuable tool in assessing the demographic processes associated with invasion of the killer shrimp from a genetic point of view. PMID:25234651

  19. Eye spectral sensitivity in fresh- and brackish-water populations of three glacial-relict Mysis species (Crustacea): physiology and genetics of differential tuning.

    PubMed

    Donner, Kristian; Zak, Pavel; Viljanen, Martta; Lindström, Magnus; Feldman, Tatiana; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Absorbance spectra of single rhabdoms were studied by microspectrophotometry (MSP) and spectral sensitivities of whole eyes by electroretinography (ERG) in three glacial-relict species of opossum shrimps (Mysis). Among eight populations from Fennoscandian fresh-water lakes (L) and seven populations from the brackish-water Baltic Sea (S), L spectra were systematically red-shifted by 20-30 nm compared with S spectra, save for one L and one S population. The difference holds across species and bears no consistent adaptive relation to the current light environments. In the most extensively studied L-S pair, two populations of M. relicta (L(p) and S(p)) separated for less than 10,000 years, no differences translating into amino acid substitutions have been found in the opsin genes, and the chromophore of the visual pigments as analyzed by HPLC is pure A1. However, MSP experiments with spectrally selective bleaching show the presence of two rhodopsins (λ(max) ≈ 525-530 nm, MWS, and 565-570 nm, LWS) expressed in different proportions. ERG recordings of responses to "red" and "blue" light linearly polarized at orthogonal angles indicate segregation of the pigments into different cells differing in polarization sensitivity. We propose that the pattern of development of LWS and MWS photoreceptors is governed by an ontogenetic switch responsive to some environmental signal(s) other than light that generally differ(s) between lakes and sea, and that this reaction norm is conserved from a common ancestor of all three species. PMID:26984686

  20. A new Ingolfiellid (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from an anchialine pool on Abd al Kuri Island, Socotra Archipelago, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Iannilli, Valentina; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Ingolfiella arganoi sp. n. from Abd al Kuri Island in the Arabian Sea is described from two specimens, a male and a female. The western shore of the Indian Ocean was hitherto a vacant spot in the distribution of circumtropical shallow marine interstitial ingolfiellids and therefore the location of the new species fills a meaningful gap in the geography of the family. Morphologically, the new species shows close affinities with Ingolfiella xarifae from the Maldives. PMID:23794897

  1. A new Ingolfiellid (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from an anchialine pool on Abd al Kuri Island, Socotra Archipelago, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Iannilli, Valentina; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ingolfiella arganoi sp. n. from Abd al Kuri Island in the Arabian Sea is described from two specimens, a male and a female. The western shore of the Indian Ocean was hitherto a vacant spot in the distribution of circumtropical shallow marine interstitial ingolfiellids and therefore the location of the new species fills a meaningful gap in the geography of the family. Morphologically, the new species shows close affinities with Ingolfiella xarifae from the Maldives. PMID:23794897

  2. Cherax snowden, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula in Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lukhaup, Christian; Panteleit, Jörn; Schrimpf, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cherax snowden sp. n., from the Oinsok River Drainage, Sawiat District in the central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the closest related species, Cherax holthuisi Lukhaup & Pekny, 2006. This species is collected and exported for ornamental purposes and its commercial name in the pet trade is “orange tip” or “green orange tip”. Both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial, for considering Cherax snowden sp. n. to be a new species. PMID:26448698

  3. Taxonomy and bathymetric distribution of the outer neritic/upper bathyal ostracodes (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the southernmost Brazilian continental margin.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini Trescastro; Coimbra, João Carlos; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five ostracode species belonging to 41 genera and 17 families were recorded in the outer shelf and upper slope off Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southernmost Brazil, between 100 and 586 m water depth interval. The ostracode occurrences are hypothesized to be influenced by both, the coastal waters and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). The taxonomy of some species of Bradleya Hornibrook, 1952, Legitimocythere Coles & Whatley, 1989 and Henryhowella Puri, 1957 previously described in the same study area is revised. Bradleya gaucha sp. nov., Legitimocythere megapotamica sp. nov., Apatihowella acelos sp. nov., Apatihowella capitulum sp. nov., Apatihowella besnardi sp. nov., Apatihowella convexa sp. nov., and Aversovalva tomcronini sp. nov. are herein proposed. Trachyleberis aorata Bergue & Coimbra, 2008 is reassigned to the genus Legitimocythere and Bradleya pseudonormani Ramos et al., 2009 has its diagnosis emended. Bythocypris praerenis Brandão, 2008 is considered a junior synonym of Bythocypris kyamos Whatley et al., 1998a. Apatihowella Jellinek & Swanson, 2003 and Legitimocythere species have well-defined bathymetric distributions and are potential paleoceanographic markers for the Quaternary in the Southern Brazilian Margin. PMID:27395992

  4. An updated checklist of the Recent non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea) of Iran, with a redescription of Eucypris mareotica (Fischer, 1855).

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Hamidreza; Scharf, Burkhard; Meisch, Claude; Aygen, Cem

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of the extant non-marine Ostracoda of Iran, with 74 species in all, is presented, based on literature and new collections made in May 2011. The occurrence of 19 non-marine ostracod species recovered from 10 localities in May 21-26, 2011 is reported together with ecological data. Eucypris kerkyrensis Stephanides, 1937, Ilyocypris inermis Kaufmann, 1900, Psychrodromus fontinalis Wolf, 1920, and P. olivaceus (Brady & Norman, 1889) are new to the fauna of Iran. Eucypris mareotica (Fischer, 1855) is redescribed and its taxonomic position is discussed. It is shown that E. mareotica-synonymous with E. inflata-does not belong to the genus Eucypris sensu stricto, and even not to the subfamily Eucypridinae; as its characters do not fit any available genus, the species is therefore provisionally left in the genus Eucypris at present. Eucypris mongolica (Daday, 1909) is proposed to be considered an infraspecific variety of E. mareotica. The following new combination is here proposed: Strandesia ambigua (Ghetti, 1972) nov. comb. PMID:27615839

  5. Semiterrestrial crabs of the genus Geosesarma De Man, 1892 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae) from western Borneo, Indonesia, with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2015-01-01

    The poorly known semiterrestrial sesarmid crab, Geosesarma amphinome (De Man, 1899), from Kalimantan Barat in western Borneo, is redescribed and figured. Three other species from areas surrounding the town of Pontianak, are here described as new. Geosesarma ambawang sp. nov., G. pontianak sp. nov., and G. pylaemenes sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners on Borneo and adjacent areas by their colours in life, form of the carapaces and ambulatory legs, and the structures of the male abdomens and first gonopods. PMID:26624735

  6. Notes on Hexapodidae (Crustacea, Brachyura) from Indonesia and Malaysia, with description of a new species of Mariaplax Rahayu & Ng, 2014, from Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

    2015-01-01

    The male of Hexapinus latipes (De Haan, 1835), so far known only from female specimens, is described based on the material reported by De Man (1888) as "Hexapus sexpes". Material referred to "Hexapus sexpes" by Tesch (1918) is shown instead to belong to Hexapinus simplex Rahayu & Ng, 2014, and Hexapinus latus Rahayu & Ng, 2014, while his "Hexaplax megalops Doflein, 1904" belongs to Hexaplax aurantium Rahayu & Ng, 2014. A new species, Mariaplax aspera n. sp., is described from a female collected in Lombok, Indonesia. This new species most closely resembles M. narusei Rahayu & Ng, 2014, described from Japan, but differs by its relatively narrower carapace, shorter ambulatory legs, tuberculated third maxillipeds, and shorter telson. PMID:26249983

  7. Drawn to the dark side: a molecular phylogeny of freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) reveals frequent cave invasions and challenges current taxonomic hypotheses.

    PubMed

    von Rintelen, Kristina; Page, Timothy J; Cai, Yixiong; Roe, Kevin; Stelbrink, Björn; Kuhajda, Bernard R; Iliffe, Thomas M; Hughes, Jane; von Rintelen, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Atyid freshwater shrimps are globally distributed and form an important part of freshwater ecosystems, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Despite their widespread distribution and ecological importance, their phylogenetic relationships are largely unresolved. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Atyidae investigating the evolutionary relationships among 32 of the 42 genera using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Our data indicate that the established classification of the Atyidae is in need of substantial taxonomic revision at all taxonomic levels. We suggest a new suprageneric systematization of atyids and discuss problematic issues at the generic level, particularly in the most speciose genus, Caridina. Molecular clock based divergence time estimates for atyids vary widely, but invariably support the assumption that atyids are an ancient freshwater lineage with an origin in the mid-Cretaceous at the very latest. Atyid distribution patterns are the result of instances of both long-distance dispersal and vicariance, depending largely on the reproductive mode of taxa. From an evolutionary perspective, the high frequency of independent origin of both a complete (landlocked) freshwater life cycle and a cave-dwelling mode of life is remarkable and unparalleled among crustaceans. PMID:22209861

  8. A new species of Sunipea Griffin & Tranter, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Inachidae) and a redescription of Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895).

    PubMed

    Santana, William

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spider crab, Sunipea callistus, n. sp., from Cape Guardafui, Somali Republic, is described and illustrated. Sunipea indicus (Alcock, 1895) is also redescribed and figured. Sunipea callistus n. sp. differs from S. indicus in the structures of the carapace, third maxillipeds, thoracic sternum, male abdomen, and chelipeds. Despite a number of characteristics that separate both species, these differences are more pronounced in males and are less evident in females. A diagnosis for the genus is provided. PMID:26701438

  9. Shallow-Water Northern Hemisphere Jaera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Janiridae) Found on Whale Bones in the Southern Ocean Deep Sea: Ecology and Description of Jaera tyleri sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Brandt, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    The skeleton of a natural whale fall discovered in the Southern Ocean at 1,445 m was densely covered by one small, janirid isopod. Jaera tyleri sp. nov. is the first of its genus found in the southern hemisphere and in the deep sea and is described herein. Morphological and molecular investigations revealed the systematic position of this species new to science. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S locus confirms that this species falls in a strongly supported monophyletic clade of Jaera species. The whale bone habitat of J. tyleri sp. nov. is quite different from those of other species of the genus Jaera. The analysis of bathymetric and distribution patterns of the Janiridae in general and Jaera specifically confirm the unusualness of the habitat for this isopod species. The abundance of J. tyleri sp. nov. on the whale bones and its absence from other nearby habitats suggests it to be a whale-fall specialist. The analysis of the size-frequency distributions of J. tyleri sp. nov. suggests multimodal population structure with continuous breeding activity throughout the year. The fecundity of the species is low but in line with reduced fecundity observed in polar and small-sized isopods. PMID:24663246

  10. Long-distance dispersal, low connectivity and molecular evidence of a new cryptic species in the obligate rafter Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M. Pilar; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 was recorded for the first time in Southern Iberian Peninsula (36°44'15″N, 3°59'38″W). This species is the only obligate rafter of the suborder Caprellidea and has been reported to attach not only to floating objects such as ropes or driftwoods but also to turtle carapaces. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to examine dispersal capabilities and population genetic structure of C. andreae across seven localities in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean collected from floating substrata with different dispersal patterns. The strong population differentiation with no haplotypes shared between populations suggests that C. andreae is quite faithful to the substratum on which it settles. In addition, the proportionally higher genetic diversity displayed in populations living on turtles as well as the presence of highly differentiated haplotypes in the same turtle population may be indicative that these populations survive longer, which could lead C. andreae to prefer turtles instead of floating objects to settle and disperse. Therefore, rafting on floating objects may be sporadic, and ocean currents would not be the most important factor shaping patterns of connectivity and population structure in this species. Furthermore, molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of a cryptic species whose estimates of genetic divergence are higher than those estimated between C. andreae and other congeneric species (e.g. Caprella dilatata and Caprella penantis). Discovery of cryptic species among widely distributed small marine invertebrates is quite common and, in this case, prompts for a more detailed phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of genus Caprella. On the other hand, this study also means the first record of the gammarids Jassa cadetta and Elasmopus brasiliensis and the caprellid Caprella hirsuta on drifting objects.

  11. Salinity-induced changes in gene expression from anterior and posterior gills of Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea: Portunidae) with implications for crustacean ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Mitchell, Reed T; Henry, Raymond P; Santos, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Decapods represent one of the most ecologically diverse taxonomic groups within crustaceans, making them ideal to study physiological processes like osmoregulation. However, prior studies have failed to consider the entire transcriptomic response of the gill - the primary organ responsible for ion transport - to changing salinity. Moreover, the molecular genetic differences between non-osmoregulatory and osmoregulatory gill types, as well as the hormonal basis of osmoregulation, remain underexplored. Here, we identified and characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via RNA-Seq in anterior (non-osmoregulatory) and posterior (osmoregulatory) gills during high to low salinity transfer in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, a well-studied model for crustacean osmoregulation. Overall, we confirmed previous expression patterns for individual ion transport genes and identified novel ones with salinity-mediated expression. Notable, novel DEGs among salinities and gill types for C. sapidus included anterior gills having higher expression of structural genes such as actin and cuticle proteins while posterior gills exhibit elevated expression of ion transport and energy-related genes, with the latter likely linked to ion transport. Potential targets among recovered DEGs for hormonal regulation of ion transport between salinities and gill types included neuropeptide Y and a KCTD16-like protein. Using publically available sequence data, constituents for a "core" gill transcriptome among decapods are presented, comprising genes involved in ion transport and energy conversion and consistent with salinity transfer experiments. Lastly, rarefication analyses lead us to recommend a modest number of sequence reads (~10-15M), but with increased biological replication, be utilized in future DEG analyses of crustaceans. PMID:27337176

  12. How is a giant sperm ejaculated? Anatomy and function of the sperm pump, or "Zenker organ," in Pseudocandona marchica (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Candonidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shinnosuke; Matzke-Karasz, Renate

    2012-07-01

    `Giant sperm', in terms of exceptionally long spermatozoa, occur in a variety of taxa in the animal kingdom, predominantly in arthropod groups, but also in flatworms, mollusks, and others. In some freshwater ostracods (Cypridoidea), filamentous sperm cells reach up to ten times the animal's body length; nonetheless, during a single copulation several dozen sperm cells can be transferred to the female's seminal receptacle. This highly effective ejaculation has traditionally been credited to a chitinous-muscular structure within the seminal duct, which has been interpreted as a sperm pump. We investigated this organ, also known as the Zenker organ, of a cypridoid ostracod, Pseudocandona marchica, utilizing light and electron microscope techniques and produced a three-dimensional reconstruction based on serial semi-thin histological sections. This paper shows that numerous muscle fibers surround the central tube of the Zenker organ, running in parallel with the central tube and that a thin cellular layer underlies the muscular layer. A cellular inner tube exists inside the central tube. A chitinous-cellular structure at the entrance of the organ has been recognized as an ejaculatory valve. In male specimens during copulation, we confirmed a small hole derived from the passage of a single spermatozoon through the valve. The new data allowed for proposing a detailed course of operation of the Zenker organ during giant sperm ejaculation.

  13. A new species of Eualus Thallwitz, 1892 and new record of Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from the Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Verity; Copley, Jonathan T.; Linse, Katrin

    2013-08-01

    Eleven specimens representing two hippolytid genera, EualusThallwitz, 1892 and LebbeusWhite, 1847 were sampled recently from the Scotia Sea (1517-2598 m). Seven specimens are described and illustrated as Eualus amandae sp. nov., and its morphology is compared with those of previously described species. Four female specimens, morphologically consistent with Lebbeus antarcticus (Hale, 1941), are described and illustrated to supplement previous descriptions of this rarely collected bathyal species. Partial COI mtDNA and 18S rDNA sequences were generated for both species. Only limited DNA sequences are available for the Hippolytidae. COI phylogenetic trees are presented to illustrate that the new species is genetically distinct from all other species in GenBank. This record enhances existing knowledge of Antarctic invertebrate biodiversity and species richness of decapod crustaceans in the Southern Ocean.

  14. The enigmatic life history of the symbiotic crab Tunicotheres moseri (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): implications for its mating system and population structure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J E; Bolaños, J A; Palazón, J L; Hernández, G; Lira, C; Baeza, J Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Resource-monopolization theory predicts the adoption of a solitary habit in species using scarce, discrete, and small refuges. Life-history theory suggests that temporarily stable parental dwellings favor extended parental care in species that brood embryos. We tested these two predictions with the symbiotic crab Tunicotheres moseri. This species exhibits abbreviated development and inhabits the atrial chamber of the scarce, structurally simple, long-lived, and relatively small ascidian Phalusia nigra in the Caribbean. These host characteristics should favor a solitary habit and extended parental care (EPC) in T. moseri. As predicted, males and females of T. moseri inhabited ascidians solitarily with greater frequency than expected by chance alone. The male-female association pattern and reverse sexual dimorphism (males < females) additionally suggests a promiscuous "pure-search" mating system in T. moseri. Also in agreement with theoretical considerations, T. moseri displays EPC; in addition to embryos, females naturally retain larval stages, megalopae, and juveniles within their brooding pouches. This is the first record of EPC in a symbiotic crab and the second confirmed record of EPC in a marine brachyuran crab. This study supports predictions central to resource-monopolization and life-history theories. PMID:23264474

  15. Short-term variation of nutritive and metabolic parameters in Temora longicornis females (Crustacea, Copepoda) as a response to diet shift and starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Tobias; Saborowski, Reinhard; Hagen, Wilhelm; Niehoff, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Changes in fatty acid patterns, digestive and metabolic enzyme activities and egg production rates (EPR) were studied in the small calanoid copepod Temora longicornis. Female copepods were collected in spring 2005 off Helgoland (North Sea). In the laboratory one group of copepods was fed with the cryptophycean Rhodomonas baltica for a period of 3 days. Another group of copepods was maintained without food. According to the fatty acid patterns, animals from the field were feeding on a more detrital, animal-based and to a minor extent to a diatom-based diet. Under laboratory conditions, females rapidly accumulated fatty acids such as 18:4 (n-3), 18:3 (n-3) and 18:2 (n-6) which are specific of R. baltica. Diatom-specific fatty acids such as 16:1 (n-7) were strongly reduced. In fed animals the activities of digestive and metabolic enzymes remained constant and egg production rates were highest on day 2. Starving animals, in contrast, showed significantly reduced faecal pellet production and EPR. Proteolytic enzyme activity decreased rapidly within 24 h and remained at a low level until the end of the experiment. Citrate synthase decreased continuously as well. T. longicornis rapidly reacts to dietary changes and food depletion. It has limited energy stores and, thus, strongly depends on continuous food supply.

  16. Two new species of the gorgonian inhabiting barnacle, Conopea (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica), from the Gulf of Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Carrison-Stone, Dana; Syoc, Robert Van; Williams, Gary; Simison, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Conopea (Say 1822) are described from the Gulf of Guinea: Conopea saotomensis sp. n.and Conopea fidelis sp. n. These two new species were collected from the historically isolated volcanic islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. The relationship between Conopea saotomensis sp. n., Conopea fidelis sp. n.and two other Atlantic barnacle species, Conopea calceola (Ellis 1758) and Conopea galeata (Linnaeus 1771), is examined. The methods employed are the construction of a molecular phylogeny using mitochondrial COI and nuclear H3 gene sequence data along with morphological comparisons of calcareous and cuticular body parts. It is found that Conopea saotomensis sp. n., Conopea fidelis sp. n.and Conopea calceola are most closely related to each other but the relationship among them is unresolved. Gorgonian hosts are identified. Preliminary observations show species level host specificity for Conopea fidelis sp. n. PMID:23730186

  17. Two species of the deep-water shrimp genus Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea, Nematocarcinidae) from the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Payan, J C; Hendrickx, M E

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of two species of the deep-water shrimp genus Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, occurring off the west coast of Mexico is analyzed based on a large series of recently collected material. Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2000, is by far the most common and abundant species in the area and it is distributed throughout the central and southern Gulf of California and off the entire Baja California Peninsula south to 17º10'15"N. Based on characteristics observed in the new samples and in the type material, N. agassizii Faxon, 1893, is reinstalled as a valid species, and no longer considered a junior of N. gracilipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, as proposed by Cardoso & Burukovsky (2014). Along the Pacific coast of Mexico, N. agassizii exhibits a more restricted distribution and it was collected only off the Baja California Peninsula. Previous records of this species in the Gulf of California, where N. faxoni was the only representative of the genus captured during this survey, are considered doubtful. PMID:27395608

  18. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows. PMID:26701509

  19. Fine structure of the spermatozoon in three species of Cambaridae (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda) Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes rusticus: a comparative biometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Yazicioglu, Buket; Hamr, Přemek; Kozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructure of spermatozoa in three species of cambarid crayfish, Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus, and Orconectes rusticus, were studied and compared with eight previously studied species from different crayfish families using morphological features and biometrical data. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa show a generally conserved pattern including an acrosome and nucleus in the anterior and posterior parts of the cell, respectively, radial arms that wrap around the nucleus, and the whole cell is enclosed by an extracellular capsule. The most outstanding morphological feature in spermatozoa of three studied cambarid crayfish is the crest-like protrusions in the anterior part of the acrosome that can be used as one of the features for distinguishing the members of this family. Results of biometrical data reveal that acrosome size in the representatives of Parastacidae are the smallest, while representatives of Astacidae show the biggest acrosome. The acrosome size in species belonging to Cambaridae occupy an intermediate position between the two other families of freshwater crayfish. In conclusion, a combination of morphological features and biometrical data of spermatozoa can help distinguishing different species of the freshwater crayfish.

  20. Cacoheterotanais rogerbamberi, a new genus and species of leptocheliid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from shelf-waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Heard, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    A new leptocheliid tanaidacean, Cacoheterotanais rogerbamberi gen. et sp. n., is described from the Continental Shelf of the eastern Gulf of Mexico at depths ranging from 10 to 30 m. The new monotypic genus and species is distinguished from the other genera within the Pseudonototanais complex, or genus-group, (Cocotanais, Heterotanais, Makassaritanais, Ogleus, and Pseudonototanais) by a combination of characters, including the (1) male antennule with three peduncular and three flagella articles, (2) male and female both having three articles in the uropodal endopod, (3) basis of the female maxilliped with three pairs of long distal setae, and (4) differences in the morphology, setation and shape of the male cheliped. A key and table are presented to further distinguish C. rogerbamberi from the genera and species within the Pseudonototanais complex. PMID:26250312