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Sample records for philostomella cigarra crustacea

  1. An annotated checklist of the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kotov, Alexey A; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the revision of available literature on the Colombian Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), we present an annotated checklist, with taxonomical comments for all taxa recorded since the start of research on this group in the country in 1913. We have listed 101 valid taxa, of which most records belong to the Caribbean region of Colombia. The situation in Colombian Cladocera taxonomy is, at present, unfavorable for any realistic conclusions on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography. PMID:26624722

  2. Ancylomenes australis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2013-01-01

    The holotype specimen of Ancylomenes australis, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from Sodwana Bay, South Africa, is described and illustrated. It is the only species of the genus reported from south east Africa. It is an associate of cerianthid anemones and has a species specific colour pattern. Closely similar to A. venustus (Bruce, 1990) it is readily distinguished from it and all other species of the genus by its characteristic rostrum and blunt inferior orbital angle. PMID:26171516

  3. Collecting and Preserving Marine and Freshwater Isopoda (Crustacea: Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Isopoda are the most diverse Crustacea. In order to encourage the study of isopod crustaceans and their use in biodiversity studies, systematics, ecology, physiology and more, one needs to know who the isopods are and where to find them. New information This is a short “how to” guide focusing on the free-living marine and freshwater isopods: where they live and how to collect and preserve them. The tools and techniques described here are simple, but invaluable in accessing the natural history of these remarkable creatures. PMID:26023284

  4. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  9. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state in Borneo Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinev, Artem Y; Yusoff, Fatimah M

    2015-01-01

    Fauna of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state of Malaysia, Borneo Island, was evaluated for the first time. Samples from 40 locations were studied, and 31 species of Cladocera were revealed, including three species of Sididae, one species of Daphnidae, one species of Moinidae, four species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 20 species of Chydoridae. One species of Ilyocryptidae, Ilyocryptus yooni Jeong, Kotov and Lee, 2012, is recorded for Malaysia for the first time, and one more, Anthalona sp., is probably new for science. Of 31 species recorded for Sabah, only three are true planktonic species and 28 are substrate-associated species. Absence of large natural lakes, habitats with most rich cladoceran fauna, can be an important factor limiting diversity of Cladocera in Sabah. PMID:26623748

  10. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) from Jejudo, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Chan; Lee, Jimin; An, Sung Min; Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of an ecologically important crustacean mud shrimp, Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) was sequenced. We used next generation sequencing strategy for total genomic DNA and organelle genome pipeline for mitogenome assembly. A newly determined mitogenome was 16,063 bp in total length with 28% of GC content. Thirty-seven genes were identified including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. We found ten case of overlapping between neighboring genes. Based on genome comparison, the mitogenome of U. yokoyai shows general crustacean gene content and identical synteny to the sister species, such as U. major and U. pusilla. Our results will provide useful information for mitochondrial genome diversity and evolution of the Crustacea. PMID:25423527

  12. Distribution and diversity patterns of asellote isopods (Crustacea) in the deep Norwegian and Greenland Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svavarsson, Jörundur; Brattegard, Torleiv; Strömberg, Jarl-Ove

    Distribution and diversity patterns of asellote isopods (Crustacea) of the deep Norwegian and Greenland Seas are described. The asellotes show the same pattern of rapid faunal change across the upper continental slope as commonly described elsewhere. Here the rate of species replacement is maximum at depths of 800-1000m, but decreases towards greater depths. The distribution of the asellotes shows some correlations to the distribution of sediment types. Species diversity is maximum at 800m and decreases with depth. The species diversity pattern is related here to heterogeneity of the sediments and different species immigration rates into shallow and deep Arctic waters.

  13. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-01

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus. PMID:24872280

  14. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters.

    PubMed

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3-4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2-6 articles. PMID:26868713

  15. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-01-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3–4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2–6 articles. PMID:26868713

  16. Comparative study of cadmium and lead accumulations in Cambarus bartoni (Fab. ) (Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic and a neutral lake

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  17. The First Record of Argulus foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura) Infestation on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noaman, V; Chelongar, Y; Shahmoradi, AH

    2010-01-01

    Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus), taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administration, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran. PMID:22347247

  18. The complete mitogenome of the fairy shrimp Phallocryptus tserensodnomi (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Peng; Lu, Bo; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fairy shrimp Phallocryptus tserensodnomi Alonso & Ventura 2013 (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae) has been determined. It is 16,493 bp with an AT-content of 65.4%, which encodes information of the typical 37 genes as all other metazoan mitogenomes. Both AT-content and putative control region of the genome show moderate values among all mitogenomes of the Branchiopoda sequenced to date. The mitochondrial gene order shows the same arrangement with the Artemiidae which is different from the pancrustacean ancestral pattern, due to translocation and inversion of two tRNA genes. Our results will provide important materials for not only phylogenetic but also biogeographic studies of the Anostraca. PMID:25707412

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mysid shrimp, Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida).

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sanghee; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the mitogenome sequence of Neomysis japonica (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Mysida), which is the first complete mitogenome sequence in the order Mysida. The mitogenome of N. japonica is 17,652 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and a control region (CR). Mitogenome analysis of N. japonica revealed a novel gene order that included inversions in three PCGs and five tRNAs, compared with H. americanus, the ancestral pancrustacean ground pattern. The results will be useful for the detailed study of mitogenome evolution and the phylogenetic relationships among the orders in the class Malacostraca. As seen from the phylogenetic tree, N. japonica belongs to the order Mysida within Malacostraca. PMID:26114317

  20. Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), a parasite of Talorchestia brito (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Duarte, Daniella; Santos, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) is described from the body-cavity and under the dorsal plates of the sandy beach amphipod Talorchestia brito Stebbing (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal. The new species differs from previously described members of the genus by a combination of the following characters: four medium-sized cephalic setae; base of stoma with three blunt denticles; posterior dilated portion of stoma absent; amphids small, with width less than quarter of corresponding body width; amphids located less than two labial widths from anterior extremity; uterine eggs elliptical and unembryonated; gubernaculum lacks caudal process; and male tail with two separated pairs of postcloacal papillae and a single subterminal seta-like papilla. This is the first representative of the family Monhysteridae parasitic in the body-cavity of crustaceans. Approximately 48% of the amphipods examined contained various stages of H. parasitica. PMID:20012518

  1. A new echiuran-associated snapping shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Komai, Tomoyuki; Marin, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) is described based on material from Japan (Ryukyu Islands) and Vietnam (Nha Trang Bay); an additional, morphologically slightly different specimen from Madagascar (Nosy-Bé) is preliminarily referred to A. cf. echiurophilus sp. nov., awaiting collection of additional material and/or genetic comparison. All specimens of the new species were collected from burrows of thalassematid echiurans, either on intertidal and shallow subtidal sand-mud flats or in the mixed sand-gravel-rock intertidal. Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. belongs to the A. leviusculus species group, being morphologically closest to the Indo-West Pacific A. leviusculus Dana, 1852, A. hululensis Coutière, 1905, A. ladronis Banner, 1956, and the western Atlantic A. zimmermani Anker, 2007. The new species can be separated from all of them by a combination of morphological characters and also appears to have a diagnostic colouration. PMID:25661953

  2. The complete mitogenome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Chen; Li, Hua-Wei; Jermnak, Usuma; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we amplified, sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus sirindhornae (Crustacea: Anostraca: Streptocephalidae). The full-length of the S. sirindhornae mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,887 bp in size with an A + T content of 64.5%. It has the largest putative control region (2794 bp) with the lowest A + T content (62.6%) for all determined branchiopod mitogenomes. The genome consisted of 37 genes that are involved in the respiration chain as well as the mitochondrial translation system. The S. sirindhornae mitogenome exhibits an identical gene arrangement as the Artemia pattern, which shows translocation and inversion of two transfer-RNA genes compared to the pancrustacean ancestral pattern. This is by far the first determined mitogenome of a freshwater fairy shrimp. The results of our study will provide significant data for reconstructing the consensus Branchiopoda tree of life. PMID:25693703

  3. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics. PMID:26171873

  4. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  5. Catoessa boscii (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) parasitic on Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae) from India. Taxonomy and host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy

    2012-06-01

    Catoessa boscii (Bleeker, 1857) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), is redescribed according to the type specimen observed by Schioedte and Meinert (1884) extant in the Rijksmuseum von Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden (RMNH) and from many additional specimens recently collected in India from Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae). This study allows an updating of the diagnosis of the genus Catoessa and of the species Catoessa boscii. Some parasite-host relationships were studied during the year. Prevalence and sex ratio of parasites varied according to the month, and the sex and size of hosts. PMID:22807055

  6. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. New information This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters. PMID:27099562

  7. Feeding by asellote isopods (Crustacea) on foraminifers (Protozoa) in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svavarsson, J.; Gudmundsson, G.; Brattegard, T.

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of gut contents of two deep-sea asellote isopod species, Ilyarachna hirticeps and Eurycope inermis (Munnopsidae, Asellota, Isopoda, Crustacea), showed that they were preying on benthic foraminifers. Benthic foraminifers with hard tests were more frequent in I. hirticeps guts than in E. inermis. I. hirticeps, having robust mandibles, is capable of crushing large calcareous and agglutinating foraminifers with hard tests. The presence of foraminiferal fecal pellets (stercomata), along with fine mineral particles and globigerinacean tests in I. hirticeps guts, shows that it was preying on the large, loosely agglutinating foraminifer, Oryctoderma sp. A. E. inermis swallowed whole, medium sized, calcareous foraminifers, which it apparently was unable to crush with its slender mandibles. The guts of E. inermis contained an abundance of mineral particles and globigerinacean tests. These are conjectured to be mashed remains of certain agglutinating foraminifers with soft tests, rather than being evidence of detritivory. It is suggested that feeding on foraminifers by asellotes may be common and may significantly affect the foraminiferal community.

  8. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework. PMID:23929682

  9. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Szabó, Péter; Mrak, Polona; Strus, Jasna; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) have adapted to land life by diverse morphological, physiological and behavioral changes. Woodlice species exhibit a large variety in this respect, their preferences ranging from moist to dry habitats. These moisture preference values are related to various morphological adaptations, rendering terrestrial isopods amenable to studying morphological adaptations to terrestrial life. We performed a comparison of four Armadillidium species (Armadillidium zenckeri, Armadillidium nasatum, Armadillidium versicolor, Armadillidium vulgare), by quantifying two morphological traits: the extent of the interfacial endothelium between the respiratory space and the hemolymph within pleopodal lungs and the thickness of tergite cuticle, which are 'key factors' in determining protection from desiccation. These values were measured from light micrographs of cross-sectioned lungs. The cosmopolitan A. vulgare, as a habitat generalist, seems to be the most resistant against desiccation and other environmental conditions, while A. zenckeri is the most sensitive one. Light microscopic studies revealed that the four species can be ordered similarly, if we compare them by the extension of the endothelial interface and cuticle thickness, suggesting that these morphological traits are important determinants of their distribution on habitat, microhabitat scales and through the existence of suitable habitats - together with many other factors - the geographical pattern of species occurence. PMID:23376766

  10. Seawater Ca2+ concentration influences solar orientation in Talitrus saltator (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto; Ungherese, Giuseppe; Mercatelli, Luca; Saer, Doumett; Lepri, Luciano

    2009-03-01

    The role of salinity in the ecophysiology of many intertidal invertebrates has been extensively investigated. Calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), potassium (K(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) are the major constituents of seawater and it has been demonstrated that sandhoppers tested under the sun in diluted seawater (3.5 per thousand) head seaward, instead of going landward as expected. Therefore, the variation in seawater salinity (from 35 per thousand to 3.5 per thousand) influences their directional choice. This paper investigates the contribution of different cations to the sea-land directional choice of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea, Amphipoda) by the sun compass orientation mechanism. Results of releases carried out in basic seawater selectively deprived of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) or K(+) and containing the same concentration of Na(+) indicate that only the reduction in Ca(2+) concentration affects the capacity of solar orientation. The pH does not influence the directional choice of sandhoppers and nor do small variations in salinity in the range 32-39 per thousand. Moreover, the clear photopositive tendency registered in experiments of phototaxis in Ca(2+)-deprived seawater indicates that the absence of Ca(2+) does not affect the normal functioning of the visual cells. Therefore, our results show that Ca(2+) seawater concentration is important for the correct functioning of one of the principal mechanisms of orientation in supralittoral amphipods and it could affect their survival in the field. PMID:19251995

  11. Biology of Plesionika narval(Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) Around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Tuset, V. M.; Lozano, I. J.; Santana, J. I.

    1997-03-01

    The biology of Plesionika narval(Fabricius, 1787) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic) was studied, based on a total of 41 679 shrimps of size range 2-30 mm carapace length (CL) collected over a 20-year period. This species carries out seasonal migrations; shrimps concentrate in deep waters in the autumn, move to shallower waters during winter and spring, and return to deep waters in summer. The growth parameters of males were L 0nfin;=29·47 mm CL and k=0·54 year -1, and of females were L 0nfin;=31·90 mm CL and k=0·66 year -1, with size generally increasing gradually with depth. Carapace length/wet weight relationships showed negative allometry. Ovigerous females occur year round but a spawning peak was determined from April to June when the population is found in shallower waters (26-175 m). Ovigerous females decrease in number as the depth increases. The size at maturity in females was 11·96 mm CL. The study of the sex ratio by depth and the seasonal migrations, as well as the sex differences in growth, confirm that this species conforms to the reproductive pattern of tropical pandalids, in which dioecy occurs.

  12. The summer assemblage of large pelagic Crustacea in the Gully submarine canyon: Major patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIsaac, K. G.; Kenchington, T. J.; Kenchington, E. L. R.; Best, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the trawl-vulnerable crustacean micronekton and macrozooplankton of the Gully, a large, shelf-incising submarine canyon off Nova Scotia, Canada, and a Marine Protected Area. Over 68 species of pelagic crustacea were collected with an International Young Gadoid Pelagic Trawl during three annual summer surveys at one fixed station in the canyon. Depths sampled ranged from the surface to the upper bathypelagic zone, concentrated in the upper 1250 m, with a maximum depth of 1500 m. The crustacean fauna was dominated by cold temperate species typical of mid- to higher-latitudes in the North Atlantic. Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Eusergestes arcticus were particularly dominant in terms of both observed biomass and abundance above 750 m depth. At least 17 species were new records for Canadian waters. The species assemblage of the station varied primarily with depth and diel cycle, the only dominant members of the assemblage showing pronounced inter-annual variations in catch being M. norvegica and Themisto gaudichaudii, both relatively shallow living species.

  13. A new phyllocarid (Crustacea: Malacostraca) from the Silurian Fossil-Lagerstätte of Herefordshire, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Sutton, Mark D.; Siveter, David J.; Siveter, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    A new three-dimensionally preserved arthropod, Cinerocaris magnifica, from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Herefordshire, UK, is described and assigned to the Phyllocarida (Crustacea). The description and reconstruction are based on specimens that have been serially ground, reconstructed by computer and rendered in three dimensions as coloured virtual models. Cinerocaris magnifica displayed the tagmosis characteristic of phyllocarids, with eight thoracic and seven abdominal somites, terminating in a telson with furca. The remarkable preservation of the appendages makes this the earliest completely known malacostracan crustacean. Two pairs of antennae (the first with two flagella) were followed by a mandible and first maxilla, each with a slender palp-like ramus. The second maxilla consisted of a limb stem with endites and an endopod that tapered distally. There was no exopod. The thoracopods comprised a limb stem with six or seven endites, an arrangement previously known only in entomostracans, and an endopod with about five endites. Flap-like outer rami correspond to an exopod and epipods. The pleopods bore two long slender oar-blade-like rami. Cladistic analysis places C. magnifica as a plesion within the Echinocaridina. It provides critical evidence of the limb morphology of an early malacostracan, which will be important in understanding crustacean evolution. PMID:15058388

  14. Structure and Ultrastructure of the Endodermal Region of the Alimentary Tract in the Freshwater Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Poprawa, Izabela; Binkowski, Marcin; Śróbka, Joanna; Kamińska, Karolina; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Chajec, Łukasz; Zajusz, Bartłomiej; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda) originates from Asia and is one of the species that is widely available all over the world because it is the most popular shrimp that is bred in aquaria. The structure and the ultrastructure of the midgut have been described using X-ray microtomography, transmission electron microscopy, light and fluorescence microscopes. The endodermal region of the alimentary system in N. heteropoda consists of an intestine and a hepatopancreas. No differences were observed in the structure and ultrastructure of males and females of the shrimp that were examined. The intestine is a tube-shaped organ and the hepatopancreas is composed of two large diverticles that are divided into the blind-end tubules. Hepatopancreatic tubules have three distinct zones – proximal, medial and distal. Among the epithelial cells of the intestine, two types of cells were distinguished – D and E-cells, while three types of cells were observed in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas – F, B and E-cells. Our studies showed that the regionalization in the activity of cells occurs along the length of the hepatopancreatic tubules. The role and ultrastructure of all types of epithelial cells are discussed, with the special emphasis on the function of the E-cells, which are the midgut regenerative cells. Additionally, we present the first report on the existence of an intercellular junction that is connected with the E-cells of Crustacea. PMID:25996951

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, mussels and crustacea around a former gasworks site in Shoreham-by-Sea, UK.

    PubMed

    Law, R J; Kelly, C A; Baker, K L; Langford, K H; Bartlett, T

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in sediments, mussels and crustacea in the vicinity of a former gasworks site by Shoreham Harbour, UK. Very high concentrations of PAH were found in the substrate, an ash-like material deposited on the former gasworks site, which exhibited a profile consistent with the major source of contamination being coal or coke tar produced during the period of gas production at the site. Elevated PAH concentrations were also found in mussels both from the beach below the former gasworks site, and from sites further to the east in Portslade and Hove. The significance of these concentrations were assessed using an approach which involved the calculation of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent conoentrations (BaPEs), summing concentrations of individual PAH on the basis of their comparative potency as carcinogens. BaPE ranged from values of, or close to, zero for crustacea, to 336 microg kg(-1) wet weight in mussels from Southwick Beach. The contaminated mussels are not exploited commercially but may be taken by casual gatherers, and notices have been posted to warn potential consumers. PMID:12405215

  16. A sampling optimization analysis of soil-bugs diversity (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Messina, Giuseppina; Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Droutsa, Angeliki; Barchitta, Martina; Pezzino, Elisa; Agodi, Antonella; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Biological diversity analysis is among the most informative approaches to describe communities and regional species compositions. Soil ecosystems include large numbers of invertebrates, among which soil bugs (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) play significant ecological roles. The aim of this study was to provide advices to optimize the sampling effort, to efficiently monitor the diversity of this taxon, to analyze its seasonal patterns of species composition, and ultimately to understand better the coexistence of so many species over a relatively small area. Terrestrial isopods were collected at the Natural Reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Italy), using pitfall traps monthly monitored over 2 years. We analyzed parameters of α- and β-diversity and calculated a number of indexes and measures to disentangle diversity patterns. We also used various approaches to analyze changes in biodiversity over time, such as distributions of species abundances and accumulation and rarefaction curves. As concerns species richness and total abundance of individuals, spring resulted the best season to monitor Isopoda, to reduce sampling efforts, and to save resources without losing information, while in both years abundances were maximum between summer and autumn. This suggests that evaluations of β-diversity are maximized if samples are first collected during the spring and then between summer and autumn. Sampling during these coupled seasons allows to collect a number of species close to the γ-diversity (24 species) of the area. Finally, our results show that seasonal shifts in community composition (i.e., dynamic fluctuations in species abundances during the four seasons) may minimize competitive interactions, contribute to stabilize total abundances, and allow the coexistence of phylogenetically close species within the ecosystem. PMID:26811784

  17. Cell Death in the Epithelia of the Intestine and Hepatopancreas in Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal region of the digestive system in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca) consists of a tube-shaped intestine and large hepatopancreas, which is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous studies, while here we focused on the cell death processes and their effect on the functioning of the midgut. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes to describe and detect cell death, while a quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is the relationship between cell death and the inactivation of mitochondria. Three types of the cell death were observed in the intestine and hepatopancreas–apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. No differences were observed in the course of these processes in males and females and or in the intestine and hepatopancreas of the shrimp that were examined. Our studies revealed that apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy only involves the fully developed cells of the midgut epithelium that have contact with the midgut lumen–D-cells in the intestine and B- and F-cells in hepatopancreas, while E-cells (midgut stem cells) did not die. A distinct correlation between the accumulation of E-cells and the activation of apoptosis was detected in the anterior region of the intestine, while necrosis was an accidental process. Degenerating organelles, mainly mitochondria were neutralized and eventually, the activation of cell death was prevented in the entire epithelium due to autophagy. Therefore, we state that autophagy plays a role of the survival factor. PMID:26844766

  18. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine

  19. Evasion of predators contributes to the maintenance of male eyes in sexually dimorphic Euphilomedes ostracods (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Speiser, Daniel I; Lampe, Rebecca I; Lovdahl, Valerie R; Carrillo-Zazueta, Brenna; Rivera, Ajna S; Oakley, Todd H

    2013-07-01

    Sexual dimorphisms have long drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists. However, we still have much to learn about the evolutionary, genetic, and developmental drivers of sexual dimorphisms. Here, we introduce ostracods of the genus Euphilomedes (Myodocopida, Ostracoda, and Crustacea) as a promising new system in which to investigate why and how sexual dimorphisms evolve. First, we ask whether male-skewed selective pressure from pelagic predators may help explain a dramatic sexual dimorphism in which male Euphilomedes have compound eyes, but females do not. Manipulative experiments demonstrate that blindfolding reduces the survival rate of male Euphilomedes when they are exposed to predatory fish. Blindfolding of the female rudimentary eyes (rudiments) does not, however, similarly influence the survival rate of brooding females. Further, numerical estimates of sighting distances, based on reasonable extrapolations from Euphilomedes's eye morphology, suggest that the eyes of male Euphilomedes are useful for detecting objects roughly the size of certain pelagic predators, but not conspecifics. We conclude that eyes do not mediate direct interactions between male and female Euphilomedes, but that differences in predation pressure-perhaps associated with different reproductive behaviors-contribute to maintaining the sexually dimorphic eyes of these ostracods. Second, through transcriptome sequencing, we examined potential gene regulatory networks that could underlie sexual dimorphism in Euphilomedes' eyes. From the transcriptome of juvenile male Euphilomedes' eyes, we identified phototransduction genes and components of eye-related developmental networks that are well characterized in Drosophila and other species. The presence of suites of eye regulatory genes in our Euphilomedes juvenile male transcriptome will allow us, in future studies, to test how ostracods regulate the development of their sexually dimorphic eyes. PMID:23652199

  20. The complete mitogenome of the Atlantic hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata Williams & Rona 1986 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alvinocarididae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Li, Hua-Wei; Lu, Bo; Fan, Yu-Peng; Yang, Jin-Shu

    2016-09-01

    In this study we completely determined and analyzed the mitochondrial genome of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal-vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alvinocarididae). The circular molecule is 15,902 bp in size with an AT content of 65.7%, composed of the same 37 mitochondrial genes as in all other known metazoan mitogenomes. Sequence composition of the R. exoculata mitogenome is exceptionally similar to that of its Indian-Ocean congener R. kairei, which suggests the fact that they might diverge at a quite recent age. The genome exhibits an ancestral pancrustacean arrangement of mitochondrial genes that presents only the translocation/inversion of trnL-UUR from the ancestral arthropod pattern. Determination of the R. exoculata mitogenome can help to resolve the consensus Decapoda tree of life. It also provides more genetic information available for phylogenetics as well as population genetics on this extensively studied species from hydrothermal vents. PMID:25665594

  1. Ischnomesus harrietae sp. nov., a new benthic asellote (Crustacea: Isopoda: Ischnomesidae) from bathyal bottoms of the southern Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Fiona A; Frutos, Inmaculada; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Ischnomesidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota), Ischnomesus harrietae sp. nov. is described from the southern Bay of Biscay. This new species is distinctive due to the presence of numerous pedestal setae arranged in longitudinal rows on pereonite 5. Because of this morphological peculiarity, it can be easily distinguished from the four other Ischnomesus species previously reported from bathyal/abyssal bottoms of the European continental margin. Within its known distributional area, the new species inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms between 619 and 1099 m, with a maximum abundance of 41.8 individuals per 100 m2 recorded at approximately 700 m on the Arcachon Plateau. Another new species is also reported, Ischnomesus sp.1, represented by one specimen only and briefly described. An identification key to European species of Ischnomesus is provided. PMID:25661606

  2. Composition and distribution of selected munnopsid genera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Sarah; Brandt, Angelika; Brix, Saskia; Fiorentino, Dario; Malyutina, Marina; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-02-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a major topographic feature, extending from Greenland to Scotland. It constrains the water exchange between the northernmost North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GIN Seas) and thus forms a potential barrier for faunal exchange from the Arctic to the North Atlantic (and vice versa). Recently an increase in Atlantic water inflow has been observed, leading to changes in physical parameters (i.e. temperature and salinity), which may have an impact on the resident fauna. In this study, we analyzed the composition and distribution of six selected genera of the isopod family Munnopsidae (Crustacea) occurring north and south of the GSR. We examined 82 epibenthic sledge samples and 26 additional sub-samples taken in the course of the Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters (BIOICE) and Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology (IceAGE) projects, respectively, covering a total depth range from 103 to 2752 m depth. Overall, 58 of the evaluated stations originated in the area north of the GSR, while the remaining 50 samples were collected south of the ridge. In total, 10517 individuals could be assigned to 15 species, most belonging to the genus EurycopeSars, 1864. Due to the presence of the GSR as well as differences in the environment, we expected significant dissimilarities in faunal composition between the two study areas. However, most species (8) occurred on both sides of the ridge, while four species were restricted to the region north of Iceland, and three to the region south of the ridge. Depth (or factors related to depth) appeared to be the most important factor in driving distributional patterns of the studied species. Temperature was also an important driver, but not to the same extent as depth. On the contrary, salinity and sediment type did not have much influence on munnopsid distribution patterns. Hence, the presence of the ridge does not restrict faunal exchange between the northern

  3. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the

  4. External morphology of Lightiella monniotae (Crustacea, Cephalocarida) in the light of Cambrian 'Orsten' crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    The species-poor meiofaunal Cephalocarida have played an important role in discussions of the phylogeny and evolution of Crustacea since their discovery in 1955. One reason may be that the morphology of cephalocarids includes some aspects of putatively ancient appearance, such as the simple roof-shaped head shield, the anterior three head appendages resembling those of a nauplius larva, or the trunk-limb-like second maxilla. Cephalocarida have even been suggested to represent the sister taxon to all other Eucrustacea. Presence of possibly plesiomorphic characters, however, does not necessarily point to a basal position in the system. Growing evidence demonstrates that the modification of the fourth post-antennular cephalic appendage, the 'maxilla', into a "mouth part" may have occurred independently in the different eucrustacean lineages, so a trunk-limb-like maxilla is an ancient feature that does not hold only for cephalocarids. Retention of its plesiomorphic shape and function in the Cephalocarida remains, however, noteworthy. Cephalocarids are still little studied and incompletely known, especially their external morphology. By examining several adults and one young specimen of Lightiella monniotae Cals and Delamare Deboutteville, 1970 from New Caledonia, we aimed to a) document as many details as possible, and b) compare these data with other species of Cephalocarida. We also aimed to reconstruct aspects of the ground pattern of Cephalocarida, which is a pre-requisite for any comparisons in a broader perspective of crustacean phylogeny. Among the new findings or conclusions are: (1) Lightiella is in need of a revision since several assumed differences between the species are questionable or subject to intra-specific variability; (2) the cuticle of the trunk-limb basipod is sub-divided into a number of smaller sclerotized areas as in various exceptionally 3D preserved fossil crustaceans from Cambrian 'Orsten' faunal assemblages; (3) a small transitional portion

  5. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G.; Magyari, Enikö K.

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years bp) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  6. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  7. Petalophthalmus papilloculatus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae), a new bathyal suprabenthic mysid from the Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Carlos San; Frutos, Inmaculada; Cartes, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Petalophthalmus (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae) is described, based on specimens collected from the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic Ocean). This species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus Petalophthalmus by the presence of an ocular papilla on its eyes. P. papilloculatus sp. nov. is morphologically close to the cosmopolitan species P. armiger Willemoes-Suhm, 1875, but can be easily distinguished by the presence of an ocular papilla, the longer antennal scales bearing an apical lobe, the unique chitinous ridge on the molar process, the outwards lengthening of the three cuspidate setae on the outer margin of the uropodal exopod and the armature of the telson. This new species lives on fine and very fine sandy bottoms at the bank flanks, between 1536 and 1809 m depths. Probably related to the special biogeographic characteristics of seamounts, the morphological affinity between the new species and P. armiger supports the hypothesis on a common ancestry and recent divergence between both deep sea mysids. An identification key to world species of Petalophthalmus is provided. PMID:24870886

  8. Lunar-Rhythmic Molting in Laboratory Populations of the Noble Crayfish Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Astacidea): An Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Robert; Hoerstgen-Schwark, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile noble crayfish, Astacusastacus (Crustacea, Astacidea) in the second year of age were kept in the laboratory for a twelve-month period under continuing “summer conditions” (LD 16:8, 19°C). Molting processes in this population could be synchronized by artificial moonlight cycles. Peaks of exuviations occurred at “new moons”. Males showed a slightly higher degree of synchronization than females. A phase-shift of the artificial lunar cycle in relation to the natural cycle resulted in a corresponding shift of the molting cycle. This clearly demonstrates that changes in the nocturnal light regime provide the primary external information for the lunar-monthly molting rhythm. There is a first indication that lunar photic stimuli do not act directly but as a zeitgeber which entrains an endogenous molting rhythm to the lunar cycle. Moreover, the results of the long-term experiments suggest that the hibernal resting period of A. astacus in the field (no molts between October and April) may also involve some endogenous programming. Continuing artificial summer conditions can delay but not completely suppress this resting period. The adaptive significance of the phenomena and how the findings may be applied to improve the management of crowded crayfish stocks are discussed. PMID:23840899

  9. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2016-05-01

    Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955 bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr). PMID:25405910

  10. The impact of historic isolation on the population biogeography of Melita plumulosa (Crustacea: Melitidae) in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Pann Pann; Hyne, Ross V.; Mann, Reinier M.; Ballard, J. William O.

    2013-09-01

    The genetic structure of populations is impacted by environmental factors of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors can affect dispersion, gene flow and selective pressures. We test whether natural environmental factors or anthropogenic factors influence the genetic structure of the amphipod, Melita plumulosa (Crustacea: Melitidae), which serves as an indicator of environmental health in estuaries along eastern Australia. Sequence data from one mitochondrial and two nuclear loci were collected and analyzed from eight geographically distinct populations spanning the known distribution of this species. We identified two major clades corresponding to the east and south coasts of Australia, and populations also largely grouped according to geography within each clade. Population differentiation indicated all sampling localities to be distinct from one another and sequence divergences suggested ancient divergence, with the deepest genetic divergences between the eastern and southern populations. Reproductive compatibility did not indicate cryptic speciation between populations. Sequence divergence and population differentiation suggest historic geographic isolation dating back to the Pleistocene to have influenced the population biogeography of M. plumulosa.

  11. Behavioural and Physiological Implications of a Burrow-dwelling Lifestyle for Two Species of Upogebiid Mud-shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astall, C. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.

    1997-02-01

    Upogebia stellataand U. deltaura(Crustacea: Thalassinidea) construct burrows in nearshore sediments in U.K. waters. Burrow structure is similar in both species; the basic burrow consisting of a two-opening, U-shaped section with a vertical shaft descending from the mid-point of the U. This structure may be variously elaborated. Burrow cross-section is circular, dilations allow turning by somersaulting and surface openings are often constricted. Conditions within the burrows are usually hypoxic and hypercapnic. Burrow water PO 2in the parts normally occupied by the mud-shrimp was between 80-110 Torr, but was much lower (10-45 Torr) in the deepest, poorly-irrigated parts. Both species irrigate their burrows by episodes of pleopod beating of variable duration (mean=8·5±3·5 min and 2·8±0·5 min for U. deltauraand U. stellata, respectively), which draws oxygenated water into the burrow and also particulate food for suspension feeding. When exposed to hypoxia, U. deltauraand U. stellatawere able to maintain their rates of oxygen consumption approximately constant over a wide range of PO 2( Pc=30-50 Torr). Under these conditions, there was a pronounced increase in scaphognathite beat rate but heart rate remained relatively constant. Below the Pc, however, both rates declined.

  12. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea): identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; De Wasch, Katia; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2002-04-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and metabolized administered testosterone extensively. At least 11 polar testosterone metabolites (R(f,metabolite) < R(f,testosterone)), androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone were produced in vivo by N. integer. A sex-specific testosterone metabolism was also observed, although this observation requires further confirmation. The anabolic steroid beta-boldenone was also identified for the first time in invertebrates. The metabolic pathway leading to the formation of beta-boldenone remains unknown, since the steroidal precursor androstadienedione could not be detected. These results reveal interesting similarities in enzyme systems in invertebrate and vertebrate species. Alterations in steroid hormone metabolism may be used as a new biomarker for the effects of endocrine disruptors in invertebrates. PMID:12030775

  13. Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral community (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capezzuto, Francesca; Maiorano, Porzia; Panza, Michele; Indennidate, Antonella; Sion, Letizia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) were recorded by means of the MEMO lander equipped with two digital cameras and deployed in the cold-water coral community of the Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea). A total of 14 individuals were observed at depths between 547 and 648 m; 10 in the coral habitat on coral mounds and 4 off the coral habitat on muddy bottoms. Thirteen specimens recorded were females, one male and all were shown to scavenge the bait. All the specimens carried a sponge on their exoskeleton using the fifth pereiopods. The specimens were distinguishable by the size and shape of the carried sponge. The present observations demonstrate both passive covering behaviour and active behaviour of discouraging approach and attack from competitors or predators, respectively. This study represents the first in situ documentation of Paromola cuvieri behaviour interacting with other deep-sea species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  15. Uca (Xeruca), a new subgenus for the Taiwanese fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-01-01

    The fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), restricted to the western part of Taiwan and the offshore Penghu (Pescadores) Islands in the Taiwan Strait, has been placed under the subgenus Uca (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817 (= Uca (Thalassuca) Crane, 1975) based on only less than a dozen specimens, but later suggested under the subgenus Tubuca Bott, 1973 because the similarity of external morphology. A suite of characters of carapace, major cheliped, gastric mill, male first gonopod, and chela handedness, as well as the phylogenic relationships (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA), nevertheless support this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Xeruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. formosensis. PMID:26249894

  16. A new species of Siphonoecetes Krøyer, 1845 Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) from the western Mediterranean, coast of Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    De-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Martí, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    An undescribed species of Siphonoecetes Krøyer, 1845 was found on Mediterranean coast of Iberian Peninsula. It was collected at the depth of 10 and 15 m near Alicante. Though it was previously found in Chafarinas Islands, this new species was not named and fully described. In the present paper, Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. is described. The species belongs to Centroloecetes subgenus, since it possesses bulbous ventroapical projection on peduncle of uropod 1 in males and a row of long pectinate setae on distal margin of peduncle of uropod 3. Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) is easily distinguishable from the other Siphonoecetes reported in Iberian Mediterranean coast by presence of bulbous subrostral projection. PMID:24870885

  17. A revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera) in the Holarctic with description of a new species from Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Kotov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Our study is aimed at a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera: Eurycercidae) in the Holarctic based on the morphology of parthenogenetic females. Three species were revealed and described: (1) E. glacialis Lilljeborg, 1887 which is relatively widely distributed in the north portion of Atlantic and Pacific regions; (2) E. nigracanthus Hann, 1990 which is apparently present in Labrador and Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia and (3) Eurycercus chernovi sp. nov. from Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia, Russia. Main differences of the latter taxon from other species are: (1) more proximal position of sensory seta on the antenna I and (2) surface of cuticle of major head pore forms a low projection in middle. A revision of this subgenus in Arctic Siberia and Canada needs to be continued. PMID:27515623

  18. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae), is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae) such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side) associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two suggest that B. latro has

  19. Position of the dentifera-group in the Coronatella-branch and its relocation to a new genus: Magnospina gen. n. (Crustacea, Chydoridae, Aloninae)

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R.; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes Maria Abdu; Santos, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnospina gen. n. was created to relocate species of the dentifera-group from Alona sensu lato (Crustacea: Cladocera) and include Magnospina dentifera comb. n. and Magnospina siamensis comb. n. The synapomorphies of the Magnospina gen. n. are (1) basal spines longer than 2/3 of the postabdominal claw, (2) presence of 1–4 large denticles, broad at their bases, protruding downwards, without setules between them. Morphological traits such as habitus, rostrum and postabdomen shape, armature of IDL setae, number of setae on the exopod of limb III are also important in the distinction between Magnospina gen. n. and other genera from the Coronatella-branch. The morphology of Magnospina dentifera comb. n. male confirms the closer relationship with the clade composed by the elgans-group from Alona sensu lato, Ovalona and Leberis, but the external morphology, morphology of the postabdominal claw, basal spine and setae 2–3 of IDL support their separation from any of the group cited. It is concluded that the Coronatella-lineage of Aloninae is composed of the genera Coronatella, Anthalona, Karualona, Bergamina, Extremalona, Ovalona, Celsinotum, Leberis and Magnospina gen. n. The elegans-group from Alona sensu lato also belongs to Coronatella-lineage, but still need formal allocation. PMID:27199609

  20. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death. PMID:25538026

  1. SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification. PMID:25907711

  3. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): life cycle and DNA barcode with implications for the taxonomy of the Aloninae subfamily.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26'05″ S and 46°10'57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL-1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  4. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): Life Cycle and DNA Barcode with Implications for the Taxonomy of the Aloninae Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26′05″ S and 46°10′57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL−1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  5. Ontogeny of the ventral nerve cord in malacostracan crustaceans: a common plan for neuronal development in Crustacea, Hexapoda and other Arthropoda?

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen

    2003-08-01

    This review sets out to summarize our current knowledge on the structural layout of the embryonic ventral nerve cord in decapod crustaceans and its development from stem cell to the mature structure. In Decapoda, neuronal stem cells, the neuroblasts, mostly originate from ectodermal stem cells, the ectoteloblast, via a defined lineage. The neuroblasts undergo repeated asymmetric division and generate ganglion mother cells. The ganglion mother cells later divide again to give birth to ganglion cells (neurons) and there is increasing evidence now that ganglion mother cells divide again not only once but repeatedly. Various other aspects of neuroblast proliferation such as their temporal patterns of mitotic activity and spatial arrangement as well as the relation of neurogenesis to the development of the segmental appendages and maturation of motor behaviors are described. The link between cell lineage and cell differentiation in Decapoda so far has only been established for the midline neuroblast. However, there are several other identified early differentiating neurons, the outgrowing neurites of which pioneer the axonal scaffold within the neuromeres of the ventral nerve cord. The maturation of identified neurons as examined by immunohistochemistry against their neurotransmitters or engrailed, is briefly described. These processes are compared to other Arthropoda (including Onychophora, Chelicerata, Diplopoda and Hexapoda) in order to shed light on variations and conserved motifs of the theme 'neurogenesis'. The question of a 'common plan for neuronal development' in the ventral nerve cords of Hexapoda and Crustacea is critically evaluated and the possibility of homologous neurons arising through divergent developmental pathways is discussed. PMID:18088994

  6. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  7. Control of molting in crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Mykles, D.L.; Soumoff, C.; Yamaoka, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    The single, overriding event that occurs during all proecdysial periods in crustaceans is the synthesis of a new exoskeleton that encompasses an enlarged animal when the old shell is cast off. Regeneration of missing appendages and larval or puberty metamorphoses also occur during proecdysis. Proecdysial periods have been divided into substages defined by the occurrence of specific events. Although a number of factors must be postulated to account for individual proecdysial events, only the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, has been identified and isolated. Much evidence indicates that the X-organ sinus glands complex, a neurosecretory tissue located in the eyestalks, is the source of a molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) responsible for maintaining animals in anecdysis. An exuviation factor has been proposed to support the extrication of the animal from the old exoskeleton. There is evidence for a limb growth inhibitory factor (LGIF) that affects the rate of growth of regenerating limbs. We are proposing an anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub an/) that propels into precocious molts anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub pro/) that interrupts the proecdysial period of animals that lose one or more normal or partially regenerated pereopods before a critical time in proecdysis.

  8. CRABS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA: BRACHYURA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of a few major pollutants on crabs are described. Because of their sensitivity to many forms of man-made pollution, crabs can often be used to predict adverse influences on the environment and to evaluate their effects. Crabs are viewed as having unaltered or 'normal'...

  9. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  10. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971-1980, 1991-2000, 2001-2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  11. Phylogenetics of Cancer crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Harrison, M K; Crespi, B J

    1999-07-01

    We used morphological, mitochondrial DNA sequence, paleontological, and biogeographical information to examine the evolutionary history of crabs of the genus Cancer. Phylogenies inferred from adult morphology and DNA sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were each well resolved and well supported, but differed substantially in topology. Four lines of evidence suggested that the COI data set accurately reflected Cancer phylogeny: (1) in the phylogeny inferred from morphological data, each Atlantic species was sister taxon to an ecologically similar Pacific species, suggesting convergence in morphology; (2) a single trans-Arctic dispersal event, as indicated by the phylogeny inferred from COI, is more parsimonious than two such dispersal events, as inferred from morphology; (3) test and application of a maximum likelihood molecular clock to the COI data yielded estimates of origin and speciation times that fit well with the fossil record; and (4) the tree inferred from the combined COI and morphology data was closely similar to the trees inferred from COI, although notably less well supported by the bootstrap. The phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood analysis of COI suggested that Cancer originated in the North Pacific in the early Miocene, that the Atlantic species arose from a North Pacific ancestor, and that Cancer crabs invaded the Atlantic from the North Pacific 6-12 mya. This inferred invasion time is notably prior to most estimates of the date of submergence of the Bering Strait and the trans-Arctic interchange, but it agrees with fossil evidence placing at least one Cancer species in the Atlantic about 8 mya. PMID:10381321

  12. Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Porcelain crabs from Brazil (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luciane Augusto De Azevedo; De Melo, Gustavo Augusto Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Twenty species of porcelain crabs are reported on the basis of material collected from Brazilian coasts. Considering the lack of systematic studies comprehending the Brazilian porcellanids, the present work presents a review of the regional species based on the current taxonomic information. New records, information about variation between specimens and a taxonomic discussion are given for porcellanid crabs from Brazil. PMID:27394448

  14. Sound production in the aquatic isopod Cymodoce japonica (Crustacea: Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Nakamachi, Takeru; Ishida, Hideki; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    A vast variety of acoustic behaviors and mechanisms occur in arthropods. Sound production, in particular, in insects and decapod crustaceans has been well documented. However, except for a brief, anecdotal statement, there has been no report on the acoustic behavior of aquatic isopods. We present the first empirical evidence in aquatic Isopoda that males of Cymodoce japonica produce sound by stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts. Sound production was associated with tail-lifting behavior, suggesting that stridulation occurs on thoracic and/or abdominal somites. Acoustic analysis revealed that syllable length was similar throughout the stridulation, at a mode of 2500-3000 Hz. With a scanning electron microscope, we identified file-like structures on the inner surface of the dorsal exoskeleton. Each file consisted of 188 ± 11.1 ridges at about 0.5 μm intervals; the theoretical frequency (number of ridges per syllable length) was estimated to be 2208-3646 Hz. This finding suggests that the stridulation sounds arose from these structures. Laboratory observations show that stridulation may play a role in the threatening of other males in the context of territorial and/or reproductive competitions. PMID:26504157

  15. Phylogenetic position of Antarctic Scalpelliformes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Fitzcharles, Elaine; Sands, Chester J.; Buckeridge, John S.

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of seven Antarctic barnacle species, one verrucomorph and six scalpelliforms from the Scotia, Weddell and Ross seas were investigated using DNA sequences from two nuclear genes (18 S and 28 S) and one mitochondrial gene (COI), with a combined total length of 3,151 base pairs. Analyses of these new sequences, together with those of previously published ibliform, lepadiform, scalpelliform, balanomorph and verrucomorph species, confirm that the Scalpelliformes are not monophyletic. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses consistently recovered a monophyletic group which comprised Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (Sars) and the Southern Ocean scalpellomorphs; Arcoscalpellum sp. from the Weddell Sea, Arcoscalpellum africanum from Elephant Island, A. bouveti from Bouvet Island, the circum-Antarctic Litoscalpellum discoveryi, Litoscalpellum sp. from Shag Rocks and Scalpellum sp. from the Falkland Trough. We also used multiple fossil constraints in a relaxed clock Bayesian framework to estimate divergence times for the 18 S+28 S phylogeny. Our results indicate a mid Cretaceous divergence for the Weddell Sea Arcoscalpellum sp, followed by a late Cretaceous divergence from the North Atlantic O. stroemii. Subsequent to this, the Antarctic scalpellomorphs began to radiate at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Monophyly within the scalpellid genera Arcoscalpellum, Litoscalpellum and Scalpellum was strongly rejected by all loci. Our results show incongruence between taxonomy and molecular systematics and highlight the need for more species to be sequenced as well as taxonomic revisions to resolve uncertainties in the phylogenetic relationships of the stalked barnacles.

  16. EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION OF PELAGIC LARVAE OF CRUSTACEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larvae of six species, Cancer irroratus, C. borealis and Homarus americanus of coastal waters (high salinity), and Palaemonetes pugio, Pagurus longicarpus and Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the estuarine region (variable salinity) were studied. Larvae were cultured at various com...

  17. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  18. Involvement of tryptophan metabolism in the body color of crustacea.

    PubMed

    Negishi, S; Hasegawa, Y; Naito, J; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare is usually grey or black in color, however, red ones are occasionally found in the field. This is caused by the mutation of the ommochrome genesis in the integument. We focused our experiments on the mechanism of pigment genesis in which tryptophan metabolism had been expected to be different from the grey or black wild types. We obtained the result that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid content was significantly higher in the red phenotype than in the wild type, and kynureninase activity was also higher in the red phenotype. PMID:10721114

  19. The Australian Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) II. Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Mckinnon, A David

    2016-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods collected during the past two decades from zooplankton surveys in reef and coastal areas of Australia were analyzed. A first contribution included the taxonomic analysis of three genera of the Monstrilloida, Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921, Maemonstrilla Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008, and the newly described Australomonstrillopsis Suárez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014. In this document a taxonomic analysis of the species belonging to the genus Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888 is provided. A total of 28 species were found, most of them being undescribed. Seventeen species were described based on females only and eight on male specimens while three species were described from both sexes. Males of Australian species of Cymbasoma are distinguished by details of the genital complex, body size and proportions, ornamentation and processes of the cephalic region, number of caudal setae, and the characteristic structure or ornamentation of the genital lappets. Two main groups of males were distinguished on the basis of the number of caudal setae (3 or 4). As for the females, 20 of the 25 new species of Cymbasoma have fifth legs with an unarmed inner lobe and three setae on the outer lobe; one of these species (C. jinigudira sp. nov.) belongs to the C. longispinosum species-group (sensu Üstün et al. 2014). Another group, consisting of five species, has only two setae on the outer (exopodal) lobe. There were no Australian species of Cymbasoma with a single lobe. A species group, named after C. agoense, is proposed to include species sharing a globose body and a female fifth leg with a large endopodal lobe and an outer (exopodal) lobe with two setae. The females of the new species of Cymbasoma from Australia can be distinguished from their known congeners by unique combinations of characters including the type of body ornamentation, body size and shape, antennule armature and proportions, the presence of distinctive features of the legs 1-4, the presence/absence of processes on the genital compound somite, and the presence/absence of a constriction of the anal somite. We report the occurrence of two previously described species, C. agoense Sekiguchi, 1982 from Japan and C. bali Desai & Krishnaswamy, 1962 from India in Australian waters. Considering the addition of the 25 new species here described, the number of nominal species of the genus is now 66. A key to the Australian species of Cymbasoma (males and females) and a map showing their occurrence in Australia are also provided. PMID:27394608

  20. Anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) zoogeography I. North American bioregions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Nine anostracan biogeographical regions are defined for North America: Appalachia/Ozark, Southwest Arid, Great Plains, Coastal Plain, Neotropical, California, Cold Deserts, Beringia/Canadian Shield, and Transmontane. These regions are quantitatively defined using species distributions compared through Jaccard's Coefficient of Community Similarity, and qualitatively defined using climate data, following the ecoregions protocol of the US Environmental Protection Agency for North America and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for Mexico. Community assemblages are quantified using Fager's Index of Recurring Species Groups. The average Fager's Index for each bioregion, as well as the percentage of taxa co-occurring, generally decreases with the length of time the region has been available for colonisation. The strong Fager's Index/colonisation time availability relationship suggests that the Monopolization Hypothesis of De Meester et al. may function at larger landscape scales. PMID:25081776

  1. The Amphipoda of Sea City, Kuwait.-The Senticaudata (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A; Nithyanandan, Manickam

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen species of Amphipoda Senticaudata were collected in Sea City, Kuwait using a Van Veen grab and an Ocklemann sledge. Of these seven species were new to science and are described and figured in this contribution. PMID:27395936

  2. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  3. Taxonomic Review of the Orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  4. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    PubMed

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters. PMID:23831457

  5. Redescription of three cirolanid isopods (Crustacea: Peracarida) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L

    2016-01-01

    Three species of Cirolanidae described by Nierstrasz in 1931 are redescribed from the type material: Cirolana indica Nierstrasz, 1931, with new material from Singapore and Lombok Island, Indonesia; C. vanhoeffeni Nierstrasz, 1931; and C. stebbingi Nierstrasz, 1931, which is here transferred to the genus Politolana Bruce, 1981 based on the elongate body, long peduncle of pleopod 1, narrow and slender frontal lamina, flat and robust carpus of pereopod 7, long and acute robust setae on merus-propodus pereopod 1, secondary unguis on dactylus, and antenna peduncle articles 1-2 shorter than the subequal articles 3-5. PMID:27395130

  6. Cryptic Species in Putative Ancient Asexual Darwinulids (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    PubMed Central

    Schön, Isa; Pinto, Ricardo L.; Halse, Stuart; Smith, Alison J.; Martens, Koen; Birky, C. William

    2012-01-01

    Background Fully asexually reproducing taxa lack outcrossing. Hence, the classic Biological Species Concept cannot be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings We used DNA sequences from the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear ITS2 region to check species boundaries according to the evolutionary genetic (EG) species concept in five morphospecies in the putative ancient asexual ostracod genera, Penthesilenula and Darwinula, from different continents. We applied two methods for detecting cryptic species, namely the K/θ method and the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC). We could confirm the existence of species in all five darwinulid morphospecies and additional cryptic diversity in three morphospecies, namely in Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Darwinula stevensoni and in P. aotearoa. The number of cryptic species within one morphospecies varied between seven (P. brasiliensis), five to six (D. stevensoni) and two (P. aotearoa), respectively, depending on the method used. Cryptic species mainly followed continental distributions. We also found evidence for coexistence at the local scale for Brazilian cryptic species of P. brasiliensis and P. aotearoa. Our ITS2 data confirmed that species exist in darwinulids but detected far less EG species, namely two to three cryptic species in P. brasiliensis and no cryptic species at all in the other darwinulid morphospecies. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly demonstrate that both species and cryptic diversity can be recognized in putative ancient asexual ostracods using the EG species concept, and that COI data are more suitable than ITS2 for this purpose. The discovery of up to eight cryptic species within a single morphospecies will significantly increase estimates of biodiversity in this asexual ostracod group. Which factors, other than long-term geographic isolation, are important for speciation processes in these ancient asexuals remains to be investigated. PMID:22802945

  7. Chemoreceptors and feeding in calanoid copepods (Arthropoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M M; Strickler, J R

    1975-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the mouthparts of the calanoid copepod Diaptomus pallidus have revealed the presence of numerous chemoreceptors, and the apparent absence of mechanoreceptors. The setae contain no muscles, and the setules are noncellular extensions of their chitin wall. This allows a new insight into the selective feeding of zooplankters. Images PMID:1060099

  8. The tropical talitrid genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-01-01

    Floresorchestia floresiana (Weber, 1892) from Flores, F. anomala (Chevreux, 1901) from the Seychelles, F. malayensis (Tattersall, 1922) from Singapore and F. thienemanni (Schellenberg, 1931) from Java are redescribed based on original type material or newly collected material from near the type locality. Nine new species are described, in the widespread Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean talitrid genus Floresorchestia: F. andrevo sp. nov. and F. itampolo sp. nov. from Madagascar; F. kalili sp. nov. from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; F. laurenae sp. nov. from Timor-Leste; F. oluanpi sp. nov. from southern Taiwan; F. papeari sp. nov. from Tahiti; F. serejoae sp. nov. from far north Queensland, Australia; F. seringat sp. nov. from Singapore; and F. yap sp. nov. from Micronesia; plus Floresorchestia sp. 1 from Hainan Island, South China Sea, Floresorchestia sp. 2 from Kilakarai and other sites in south-eastern India and Floresorchestia sp. 3 from Phuket Island, Thailand. Floresorchestia contains 28 species. In this paper all are catalogued and diagnosed. PMID:25781854

  9. Fennerosquilla heptacantha (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lucatelli, Débora

    2015-01-01

    Fennerosquilla is a monotypic genus that belongs to the family Squillidae, which has the highest generic diversity within Stomatopoda. This genus has been recorded in the north Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, between 105 and 458 m depth. The present specimen was collected during the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", in 2011, from the continental slope region of Brazil. In this expedition Fennerosquilla heptacantha was found at 178-193 m depth, and represents the first record of the species in the south Atlantic Ocean (Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil), expanding the southern limit distribution. The specimen is the largest recorded, measuring 149 mm total length. The pigmentation zone on median region of telson and all diagnostic characters are still preserved and agree with the original description. Fennerosquilla heptacantha has a disjunct deep water distribution (more than 100 m) in the tropical western Atlantic, mostly along the continental slope. PMID:26624302

  10. Global Biodiversity and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Remipedia (Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Neiber, Marco T.; Hartke, Tamara R.; Stemme, Torben; Bergmann, Alexandra; Rust, Jes; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Koenemann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Remipedia is one of the most recently discovered classes of crustaceans, first described in 1981 from anchialine caves in the Bahamas Archipelago. The class is divided into the order Enantiopoda, represented by two fossil species, and Nectiopoda, which contains all known extant remipedes. Since their discovery, the number of nectiopodan species has increased to 24, half of which were described during the last decade. Nectiopoda exhibit a disjunct global distribution pattern, with the highest abundance and diversity in the Caribbean region, and isolated species in the Canary Islands and in Western Australia. Our review of Remipedia provides an overview of their ecological characteristics, including a detailed list of all anchialine marine caves, from which species have been recorded. We discuss alternative hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Remipedia within Arthropoda, and present first results of an ongoing molecular-phylogenetic analysis that do not support the monophyly of several nectiopodan taxa. We believe that a taxonomic revision of Remipedia is absolutely essential, and that a comprehensive revision should include a reappraisal of the fossil record. PMID:21625553

  11. Parasite altered micro-distribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Calum; Fielding, Nina J; Hume, Kevin D; Dick, Jaimie T A; Elwood, Robert W; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    In a river survey, Gammarus pulex amphipods both unparasitised and parasitised with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae were distributed similarly with respect to flow regimen, tending to be more abundant in faster, shallower, riffle patches. However, there was a higher prevalence of parasitism in faster, shallower areas than in slower, deeper areas and abundance correlated with macrophyte coverage for unparasitised but not parasitised amphipods, indicating subtle differences in habitat usage. A laboratory 'patch' simulation indicated that parasitism influenced micro-distribution. There were higher proportions of unparasitised amphipods in/under stone substrates and within weed. In contrast, there were higher proportions of parasitised amphipods in the water column and at the water surface. As the experiment progressed, unparasitised but not parasitised amphipod habitat usage shifted from those micro-habitats above the substrate and in the water column to those in/under the substrates. Experiments also demonstrated that parasitised amphipods were more active and had a greater preference for illumination. Previous studies of the effects of acanthocephalan parasitism of amphipod hosts have focussed on how drift behaviour is altered, now we show that subtle differences in micro-habitat usage could translate to greatly increased vulnerability to fish predation. We discuss how aggregation of parasitised individuals within specific habitats could promote parasite transmission. PMID:12547346

  12. Eye function of Mysidacea (Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindström

    2000-03-30

    Eye spectral sensitivity, [S(lambda)], was measured in seven northern Baltic mysid species using an electroretinogram technique. Their S(lambda) curves were compared with the spectral distribution of underwater light at their normal habitats. In the littoral species Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and Praunus inermis, the S(lambda) maxima, [S(lambda)(max)], were in the wavelength-bands of 525-535, 505-515 and 520-530 nm respectively. The neoimmigrant species Hemimysis anomala had a S(lambda)(max) around 500 nm and high sensitivity at 393 nm, possibly indicating UV-sensitivity. S(lambda) of the pelagic species Mysis mixta and Mysis relicta sp. II was at about 505-520 nm. M. relicta sp. I from Pojoviken Bay and fresh water humic Lake Pääjärvi had S(lambda)(max) at approximately 550 nm and 570 nm respectively. This is in accordance with a similar long-wavelength shift in light transmittance of the respective waters. The eyes of the latter population were also damaged by strong light. The pontocaspian neoimmigrant H. anomala is clearly adapted to waters transmitting more blue light. PMID:10699220

  13. The complete mitogenome of the Australian tadpole shrimp Triops australiensis (Spencer & Hall, 1895) (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian tadpole shrimp, Triops australiensis is presented (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024439) and compared with other Triops species. Triops australiensis has a mitochondrial genome of 15,125 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The T. australiensis mitogenome is composed of 36.4% A, 16.1% C, 12.3% G and 35.1% T. The mitogenome gene order conforms to the primitive arrangement for Branchiopod crustaceans, which is also conserved within the Pancrustacean. PMID:25329290

  14. [Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Anostracea) as intermediate host of Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gabrion, C; MacDonald, G

    1980-01-01

    Examination of Artemia sp. (Crustacé, Anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides, Cestode of the Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the Flamingo in the hemocoele of the Branchiopode. A fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of Eurycestus avoceti, Clark, 1954, which parasitizes the Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta). The systematic position of this Cestode is always unknown. This report shows the importance of Artemia in the life cycle of Cestodes of Anseriforms and Charadriiforms birds in saline lagoons. PMID:7406422

  15. Paleolimnological inferences based on Oligocene ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Tremembé Formation, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergue, Cristianini T; Maranhão, Maria da Saudade A S; Fauth, Gerson

    2015-09-01

    Non-marine Oligocene ostracods from Tremembé Formation (Taubaté Basin, Southeast Brazil) are studied for the first time. The study reveals rich assemblages which are probably composed of many new taxa, two of which are described here. The sixteen ostracod species registered are classified in the generaCypretta Vávra, Strandesia Stuhlmann,Potamocypris Brady, Heterocypris Claus,Eucypris Vávra, Herpetocypris Brady and Norman, Cytheridella Daday and LimnocythereBrady. Two new species of the latter are herein proposed: L. mandubi sp. nov. and L. katu sp. nov. The succession of ostracod assemblages along the studied core changes conspicuously in composition, abundance and preservation, and are characterized by the following associations: Herpetocypris-Cytheridella (lower), Limnocythere-Cypretta (middle) andPotamocypris-Heterocypris (upper). It is assumed that these associations represent different ecological phases of the paleolake Taubaté which is in accordance to previous stratigraphic and paleontological studies in the basin. The results from this pioneering taxonomic and paleoecological study on ostracods from Tremembé Formation reinforce the potential of these fossils for paleolimnological researches in Brazilian Cenozoic deposits. PMID:26221982

  16. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Guerra-García, José Manuel; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  17. Some biological aspects of Mysidopsis juniae (Crustacea:Mysidacea) and its use in chronic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Badaro-Pedroso, C. Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the joint effort to develop marine toxicity tests with organisms abundant at the Brazilian coast, some aspects for the laboratory culture of M. juniae and its sensitivity to single chemicals were studied. Organisms fed a mixture of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana reached sexual maturity 10 days before animals fed brine shrimp nauplii only. Under best conditions, sexual maturity was reached on the 9th--11th day and newborn mysids hatched on the 16th--18th day, Short-term chronic toxicity tests were initiated with 7-day old mysids and exposure time was 11 days, with growth (length and dry weight) as test endpoints. Experiments were undertaken with zinc, copper, and ammonia. Zinc did not affect the organisms at concentrations between 0.018 and 0.1 mg/L, which were one order of magnitude lower than the average 96-h; LC50 value. The NOEC and LOEC values were the same for length and weight in some tests with copper and ammonia (Cu: 0.006 and 0.015 mg/L; NH{sub 3}: 0.32 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively), but revealed length as a more sensitive endpoint than weight in others (length NOEC and LOEC: 0.23 and 0.53 mgNH{sub 3}/L; weight: 0.53 and 0.99 mgNH{sub 3}/L, respectively). The authors speculate that this could be caused by time-dependent variations in the lipid content of the organisms. Length would be a steadier and more reliable endpoint for chronic toxicity tests with M. juniae. The results show that the method has potential applications for the evaluation and monitoring of contaminated marine systems along the Brazilian coast.

  18. Morphometric and preliminary genetic characteristics of Branchinecta orientalis populations from Iran (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Atashbar, Behroz; Agh, Naser; Manaffar, Ramin; Stappen, Gilbert Van; Mohamadyari, Ali; Mertens, Johan; Beladjal, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    Branchinecta orientalis is a fairy shrimp endemic to the Palearctic region, from Mongolia to Spain. The patchy nature of its habitat is thought to result in a high degree of subdivision among populations, potentially promoting speciation. We combined morphometric characteristics with molecular phylogeny of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) to test whether B. orientalis could be a species complex and whether there is any correlation between the genetic variation, morphometric characteristics and geographical variables. We studied six populations from Iran based on the comparison of morphometric and molecular datasets, we confirmed that the Aigher Goli (AIG) population is biometrically well separated from the Akh Gol, Hassar, Rashakan, Khaslou and Garagojanlou populations in northwestern Iran. The relatively high genetic divergence in the AIG from the other populations and its congruence with morphometric data were observed in B. orientalis populations. However, as these results were generated using a small sample size and on a limited sampling range, they should be considered as preliminary. PMID:27394849

  19. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, B.H.R.; Toda, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  20. A new species of Moraria (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.

    2003-01-01

    Moraria hudsoni n. sp. is described from Trails End Bay in Lake Michigan and Prentiss Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan, USA. The new species differs from its congeners in chaetotaxy, body ornamentation, and other characters. We review published records of members of Moraria from North and Central America; no species is known from South America. Species of this genus have been found in the mountains of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, but none of these has been validly described. In North America, eight species have been recorded from Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous USA as far south as North Carolina. We report new geographical records of M. affinis from Virginia, and of both M. cristata and M. virginiana from Maryland and Virginia. We provide a tabular key to aid in identification of the named species of Moraria in North America.

  1. A new species of gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing teleosts from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2009-10-01

    During March 2002 and November 2005, teleost fishes were collected at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Gnathiid isopod juveniles were allowed to detach from these host fishes and were maintained in fresh seawater until they molted into adults. Adult males emerged 5 days post-detachment (d.p.d.) and females 10 d.p.d. of juveniles from host fish. The adults and juveniles were identified as new to science and described as Gnathia aureamaculosa n. sp. The species description is based on brightfield and scanning electron microscopy observations primarily of males, since the taxonomy of gnathiids is based on male morphology. This species has been widely employed in various studies on the Great Barrier Reef, from its involvement in feeding patterns in reef fish to its role in transmitting blood parasites, and has been referred to as Gnathia sp. A. Distinctive features of the male include gold-spotted pigmentation on the dorsal pereon of live specimens, a cephalosome with a conical superior fronto-lateral process, an inferior and conical medio-frontal process, and mandibles, each with an armed carina and an internal lobe. The female is characterized by its broad, rounded shape and cephalosome setae. The mandible of the third stage juvenile has 2 small teeth on the tip and 7 large teeth on the mesial margin. Differential pigmentation occurs in live male and female third-stage juveniles; females have greenish-yellow spots distributed over the pereon and males have white blotches and light brown and yellow spots on the pereon. PMID:19895161

  2. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cumillaf, Juan P.; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E.; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  3. Diversity of Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) in the World's Oceans – How Far Have We Come?

    PubMed Central

    Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Bamber, Roger; Anderson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Tanaidaceans are small peracarid crustaceans which occur in all marine habitats, over the full range of depths, and rarely into fresh waters. Yet they have no obligate dispersive phase in their life-cycle. Populations are thus inevitably isolated, and allopatric speciation and high regional diversity are inevitable; cosmopolitan distributions are considered to be unlikely or non-existent. Options for passive dispersion are discussed. Tanaidaceans appear to have first evolved in shallow waters, the region of greatest diversification of the Apseudomorpha and some tanaidomorph families, while in deeper waters the apseudomorphs have subsequently evolved two or three distinct phyletic lines. The Neotanaidomorpha has evolved separately and diversified globally in deep waters, and the Tanaidomorpha has undergone the greatest evolution, diversification and adaptation, to the point where some of the deep-water taxa are recolonizing shallow waters. Analysis of their geographic distribution shows some level of regional isolation, but suffers from inclusion of polyphyletic taxa and a general lack of data, particularly for deep waters. It is concluded that the diversity of the tanaidomorphs in deeper waters and in certain ocean regions remains to be discovered; that the smaller taxa are largely understudied; and that numerous cryptic species remain to be distinguished. Thus the number of species currently recognized is likely to be an order of magnitude too low, and globally the Tanaidacea potentially rival the Amphipoda and Isopoda in diversity. PMID:22496741

  4. The complete mitogenome of the Australian land crayfish Engaeus lyelli (Clark 1936) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic freshwater crayfish Engaeus lyelli was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The mitogenome has 16,027 bp consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of E. lyelli is 29.01% for T, 27.13% for C, 31.43% for A, and 12.44% for G, with an AT bias of 60.44%. The species has the distinctive gene order characteristic of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving the tRNA genes. PMID:24730605

  5. The complete mitogenome of the Australian crayfish Geocharax gracilis Clark 1936 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Schultz, Mark B; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenome of the black yabby, Geocharax gracilis, was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer. It has 15,924 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of G. gracilis mitogenome is 32.18% for T, 22.32% for C, 34.83% for A, and 10.68% for G, with an AT bias of 67.01%. The mitogenome gene order is typical for that of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving tRNA genes. PMID:24845437

  6. Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) parasitic on Algerian fishes.

    PubMed

    Ramdane, Zouhir; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen female specimens of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) were recently collected from the Algerian coast. As until now this species was poorly described, this contribution redescribes this species with more precise drawings on the general morphology and appendages, using this fresh material. For the first time, two new hosts are identified. Host specificity and some ecological data are also reported. PMID:21987102

  7. Evolution of freshwater crab diversity in the Aegean region (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Jesse, Ruth; Grudinski, Melanie; Klaus, Sebastian; Streit, Bruno; Pfenninger, Markus

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of the palaeogeographic and climatic history of the Aegean region on the diversity of freshwater crabs of the genus Potamon and to test whether this area served as source or reservoir in species diversity. Necessary species delimitation was accomplished by phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial markers COX1 and ND1, partial 16S rRNA gene and the tRNALeu gene. We found 14 genetic lineages of which nine could be assigned to previously recognised species. Temporal estimates of the splitting pattern in the phylogeny of Potamon indicated that a combination of geological and climatic events influenced their diversification. Within Potamon, the lineages separated into a western group and an eastern group. This first split in the genus occurred approximately 8.3-5.5 Mya, thus possibly correlated with the Messinian salinity crisis. A likelihood approach to geographic range evolution suggested for most species, occurring in the Aegean area, an origin in the Middle East. Moreover, there were no insular endemics in the central Aegean archipelago, therefore low sea-levels during the Pleistocene glacial periods possibly enabled dispersal to these islands, but subsequent rise in sea-level did not cause speciation. Nevertheless, the diversification of most lineages occurred during the Pleistocene epoch thus coinciding with Quaternary fluctuations of the climate. PMID:21216297

  8. Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) as a model organism to study the effects of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehennaoui, Kahina; Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Felten, Vincent; Andreï, Jennifer; Garaud, Maël; Cambier, Sébastien; Serchi, Tommaso; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Guérold, François; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure; Gutleb, Arno C

    2016-10-01

    Amphipods are one of the most important components of freshwater ecosystems. Among them, gammarids are the most widespread group in Europe and are often used as bioindicators and model organisms in ecotoxicology. However, their use, especially of Gammarus fossarum for the study of the environmental impact of nanoparticles, has been rather limited so far. G. fossarum was selected to assess effects of well-characterized chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 20nm and 200nm) and "green" laboratory synthetized (from plant leaf extracts) AgNPs (AgNPs 23nm and 27nm). AgNO3 was used as a positive control to compare AgNPs effects and silver ions effects. A multibiomarker approach was used to investigate the sub-lethal effects of AgNPs on physiological and behavioural responses of G. fossarum. Two different experiments were carried out. In a preliminary experiment, two populations of G. fossarum (G.f1 and G.f2) were tested for sensitivity differences and the most sensitive one was exposed, in a final experiment, to sub-lethal concentrations of AgNO3 and the most toxic AgNPs. AgNO3 and AgNPs 23nm led to a significant decrease in survival rates, osmoregulation and locomotor activity. Ag internalisation, performed with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), showed the presence of silver in gills of G.f2 exposed to AgNPs 23 and 27nm. This study highlighted the influence of method of synthesis on ion release, uptake and toxic effects of AgNPs on G. fossarum. Osmoregulation appeared to be an effective biomarker indicating the physiological health status of G. fossarum. Locomotor activity, which was the most impacted response, reflects the potential effects of released ions from AgNPs 23nm at the population level as locomotion is necessary for foraging, finding mates and escaping from predators. Therefore, we propose G. fossarum as a suitable model for environmental nanotoxicology, providing information both at individual and population levels. PMID:27328878

  9. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  10. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle. PMID:26276088

  11. Review of the buccal-attaching fish parasite genus Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    Two species of Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 are known from Australia: Glossobius anctus Bruce & Bowman, 1989 and Glossobius impressus (Say, 1818), the latter recorded here for the first time from Australia and southern Africa. Glossobius ogasawarensis Nunomura, 1994 is here placed in synonymy with Glossobius auritus Bovallius, 1885; whereas Glossobius crassa (Dana, 1853) is removed from synonymy with G. auritus and placed into nomen dubium. Glossobius arimae Nunomura, 2001 is transferred to the genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852. A key to the species of Glossobius is presented. PMID:26249863

  12. First occurrence of Norileca triangulata (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2015-03-01

    An ectoparasitic isopod, Norileca triangulata was found in the branchial cavity of Sardinella gibbosa at Parangipettai coastal waters. The present findings represent the first record of N. triangulata and herein reported. Until now, this species was distributed from Tanimdao Island, Philippines and from Queensland-Eel Reef, Cape York; Michaelmas Cay, near Cairns and Mooloobah, south-eastern Queensland. The range is here extended and now includes to the Southeast coast of India. The materials examined were deposited at the Annamalai University, India (collection Ravichandran). The parasites has been found on 16 out of 16 specimens of S. gibbosa. The prevalence of N. triangulata on S. gibbosa was 7.5 % and mean intensity was 1. The host fish length ranges from 140 to 182 mm. It is further confirmed that the parasites were specific in the selection of host S. gibbosa. Previously N. triangulata was reported from two hosts Parexocoetus brachypterus. Females of N. triangulata ranges 12-18 mm but not found in males. As summarized comparative characteristic feature of two species of parasitic isopods of Norileca indica and N. triangulata. Host species were captured on pelagic region from the coast of Parangipettai. N. triangulata can be distinguished from N. indica by several characters. A related species N. indica has the head to the anterior, and the abdomen facing outwards, pressed against the gill operculum, positioned ventrally in the gill cavity. PMID:25698856

  13. Local and regional species diversity of benthic Isopoda (Crustacea) in the deep Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, George D. F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies of deep-sea faunas considered the influence of mid-domain models in the distribution of species diversity and richness with depth. In this paper, I show that separating local diversity from regional species richness in benthic isopods clarifies mid-domain effects in the distribution of isopods in the Gulf of Mexico. Deviations from the randomised implied species ranges can be informative to understanding general patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. The isopods from the GoMB study contained 135 species, with a total of 156 species including those from an earlier study. More than 60 species may be new to science. Most families of deep-sea isopods (suborder Asellota) were present, although some were extremely rare. The isopod family Desmosomatidae dominated the samples, and one species of Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) was found in many samples. Species richness for samples pooled within sites ranged from 1 to 52 species. Because species in pooled samples were highly correlated with individuals, species diversity was compared across sites using the expected species estimator ( n=15 individuals, ES 15). Six depth transects had idiosyncratic patterns of ES 15, and transects with the greatest short-range variation in topography, such as basins and canyons, had the greatest short-range disparity. Basins on the deep slope did not have a consistent influence (i.e., relatively higher or lower than surrounding areas) on the comparative species diversity. ES 15 of all transects together showed a weak mid-domain effect, peaking around 1200-1500 m, with low values at the shallowest and deepest samples (Sigsbee Abyssal Plain); no longitudinal (east-west) pattern was found. The regional species pool was analyzed by summing the implied ranges of all species. The species ranges in aggregate did not have significant patterns across longitudes, and many species had broad depth ranges, suggesting that the isopod fauna of the Gulf of Mexico is well dispersed. The summed ranges, as expected, had strong mid-domain patterns, contrasting with the local species richness estimates. The longitudinal ranges closely matched a randomized pattern (species ranges placed randomly, 1000 iterations), with significant deviations in the east attributable to lower sampling effort. The depth pattern, however, deviated from the mid-domain model, with a bimodal peak displaced nearly 500 m shallower than the mode of the randomized distribution. The deviations from random expectation were significantly positive above 1600 m and negative below 2000 m, with the result that regional species richness peaked between 800 and 1200 m, and decreased rapidly at deeper depths. The highest species richness intervals corresponded to the number of individuals collected. Residuals from a regression of the deviations on individual numbers, however, still deviated from the randomized pattern. In this declining depth-diversity pattern, the Gulf of Mexico resembles other partially enclosed basins, such as the Norwegian Sea, known to have suffered geologically recent extinction events. This displaced diversity pattern and broad depth ranges implicate ongoing re-colonization of the deeper parts of the Gulf of Mexico. The Sigsbee Abyssal Plain sites could be depauperate for historical reasons (e.g., one or more extinction events) rather than ongoing ecological reasons (e.g., low food supply).

  14. Are foraminifers (Protozoa) important food for small isopods (Crustacea) in the deep sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; von Schmalensee, Menja; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2000-11-01

    Gut contents of three small (<6 mm) species of munnopsid asellote isopod crustaceans ( Echinozone arctica, Ilyarachna bergendali and I. torleivi) from bathyal depths in the Nordic Seas were examined. The species feed mainly on benthic foraminifers, and their gut contents reflect the functional capability of the mouthparts in partitioning the food. Fragments of small and fragile calcareous foraminifer protozoans and small hard agglutinating foraminifers were most important in the guts of Echinozone arctica, which has rounded mandibular molar process, suited for crunching the foraminifers. Dark- and light-gray stercomata (foraminifer fecal pellets) from soft agglutinating foraminifers were most important in the guts of Ilyarachna bergendali, whose molar process has a wide crunching cusp and a sharp cutting edge. The gut contents of Ilyarachna torleivi were similar to the contents of I. bergendali, but differed somewhat from those of E. arctica. The results indicate that foraminiferivory may be common among small munnopsid asellote isopods and that the isopods may specialize in certain foraminifer species or genera. The strength of the foraminifer test may be an important aid against predation. This study indicates that small, yet poorly known, soft-shelled and agglutinating foraminifers with a low nutritional value may be important as food for deep-water isopods and that foraminifers may be an important link between phytodetritus and the macrofauna.

  15. Multiple colonization of the deep sea by the Asellota (Crustacea: Peracarida: Isopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Held, Christoph; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    Despite its extreme environmental conditions the deep sea harbors a unique and species-rich fauna of mostly unknown age and phylogeny. Asellote isopods have undergone their most impressive radiation in the deep sea, being found at all depths down to the deepest trench. Here we present the first molecular evidence for the phylogenetic origin of this remarkable array of deep-sea crustaceans, based on 30 new DNA-sequences of the complete 18s rRNA gene of specimens collected at depths down to 4543 m in the South Atlantic and South Polar Ocean. The results show that most of these isopod lineages belong to a single ancient clade. They evolved in situ in large oceanic depths and survived several climatic changes, but the lack of fossils and of a suitable molecular clock model prevents a precise dating of this radiation. The monophyly of typical deep-sea families, for example the Haploniscidae, Ischnomesidae or Munnopsidae, is well supported by different methods of analysis, while the monophyly of the Janiridae is rejected.

  16. Diversity of Southern Ocean deep-sea Isopoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca) — a comparison with shelf data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Brökeland, Wiebke; Brix, Saskia; Malyutina, Marina

    2004-07-01

    Samples were taken during the expeditions ANDEEP I & II (ANT XIX/3-4) (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) with RV Polarstern for the analysis of the Southern Ocean (SO) deep-sea isopod biodiversity in the Drake Passage, off Elephant Island, along the South Shetland Islands, in the northwestern Weddell Sea, and at the South Sandwich Islands. In total 5525 specimens of Isopoda were sampled and 317 species were discriminated. Isopoda were the most abundant peracarid taxon, with 38% of all Peracarida, 98% of the Isopoda belonging to the suborder Asellota. Species richness was highest in the northwestern Weddell Sea; diversity and evenness were relatively high at all stations. The Munnopsididae were the most dominant isopod family, with 61% of the specimens, 118 species divided among 28 genera; the Haploniscidae comprised 15% of all isopods with 36 species from four genera, followed by the Ischnomesidae with 7% and 30 species from five genera. The families Desmosomatidae, Macrostylidae and Nannoniscidae comprised 10% of the isopod specimens. The Desmosomatidae were the second most diverse family, with 48 species from 12 genera. Species of the suborder Valvifera or the family Serolidae were much rarer in the SO deep-sea than on the shelf. 141 of isopod species (46% of the total number) were rare, occurring only at one of the 21 epibenthic-sledge stations. A cluster analysis showed no clear relation between isopod communities and geographic area. Depth was the most important factor for differences in isopod community patterns. The species accumulation curve shows that the SO deep sea was not sampled representatively during ANDEEP I & II and further sampling is necessary. The SO deep-sea differs in faunal composition from the shelf.

  17. Assimilation of zinc by Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) exposed to zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Bibic, A.; Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of terrestrial isopods to accumulate high amounts of metals, to survive in industrially polluted areas and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose-dependent manner makes them one of the most favorite experimental organisms for terrestrial ecotoxicology. Understanding metal uptake, assimilation and loss by these animals is important to explain how they cope with polluted environments. Metal uptake depends on the rate of food consumption, on metal availability in the food, on the pH inside the gut and some other factors. Isopods respond to high metal concentrations in the food in different ways and try to avoid the negative effects of metal poisoning. Zinc is one of the metals present in high concentrations in industrially polluted areas. Zinc poisoning may be avoided by the regulation of the consumption rate, by behavioral response, by storing metals in the hepatopancreas as insoluble granules, and by fecal, and possibly urinary, excretion. Zinc in organisms is a constituent of more than 200 metalloenzymes and other metabolic compounds and assures stability of biological molecules and structures. High Zn levels in food cause a reduction of feeding rate, affect growth and reproduction, cause changes in the structure of the digestive glands and influence the duration of the molting cycle. The present study investigated zinc assimilation by Porcellio scaber exposed to leaves contaminated with radioactively labeled zinc at five different concentrations. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Takereana, a new genus of Idoteidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Valvifera) from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Hurley, Desmond E

    2015-01-01

    Takereana n. gen. is erected for the New Zealand species, Idotea festiva Chilton, 1885, which is redescribed. Takereana, Austridotea Poore, 2001 and Idotea Fabricius, 1798 are the only idoteid genera in which both pleonites 1 and 2 are truly articulating. In all other genera of Idoteidae pleonite 2 is variously fused to pleonite 1 and visible only laterally. The new genus differs from Austridotea in that maxillipedal palp articles 2-3 and 4-5 are fused and operculate whereas in Austridotea the palp is of five free articles or has only articles 4-5 fused. All species of Austridotea are smooth with laterally expanded coxae, a quite different habitus from ornamented Takereana festiva. Takereana differs from Idotea in having two uropodal rami rather than one, greater fusion of maxillipedal palp articles, lacking spiniform setae on the pereopods, and unusual narrow pleopods 1. Takereana has an obsolete setose mandibular molar while it is columnar and toothed in both these genera. PMID:26701503

  19. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  20. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  1. A new Chthamalus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) from the challengeri subgroup on Taiwan rocky intertidal shores.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Cheang, Chi Chiu

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes a new barnacle, Chthamalus williamsi sp. nov., from rocky shores in Taiwan. Chthamalus williamsi sp. nov. belongs to the challengeri subgroup of Chthamalus due to cirrus I having no conical spines and the setae on cirri II having no basal guards. Within the challengeri sub-group, C. williamsi sp. nov. differs from C. challengeri Hoek, 1883, C. dalli Pilsbry, 1916 and C. montagui Southward, 1976 by its scutum and the tergum both having straight articular margins. Chthamalus moro Pilsbry, 1916 differs from C. williamsi sp. nov. in having strong ribbing on the shell surface, and C. williamsi sp. nov. differs from C. antennatus Darwin, 1854 by having a normal form cirrus III, rather than an antenniform cirrus III as in C. antennatus. The external morphology and size of C. williamsi sp. nov. are similar to C. sinensis Ren, 1984 (C. neglectus Yan & Chan, 2004 is a synonym of C. sinensis, from molecular data presented in the present study) but the scutum of C. williamsi sp. nov. has a height similar to its width, whilst the scutum of C. sinensis is much depressed, being wider than high. From molecular analysis of a mitochondrial COI region, C. williamsi sp. nov. formed a distinct clade (divergence >15%) from other described species in the challengeri subgroup including C. challengeri, C. sinensis, C. moro, C. montagui and C. dalli, suggesting that it is a new species. PMID:26623745

  2. The functional and physiological status of Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea; Amphipoda) exposed to secondary treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict lower flow rates during summer that may lead to higher proportions of wastewater in small and medium sized streams. Moreover, micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and other contaminants) continuously enter aquatic environments via treated wastewater. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, whether extended exposure to secondary treated wastewater disrupts important ecosystem functions, e.g. leaf breakdown. Therefore, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was exposed to natural stream water (n=34) and secondary treated wastewater (n=32) for four weeks in a semi-static test system under laboratory conditions. G. fossarum exposed to wastewater showed significant reductions in feeding rate (25%), absolute consumption (35%), food assimilation (50%), dry weight (18%) and lipid content (22%). Thus, high proportions of wastewater in the stream flow may affect both the breakdown rates of leaf material and thus the availability of energy for the aquatic food web as well as the energy budget of G. fossarum. PMID:20932616

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro). PMID:24397766

  4. The complete mitogenome of the soldier crab Mictyris longicarpus (Latreille, 1806) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Mictyridae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The Mictyris longicarpus (soldier crab) complete mitochondrial genome sequence is reported making it the first for the family Mictyridae and the second for the superfamily Ocypodoidea. The mitogenome is 15,548 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The soldier crab mitogenome gene order is characteristic of brachyuran crabs with a base composition of 36.58% for T, 19.15% for C, 32.43% for A and 11.83% for G, with an AT bias of 69.01%. PMID:25423510

  5. The complete mitogenome of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs. PMID:25423512

  6. The complete mitogenome of the freshwater crayfish Cherax cainii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherax cainii was recovered from partial genome sequencing data using the HiSeq platform. The mitogenome consists of 15,801 base pairs (69% A + T content) containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a 783 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the second completely sequenced mitogenome from the genus Cherax after the first reported Cherax destructor mitogenome nearly a decade ago. PMID:24438281

  7. The complete mitogenome of the crayfish Cherax glaber (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherax glaber was sequenced using the HiSeq platform. The mitogenome consists of 15,806 base pairs containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The Cherax glaber has a base composition of 32.39% for T, 22.42% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.46% for G, with an AT bias of 66.12%. PMID:24484586

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the American lobster, Homarus americanus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

    2011-06-01

    Although relatively a large number of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been determined from various decapod species (29 mtDNA sequences reported so far), the information for the infraorder Astacidea (including lobsters, crayfishes, and their relatives) is very limited and represented by only one complete sequence from the Australian freshwater crayfish species Cherax destructor. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Homarus americanus, the first representative of the family Nephropidae to be fully characterized. Comparison of the gene arrangement reveals that H. americanus mtDNA is identical to those of other pancrustacean species but differs from the other astacidean species (C. destructor). Based on these data, it can be assumed that an idiosyncratic gene order discovered in C. destructor mtDNA may be secondarily acquired from the ancestral lineage of the Astacidea. PMID:21740340

  9. The complete mitogenome of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Von Martens, 1868) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The commercial freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus complete mitochondrial genome was recovered from partial genome sequencing using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer. The mitogenome has 15,869 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of C. quadricarinatus is 32.16% for T, 23.39% for C, 33.26% for A, and 11.19% for G, with an AT bias of 65.42%. PMID:24617485

  10. The complete mitogenome of Cherax monticola (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae), a large highland crayfish from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Eprilurahman, Rury; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a highland freshwater crayfish, Cherax monticola, was recovered by shotgun sequencing. The mitogenome consists of 15,917 base pairs containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of C. monticola is 33.46% for T, 21.48% for C, 33.71% for A and 11.35% for G, with an AT bias of 67.17%. PMID:24617471

  11. A new genus of Trachelipodidae Strouhal, 1953 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Giovanna Monticelli; Taiti, Stefano; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Levantoniscus n. gen. is erected for two new species from Cyprus: Levantoniscus bicostulatus n. sp. and Levantoniscus makrisi n. sp. Levantoniscus wahrmani (Strouhal, 1968) n. comb. from Israel and southern Turkey is transferred from the genus Bathytropa Budde-Lund, 1885 and family Bathytropidae. The new genus is included in the family Trachelipodidae and is characterized by distinct dorsal ornamentation, interlocking pleopods and uncovered pleopodal lungs which are located in invaginations on pleopod 3-5 exopodites. PMID:26624647

  12. Seasonal variability of metabolic markers and oxidative balance in freshwater amphipod Hyalella kaingang (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Braghirolli, Fernando Machado; Oliveira, Maiara Rodriguez; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-08-01

    Amphipods are widely used as bioindicator organisms, in view of their ease of collection and cultivation, sexual dimorphism and abundance, in aquatic environments. In the present study male (n=30) and female (n=30) amphipod Hyalella kaingang were collected during the middle of each season from a nature preserve (Research Center PRÓ-MATA) in São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil. Proteins, glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, and lipid peroxidation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activity) were measured. The results obtained for the markers of energy metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation revealed a clear seasonal variation. The patterns of proteins, glycerol, and glutathione S-transferase activity did not differ between sexes; conversely, differential responses in males and females over the year were observed for all other parameters (glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity). These responses appear to be strongly influenced by a prolonged reproductive period (autumn through spring, peaking in autumn); by the degree of exploratory activity, particularly in the summer and autumn; and by abiotic factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. The responses observed in the summer and autumn (decrease in levels of proteins, glycogen and fats, and increase in lipid peroxidation levels and glutathione S-transferase activity), suggest that this season represents a critical time point for these animals. The parameters studied herein may be used as biomarkers to assess the environmental conditions in the aquatic habitat. PMID:27107775

  13. Identification and characterisation of hemocyanin of the fish louse Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Pinnow, Pauline; Fabrizius, Andrej; Pick, Christian; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Hemocyanin transports oxygen in the hemolymph of many arthropod species. Within the crustaceans, this copper-containing protein was thought to be restricted to Malacostraca, while other crustacean classes were assumed to employ hemoglobin or lack any respiratory protein. Only recently it has become evident that hemocyanins also occur in Remipedia and Ostracoda. Here we report for the first time the identification and characterisation of hemocyanin in the fish louse Argulus, which belongs to the class of Branchiura. This finding indicates that hemocyanin was the principal oxygen carrier in the stem lineage of the pancrustaceans, but has been lost independently multiple times in crustacean taxa. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of two hemocyanin subunits of Argulus foliaceus by a combination of RT-PCR, RACE and Illumina sequencing of the transcriptome. In addition, one full-length and one partial cDNA sequence were derived from the transcriptome data of Argulus siamensis. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of at least two hemocyanin subunits in A. foliaceus, which are expressed at the mRNA level at a 1:3.5 ratio. The addition to the branchiuran hemocyanin subunits to a multiple sequence alignment of arthropod, hemocyanins improved the phylogenetic resolution within the pancrustacean hemocyanins. Malacostracan, ostracod and branchiuran hemocyanins are distinct from the hexapod and remipede hemocyanins, reinforcing the hypothesis of a close relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda. Notably, the ostracod hemocyanins are paraphyletic with respect to the branchiuran hemocyanins, indicating ancient divergence and differential loss of distinct subunit types. PMID:26515963

  14. Two new species of Asellota (Crustacea, Isopoda) from coral reefs on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pleurocope iriomotensis sp. n. and Prethura tuberculata sp. n. are described from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. These are the first records of Pleurocope from the Pacific and of Prethura from the Asian Pacific coast. Pleurocope iriomotensis differs from its congeners in having lateral spine-like processes on pereonite 4 and coxal plates of pereonite 7. Prethura tuberculata can be distinguished from its single congener in having a lateral short projection of protopod of pleopod 2. PMID:26448712

  15. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O2 consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment.

  16. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. S.; Chan, J. C. L.; Cheng, W. C.; Tai, S. L.; Wong, P. W.

    2007-08-01

    This study examines the convection distribution associated with 18 TCs that made landfall along the South China coast during 1995 and 2005. Cloud-top temperatures from high-resolution satellite imageries of the Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite 5 are used as proxy of strong convection. It is found that convection tends to be enhanced on the western side of the TC as it makes landfall in 10 of the cases, in agreement with the conclusion of some previous studies. Four cases have stronger convection on the eastern side. This “deviation” from the general rule appears to be related to the TCs being more slow-moving or their interaction of the TC with another land surface prior to its making landfall along the South China coast. For the remaining cases in which no significant asymmetries in convection can be identified, the vertical wind shear appears to enhance convection on the east side.

  17. Responses of the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni (crustacea) to saline sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Johnson, I.

    Soon after the openiing of the Looe sewage treatment works (Cornwall, southwest England) in 1973, it became colonized by the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni Liljeborg. The works is unusual as it operates with saline sewage and has a tidally-based pattern of salinity fluctuation (S=13 to 34). Various responses of this unique amphipod population (sewage amphipods) have been compared with G. duebeni from the adjacent Looe River estuary (estuarine amphipods) in an attempt to identify long-term responses to sewage. Sewage amphipods were significantly smaller than their estuarine equivalents; the sewage population was biased significantly to males, whereas the sex ratio of the estuarine population significantly favours females. Compared with the estuary, the consistently lower oxygen levels in the works were reflected in significant differences in metabolism. Sewage amphipods maintained high levels of activity under hypoxia ( e.g. swimming), and the higher survival and lower rates of lactic acid accumulation under anoxia than estuarine individuals. In addition, sewage amphipods recovered more rapidly from anoxia and had a lower critical oxygen tension (p c) than estuarine amphipods. Sewage amphipods are exposed to higher levels of heavy metals associated with the domestic sewage and zinc concentrations are particularly elevated in the works. Exposure to elevated zinc concentrations resulted in similar patterns of body zinc uptake for sewage and estuarine Gammarus at high (30) and low (10) salinity, with zinc regulation apparently occuring to an external threshold of 200 γmgZn·dm -3. No consistent interpopulational differences in the effect ofzinc on zinc uptake or on osmoregulation have been identified. However, sewage amphipods had higher survival at all zinc/salinity combinations compared with estuarine individuals. These indicate that sewage amphipods are adapted to the unusual combination of conditions prevailing in the treatment works and, if reproductive isolation is confirmed, suggest that the speciation process may have commenced.

  18. Reproductive pattern of the epifaunal amphipod Pontogeneia rostrata (Crustacea) on dolsando sandy shore in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ok Hwan; Jeong, Seung Jin; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2008-09-01

    Reproductive patterns of an epifaunal amphipod, Pontogeneia rostrata, were studied on Dolsando sandy shore in Korea. The life history pattern was iteroparous, with recruitment mainly occurring from winter to spring. The sex ratio was male-biased, especially during breeding periods. The mean body length of females was significantly larger than that of males. Brood size and egg volume were positively related to the body length of ovigerous females. There was no significant difference in brood size between successive breeding periods, but egg volumes were significantly higher in early winter (December) than in late spring breeding (May and June), increasing the probability of survival to hatching. These traits contribute to more reproductive potential in early winter than in late spring breeding. The mean brood size of epifaunal P. rostrata was larger but the mean egg volume smaller than that of infaunal amphipods in this sampling area. We suggest that reproductive effort for epifaunal species may be proportionally greater than for infaunal species in risky environments.

  19. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  20. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  1. Egg envelopes of Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille, 1804) (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea): Ultrastructure and lectins binding.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Sinatra, F; Villaggio, G; Longo, G

    2016-09-01

    The ultrastructural study carried out on (a) oocytes of Armadillidium vulgare during vitellogenesis, (b) mature eggs taken from the ovaries during the parturial moult of the posterior half of the body, and (c) fertilized eggs collected within a few hours of their release into the brood pouch, has clearly demonstrated that before the fertilization the chorion is the only envelope present in the egg of oniscidean isopods. In the mature eggs, the chorion appears as a uniformly electron-dense lamina, about 0.4-0.5 µm thick, which does not show any specialized area. A second envelope, described by other authors as vitelline envelope, is formed above the oolemma only right after fertilization and appears separated from the chorion by a space full of liquid. The ways in which the genesis of this envelope is realized are not yet clear; it could be interpreted rather as a fertilization membrane. The investigations carried out with the aid of a battery of FITC-lectins have highlighted the presence at the chorion surface of unfertilized eggs of various saccharide residues distributed in uniform way. No significant change was observed in the pattern of lectins binding to the chorion of eggs taken from the brood pouch, thus demonstrating how, after the fertilization, no significant rearrangement in the distribution of saccharide residues present on the egg surface occurs in A. vulgare. The ways in which, therefore, the recognition, the binding and the entry of the peculiar sperm of oniscidean isopods into the egg occur, still remain all to be deciphered. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:792-798, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324273

  2. Structure and evolution of the atypical mitochondrial genome of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Marcadé, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Doublet, Vincent; Debenest, Catherine; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Roland

    2007-12-01

    The crustacean isopod Armadillidium vulgare is characterized by an unusual approximately 42-kb-long mitochondrial genome consisting of two molecules co-occurring in mitochondria: a circular approximately 28-kb dimer formed by two approximately 14-kb monomers fused in opposite polarities and a linear approximately 14-kb monomer. Here we determined the nucleotide sequence of the fundamental monomeric unit of A. vulgare mitochondrial genome, to gain new insight into its structure and evolution. Our results suggest that the junction zone between monomers of the dimer structure is located in or near the control region. Direct sequencing indicated that the nucleotide sequences of the different monomer units are virtually identical. This suggests that gene conversion and/or replication processes play an important role in shaping nucleotide sequence variation in this mitochondrial genome. The only heteroplasmic site we identified predicts an alloacceptor tRNA change from tRNA(Ala) to tRNA(Val). Therefore, in A. vulgare, tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Val) are found at the same locus in different monomers, ensuring that both tRNAs are present in mitochondria. The presence of this heteroplasmic site in all sequenced individuals suggests that the polymorphism is selectively maintained, probably because of the necessity of both tRNAs for maintaining proper mitochondrial functions. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for the tRNA gene recruitment model of tRNA evolution. Moreover, interspecific comparisons showed that the A. vulgare mitochondrial gene order is highly derived compared to the putative ancestral arthropod type. By contrast, an overall high conservation of mitochondrial gene order is observed within crustacean isopods. PMID:17906827

  3. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed. PMID:15081839

  4. Discontinuous ammonia excretion and glutamine storage in littoral Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda): testing tidal and circadian models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maya; Wright, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    A key evolutionary development facilitating land colonization in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is the intermittent liberation of waste nitrogen as volatile ammonia. Intermittent ammonia release exploits glutamine (Gln) as an intermediary nitrogen store. Here, we explore the relationship between temporal patterns of ammonia release and Gln accumulation in three littoral oniscideans from Southern California. Results are interpreted in terms of water availability, habitat, activity patterns, and ancestry. A two-way experimental design was used to test whether ammonia excretion and Gln accumulation follow a tidal or diel periodicity. Ammonia excretion was studied in the laboratory using chambers with or without available seawater and using an acid trap to collect volatile ammonia. Ligia occidentalis releases ammonia directly into seawater and accumulates Gln during low tide (48.9 ± 6.5 μmol g⁻¹ at low tide, 24.1 ± 3.0 μmol g⁻¹ at high tide), indicating that excretion is tidally constrained. Alloniscus perconvexus and Tylos punctatus can excrete ammonia directly into seawater or utilize volatilization. Both species burrow in sand by day and show a diel excretory pattern, accumulating Gln nocturnally (31.8 ± 2.7 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 21.8 ± 2.3 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for A. perconvexus; 85.7 ± 15.1 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 25.4 ± 2.9 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for T. punctatus) and liberating ammonia diurnally. Glutaminase shows higher activity in terrestrial (0.54-0.86 U g⁻¹) compared to intertidal (0.25-0.31 U g⁻¹) species, consistent with the need to generate high PNH₃ for volatilization. The predominant isoform in Armadillidium vulgare is phosphate dependent and maleate independent; phosphate is a plausible regulator in vivo. PMID:22836297

  5. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  6. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Mrak, Polona; Bogataj, Urban; Štrus, Jasna; Žnidaršič, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial manca, possibly related also to different environments, as mancae develop in marsupial fluid. Bacteria, evenly distributed within the homogenous electron dense material in the hindgut lumen, were observed only in one specimen of early marsupial manca. The morphological features of gut cuticle renewal are evident in the late marsupial mancae, and are similar to those observed in the exoskeleton. PMID:26261443

  7. A new species of Monoliropus Mayer, 1903 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Caprellidae) from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Sang; Heo, Jun-Haeng; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Monoliropus belonging to the family Caprellidae was collected from the Yellow Sea, Korea. The new species differs from Monoliropus agilis Mayer, 1903, Monoliropus kazemii Momtazi & Sari, 2013, and Triprotella amica Arimoto, 1970 as follows: 1) gnathopod 1 subrectangular; 2) pereonites 2–3 with acute triangular processes anterolaterally; 3) mandibular palp, apical article with four simple setae subdistally. The new species is fully illustrated and extensively compared with related species. This is the first record of the genus Monoliropus from Korean waters. A key to Monoliropus species is also given. PMID:26312030

  8. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: Families Ampeliscidae, Ampithoidae, Aoridae, Colomastigidae and Cyproideidae

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Alan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract 12 species of amphipod in 5 families, collected from shallow reefs in Palau by S. DeGrave during 2002, are reported here. Of these, five species are new to science and Microdeutopus tridens Schellenberg (1938) is redescribed and transferred to the genus Bemlos Shoemaker (1925). The collection included several additional species in the genera Amphilochus Bate, 1862, Ampithoe Leach (1814), Bemlos, Byblis Boeck (1871), Colomastix Grube (1861) and Notopoma Lowry & Berents (1996), that were either incomplete or juvenile and could therefore not adequately be described. In addition, two new species of Plumithoe Barnard & Karaman (1991) are erected from the literature. Other families collected in Palau will be considered in later contributions. PMID:22679377

  9. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the blind vent crab Gandalfus puia (Crustacea: Bythograeidae) from the Tonga Arc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Moon, Jai-Woon; Ju, Se-Jong

    2016-07-01

    The brachyuran crab Gandalfus puia is a species endemic to the hydrothermal vent fields in the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. In order to understand G. puia at the genomic level, we sequenced its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) and then compared to other bythograeids. The mitogenome is 15,548 bp in length and exhibits brachyuran-typical gene arrangement. Its protein-coding genes were very similar to other bythograeid species with respect to length, AT content and start and stop codons. Additionally, we compared the mitogenomes of Gandalfus and the closely related Austinograea. The inter-specific nucleotide divergence was 13.4% in Gandalfus and 13.7-14.0% in Austinograea. The inter-generic nucleotide divergence between Gandalfus and Austinograea was 16.3-19.7%. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, bythograeid crabs were recognized as the monophyletic taxon with the high supporting values (100% bootstrap proportions and 1.00 posterior probabilities). These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of bythograeid crabs. PMID:26057012

  11. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  12. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H J M; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group. PMID:27246395

  13. Lamprops donghaensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Cumacea, Lampropidae), a new species from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Cumacea belonging to the genus Lamprops Sars was collected from the East Sea of Korea. This new species resembles Lamprops comatus Zimmer, Lamprops carinatus Hart, Lamprops flavus Harada, Lamprops pumilio Zimmer, Lamprops tomalesi Gladfelter, and Lamprops obfuscatus (Gladfelter) in lacking lateral oblique ridges on the carapace and lateral setae on the telson. The new species, however, is distinguished from its congeners by having a dorsal concave groove and a lateral rounded depressed area on pereonite 2. The new species is fully illustrated and compared with related species. A key to the world Lamprops species lacking lateral ridges on the carapace is also provided. PMID:26312026

  14. Thermal biology of the sub-polar-temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae).

    PubMed

    Cumillaf, Juan P; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34-36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5-6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  15. A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010 (Crustacea: Alpheidae) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando; Iliffe, Thomas M; Villalobos, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010, is described based on material collected in a marine cave off Caye Chapel, Belize. Triacanthoneus chapelianus sp. nov. is the fifth species in the genus and can be distinguished from the other four species by the position of the dorsolateral teeth on the carapace, which in the new species have an anterior (= submarginal) position, and by the configuration of the posterior margin of the telson, with a notch in the middle portion and two pairs of spines and one pair of plumose setae. A key to the five species of Triacanthoneus is provided. PMID:24871168

  16. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  17. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  18. Agononida Baba and de saint Laurent, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheoidea: Munididae) from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    The present paper reports five species of squat lobster, genus Agononida Baba and de Saint Laurent, 1996, of which A. squamosa (Henderson, 1885) and A. cf. variabilis (Baba, 1988) were not previously reported in Chinese waters. All the specimens are kept in the Marine Biological Museum collection in the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. To date, there have been 11 species of this genus recorded from China's seas. A key to those species is provided in this paper.

  19. First record of the Nephropid genus Acanthacaris Bate, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Ching; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2015-01-01

    The giant deep-sea lobster genus Acanthacaris Bate, 1888 is reported for the first time from Taiwan. The single specimen with a total length of 36 cm was collected near a cold seep off southwestern Taiwan at about 1300 m deep and identified as A. tenuimana Bate, 1888. PMID:26624388

  20. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  1. The complete mitogenome of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene. PMID:25648918

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Joong-Ki; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Slipper lobsters are a unique group of decapod crustaceans; they have cylindrical or flattened bodies and belong to the family Scyllaridae. The genus Ibacus (Leach, 1815) (Achelata, Scyllaridae, Ibacinae) consists of eight recognized species to date, all of which occur in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and are commercially important seafood species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Von Siebold, 1824) is 15,696 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 783 bp. The base composition of I. ciliatus is 35.8% A, 34.7% T, 19.0% C, and 10.5% G, with an overall AT content of 70.5%. The mitogenome of I. ciliatus was found to have gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the American lobster Homarus americanus, showing the pancrustacean ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of I. ciliatus; it is the first mitogenome information from the subfamily Ibacinae, and represents the second for the family Scyllaridae. PMID:25329294

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius (Crustacea, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-05-01

    The violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius Holthuis, 1983 (Decapoda, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) is found in the tropical reef areas of the Indo-Pacific region, and is a highly prized and very popular species in the aquarium trade industry. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. debelius has 15,641 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 746 bp. The base composition of E. debelius is 36.4% A, 35.3% T, 18.1% C, 10.3% G, and the species has an AT content of 71.7%. The E. debelius mitogenome was found to have a gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the Homarus americanus mitogenome, a representative of the arthropod ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of E. debelius, which is the first in the superfamily Enoplometopoidea. These data will provide a useful molecular resource for the phylogenetic study of the infraorder Astacidea/order Decapoda. PMID:25264838

  4. Effects of heavy metal accumulation on some reproductive characters in Armadillidium granulatum Brandt (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V; Copat, C; Oliveri Conti, G; Ferrante, M

    2013-12-01

    The impact of heavy metal bioaccumulation on reproduction of the isopod Armadillidium granulatum was studied by exposing the animals to food contaminated with various sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc salts over a period of three weeks. The analysis carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry on whole body and on isolated female and male genital systems highlighted that, although metal's bioaccumulation was always concentration-dependent, it varies considerably depending on the metal (Cd>Zn>Pb) as pointed out by the respective values of the concentration factor. The heavy metals bioaccumulation has influenced in different ways the reproductive characters observed; while no significant difference was found with regard to the length of the incubation period and the number of broods--A. granulatum has an iteroparous reproductive strategy--the onset and the length of the reproductive season were negatively affected by the increase in concentration of the tested metals, in particular of Cd. The rate of gravid females, instead, was negatively affected by the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn while in the groups treated with the highest concentrations of Pb all females produced at least one brood. The number of juveniles released from the brood pouch at the end of incubation resulted considerably higher and it was always positively correlated to the increase of the concentration of each metal, except for the highest Pb concentration. The explanation of this result, apparently anomalous, could be the object of a future research. PMID:24119710

  5. A review of the Australian endemic clam shrimp, Paralimnadia Sars 1896 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata).

    PubMed

    Timms, Brian V

    2016-01-01

    Paralimnadia was recently re-erected to accommodate Australian limnadiids formally placed in Limnadia. They are characterised by the lack of a spine on the posterior ventral corner of the telson, a cercopod divided by a spine midlength into a cylindrical seta bearing basal section and a narrowing denticle bearing distal section, males amplex females on the posterior body margin keeping the body in line, and gonochoristic reproduction, so typically sex ratios are broadly 1:1. These characters separate Paralimnadia from the closely related Eulimandia. Paralimnadia is endemic to and diverse in Australia, and includes the transferred P. stanleyana (King), P. sordida (King), P. badia (Wolf), P. cygnorum (Dakin) and P. urukhai (Webb & Bell) as well as 10 new species. All are variable morphologically, the most conservative characters being the morphology of their eggs and the cercopod setae. Although found across Australia, there are hot spots of diversity in the coast and montane areas of New South Wales and southwest of areas of Western Australia and few in the vast inland arid zone. As in Eulimnadia, a few occur in rock pools. However those in sandy coastal pools subject to urbanisation or mining are becoming rare. PMID:27615945

  6. A new species of the genus Paracypria (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cypridoidea) from the Fiji Islands.

    PubMed

    Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions. PMID:27615895

  7. Morphology and evolution of the respiratory apparatus in the family Eubelidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Pasquino; Ferrara, Franco; Taiti, Stefano

    2002-09-01

    The morphology of the respiratory apparatus in the pleopodal lungs of the family Eubelidae was investigated. The family is a monophyletic group including more than 240 species in 53 genera (three of which are nomina dubia), mostly distributed in the Afrotropical Region (tropical Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In all the Eubelidae, except for the monospecific genus Parelumoides and two species of the genus Elumoides, the exopods of pleopods have lungs. All the pulmonary morphologies present in the entire suborder Oniscidea are found: 1) uncovered lungs, composed of a pleated respiratory surface, directly exposed to the air (Atracheodillo-type) or partially enclosed within the appendage (Synarmadilloides-type); 2) covered lungs with several spiracles and respiratory trees, housed within the appendages, with spiracles surrounded by a specialized, nonrespiratory, structure (perispiracular area) (Eubelum- and Somaloniscus-types); 3) covered lungs with only one spiracle, with or without perispiracular area, and one respiratory tree (Aethiopopactes- and Periscyphis-types), which in taxa with Periscyphis-type lung crosses the insertion of the appendage and penetrates into the pleon with bundles of respiratory tubules. The evolution of the various types of lungs is discussed. It is concluded that the two main evolutionary lines, i.e., uncovered lungs and covered lungs, originated independently from an ancestral respiratory structure-the semilunar area. A first mechanism of development of the semilunar area by folding of its surface produced the Atracheodillo-type (all folds coplanar with the surface of the exopod) and Synarmadilloides-type (folds partly coplanar and partly intraflexed inside the exopod) uncovered lungs. A second mechanism of development by tubular invagination of the cuticle of the semilunar area produced the polyspiracular Eubelum-type lungs (numerous arborescent invaginations) and the monospiracular Aethiopopactes-type lungs (only one arborescent invagination), probably passing through a common intermediate pattern. From the common pattern, both the poly- and monospiracular types would have inherited the characteristic concave cell arrangement of the perispiracular area. The Somaloniscus-type and Periscyphis-type lungs are forms specialized for arid environments, directly derived from the Eubelum-type and Aethiopopactes-type, respectively. PMID:12125066

  8. Heavy metal toxicity in Exosphaeroma gigas (Crustacea, Isopoda) from the coastal zone of Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Comoglio, Laura; Amin, Oscar

    2007-11-01

    Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc on isopod Exosphaeroma gigas was evaluated at 20 per thousand and 30 per thousand salinity. Six concentrations were assayed to estimate effective concentration of the toxicant that affects 50% of tested animal (EC50), while physiological responses and bioaccumulation were determined at 0.42 and 1.95 mg L(-1) of each metal. The following toxicity orders were obtained: Cd>or=Cu>Zn at 20 per thousand salinity and Cu>Zn>or=Cd at 30 per thousand salinity. Copper treatments showed a reduction in oxygen consumption at 30 per thousand salinity, while an opposite trend was observed at 20 per thousand salinity. Zinc caused dissimilar effects, while in cadmium significant reduction was only registered in 0.42(20 per thousand) mg L(-1). Ammonia excretion was generally higher in treatments than control at 20 per thousand salinity. At 30 per thousand salinity, excretion did not change in relation to control or diminished. In general terms, O:N atomic ratios indicated a preponderant protein metabolism. Bioaccumulation of assayed metals was higher at lowest salinity and increased with increasing toxic concentrations. PMID:17223192

  9. Multiple origins of deep-sea Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda) from shallow waters revealed by molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Mayer, Christoph; Malyutina, Marina; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The Asellota are a highly variable group of Isopoda with many species in freshwater and marine shallow-water environments. However, in the deep sea, they show their most impressive radiation with a broad range of astonishing morphological adaptations and bizarre body forms. Nevertheless, the evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea Asellota are poorly known because of difficulties in scoring morphological characters. In this study, the molecular phylogeny of the Asellota is evaluated for 15 marine shallow-water species and 101 deep-sea species, using complete 18S and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences. Our molecular data support the monophyly of most deep-sea families and give evidence for a multiple colonization of the deep sea by at least four major lineages of asellote isopods. According to our molecular data, one of these lineages indicates an impressive radiation in the deep sea. Furthermore, the present study rejects the monophyly of the family Janiridae, a group of plesiomorphic shallow-water Asellota, and several shallow-water and deep-sea genera (Acanthaspidia, Ianthopsis, Haploniscus, Echinozone, Eurycope, Munnopsurus and Syneurycope). PMID:19033145

  10. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species. PMID:26624192

  11. Population Genetic History of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M.; D’Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from “virgin” deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective ‘rescue effect’ contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman’s coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly relevant to sample the deepest ones directly. PMID:25775363

  12. Reproductive variability of Parapandalus narval (Crustacea: Decapoda) along a depth gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    1992-12-01

    The variations of the reproductive parameters of Parapandalus narval are studied from a population off Rhodos Island, Greece. Female size (CL), dry weight (FDW) and depth of occurrence are examined as determinants of the reproductive parameters such as the percentage of ovigerous females, the stage of egg maturation, the brood size and the reproductive effort. The percentage of the ovigerous females and the egg maturation are related to depth. More ovigerous, older females with larger eggs in earlier stages of development are found in deeper waters. Nevertheless, brood size or brood dry weight regressions on female size and dry weight, respectively, show that the shallow water reproductive output increases more steeply with size or weight of the females than does that in deeper waters. Finally, the reproductive effort of Parapandalus narval does not seem to be directly related to depth but it is related to the size of the female. Small females have smaller reproductive effort than bigger ones that reach a maximum value.

  13. From time-to space-traveller -tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Notostraca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierold, Thorid

    The Notostraca is a small ancient crustacean order dating back to the Carboniferous and possibly up to the Devonian period. In fact, there are Upper Triassic Triops fossils from Germany which are almost indistinguishable from the present Triops cancriformis and thus Triops is considered to be one of the best examples of evolutionary stasis or `living fossil'. Fossil records have shown that the occurrence of Triops is linked to strata resulting from inland freshwater bodies with alternating phases of flooding and drying out. Still today Notostraca species are known from ephemeral ponds and puddles throughout the world. Several Large Branchiopod species such as the European T. cancriformis present adaptations to desiccation, the main one being the production of thick-walled resting cysts. A high number of resting cysts is laid during the flooded period into the pond sediment or is fixed on plants during the adulthood. The drought resistant portion of cysts undergoes an extreme form of diapause. During this resting time the embryo is protected by different (cement)-layers against desiccation, UV-radiation and pressure. Thus their life cycle is perfectly adapted to extreme environments which resulted in the survival of more than 200 Million years. Among the Notostraca a wide range of reproductive modes are present including bisexual -the putatively ancestral state -, androdioecious and hermaphrodite populations. As hermaphroditism and androdioecy confer a colonisation advantage, Triops are suitable for populating experiments whatsoever. Triops is an ideal model organism due to their easy culture and breeding in the lab. Without any impact on the hatching success the resting cysts can easily be extracted from the soil and prepared for controlled experiments. Furthermore their biology has been studied in depth and optimal breeding conditions are known. The ancient group "travelled" successfully through time and is now ready for experiments in the outer space. At the moment Triops is considered to be included in upcoming astrobiolog-ical programs "Bio-Phobos" and "Biorisk-3" scheduled for 2010-2013. Questions focusing on the effects of cosmic rays on diapause, development without gravity, and the influence of the immense g forces during take off are of main interest.

  14. The life history and sexual biology of Pseudunciola obliquua (crustacea: amphipoda) in the New York Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. A.; Woodhead, P. M. J.

    1984-06-01

    Pseudunciola obliquua is the most abundant subtidal amphipod of the near-shore macrobenthos in the New York Bight south of Fire Island. It has an annual life-cycle. Breeding occurs in March and April, and a single brood of between 8 and 20 eggs per female is produced. Fecundity is linearly proportional to maternal length. The eggs take about two months to develop; the juveniles emerge in June and July. Initial recruitment in the study area was estimated to be 2980 and 5850 per m 2 for the 1979-1980 and 1980-1981 year classes, respectively. Of the initial recruits only about 10% survive to form the reproductive stock of the following spring. Females and males grow at similar rates and are equally abundant as juveniles and initially as adults, until they reach sexual maturity. After breeding, the abundance of males decreases rapidly due to post-reproductive death. Females continue to live, carrying the developing eggs in their brood pouches. Mean female growth increases throughout the brooding period until the young are released, shortly after which adult females also die. The entire generation of reproductive adults has died by September.

  15. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscus manuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiioscia rapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered ‘disturbance relicts’ and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species. PMID:26261438

  16. Temporal Expression of the Clock Genes in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr P; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Sikora, Anna; Polanska, Marta A; Pijanowska, Joanna; Bębas, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The timekeeping mechanisms that operate at the core of circadian clocks (oscillators) are based on interacting molecular feedback loops consisting of clock and clock-associated genes. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on the expression of clock genes (particularly those forming its core) in single crustacean species at the mRNA and protein levels, and these studies could serve as a basis for constructing a model of the crustacean molecular oscillator. Studies on Daphnia pulex are well suited to fill this gap because this species is the only representative crustacean whose genome has been sequenced. We analyzed the abundance of 20 gene transcripts throughout the day in the whole bodies of D. pulex (single clone); we found that 15 of these genes were transcriptionally active, and most had daily expression level changes. According to the functional classification of their homologues in insects, these genes may represent elements of the Daphnia molecular oscillator core and its input and output pathways. Studies of PERIOD (PER) protein, one of the main clock components, revealed its rhythmic expression pattern in the epidermis, gut, and ovaries. Finally, the cycling levels of many of these clock components observed in animals reared in continuous light led to the conclusion that the Daphnia oscillator, even if it is structurally similar to the oscillators of other arthropods, can be considered a particularly important adaptive mechanism for living in environments with extreme photoperiods. PMID:27170555

  17. Nutritional status of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) influences susceptibility to contaminant exposure.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Jones, Malcolm B

    2008-08-11

    Using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a model, this study tested the hypothesis that nutritional status influences susceptibility of adult crabs (>60mm carapace width (CW)) to environmental contamination. In the laboratory, crabs were either starved, given a restricted diet (fed on alternate days) or fully fed (fed each day). In addition, crabs under each feeding regime were exposed to a sublethal concentration (200microgl(-1)) of pyrene (PYR) as a model organic (PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon)) contaminant. Various physiological end points were measured after 7 and 14 days. Results indicated that adult shore crab physiology was relatively robust to short-term (7 days) nutritional changes as multivariate analysis (ANOSIM) showed no significant difference in shore crab physiological condition between control and pyrene-exposed crabs, irrespective of dietary feeding regime [Global R=0.018, P (%)=19.2]. After 14 days, however, starved crabs showed significant impacts to physiological condition (as revealed by multivariate analysis) [Global R=0.134, P (%)=0.1], [R=0.209, P (%)=0.1]; starved individuals had significantly lower antioxidant status (F(2,48)=5.35, P<0.01) compared to crabs under both types of feeding regime. Exposure to pyrene resulted in significantly elevated pyrene metabolite concentrations in the urine at 7 and 14 days compared with control individuals (P<0.001), validating contaminant bioavailability, and this was found for all dietary treatments. Also, exposed crabs had significantly increased protein levels (proteinuria) than controls (P<0.001) in their urine after 7 and 14 days, irrespective of dietary regime. After 7 days, pyrene-exposed crabs showed significantly increased antioxidant status (P<0.001) and cellular functioning (increased cellular viability and decreased phagocytosis) (P<0.001) compared to control crabs; however, after 14 days, antioxidant status (P<0.01) and cellular viability (P<0.001) were significantly decreased in pyrene-exposed compared to unexposed crabs. Results indicate that differences in nutritional status of adult crabs result in shore crabs being robust to short-term sublethal (7 days) pyrene exposure. Susceptibility to contaminant exposure, however, was measured after prolonged exposure (14 days) as indicated by reduced ability to combat oxidative stress. These results indicate that ecotoxicological studies need to take into account the nutritional state of the test organism to achieve the full assessment of contaminant impact. In addition, the results highlight that subtle seasonal biotic features of an organism can influence biomarker responses, and these need to be considered when interpreting field data and during the routine application of biological-effects tools in environmental monitoring. PMID:18606465

  18. The complete mitogenome of the New Zealand freshwater crayfish Paranephrops planifrons White 1842 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lys, Isabelle; Page, Rachel; Dias Wanigasekera, Beatrice; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitogenome of Paranephrops planifrons, was obtained by next generation sequencing. This crayfish has a mitochondrial genome of 16,174 base pairs with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and a non-coding AT-rich region of 771 bp. The P. planifrons nucleotide composition is: 33.63% for T, 21.92% for C, 34.46% for A, and 9.98% for G and has a 68.09% AT bias. While the mitogenome gene order for this species is consistent with aspects of the highly distinctive parastacid crayfish mitogenome gene arrangement, it has a novel gene order involving the rearrangements of a protein coding and several tRNA genes. PMID:25707411

  19. Let’s be pals again: major systematic changes in Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Charles H.J.M.; Page, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the systematic position of genera in the shrimp families Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae has been under debate, with phylogenetic studies suggesting the families are not real family level units. Here, we review the molecular evidence as well as the morphological characters used to distinguish both families, leading to the conclusion that neither family is valid. Further, we studied the structural details of the single morphological character which distinguishes the two subfamilies (Palaemoninae, Pontoniinae) in Palaemonidae, as well as their phylogenetic relationship. As the supposed character distinction plainly does not hold true and supported by the phylogenetic results, the recognition of subfamilies in Palaemonidae is not warranted. As a consequence, all three supra-generic taxa (Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, Pontoniinae) are thus herein formally synonymised with Palaemonidae. PMID:26339545

  20. Lilliput effect in a retroplumid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda) across the K/Pg boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Phillips, George E.; Nyborg, Torrey; Espinosa, Belinda; Távora, Vladimir de Araújo; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2016-08-01

    The genus Costacopluma (Brachyura: Decapoda: Retroplumidae) had a wide distribution during the early Paleogene and is currently represented by 14 species across the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Described early Paleogene species have a smaller mean body size compared to Campanian-Maastrichtian populations of Africa, northeastern Mexico, and southeastern United States. Originally described from the Paleocene and Eocene of Alabama, Costacopluma grayi Feldmann and Portell, 2007, is now documented from the uppermost Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) of northeastern Mexico and Mississippi and Lower Paleocene of Arkansas, all representing medium size specimens. The morphological features of latest Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) individuals are identical to those observed among populations of C. grayi from the Paleogene of Alabama and Arkansas, which have a smaller mean size. This size reduction, or dwarfism, in C. grayi across the K-Pg boundary is an example of the Lilliput effect. Dwarfism has been documented in several invertebrate groups as a response to environmental stress, but this is the first record of the Lilliput effect in brachyuran crustaceans. The stratigraphic and geographic range for Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989, is extended to the upper Campanian in northeastern Mexico and lower Maastrichtian in Mississippi and is suggested as a possible ancestor of C. grayi. Different preservational modes for this species in northeastern Mexico are discussed.

  1. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  2. Histological and ultrastructural investigation of the female reproductive system of Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirban; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand branchiuran reproductive biology, it is imperative to know the sites of oogenesis and oocyte maturation, locate the accessory reproductive glands, and identify the fertilization site with the present knowledge of the sperm transfer mechanism of the genus Argulus. With these objectives, we attempted to describe the female reproductive system of Argulus bengalensis using serial histological sections through the ovaries and associated ducts in the transverse, longitudinal, and sagittal planes. The reproductive organs include a median ovary, one pair of ovarian lumina, a median oviduct, and a pair of collateral accessory glands. A duct from each of the collateral accessory glands leads into the proximal part of the median oviduct, which opens to the exterior through a genital opening at the distal end. The glandular secretion presumably contributes to the jelly coat of the egg. The ovary is bound with a tunica propria which extends further diametrically inside the ovary forming the paired lumina. The lumina are confluent into the median oviduct. Two distinct areas, the germarium and differentiating zones, are clearly distinguishable within the ovary. The tunica propria itself houses the oogonia within a matrix, serving as the germarium. Transmission electron micrograph reveals that the matrix is made of collagen. The collagen matrix confers elasticity to the tunica propria to accommodate the postvitellogenic oocytes within the ovarian lumen. The differentiating zone is situated in between the germarium: dorsally it is covered with a chromatophore layer. The ovary is ensheathed by a circum ovarian striated muscle. The presence of spermatophores in the ovarian lumen indicates the fertilization site. J. Morphol. 277:707-716, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991011

  3. Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part II: sponge-dwellers

    PubMed Central

    White, Kristine N.; Reimer, James Davis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the canals of their sponge hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Eleven new species are described in the genus Leucothoe with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to sponge-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided. PMID:22328858

  4. A new species of Elpidium (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ricardo L; Jocqué, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Passively dispersing aquatic invertebrates such as Ostracoda in restricted aquatic habitats such as bromeliads remain an intriguing observation considering the highly specialised dispersal vectors needed for efficient colonisation. Here we describe a new species of Elpidium, Elpidium merendonense sp. n., collected from bromeliads in the cloud forest from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Elpidium merendonense sp. n. is a small to medium-sized species that can be easily distinguished from its congeners by its unique outgrowth at the posterior end of the left valve, visible especially in females. The species was common all through the park occurring at a wide range of altitudes and in different species of bromeliads. This finding is the first freshwater ostracod species described from Honduras and is in agreement with the prediction that the genus Elpidium contains a large number of species with small geographic distributions. We update the list of described species of Elpidium and present a key to species. PMID:23840164

  5. Butyltin concentrations along the Japanese coast from 1997 to 1999 monitored by Caprella spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ichiro; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-06-01

    The concentrations of butyltins along the Japanese coastline were investigated from 1997 to 1999, 7 to 9 years after implementation of legislation limiting the use of tributyltin (TBT) in Japan. Seawater was sampled at 0.5 m depth, and Caprella spp. were collected from Sargassum spp. and aquaculture facilities from 18 areas within four broad areas along the coastline of Japan, i.e., the Pacific coast of northern Japan, the coast along the Sea of Japan, Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, and western Japan. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in 32 of the 63 seawater samples with average concentrations of 4.6 ng MBT/l, 4.5 ng DBT/l and 6.8 ng TBT/l, respectively. Butyltin concentrations in seawater from western Japan indicate "hot spots" even in unpopulated areas. Butyltins (MBT, DBT and TBT) were detected in all samples of Caprella spp., varying from 2.3 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. penantis R-type from Tobishima Island in the Sea of Japan to 464 ng BTs /g wet wt in C. decipiens Mayer from Amakusa, western Kyushu. The BT concentrations in Caprella spp. form western Japan were significantly higher than those from other areas, including Tokyo Bay and adjacent areas, where large scale industry and international ports are located. These results indicate that butyltin contamination still remains even in unpopulated areas after the regulation on TBT usage, and that the regulation governing TBT usage since 1990 has not been effective enough to concede recovery of shallow water ecosystems around Japan. PMID:14967521

  6. Description of three species of Halmyrapseudes (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Parapseudidae), with a discussion of biogeography.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi; Angsupanich, Saowapa

    2013-01-01

    We describe Halmyrapseudes gutui sp. nov. from a mangrove area on Lidee Island, southern Thailand. This species closely resembles H. cooperi, H. killaiyensis, and H. thaumastocheles, but differs in having the lacinia mobilis with three teeth, and the pereopod 1 carpus with 0,1 or 1,1 ventral simple setae proximal to each spiniform seta. We redescribed and synonymized two species of questionable affiliation, Apseudes cooperi and A. digitalis, placing them in Halmyrapseudes, and partly redescribed Halmyrapseudes killaiyensis. Halmyrapseudes and Pseudohalmyrapseudes have disjunct distributions. Halmyrapseudes is similar in distribution to two freshwater fish taxa whose distributions are considered to reflect the breakup of Gondwana and subsequent continental drift. Pseudohalmyrapseudes occurs around Australia, and its distribution seems to be separated from that of Halmyrapseudes by Wallace's Line or Huxley's Line, which are distributional barriers for both terrestrial organisms and an amphidromous shrimp. The adjacent distributions and morphological similarities suggest that Halmyrapseudes and Pseudohalmyrapseudes are sister taxa. PMID:25112634

  7. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  8. Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Fouad; Hafez, Sherif; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva; Taleb, Hoda Abu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird) (C. novaezelandiae), sub-class Ostracoda, obtained from the Nile, Egypt for its predatory activity on snail, Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and on the free-living larval stages of this parasite (miracidia and cercariae). Methods The predatory activity of C. novaezelandiae was determined on B. alexandrina snail (several densities of eggs, newly hatched and juveniles). This activity was also determined on S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae using different volumes of water and different numbers of larvae. C. novaezelandiae was also tested for its effect on infection of snails and on the cercarial production. Results C. novaezelandiae was found to feed on the eggs, newly hatched and juvenile snails, but with significant reduction in the consumption in the presence of other diet like the blue green algae (Nostoc muscorum). This ostracod also showed considerable predatory activity on the free-living larval stages of S. mansoni which was affected by certain environmental factors such as volume of water, density of C. novaezelandiae and number of larvae of the parasite. Conclusions The presence of this ostracod in the aquatic habitat led to significant reduction of snail population, infection rate of snails with schistosme miracidia as well as of cercarial production from the infected snails. This may suggest that introducing C. novaezelandiae into the habitat at schistosome risky sites could suppress the transmission of the disease. PMID:23620849

  9. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  10. Gaetice depressus (Crustacea, Varunidae): Species profile and its role in organic carbon and nitrogen flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, A'an. J.; Wada, Shigeki; Aoki, Masakazu; Hama, Takeo

    2015-06-01

    Gaetice depressus is one of the most dominant macrozoobenthos species in boulder shores of intertidal coastal ecosystems in Japan. As recorded in previous studies, this species is also considered as having high density and biomass. Consequently, it is thought to be one of the more important species in the organic matter flow of boulder shores, especially through the food web. In this study, some taxonomic problems related to G. depressus were tackled and the autoecology and ecological processes in the intertidal ecosystem of G. depressus, such as organic matter flow, were investigated. Furthermore, in order to clarify the taxonomy description, resolve inconsistencies in the scientific name, and learn about the life history, a literature review was conducted. Seasonal changes in density, morphology pattern and population structure were determined based on the data obtained in Ebisu Island, Japan. Then, the role of G. depressus was determined by estimating the intake and emittance fluxes of organic carbon and nitrogen through ingestion and egestion process in the boulder shores of Ebisu Island. A feeding rate experiment was also conducted in order to estimate the intake flux by using the catch-release-recapture method. Meanwhile, to estimate the emittance flux, a defecation rate experiment was conducted by catching some individuals of G. depressus, and then incubating them in the laboratory. The feeding rate measured by the speed of diet consumption of G. depressus was about 12.6 mg ind-1 h-1. Considering the average density, the intake flux through the feeding process could be estimated as 25.2 mgC m-2 h-1 and 2.6 mgN m-2 h-1. On the other hand, G. depressus egested fecal pellet at the rate of 5.4 mg ind-1 h-1. The average emittance flux through the fecal pellet egesting process is estimated at 5.6 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.7 mgN m-2 h-1. Therefore, it can be estimated that about 25% of organic matter from diet is egested as fecal pellet, which means that about 75% of the intake flux of organic carbon and nitrogen is used for the total assimilation of G. depressus. Intake flux was also considered as affecting the high dynamism of primary producer consumption. The total population of G. depressus is estimated to consume about 18.4% of primary producer in average throughout the year. Therefore, the turnover time of primary producer by consumption of G. depressus was about five days.

  11. The iron-encrusted microbial community of Urothoe poseidonis (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, David C.; Ribesse, Jérôme; de Ridder, Chantal

    2004-06-01

    A rust-coloured coating frequently covers the appendages and sternites of Urothoe poseidonis, an amphipod living in the burrow of the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum. Up to 80% of the collected amphipods were coated. In winter, coated amphipods were always more abundant than uncoated ones. In summer, uncoated specimens predominated. The aspect, location and development of the coating are similar in juveniles and adults. EDAX analyses and Prussian blue testing indicate that the rust-coloured coating contains iron oxyhydroxide minerals with trace metals and phosphorus. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the iron coating harbours bacterial filaments related to Beggiatoaceae (3 morphotypes were observed). Protozoans, possibly Peritrichia of the families Rovinjellidae or Vaginicolidae (one morphotype), were also observed on pereopods VI and VII. The formation of the iron coating and its potential role in the biology of the amphipod are discussed.

  12. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  13. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea).

    PubMed

    Ashelby, Christopher W; De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  14. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Luquet, Gilles; Fernández, María S.; Badou, Aïcha; Guichard, Nathalie; Roy, Nathalie Le; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Arias, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow.Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish) elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca): three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components. PMID:24970155

  15. [Thermal preference and avoidance in cladoceran Daphnia magna strauss (Crustacea, Cladocera) acclimated to constant temperature].

    PubMed

    Verbitskiĭ, V B; Verbitskaia, T I

    2012-01-01

    The final preferable temperature (FPT) and avoidance temperature (AT) were determined in parthenogenetic females of the crustacean Daphnia magna Strauss. The animals were preliminary acclimated to constant temperature of 23.4 degrees C followed by keeping them in a thermo-gradient device for 24 days. It was revealed that daphnia select FPT with overshoot. In the first four days, daphnia selected temperatures 0.6-1.6 degrees C higher than the acclimation temperature and 4-7.4 degrees C higher than FPT. Two zones of FPT are revealed: the first zone by the time of 5-13 days (17.6 +/- 1.2 degrees C); the second, by 16-24 days (20 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The dynamics of AT diapason followed the dynamics of FPT. Two zones of the AT plateau were observed: over five to 17 days (temperatures < 14 degrees C and > 25.8 degrees C were avoided) and for 21-24 days (< 8.5 degrees C and 26 degrees C). PMID:22567878

  16. An integrated study on Gammarus elvirae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): perspectives for toxicology of arsenic-contaminated freshwater.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Chimenti, Claudio; Ronci, Lucilla; Setini, Andrea; Iannilli, Valentina; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; De Matthaeis, Elvira

    2015-10-01

    The Italian region Latium is characterized by extensive quaternary volcanic systems that contribute greatly to arsenic (As) contamination of freshwater, including drinking water supplies. However, knowledge of the possible toxic effects in these aquatic environments is, despite being highly relevant to public health, still limited. In this paper, we approach this issue using Gammarus elvirae, an amphipod species that inhabits rivers and streams in central Italy, including Latium. We explored the possibility of using G. elvirae in the toxicology of freshwater by addressing the most relevant issues. First, we tested the usefulness of hemocytes from G. elvirae in determining non-specific DNA damage by means of the Comet assay after exposure (24 h and 7 days) to different river water samples in Latium; second, we provided an interpretative overview of the usefulness of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells of G. elvirae as a means of assessing toxicity after long-term exposure to As and other pollutants; third, the LC (50-240 h) value for G. elvirae was estimated for arsenate, which is usually the dominant arsenic species in surface waters. Our study sheds light on G. elvirae at different levels, providing a background for future toxicological research of freshwater. PMID:26013740

  17. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended. PMID:20217223

  18. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1–P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  19. A new species of Paratanais Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Tanaidacea, Paratanaidae) from Puerto Rico, northwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G.; Heard, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Paratanais rosadi sp. n. described from Puerto Rican coastal waters represents the first species of the genus from the northwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from the other Paratanais species by a combination of characters, including article-2 of the maxilliped palp with a geniculate, finely-serrulate seta on inner margin; chela with stiff, geniculate, seta arising from propodus between fixed finger and dactylus and with short, stout, finely serrulate, seta on inner distal face of propodus adjacent to base of dactylus; carpus of pereopods 4−6 having three, instead of four stout modified spiniform setae distally, uropodal exopod distinctly shorter than endopodal article-1; and uropodal endopod with articles of about of equal in length. A key for the separation of Paratanais species from the Atlantic Ocean is presented. PMID:24715797

  20. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  1. Large branchiopod (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) egg morphology of Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Sameer; Timms, Brian; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    The eggs of many large branchiopods have taxonomic value and are commonly used as traits in species and/or generic descriptions. In this paper we present detailed descriptions and SEMs of resting eggs of seven of the eight species of large branchiopods found in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. We highlight the inter- and intrapopulation egg morphological variation in Streptocephalus. PMID:27396003

  2. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. PMID:26965954

  3. Ingolfiella maldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiella maldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces. PMID:25408614

  4. Effects of late-cenozoic glaciation on habitat availability in Antarctic benthic shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Dambach, Johannes; Thatje, Sven; Rödder, Dennis; Basher, Zeenatul; Raupach, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates inhabiting the high Antarctic continental shelves are challenged by disturbance of the seafloor by grounded ice, low but stable water temperatures and variable food availability in response to seasonal sea-ice cover. Though a high diversity of life has successfully adapted to such conditions, it is generally agreed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the large-scale cover of the Southern Ocean by multi-annual sea ice and the advance of the continental ice sheets across the shelf faced life with conditions, exceeding those seen today by an order of magnitude. Conditions prevailing at the LGM may have therefore acted as a bottleneck event to both the ecology as well as genetic diversity of today's fauna. Here, we use for the first time specific Species Distribution Models (SDMs) for marine arthropods of the Southern Ocean to assess effects of habitat contraction during the LGM on the three most common benthic caridean shrimp species that exhibit a strong depth zonation on the Antarctic continental shelf. While the shallow-water species Chorismus antarcticus and Notocrangon antarcticus were limited to a drastically reduced habitat during the LGM, the deep-water shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes found refuge in the Southern Ocean deep sea. The modeling results are in accordance with genetic diversity patterns available for C. antarcticus and N. lanceopes and support the hypothesis that habitat contraction at the LGM resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in shallow water benthos. PMID:23029463

  5. Harpacticoida (crustacea: copepoda) from the California continental shelf. Final report, September 1990-October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, P.A.; Burgess, R.; Fiers, F.

    1995-10-01

    Specimens of new Harpacticoida species were obtained during the California Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Phase II, Monitoring Program (CAMP) between November 1986 and May 1989. The CAMP project was a multidisciplinary study to detect and evaluate the long-term biological impacts of continental shelf oil drilling and production. The study was centered around a proposed platform site named Julius, which was never put into service. Samples were collected in the Santa Maria Basin on a regional scale (10-20 km). Harpacticoids are the second most abundant meiofaunal taxa in the Santa Maria Basin. Harpacticoids have been intensively studied in the Atlantic OCS. However, Pacific studies are limited to collections made in shallow water. There are a great number of undescribed species in the CAMP samples taken from the Santa Maria Basin. The present study is rather limited in scope and only touches on some of the dominate species found. It contains full taxonomic descriptions of six species, a pictorial key of 18 dominant species, and drawings of 42 other unknown species.

  6. Ecology and systematics of a new species of Uromunna (Crustacea: Isopoda) from Spanish eelgrass beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquete, Patricia; Wilson, George D. F.; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2014-06-01

    Uromunna naherba sp. nov. is described from eelgrass beds ( Zostera marina and Z. noltii) of the NW Iberian Peninsula. This is the second species of the genus reported from the NE Atlantic, after U. petiti. The new species was more abundant on rhizomes than on the leaves of the plants. Seasonal samples show that ovigerous females are present throughout the year, but become more abundant in late spring and summer, when adult males decrease in frequency. Ovigerous females appear in only one size class. Owing to the yearly productivity cycle of the eelgrasses, these data suggest that the species is semelparous and completes its lifecycle within 1 year. The taxonomic characters of the genus are discussed.

  7. Community structure of caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) on seagrasses from southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, A. R.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Maestre, M. J.; Ruiz-Tabares, A.; Espinosa, F.; Gordillo, I.; Sánchez-Moyano, J. E.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    The community structure of caprellids inhabiting two species of seagrass ( Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera marina) was investigated on the Andalusian coast, southern Spain, using uni and multivariate analyses. Three meadows were selected (Almería, AL; Málaga, MA; Cádiz, CA), and changes in seagrass cover and biomass were measured from 2004 to 2005. Four caprellid species were found; the density of Caprella acanthifera, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma was correlated to seagrass biomass. No such correlation was found for Pariambus typicus, probably because this species inhabits sediments and does not cling to the seagrass leaves. We recorded a significant decrease in seagrass cover and biomass in MA due to illegal bottom trawling fisheries. Phtisica marina and P. typicus were favoured by this perturbation and increased their densities after the trawling activities. A survey of reports on caprellids in seagrass meadows around the world showed no clear latitudinal patterns in caprellid densities (ranging from 6 to 1,000 ind/m2 per meadow) and species diversity. While caprellid abundances in seagrass meadows are often very high, the number of species per meadow is low (range 1-5).

  8. Checklist of copepods (Crustacea: Calanoida, Cyclopoida,Harpacticoida) from Wyoming, USA, with new state records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presentation of a comprehensive checklist of the copepod fauna of Wyoming, USA with 41 species of copepods; based on museum specimens, literature reviews, and active surveillance. Of these species 19 were previously unknown from the state. This checklist includes species in the families Centropagida...

  9. Evolution of osmoregulatory patterns and gill ion transport mechanisms in the decapod Crustacea: a review.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John Campbell; Faria, Samuel Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit a wide range of osmoregulatory patterns and capabilities from marine osmoconformers to brackish and freshwater hyperregulators to terrestrial hyporegulators. The principal gill salt transport mechanisms proposed to underlie the ability of the better-known taxa to occupy these specific habitats are examined here. Traditional thinking suggests that a graduated series of successively stronger adaptive mechanisms may have driven the occupation of ever more dilute osmotic niches, culminating in the conquest of freshwater and dry land. However, when habitat and osmoregulatory parameters are analyzed quantitatively against the phylogenies of the taxa examined, as illustrated here using a palaemonid shrimp clade, their association becomes questionable and may hold true only in specific cases. We also propose a putative evolution for gill epithelial ion pump and transporter arrangement in a eubrachyuran crab clade whose lineages occupy distinct osmotic niches. By including the systematics of these selected groups, this review incorporates the notion of a protracted time scale, here termed 'phylophysiology', into decapod osmoregulation, allowing the examination of putative physiological transformations and their underlying evolutionary processes. This approach assumes that species are temporally linked, a factor that can impart phylogenetic structuring, which must be considered in comparative studies. Future experimental models in decapod osmoregulatory physiology should contemplate the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa chosen to better allow comprehension of the transformations arising during their evolution. PMID:22534792

  10. A new Stenothoe species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Stenothoidae) living on Boloceropsis platei (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp-Schickel, T.; Häussermann, V.; Vader, W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new species of Stenothoe (Amphipoda, Stenothoidae), S. boloceropsis sp. nov., collected among the tentacles of the sea anemone Boloceropsis platei Mc Murrich, 1904, found on sublittoral sand of Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile.

  11. Silver nanoparticles impact the functional role of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Andreï, Jennifer; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Felten, Vincent; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure; Mehennaoui, Kahina; Cambier, Sebastien; Gutleb, Arno C; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are widely used in consumer products and the risk associated with their potential release into freshwater ecosystems needs to be addressed using environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Here, the effects of low concentrations (0.5-5 μg L(-1)) of two different sized nAg (10 and 60 nm) and a silver nitrate positive control were evaluated in Gammarus roeseli following exposure for 72 h. Cellular, individual and functional endpoints were independently studied and the most striking results were reported for functional endpoints. Indeed, without a change in their feeding activity, the gammarids produced significantly fewer fine particles of organic matter when exposed to nAg, even at 0.5 μg L(-1) of 10 nm nAg. These functional endpoints seem to be efficient markers for detecting the early effects of nAg on G. roeseli. PMID:26552543

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Niphargus boskovici (Crustacea: Amphipoda) reveals a new species from epikarst.

    PubMed

    Švara, Vid; Delić, Teo; Rađa, Tonći; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of an amphipod Niphargus zagorae sp. n. and redescribe its nearest relative and morphologically similar species N. boskovici S. Karaman, 1952. We present the geographic distributions of both species, morphological diagnoses and infer their phylogenetic position within the genus based on COI, 28S and H3 markers. PMID:26250278

  13. Cyclestheria hislopi (Crustacea: Branchiopoda): a group of morphologically cryptic species with origins in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Martin; Clavier, Simon; Fritsch, Martin; Olesen, Jørgen; Padhye, Sameer; Timms, Brian V; Richter, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclestheria hislopi is thought to be the only extant species of Cyclestherida. It is the sister taxon of all Cladocera and displays morphological characteristics intermediate of Spinicaudata and Cladocera. Using one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (EF1α and 28S rRNA) markers, we tested the hypothesis that C. hislopi represents a single circumtropic species. South American (French Guiana), Asian (India, Indonesia, Singapore) and several Australian populations were included in our investigation. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses revealed remarkable intercontinental genetic differentiation (uncorrected p-distances COI>13%, EF1α>3% and 28S>4%). Each continent was found to have at least one distinct Cyclestheria species, with Australia boasting four distinct main lineages which may be attributed to two to three species. The divergence of these species (constituting crown group Cyclestherida) was, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of COI and EF1α combined with molecular clock estimates using several fossil branchiopod calibration points or a COI substitution rate of 1.4% per million years, dated to the Cretaceous. This was when the South American lineage split from the Asian-Australian lineage, with the latter diverging further in the Paleogene. Today's circumtropic distribution of Cyclestheria may be best explained by a combination of Gondwana vicariance and later dispersal across Asia and Australia when the tectonic plates of the two continents drew closer in the early Miocene. The lack of morphological differentiation that has taken place in this taxon over such a long evolutionary period contrasts with the high level of differentiation and diversification observed in its sister taxon the Cladocera. Further insights into the evolution of Cyclestheria may help us to understand the evolutionary success of the Cladocera. PMID:23178560

  14. Empirical calibration of shell chemistry of Cyprideis torosa (Jones, 1850) (Crustacea: Ostracoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Barba, J.; Ito, E.; Carbonell, E.; Mesquita-Joanes, F.

    2012-09-01

    Cyprideis torosa is a species of ostracode that inhabits a wide range of aquatic habitats in which its low Alk/Ca requirement is met. Its fossil remains are widely used in palaeoecological studies of coastal environments and inland salt lakes. We collected C. torosa from 20 water bodies near Valencia, Spain. Temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, electrical conductivity, and the concentration of major ions and oxygen isotopes were measured at each site. Between 2 and 20 live individuals of C. torosa were collected per site, their instar stage and sex determined and their shell chemistry (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and carbon and oxygen isotope composition) analyzed. Three of these sites were sampled monthly for one year, and ostracode population structure and shell chemistry (20-40 shells) were analyzed. The water chemistry varied widely between sites. TDS (total dissolved solids) ranged from 0.5 to 71.8 g/L but chloride was always the dominant anion. There is a significant positive relationship between ostracode and water δ18O except at high TDS (>20 g/L) when shell δ18O values are lower than expected. No effect of either temperature or water Mg/Ca is observed on the Mg/Ca in the ostracode calcite in waters with Mg/Ca < 6 (molar ratio). Ostracode shell Sr/Ca is strongly and significantly related to water Sr/Ca. δ13C values in C. torosa shells are ˜2‰ lower than observed δ13CDIC. These results provide new and more accurate quantification tools to reconstruct past hydrochemistry from C. torosa shells.

  15. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Crustacea, Maxillopoda, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Baek, Ye-Seul; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae). The genome sequence is 15,502 bp in size. Except for CO1, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with an ATN initiation codon (ATA, ATG, ATC and ATT). Twelve PCGs were terminated with TAA or TAG stop codon, whereas ND1 possessed an incomplete termination codon (T- -). We compared the mitogenome structure of L. australis to those of other cirripeds and a typical arthropod Homarus americanus. The PCGs in the L. australis mtgenome showed a typical gene arrangement, identical to the arthropod pattern in other cirriped genomes. However, at least 8 tRNA genes were translocated and 2 tRNA genes were inverted in the coding polarity. Unique differences in L. australis mtgenome included translocation of trnS2, trnD and trnI. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among cirripedians, and additional mtgenome information of barnacles including the polar species would allow exploration of the thoracican relationships and mtgenome modifications in the barnacle evolution. PMID:25228375

  17. Haplotype Frequency Distribution in Northeastern European Saduria entomon (Crustacea: Isopoda) Populations. A Phylogeographic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Jerzy

    2003-11-01

    The distribution pattern of mtDNA haplotypes in distinct populations of the glacial relict crustacean Saduria entomon was examined to assess phylogeographic relationships among them. Populations from the Baltic, the White Sea and the Barents Sea were screened for mtDNA variation using PCR-based RFLP analysis of a 1150 bp fragment containing part of the CO I and CO II genes. Five mtDNA haplotypes were recorded. An analysis of geographical heterogeneity in haplotype frequency distributions revealed significant differences among populations. The isolated populations of S. entomon have diverged since the retreat of the last glaciation. The geographical pattern of variation is most likely the result of stochastic (founder effect, genetic drift) mechanisms and suggests that the haplotype differentiation observed is probably older than the isolation of the Baltic and Arctic seas.

  18. Decapod Crustacea of the Central Paratethyan Ottnangian Stage (middle Burdigalian): implications for systematics and biogeography

    PubMed Central

    HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ; HARZHAUSER, MATHIAS; DANNINGER, WOLFGANG

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans from the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, Lower Miocene) of the Western and Central Paratethys remain poorly known. In this study, we review and re-describe mud shrimps (Jaxea kuemeli), ghost shrimps (Gourretia sp., Calliax michelottii) and brachyuran crabs of the families Leucosiidae, Polybiidae and Portunidae. A dorsal carapace of the genus Calliax is reported for the first time in the fossil record. Re-examination of the type material of Randallia strouhali (Leucosiidae) and Geryon ottnangensis (Geryonidae) resulted in a transfer of these species into Palaeomyra (Leucosiidae) and Liocarcinus (Polybiidae), respectively. Achelous vindobonensis, originally described as a chela of a portunid crab, probably belongs to a member of Polybiidae and is provisionally treated as Liocarcinus sp. Only two species, J. kuemeli and C. michelottii, are also known from the Karpatian, the succeeding Paratethyan stage. In most cases, the decapod assemblages of the Ottnangian consist of rather shallow-water taxa whereas the assemblages of the Karpatian consist of deep-water taxa from the middle and outer shelf. The Central Paratethyan assemblages show similarities in genus composition to the Proto-Mediterranean and recent Indo-Pacific regions. Gourretia sp. represents the earliest occurrence of the respective genus in the fossil record. The Oligocene–Early Miocene appearance of Palaeomyra and Liocarcinus in the circum-Mediterranean implies that sources of present-day diversity hotspots in the Indo-Pacific trace to the Western Tethys (as for other decapod genera), although coeval decapod assemblages in the Indo-Pacific remain poorly known. PMID:26688670

  19. Neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain of the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Kress, Timm; Harzsch, Steffen; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain in the water flea Daphnia magna by use of classical neuroanatomical techniques such as semi-thin sectioning and neuronal backfilling, as well as immunohistochemical markers for synapsins, various neuropeptides and the neurotransmitter histamine. We provide structural details of distinct neuropiles, tracts and commissures, many of which were previously undescribed. We analyse morphological details of most neuron types, which allow for unravelling the connectivities between various substructural parts of the optic ganglia and the central brain and of ascending and descending connections with the ventral nerve cord. We identify 5 allatostatin-A-like, 13 FMRFamide-like and 5 tachykinin-like neuropeptidergic neuron types and 6 histamine-immunoreactive neuron types. In addition, novel aspects of several known pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons are re-examined. We analyse primary and putative secondary olfactory pathways and neuronal elements of the water flea central complex, which displays both insect- and decapod crustacean-like features, such as the protocerebral bridge, central body and lateral accessory lobes. Phylogenetic aspects based upon structural comparisons are discussed as well as functional implications envisaging more specific future analyses of ecotoxicological and endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals. PMID:26391274

  20. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Robinson, Carlos J; Kawaguchi, So; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-02-17

    The diversity of parasites found on Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Order Euphausiacea) was compared during 10 oceanographic cruises made off both coasts of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that N. simplex has a more diverse parasitic assemblage than N. difficilis because it is a neritic species, has larger population abundance, and tends to form denser and more compact swarms than N. difficilis. These biological and behavioral features may enhance parasite transmission within swarms. We detected 6 types of ectoparasites: (1) epibiotic diatoms Licmophora sp.; (2) Ephelotidae suctorian ciliates; (3) Foettingeriidae exuviotrophic apostome ciliates; (4) an unidentified epicaridean cryptoniscus larvae (isopoda); and 2 castrators: (5) the ectoparasitic Dajidae isopod Notophryxus lateralis and (6) the ellobiopsid mesoparasite Thalassomyces fagei. We also detected 7 types of endoparasites: (1) an undescribed Collinia ciliate (Apostomatida); 3 types of Cestoda: (2) a Tetrarhynchobothruium sp. (Trypanorhyncha), (3) Echinobothrium sp. (Diphyllidea: Echinobothyriidae), and (4) unidentified metacestode; (5) a Trematoda Paronatrema-like metacercaria (Syncoeliidae); (6) the nematode Anisakis simplex (L3); and (7) Polymorphidae acantocephalan larvae (acanthor, acanthella, and cystacanth larval stages). N. simplex is affected by all types of parasites, except the isopod N. lateralis, having a considerably larger parasitic diversity and prevalence rates than N. difficilis, which is only infested with 3 types of ectoparasites and T. fagei. Euphausiid swarming is an adaptive behavior for reproduction, protection against predators, and increased efficiency in food searching, but has a negative effect due to parasitism. Although the advantages of aggregation must overcome the reduction of population and individual fitness induced by parasites, we demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex individuals. Collinia spp. endoparasitoids must occasionally have a significant influence on population mortality with potential epizootic events. PMID:20377014

  1. Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramírez; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters. PMID:24699609

  2. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  3. First cytochemical study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Matozzo, V.; Marin, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a morphological study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii was carried out by means of light microscopy and differing cytochemical assays. Analysis of haemocyte size frequency distribution (performed by means of a Coulter Counter) revealed the presence of two distinct haemocyte fractions in C. aestuarii haemolymph, depending on cell size. The first fraction was of about 3–5 µm in diameter and 30–50 fL in volume, the second was of about 6–12 µm in diameter and over 200 fL in volume. Mean cell diameter and volume were 8.20±1.7 µm and 272.30±143.5 fL, respectively. Haemocytes observed under light microscope were distinguished in three cell types: granulocytes (28%; 11.94±1.43 µm in diameter) with evident cytoplasmic granules, semigranulocytes (27%; 12.38±1.76 µm in diameter) with less granules than granulocytes, and hyalinocytes (44%; 7.88±1.6 µm in diameter) without granules. In addition, a peculiar cell type was occasionally found (about 1%): it was 25–30 µm in diameter and had a great vacuole and a peripheral cytoplasm with granules. Granulocyte and semigranulocyte granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. Giemsa’s dye confirmed that granulocytes and semigranulocytes were larger than hyalinocytes. Pappenheim’s panoptical staining and Ehrlich’s triacid mixture allowed to distinguish granule-containing cells (including semigranulocytes) in acidophils (64%), basophils (35%) and neutrophils (1%). Hyalinocytes showed always a basophilic cytoplasm. Haemocytes were positive to the PAS reaction for carbohydrates, even if cytoplasm carbohydrate distribution varied among cell types. Lastly, lipids were found on cell membrane and in cytoplasm of all haemocyte types in the form of black spots produced after Sudan Black B staining. The morphological characterisation of C. aestuarii haemocytes by light microscopy was necessary before performing both ultrastructural and functional studies of circulating cells. PMID:20353916

  4. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  5. A new species of Leptestheria (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata) from Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Sameer; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Leptestheria from a rock pool in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. This species is distinguished from all other Indian congeners by its distinct telson characters and occipital condyle. We also present a comparative table of useful morphological characters of all described Indian Leptestheria species. PMID:27395627

  6. Total mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp, Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Eun; Kim, Jung Nyun; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    We characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Squilloides leptosquilla (Brooks, 1886) collected from the southern waters of Korea, which is newly recorded into the Korean carcinological fauna. The total mitochondrial genome length of S. leptosquilla was 16,376 bp. This circular DNA encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs, as well as a putative control region. Compared with other decapod crustacean mitochondrial genomes, the overall A + T content was relatively high (71.1%) as those among other stomatopod species. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. The short non-coding region (210 bp) between tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) may be the good candidate as the molecular marker to discriminate S. leptosequilla from other stomatopods. PMID:26176982

  7. Living males of the ‘ancient asexual’ Darwinulidae (Ostracoda: Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robin J; Kamiya, Takahiro; Horne, David J

    2006-01-01

    Three living male darwinulid ostracods of a new species of the genus Vestalenula have been found in Yakushima, Japan. This is the first report of living darwinulid males for over 100 years and their morphology casts doubt on the two previous records from the late 1800s. The presence of male darwinulids also calls into question the hypothesis that the family Darwinulidae is an exclusively ancient asexual group, reproducing without sex for over 200 million years (Myr). Male carapaces are of similar size and shape to A-1 juvenile females of the same species, suggesting that males may have been dismissed as A-1 juveniles in other living and fossil species. The antennae and fifth limbs are sexually dimorphic: the male antennae have six segments compared with five in the female and a series of putative chemical receptors originating at the extra segment boundary, while the male fifth limbs have well-developed grasping hooks, as in males of many ostracod groups. The lack of Zenker's Organ and of complex internal structures within the hemipenis contradicts previous hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of darwinulids. PMID:16777754

  8. Mechanisms of apoptosis in Crustacea: what conditions induce versus suppress cell death?

    PubMed Central

    Menze, Michael A.; Fortner, Grady; Nag, Suman; Hand, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species. Our knowledge about regulation of apoptosis in this phylum is largely based on findings for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with crustaceans shows that apoptotic proteins, and presumably mechanisms of cell death regulation, are more diverse in arthropods than appreciated based solely on the excellent work with fruit flies. Crustacean homologs exist for many major proteins in the apoptotic networks of mammals and D. melanogaster, but integration of these proteins into the physiology and pathophysiology of crustaceans is far from complete. Whether apoptosis in crustaceans is mainly transcriptionally regulated as in D. melanogaster (e.g., RHG ‘killer’ proteins), or rather is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as in vertebrates needs to be clarified. Some phenomena like the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) are apparently lacking in crustaceans and may represent a vertebrate invention. We speculate that differences in regulation of the intrinsic pathway of crustacean apoptosis might represent a prerequisite for some species to survive harsh environmental insults. Pro-apoptotic stimuli described for crustaceans include UV radiation, environmental toxins, and a diatom-produced chemical that promotes apoptosis in offspring of a copepod. Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. Characterization of the players, pathways, and their significance in the core machinery of crustacean apoptosis is revealing new insights for the field of cell death. PMID:20043212

  9. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H. J. M.; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group. PMID:27246395

  10. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity in the North Eurasian Moina Species (Crustacea: Cladocera)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Moina Baird (Cladocera: Moinidae) often dominate freshwater crustacean communities in temporary water bodies. Several species of Moina are used as food for fish larvae in aquaculture, as bioindicators in toxicological studies, and as common subjects for physiological studies. The aim of this paper is to estimate biodiversity of Moina in northern Eurasia using the standard DNA barcoding approach based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We analysed 160 newly obtained and 157 existing COI sequences, and found evidence for 21 phylogroups of Moina, some of which were detected here for the first time. Our study confirmed the opinion that the actual species diversity of cladocerans is several times higher than is presently accepted. Our results also indicated that Moina has the second richest species diversity among the cladoceran genera (with only Daphnia O. F. Mueller having a greater diversity of species). Our study strongly supports division of Moina into two faunistic groups: European-Western Siberian and Eastern Siberian-Far Eastern, with a transitional zone at the Yenisey River basin (Eastern Siberia). Here, we refrain from taxonomic descriptions of new species, as this requires a thorough morphological and taxonomic study for each putative taxon. PMID:27556403

  11. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    PubMed

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs. PMID:21069772

  12. G-protein alpha subunits distribution in the cyprid of Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite) (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Gallus, Lorenzo; Ferrando, Sara; Gambardella, Chiara; Amaroli, Andrea; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Masini, Maria Angela

    2012-12-01

    The acorn barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a marine crustacean with six nauplius and one cyprid larval stages and a sessile adult, that represent one of the main constituents of sea biofouling. The cyprid is the last larval stage, specialized for settlement, and the study of its biology is interesting also in the frame of antifouling strategies. In this study, a novel approach to the neurobiology of B. amphitrite cyprid has undertaken, studying immunohistochemically the distribution of some G-protein α subunits (Gαs, Gαo Gαi, and Gαq) on B. amphitrite cyprid. Gαs-like immunoreactivity was observed in the intestinal mucosa, oral cone, epithelial cells along the outer face of the mantle and thorax; Gαo into the fibers of the neuropile of the central nervous system; Gαi in oil cells, epithelial cells, and limbs and thorax muscles; Gαq was not detected. The results suggest the involvement of the G-protein α subunits in different tissues and functions that seem to be in agreement with the distribution of the ones from the same class of G-proteins in vertebrates. PMID:22833248

  13. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae).

    PubMed

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1-P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  14. Indoapseudes bamberi sp. nov. (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Pagurapseudidae: Hodometricinae) from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    We describe Indoapseudes bamberi sp. nov., based on a specimen from Funaura Bay, Iriomote Island, Japan. This species can be distinguished from its five congeners by having the combination of the antenna with a squama and pereopods 1 and 2 with one dorsal spine on the basis. We also determined part of the nucleotide sequence for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in I. bamberi, and present a key to Indoapseudes species. PMID:26250310

  15. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance of the inland copepod fauna of Costa Rica requires more detailed surveys. PMID:25561828

  16. Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galván-Villa, Cristian M; Ayón-Parente, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A new species of caprellid, Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov., is described based on several specimens collected from Bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico. All specimens were found in association with the scorpionfish Scorpaena mystes. Caprellids are set on the dorsal surface of fishes. The species is distinguished by head with a short dorsal projection, eyes distinctive, body slender and smooth, peduncular articles of antenna 1 not setose, antenna 2 with swimming setae, gnathopod 2 with three ventral projections in males. The species is close to C. californica, C. mercedesae, and C. scaura for a sharp spine on the forehead but can be distinguished by gnathopod 2 finely setose, and basis of gnathopod 2 shorter. PMID:26248940

  17. Amphipoda (crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: families Dexaminidae, Eusiridae, Hyalidae, Ischyroceridae, Leucothoidae and Lysianassidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen species of amphipod in the families Dexaminidae (1), Eusiridae (1), Hyalidae (1), Ischyroceridae (1), Leucothoidae (8) and Lysianassidae (1) are recorded from Palau in Micronesia. Of these, Ventojassa palauensis sp. nov., Leucothoe beobeldabensis sp.nov., L. pseudepidemos sp. nov., L. serratissima sp. nov., L. tumida sp. nov., L. whiteae sp. nov and Paranamixis dentidactylus sp. nov. are new to science and are described and figured. PMID:25277573

  18. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: families Melphidippidae, Oedicerotidae, Photidae, Pleustidae, Podoceridae, Stenothoidae, Synopiidae and Talitridae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species belonging to the families Melphidippidae, Oedicerotidae, Photidae, Pleustidae, Podoceridae, Stenothoidae, Synopiidae and Talitridae are recorded from Palau, Micronesia. Eight species are figured. One species is new to science and is described and figured. One species was previously known only from Australia, one only from Madagascar and one only from Fiji. PMID:24943185

  19. Amphipoda (crustacea) from palau, micronesia: families ampeliscidae, ampithoidae, aoridae, colomastigidae and cyproideidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    12 species of amphipod in 5 families, collected from shallow reefs in Palau by S. DeGrave during 2002, are reported here. Of these, five species are new to science and Microdeutopus tridens Schellenberg (1938) is redescribed and transferred to the genus Bemlos Shoemaker (1925). The collection included several additional species in the genera Amphilochus Bate, 1862, Ampithoe Leach (1814), Bemlos, Byblis Boeck (1871), Colomastix Grube (1861) and Notopoma Lowry & Berents (1996), that were either incomplete or juvenile and could therefore not adequately be described. In addition, two new species of Plumithoe Barnard & Karaman (1991) are erected from the literature. Other families collected in Palau will be considered in later contributions. PMID:22679377

  20. Insights into the morphology of symbiotic shrimp eyes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae); the effects of habitat demands

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Magnus L.; De Grave, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric differences in the optical morphology of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps can be observed among species symbiotic with different host organisms. Discriminant functional analysis revealed three distinct groups within the species examined. Of these, bivalve symbionts appear to have an eye design that is solely unique to this host-symbiont grouping, a design that spans across multiple genera of phylogenetically unrelated animals. Although some taxonomic effects may be evident, this does not explain the difference and similarities in eye morphology that are seen within these shrimps. Therefore evolutionary pressures from their host environments are having an impact on the optical morphology of their eyes however, as indicated by host-hopping events there ecological adaptations occur post host invasion. PMID:27168962

  1. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  2. Distribution of two species of Nephropsis Wood-Mason, 1872 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Nephropidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves-Júnior, Flavio De Almeida; Araújo, Marina De Sá Leitão Câmara De; Souza-Filho, Jesser F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nephropsis Wood-Mason, 1872 has been reported from Brazil by Tavares (1998), Tavares & Young (2002), Silva et al. (2003), Dall´Occo et al. (2007) and Serejo et al. (2007), recording Nephropsis aculeata Smith, 1881, N. rosea Bate, 1888 and N. agassizii A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, the last of which occurs in both northeastern and southeastern of Brazil. PMID:27395116

  3. New records of Bodotriidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from Puerto Rico with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Iorgu; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to describe the cumacean fauna of Puerto Rico we describe three new species of Bodotriidae, a family that has never been reported from Puerto Rico before.  While finding and describing new microcrustacean species may not be an impossible task, if there is available taxonomic expertise, the currently described species were found in large numbers within a short distance from the Marine Laboratories of the University of Puerto Rico where the local reefs have been studied for over half a century, highlighting the large gaps that exist in our estimates of Caribbean marine diversity.  The three new species, Cyclaspis gurui sp. nov., Cyclaspis mariae sp. nov. and Vaunthompsonia budaii sp. nov. are reported from a fringing reef off La Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico and Vaunthompsonia cristata Bate, 1858 represents a new record for Puerto Rico from the mesophotic reefs. PMID:25544235

  4. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

  5. The complete mitogenome of the Australian freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis Kemp, 1917 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis, is presented, which is the fourth for genera of the superfamily Atyoidea and the first atyid from the southern hemisphere. The base composition of the P. australiensis, mitogenome is 33.55% for T, 18.24% for C, 35.16% for A, and 13.06% for G, with an AT bias of 71.58%. It has a mitogenome of 15,990 base pairs comprised of 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal subunit and 22 transfer RNAs genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome gene order for the species is typical for atyid shrimps, which conform to the primitive pan crustacean model. PMID:25693707

  6. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26701562

  7. A new species of Jesogammarus from the Iki Island, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Anisogammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of anisogammarid amphipod, Jesogammarus (Jesogammarus) ikiensis sp. n., is described from freshwaters in the Iki Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is distinguished from all members of the genus by the combination of small number of setae on dorsal margins of pleonites 1–3, short and small number of setae on posterior margins of peduncular articles of antennae, mandibular article 1 without setae, well developed posterior lobes of accessory lobes of coxal gills on gnathopod 2 and pereopods 3–5, and pectinate setae on palmar margin of female gnathopod 2. A key to all the species of Jesogammarus is provided. PMID:26692798

  8. The toxicological effects of thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis (Schellenberg 1937) (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Pelin; Ünlü, Erhan; Satar, Elif İpek

    2015-03-01

    Neonicotinoids are a new group of insecticides, and little is known about their toxicity to nontarget freshwater organisms an potential effects on freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study is to establish the acute toxicity and histopathological effects of thiamethoxam-based pesticide on the gill tissue of Gammarus kischineffensis. In this study G. kischineffensis samples were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100mg/l of commercial grade thiamethoxam for 96 h. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were determined as 75.619, 23.505, 8.048 and 3.751 mg/l respectively. In histopathological study the individuals were exposed to 0.004, 0.04 and 0.4 mg/l thiamethoxam concentrations for 14 days. The results showed that the most common changes at all doses of thiamethoxam were vacuolization and hemostatic infiltration in the gill tissue of G. kischineffensis. PMID:25710849

  9. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae. PMID:27395949

  10. The complete mitogenome of the rock pool prawn Palaemon serenus (Heller, 1862) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda. PMID:25693708