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Sample records for phoenix landins site

  1. Phoenix Site Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) camera that were taken on sols 1 and 3. The top images, highlighted in yellow at the beginning of the movie, have been stretched eight times to show details of features in the background. Phoenix's parachute, backshell, heatshield, and impact site can also be seen.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Site Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) camera that were taken on sols 1 and 3. The top portion has been stretched eight fold to show details of features in the background. Phoenix's parachute, backshell, heatshield, and impact site can also be seen.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Sulfur Mineralogy at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Golden, D.C.; Sutter, B.; Clark, B.C.; Boynton, W.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Kounaves, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout mission landed at the northernmost location (approx.68deg N) of any lander or rover on the martian surface. This paper compares the S mineralogy at the Phoenix landing site with S mineralogy of soils studied by previous Mars landers. S-bearing phases were not directly detected by the payload onboard the Phoenix spacecraft. Our objective is to derive the possible mineralogy of S-bearing phases at the Phoenix landing site based upon Phoenix measurements in combination with orbital measurements, terrestrial analog and Martian meteorite studies, and telescopic observations.

  4. Winds at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Merrison, J. P.; Bean, K. M.; Cantor, B. A.; Davis, J. A.; Davy, R.; Drake, N. B.; Ellehoj, M. D.; Goetz, W.; Hviid, S. F.; Lange, C. F.; Larsen, S. E.; Lemmon, M. T.; Madsen, M. B.; Malin, M.; Moores, J. E.; Nørnberg, P.; Smith, P.; Tamppari, L. K.; Taylor, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Wind speeds and directions were measured on the Phoenix Lander by a mechanical anemometer, the so-called Telltale wind indicator. Analysis of images of the instrument taken with the onboard imager allowed for evaluation of wind speeds and directions. Daily characteristics of the wind data are highly turbulent behavior during midday due to daytime turbulence with more stable conditions during nighttime. From Ls ˜77°-123° winds were generally ˜4 m s-1 from the east, with 360° rotation during midday. From Ls ˜123°-148° daytime wind speeds increased to an average of 6-10 m s-1 and were generally from the west. The highest wind speed recorded was 16 m s-1 seen on Ls ˜147°. Estimates of the surface roughness height are calculated from the smearing of the Kapton part of the Telltale during image exposure due to a 3 Hz turbulence and nighttime wind variability. These estimates yield 6 ± 3 mm and 5 ± 3 mm, respectively. The Telltale wind data are used to suggest that Heimdal crater is a source of nighttime temperature fluctuations. Deviations between temperatures measured at various heights are explained as being due to winds passing over the Phoenix Lander. Events concerning sample delivery and frost formation are described and discussed. Two different mechanisms of dust lifting affecting the Phoenix site are proposed based on observations made with Mars Color Imager on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Telltale. The first is related to evaporation of the seasonal CO2 ice and is observed up to Ls ˜95°. These events are not associated with increased wind speeds. The second mechanism is observed after Ls ˜111° and is related to the passing of weather systems characterized by condensate clouds in orbital images and higher wind speeds as measured with the Telltale.

  5. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Stereo View of Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Water at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter Hollingsworth

    The Phoenix mission investigated patterned ground and climate in the northern arctic region of Mars for 5 months starting May 25, 2008. A shallow ice table was uncovered by the robotic arm in a nearby polygon's edge and center at depths of 5-15 cm. In late summer snowfall and frost blanket the surface at night; water ice and vapor constantly interact with the soil. Analysis reveals an alkaline Ph with CaCO 3 , aqueous minerals, and salts making up several wt% of the soil; liquid water is implicated as having been important in creating these components. In combination with the oxidant perchlorate (~1 wt%), an energy source for terrestrial microbes, and a prior epoch of higher temperatures and humidity, this region may have been a habitable zone.

  8. The Phoenix Mission and its Current Landing Site options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, LK; Smith, P.; Arvidson, RE; Phoenix Team

    2005-08-01

    Phoenix is the 2007 Mars Scout program mission that will send a lander and suite of instruments to study the north polar region on Mars. Central goals for the Phoenix mission are to study the recent history of water as written into the high latitude soils and to search for habitable zones. In order to do this, Phoenix carries a comprehensive suite of seven instruments. This suite includes 3 cameras, an optical microscope and an atomic-force microscope, allowing imaging at spatial scales ranging from kms, for large scale geomorphological studies, to microns, for examining single grain sizes and shapes. Phoenix also has a meteorology suite, which includes atmospheric temperature measurements at 3 levels, atmospheric pressure, and an upward-looking lidar, for dust and water-ice cloud detection. A robotic arm will dig a trench into the surface near the lander to collect and deliver samples to on-board chemistry and mineralogy experiments. These experiments will allow the detection of the mineral makeup of the soil as well as its water content, pH, salt content, and organic content. An important aspect of this exciting mission is the selection of the landing site, within the 65-72 deg N latitude band. Both science and safety concerns will play into this selection. Work is ongoing to determine the most favorable location, with consideration focusing on the best ice/soil ratio, the shallowest slopes and fewest large rocks. Current sites under consideration will be discussed. Selected in 2003, Phoenix was recently confirmed to proceed into Phase C/D of spacecraft development. This research was funded by a NASA Grant and carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  9. Initial CRISM Observations of the Candidate 2007 Phoenix Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Murchie, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will acquire multispectral and targeted hyperspectral visible and near infrared data of the candidate Phoenix landing sites during the first few months of primary mission operations (beginning early November). Three 150 x 75 km candidate Phoenix landing sites are located in the high northern plains of Mars within a region from 65-72° N and 120-140° E. Geomorphologic characterization of this region indicates a relatively homogeneous terrain primarily composed of multiple kilometer-scale polygonal plains with superposed degraded craters. At decameter spatial scales, the area is ubiquitously covered by patterned ground in the form of basketball terrain, stripes, and small polygons. Spectral variation of these different types of landforms and materials that are detected by CRISM at 100- or 200-meter scales (multispectral) or ~20-meter scales (targeted hyperspectral) will be analyzed and initial results presented. Implications for Phoenix landing site selection and in situ measurements will also be discussed. CRISM observations along with other MRO data will be critical to the selection of the final landing site prior to launch in August of 2007.

  10. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing.

    The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site.

    These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Mark Left by First Dig at Phoenix Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The hole in the ground produced by the first Robotic Arm dig at the landing site of NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission appears to the right of the three largest rocks near the center of this image.

    The hole is the width of the scoop on the end of the arm, about 9 centimeters (3.5 inches). It resulted from a practice dig during the mission's seventh Martian day, or sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image later that sol. The image is in approximately true color, produced by combining exposures taken through different filters. The green band at upper left is a portion where imaging data was incomplete in for one of the filters.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Martian Sunrise at Phoenix Landing Site, Sol 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This sequence of nine images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the sun rising on the morning of the lander's 101st Martian day after landing.

    The images were taken on Sept. 5, 2008. The local solar times at the landing site for the nine images were between 1:23 a.m. and 1:41 a.m.

    The landing site is on far-northern Mars, and the mission started in late northern spring. For nearly the entire first 90 Martian days of the mission, the sun never set below the horizon. As the amount of sunshine each day declined steadily after that, so has the amount of electricity available for the solar-powered spacecraft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. The water cycle at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Selby

    2010-01-01

    The water cycle is critically important to understanding Mars system science, especially interactions between water and surface minerals or possible biological systems. In this thesis, the water cycle is examined at the Mars Phoenix landing site (68.22°N, 125.70°W), using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), the Phoenix Lander Surface Stereo Imager (SSI), and employing non-linear spectral mixing models. The landing site is covered for part of the year by the seasonal ice cap, a layer of CO2 and H2O ice that is deposited in mid-fall and sublimates in mid-spring. During the mid-summer, H2O ice is deposited on the surface at the Phoenix landing site. CO2 ice forms at the site during fall. The onset date of seasonal ices varies annually, perhaps due to variable levels of atmospheric dust. During fall and winter, the CO2 ice layer thickens and sinters into a slab of ice, ˜30 cm thick. After the spring equinox, the CO2 slab breaks into smaller grains as it sublimates. Long before all of the CO2 ice is gone, H2O ice dominates the near-infrared spectra of the surface. Additional H2O ice is cold-trapped onto the surface of the CO2 ice deposit during this time. Sublimation during the spring is not uniform, and depends on the thermal inertia properties of the surface, including depth of ground ice. All of the seasonal ices have sublimated by mid-spring; however, a few permanent ice deposits remain throughout the summer. These are small water ice deposits on the north-facing slopes of Heimdal Crater and adjacent plateaus, and a small patch of mobile water ices that chases shadows in a small crater near the landing site. During the late spring and early summer, the site is free of surface ice. During this time, the water cycle is dominated by vapor exchange between the subsurface water ice deposits and the atmosphere. Two types of subsurface ice were found at the Phoenix landing site

  14. Ground Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: A Preflight Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Tamppari, L. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Smith, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Mars Scout mission, Phoenix, is to characterize the present state of water in the martian environment, in a location where water may play a significant role in the present and past habitability of Mars. Given the generally dry and cold climate of Mars today any substantial amount of water is expected to occur in the form of ground ice (subsurface ice) within the regolith. The Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer has indicated abundant subsurface hydrogen and inferred ground ice at high latitudes. Therefore, the Phoenix mission will be targeted to land in the northern high latitudes (approximately 65 degrees N - 75 degrees N) where ground ice is expected to be abundantly available for analysis. The lander will be capable of excavating, sampling, and analyzing, dry and water-rich/icy soils. The location and depth of excavation necessary to achieve the goals of sampling and analysis of icy material become important parameters to assess. In the present work we ask two key questions: 1) At what depth within the regolith do we expect to find ice? 2) How might this depth vary over the region of potential landing sites? Numerous lines of evidence can be employed to provide an indication of the presence or absence of shallow ground ice at the potential landing sites. For example geomorphology, neutrons, gamma rays, and theory each contribute clues to an overall understanding of the distribution of ice. Orbital observations provide information on a variety of spatial scales, typically 10 s of meters (patterned ground) to 100 s of kilometers (gamma rays). While information on all of these scales are important, of particular interest is how the presence and depth of ground ice might vary on spatial scales comparable to the lander and its work area. While ground ice may be stable (and present) on a regional scale, local-scale slopes and changes in the physical characteristics of soils can result in significant variations in the distribution of ice.

  15. Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix landing site selection and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R.; Adams, D.; Bonfiglio, G.; Christensen, P.; Cull, S.; Golombek, M.; Guinn, J.; Guinness, E.; Heet, T.; Kirk, R.; Knudson, A.; Malin, M.; Mellon, M.; McEwen, A.; Mushkin, A.; Parker, T.; Seelos, F., IV; Seelos, K.; Smith, P.; Spencer, D.; Stein, T.; Tamppari, L.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operations, the Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix Lander must land within 65?? to 72?? north latitude, at an elevation less than -3.5 km. The landing site must have relatively low wind velocities and rock and slope distributions similar to or more benign than those found at the Viking Lander 2 site. Also, the site must have a soil cover of at least several centimeters over ice or icy soil to meet science objectives of evaluating the environmental and habitability implications of past and current near-polar environments. The most challenging aspects of site selection were the extensive rock fields associated with crater rims and ejecta deposits and the centers of polygons associated with patterned ground. An extensive acquisition campaign of Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer predawn thermal IR images, together with ???0.31 m/pixel Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images was implemented to find regions with acceptable rock populations and to support Monte Carlo landing simulations. The chosen site is located at 68.16?? north latitude, 233.35?? east longitude (areocentric), within a ???50 km wide (N-S) by ???300 km long (E-W) valley of relatively rock-free plains. Surfaces within the eastern portion of the valley are differentially eroded ejecta deposits from the relatively recent ???10-km-wide Heimdall crater and have fewer rocks than plains on the western portion of the valley. All surfaces exhibit polygonal ground, which is associated with fracture of icy soils, and are predicted to have only several centimeters of poorly sorted basaltic sand and dust over icy soil deposits. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Phoenix Landing Site Geomorphology: Surface Stability and Implications for the Martian Latitude-dependent Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    Geomorphological observations of the Phoenix landing site suggest a history for local permafrost recently dominated by excess ice removal through sublimation, ongoing thermal contraction cracking, and limited cryoturbation by wet or dry processes.

  17. 78 FR 52759 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 Under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Register (77 FR 74457-74458, 12-14-2012) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and... ASF to include an additional magnet site, proposed Site 9, within the Phoenix, Arizona U.S. Customs...,000-acre activation limit for the zone, and to a five-year ASF sunset provision for magnet sites...

  18. Dark Skies and Clouds Move in at Phoenix site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Clouds of dust and ice swirl past the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in a series of images taken on the 132nd Martian day of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The images show the increase in storm activity and potential for snowfall.

    The solar powered spacecraft was disabled by decreased light from heavy dust storms in the area a few weeks later. The last communication heard from the lander occurred on Nov. 2, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Mars 101: Linking Educational Content to Mission Purpose on the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L. J.; Smith, P. H.; Lombardi, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander, scheduled to launch in August 2007, is the first mission in NASA's Scout Program. Phoenix has been specifically designed to measure volatiles (especially water) in the northern arctic plains of Mars, where the Mars Odyssey detected evidence of ice-rich soil near the surface. A fundamental part of the mission's goal-driven education and public outreach program is the Phoenix Mars Lander 2007 web site. Content for the site was designed not only to further the casual user's understanding of the Phoenix mission and its objectives, but also to meet the needs of the more science-attentive user who desires in-depth information. To this end, the web site's "Mars 101" module includes five distinct themes, all of which are directly connected to the mission's purpose: Mars Intro includes basic facts about Mars and how the planet differs from Earth; Polar Regions discusses the history of polar exploration on Earth and the similarities between these regions on Mars and Earth; Climate covers the effects that Earth's polar regions have on climate and how these same effects may occur on Mars; Water on Mars introduces the reader to the idea of liquid water and water ice on Mars; and Biology includes a discussion of the requirements of life and life in the universe to facilitate reader understanding of what Phoenix might find. Each of the five themes is described in simple language accompanied by relevant images and graphics, with hypertext links connecting the science-attentive user to more in-depth content. By presenting the "Mars 101" content in a manner that relates each subheading to a specific component of the mission's purpose, the Phoenix web site nurtures understanding of the mission and its relevance to NASA's Mars Exploration goals by the general lay public as well as the science-attentive user.

  20. Seasonal ice cycle at the Mars Phoenix landing site: 2. Postlanding CRISM and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Selby; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Wolff, M.; Mellon, M. T.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2010-05-01

    The combination of ground observations from the Mars Phoenix Lander and orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) provided a detailed view of the formation of late summer surface water ice at the landing site and surrounding regions. CRISM observations of the landing site during and immediately after Phoenix operations were analyzed to track the seasonal and diurnal ice cycles during the late spring to late summer, and a nonlinear mixing model was used to estimate grain sizes and relative abundances of water ice and dust. The surface around the Phoenix landing site was ice-free from late spring through midsummer, although transient patches of mobile ices were observed in an 85 m diameter crater to the northeast of the landing site. At the ˜10 km diameter Heimdal Crater, located ˜10 km east of the landing site, permanent patches of water ice were observed to brighten during the late spring and darken during the summer, possibly as fine-grained water ice that was cold trapped onto the ice during late spring sintered into larger grains or finally sublimated, exposing larger-grained ice. CRISM spectra first show evidence of widespread ice during the night at solar longitude (Ls) ˜ 109°, ˜9 sols before Phoenix’s Surface Stereo Imager detected it. CRISM spectra first show evidence of afternoon surface ice and water ice clouds after Ls ˜ 155°, after Phoenix operations ended.

  1. H2O at the Phoenix landing site.

    PubMed

    Smith, P H; Tamppari, L K; Arvidson, R E; Bass, D; Blaney, D; Boynton, W V; Carswell, A; Catling, D C; Clark, B C; Duck, T; Dejong, E; Fisher, D; Goetz, W; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Hecht, M H; Hipkin, V; Hoffman, J; Hviid, S F; Keller, H U; Kounaves, S P; Lange, C F; Lemmon, M T; Madsen, M B; Markiewicz, W J; Marshall, J; McKay, C P; Mellon, M T; Ming, D W; Morris, R V; Pike, W T; Renno, N; Staufer, U; Stoker, C; Taylor, P; Whiteway, J A; Zent, A P

    2009-07-01

    The Phoenix mission investigated patterned ground and weather in the northern arctic region of Mars for 5 months starting 25 May 2008 (solar longitude between 76.5 degrees and 148 degrees ). A shallow ice table was uncovered by the robotic arm in the center and edge of a nearby polygon at depths of 5 to 18 centimeters. In late summer, snowfall and frost blanketed the surface at night; H(2)O ice and vapor constantly interacted with the soil. The soil was alkaline (pH = 7.7) and contained CaCO(3), aqueous minerals, and salts up to several weight percent in the indurated surface soil. Their formation likely required the presence of water. PMID:19574383

  2. Evidence for Calcium Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.; Arvidson, R. E.; Hoffman, J.; Niles, P. B.; Smith, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix mission has recently finished its study of the north polar environment of Mars with the aim to help understand both the current climate and to put constraints on past climate. An important part of understanding the past climate is the study of secondary minerals, those formed by reaction with volatile compounds such as H2O and CO2. This work describes observations made by the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) on the Phoenix Lander related to carbonate minerals. Carbonates are generally considered to be products of aqueous processes. A wet and warmer climate during the early history of Mars coupled with a much denser CO2 atmosphere are ideal conditions for the aqueous alteration of basaltic materials and the subsequent formation of carbonates. Carbonates (Mg- and Ca-rich) are predicted to be thermodynamically stable minerals in the present martian environment, however, there have been only a few indications of carbonates on the surface by a host of orbiting and landed missions to Mars. Carbonates (Mg-rich) have been suggested to be a component (2-5 wt %) of the martian global dust based upon orbital thermal emission spectroscopy. The identifications, based on the presence of a 1480 cm-1 absorption feature, are consistent with Mgcarbonates. A similar feature is observed in brighter, undisturbed soils by Mini-TES on the Gusev plains. Recently, Mg-rich carbonates have been identified in the Nili Fossae region by the CRISM instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Carbonates have also been confirmed as aqueous alteration phases in martian meteorites so it is puzzling why there have not been more discoveries of carbonates by landers, rovers, and orbiters. Carbonates may hold important clues about the history of liquid water and aqueous processes on the surface of Mars.

  3. Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Wolff, M. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13 acquired near the landing site. We find that summer ice-free spectra at the Phoenix landing site are approximated by scattering properties similar to Gusev Crater soils. Summer spectra have the strong water absorption at 3 μm, indicating a low level of hydration or adsorption of water, an effect previously observed throughout the northern hemisphere. Patches of permanent water ice appear on the shadowed sides of Heimdal Crater and on the shadowed sides of large mountains to the northeast. These patches were monitored throughout the summer and did not appear to grow or shrink; however, the ice patches darken between Ls~119 and Ls~160, possibly due to the sublimation or sintering of fine-grained ices cold-trapped onto the ice deposits during the spring defrost period. Mobile patches of summertime ice were observed to follow the shadow of a crater wall on an ~85-m crater located ~6.5 km northeast of the landing site. Widespread surface ice was first observed at the Phoenix landing site during the night (3 a.m. Local True Solar Time [LTST]) at Ls~104, and water ice was first observed in the afternoon (3 p.m. LTST) at Ls~154. CRISM observations show the first afternoon water ice clouds at Ls~157. Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) images first show evidence of afternoon (1 p.m. LTST) water ice in the shadows of large rocks on operations sol 80 (Ls~112), but did not observe widespread afternoon ice during the mission, which ended at Ls~149.

  4. Microscopic Investigation of Martian Soil Samples at the Phoenix Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Hecht, M. H.; Marshall, J.; Team, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    We have used the optical and atomic force microscopes (OM and AFM) of the MECA microscopy station on Phoenix (M. Hecht et al., Microscopy Capabilities of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer , JGR accepted for publication) to image samples within reach of the robot arm and delivered to sets of substrates mounted in a sample wheel. For loading the sample, the wheel was pushed out of the MECA enclosure, exposing only one set of substrates: strong and weak magnets, micro-buckets, silicone and silicon featuring grids of micromachined small holes and posts to capture particles. A thickness of up to 200 micrometers of material can be brought into the microscopy station under a leveling blade before the samples are rotated into the field of view of the microscopes as the substrates are tilted from horizontal to vertical. This tilt can cause the loss of a portion of the material depending on the relative strength of the adhesion forces compared to Martian gravity. The time constraints of sample delivery have so far ensured that any ice would have sublimed prior to delivery. From OM images of fully loaded substrates the particles found so far can be very coarsely grouped into three different categories: 1. subrounded strongly magnetic grains, of both a rough and glassy appearance with different shades of yellow, red, brown and black color in a size range of 50 to 100 micrometers, comprising about 10% of the sample volume; 2. small white flecks of a few micrometers in size, about 0.5% of the sample volume; 3. a majority component of a fine, uniformly coloured orange-reddish dust forming agglomerations from a few tens of microns in diameter to below the resolution of the OM with less magnetic attraction than the larger grains. Using populations on more sparsely populated substrates a size distribution could be estimated. The particle size distribution increases with decreasing size until cut off by the 4-micrometer resolution limit of the OM. The AFM

  5. Convective vortices and dust devils at the Phoenix Mars mission landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellehoj, M. D.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Taylor, P. A.; Kahanpää, H.; Bean, K. M.; Cantor, B. A.; Gheynani, B. T.; Drube, L.; Fisher, D.; Harri, A.-M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Madsen, M. B.; Malin, M. C.; Polkko, J.; Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L. K.; Weng, W.; Whiteway, J.

    2010-04-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander detected a larger number of short (˜20 s) pressure drops that probably indicate the passage of convective vortices or dust devils. Near-continuous pressure measurements have allowed for monitoring the frequency of these events, and data from other instruments and orbiting spacecraft give information on how these pressure events relate to the seasons and weather phenomena at the Phoenix landing site. Here 502 vortices were identified with a pressure drop larger than 0.3 Pa occurring in the 151 sol mission (Ls 76 to 148). The diurnal distributions show a peak in convective vortices around noon, agreeing with current theory and previous observations. The few events detected at night might have been mechanically forced by turbulent eddies caused by the nearby Heimdal crater. A general increase with major peaks in the convective vortex activity occurs during the mission, around Ls = 111. This correlates with changes in midsol surface heat flux, increasing wind speeds at the landing site, and increases in vortex density. Comparisons with orbiter imaging show that in contrast to the lower latitudes on Mars, the dust devil activity at the Phoenix landing site is influenced more by active weather events passing by the area than by local forcing.

  6. An Application Using Triaxial Ellipsoids to Model Martian Dust at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E. L.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Martian atmospheric dust is not spherical and contains irregular shaped particles. This irregularity adds complexity to models determining radiative heating of the atmosphere. Particle size has been studied extensively with remote sensing, but particle shape is still poorly understood. Bi et al. show that an assortment of triaxial ellipsoids provides a good analog for the scattering properties of terrestrial dust aerosols. In addition Z. Meng et al. (2010) have developed a database containing single-scattering properties of irregularly shaped dust particles with pre-defined microphysical and optical parameters. The tabulation allows quick and efficient use of the results from time-consuming models and can be applied to the Martian atmosphere. The landing site for Phoenix was in a region that fell within the northern seasonal ice cap and was active during a period of large dust upwelling. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager performed several cross-sky brightness surveys to constrain the size distribution and scattering and absorption properties of the airborne dust in the Martian northern polar environment. Using the database, single scattering properties adapted to the Martian atmosphere can be used to determine bulk scattering properties of the medium at the Phoenix landing site. We will present a comparison of triaxial ellipsoids with spheroidal models using Phoenix spectrophotometric data and show that triaxial ellipsoid properties can produce a good fit to the observed data. In addition we will provide initial results of polarization to test the triaxial ellipsoid hypothesis.

  7. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Geologic Setting and Soil Physical Properties of the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Mellon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Lander touched down ~30 km to the southwest (68.22 N, 234.25 E) of the Amazonian aged, 10 km wide, bowl-shaped Heimdall impact crater. The lander is sitting on ejecta deposits from the Heimdall event that were emplaced as a ground hugging, volatile rich flow, interpreted to be a consequence of impact into icy soil and bedrock. The ejecta deposits have been differentially eroded by aeolian activity and reworked by permafrost-related processes into polygonal ground. Rock abundances are low relative to most of Mars and rocks are concentrated in troughs in between polygons and tend to be evenly spaced, implying an on-going process of polygon formation. Rocks range from tabular to rounded in shape and massive to vesicular in texture. Very few aeolian features (e.g., ripples or ventifacted rock surfaces) are evident, in contrast to the other Mars landing sites. Based on analyses of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM hyperspectral data (~0.4 to 4 micrometers) and Phoenix observations, the surface cover is dominated by basaltic soils (sandy silts) and ferric-rich dust, with only contribution from minerals formed under aqueous conditions. The soil is cloddy and adheres to spacecraft surfaces, probably because of electrostatic charging. Densely-cemented icy soil is found within a few centimeters of the surface and once exposed and allowed to warm in the sunlight the ice eventually sublimates into the atmosphere, leaving behind soil lag deposits. The Phoenix landing site is unique relative to the other five sites (two Viking Landers, Pathfinder, Spirit and Opportunity rovers) because of the high latitude, location on relatively young ejecta emplaced as a volatile-rich flow, and because the ice table depth is predicted to have varied from centimeters to as much as a meter beneath the surface during orbital shifts associated with Martian Milankovitch cycles and consequent insolation over the northern latitudes.

  11. Subsurface ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Assessing emplacement mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Skemer, P. A.; Shaw, A.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emplacement of subsurface ices on Mars: vapor diffusion from the atmosphere, freezing of bodies of surface water (e.g., lakes or oceans), buried glaciers, or accumulation and burial of packed snow. These formation mechanisms predict different physical properties for the subsurface ices: vapor diffusion should produce pore ice, whereas other mechanisms should produce massive, relatively pure ice. NASA's Phoenix Lander uncovered two types of ice at its 2008 landing site on the northern plains of Mars: a light-toned ice (Dodo-Goldilocks) that broke into pieces during backhoe operations; and a hard, darker icy surface that had to be scraped to provide particulate materials for sampling (Snow White). Here, we use spectra from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) and a non-linear mixing model with ice and soil components to determine the ice to soil ratio of the ices exposed at the Phoenix landing site. We find Dodo-Goldilocks consists of almost pure water ice. The darker icy material contains ~30 wt% ice (~55 vol%), indicating that it probably formed as pore ice between grains of soil. We conclude that these two types of ice represent two different emplacement mechanisms and periods of deposition. Snow White ice was probably deposited via vapor diffusion from the atmosphere. Dodo-Goldilocks ice was probably deposited through an ice-lens or needle ice mechanism. Buried snow or glacial ice is unlikely for Dodo-Goldilocks, given its restricted spatial extent and the fact that the site is covered by large rocks.

  12. Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Marlow, Jeffrey J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Asphaug, Erik

    2008-11-01

    We examine potentially periglacial landforms in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at the Phoenix landing site and compare them with numerical models of permafrost processes to better understand the origin, nature, and history of the permafrost and the surface of the northern plains of Mars. Small-scale (3-6 m) polygonal-patterned ground is ubiquitous throughout the Phoenix landing site and northern plains. Larger-scale (20-25 m) polygonal patterns and regularly spaced (20-35 m) rubble piles (localized collections of rocks and boulders) are also common. Rubble piles were previously identified as ``basketball terrain'' in MOC images. The small polygon networks exhibit well-developed and relatively undegraded morphology, and they overlay all other landforms. Comparison of the small polygons with a numerical model shows that their size is consistent with a thermal contraction origin on current-day Mars and are likely active. In addition, the observed polygon size is consistent with a subsurface rheology of ice-cemented soil on depth scales of about 10 m. The size and morphology of the larger polygonal patterns and rubble piles indicate a past episode of polygon formation and rock sorting in thermal contraction polygons, while the ice table was about twice as deep as it is presently. The pervasive nature of small and large polygons, and the extensive sorting of surface rocks, indicates that widespread overturning of the surface layer to depths of many meters has occurred in the recent geologic past. This periglacial reworking has had a significant influence on the landscape at the Phoenix landing site and over the Martian northern plains.

  13. A Physical Taxonomy of Martian Sand and Dust Grainsat the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Stoker, Carol

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative taxonomy of martian sand and dust grains for soil samples at the Phoenix lander site has been developed from the mission’s optical microscope data with a resolution of 4 μm per pixel. Approx. 3-4000 grains were analyzed for color, hue, size, shape, surface texture, aspect ratio, and optical properties. At least 26 types of sand and dust grains have been identified. Grain colors include black, brown, orange, red, white, and clear. Most grains are opaque, but many are translucent or transparent. Grain shapes range from botryoidal, blackberry-like, bead-like and rounded, to subrounded, elongate, angular, and highly irregular forms. Surface textures range from knobbly, rough, and multifaceted to smooth and polished. Surface reflectivity varied from dull to shiny to specularly reflective. Materials may include augite, pyroxenes, olivine, volcanic glass, hematite, other iron oxides, and salts. Grain size of the sand has a modal value of ~90 μm, but there is no gradation into dust sizes, indicating a bimodal distribution of the samples. The dust was probably imported into the region from aeolian dust storms. This accords with a mineralogical dissimilarity between the sand and dust grain populations. The sand is dominated by black and brown grains; the dust is dominated by orange grains. The Phoenix site also has centimeter and larger stones in abundance that again have no apparent gradation into the sand size material. Thus, the Phoenix landing site soil appears multimodal. The soil appears to be magnetically susceptible, but it is unclear what the source of magnetism might be. Specific magnetic minerals were not identified in the samples with the possible exception of paramagnetic microbotryoidal hematite. The soil was nevertheless adhesive to the substrates and internally cohesive (forming spherical aggregates) owing to van der Waals forces and possibly salt/moisture bonding.

  14. A Historical Search for the Occurrence of Habitable Ground Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model of the thermal history of Martian ground ice at the approximate location of the planned Phoenix landing site has been developed and used to identify instances of relatively warm ground ice over the last 10 Ma. Many terrestrial organisms are adapted to life at or below the freezing temperature of water, and we will use the approximate doubling time of terrestrial microbial populations as a function of temperature, is used as a metric against which to assess the "habitability" of Martian ground ice.

  15. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  16. Soil Properties Analysis of the Phoenix Landing Site Based on Trench Characteristics and Robotic Arm Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Arvidson, R.; Bonitz, R.; Carsten, J.; Keller, H.; Lemmon, M.; Mellon, M. T.; Robinson, M.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Volpe, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander has had access to polygonal terrain; specifically, two polygons and a trough. Slopes in the trenches and dump piles created from the interaction of the Phoenix robotic arm (RA) with the soil around its landing site are similar to those seen on previous missions, such as the MER and Viking missions. This indicates similar cohesion and angle of internal friction to previous landing sites. For example, trench slopes typically range from 44-72° and dump pile slopes range from 20-30°. There are at least two very different types of materials at the site: a layer of soil which goes down to several centimeters below the surface and, below that, a layer of icy soil. The RA can easily dig through the top layer of soil, often using 20-30N force. However, when it encounters icy soil, the RA requires tens of scrapes with the lower tungsten carbide blade on its scoop to progress even a few millimeters. To verify soil property parameters, we analyze the normal and shear stresses exerted on the soil by digging, scraping, and rasping with the RA.

  17. Ice Lens Formation and Frost Heave at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Sizemore, H. G.; Remple, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the volume of shallow ground ice in the martian high latitudes exceeds the pore volume of the host regolith. Boynton et al. found an optimal fit to the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data at the Phoenix landing site by modeling a buried layer of 50-75% ice by mass (up to 90% ice by volume). Thermal and optical observations of recent impact craters in the northern hemisphere have revealed nearly pure ice. Ice deposits containing only 1-2% soil by volume were excavated by Phoenix. The leading hypothesis for the origin of this excess ice is that it developed in situ by a mechanism analogous to the formation of terrestrial ice lenses and needle ice. Problematically, terrestrial soil-ice segregation is driven by freeze/thaw cycling and the movement of bulk water, neither of which are expected to have occurred in the geologically recent past on Mars. If however ice lens formation is possible at temperatures less than 273 K, there are possible implications for the habitability of Mars permafrost, since the same thin films of unfrozen water that lead to ice segregation are used by terrestrial psychrophiles to metabolize and grow down to temperatures of at least 258 K.

  18. Phoenix Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair

    This image is a stereo, panoramic view of various trenches dug by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The images that make up this panorama were taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager at about 4 p.m., local solar time at the landing site, on the 131st, Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008).

    In figure 1, the trenches are labeled in orange and other features are labeled in blue. Figures 2 and 3 are the left- and right-eye members of a stereo pair.

    For scale, the 'Pet Donkey' trench just to the right of center is approximately 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 31 to 34 centimeters (12 to 13 inches) wide. In addition, the rock in front of it, 'Headless,' is about 11.5 by 8.5 centimeters (4.5 by 3.3 inches), and about 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Soil moisture detection from radar imagery of the Phoenix, Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.; Mueller, R.

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) dual-polarization X and L band radar was flown to acquire radar imagery over the Phoenix (Arizona) test site. The site was covered by a north-south pass and an east-west pass. Radar response to soil moisture was investigated. Since the ERIM radar does not have accurately measured antenna patterns, analysis of the L band data was performed separately for each of several strips along the flight line, each corresponding to a narrow angle of incidence. For the NS pass, good correlation between the radar return and mositure content was observed for each of the two nearest (to nadir) angular ranges. At higher angular ranges, no correlation was observed. The above procedure was not applied to the EW pass due to flight path misalignments. The results obtained stress the importance of radar calibration, the digitization process, and the angle of incidence.

  20. Photometric Properties of Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Preliminary Analysis from CRISM EPF Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Using data from CRISM's Emission Phase Function observations, we attempt to constrain Phoenix soil scattering properties, including soil grain size, single-scattering albedo, and surface phase function.

  1. Geomorphic and geologic settings of the Phoenix Lander mission landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heet, T. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cull, S. C.; Mellon, M. T.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-11-01

    The Phoenix Lander touched down on the northern distal flank of the shield volcano Alba Patera in a ˜150 km wide valley underlain by the Scandia region unit. The geomorphology and geology of the landing site is dominated by the ˜0.6 Ga, 11.5 km wide, bowl-shaped impact crater, Heimdal, and its areally extensive ejecta deposits. The Lander is located ˜20 km to the west of the crater and is sitting on a plains surface underlain by partially eroded Heimdal ejecta deposits. Heimdal was produced by a hypervelocity impact into fine-grained, ice-rich material and is inferred to have produced high velocity winds and a ground-hugging ejecta emplacement mode that destroyed or buried preexisting surfaces and rock fields out to ˜10 crater radii. Patterned ground is ubiquitous, with complex polygon patterns and rock rubble piles located on older plains (˜3.3 Ga) to the west of the ejecta deposits. Crater size frequency distributions are complex and represent equilibria between crater production and destruction processes (e.g., aeolian infill, cryoturbation, relaxation of icy substrate). Rock abundances increase near craters for the older plains and rocks with their dark shadows explain the reason for the few percent lower albedo for these plains as opposed to the Heimdal ejecta deposits. Many rocks at the landing site have been reworked by cryoturbation and moved to polygon troughs. The evidence for cryoturbation and the lack of aeolian features imply that the soils sampled by Phoenix are locally derived and mixed with a subordinate amount of windblown dust.

  2. A revised Pitzer model for low-temperature soluble salt assemblages at the Phoenix site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2015-10-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Mars Phoenix Lander measured ions in a soil-water extraction and found Na+, K+, H+ (pH), Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, ClO4-, and Cl-. Equilibrium models offer insights into salt phases that were originally present in the Phoenix soil, which dissolved to form the measured WCL solution; however, there are few experimental datasets for single cation perchlorates (ClO4-), and none for mixed perchlorates, at low temperatures, which are needed to build models. In this study, we measure ice and salt solubilities in binary and ternary solutions in the Na-Ca-Mg-ClO4 system, and then use this data, along with existing data, to construct a low-temperature Pitzer model for perchlorate brines. We then apply our model to a nominal WCL solution. Previous studies have modeled either freezing of a WCL solution or evaporation at a single temperature. For the first time, we model evaporation at subzero temperatures, which is relevant for dehydration conditions that might occur at the Phoenix site. Our model indicates that a freezing WCL solution will form ice, KClO4, hydromagnesite (3MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), calcite (CaCO3), meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O), MgCl2·12H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, and Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O at the eutectic (209 K). The total water held in hydrated salt phases at the eutectic is ∼1.2 wt.%, which is much greater than hydrated water contents when evaporation is modeled at 298.15 K (∼0.3 wt.%). Evaporation of WCL solutions at lower temperatures (down to 210 K) results in lower water activities and the formation of more dehydrated minerals, e.g. kieserite (MgSO4·H2O) instead of meridianiite. Potentially habitable brines, with water activity aw > 0.6, can occur when soil temperatures are above 220 K and when the soil liquid water content is greater than 0.4 wt.% (100 ×gH2O gsoil-1). In general, modeling indicates that mineral assemblages derived from WCL-type solutions are characteristic of the soil temperature, water content, and water

  3. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  4. Phoenix rising

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-08-15

    Phoenix Coal currently operates 3 surface coal mines in Western Kentucky and have recently obtained the permits to construct their first underground mine. The expansion of the Phoenix Coal company since its formation in July 2004 is described. 4 photos.

  5. An Historical Search for Unfrozen Water at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work is to explore the history of the high-latitude subsurface in the latitude range of the Phoenix landing site (65-75 deg. N). The approach is to use time-marching climate models to search for times, locations, and depths where thick films of unfrozen water might periodically occur. Thick films of unfrozen water (as distinct from ubiquitous monolayer water) are interesting for two reasons. First, multi-layer films of water may be bio-available. Second, patterned ground may require the occurrence of thick films of unfrozen water to facilitate the migration of particles and the development of excess pore ice, as reported by the Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) results. For the purposes of this work, we define conditions adequate to establish thick films of unfrozen water to be T greater than 268 K, and RH greater than 0.5. We start with the need to understand the atmospheric pressure. Because of the fact that we're looking at high latitudes, the seasonal cap buffers surface temperature for some part of the year. That directly affects the subsurface thermal regime, at least in the uppermost meter where we will be

  6. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Geomorphology of the 2007 Phoenix Mission Landing Sites in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Golombek, M.; Parker, T.; Tamppari, L.; Smith, P.

    2005-12-01

    In 2008, the Phoenix lander will touch down in the northern plains of Mars to sample and characterize near surface and underlying ice-rich soils, gather meteorological data, and provide insight into the evolution of the surrounding landscape. Three regions from 65 to 72 N and (A) 250-270E, (B) 120-140E, and (C) 65-85E that meet both engineering and scientific constraints were chosen for concentrated acquisition of remote data to support landing site selection. Smaller areas (150x75 km) within these regions devoid of large craters or other hazards were selected as potential landing sites; center coordinates for these targeted areas are (A) 68N, 260E, (B) 67.5N, 130E, and (C) 70N, 80E. MOLA topographic data along with MOC imagery and THEMIS 36m/pixel visible, 18m/pixel visible, and ~100m/pixel infrared data are utilized to produce geomorphologic maps at 36m/pixel for the larger regions and 18m/pixel for the targeted sites. All regions are dominated by intercrater plains units, with the plains in regions B and C comprised of slightly elevated, multiple kilometer-scale polygonal blocks surrounded or infilled by finer-grained material. The plains unit of region A lacks large polygons, instead exhibiting a smooth to mottled appearance. Patterned ground is ubiquitous throughout all regions. The characteristic dimpled texture of "basketball" terrain is most common, being superposed on the large polygons in regions B and C, and often organized into stripes with orientations partially controlled by local slopes. Small-scale polygonal ground is also observed usually in association with crater ejecta. Craters throughout all regions appear highly degraded, with most small craters (< 1km) remarkably worn with little or no rim definition and ejecta present only as a faint dark halo. Larger craters frequently exhibit pedestal-style ejecta. The style and state of landform degradation and the consistent presence of patterned ground throughout all regions suggests the long

  8. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  11. Cold and dry processes in the Martian Arctic: Geomorphic observations at the Phoenix landing site and comparisons with terrestrial cold desert landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Joseph S.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2009-11-01

    We analyze Surface Stereo Imager observations of rocks, sediments, and permafrost-related landforms in the vicinity of the Phoenix lander, comparing the imaged features to analogous examples of physical weathering and periglacial processes observed in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Observations at the Phoenix landing site of pitted rocks, “puzzle rocks” undergoing in-situ breakdown, perched clasts, and thermal contraction crack polygon morphologies strikingly similar to terrestrial sublimation polygons, all strongly suggest that stable (non-churning) permafrost processes dominate the Phoenix landing site. Morphological evidence suggests that cold-desert processes, in the absence of wet active-layer cryoturbation, and largely driven by sublimation of buried ice (either pore ice, excess ice, or both) are shaping the landscape.

  12. Possible Segregated Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: Was Liquid Water Involved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Blaney, D.; Hecht, M.; Catling, D.; Pike, W. T.; Mellon, M.; Kounaves, S.; Lemmon, M.

    2008-12-01

    Lander cameras on the Phoenix mission revealed polygonal terrain at the landing site. Areas identified by topography within the work area of the arm included a polygon and a surrounding trough. Two trenches were dug, the first (Goldilocks) on the shoulder of a trough area exposed a bright, hard material and the second (Snow white) in the center of the polygon exposed hard material, but with multispectral properties indistinguishable from soil. Visibile-NIR spectra of the Goldilocks bright material are consistent with slightly dusty ice. When first exposed, a 2 cm chunk of material broke off and was observed to completely disappear in 3 sols, an implied sublmation rate of 100 micrometers per hour. We hypothesize that the Goldilocks bright material is segregated ice. The material is hard, localized, has distinct edges, and was initially covered with only 3 cm of soil, thus was 2cm shallower than the hard layer in the Snow white trench in spite of a more south-facing exposure. A trench dug 40 cm further south of Goldilocks, with similar orientation, reached 18 cm depth without encountering hard material. Plausible mechanisms for emplacement of segregated ice include liquid water pooled into a thermally-produced crack analogous to terrestrial ice wedge polygon formation, snowparticles depositing preferentially in the troughs, and vapor deposition preferentially into cracks (D. Fisher, Icarus 179, 387, 2005). Mission observations were performed relevant to evaluating these formation mechanisms. Wet chemistry analyses of soils suggest they contain Mg(ClO4)2, a soluble hygroscopic salt with a eutectic freezing point of /- 68C. If liquid water moved though the soil and formed the bright deposit in Goldilocks trench, a higher concentration of perchlorate would be expected in the area of the ice. Mg(ClO4)2. 6 H2O would crystallize when the salty water froze, forming white rhombohedral crystals. After scraping away the surface soil, approximately 500 cm2of bright material was

  13. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Magnesium Perchlorate: Implications for Perchlorates in Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Lauer, H. V.; Sutter, B.; Golden, D.C.; Boynton, W.V.

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate salts were discovered in the soils around the Phoenix landing site on the northern plains of Mars [1]. Perchlorate was detected by an ion selective electrode that is part of the MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The discovery of a mass 32 fragment (likely 02) by the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) provided additional confirmation of a strong oxidizer in the soils around the landing site. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of perchlorate salts using TEGA-like laboratory testbed instruments. TEGA ovens were fabricated from high purity Ni. Hence, an additional objective of this paper is to determine the effects that Ni might have on the evolved gas behavior of perchlorate salts.

  14. Geomorphologic and mineralogic characterization of the northern plains of Mars at the Phoenix Mission candidate landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cull, S. C.; Hash, C. D.; Heet, T. L.; Guinness, E. A.; McGuire, P. C.; Morris, R. V.; Murchie, S. L.; Parker, T. J.; Roush, T. L.; Seelos, F. P.; Wolff, M. J.

    2008-09-01

    A suite of remote sensing data is used to evaluate both geomorphology and mineralogy of the candidate landing sites for the 2007 Phoenix Mission. Three candidate landing site boxes are situated in the northern plains of Mars on the distal flank of Alba Patera in the region from 67°N to 72°N and from ~230°E to 260°E. Geomorphology is mapped at subkilometer spatial scales using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data, supplemented by images from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Imager (CTX). Mineralogy and spectral properties are examined using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) visible and near-infrared multispectral mapping and targeted hyperspectral data at ~200 and ~20 m/pixel, respectively. Geomorphic mapping supports the idea that terrains along the boundary between the Amazonian Scandia region and Vastitas Borealis marginal geologic units have undergone extensive modification. Intercrater plains are disrupted to form mesas and interlocking blocks, while irregular depressions and knobby terrain are consistent with erosion/subsidence and local deposition. Despite the varied morphology, the present-day surface is nearly homogeneous with spectral signatures dominated by nanophase iron oxides and basaltic sand and rocks, similar to that of the Gusev crater plains at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site. The compilation of geomorphic and spectral information for the candidate Phoenix landing sites provides a framework for the mission's in situ observations to be extrapolated to the northern plains as a whole.

  15. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Confirmation of Soluble Sulfate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Implications for Martian Geochemistry and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Kapit, J.; Quinn, R. C.; Catling, D. C.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gospodinova, K.; Hredzak, P.; McElhoney, K.; Shusterman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, elemental sulfur in martian soils and rocks has been detected by a number of missions using X-ray spectroscopy [1-3]. Optical spectroscopy has also provided evidence for widespread sulfates on Mars [4,5]. The ubiquitous presence of sulfur in soils has been interpreted as a widely distributed sulfate mineralogy [6]. However, direct confirmation as to the identity and solubility of the sulfur species in martian soil has never been obtained. One goal of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [7] on board the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander [8] was to determine soluble sulfate in the martian soil. The WCL received three primary samples. Each sample was added to 25 mL of leaching solution and analysed for solvated ionic species, pH, and conductivity [9,10]. The analysis also showed a discrepancy between charge balance, ionic strength, and conductivity, suggesting unidentified anionic species.

  17. Phoenix Without its Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will be in free fall after it separates from its back shell and parachute, but not for long. Thrusters will begin firing half a second later and will increase their thrusts three seconds after Phoenix sets itself free from the parachute.

    The spacecraft will have slowed to about 56 meters per second (125 miles per hour) by the time it separates from the parachute, about a kilometer (six-tenths of a mile) above the ground.

    This illustration is part of the animation featured above.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The effect of cangrelor and access site on ischaemic and bleeding events: insights from CHAMPION PHOENIX

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, J. Antonio; Harrington, Robert A.; Blankenship, James C.; Stone, Gregg W.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Gibson, C. Michael; Hamm, Christian W.; Price, Matthew J.; Généreux, Philippe; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; White, Harvey D.; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the use of the femoral or radial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) interacted with the efficacy and safety of cangrelor, an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor, in CHAMPION PHOENIX. Methods and results A total of 11 145 patients were randomly assigned in a double-dummy, double-blind manner either to a cangrelor bolus and 2-h infusion or to clopidogrel at the time of PCI. The primary endpoint, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis, and the primary safety endpoint, Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) defined severe bleeding, were evaluated at 48 h. Of the patients undergoing PCI and receiving study drug treatment, a total of 8064 (74%) and 2855 (26%) patients underwent femoral or radial PCI, respectively. Among the femoral cohort, the primary endpoint rate was 4.8% with cangrelor vs. 6.0% with clopidogrel (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI] = 0.79 [0.65–0.96]); among the radial cohort, the primary endpoint was 4.4% with cangrelor vs. 5.7% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 0.76 [0.54–1.06]), P-interaction 0.83. The rate of GUSTO severe bleeding in the femoral cohort was 0.2% with cangrelor vs. 0.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.73 [0.51–5.93]). Among the radial cohort, the rate of GUSTO severe bleeding was 0.1% with cangrelor vs. 0.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.02 [0.14–7.28]), P-interaction 0.65. The evaluation of safety endpoints with the more sensitive ACUITY-defined bleeding found major bleeding in the femoral cohort to be 5.2% with cangrelor vs. 3.1% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 1.69 [1.35–2.12]); among the radial cohort the rate of ACUITY major bleeding was 1.5% with cangrelor vs. 0.7% with clopidogrel (OR [95% CI] = 2.17 [1.02–4.62], P-interaction 0.54). Conclusion In CHAMPION PHOENIX, cangrelor reduced ischaemic events with no significant increase in GUSTO-defined severe bleeding. The absolute rates

  19. Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric CO2 at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Boynton, William V.; Hoffman, John H.; Ming, Douglas W.; Hamara, Dave

    2010-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is a primary component of the martian atmosphere and reacts readily with water and silicate rocks. Thus, the stable isotopic composition of CO2 can reveal much about the history of volatiles on the planet. The Mars Phoenix spacecraft measurements of carbon isotopes [referenced to the Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB)] [δ13CVPDB = -2.5 ± 4.3 per mil (‰)] and oxygen isotopes [referenced to the Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] (δ18OVSMOW = 31.0 ± 5.7‰), reported here, indicate that CO2 is heavily influenced by modern volcanic degassing and equilibration with liquid water. When combined with data from the martian meteorites, a general model can be constructed that constrains the history of water, volcanism, atmospheric evolution, and weathering on Mars. This suggests that low-temperature water-rock interaction has been dominant throughout martian history, carbonate formation is active and ongoing, and recent volcanic degassing has played a substantial role in the composition of the modern atmosphere.

  20. Stable isotope measurements of martian atmospheric CO2 at the Phoenix landing site.

    PubMed

    Niles, Paul B; Boynton, William V; Hoffman, John H; Ming, Douglas W; Hamara, Dave

    2010-09-10

    Carbon dioxide is a primary component of the martian atmosphere and reacts readily with water and silicate rocks. Thus, the stable isotopic composition of CO2 can reveal much about the history of volatiles on the planet. The Mars Phoenix spacecraft measurements of carbon isotopes [referenced to the Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB)] [delta13C(VPDB) = -2.5 +/- 4.3 per mil (per thousand)] and oxygen isotopes [referenced to the Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] (delta18O(VSMOW) = 31.0 +/- 5.7 per thousand), reported here, indicate that CO2 is heavily influenced by modern volcanic degassing and equilibration with liquid water. When combined with data from the martian meteorites, a general model can be constructed that constrains the history of water, volcanism, atmospheric evolution, and weathering on Mars. This suggests that low-temperature water-rock interaction has been dominant throughout martian history, carbonate formation is active and ongoing, and recent volcanic degassing has played a substantial role in the composition of the modern atmosphere. PMID:20829484

  1. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Phoenix model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phoenix (formerly referred to as the Second Generation Model or SGM) is a global general equilibrium model designed to analyze energy-economy-climate related questions and policy implications in the medium- to long-term. This model disaggregates the global economy into 26 industr...

  3. Phoenix's Workplace Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Phoenix's solar panels are seen in the foreground.

    The trench informally called 'Snow White' was dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.'

    Snow White, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 24 (June 18, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Effect of evaporation and freezing on the salt paragenesis and habitability of brines at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenousy, Amira; Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.

    2015-07-01

    The WCL (Wet Chemistry Lab) instrument on board the Phoenix Lander identified the soluble ionic composition of the soil at the landing site. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the parent salts of these soluble ions. Here we studied the possible salt assemblages at the Phoenix landing site using two different thermodynamic models: FREZCHEM and Geochemist's Workbench (GWB). Two precipitation pathways were used: evaporation (T > 0 °C using both FREZCHEM and GWB) and freezing (T < 0 °C using only FREZCHEM). Through applying three different models of initial ionic concentrations (from sulfate to chlorate/perchlorate dominated), we calculated the resulting precipitated minerals. The results-through both freezing and evaporation-showed some common minerals that precipitated regardless of the ionic initial concentration. These ubiquitous minerals are magnesium chlorate hexahydrate Mg(ClO3)2ṡ6H2O, potassium perchlorate (KClO4) and gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O). Other minerals evidence specific precipitation pathway. Precipitation of highly hydrated salts such as meridianiite (MgSO4ṡ11H2O) and MgCl2ṡ12H2O indicate freezing pathway, while precipitation of the low hydrated salts (anhydrite, kieserite and epsomite) indicate evaporation. The present hydration states of the precipitated hydrated minerals probably reflect the ongoing thermal processing and recent seasonally varying humidity conditions at the landing site, but these hydration states might not reflect the original depositional conditions. The simulations also showed the absence of Ca-perchlorate in all models, mainly because of the formation of two main salts: KClO4 and gypsum which are major sinks for ClO-4 and Ca2+ respectively. Finally, in consideration to the Martian life, it might survive at the very low temperatures and low water activities of the liquids formed. However, besides the big and widely recognized challenges to life posed by those extreme environmental parameters (especially low

  5. Phoenix Sol 2 Northwestern Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of a camera going through the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the Phoenix lander. At the end of the animation is an approximate color mosaic taken by Phoenix's SSI camera. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Combustion of Organic Molecules by the Thermal Decomposition of Perchlorate Salts: Implications for Organics at the Mars Phoenix Scout Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Niles, B.; Lauer, H.V.; Archer, P.D.; Sutter, B.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully landed on May 25, 2008 and operated on the northern plains of Mars for 150 sols. The primary mission objective was to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix landed near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain created by ice layers that are a few centimeters under loose soil materials. The Phoenix Mission is assessing the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in the ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix searched for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [2]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [2]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to 1000 C. Evolved gases, including any organic molecules and their fragments, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating. Phoenix TEGA data are still under analysis; however, no organic fragments have been identified to date in the evolved gas analysis (EGA). The MECA Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) discovered a perchlorate salt in the Phoenix soils and a mass 32 peak evolved between 325 and 625 C for one surface sample dubbed Baby Bear [3]. The mass 32 peak is attributed to evolved O2 generated during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. Perchlorates are very strong oxidizers when heated, so it is possible that organic fragments evolved in the temperature range of 300-600 C were combusted by the O2 released during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. The byproduct of the combustion of organic molecules is CO2. There is a prominent release of CO2 between 200

  7. Soluble salts at the Phoenix Lander site, Mars: A reanalysis of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-07-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Phoenix Mars Scout Lander analyzed soils for soluble ions and found Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, and ClO4-. The salts that gave rise to these ions can be inferred using aqueous equilibrium models; however, model predictions are sensitive to the initial solution composition. This is problematic because the WCL data is noisy and many different ion compositions are possible within error bounds. To better characterize ion concentrations, we reanalyzed WCL data using improvements to original analyses, including Kalman optimal smoothing and ion-pair corrections. Our results for Rosy Red are generally consistent with previous analyses, except that Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations are lower. In contrast, ion concentrations in Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2 are significantly different from previous analyses. Using the more robust Rosy Red WCL analysis, we applied equilibrium models to determine salt compositions within the error bounds of the reduced data. Modeling with FREZCHEM predicts that WCL solutions evolve Ca-Mg-ClO4-rich compositions at low temperatures. These unusual compositions are likely influenced by limitations in the experimental data used to parameterize FREZCHEM. As an alternative method to evaluate salt assemblages, we employed a chemical divide model based on the eutectic temperatures of salts. Our chemical divide model predicts that the most probable salts in order of mass abundance are MgSO4·11H2O (meridianiite), MgCO3·nH2O, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, KClO4, NaCl·2H2O (hydrohalite), and CaCO3 (calcite). If ClO3- is included in the chemical divide model, then NaClO3 precipitates instead of NaClO4·2H2O and Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O precipitates in addition to Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O. These salt assemblages imply that at least 1.3 wt.% H2O is bound in the soil, noting that we cannot account for water in hydrated insoluble salts or deliquescent brines. All WCL solutions within error bounds precipitate Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O and/or Mg

  8. Spectral Modeling of Ground Ices Exposed by Trenching at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.; Morris, R. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Lander, which landed on the northern plains of Mars on 25 May 2008, used its Robotic Arm (RA) to dig six trenches during its nominal 90-sol mission: Dodo-Goldilocks, Snow White, Cupboard, Neverland, Burn Alive, and Stone Soup. During excavation of the first five of these, the RA encountered hard material interpreted to be the ice table, and the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) imaged the exposed materials using 15 filters spanning a wavelength range from 445 to 1001 nm. Materials exposed in the Dodo- Goldilocks and Snow White trenches are spectroscopically dissimilar: Dodo-Goldilocks hard material is brighter relative to the surrounding soil, and has a distinct downturn around 800 nm resulting from a dusty ice with low soil-to-ice ratio. Snow White hard stuff varies in brightness and spectral shape depending on the phase angle, with low-phase angle images showing dark material and higher phase angles showing more soil-like material. The Snow White material does not have the strong 800-nm downturn seen in Dodo- Goldilocks, because the soil-to-ice ratio is high as inferred by the rapid development of a sublimation lag; however, the albedo variation with phase angle could be due to strong forward-scattering at low phase angles, consistent with icy material. A modified Hapke model is used to estimate the relative abundances of water ice and dust in the Dodo- Goldilocks and Snow White materials, with dehydrated palagonite as an analogue for dust . The ice exposed at Dodo-Goldilocks must be relatively dust-free, since only a small amount of dust is needed to obscure water ice absorptions. In our modeling, we find that as little as 5 wt% 20-um dust is enough to completely mask the 1001 nm absorption in 1-mm grain size water ice. Dodo-Goldilocks spectra can have up to a 20% drop in reflectance from 800 nm to 1001 nm, which is best-matched in our Hapke model by water ice with path lengths on the order of 2-3 mm. The Snow White dark materials typically have a small

  9. 75 FR 64708 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Board adopted the alternative site framework (ASF) in December 2008 (74 FR 1170, 01/12/09; correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/09) as an option for the establishment or reorganization of general-purpose zones... as magnet sites; Whereas, notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (75...

  10. How Phoenix Looks Under Itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander reaching with its Robotic Arm and taking a picture of the surface underneath the lander. The image at the conclusion of the animation was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. SHARAD soundings and surface roughness at past, present, and proposed landing sites on Mars: Reflections at Phoenix may be attributable to deep ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Mellon, Michael T.; Holt, John W.; Brothers, T. Charles

    2014-08-01

    We use the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to search for subsurface interfaces and characterize surface roughness at the landing sites of Viking Landers 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, the Phoenix Mars lander, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, and three other sites proposed for Curiosity. Only at the Phoenix site do we find clear evidence of subsurface radar returns, mapping out an interface that may be the base of ground ice at depths of ~15-66 m across 2900 km2 in the depression where the lander resides. At the Opportunity, Spirit, and candidate Curiosity sites, images and altimetry show layered materials tens to hundreds of meters thick extending tens to hundreds of kilometers laterally. These scales are well within SHARAD's resolution limits, so the lack of detections is attributable either to low density contrasts in layers of similar composition and internal structure or to signal attenuation within the shallowest layers. At each site, we use the radar return power to estimate surface roughness at scales of 10-100 m, a measure that is important for assessing physical properties, landing safety, and site trafficability. The strongest returns are found at the Opportunity site, indicating that Meridiani Planum is exceptionally smooth. Returns of moderate strength at the Spirit site reflect roughness more typical of Mars. Gale crater, Curiosity's ultimate destination, is the smoothest of the four proposed sites we examined, with Holden crater, Eberswalde crater, and Mawrth Vallis exhibiting progressively greater roughness.

  12. Phoenix Telltale Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of a camera pushing through NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI). At the conclusion of the animation is a set of SSI images of the telltale taken on the first, second, and third days of the mission, or sols 1, 2, and 3 (May 26, 27, and 28, 2008). The last set of images were taken one minute apart and shows the telltale moving in the wind.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. 75 FR 17692 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75 -- Phoenix, Arizona, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170, 1/12/09; correction 74 FR 3987, 1/22/09... Order 185, 47 FR 14931, 04/07/82), and was expanded on July 2, 1993 (Board Order 647, 58 FR 37907, 07/14/93), on February 27, 2008 (Board Order 1545, 73 FR 13531, 03/13/08), and on March 23, 2010...

  14. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment.

    The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Goetz, W.; Hartwig, H.; Hviid, S. F.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Reynolds, R.; Shinohara, C.; Smith, P.; Tanner, R.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Bos, B. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is a variable-focus color camera mounted to the Robotic Arm (RA) of the Phoenix Mars Lander. It is designed to acquire both close-up images of the Martian surface and microscopic images (down to a scale of 23 μm/pixel) of material collected in the RA scoop. The mounting position at the end of the Robotic Arm allows the RAC to be actively positioned for imaging of targets not easily seen by the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI), such as excavated trench walls and targets under the Lander structure. Color information is acquired by illuminating the target with red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes. Digital terrain models (DTM) can be generated from RAC images acquired from different view points. This can provide high-resolution stereo information about fine details of the trench walls. The large stereo baseline possible with the arm can also provide a far-field DTM. The primary science objectives of the RAC are the search for subsurface soil/ice layering at the landing site and the characterization of scoop samples prior to delivery to other instruments on board Phoenix. The RAC shall also provide low-resolution panoramas in support of SSI activities and acquire images of the Lander deck for instrument and Lander check out. The camera design was inherited from the unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander mission (1999) and further developed for the (canceled) Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander (MSL01). Extensive testing and partial recalibration qualified the MSL01 RAC flight model for integration into the Phoenix science payload.

  16. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  17. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing.

    The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The Ground Beneath Phoenix's Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the spacecraft deck and one of the footpads of NASA's three-legged Phoenix Mars Lander shows a solid surface at the spacecraft's landing site. As the legs touched down on the surface of Mars, they kicked up some loose material on top of the footpad, but overall, the surface is unperturbed.

    Each footpad is about the size of a large dinner plate, measuring 11.5 inches from rim to rim. The base of the footpad is shaped like the bottom of a shallow bowl to provide stability.

    This image was taken by the Phoenix spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager shortly after landing on Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN.

    SciTech Connect

    BERKOWITZ,C.M.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; DORAN,J.C.; FAST,J.D.

    2002-01-13

    The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Aqueous and non-aqueous soil processes on the northern plains of Mars: Insights from the distribution of perchlorate salts at the Phoenix landing site and in Earth analog environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Selby; Kennedy, Erin; Clark, Alice

    2014-06-01

    In 2008, the Phoenix lander returned chemical evidence of perchlorate salts in the soils at its landing site on the northern plains of Mars. Subsequent spectral mapping of the perchlorate using Phoenix's multispectral Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) showed that concentrated patches of the salt exist in the subsurface. Because atmospheric formation of Martian perchlorate should form a highly-concentrated layer of salt on the surface, subsurface concentrated patches have been interpreted as evidence that Phoenix soils experienced minor amounts of aqueous reworking after perchlorate formation. Here, we present results from a wide-scale mapping of the Phoenix landing site using SSI multispectral data. We report that, contrary to preliminary case studies, limited occurrences of rocks and soil clods with perchlorate coatings are also found on the undisturbed surface. The discovery of these patches on undisturbed surfaces points to more complex processes operating on modern-day polar soils, perhaps including a combination of aqueous and mechanical processes, such as cryoturbation. Finally, we combine results from this study with an analysis of perchlorate redistribution mechanisms on Earth to illustrate the mechanisms likely responsible for modern processing of soils on the northern plains of Mars. Concentrated perchlorate coatings found on the undisturbed surface at the Phoenix site. Phoenix soils likely processed by both aqueous and non-aqueous processes. Small-volumes of water likely responsible for producing perchlorate coatings. Non-aqueous mechanical processing could bring coated rocks back to the surface. Perchlorate may not be found on the top-most surface at equatorial sites.

  1. Ultrahigh resolution topographic mapping of Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M. R.; Anderson, J. A.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Cook, D. A.; Galuszka, D. M.; Geissler, P. E.; Hare, T. M.; Holmberg, I. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Redding, B. L.; Delamere, W. A.; Gallagher, D.; Chapel, J. D.; Eliason, E. M.; King, R.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-11-01

    The objectives of this paper are twofold: first, to report our estimates of the meter-to-decameter-scale topography and slopes of candidate landing sites for the Phoenix mission, based on analysis of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images with a typical pixel scale of 3 m and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at 0.3 m pixel-1 and, second, to document in detail the geometric calibration, software, and procedures on which the photogrammetric analysis of HiRISE data is based. A combination of optical design modeling, laboratory observations, star images, and Mars images form the basis for software in the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) 3 system that corrects the images for a variety of distortions with single-pixel or subpixel accuracy. Corrected images are analyzed in the commercial photogrammetric software SOCET SET (® BAE Systems), yielding digital topographic models (DTMs) with a grid spacing of 1 m (3-4 pixels) that require minimal interactive editing. Photoclinometry yields DTMs with single-pixel grid spacing. Slopes from MOC and HiRISE are comparable throughout the latitude zone of interest and compare favorably with those where past missions have landed successfully; only the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) B site in Meridiani Planum is smoother. MOC results at multiple locations have root-mean-square (RMS) bidirectional slopes of 0.8-4.5° at baselines of 3-10 m. HiRISE stereopairs (one per final candidate site and one in the former site) yield 1.8-2.8° slopes at 1-m baseline. Slopes at 1 m from photoclinometry are also in the range 2-3° after correction for image blur. Slopes exceeding the 16° Phoenix safety limit are extremely rare.

  2. Ultrahigh resolution topographic mapping of Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix landing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.R.; Anderson, J.A.; Archinal, B.A.; Becker, K.J.; Cook, D.A.; Galuszka, D.M.; Geissler, P.E.; Hare, T.M.; Holmberg, I.M.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Redding, B.L.; Delamere, W.A.; Gallagher, D.; Chapel, J.D.; Eliason, E.M.; King, R.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are twofold: first, to report our estimates of the meter-to-decameter-scale topography and slopes of candidate landing sites for the Phoenix mission, based on analysis of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images with a typical pixel scale of 3 m and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at 0.3 m pixel-1 and, second, to document in detail the geometric calibration, software, and procedures on which the photogrammetric analysis of HiRISE data is based. A combination of optical design modeling, laboratory observations, star images, and Mars images form the basis for software in the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) 3 system that corrects the images for a variety of distortions with single-pixel or subpixel accuracy. Corrected images are analyzed in the commercial photogrammetric software SOCET SET (??BAE Systems), yielding digital topographic models (DTMs) with a grid spacing of 1 m (3-4 pixels) that require minimal interactive editing. Photoclinometry yields DTMs with single-pixel grid spacing. Slopes from MOC and HiRISE are comparable throughout the latitude zone of interest and compare favorably with those where past missions have landed successfully; only the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) B site in Meridiani Planum is smoother. MOC results at multiple locations have root-mean-square (RMS) bidirectional slopes of 0.8-4.5?? at baselines of 3-10 m. HiRISE stereopairs (one per final candidate site and one in the former site) yield 1.8-2.8?? slopes at 1-m baseline. Slopes at 1 m from photoclinometry are also in the range 2-3?? after correction for image blur. Slopes exceeding the 16?? Phoenix safety limit are extremely rare. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Identity of the Perchlorate Parent Salt(s) at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Based on Reanalysis of the Calcium Sensor Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Folds, K. E.; Hansen, V. M.; Weber, A. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Chaniotakis, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    analyses further constrain and provide a clear indication that the dominate parent salt in the soil at the Phoenix landing site is Ca(ClO4)2, with little or no contribution by Mg or Na-perchlorate salts. [1] Kounaves et al. (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00A19. [2] Hecht et al. (2009) Science, 325, 64-67. [3] Kounaves et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Let., 37, L09201 [4] Quinn et al. (2011) Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14202. [5] Gellert et al. (2004) Science, 305, 829-32.

  4. Phoenix Telltale Movie with Clouds, Sol 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale catches a breeze as clouds move over the landing site on Sol 103 (Sept. 7, 2008), the 103rd Martian day since landing.

    Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took this series of images during daily telltale monitoring around 3 p.m. local solar time and captured the clouds moving over the landing site.

    Phoenix can measure wind speed and direction by imaging the telltale, which is about about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The telltale was built by the University of Aarhus, Denmark.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix's Lay of the Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Parts of Phoenix can be seen in the foreground.

    The first two trenches dug by the lander's Robotic Arm, called 'Dodo' and 'Goldilocks,' were enlarged on the 19th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 18 (June 12, 2008), to form one trench, dubbed 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' Scoops of material taken from those trenches are informally called 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear.' Baby Bear was carried to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, instrument for analysis, while Mama Bear was delivered to Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA, for a closer look.

    The color inset picture of the Dodo-Goldilocks trench, also taken with Phoenix's SSI, reveals white material thought to be ice.

    More recently, on Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), Phoenix's Robotic Arm began digging a trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.'

    The Snow White trench, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 25 (June 19, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems

  6. How Phoenix Measures Wind Speed and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows how NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can measure wind speed and direction by imaging the Telltale with the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Flyover Video of Phoenix Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This video shows an overhead view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander and the work area of the Robotic Arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Deploying its Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif shows a series of images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) on Sol 3. It illustrates the actions that Phoenix's Robotic Arm took to deploy its wrist.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Declining Sunshine for Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The yellow line on this graphic indicates the number of hours of sunlight each sol, or Martian day, at the Phoenix landing site's far-northern latitude, beginning with the entire Martian day (about 24 hours and 40 minutes) for the first 90 sols, then declining to no sunlight by about sol 300. The blue tick mark indicates that on Sol 124 (Sept. 29, 2008), the sun is above the horizon for about 20 hours.

    The brown vertical bar represents the period from Nov. 18 to Dec. 24, 2008, around the 'solar conjunction,' when the sun is close to the line between Mars and Earth, affecting communications.

    The green vertical rectangle represents the period from February to November 2009 when the Phoenix lander is expected to be encased in carbon-dioxide ice.

  12. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  13. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows thermal and electrical conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Dust Devil Tracks and Wind Streaks in the North Polar Region of Mars: A Study of the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Nathan B.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Baker, R. David; Cantor, Bruce A.; Hale, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    The 65-72 latitude band of the North Polar Region of Mars, where the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander will land, was studied using satellite images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow-Angle (MOC-NA) camera. Dust devil tracks (DDT) and wind streaks (WS) were observed and recorded as surface evidence for winds. No active dust devils (DDs) were observed. 162 MOC-NA images, 10.3% of total images, contained DDT/WS. Phoenix landing Region C (295-315W) had the highest concentration of images containing DDT/WS per number of available images (20.9%); Region D (130-150W) had the lowest (3.5%). DDT and WS direction were recorded for Phoenix landing regions A (110-130W), B (240-260W), and C to infer local wind direction. Region A showed dominant northwest-southeast DDT/WS, Region B showed dominant north-south, east-west and northeast-southwest DDT/WS, and region C showed dominant west/northwest - east/southeast DDT/ WS. Results indicate the 2007 Phoenix Lander has the highest probability of landing near DDT/WS in landing Region C. Based on DDT/WS linearity, we infer Phoenix would likely encounter directionally consistent background wind in any of the three regions.

  16. Soil on Phoenix's MECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows soil delivery to NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008).

    At the bottom of the image is the chute for delivering samples to MECA's microscopes. It is relatively clean due to the Phoenix team using methods such as sprinkling to minimize cross-contamination of samples. However, the cumulative effect of several sample deliveries can be seen in the soil piles on either side of the chute.

    On the right side are the four chemistry cells with soil residue piled up on exposed surfaces. The farthest cell has a large pile of material from an area of the Phoenix workspace called 'Stone Soup.' This area is deep in the trough at a polygon boundary, and its soil was so sticky it wouldn't even go through the funnel.

    One of Phoenix's solar panels is shown in the background of this image.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  18. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image.

    This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix Lander Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm work area with an overlay. The pink area is available for digging, the green area is reserved for placing the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Soil can be dumped in the violet area.

    Images were displayed using NASA Ames 'Viz' visualization software.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix's New Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The center of the red circle on this map shows where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander eased down to the surface of Mars, at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude. Before Phoenix landed, engineers had predicted it would land within the blue ellipse.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis.

    The map shows a color-coded interpretation of geomorphic units categories based on the surface textures and contours. The geomorphic mapping is overlaid on a shaded relief map based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

    This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

  5. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  7. Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2012-08-01

    Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative

  8. Phoenix's La Mancha Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This false color image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, was taken on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The image shows color variations of the trench, informally named 'La Mancha,' and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. The trench's depth is about 5 centimeters deep.

    The color outline of the shadow at the bottom of the image is a result of sun movement with the combined use of infrared, green, and blue filters.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Underneath the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this image on Oct. 18, 2008, during the 142nd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The flat patch in the center of the image has the informal name 'Holy Cow,' based on researchers' reaction when they saw the initial image of it only a few days after the May 25, 2008 landing. Researchers first saw this flat patch in an image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on May 30, the fifth Martian day of the mission.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Opens its Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows the vast plains of the northern polar region of Mars. The flat landscape is strewn with tiny pebbles and shows polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This is an approximate-color image taken shortly after landing by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager, inferred from two color filters, a violet, 450-nanometer filter and an infrared, 750-nanometer filter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Atmospheric movies acquired at the Mars Science Laboratory landing site: Cloud morphology, frequency and significance to the Gale Crater water cycle and Phoenix mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Francis, Raymond; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Bean, Keri; Kass, David; Haberle, Robert; Newman, Claire; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin; Rennó, Nilton; Bell, Jim; Calef, Fred; Cantor, Bruce; Mcconnochie, Timothy H.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Wong, Michael; Smith, Michael D.; Javier Martín-Torres, F.; Zorzano, María-Paz; Kemppinen, Osku; McCullough, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We report on the first 360 sols (LS 150° to 5°), representing just over half a Martian year, of atmospheric monitoring movies acquired using the NavCam imager from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity. Such movies reveal faint clouds that are difficult to discern in single images. The data set acquired was divided into two different classifications depending upon the orientation and intent of the observation. Up to sol 360, 73 Zenith movies and 79 Supra-Horizon movies have been acquired and time-variable features could be discerned in 25 of each. The data set from MSL is compared to similar observations made by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) onboard the Phoenix Lander and suggests a much drier environment at Gale Crater (4.6°S) during this season than was observed in Green Valley (68.2°N) as would be expected based on latitude and the global water cycle. The optical depth of the variable component of clouds seen in images with features are up to 0.047 ± 0.009 with a granularity to the features observed which averages 3.8°. MCS also observes clouds during the same period of comparable optical depth at 30 and 50 km that would suggest a cloud spacing of 2.0 to 3.3 km. Multiple motions visible in atmospheric movies support the presence of two distinct layers of clouds. At Gale Crater, these clouds are likely caused by atmospheric waves given the regular spacing of features observed in many Zenith movies and decreased spacing towards the horizon in sunset movies consistent with clouds forming at a constant elevation. Reanalysis of Phoenix data in the light of the NavCam equatorial dataset suggests that clouds may have been more frequent in the earlier portion of the Phoenix mission than was previously thought.

  13. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  14. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  15. Soil Fills Phoenix Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four of the eight cells in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. TEGA's ovens, located underneath the cells, heat soil samples so the released gases can be analyzed.

    Left to right, the cells are numbered 7, 6, 5 and 4. Phoenix's Robotic Arm delivered soil most recently to cell 6 on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 3:03 p.m. local solar time on Sol 138 (Oct. 14, 2008).

    Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The Phoenix Scout Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Phoenix will restore the 2001 lander to flight condition and select a scientic payload from instruments flown on Mars Polar Lander and delivered for the 2001 lander. Landing in May 2008 at the beginning of northern Summer, Phoenix will explore the subsurface ice layers discovered by Odyssey scientists at about 70 N latitude. Descent and panoramic imaging will reveal the small scale geology of this ice-rich region and a robotic arm will dig layer by layer beneath the surface. A German-supplied camera on the arm will examine the trench walls for stratigraphic clues to the origin of the region. Two instruments on the deck will receive samples taken from various depths from the surface to an impermeable ice layer. A thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA) will accept samples in one of eight ovens, heating the samples to 1000C will performing differential scanning calorimetry on them. The gases are piped to a mass spectrometer and all species between 1 and 140 Da are identified. Altered minerals (clays, carbonates,etc.) and organics materials can be clearly identified by the multi-dimensional nature (mass, temperature, and depth) of this experiment. Isotopic ratios for hydrogen, neon, argon, carbon, and nitrogen will give clues to the history of the soils and ices. The MECA instrument performs microscopy, electro-chemistry, and conductivity measurments on samples. Bringing water from Earth and mixing it in a sealed cell with samples creates the same conditions as when the ice melts beneath the surface and allows us to determine the acqueous chemistry of the soils. Acidity, redox potential, and salt content are all acquired giving us the first idea of what the biological potential of this habitat might be. Microscopes examine the grain structures and the thermal and electrical conductivity of the soil is examined with a special probe on the scoop. A Canadian MET station uses a lidar to measure the depth of the boundary layer and also pressure and temperature throughout

  19. Wind-Related Topography in Phoenix's Region of Mars (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie shifts from a global zoom indicating the Phoenix landing area on Mars to a topographical map indicating relative elevations in the landing region. The elevations could affect wind patterns at the site.

    In particular, Phoenix is in a broad, shallow valley. The edge of the valley, about 150 meters (500 feet) above the floor, may provide enough of a slope to the east of Phoenix to explain winds coming from the east during nights at the site. Cooler, denser air could be sinking down the slope and toward the lander.

    Atmospheric scientists on the Phoenix team are analyzing wind patterns to distiguish effects of nearby topography from larger-scale movement of the atmosphere in the polar region.

    The elevation information for this topographical mapping comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The blue-coded area is the valley floor. Orange and yellow indicate relatively higher elevations.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. JPL managed the Mars Global Surveyor mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing.

    The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible.

    The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix Checks out its Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows a mosaic of images of the workspace reachable by the scoop on the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, along with some measurements of rock sizes.

    Phoenix was able to determine the size of the rocks based on three-dimensional views from stereoscopic images taken by the lander's 7-foot mast camera, called the Surface Stereo Imager. The stereo pair of images enable depth perception, much the way a pair of human eyes enable people to gauge the distance to nearby objects.

    The rock measurements were made by a visualization tool known as Viz, developed at NASA's Ames Research Laboratory. The shadow cast by the camera on the Martian surface appears somewhat disjointed because the camera took the images in the mosaic at different times of day.

    Scientists do not yet know the origin or composition of the flat, light-colored rocks on the surface in front of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 100 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Animation of the Phoenix Cluster

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows how large numbers of stars form in the Phoenix Cluster. It begins by showing several galaxies in the cluster and hot gas (in red). This hot gas contains more normal matter than...

  4. Animation of Phoenix's Wrist Unlatching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation shows what happened underneath Phoenix's Robotic Arm wrist on Sol 3. The pin that goes through the loop is what holds the wrist in place. The rotation of the wrist pops the pin free.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Map of Phoenix Digging Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop has started digging, and the next areas planned for digging. The majority of the area to the right of the current trench is being preserved for future digging.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope.

    The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. The PHOENIX Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Takahashi, H.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Slovik, G.C.; Horak, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed means of transmuting key long-lived radioactive isotopes, primarily the so-called minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), using a hybrid proton-accelerator-sub-critical lattice, is described. It is argued that by partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, that some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. If spent fuel partitioning and transmutation were fully implemented, the time required to reduce the waste stream toxicity below that of uranium ore would be reduced from more than 10,000 years to approximately 30 years. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and much of the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW{sub e}. 14 refs., 29 figs.

  8. Comparing Baltimore and Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 'zoom lens' aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired these views of two U.S. cities: Baltimore, Maryland (left), and Phoenix, Arizona (right). Acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), red in these false-colored images indicates vegetation. The turquoise pixels show paved areas while darker greens and browns show bare earth and rock surfaces. The 'true' constructed nature of these cities is not easy to see. Ecologists now accept human beings and our activities as a significant factor in studying the Earth's ecology. ASTER data are being used to better understand urban ecology, in particular how humans build their cities and affect the surrounding environment. At the recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in Boston, Will Stefanov of Arizona State University presented the first set of ASTER images of the urban 'skeletons' of the amount of built structures in twelve cities around the world. He also discussed the Urban Environmental Monitoring project, in which scientists are examining 100 urban centers to look for common features (or lack of them) in global city structure as well as to monitor their changes over time.

  9. Phoenix Telemetry Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Phxtelemproc is a C/C++ based telemetry processing program that processes SFDU telemetry packets from the Telemetry Data System (TDS). It generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for several instruments including surface stereo imager (SSI); robotic arm camera (RAC); robotic arm (RA); microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer (MECA); and the optical microscope (OM). It processes both uncompressed and compressed telemetry, and incorporates unique subroutines for the following compression algorithms: JPEG Arithmetic, JPEG Huffman, Rice, LUT3, RA, and SX4. This program was in the critical path for the daily command cycle of the Phoenix mission. The products generated by this program were part of the RA commanding process, as well as the SSI, RAC, OM, and MECA image and science analysis process. Its output products were used to advance science of the near polar regions of Mars, and were used to prove that water is found in abundance there. Phxtelemproc is part of the MIPL (Multi-mission Image Processing Laboratory) system. This software produced Level 1 products used to analyze images returned by in situ spacecraft. It ultimately assisted in operations, planning, commanding, science, and outreach.

  10. Soil Delivery to Phoenix Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a view from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager's left eye after delivery of soil to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), taken on the 12th Martian day after landing (Sol 12, June $6, 2008).

    Soil is visible on both sides of the open doors of TEGA's #4 oven. Sensors inside the device indicate no soil passed through the screen and into the oven.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  12. Phoenix Mars Lander in Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  14. Schematic Animation of Phoenix's Microscope Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the workings of the microscope station of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Samples are delivered to the horizontal portion of the sample wheel (yellow) that pokes outside an opening in the box enclosure. The wheel rotates to present the sample to the microscopes. The Optical Microscope (red) can see particles a little smaller than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair. The Atomic Force Microscope (pink) can see particles forty time smaller. The samples are on a variety of substrate surfaces, the small circles on the beveled edge of the sample wheel. For scale, the diameter of the wheel is about 14 centimeters (5.5 inches). Each substrate is a circle 3 millimeters (0.1 inch) in diameter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 200 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Work on Phoenix Science Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems technicians Jim Young (left) and Jack Farmerie (right) work on the science deck of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The spacecraft was built in a 100,000-class clean room near Denver under NASA's planetary protection practices to keep organics from being taken to Mars. The lander's robotic arm, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, is seen at the top of the picture. The color and grey dots will be used to calibrate the spacecraft's Surface Stereoscopic Imager camera once the spacecraft has landed on the red planet.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  18. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench.

    This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Simulating the Phoenix Lander meteorological conditions with a Mars GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daerden, F.; Neary, L.; Whiteway, J.; Dickinson, C.; Komguem, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    An updated version of the GEM-Mars Global Circulation Model [1] is applied for the simulation of the meteorological conditions at the Phoenix lander site for the time period of the surface operations (Ls=76-150). The simulation results for pressure and temperature at the surface are compared to data from the Phoenix Meteorological Station (MET). The vertical profiles of dust and temperature are compared to Phoenix LIDAR measurements and data from orbit (CRISM and MCS on MRO). The simulated conditions in the PBL are compared to those obtained in a dedicated PBL-Aeolian dust model [2] which was successfully applied to drive a detailed microphysical model [3] for the interpretation of clouds and precipitation observed by the LIDAR on Phoenix [4,5]. [1] Moudden, Y. and J.C. McConnell (2005): A new model for multiscale modeling of the Martian atmosphere, GM3, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E04001, doi:10.1029/2004JE002354 [2] Davy, R., P. A. Taylor, W. Weng, and P.-Y. Li (2009), A model of dust in the Martian lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04108, doi:10.1029/2008JD010481. [3] Daerden, F., J.A. Whiteway, R. Davy, C. Verhoeven, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, P. A. Taylor, and N. Larsen (2010), Simulating Observed Boundary Layer Clouds on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L04203, doi:10.1029/2009GL041523 [4] Whiteway, J., M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08, doi:10.1029/2007JE003002. [5] Whiteway, J., et al. (2009), Mars water ice clouds and precipitation, Science, 325, 68 - 70.

  20. AEROSOL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS, PHOENIX, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atmospheric sampling program was carried out in the greater Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area in November, 1975. Objectives of the study were to measure aerosol mass flux through Phoenix and to characterize the aerosol according to particle type and size. The ultimate goal of...

  1. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  2. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing.

    The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  4. False Color Terrain Model of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a terrain model of Phoenix's Robotic Arm workspace. It has been color coded by depth with a lander model for context. The model has been derived using images from the depth perception feature from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Red indicates low-lying areas that appear to be troughs. Blue indicates higher areas that appear to be polygons.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm.

    The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Martian Surface as Seen by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This colorglyph, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 8, the eighth Martian day of the mission (June 2, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the Martian surface near the lander. This area is part of Phoenix's workplace and is informally called 'Wonderland.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera.

    The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Innovative science experiments using Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. P. Ajith; Satyanarayana, V. V. V.; Singh, Kundan; Singh, Parmanand

    2009-09-01

    A simple, flexible and very low cost hardware plus software framework for developing computer-interfaced science experiments is presented. It can be used for developing computer-interfaced science experiments without getting into the details of electronics or computer programming. For developing experiments this is a middle path between push-button systems and the develop-from-scratch approach. Emphasis is on leveraging the power of personal computers for experiment control, data acquisition and the mathematical analysis of data. The language 'Python' is chosen for data acquisition and analysis. This article explains the architecture of Phoenix (Physics with Home-made Equipment and Innovative Experiments) along with some sample experiments. The hardware design is open and the project is totally based on free software.

  9. Astronaut Alvin Drew Speaks With Phoenix Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Alvin Drew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Monterey Park in Phoenix. The DLN c...

  10. Martian Surface after Phoenix's Conductivity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 71 (August 6, 2008), the 71st Martian day after landing. The shadow shows the outline of Phoenix's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe, or TECP. The holes seen in the Martian surface were made by this instrument to measure the soil's conductivity. A fork-like probe inserted into the soil checks how well heat and electricity move through the soil from one prong to another.

    The measurements completed Wednesday ran from the afternoon of Phoenix's 70th Martian day, or sol, to the morning of Sol 71.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. The Goals and Approach of the Phoenix Mission for Evaluating the Habitabiity of the Northern Plains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2006-01-01

    The first goal of the Mars Exploration program, as defined by the Mars Exploration Payload Analysis Group (MEPAG) is to determine if life ever arose on Mars [1]. The Phoenix landing site was chosen to sample near surface ground ice in the Northern Plains discovered by the GRS experiment on Mars Odyssey [2]. A goal of Phoenix is to determine whether this environment was habitable for life at some time in its history.

  13. Far-Northern Destination for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The planned landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander lies at a latitude on Mars equivalent to northern Alaska on Earth. It is within the region designated 'D' on this global image.

    This is an orthographic projection with color-coded elevation contours and shaded relief based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Total vertical relief is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the top of the highest volcano (red) to the northern lowlands (blue). North pole is where the longitude lines converge.

  14. Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission Organic Free Blank: Method to Distinguish Mars Organics from Terrestrial Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Woida, R.; Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Shinohara, C.; Golden, D. C.; Boynton, W. V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Stewart, R. L.; Tamppari, L. K.; Gross, M.; Smith, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully launched on August 4, 2007, for a 10-month journey to Mars. The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to land on May 25, 2008. The primary mission objective is to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix will land near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain presumably created by ice layers that are expected to be a few centimeters under loose soil materials [2,3]. The Phoenix Mission will assess the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix will search for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [4]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [4]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to approx.1000 C. Evolved gases, including organic molecules and fragments if present, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating.

  15. Zeroing In on Phoenix's Final Destination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the latest estimate, marked by a green crosshair, of the location of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Radio communications between Phoenix and spacecraft flying overhead have allowed engineers to narrow the lander's location to an area about 300 meters (984) long by 100 meters (328 feet) across, or about three football fields long and one football field wide.

    During landing, Phoenix traveled across the field of view shown here from the upper left to the lower right. The area outlined in blue represents the area where Phoenix was predicted to land before arriving on Mars. During Phoenix's descent through the Martian atmosphere to the surface of the Red Planet, continuous measurements of the distance the spacecraft traveled enabled engineers to narrow its location further to the circular area outlined in red.

    Using radio signals to home in on Phoenix's final location is sort of like trying to find a kitten by listening to the sound of its meows. As NASA's Odyssey spacecraft passes overhead, it receives radio transmissions from the lander. When Odyssey passes overhead again along a slightly different path, it receives new radio signals. With each successive pass, it is able to 'fix' the location of Phoenix a little more precisely.

    Meanwhile, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has taken actual images of the spacecraft on the surface, enabling scientists to match the lander's location to geologic features seen from orbit.

    The large crater to the right is 'Heimdall crater,' the slopes of which are visible in images of the parachute that lowered Phoenix to the surface, taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The map shown here is made up of topography data taken by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. It shows exaggerated differences in the height of the terrain.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the

  16. Abell 1033: birth of a radio phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Dawson, W. A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Simionescu, A.

    2015-04-01

    Extended steep-spectrum radio emission in a galaxy cluster is usually associated with a recent merger. However, given the complex scenario of galaxy cluster mergers, many of the discovered sources hardly fit into the strict boundaries of a precise taxonomy. This is especially true for radio phoenixes that do not have very well defined observational criteria. Radio phoenixes are aged radio galaxy lobes whose emission is reactivated by compression or other mechanisms. Here, we present the detection of a radio phoenix close to the moment of its formation. The source is located in Abell 1033, a peculiar galaxy cluster which underwent a recent merger. To support our claim, we present unpublished Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Chandra observations together with archival data from the Very Large Array and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We discover the presence of two subclusters displaced along the N-S direction. The two subclusters probably underwent a recent merger which is the cause of a moderately perturbed X-ray brightness distribution. A steep-spectrum extended radio source very close to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is proposed to be a newly born radio phoenix: the AGN lobes have been displaced/compressed by shocks formed during the merger event. This scenario explains the source location, morphology, spectral index, and brightness. Finally, we show evidence of a density discontinuity close to the radio phoenix and discuss the consequences of its presence.

  17. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Dust Storm Moving Near Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of images show the movement of several dust storms near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These images were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    These images were taken about 50 seconds apart, showing the formation and movement of dust storms for nearly an hour. Phoenix scientists are still figuring out the exact distances these dust storms occurred from the lander, but they estimate them to be about 1 to 2 kilometers (.6 or 1.2 miles) away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Testing Phoenix Mars Lander Parachute in Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will parachute for nearly three minutes as it descends through the Martian atmosphere on May 25, 2008. Extensive preparations for that crucial period included this drop test near Boise, Idaho, in October 2006.

    The parachute used for the Phoenix mission is similar to ones used by NASA's Viking landers in 1976. It is a 'disk-gap-band' type of parachute, referring to two fabric components -- a central disk and a cylindrical band -- separated by a gap.

    Although the Phoenix parachute has a smaller diameter (11.8 meters or 39 feet) than the parachute for the 2007 Mars Pathfinder landing (12.7 meters or 42 feet), its Viking configuration results in slightly larger drag area. The smaller physical size allows for a stronger system because, given the same mass and volume restrictions, a smaller parachute can be built using higher strength components. The Phoenix parachute is approximately 1.5 times stronger than Pathfinder's. Testing shows that it is nearly two times stronger than the maximum opening force expected during its use at Mars.

    Engineers used a dart-like weight for the drop testing in Idaho. On the Phoenix spacecraft, the parachute is attached the the backshell. The backshell is the upper portion of a capsule around the lander during the flight from Earth to Mars and protects Phoenix during the initial portion of the descent through Mars' atmosphere.

    Phoenix will deploy its parachute at about 12.6 kilometers (7.8 miles) in altitude and at a velocity of 1.7 times the speed of sound. A mortar on the spacecraft fires to deploy the parachute, propelling it away from the backshell into the supersonic flow. The mortar design for Phoenix is essentially the same as Pathfinder's. The parachute and mortar are collectively called the 'parachute decelerator system.' Pioneer Aerospace, South Windsor, Conn., produced this system for Phoenix. The same company provided the parachute decelerator systems for Pathfinder, Mars Polar

  1. Phoenix Lowered into Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander was lowered into a thermal vacuum chamber at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in December 2006.

    The spacecraft was folded in its aeroshell and underwent environmental testing that simulated the extreme conditions the spacecraft will see during its nine-and-a-half-month cruse to Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Martian Dust Collected by Phoenix's Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Lander's Optical Microscope shows particles of Martian dust lying on the microscope's silicon substrate. The Robotic Arm sprinkled a sample of the soil from the Snow White trench onto the microscope on July 2, 2008, the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after landing.

    Subsequently, the Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, zoomed in one of the fine particles, creating the first-ever image of a particle of Mars' ubiquitous fine dust, the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors goes to TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's three ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 19, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors is for TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 18, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. The image has been brightened to show the fine mesh.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Color view to Northwest of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers) view was obtained on sol 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Makes an Impression on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the first impression dubbed Yeti and looking like a wide footprint -- made on the Martian soil by the Robotic Arm scoop on Sol 6, the sixth Martian day of the mission, (May 31, 2008).

    Touching the ground is the first step toward scooping up soil and ice and delivering the samples to the lander's experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29, the 29th Martian day after landing, or June 24, 2008. The soil will be delivered to the instrument on Sol 30.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Award Winners: Books Worth Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Phoenix Award, which honors children's books which did not receive an award at publication (20 years in the past), but have withstood the test of time. Presents an annotated bibliography of winning titles under the categories of: Fantasy/Science Fiction; Historical Fiction (British, Depression Era, World War II, Other Wars, Other…

  11. Phoenix College Institutional Effectiveness, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Coll., AZ.

    This report presents Phoenix College's (PC's) 1999-2000 institutional effectiveness annual report. The 1998-99 academic year was most notable for an important upswing in enrollment, the opening of the Fannin Library, and a continued increase in the diversity of students. Enrollment increases were noted in both fall and spring semesters, with a…

  12. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  13. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil.

    The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long.

    The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Mars Lander with Solar Arrays Open

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Phoenix Conductivity Probe with Shadow and Toothmark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. The imprint left by the insertion is visible below the probe, and a shadow showing the probe's four needles is cast on a rock to the left.

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen

    In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1)…

  18. More Soil Delivered to Phoenix Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, documents the delivery of a soil sample from the 'Snow White' trench to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory. A small pile of soil is visible on the lower edge of the second cell from the top.This deck-mounted lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA).

    The delivery was made on Sept. 12, 2008, which was Sol 107 (the 107th Martian day) of the mission, which landed on May 25, 2008.

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory mixes Martian soil with an aqueous solution from Earth as part of a process to identify soluble nutrients and other chemicals in the soil. Preliminary analysis of this soil confirms that it is alkaline, and composed of salts and other chemicals such as perchlorate, sodium, magnesium, chloride and potassium. This data validates prior results from that same location, said JPL's Michael Hecht, the lead scientist for MECA.

    In the coming days, the Phoenix team will also fill the final four of eight single-use ovens on another soil-analysis instrument, the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The team's strategy is to deliver as many samples as possible before the power produced by Phoenix's solar panels declines due to the end of the Martian summer.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Martian Arctic Dust Devil, Phoenix Sol 104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The dust devil visible in the center of this image just below the horizon is estimated to be about 400 meters (about 1,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 meters (13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those.

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. A case study in resort climatology of Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartz, Donna A.; Brazel, Anthony J.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2006-09-01

    Tourists often use weather data as a factor for determining vacation timing and location. Accuracy and perceptions of weather information may impact these decisions. This study: (a) examines air temperature and dew points from seven exclusive resorts in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compares them with official National Weather Service data for the same period, and (b) utilizes a comfort model called OUTCOMES—OUTdoor COMfort Expert System—in a seasonal appraisal of two resorts, one mesic and one xeric, compared with the urban Sky Harbor International Airport first-order weather station site in the central urban area of Phoenix, Arizona, USA (lat. 33.43°N; long. 112.02°W; elevation at 335 m). Temperature and humidity recording devices were placed within or immediately adjacent to common-use areas of the resorts, the prime recreational sites used by guests on most resort properties. Recorded data were compared with that of the official weather information from the airport station, a station most accessible to potential tourists through media and Web sites, to assess predicted weather for vacation planning. For the most part, Sky Harbor’s recorded air temperatures and often dew points were higher than those recorded at the resorts. We extrapolate our findings to a year-round estimate of human outdoor comfort for weather-station sites typical of resort landscapes and the Sky Harbor location using the OUTCOMES model to refine ideas on timing of comfortable conditions at resorts on a diurnal and seasonal basis.

  1. Phoenix - the First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2006 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as activities, challenges and problems encountered on the way to the launch pad. Phoenix Follows the water responding directly to the recently published data from Dr. William Boynton, PI (and Phoenix co-I) of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). GRS data indicate extremely large quantities of water ice (up to 50% by mass) within the upper 50 cm of the northern polar regolith. Phoenix will land within the north polar region at 68.2 N, 233.4 W identified by GRS to harbor near surface water ice and provide in-situ confirmation of this extraordinary find. Our mission will investigate water in all its phases, and will investigate the history of water as evidenced in the soil characteristics that will be carefully examined by the powerful suite of onboard instrumentation. Access to the critical subsurface region expected to contain this information is made possible by a third generation robotic arm capable of excavating the expected Martian regolith to a depth of 1m. Phoenix has four primary science objectives: 1) Determine the polar climate and weather, interaction with the surface, and composition of the lower atmosphere around 70 N for at least 90 sols focusing on water, ice, dust, noble gases, and CO2. Determine the atmospheric characteristics during descent through the atmosphere. 2) Characterize the geomorphology and active processes shaping the northern plains and the physical properties of the near surface regolith focusing on the role of water. 3) Determine the aqueous mineralogy and chemistry as well as the adsorbed gases and organic content of the regolith. Verify the Odyssey

  2. Astronomical research at the Hopkins PHOENIX Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    1985-09-01

    After trying astrophotography and radio astronomy it was decided that the best way to do meaningful astronomical research at a small private observatory was by doing photoelectric photometry. Having the observatory located in the back yard of a private residence affors the luxury of observing any time the sky conditions permit. Also modest equipment is all that is needed to do accurate UBV photometry of stars 8th magnitude and brighter. Since beginning in 1980 the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has published papers on several RS CVn star systems, 31 Cygni, 22 Vul, 18 Tau Per, and has followed the 1982-1984 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae from its start to the present with over 1000 UBV measurements. In addition the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has developed several pieces of photometry equipment including the HPO PEPH-101 photometer head and photon counting electronics.

  3. Phoenix Robotic Arm Scoop with Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This drawing shows a side view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's scoop with various tools for acquiring soil, icy soil and ice samples.

    The front blade, at left, is for scraping. A secondary blade can scrape hard materials.

    The motorized rasp, protruding at the bottom on the image, can penetrate the hard icy soil and acquire the cuttings produced through the rear chamber of the scoop. The rasp is a tungsten carbide cutting bit mounted within a pivoting housing that allows the bit to protrude during sample acquisition.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide.

    The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008).

    The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil.

    Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project. PMID:16010756

  7. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity.

    In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below.

    For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across.

    Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.'

    The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing.

    The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols.

    The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches).

    The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Phoenix Mars Lander's Chemistry Lab in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The wet chemistry laboratory on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has four teacup-size beakers. This photograph shows one of them. The laboratory is part of the spacecraft's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer.

    Each beaker will be used only once, for assessing soluble chemicals in a sample of Martian soil by mixing water with the sample to a soupy consistency and keeping it warm enough to remain liquid during the analysis.

    On the inner surface of the beaker are 26 sensors, mostly electrodes behind selectively permeable membranes or gels. Some sensors will give information about the acidity or alkalinity of the soil sample. Others will gauge concentrations of such ions as chlorides, bromides, magnesium, calcium and potassium. Comparisons of the concentrations of water-soluble ions in soil samples from different depths below the surface of the landing site may provide clues to the history of the water in the soil.

  10. In Brief: NASA's Phoenix spacecraft lands on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

    2008-06-01

    After a 9.5-month, 679-million-kilometer flight from Florida, NASA's Phoenix spacecraft made a soft landing in Vastitas Borealis in Mars's northern polar region on 25 May. The lander, whose camera already has returned some spectacular images, is on a 3-month mission to examine the area and dig into the soil of this site-chosen for its likelihood of having frozen water near the surface-and analyze samples. In addition to a robotic arm and robotic arm camera, the lander's instruments include a surface stereo imager; thermal and evolved-gas analyzer; microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer; and a meteorological station that is tracking daily weather and seasonal changes.

  11. Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.

    2005-02-01

    Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and

  12. Martian Dust Devil Movie, Phoenix Sol 104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west of the lander in four frames shot about 50 seconds apart from each other between 11:53 a.m. and 11:56 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The dust devil visible in this sequence was about 1,000 meters (about 3,300 feet) from the lander when the first frame was taken, and had moved to about 1,700 meters (about 5,600 feet) away by the time the last frame was taken about two and a half minutes later. The dust devil was moving westward at an estimated speed of 5 meters per second (11 miles per hour), which is similar to typical late-morning wind speed and direction indicated by the telltale wind gauge on Phoenix.

    This dust devil is about 5 meters (16 feet) in diameter. This is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those..

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. Some of the frame-to-frame differences in the appearance of foreground rocks is because each frame was taken through a different color filter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Merged dust climatology in Phoenix, Arizona based on satellite and station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang; Wang, Julian X. L.; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lee, Pius

    2016-02-01

    In order to construct climate quality long-term dust storm dataset, merged dust storm climatology in Phoenix is developed based on three data sources: regular meteorological records, in situ air quality measurements, and satellite remote sensing observations. The result presented in this paper takes into account the advantages of each dataset and integrates individual analyses demonstrated and presented in previous studies that laid foundation to reconstruct a consistent and continuous time series of dust frequency. A key for the merging procedure is to determine analysis criteria suitable for each individual data source. A practical application to historic records of dust storm activities over the Phoenix area is presented to illustrate detailed steps, advantages, and limitations of the newly developed process. Three datasets are meteorological records from the Sky Harbor station, satellite observed aerosol optical depth data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System particulate matter data of eight sites surrounding Phoenix. Our purpose is to construct dust climatology over the Phoenix region for the period 1948-2012. Data qualities of the reconstructed dust climatology are assessed based on the availability and quality of the input data. The period during 2000-2012 has the best quality since all datasets are well archived. The reconstructed climatology shows that dust storm activities over the Phoenix region have large interannual variability. However, seasonal variations show a skewed distribution with higher frequency of dust storm activities in July and August and relatively quiet during the rest of months. Combining advantages of all the available datasets, this study presents a merged product that provides a consistent and continuous time series of dust storm activities suitable for climate studies.

  14. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast.

    This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Program Description for the Phoenix Reception and Assessment Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datema, Thea; And Others

    Phoenix Reception and Assessment Center (PRAC) is a non-secure detention and assessment center for up to 15 Wayne County delinquent, adolescent males who have been committed to the Michigan Department of Social Services for care, treatment and supervision. Adolescents, ages 12 through 18, are eligible for placement at Phoenix according to the…

  16. University of Phoenix Lets Students Find Answers Virtually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about a software designed by the University of Phoenix for its business, information-technology, education, and health-care courses. Through the university's "virtual organizations"--online teaching tools designed to simulate the experience of working at a typical corporation, school, or government agency, Phoenix students can…

  17. Chemistry Lab for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The science payload of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander includes a multi-tool instrument named the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument's wet chemistry laboratory, prominent in this photograph, will measure a range of chemical properties of Martian soil samples, such as the presence of dissolved salts and the level of acidity or alkalinity. Other tools that are parts of the instrument are microscopes that will examine samples' mineral grains and a probe that will check the soil's thermal and electrical properties.

  18. Microscopes for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    One part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer instrument for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is a pair of telescopes with a special wheel (on the right in this photograph) for presenting samples to be inspected with the microscopes. A horizontally mounted optical microscope (on the left in this photograph) and an atomic force microscope will examine soil particles and possibly ice particles.

    The shapes and the size distributions of soil particles may tell scientists about environmental conditions the material has experienced. Tumbling rounds the edges. Repeated wetting and freezing causes cracking. Clay minerals formed during long exposure to water have distinctive, platy particles shapes.

  19. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  20. Selected Hydrologic Applications of LANDSAT-2 Data: an Evaluation. [Snowmelt in the American River Basin and soil moisture studies at the Phoenix, Arizona Test Site and at Luverne, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr.; Matson, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Estimates of soil moisture were obtained from visible, near-IR gamma ray and microwave data. Attempts using GOES thermal-IR were unsuccessful due to resolutions (8 km). Microwaves were the most effective at soil moisture estimates, with and without vegetative cover. Gamma rays provided only one value for the test site, produced by many data points obtained from overlapping 150 meter diameter circles. Even though the resulting averaged value was near the averaged field moisture value, this method suffers from atmospheric contaminants, the need to fly at low altitudes, and the necessity of prior calibration of a given site. Visible and near-IR relationships are present for bare fields but appear to be limited to soil moisture levels between 5 and 20%. The densely vegetated alfalfa fields correlated with near-IR reflectance only; soil moisture values from wheat fields showed no relation to either or near-IR MSS data.

  1. Phoenix: automatic science processing of ESO-VLT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    ESO has implemented a process to automatically create science-grade data products and offer them to the scientific community, ready for scientific analysis. This process, called 'phoenix', is built on two main concepts: 1. a certification procedure for pipelines which includes a code review and, if necessary, upgrade; and 2. a certification procedure for calibrations which are processed into master calibrations, scored and trended. These master calibrations contain all information about the intrinsic instrumental variations and instabilities inevitable for ground-based telescopes. The phoenix process then automatically processes all science data using the certified pipeline and the certified master calibrations. Phoenix currently focuses on spectroscopic data. The first phoenix project has been the processing of all science data from UVES, ESO's high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VLT. More than 100,000 Echelle spectra of point sources, from begin of operations (March 2000) until now, have been reduced and are available to the public from the ESO archive, http://archive.eso.org/cms/eso-data/eso-data-products.html. The phoenix process will also feed future UVES data into the archive. The second project has been X-SHOOTER slit spectroscopy which currently has more than 30,000 Echelle spectra from the UV to the infrared (up to 2.5μm). The phoenix process will be extended to other, mostly spectroscopic, instruments with certified pipelines, like FLAMES. Also, all future VLT instruments will be supported by phoenix.

  2. The 2001 Phoenix Sunrise experiment: vertical mixing and chemistry during the morning transition in Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, J. C.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Coulter, R. L.; Shaw, W. J.; Spicer, C. W.

    A field experiment was carried out in Phoenix during June 2001 to examine the role of vertical mixing on the O 3 chemistry of the boundary layer during the morning transition from stable to unstable atmospheric conditions. Surface instruments, instruments located on two floors of a 39 story building in downtown Phoenix, and an instrumented airplane were used to characterize the evolving chemistry in the lowest 650 m of the atmosphere. Remote sensing and in situ platforms were used to obtain detailed profiles of winds and temperatures during the early morning hours and for several hours after sunrise. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on vertical profiles of CO, O 3, and NO/NO y measured on the building and their relationship to the morning boundary layer evolution over Phoenix. Some features of these profiles were found that are consistent with a simple conceptual picture of nighttime trapping of pollutants in a stable surface layer and a subsequent release the following morning. On some days, however, evidence of significant vertical mixing was found during the early morning hours well before the times expected for the development of convective mixing after sunrise. Possible causes include advection, street canyon turbulence, and large-scale convergence, but a satisfactory explanation for the observed evolution of the chemical profiles has not yet been found.

  3. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  4. Evening Transition Observations in Phoenix, Arizona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazel, A. J.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hunt, J. C. R.; Selover, N.; Hedquist, B. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the evening transition in complex topography typically has several main features, such as (a) continued weak upslope flows persisting 3-5 h after sunset (if the sidewalls of the valley prevent Coriolis-induced turning of winds), thus signifying delayed transition; (b) unsteady local stagnation and vertical mixing within tens of meters above the surface; and (c) transition of stagnation fronts to downslope/downvalley gravity currents during the evening hours, especially at higher-elevation (steeper) slopes, and their arrival at adjoining low-elevation gentle slopes as `slope breezes.' This transition process typically occurs in locales such as Phoenix, Arizona, which has expansive exposure to plains in one direction (to the west and south) and is adjacent to abrupt change in the terrain in other directions (primarily to the north and east). An analysis of wind records from several automated weather stations and a radar wind profiler for selected characteristic periods representing all four seasons and data from a previous major field campaign in the greater Phoenix valley illustrate (i) the shallow nature of transition flows that develop on a year-round basis during frequent clear, calm nights in the desert Southwest and their seasonal sensitivity; (ii) a spatial variation of transition times relative to the only first-order National Weather Service station in the region (Sky Harbor International Airport); (iii) the dependence of transition time (and hence the delay of transition) on the exposure, the elevation, and the magnitude of slope; and (iv) a possible heat-island influence. These observations are quantified using theoretical estimates, and the results are placed in the context of multiscale flows in urban basins.

  5. 15. Detail, typical 'PHOENIX' rolling mark on intermediate post of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, typical 'PHOENIX' rolling mark on intermediate post of downstream truss, view to east, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 310.58, Milepost 310.58, Sims, Shasta County, CA

  6. Arch construction at south end, looking east with Phoenix Iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch construction at south end, looking east with Phoenix Iron Company foundry in background. - Gay Street Bridge, Spanning French Creek at Gay Street (State Route 113), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  7. FOURTH FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOURTH FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  8. View of Phoenix's Surroundings as of Sol 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a cylindrical mosaic of all data, as of the end of sol 2, from the right eye of the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) instrument on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Color Image of Phoenix Heat Shield and Bounce Mark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This shows a color image from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera. It shows the Phoenix heat shield and bounce mark on the Mars surface.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT): System Concept Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of the Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT) is shown. The contents include: 1) Need and Goals; 2) Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed; 3) PMHT Concept; 4) Development Objectives; 5) Possible Research Payloads; 6) Possible Research Program Participants; 7) PMHT Configuration; 8) AIM-54 Internal Hardware Schematic; 9) PMHT Configuration; 10) New Guidance and Armament Section Profiles; 11) Nomenclature; 12) PMHT Stack; 13) Systems Concept; 14) PMHT Preflight Activities; 15) Notional Ground Path; and 16) Sample Theoretical Trajectories.

  11. Assessment of Debris Flow Hazards, North Mountain, Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reavis, K. J.; Wasklewicz, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban sprawl in many western U.S. cities has expanded development onto alluvial fans. In the case of metropolitan Phoenix, AZ (MPA), urban sprawl has led to an exponential outward growth into surrounding mountainous areas and onto alluvial fans. Building on alluvial fans places humans at greater risk to flooding and debris flow hazards. Recent research has shown debris flows often supply large quantities of material to many alluvial fans in MPA. However, the risk of debris flows to built environments is relatively unknown. We use a 2D debris flow modeling approach, aided by high-resolution airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) topographic data, to examine debris flow behavior in a densely populated portion of the MPA to assess the risk and vulnerability of debris flow damage to the built infrastructure. A calibrated 2D debris flow model is developed for a "known" recent debris flow at an undeveloped site in MPA. The calibrated model and two other model scenarios are applied to a populated area with historical evidence of debris flow activity. Results from the modeled scenarios show evidence of debris flow damage to houses built on the alluvial fan. Debris flow inundation is also evident on streets on the fan. We use housing values and building damage to estimate the costs assocaited with various modeled debris flow scenarios.

  12. 3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

  13. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  14. Power flow and PRS optimization on Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Robert E.; Cochran, Frederick L.

    1994-03-01

    The DNA Phoenix program has investigated the power flow in the front end magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) and PRS load assembly, to identify any losses, and model them, and the optimum injection angle and mass loading for a specific puff gas nozzle assembly. An optimum PRS mass loading can convert about 10-15% of the energy delivered to the front end into load kinetic energy over a range of 4.65 - 5.7 nH of initial PRS loading inductance. Specific kinetic energy per ion tends to fall off monotonically as the PRS length exceeds 4.5 cm. The gas puff optimization investigated nozzle designs which could optimize the uniformity of the implosion through high Mach number and tilting. The best yields for Argon were found at 12 deg for a Mach 4 nozzle, and 7.5 deg for a Mach 5 nozzle. The yield at the optimum tilt angle does not vary strongly with Mach number.

  15. Project PHOENIX SETI Observations at Parkes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.

    1995-12-01

    For sixteen weeks (February to June of 1995), Project Phoenix had the exclusive use of the 64 m Parkes radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia, as well as another element of the Australian Telescope National Facility (ATNF), the 22 m Mopra telescope, 200 km to the north at Coonabarabran. With these two telescopes, we conducted a targeted search of nearly two hundred solar-type stars covering the frequency range from 1.2 to 3 GHz. The signal detection system was optimized to detect narrowband signals (presumed to be transmitted by another technological civilization) originating in the vicinity of these targets. The system was sensitive to signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drifted, or changed slowly in time. Many signals of precisely this nature were detected, but all were coming from our own technology! All manner of transmitters, from microwave ovens to satellite downlinks, are rapidly making this naturally quiet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extremely noisy. The use of the two widely separated telescopes as a pseudo-interferometer was essential to discriminate against signals of terrestrial origin. The architecture and performance of the system and the results of the observing campaign are presented in this paper.

  16. The Phoenix search results at Parkes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, Peter R.

    For 16 weeks (February to June of 1995), Project Phoenix had the exclusive use of the 64 m Parkes radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia, as well as another element of the Australian Telescope National Facility (ATNF), the 22 m Mopra telescope, 200 km to the north at Coonabarabran. With these two telescopes, we conducted a targeted search of nearly two hundred solar-type stars covering the frequency range from 1.2-3 GHz. The signal detection system described in the paper by Dreher [1]was optimized to detect narrowband signals (presumed to be transmitted by another technological civilization) originating in the vicinity of these targets. The system was sensitive to signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drifted, or changed slowly in time. Many signals of precisely this nature were detected—coming from our own technology! All manner of transmitters, from microwave ovens to satellite downlinks, are rapidly making this naturally quiet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extremely noisy. The use of the two widely separated telescopes as a pseudo-interferometer was essential to discriminate against signals of terrestrial origin. The performance of the system and the results of the observing campaign are presented in this paper, while the cooperative science observations that were undertaken with Australian PIs are described in a companion paper.

  17. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  18. Team Huddle Before Lifting Phoenix into Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft specialists huddle to discuss the critical lift of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander into a thermal vacuum chamber.

    In December 2006, the spacecraft was in a cruise configuration prior to going into environmental testing at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems facility near Denver. At all stages of assembly and testing, the spacecraft is handled with extreme care and refinement.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those.

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, Soung-Chul E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 ± 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 ± 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = –1.68 ± 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  1. Orbit Determination for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryne, Mark S.; Graat, Eric; Haw, Robert; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Lau, Eunice; Martin-Mur, Tomas; McElrath, Timothy; Nandi, Sumita; Portock, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix mission is designed to study the arctic region of Mars. To achieve this goal, the spacecraft must be delivered to a narrow corridor at the top of the Martian atmosphere, which is approximately 20 km wide. This paper will discuss the details of the Phoenix orbit determination process and the effort to reduce errors below the level necessary to achieve successful atmospheric entry at Mars. Emphasis will be placed on properly modeling forces that perturb the spacecraft trajectory and the errors and uncertainties associated with those forces. Orbit determination covariance analysis strongly influenced mission operations scenarios, which were chosen to minimize errors and associated uncertainties.

  2. Thermal Design Validation of the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Lee, Chern-Jiin

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the validation of the thermal design for the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload. It includes a description of the Phoenix Mission, the science objectives, the timeline, and the flight system and payloads that were on the lander. The initial responsibility for the development and validation the thermal design was with the developers. This process lacked overall system engineering, there was a difference of thermal expertise, and the number of institutions involved complicated the interactions. The revised approach for payload thermal design validation is described.

  3. Geomorphic Map of Region Around Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map shows shows a color-coded interpretation of geomorphic units categories based on surface textures and contours in the region where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has studied an arctic Martian plain. It covers an area about 65 kilometers by 65 kilometers (40 miles by 40 miles).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Results from the Mars Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Bonitz, R. G.; Robinson, M. L.; Carsten, J. L.; Volpe, R. A.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Mellon, M. T.; Chu, P. C.; Davis, K. R.; Wilson, J. J.; Shaw, A. S.; Greenberger, R. N.; Siebach, K. L.; Stein, T. C.; Cull, S. C.; Goetz, W.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Keller, H. U.; Lemmon, M. T.; Sizemore, H. G.; Mehta, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander was equipped with a 2.4 m Robotic Arm (RA) with an Icy Soil Acquisition Device capable of excavating trenches in soil deposits, grooming hard icy soil surfaces with a scraper blade, and acquiring icy soil samples using a rasp tool. A camera capable of imaging the scoop interior and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe were also included on the RA. A dozen trench complexes were excavated at the northern plains landing site and 31 samples (including water-ice-bearing soils) were acquired for delivery to instruments on the Lander during the 152 sol mission. Deliveries included sprinkling material from several centimeters height to break up cloddy soils on impact with instrument portals. Excavations were done on the side of the Humpty Dumpty and the top of the Wonderland polygons, and in nearby troughs. Resistive forces encountered during backhoe operations show that soils above the 3-5 cm deep icy soil interfaces are stronger with increasing depth. Further, soils are similar in appearance and properties to the weakly cohesive crusty and cloddy soils imaged and excavated by the Viking Lander 2, which also landed on the northern plains. Adsorbed H2O is inferred to be responsible for the variable nature and cohesive strength of the soils. Backhoe blade chatter marks on excavated icy soil surfaces, combined with rasp motor currents, are consistent with laboratory experiments using grain-supported icy soil deposits, as is the relatively rapid decrease in icy soil strength over time as the ice sublimated on Mars.

  5. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    PubMed

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance. PMID:25358303

  6. Phoenix Indian School: The Second Half-Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dorothy R.

    This book recounts the Phoenix Indian School's history from 1935 to its closing in 1990. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' philosophy of assimilation declined in importance, as evidenced by termination of the boarding school's militaristic discipline, greater recognition of tribal traditions, and early experimentation in bilingual…

  7. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  8. Genetic erosion of Phoenix dactylifera L.: Perceptible, probable or possible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of date palm (Phoenix dactylefera L.) encompasses genetic differences among and within species, subspecies, populations, cultivars, and individual clones in traditional oases and plantations. Components of this diversity can be estimated, throughout the tree’s ontogeny, at the phen...

  9. Vaccination Coverage among Kindergarten Children in Phoenix, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpong, Jemima A.; Rivers, Patrick A.; Bae, Sejong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate school immunization records and document the immunization coverage and compliance level of children enrolled in kindergarten in Phoenix during the 2001-2002 school year. The purpose was to obtain information on: 1) immunization status by age two; 2) under-immunization in kindergarten; 3) administration error; and 4)…

  10. The Flight of the Phoenix: Interpersonal Aspects of Project Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Brian J.; Kilian, Claire McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Although many classroom exercises use movies to focus on management and organizational behavior issues, none of those do so in the context of project management. This article presents such an exercise using "The Flight of the Phoenix", an incredibly rich story for any management class, which provides clear examples of organizational behavior…

  11. Phoenix project at the University of Michigan, 1945-60

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, L.M.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1997-12-01

    Several years before the formal U.S. Atoms for Peace program in the mid-1950s, the University of Michigan (UM) developed a comprehensive and continuing program of research on the peaceful applications of nuclear science known as the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project, which was supported by individual, corporate, and government sponsorship.

  12. On Track with Phoenix Early Head Start. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Linda; Heffernon, Rick

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Early Head Start (EHS) program is for first-time teen parents and their families. The end of 1999-2000 marked the fifth and final year of a research and demonstration grant for EHS and concluded the fourth full year of program implementation. This report provides a five-year perspective on program process and outcomes for…

  13. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  14. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single

  15. Comparison of the Phoenix Mars Lander WCL soil analyses with Antarctic Dry Valley soils, Mars meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroble, Shannon T.; McElhoney, Kyle M.; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2013-08-01

    The results of the Mars Phoenix Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) for the analyses of the soluble ionic species present in the soil at the northern polar plains of Mars are compared to soil from the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs), martian meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant. The ADV soil was compared to the Phoenix site by averaging the samples at analogous 0-5 cm depths and also all the samples from the pavement to the ice-table. Results from each analysis reveal similar ion concentrations ranging plus or minus one order-of-magnitude for all ions except perchlorate (ClO4-), which was three orders-of-magnitude greater in the Phoenix soil. The pH and solution electrical conductivity were also found to be similar for the ADV and Mars soils. The ADV profiles confirm that ClO4- gradients are sensitive indicators for the presence and form of liquid H2O on both Earth and Mars. The Phoenix and meteorite samples contained similar species and ratios but the meteorite concentrations were on average ˜4% of those for the Phoenix soil. The only exception was the ˜16% higher level of Ca2+ in the meteorite due to the CaCO3 druse. The ADV results imply that the Phoenix site is significantly more arid than University Valley, and has been for a greater period of time, as evidenced by the lack of salt gradients and the age of the soils. A Mars simulant was also formulated according to a MINEQL equilibrium model of the WCL results, and its analysis provides confidence that the soluble composition and parent salts at the Phoenix site are reasonably constrained. Overall, comparison of these samples of soil and sawdust indicates that not only does the martian meteorite EETA79001 contain similar soluble ionic species as the martian soil from the northern polar plains, but also that the soils from the ADV are similar to both, thus strengthening the argument for the ADV as a suitable terrestrial Mars analog environment.

  16. 52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING EAST. CURRENT LOCATION OF THE REAL-TIME WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATION Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 28. Site Plan, Arizona Canal at Old Crosscut, September 1972. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan, Arizona Canal at Old Crosscut, September 1972. See photograph AZ-21-8 for view of the completed structure. Source: Salt River Project. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Phoenix: Preliminary design of a high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Joseph; Davis, Steven; Jett, Brian; Ringo, Leslie; Stob, John; Wood, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Phoenix Design Project was to develop a second generation high speed civil transport (HSCT) that will meet the needs of the traveler and airline industry beginning in the 21st century. The primary emphasis of the HSCT is to take advantage of the growing needs of the Pacific Basin and the passengers who are involved in that growth. A passenger load of 150 persons, a mission range of 5150 nautical miles, and a cruise speed of Mach 2.5 constitutes the primary design points of this HSCT. The design concept is made possible with the use of a well designed double delta wing and four mixed flow engines. Passenger comfort, compatibility with existing airport infrastructure, and cost competitive with current subsonic aircraft make the Phoenix a viable aircraft for the future.

  19. Phoenix Again Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab Cell 1 delivery funnel on Sol 41, the 42nd Martian day after landing, or July 6, 2008, after a soil sample was delivered to the instrument.

    The instrument's Cell 1 is second one from the foreground of the image. The first cell, Cell 0, received a soil sample two weeks earlier.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Environmental Assurance Program for the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin F.; Natour, Maher C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars mission involves delivering a stationary science lander on to the surface of Mars in the polar region within the latitude band 65 deg N to 72 deg N. Its primary objective is to perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. The Phoenix spacecraft was launched on August 4, 2007 and will arrive at Mars in May 2008. The lander includes a suite of seven (7) science instruments. This mission is baselined for up to 90 sols (Martian days) of digging, sampling, and analysis. Operating at the Mars polar region creates a challenging environment for the Phoenix landed subsystems and instruments with Mars surface temperature extremes between -120 deg C to 25 deg C and diurnal thermal cycling in excess of 145 deg C. Some engineering and science hardware inside the lander were qualification tested up to 80 deg C to account for self heating. Furthermore, many of the hardware for this mission were inherited from earlier missions: the lander from the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP'01) and instruments from the MSP'01 and the Mars Polar Lander. Ensuring all the hardware was properly qualified and flight acceptance tested to meet the environments for this mission required defining and implementing an environmental assurance program that included a detailed heritage review coupled with tailored flight acceptance testing. A heritage review process with defined acceptance success criteria was developed and is presented in this paper together with the lessons learned in its implementation. This paper also provides a detailed description of the environmental assurance program of the Phoenix Mars mission. This program includes assembly/subsystem and system level testing in the areas of dynamics, thermal, and electromagnetic compatibility, as well as venting/pressure, dust, radiation, and meteoroid analyses to meet the challenging environment of this mission.

  1. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  2. Phoenix Mars Scout UHF Relay-Only Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, Christopher A.; Krajewski, Joel; Ilott, Peter; Dates, Jason

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Scout Lander will launch in August 2007 and land on the northern plains of Mars in May of 2008. In a departure from traditional planetary surface mission operations, it will have no direct-to-Earth communications capability and will rely entirely on Mars-orbiting relays in order to facilitate command and control as well as the return of science and engineering data. The Mars Exploration Rover missions have demonstrated the robust data-return capability using this architecture, and also have demonstrated the capability of using this method for command and control. The Phoenix mission will take the next step and incorporate this as the sole communications link. Operations for 90 Sols will need to work within the constraints of Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter communications availability, anomalies must be diagnosed and responded to through an intermediary and on-board fault responses must be tolerant to loss of a relay. These and other issues pose interesting challenges and changes in paradigm for traditional space operations and spacecraft architecture, and the approach proposed for the Phoenix mission is detailed herein.

  3. Analysis of the Phoenix Mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) Relative Humidity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martinez, G.; Renno, N. O.; Tamppari, L.; Zent, A.

    2015-12-01

    With funding from NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program, we plan to enhance the scientific return of the Phoenix mission by producing and archiving high-level relative humidity (RH) data from the measurements made by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP). Values of temperature and RH covered in the pre-flight calibration [1] overlap only partially with the environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site [2,3]. In particular, there is no overlap at dawn, when temperatures are the lowest and the expected RH is the highest [4] and in the middle of the day, when temperatures are relatively high and the expected RH is very low [5]. Here we plan to produce high-level RH data by calibrating an Engineering Model of the TECP in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC). The MMEC is capable of simulating the entire range of environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site. The MMEC is a cylindrical chamber with internal diameter of 64 cm and length of 160 cm. It is capable of simulating temperatures ranging from 145 to 500 K, CO2 pressures ranging from 10 to 105 Pa, and relative humidity ranging from nearly 0 to 100% [6]. The analysis of high-level RH data has the potential to shed light on the formation of liquid brines at Mars' polar latitudes, where it is most likely to occur [7]. In addition, the RH sensor aboard Curiosity is similar to that on the TECP [8], allowing a direct comparison of the near-surface RH measurements at these two different locations on the surface of Mars. REFERENCES: [1] Zent, A. P., et al, 2009, JGR (1991-2012) 114.E3. [2] Tamppari, L. K., et al. 2010, JGR, 115, E00E17. [3] Davy, R., et al., 2010, JGR, 115, E00E13. [4] Whiteway, J., et al., 2009, Science, 325, 68-70. [5] Savijärvi, H., and A. Määttänen, 2010, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 1497-1505. [6] Fischer, E., et al., 2014, GRL, 41, 4456-4462. [7] Martínez, G., and Rennó, N., 2013, Space Sci. Rev., 175, 29-51. [8] Harri, A-M., et al., 2014, JGR 119

  4. Trace-Gas Mixing in Isolated Urban Boundary Layers: Results from the 2001 Phoenix Sunrise Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Doran, J C.; Shaw, William J.; Springston, Stephen R.; Spicer, Chet W.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements made from surface sites, from the 50-m and 140-m levels (the 16th and 39th floors) of a skyscraper and from an instrumented aircraft are used to characterize early morning profiles of CO, NOy and O3 within the mid-morning summertime convective atmospheric boundary layer (CABL) over Phoenix, Arizona. Although mixing was anticipated to produce uniform values of these species throughout the CABL, this was found not to be the case. Background air advected into the upper levels of the boundary layer and entrained air from above appears to be the most likely cause for the lack of well-mixed trace gases. The results show that surface measurements may provide only limited information on concentrations of trace gas species higher in the boundary layer.

  5. Phosphorus in Phoenix: a budget and spatial representation of phosphorus in an urban ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Hale, Rebecca L; Iwaniec, David M; Cook, Elizabeth M; Corman, Jessica R; Galletti, Christopher S; Childers, Daniel L

    2012-03-01

    As urban environments dominate the landscape, we need to examine how limiting nutrients such as phosphorus (P) cycle in these novel ecosystems. Sustainable management of P resources is necessary to ensure global food security and to minimize freshwater pollution. We used a spatially explicit budget to quantify the pools and fluxes of P in the Greater Phoenix Area in Arizona, USA, using the boundaries of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site. Inputs were dominated by direct imports of food and fertilizer for local agriculture, while most outputs were small, including water, crops, and material destined for recycling. Internally, fluxes were dominated by transfers of food and feed from local agriculture and the recycling of human and animal excretion. Spatial correction of P dynamics across the city showed that human density and associated infrastructure, especially asphalt, dominated the distribution of P pools across the landscape. Phosphorus fluxes were dominated by agricultural production, with agricultural soils accumulating P. Human features (infrastructure, technology, and waste management decisions) and biophysical characteristics (soil properties, water fluxes, and storage) mediated P dynamics in Phoenix. P cycling was most notably affected by water management practices that conserve and recycle water, preventing the loss of waterborne P from the ecosystem. P is not intentionally managed, and as a result, changes in land use and demographics, particularly increased urbanization and declining agriculture, may lead to increased losses of P from this system. We suggest that city managers should minimize cross-boundary fluxes of P to the city. Reduced P fluxes may be accomplished through more efficient recycling of waste, therefore decreasing dependence on external nonrenewable P resources and minimizing aquatic pollution. Our spatial approach and consideration of both pools and fluxes across a heterogeneous urban ecosystem increases the

  6. Time-Dependent dust accumulation on the Telltale fibres of the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Merrison, J. P.; Ellehoj, M. D.; Lemmon, M. T.; Phoenix Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The NASA Mars Mission Phoenix lasted 152 sols corresponding to LS = 76° to 148° [1]. During this time wind speeds and directions were measured with the so-called Telltale wind indicator [2, 3]. The Telltale is a mechanical anemometer containing a lightweight Kapton tube suspended in Kevlar fibres. Wind speeds and directions were determined by analyzing the position of the Kapton cylinder in pictures taken with the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Time dependent dust accumulation on the Telltale fibres was observed during the Phoenix mission. The amount of dust on the fibres was estimated by calculating a dust factor assuming exponential absorption through the dust loaded fibres with the sun almost in the line of sight of the Telltale. Alternatively, and in the laboratory, the dust load can be monitored using light source behind the camera system. On Mars, however, this situation was only reached at 3 AM, where very little Telltale data was obtained. At the start of the mission (LS ~ 78°) the dust load is minor. The dust load increased at a steady rate until LS ~ 114°. On later sols, the fibres appear thinner, indicating that they have been partially cleared of dust. The removal of dust seems coupled with dust devil passing at the Phoenix landing site. The first major dust-devil days [4], were at LS ~ 112° and LS ~ 120°, correlate with the removal of dust of the fibres. The behaviour appears to be more erratic hereafter, but there are clear indications of periods with accumulation and removal. In this contribution we will present the data from Mars and compare with on-going simulation experiments performed at the Aarhus wind tunnel facilities [5]. References: [1] Smith, P. H., et al., (2009) Science, 325, 58. [2] Gunnlaugsson, H. P., et al., (2008) JGR, 113, E00A04 [3] Holstein-Rathlou, C., et al., (2010) JGR in press. [4] Ellehoj, M. D., et al., (2010) JGR in press. [5] Merrison, J. P., et al., (2007) Icarus, 191, 568

  7. Comparison of Phoenix Meteorological Data with Viking Data Using Model MLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauhanen, Janne; Merikallio, Sini; Savijärvi, Hannu

    2010-05-01

    During 151 Martian days in 2008 the Canadian Meteorology experiment (MET) [1] on board NASA's Phoenix '07 Lander was providing for the first time surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind as well as dust and ice particles in the Martian Northern polar regions, 20 degrees north of the location of Viking Lander 2, the until then northernmost meteorological observatory on Mars. Using the Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM), jointly developed by the Helsinki University and the Finnish Meteorological Institute to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [2], the observations can be put into a larger context suitable for comparison with long term measurements at the Viking landing site three decades earlier. The seasonal variations observed at both latitudes are very similar though the onset of winter dominated climate is faster at higher latitudes. In case the re-activation efforts of Phoenix should be successful, first results for the Martian Spring at high latitudes will be shown, too. The meteorological observations over a long period of time and at different latitudes are important for the preparation of the planned future Martian landing missions Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) 2011, the ESA - NASA ExoMars program 2016-2018 and the Finnish-Russian-Spanish MetNet mission after 2011, where different meteorological stations will be deployed at low and high latitudes and low and high altitudes. Mission optimization makes reliable climate estimates mandatory. References [1] Taylor, P. A., D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, A.-M. Harri, and C. F. Lange (2008), J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A10 [2] Kauhanen, J., Siili, T., Järvenoja, S. and Savijärvi, H. (2008), J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A14

  8. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D.W.; Niles, P.B.; Morris, R.V.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.; Lauer, H.V.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS). Martian soil was heated up to 1000 C in the DSC ovens and evolved gases from mineral decomposition products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil. Initial TEGA results indicated the presence of endothermic peaks with onset temperatures that ranged from 675 C to 750 C with corresponding CO2 release. This result suggests the presence of calcite (CaCO3. CaO + CO2). Organic combustion to CO2 is not likely since this mostly occurs at temperatures below 550 C. Fe-carbonate and Mg-carbonate are not likely because their decomposition temperatures are less than 600 C. TEGA enthalpy determinations suggest that calcite, may occur in the Martian soil in concentrations of approx.1 to 5 wt. %. The detection of calcite could be questioned based on previous results that suggest Mars soils are mostly acidic. However, the Phoenix landing site soil pH was measured at pH 8.3 0.5, which is typical of terrestrial soils where pH is controlled by calcite solubility. The range of onset temperatures and calcite concentration as calculated by TEGA is poorly con-strained in part because of limited thermal data of cal-cite at reduced pressures. TEGA operates at <30 mbar while most calcite literature thermal data was obtained at 1000 mbar or higher pressures.

  9. Carpological analysis of Phoenix (Arecaceae): contributions to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyze the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. and relevant cultivars and to assess the taxonomic value of the information generated as a means of studying the systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Phoenix. We then analyzed seed morphologica...

  10. 77 FR 26039 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Phoenix Copper Leach Project and by this... notice in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the FEIS for the Phoenix Copper Leach Project...

  11. Atmospheric Condensation in the Mars Phoenix TECP and MET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    A new calibration function for the humidity sensor in the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) on the Phoenix Mars mission has been developed. The data is now cast in terms of Frost Point (T(sub f)) and some flight data, taken when the atmosphere is independently known to be saturated, is included in the calibration data set. Combined with data from the Meteorology Mast air temperature sensors, a very sensitive detection of atmospheric saturation becomes possible (Figure 1).

  12. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

  13. Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines hundreds of exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm appears cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Analysis of Effectiveness of Phoenix Entry Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Glass, Christopher E.; Desai, Prasun, N.; VanNorman, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between the external flowfield and the reaction control system (RCS) thruster plumes of the Phoenix capsule during entry has been investigated. The analysis covered rarefied, transitional, hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes. Performance of pitch, yaw and roll control authority channels was evaluated, with specific emphasis on the yaw channel due to its low nominal yaw control authority. Because Phoenix had already been constructed and its RCS could not be modified before flight, an assessment of RCS efficacy along the trajectory was needed to determine possible issues and to make necessary software changes. Effectiveness of the system at various regimes was evaluated using a hybrid DSMC-CFD technique, based on DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) code and General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), the LAURA (Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) code, and the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured 3D) code. Results of the analysis at hypersonic and supersonic conditions suggest a significant aero-RCS interference which reduced the efficacy of the thrusters and could likely produce control reversal. Very little aero-RCS interference was predicted in rarefied and transitional regimes. A recommendation was made to the project to widen controller system deadbands to minimize (if not eliminate) the use of RCS thrusters through hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes, where their performance would be uncertain.

  15. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-03-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance as well as augmenting the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year.

  16. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in approximately true color.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. After Rasping by Phoenix in 'Snow White' Trench, Sol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used the motorized rasp on the back of its robotic arm scoop during the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) to penetrate a hard layer at the bottom of a trench informally called 'Snow White.' This view, taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager and presented in approximately true color, shows the trench later the same sol.

    Most of the 16 holes left by a four-by-four array of rasp placements are visible in the central area of the image.

    A total 3 cubic centimeters, or about half a teaspoon, of material was collected in the scoop. Material in the scoop was collected both by the turning rasp, which threw material into the scoop through an opening at the back of the scoop, and by the scoop's front blade, which was run over the rasped area to pick up more shavings.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage in Phoenix

    PubMed Central

    Gober, Patricia; Kirkwood, Craig W.

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has profound consequences for the climate of the American Southwest and its overallocated water supplies. This paper uses simulation modeling and the principles of decision making under uncertainty to translate climate information into tools for vulnerability assessment and urban climate adaptation. A dynamic simulation model, WaterSim, is used to explore future water-shortage conditions in Phoenix. Results indicate that policy action will be needed to attain water sustainability in 2030, even without reductions in river flows caused by climate change. Challenging but feasible changes in lifestyle and slower rates of population growth would allow the region to avoid shortage conditions and achieve groundwater sustainability under all but the most dire climate scenarios. Changes in lifestyle involve more native desert landscaping and fewer pools in addition to slower growth and higher urban densities. There is not a single most likely or optimal future for Phoenix. Urban climate adaptation involves using science-based models to anticipate water shortage and manage climate risk. PMID:21149729

  19. Martian Soil Delivery to Analytical Instrument on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander released a sample of Martian soil onto a screened opening of the lander's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) during the 12th Martian day, or sol, since landing (June 6, 2008). TEGA did not confirm that any of the sample had passed through the screen.

    The Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 12. Soil from the sample delivery is visible on the sloped surface of TEGA, which has a series of parallel doors. The two doors for the targeted cell of TEGA are the one positioned vertically, at far right, and the one partially open just to the left of that one. The soil between those two doors is resting on a screen designed to let fine particles through while keeping bigger ones Efrom clogging the interior of the instrument. Each door is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Dispersion of an urban photochemical plume in Phoenix metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Mi; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality simulations were conducted using MM5/CMAQ modeling platform to study the intricacies introduced by photochemical reactions during the dispersion of urban pollution plume of Phoenix metropolis. The simulation days included the sole ozone episode recorded during 1996-2005, which violated the previous 1-h ozone standard (0.12 ppm). The modeling results suggest that the Phoenix urban plume can be described in terms of “inert passive dispersion” and “chemically active dispersion”. The former is exemplified by the CO distribution and takes the form of a Gaussian-like plume, for which the source is located at the ground level of the urban core or a freeway. The passive dispersion, nevertheless, is directly subjected to heterogeneities of topography and flow patterns, and hence cannot be strictly Gaussian. The case of active dispersion is much more complicated, and leads to a different plume shape, depending on the chemical reactivity of pollutant species. Secondary pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cause the plume core to have its maximum concentration far downwind of the urban area. Chemical species such as VOCs, which are directly emitted from a source as well as transformed by other primary pollutants, form a plume that qualitatively resembles a transition from an inert plume (CO) to a highly reactive plume (NOx).

  1. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  2. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Geologic Samples Containing Organic Materials: Implications for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Boynton, W. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument scheduled to fly onboard the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission will perform differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) of soil samples and ice collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. We have been developing a sample characterization data library using a laboratory DSC integrated with a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data returned during the mission. The laboratory TEGA test-bed instrument has been modified to operate under conditions similar to TEGA, i.e., reduced pressure (e.g., 100 torr) and reduced carrier gas flow rates. We have previously developed a TEGA data library for a variety of volatile-bearing mineral phases, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of samples that contain organics. One of the primary objectives of the Phoenix Scout Mission is to search for habitable zones by assessing organic or biologically interesting materials in icy soil. Nitrogen is currently the carrier gas that will be used for TEGA. In this study, we examine two possible modes of detecting organics in geologic samples; i.e., pyrolysis using N2 as the carrier gas and combustion using O2 as the carrier gas.

  3. Phoenix Mars Scout Parachute Flight Behavior and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen; Kandis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The data returned from the successful Phoenix Mars Scout mission are analyzed in order to determine characteristics and behaviors of the supersonic parachute that was used to slow the entry body during its descent to the surface. At least one significant drag reduction event was observed when the vehicle was traveling at Mach 1.6; this is consistent with previously reported terrestrial high altitude testing and is likely associated with an area oscillation of the parachute. The parachute is shown to possess some lateral instability relative to the anti-velocity vector that is also at a level that is consistent with the same historic data. Ramifications of the lateral instability and, in particular, the unsteadiness in the parachute drag are discussed as energizing elements of the entry body wrist mode. The apparent coefficient of drag for the parachute is calculated and shown to have relatively small variations on an average basis over the supersonic portion of flight.

  4. Genome sequence of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Wanfei; Tan, Jun; Yu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiucheng; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Tongwu; Yin, Yuxin; Xin, Chengqi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Guangyu; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M.; Huang, Dawei; Fang, Yongjun; Alnakhli, Yasser O.; Jia, Shangang; Yin, An; Alhuzimi, Eman M.; Alsaihati, Burair A.; Al-Owayyed, Saad A.; Zhao, Duojun; Zhang, Sun; Al-Otaibi, Noha A.; Sun, Gaoyuan; Majrashi, Majed A.; Li, Fusen; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Yun, Quanzheng; Alnassar, Nafla A.; Wang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Al-Jelaify, Rasha F.; Liu, Kan; Gao, Shenghan; Chen, Kaifu; Alkhaldi, Samiyah R.; Liu, Guiming; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Haiyan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4 Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671 Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm’s unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants. PMID:23917264

  5. Vegetative community control of freshwater availability: Phoenix Islands case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2014-12-01

    On small low islands with limited freshwater resources, terrestrial plant communities play a large role in moderating freshwater availability. Freshwater demands of vegetative communities are variable depending on the composition of the community. Hence, changes to community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may have significant implications for freshwater availability. Understanding how vegetative community changes impact freshwater availability will allow for better management and forecasting of limited freshwater supplies. To better understand these dynamics, we investigated three small tropical atolls in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Despite their close proximity, these islands receive varying amounts of rainfall, are host to different plant communities and two of the islands have abandoned coconut plantations. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary estimates of vegetative water demand for different tropical plant communities.

  6. Regional Land Use Mapping: the Phoenix Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Place, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    The Phoenix Pilot Program has been designed to make effective use of past experience in making land use maps and collecting land use information. Conclusions reached from the project are: (1) Land use maps and accompanying statistical information of reasonable accuracy and quality can be compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 from orbital imagery. (2) Orbital imagery used in conjunction with other sources of information when available can significantly enhance the collection and analysis of land use information. (3) Orbital imagery combined with modern computer technology will help resolve the problem of obtaining land use data quickly and on a regular basis, which will greatly enhance the usefulness of such data in regional planning, land management, and other applied programs. (4) Agreement on a framework or scheme of land use classification for use with orbital imagery will be necessary for effective use of land use data.

  7. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  8. Photoelastic stress analysis on a Phoenix 7. 9-meter blade

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Jenks, M D; Osgood, R M; Johnson, J A

    1991-10-01

    Photoelastic tests were conducted on the Phoenix 7.9-meter blade to develop the basic methodology for locating critical strain areas on full-scale composite structures. Under relatively low elastic loading the strain fields over various regions on the blade planform were documented with 35mm photographs under different loading conditions at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Structural Test Facility (STF). Strain concentrations were easily located and quantified. Principal strain magnitudes and directions were determined at the highest strain areas using separator gages. Results were compared to measured operating loads. This experiment demonstrated the value of experimental stress analysis using the photoelastic technique for the evaluation of composite blade designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  10. Six Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The landing site chosen for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, at about 68 degrees north latitude, is much farther north than the sites where previous spacecraft have landed on Mars.

    Color coding on this map indicates relative elevations based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Red is higher elevation; blue is lower elevation. In longitude, the map extends from 70 degrees (north) to minus 70 degrees (south).

  11. Ground truth report 1975 Phoenix microwave experiment. [Joint Soil Moisture Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Direct measurements of soil moisture obtained in conjunction with aircraft data flights near Phoenix, Arizona in March, 1975 are summarized. The data were collected for the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment.

  12. Phoenix's view of Mars as of the end of Sol 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a polar projection mosaic of all data received as of the end of sol 2 from the right eye of the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) instrument on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. History of the Phoenix VTOL SSTO and recent developments in single-stage launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    The history of the VTOL SSTO (single stage to orbit) concept and the Phoenix designs is reviewed. The role the Phoenix concept played in stimulating consideration of the SSTO approach by the U.S. Government in ongoing SSTO concept studies is also discussed. It is pointed out that these studies are currently expected to lead to prototype hardware development aimed at demonstrating the SSTO approach by 1995-1997 in the form of the McDonnell-Douglas DC-Y.

  14. Phoenix Indian School. Oversight Hearings on Phoenix Indian School before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Phoenix, AZ, February 13, 1987; Washington, DC, July 30, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Since 1891, Phoenix Indian High School has served as a boarding school for Indian students. In February 1987, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) recommended that the school be closed, and that students be transferred to Sherman Indian School in Riverside, California. Congressional hearings in February and July 1987 received testimony on this…

  15. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for central Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2012-03-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  16. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for Central Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2011-10-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  17. The Domestication Syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera Seeds: Toward the Identification of Wild Date Palm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Newton, Claire; Ivorra, Sarah; Pierre, Marie-Hélène; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1) differentiate Phoenix species and (2) depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a “wild” reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins. Finally, we

  18. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In comparing the land use changes from the overlay as detected from ERTS-1 and the high altitude change overlay, total areas of change were of the same magnitude. The greatest variations were a result of differences in dates and areas of coverage between ERTS-1 images and aerial photographs. Separation of citrus from other agricultural land has been moderately successful in the ERTS-1 1:100,000 scale Level 2 land use mapping around Phoenix, although accuracy estimates are not yet available. No feeding operations have been detected from ERTS-1 so far. Preliminary indications are that commercial and services, industrial, and institutional land are not separable from each other using present image interpretation techniques. Urban open areas such as parks and golf courses are readily detectable, particularly when local maps are consulted even though out-of-date. Strip and clustered settlements may be detected depending upon their size and contrast with the surrounding area on the ERTS-1 image.

  19. Phoenix Mars Mission--the thermal evolved gas analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, John H; Chaney, Roy C; Hammack, Hilton

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix spacecraft that was launched to Mars in August 2007 landed safely on the Martian northern arctic region on May 25, 2008. It carried six experiments to study the history of water on the planet and search for organic molecules in the icy subsurface Martian soil. The spacecraft is a lander with an arm and scoop designed to dig a trench though the top soil to reach an expected ice layer near the surface. One of the instruments on board is the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA), which consists of two components, a set of eight very small ovens that will heat samples of the ice soil mixtures from the trench to release imbedded gases and mineral decomposition products, and a mass spectrometer that serves as the analysis tool for the evolved gases, and also for measurements of the composition and isotopic ratios of the gases that comprise the atmosphere of Mars. The mass spectrometer is a miniature magnetic sector instrument controlled by microprocessor-driven power supplies. One feature is the gas enrichment cell that will increase the partial pressures of the noble gases in an atmosphere sample by removing all the active gases, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, to improve the accuracy of their isotopic ratio measurements. PMID:18715800

  20. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will assess how heat and electricity move through Martian soil from one spike or needle to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the lander's Robotic Arm.

    The four-spike tool, called the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, is in the middle-right of this photo, mounted near the end of the arm near the lander's scoop (upper left).

    In one type of experiment with this tool, a pulse of heat will be put into one spike, and the rate at which the temperature rises on the nearby spike will be recorded, along with the rate at which the heated spike cools. A little bit of ice can make a big difference in how well soil conducts heat. Similarly, soil's electrical conductivity -- also tested with this tool -- is a sensitive

    indicator of moisture in the soil. This device adapts technology used in soil-moisture gauges for irrigation-control systems. The conductivity probe has an additional role besides soil analysis. It will serve as a hunidity sensor when held in the air.

  1. The Phoenix TECP Relative Humidity Sensor: Revised Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP), has been revised to correct the erroneously-published original calibration equation, to demonstrate the value of this unique data set, and to improve characterization of H2O exchange between the martian regolith and atmosphere. TECP returned two data streams, the temperature of the electronics analog board (Tb) and the digital 12-bit output of the RH sensor (DN), both of which are required to uniquely specify the H2O abundance. Because the original flight instrument calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. The choice of functional form for the calibration function is minimally constrained. A series of profiles across the calibration data cloud at constant DN and Tb does not reveal any evidence of a complex functional form. Therefore, a series of polynomials in both DN and Tb was investigated, along with several non-linear functions of DN and Tb.

  2. Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation Design and Modelling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander was launched in August of 2007 on a ten month cruise to reach the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. Its mission continues NASA s pursuit to find evidence of water on Mars. Phoenix carries upon it a slew of science instruments to study soil and ice samples from the northern region of the planet, an area previously undiscovered by robotic landers. In order for these science instruments to be useful, it was necessary for Phoenix to perform a safe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) onto the surface of Mars. The EDL design was defined through simulation and analysis of the various phases of the descent. An overview of the simulation and various models developed to characterize the EDL performance is provided. Monte Carlo statistical analysis was performed to assess the performance and robustness of the Phoenix EDL system and are presented in this paper. Using these simulation and modelling tools throughout the design and into the operations phase, the Mars Phoenix EDL was a success on May 25, 2008.

  3. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with agemore » $$\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$$\\pm$$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$$^{\\circ}.$$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $$\\sim$$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).« less

  4. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  5. 76 FR 51462 - Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to... acres of property abutting Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in a...

  6. 76 FR 51461 - Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... airport property at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in the Quitclaim... Road, Mesa, Arizona 85212, Telephone: (480) 988-7709. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In accordance with...

  7. First plasma of the A-PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Angot, J.

    2008-02-15

    A-PHOENIX is a new compact hybrid electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a large permanent magnet hexapole (1.92 T at the magnet surface) and high temperature superconducting Solenoids (3 T) to make min-vertical bar B vertical bar structure suitable for 28 GHz cw operation. The final assembly of the source was achieved at the end of June 2007. The first plasma of A-PHOENIX at 18 GHz was done on the 16th of August, 2007. The technological specificities of A-PHOENIX are presented. The large hexapole built is presented and experimental magnetic measurements show that it is nominal with respect to simulation. A fake plasma chamber prototype including thin iron inserts showed that the predicted radial magnetic confinement can be fulfilled up to 2.15 T at the plasma chamber wall. Scheduled planning of experiments until the end of 2008 is presented.

  8. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix lander was launched August 4, 2007 and remained in cruise for ten months before landing in the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. The one-month Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) operations phase prior to entry consisted of daily analyses, meetings, and decisions necessary to determine if trajectory correction maneuvers and environmental parameter updates to the spacecraft were required. An overview of the Phoenix EDL trajectory simulation and analysis that was performed during the EDL approach and operations phase is described in detail. The evolution of the Monte Carlo statistics and footprint ellipse during the final approach phase is also provided. The EDL operations effort accurately delivered the Phoenix lander to the desired landing region on May 25, 2008.

  9. 3D Modeling of Spectra and Light Curves of Hot Jupiters with PHOENIX; a First Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Torres, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    A detailed global circulation model was used to feed the PHOENIX code and calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative fluxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 μm light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 μm and underpredicts eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and suggest the incorporation of different metallicities in future studies.

  10. Independent Review Support for Phoenix Mars Mission Robotic Arm Brush Motor Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManamen, John P.; Pellicciotti, Joseph; DeKramer, Cornelis; Dube, Michael J.; Peeler, Deborah; Muirhead, Brian K.; Sevilla, Donald R.; Sabahi, Dara; Knopp, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Project requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent peer review of the Robotic Arm (RA) Direct Current (DC) motor brush anomalies that originated during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project and recurred during the Phoenix Project. The request was to evaluate the Phoenix Project investigation efforts and provide an independent risk assessment. This includes a recommendation for additional work and assessment of the flight worthiness of the RA DC motors. Based on the investigation and findings contained within this report, the IRT concurs with the risk assessment Failure Cause / Corrective Action (FC/CA) by the project, "Failure Effect Rating "3"; Major Degradation or Total Loss of Function, Failure Cause/Corrective Action Rating Currently "4"; Unknown Cause, Uncertainty in Corrective Action."

  11. The Mars Phoenix Communications Brownout during Entry into the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Kornfeld, R.; Bruvold, K.; Craig, L.; Edquist, K.

    2009-11-01

    Propagation of radio signals through sufficiently dense plasma will become disrupted during a space vehicle's hypersonic entry phase into a planetary atmosphere. The Mars Phoenix communication links were found to experience varying levels of reduced received signal strength (brownout) during the spacecraft's entry into the Martian atmosphere on May 25, 2008. These fades were attributed to charged particles generated inside the entry vehicle's high-temperature shock layer during the hypersonic entry. This article presents the results of the analysis of the UHF carrier signal power emitted by Phoenix as received by three orbiting relay satellites during the period around peak heating: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express.

  12. American Flag and Mini-DVD Attached to Deck of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, released on Memorial Day, May 26, 2008, shows the American flag and a mini-DVD on the Phoenix's deck, which is about 3 ft. above the Martian surface. The mini-DVD from the Planetary Society contains a message to future Martian explorers, science fiction stories and art inspired by the Red Planet, and the names of more than a quarter million earthlings.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Application of the Dalhousie Lidar Performance Model to the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, C. S.; Duck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Phoenix Mars Mission, the first of NASA's `Scout Program', is scheduled to launch in August of 2007, arriving at the Martian surface 10 months later. Under the motto of `Follow the Water', Phoenix will search for ice in both the Martian regolith, using a variety of instruments and a robotic arm, and in the atmosphere, by employing a CSA funded Lidar (Light Direction and Ranging) system. The Lidar will operate at two wavelengths (532nm and 1064nm), providing information on atmospheric scatterers such as ice and dust. For the purposes of mission planning, the expected Lidar return signals have been modeled and some initial results are presented.

  14. The chloroplast DNA locus psbZ-trnfM as a potential barcode marker in Phoenix L. (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ballardini, Marco; Mercuri, Antonio; Littardi, Claudio; Abbas, Summar; Couderc, Marie; Ludeña, Bertha; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Phoenix (Arecaceae) comprises 14 species distributed from Cape Verde Islands to SE Asia. It includes the economically important species Phoenix dactylifera. The paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of Phoenix species difficult. In this context, the development of reliable DNA markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. Previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite in the trnG (GCC)-trnfM (CAU) spacer, and showed its potential for species identification in Phoenix. In this work, in order to develop an efficient DNA barcode marker for Phoenix, a longer cpDNA region (700 bp) comprising the mentioned minisatellite, and located between the psbZ and trnfM (CAU) genes, was sequenced. One hundred and thirty-six individuals, representing all Phoenix species except P. andamanensis,were analysed. The minisatellite showed 2-7 repetitions of the 12 bp motif, with 1-3 out of seven haplotypes per species. Phoenix reclinata and P. canariensis had species-specific haplotypes. Additional polymorphisms were found in the flanking regions of the minisatellite, including substitutions, indels and homopolymers. All this information allowed us to identify unambiguously eight out of the 13 species, and overall 80% of the individuals sampled. Phoenix rupicola and P. theophrasti had the same haplotype, and so had P. atlantica, P. dactylifera, and P. sylvestris (the “date palm complex” sensu Pintaud et al. 2013). For these species, additional molecular markers will be required for their unambiguous identification. The psbZ-trnfM (CAU) region therefore could be considered as a good basis for the establishment of a DNA barcoding system in Phoenix, and is potentially useful for the identification of the female parent in Phoenix hybrids. PMID:24453552

  15. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held two days of hearings in Phoenix to investigate the civil rights status of Arizona Indian Tribes, to ascertain the nature and extent of their problems, and to try to arrive at a means to rectify those problems. The testimony offered at the public session came from representatives of local, state, Federal and…

  16. Arpaio Doesn't Control Anything: A Summer with El Hormiguero in Phoenix, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from observations and interview data, this essay examines the role of "hormiguero agency" in nurturing empowered identities amongst Latin@s in Phoenix, Arizona. Specific links are made to how dehumanizing state level policies are resisted in multiple spaces, including schools, activist organizations, and within underground business…

  17. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  18. A 3D radiative transfer framework. VI. PHOENIX/3D example applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Baron, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the application of our 3D radiative transfer framework in the model atmosphere code PHOENIX for a number of spectrum synthesis calculations for very different conditions. Methods: The 3DRT framework discussed in the previous papers of this series was added to our general-purpose model atmosphere code PHOENIX/1D and an extended 3D version PHOENIX/3D was created. The PHOENIX/3D code is parallelized via the MPI library using a hierarchical domain decomposition and displays very good strong scaling. Results: We present the results of several test cases for widely different atmosphere conditions and compare the 3D calculations with equivalent 1D models to assess the internal accuracy of the 3D modeling. In addition, we show the results for a number of parameterized 3D structures. Conclusions: With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D radiative transfer (including scattering) problem with the same micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.

  19. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN PHOENIX: PM1 IS A BETTER INDICATOR THAN PM2.5.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has obtained a 3-year database of particulate matter (PM) in Phoenix, AZ from 1995 - 1997 that includes elemental analysis by XRF of daily PM2.5. During this time period PM1 and PM2.5 TEOMs were run simultaneously for about 7 months during two periods of the year. Regressio...

  1. Ethnographic Evaluation of the MESA Program at a South-Central Phoenix High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    MESA (Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement) is a program designed to increase the number of underrepresented ethnic groups in professions related to mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. This paper describes and evaluates the MESA program at Jarama High School, Phoenix (Arizona), using informal interviews and…

  2. Preliminary Follow-Up Evaluation of Participants in the Phoenix School: A Pilot Drug Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Abby; Gross, Susan

    The typical student who completed the Phoenix Program, a pilot program for treatment of students with drug and/or alcohol problems, at the time of referral by the high school counselor, was 16 years old, failing all courses, known to local police and juvenile authorities, and receiving short-term counseling with his/her family. To determine…

  3. Historical Evidence of the Spanish introduction of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) into the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    America’s date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) groves can be found from 36o N Lat. (USA) to 21o S Lat. (Chile) and from 63o W Long. (Venezuela) to 117o W Long. (USA), at elevations from sea level 2000 m (Colombia). However, successful production of ripe dates is possible only in the arid regions of Pe...

  4. Industrial Design: A Phoenix Reborn from the Ashes of Technology Education--A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Martin; Feigler, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Like the "phoenix," technology education (TE) can, under the right circumstances, give life to new programs--curricula with different emphases and directions from technology education, yet sharing a common heritage: the belief that applied technology will continue to shape the world. How that shaping process takes place--and the problems that it…

  5. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  6. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PHOENIX PM2.5 AEROSOL WITH THE UNMIX RECEPTOR MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multivariate receptor model Unmix has been used to analyze a 3-yr PM2.5 ambient aerosol data set collected in Phoenix, AZ, beginning in 1995. The analysis generated source profiles and overall percentage source contribution estimates (SCE) for five source categories: ga...

  7. Effectiveness of Computer Based Education: The UNC Phoenix System. Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelden, D. L.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate college student attitudes toward the PHOENIX computer-based education system and to gauge the instructional effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) achievement and testing in a variety of disciplines in a university setting. Data for the study were obtained from 400 students enrolled in five…

  8. The evolution of the boundary layer and its effect on air chemistry in the Phoenix area.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J. D.; Doran, J. C.; Shaw, W. J.; Coulter, R. L.; Martin, T. J.; Environmental Research; PNNL

    2000-09-27

    During a 4-week period in May and June of 1998, meteorological and chemical measurements were made as part of a field campaign carried out in the Phoenix area. Data from the field campaign provide the first detailed measurements of the properties of the convective boundary layer in this area and of the effects of these properties on ozone levels. The meteorological and chemical measurements have been combined with results from a set of meteorological, particle, and chemistry models to study ozone production, transport, and mixing in the vicinity of Phoenix. Good agreement between the simulations and observations was obtained, and the results have been used to illustrate several important factors affecting ozone patterns in the region. Heating of the higher terrain north and east of Phoenix regularly produced thermally driven circulations from the south and southwest through most of the boundary layer during the afternoon, carrying the urban ozone plume to the northeast. The combination of deep mixed layers and moderate winds aloft provided good ventilation of the Phoenix area on most days so that multiday buildups of locally produced ozone did not appear to contribute significantly to ozone levels during the study period. Sensitivity simulations determined that 20 to 40% of the afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (corresponding to 15 to 35 ppb) were due to vertical mixing processes that entrained reservoirs of ozone into the growing convective boundary layer. The model results also indicated that ozone production in the region is volatile organic compound limited.

  9. Recurrent Isolation of Extremotolerant Bacteria from the Clean Room Where Phoenix Spacecraft Components Were Assembled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-04-01

    The microbial burden of the Phoenix spacecraft assembly environment was assessed in a systematic manner via several cultivation-based techniques and a suite of NASA-certified, cultivation-independent biomolecule-based detection assays. Extremotolerant bacteria that could potentially survive conditions experienced en route to Mars or on the planet's surface were isolated with a series of cultivation-based assays that promoted the growth of a variety of organisms, including spore formers, mesophilic heterotrophs, anaerobes, thermophiles, psychrophiles, alkaliphiles, and bacteria resistant to UVC radiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. Samples were collected from the clean room where Phoenix was housed at three different time points, before (1P), during (2P), and after (3P) Phoenix's presence at the facility. There was a reduction in microbial burden of most bacterial groups, including spore formers, in samples 2P and 3P. Analysis of 262 isolatisolattivable bacterial populations accompanied by a reduction in diversity during 2P and 3P. It is suggested that this shift was a result of increased cleaning when Phoenix was present in the assembly facility and that certain species, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii and Brevundimonas diminuta, may be better adapted to environmental conditions found during 2P and 3P. In addition, problematic bacteria resistant to multiple extreme conditions, such as Bacillus pumilus, were able to survive these periods of increased cleaning.

  10. On Track with Phoenix Early Head Start. 1998-99 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Linda; Heffernon, Rick

    The Phoenix, Arizona Early Head Start (EHS) program is for first-time teen parents and their families. The 1998-99 project year marked the fourth year of a 5-year research and demonstration grant for EHS and concluded the third full year of program implementation. This report analyzes Year Four program services and outcomes for children, families,…

  11. 75 FR 16748 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, Phoenix, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... (74 FR 19935-19936, 4/30/09) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, Phoenix, Arizona Pursuant to its...

  12. Phoenix Conductivity Probe after Extraction from Martian Soil on Sol 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. This imaging served as a check of whether soil had stuck to the needles.

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Recurrent isolation of extremotolerant bacteria from the clean room where Phoenix spacecraft components were assembled.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-04-01

    The microbial burden of the Phoenix spacecraft assembly environment was assessed in a systematic manner via several cultivation-based techniques and a suite of NASA-certified, cultivation-independent biomolecule-based detection assays. Extremotolerant bacteria that could potentially survive conditions experienced en route to Mars or on the planet's surface were isolated with a series of cultivation-based assays that promoted the growth of a variety of organisms, including spore formers, mesophilic heterotrophs, anaerobes, thermophiles, psychrophiles, alkaliphiles, and bacteria resistant to UVC radiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. Samples were collected from the clean room where Phoenix was housed at three different time points, before (1P), during (2P), and after (3P) Phoenix's presence at the facility. There was a reduction in microbial burden of most bacterial groups, including spore formers, in samples 2P and 3P. Analysis of 262 isolates from the facility demonstrated that there was also a shift in predominant cultivable bacterial populations accompanied by a reduction in diversity during 2P and 3P. It is suggested that this shift was a result of increased cleaning when Phoenix was present in the assembly facility and that certain species, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii and Brevundimonas diminuta, may be better adapted to environmental conditions found during 2P and 3P. In addition, problematic bacteria resistant to multiple extreme conditions, such as Bacillus pumilus, were able to survive these periods of increased cleaning. PMID:20446872

  14. D/H ratio during the northern polar summer and what the Phoenix mission might measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David; Novak, Robert; Mumma, Michael J.

    2008-09-01

    The Phoenix polar mission will land close to 68°N, 233°E in May 2008 at Ls ~ 75 and operate 90 sols until Ls ~ 125 with possible extension to Ls ~ 142. Phoenix Meteorology (MET), Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument packages will measure the air's temperature, water vapor concentration, ice crystal concentration and the water's stable isotope ratio D/H, and the D/H for the uppermost ground ice. This paper summarizes what is known about the seasonal cycle of atmospheric D/H and makes a theoretical connection between the atmospheric ratio and that expected from the ground ice that Phoenix will sample. A simple mixed cloud stable isotope model is used to show that the seasonal progress of D/H in the polar region cannot be used alone. It is argued that the seasonal cycle in D/H is explained by their being an interplay between multilatitudinal sources or reservoirs that have a range of reservoir D/H values. These reservoirs have different sizes and seasonal response times so that they release their water contributions at different times of the spring and summer and together explain most of the seasonal D/H observed by Mumma et al. (2003) and Novak et al. (2005). Phoenix observations from its high-latitude vantage point during the summer and fall will add some atmospheric D/H values, temperature, water vapor concentration, and ice cloudiness data points that will constrain the various theoretical possibilities. The D/H of the ice recovered by Phoenix from the surface of the ground ice combined with the atmospheric D/H will suggest, whether the ground ice presently is a net receiver or supplier of water to the northern ice cap.

  15. Web-Based Geographic Information System Tool for Accessing Hanford Site Environmental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, Mark B.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Watson, David J.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.

    2014-11-15

    Data volume, complexity, and access issues pose severe challenges for analysts, regulators and stakeholders attempting to efficiently use legacy data to support decision making at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site. DOE has partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the PHOENIX (PNNL-Hanford Online Environmental Information System) project, which seeks to address data access, transparency, and integration challenges at Hanford to provide effective decision support. PHOENIX is a family of spatially-enabled web applications providing quick access to decades of valuable scientific data and insight through intuitive query, visualization, and analysis tools. PHOENIX realizes broad, public accessibility by relying only on ubiquitous web-browsers, eliminating the need for specialized software. It accommodates a wide range of users with intuitive user interfaces that require little or no training to quickly obtain and visualize data. Currently, PHOENIX is actively hosting three applications focused on groundwater monitoring, groundwater clean-up performance reporting, and in-tank monitoring. PHOENIX-based applications are being used to streamline investigative and analytical processes at Hanford, saving time and money. But more importantly, by integrating previously isolated datasets and developing relevant visualization and analysis tools, PHOENIX applications are enabling DOE to discover new correlations hidden in legacy data, allowing them to more effectively address complex issues at Hanford.

  16. Influence of Noise Barriers on Near-Road and On-Road Air Quality: Results from Phoenix

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation describes field study results quantifying the impact of roadside barriers under real-world conditions in Phoenix, Arizona. Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has ...

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Bruker Biotyper and BD Phoenix Systems for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Urinary Tract Infections ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yingjun; Meng, Shufang; Bian, Dongmo; Quinn, Criziel; Li, Haijing; Stratton, Charles W.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The Bruker Biotyper and BD Phoenix systems were evaluated for identification of 1,024 bacterial urinary tract isolates. The Biotyper and Phoenix systems correctly identified 99.9% and 99.5% to the genus level and 99.1% and 98.5% to the species level, respectively. Both systems provide reliable results, and the Biotyper system offers a rapid tool for urine bacterial isolate identification. PMID:21918029

  18. The thermal structure of the cool core in the Phoenix cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The SZ-selected cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z~0.56 (the Phoenix cluster) shows for the first time a hint of a massive cooling-flow-induced starburst, suggesting that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling may not yet be fully established. We propose to robustly estimate the emission measure distribution of the cool core in the Phoenix cluster, and its temperature and abundance profiles out to 500 kpc, with a medium-deep (210 ks) EPIC observation, in order to investigate the actual structure of the cool core. The proposed study will provide secure science results with a relatively modest exposure, paving the way to an eventual deeper observation of this exceptional and puzzling source.

  19. Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

  20. An evaluation of climate change in Phoenix using an automatic synoptic climatological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Kalkstein, L.S. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-06-01

    The authors develop an automatic synoptic climatological categorization for summer and winter in Phoenix by means of principal components analysis and clustering analysis, for the purpose of determining climatic trends over the past 40 years. The categorization is used to determine if the frequencies of occurrences of the coldest and warmest air masses have changed and if the physical characteristics of these air masses have shown signs of modification in both seasons from 1948--1991. It appears that the frequencies of the hottest air masses in summer and the warmest air masses in winter and the coolest air masses in summer have decreased. In addition, mean temperature within each of the selected four air mass groups have increased 0.9--3.0 C from 1948 to 1991, and temperatures at 2:00 AM and 8:00 PM have increased changes are very closely related to the growth of the Phoenix metropolitan area and increased urban sprawl.

  1. Data Transfer Software-SAS MetaData Server & Phoenix Integration Model Center

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-04-15

    This software is a plug-in that interfaces between the Phoenix Integration's Model Center and the Base SAS 9.2 applications. The end use of the plug-in is to link input and output data that resides in SAS tables or MS SQL to and from "legacy" software programs without recoding. The potential end users are users who need to run legacy code and want data stored in a SQL database.

  2. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)dispersal to the Americas: Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) groves are found in the Americas from the south-west USA (36°N lat.) to Chile (21°S lat.) and eastward to the Caribbean Islands; from Venezuela, 63°W long. to 117°W long. (USA) and at elevations from 0-2,000 m. However, successful production of ripe dates is possible ...

  3. An epitaph for all photons: a phoenix rising from its ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangacharyulu, C.

    2015-09-01

    It is argued that, unlike material particles, electromagnetic quanta are devoid of individual identities. Their birth and death are dictated by the conservation principles involving the interacting partners resulting in the emission or absorption. During their entire life, they restlessly propagate unnoticed by the media they pass through. An encounter with an interacting partner results in their demise. A photon lives and propagates as a phoenix with a successive photon arising from the ashes of its predecessor.

  4. Phoenix Is Required for Mechanosensory Hair Cell Regeneration in the Zebrafish Lateral Line

    PubMed Central

    Behra, Martine; Bradsher, John; Sougrat, Rachid; Gallardo, Viviana; Allende, Miguel L.; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho). Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration. PMID:19381250

  5. Evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious Phoenix species.

    PubMed

    Cherif, E; Zehdi-Azouzi, S; Crabos, A; Castillo, K; Chabrillange, N; Pintaud, J-C; Salhi-Hannachi, A; Glémin, S; Aberlenc-Bertossi, F

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. The genus Phoenix, belonging to the Arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. Phylogenetic data suggest that the genus Phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. We have investigated the cessation of recombination in the sex-determination region within the genus Phoenix as a whole by extending the analysis of P. dactylifera SSR sex-related loci to eight other species within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of a date palm sex-linked PdMYB1 gene in these species has revealed that sex-linked alleles have not clustered in a species-dependent way but rather in X and Y-allele clusters. Our data show that sex chromosomes evolved from a common autosomal origin before the diversification of the extant dioecious species. PMID:27118680

  6. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini)

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52–88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11–15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21–54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17–23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida. PMID:27408585

  7. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  8. Project Phoenix: A Summary of SETI Observations and Results, 1995 - 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team

    2004-05-01

    Project Phoenix was a Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) that observed nearly 800 stars within about 80 parsecs over the available frequencies in the microwave spectrum from 1200 to 3000 MHz with a resolution of 0.7 Hz. The search had three major observing campaigns using the Parkes 64 meter, the NRAO 140 Foot, and the Arecibo 305 meter antennas. Phoenix used real time signal detection and immediate verification of possible ETI signals. The search looked for narrowband signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, and allowed for frequency drift rates of up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week was used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, were checked immediately with a "pseudo-interferometric" observation using a second, distant antenna, or by simple on-off observations if the second antenna was unavailable. While millions of signals were detected, all proved to be from terrestrial technology. In conclusion, we can set upper limits on the power of narrowband transmitters in the vicinity of nearby stars. Project Phoenix was the privately-funded continuation of the NASA Targeted Search SETI program and we gratefully acknowledge the use of NASA equipment on long term loan through 2002. The search was supported by contributions from Bernard M. Oliver, William and Rosemary Hewlett, Gordon and Betty Moore, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Paul G. Allen Foundation.

  9. Discovery of a Stellar Overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; Balbinot, E.; Mondrik, N.; Marshall, J. L.; Yanny, B.; Bechtol, K.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Oscar, D.; Santiago, B.; Simon, J. D.; Vivas, A. K.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, M. Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of an excess of main-sequence turnoff stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l˜ 285^\\circ and b˜ -60^\\circ and spans at least 30° in longitude and 10° in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ . The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is about d˜ 16 {{kpc}}. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ˜4 kpc by ˜3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ˜120° and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.

  10. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52-88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11-15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21-54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17-23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida. PMID:27408585

  11. Discovery of a stellar overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the dark energy survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, T. S.; Balbinot, E.; Mondrik, N.; Marshall, J. L.; Yanny, B.; Bechtol, K.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Oscar, D.; Santiago, B.; Simon, J. D.; et al

    2016-01-27

    We report the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l~285 deg and b~-60 deg and spans at least 30 deg in longitude and 10 deg in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9 sigma. The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is aboutmore » d~16 kpc. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ~4 kpc by ~3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~120 deg and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.« less

  12. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - A Mars Phoenix Mission Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Anderson, R. M.; Archer, D.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Moore, Q.; Quinn, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Stroble, S.; Zent, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix mission (PHX; May 25 - Nov. 2, 2008) studied the north polar region of Mars (68deg N) to understand the history of water and potential for habitability. Phoenix carried with it a wet chemistry lab (WCL) capable of determining the basic solution chemistry of the soil and the pH value, a thermal and evolved-gas analyzer capable of determining the mineralogy of the soil and detecting ice, microscopes capable of seeing soil particle shapes, sizes and colors at very high resolution, and a soil probe (TECP) capable of detecting unfrozen water in the soil. PHX coincided with an international effort to study the Earth s polar regions named the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007-2008). The best known Earth analog to the Martian high-northern plains, where Phoenix landed, are the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Fig. 1). Thus, the IPY afforded a unique opportunity to study the MDV with the same foci - history of water and habitability - as PHX. In austral summer 2007, our team took engineering models of WCL and TECP into the MDV and performed analgous measurements. We also collected sterile samples and analyzed them in our home laboratories using state-of-the-art tools. While PHX was not designed to perform biologic analyses, we were able to do so with the MDV analog samples collected.

  13. Outdoor Education Summer Curriculum Project--1979. Phoenix Elementary District #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halley, Arthur; And Others

    Outside the classroom there are many opportunities that provide a variety of environmental, ecological and academic-oriented experiences. For inner city minority children from low income families the need for outdoor education programs is particularly critical. Much of the outdoor experience can be established right on the school site by using the…

  14. PHOENIX-2: A Broadband Spectrometer for Decimetric and Microwave Radio Bursts: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.; Zmoos, C.

    Phoenix-2, a new spectrometer to register solar flare radio emission in the 0.1 to 4 GHz band, has become operational. It is a frequency-agile system for measuring either both senses of circular polarization or linear polarization in Dicke mode. Spectra are obtained by sweeping through a set of frequency channels. The number of channels, their frequencies and their bandwidth are user defined. The temporal resolution has to be compromised with the number of frequency channels and can be in the range of 0.5 ms to 1 s for 1 to 2000 channels. The possibility to chose channels at any frequency in the observed band allows to detect and avoid frequencies with man made interference. Recording period for the spectra is from sunrise to sunset. The observation schedule and the interruption of observations by calibration measurements are user defined. During the night, the spectral data is automatically transfered from the observatory location (Bleien, about 50 km from Zurich) through the Internet to the Institute of Astronomy in Zurich, where all the calibration, archiving and feature extraction tasks are performed. This allows to access the spectral data one day after its measurement. Phoenix-2 incorporates parts of the old Zurich Spectrometer 'Phoenix', (Benz et al, 1991) namely the antenna, the antenna control hardware and some high-frequency components. The most important new capabilities of Phoenix-2 are: 1. Observations up to 4 GHz instead of 3 GHz 2. Larger spectra with up to 2000 different frequency channels instead of 500 3. Continuous recording from sunrise to sunset, instead of 90 minutes maximum continuous recording time during bursts 4. More accurate, automatic calibration 5. Immediate evaluation of the data instead of manual tape transport 6. Online archive of all calibrated data for later processing with more advanced feature detection methods 7. Monitoring focus instrumentation (pre-amplifier, noise source) and environmental data (weather station) During

  15. Neogene kinematic history of Nazca-Antarctic-Phoenix slab windows beneath Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitsprecher, Katrin; Thorkelson, Derek J.

    2009-01-01

    The Patagonian slab window is a subsurface tectonic feature resulting from subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic spreading-ridge system (Chile Rise) beneath southern South America. The geometry of the slab window had not been rigorously defined, in part because of the complex nature of the history of ridge subduction in the southeast Pacific region, which includes four interrelated spreading-ridge systems since 20 Ma: first, the Nazca-Phoenix ridge beneath South America, then simultaneous subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic and the northern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge systems beneath South America, and the southern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge system beneath Antarctica. Spreading-ridge paleo-geographies and rotation poles for all relevant plate pairs (Nazca, Phoenix, Antarctic, South America) are available from 20 Ma onward, and form the mathematical basis of our kinematic reconstruction of the geometry of the Patagonia and Antarctic slab windows through Neogene time. At approximately 18 Ma, the Nazca-Phoenix-Antarctic oceanic (ridge-ridge-ridge) triple junction enters the South American trench; we recognize this condition as an unstable quadruple junction. Heat flow at this junction and for some distance beneath the forearc would be considerably higher than is generally recognized in cases of ridge subduction. From 16 Ma onward, the geometry of the Patagonia slab window developed from the subduction of the trailing arms of the former oceanic triple junction. The majority of the slab window's areal extent and geometry is controlled by the highly oblique (near-parallel) subduction angle of the Nazca-Antarctic ridge system, and by the high contrast in relative convergence rates between these two plates relative to South America. The very slow convergence rate of the Antarctic slab is manifested by the shallow levels achieved by the slab edge (< 45 km); thus no point on the Antarctic slab is sufficiently deep to generate "normal" mantle-derived arc-type magmas

  16. Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer: Differential Scanning Calorimeter and Mass Spectrometer Database Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Scout Phoenix lander will land in the north polar region of Mars in May, 2008. One objective of the Phoenix lander is to search for evidence of past life in the form of molecular organics that may be preserved in the subsurface soil. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was developed to detect these organics by coupling a simultaneous differential thermal analyzer (SDTA) with a mass spectrometer. Martian soil will be heated to approx.1000 C and potential organic decomposition products such as CO2, CH4 etc. will be examined for with the MS. TEGA s SDTA will also assess the presence of endothermic and exothermic reactions that are characteristic of soil organics and minerals as the soil is heated. The MS in addition to detecting organic decompositon products, will also assess the levels of soil inorganic volatiles such as H2O, SO2, and CO2. Organic detection has a high priority for this mission; however, TEGA has the ability to provide valuable insight into the mineralogical composition of the soil. The overall goal of this work is to develop a TEGA database of minerals that will serve as a reference for the interpretation of Phoenix-TEGA. Previous databases for the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander (MPL)-TEGA instrument only went to 725 C. Furthermore, the MPL-TEGA could only detect CO2 and H2O while the Phoenix-TEGA MS can examine up to 144 atomic mass units. The higher temperature Phoenix-TEGA SDTA coupled with the more capable MS indicates that a higher temperature database is required for TEGA interpretation. The overall goal of this work is to develop a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) database of minerals along with corresponding MS data of evolved gases that can used to interpret TEGA data during and after mission operations. While SDTA and DSC measurement techniques are slightly different (SDTA does not use a reference pan), the results are fundamentally similar and thus DSC is a useful technique in providing comparative data for the TEGA

  17. Results from the Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at the local, neighbourhood and urban scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L. S.; Hedquist, B. C.; Carter, W.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of results from a large urban heat island experiment (UHI) performed in Phoenix (AZ) in April 2008. From 1960 to 2000, the city of Phoenix experienced a minimum temperature rise of 0.47 °C per decade, which is one of the highest rates in the world for a city of this size (Golden, 2004). Contemporaneously, the city has recorded a rapid enlargement and large portion of the land and desert vegetation have been replaced by buildings, asphalt and concrete (Brazel et al., 2007, Emmanuel and Fernando, 2007). Besides, model predictions show that minimum air temperatures for Phoenix metropolitan area in future years might be even higher than 38 °C. In order to make general statements and mitigation strategies of the UHI phenomenon in Phoenix and other cities in hot arid climates, a one-day intensive experiment was conducted on the 4th-5th April 2008 to collect surface and ambient temperatures within various landscapes in Central Phoenix. Inter alia, infrared thermography (IRT) was used for UHI mapping. The aim was to investigate UHI modifications within the city of Phoenix at three spatial scales i.e. the local (Central Business District, CBD), the neighborhood and the city scales. This was achieved by combining IRT measurements taken at ground level by mobile equipment (automobile-mounted and pedicab) and at high elevation by a helicopter. At local scale detailed thermographic images of about twenty building façades and several street canyons were collected. In total, about two thousand images were taken during the 24-hour campaign. Image analysis provides detailed information on building surface and pavement temperatures at fine resolution (Hedquist et al. 2009, Di Sabatino et al. 2009). This unique dataset allows us several investigations on local air temperature dependence on albedo, building thermal inertia, building shape and orientation and sky view factors. Besides, the mosaic of building façade temperatures are being analyzed

  18. Crater Morphology in the Phoenix Landing Ellipse: Insights Into Net Erosion and Ice Table Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Stoker, C. R.; McKay, C. P.; Davila, A. F.; Krco, M.

    2015-01-01

    Icebreaker [1] is a Discovery class mission being developed for future flight opportunities. Under this mission concept, the Icebreaker payload is carried on a stationary lander, and lands in the same landing ellipse as Phoenix. Samples are acquired from the subsurface using a drilling system that penetrates into materials which may include loose or cemented soil, icy soil, pure ice, rocks, or mixtures of these. To avoid the complexity of mating additional strings, the drill is single-string, limiting it to a total length of 1 m.

  19. Revisiting the Phoenix TECP data: Implications for regolith control of near-surface humidity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Chevrier, Vincent F.

    2015-06-01

    We analyze the recalibrated in situ humidity measurements by the Phoenix lander, which landed at 68.2°N, 234.3°E and operated from Ls 78° through Ls 148°, ∼152 sols. Vapor pressures demonstrate significant day-night variations with values ranging from 0.005 Pa to 0.37 Pa, an order of magnitude lower than previously reported, and evening derived enthalpies less than that for a purely ice deposition-driven process, suggesting other water vapor sinks may contribute to the near-surface humidity at the martian polar regions.

  20. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV and V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of patterns in IV&V findings and their correlation with post-launch anomalies allowed GRAIL to make more efficient use of IV&V services . Fewer issues. . Higher fix rate. . Better communication. . Increased volume of potential issues vetted, at lower cost. . Hard to make predictions of post-launch performance based on IV&V findings . Phoenix made sound fix/use as-is decisions . Things that were fixed eliminated some problems, but hard to quantify. . Broad predictive success in one area, but inverse relationship in others.

  1. A Simple Approach of Presampled Modulation Transfer Function Measurement Tested on the Phoenix Nanotom Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashkov, D.; Batranin, A.; Mamyrbayev, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper presampled modulation transfer function of the 2D images obtained on the Phoenix Nanotom scanner was investigated with different measurement set-ups. Three parameters were chosen to investigate their influence on modulation transfer function: source- detector distance, tube current and binning mode. A simple method for modulation transfer function determination of digital imaging detectors from edge images was applied. The following results were achieved and briefly discussed: modulation transfer function improves with increase of the source-detector distance, slightly improves with increase of the current and remains constant for different binning modes. All measurements were carried out in University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria at Wels campus.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Yeast ID Panel and Remel RapID Yeast Plus System for Yeast Identification

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Michelle L.; Parajuli, Shobha; Deleon-Gonsalves, Raquel; Potula, Raghava; Truant, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration. PMID:27366167

  3. Comparative Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Yeast ID Panel and Remel RapID Yeast Plus System for Yeast Identification.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michelle L; Parajuli, Shobha; Deleon-Gonsalves, Raquel; Potula, Raghava; Truant, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration. PMID:27366167

  4. Organic Combustion in the Presence of Ca-Carbonate and Mg-Perchlorate: A Possible Source for the Low Temperature CO2 Release Seen in Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Douglas; Ming, D.; Niles, P.; Sutter, B.; Lauer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most important discoveries of the Phoenix Lander were the detection of approx.0.6% perchlorate [1] and 3-5% carbonate [2] in landing site soils. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Phoenix lander could heat samples up to approx.1000 C and monitor evolved gases with a mass spectrometer. TEGA detected a low (approx.350 C) and high (approx.750 C) temperature CO2 release. The high temp release was attributed to the thermal decomposition of Ca-carbonate (calcite). The low temperature CO2 release could be due to desorption of CO2, decomposition of a different carbonate mineral, or the combustion of organic material. A new hypothesis has also been proposed that the low temperature CO2 release could be due to the early breakdown of calcite in the presence of the decomposition products of certain perchlorate salts [3]. We have investigated whether or not this new hypothesis is also compatible with organic combustion. Magnesium perchlorate is stable as Mg(ClO4)2-6H2O on the martian surface [4]. During thermal decomposition, this perchlorate salt releases H2O, Cl2, and O2 gases. The Cl2 can react with water to form HCl which then reacts with calcite, releasing CO2 below the standard thermal decomposition temperature of calcite. However, when using concentrations of perchlorate and calcite similar to what was detected by Phoenix, the ratio of high:low temperature CO2 evolved is much larger in the lab, indicating that although this process might contribute to the low temp CO2 release, it cannot account for all of it. While H2O and Cl2 cause calcite decomposition, the O2 evolved during perchlorate decomposition can lead to the combustion of any reduced carbon present in the sample [5]. We investigate the possible contribution of organic molecules to the low temperature CO2 release seen on Mars.

  5. Possible Calcite and Magnesium Perchlorate Interaction in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument detected a calcium carbonate phase decomposing at high temperatures (approx.700 C) from the Wicked Witch soil sample [1]. TEGA also detected a lower temperature CO2 release between 400 C and 680 C [1]. Possible explanations given for this lower temperature CO2 release include thermal decomposition of Mg or Fe carbonates, a zeolitictype desorption reaction, or combustion of organic compounds in the soil [2]. The detection of 0.6 wt % soluble perchlorate by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on Phoenix [3] has implications for the possibility of organic molecules in the soil. Ming et al. [4] demonstrated that perchlorates could have oxidized organic compounds to CO2 in TEGA, preventing detection of their characteristic mass fragments. Here, we propose that a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate present in martian soil reacted to produce the 400 C - 680 C TEGA CO2 release. The parent salts of the perchlorate on Mars are unknown, but geochemical models using WCL data support the possible dominance of Mg-perchlorate salts [5]. Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O is the stable phase at ambient martian conditions [6], and breaks down at lower temperatures than carbonates giving off Cl2 and HCl gas [7,8]. Devlin and Herley [7] report two exotherms at 410-478 C and 473-533 C which correspond to the decomposition of Mg(ClO4)2.

  6. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lisa S; Seidel, Michael A; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A

    2015-07-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm-growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000-65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm. PMID:25957276

  7. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  8. A Pre-Main Sequence Spectroscopic Binary Revealed through Infrared Spectroscopy with Phoenix on Gemini.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doppmann, G.; White, R.; Charbonneau, D.

    2005-12-01

    Empirical measurements of basic stellar and substellar properties in pre-main sequence (PMS) objects are critical to our understanding of how and when these objects evolve toward the main sequence. Dynamical measurements of PMS binary systems are beginning to provide these fundamental data, if they can be accurately placed on an H-R diagram for comparison with PMS evolutionary models. A recent high-precision near-IR radial velocity survey with Phoenix at Gemini South has lead to the new discovery of one double-line spectroscopic binary in Chamaeleon. With the high spectral resolution (R=50,000) provided by Phoenix we have successfully measured the orbital period and determined the dynamical mass ratio (from the relative velocity amplitudes) with our spectra taken over nine epochs (29 April - 23 June, 2005). In two epochs where we have near maximum velocity separation at the 2-0 CO bandhead, we use spectral synthesis templates to fit the primary and secondary bandheads (both evident in the spectrum) to accurately determine the component spectral types. Our multicomponent spectral fits also set constraints on gravity, assumed to be equal for both components in this low mass ( M2) co-evol PMS binary system. With the placement of this system in the H-R diagram by the properties we determine from spectroscopy, we will test the accuracy of theoretical model tracks using the independent mass information obtained from the orbital motion.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of counter radiation variations in an arid urban environment: Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Oround, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    Urbanization in the arid environment of Phoenix, Arizona is observed in this study to produce a significant effect on incoming long-wave radiation from the atmosphere. The excess in counter radiation in metropolitan Phoenix is attributed to the strength of the urban heat island as well as to pollution concentration in the urban atmosphere. This study found that about 40% counter radiation excess is due to the urban heat island, while about 60% counter radiation excess is likely produced by air-pollution effects. The influence of urbanization on observed counter radiation varies with the season, reflecting the strength of the urban heat island and moisture stratification in the boundary layer. Counter radiation effects from the urban atmosphere are well defined for the winter and spring periods. The influence of pollution on counter radiation is derived from a simple algorithm that employs the concept of moisture stratification and nocturnal cooling within the first 200 meters of the boundary layer. A one-dimensional numerical simulation model is incorporated in this study.

  10. A biometeorology study of climate and heat-related morbidity in Phoenix from 2001 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Jay S.; Hartz, Donna; Brazel, Anthony; Luber, George; Phelan, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    Heat waves kill more people in the United States than hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods combined. Recently, international attention focused on the linkages and impacts of human health vulnerability to urban climate when Western Europe experienced over 30,000 excess deaths during the heat waves of the summer of 2003—surpassing the 1995 heat wave in Chicago, Illinois, that killed 739. While Europe dealt with heat waves, in the United States, Phoenix, Arizona, established a new all-time high minimum temperature for the region on July 15, 2003. The low temperature of 35.5°C (96°F) was recorded, breaking the previous all-time high minimum temperature record of 33.8°C (93°F). While an extensive literature on heat-related mortality exists, greater understanding of influences of heat-related morbidity is required due to climate change and rapid urbanization influences. We undertook an analysis of 6 years (2001 2006) of heat-related dispatches through the Phoenix Fire Department regional dispatch center to examine temporal, climatic and other non-spatial influences contributing to high-heat-related medical dispatch events. The findings identified that there were no significant variations in day-of-week dispatch events. The greatest incidence of heat-related medical dispatches occurred between the times of peak solar irradiance and maximum diurnal temperature, and during times of elevated human comfort indices (combined temperature and relative humidity).

  11. Phoenix flagships: Conservation values and guanaco reintroduction in an anthropogenic landscape.

    PubMed

    Lindon, Adrien; Root-Bernstein, Meredith

    2015-09-01

    Multiple forms of valuation contribute to public acceptance of conservation projects. Here, we consider how esthetic, intrinsic, and utilitarian values contribute to public attitudes toward a proposed reintroduction of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in a silvopastoral system of central Chile. The nexus among landscape perceptions and valuations, support for reintroductions, and management of anthropogenic habitats is of increasing interest due to the proliferation of conservation approaches combining some or all of these elements, including rewilding and reconciliation ecology, for example. We assessed attitudes and values through an online questionnaire for residents of Santiago, Chile, using multiple methods including photo-montages and Likert scale assessments of value-based statements. We also combined the questionnaire approach with key informant interviews. We find strong support for the reintroduction of guanacos into the Chilean silvopastoral system ('espinal') in terms of esthetic and intrinsic values but less in terms of utilitarian values. Respondents preferred a scenario of espinal with guanacos and expressed interest in visiting it, as well as support for the reintroduction project on the basis that guanacos are native to central Chile. We suggest that reintroduced guanacos could serve as a 'phoenix flagship species' for espinal conservation, that is, a flagship species that has gone regionally extinct and is known but not associated with the region in the cultural memory. We consider how the lack of local cultural identity can both help and weaken phoenix flagships, which we expect to become more common. PMID:25539866

  12. The NASA Phoenix 2007 Mars Lander Thruster Calibration Estimator: Design and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Portock, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Phoenix 2007 Mars Lander mission, launched in August 2007 on its mission to land near the north pole of Mars in May 2008, had a driving need for entry-corridor delivery precision, which parlayed into stringent requirements on deep space navigation accuracy. This, in turn, necessitated in-cruise calibration of the three-axis thrust force vectors produced by each of the vehicle's four reactioncontrol system (RCS) thrusters during frequent daily low-catalyst-bed-temperature firings done to maintain the 3-axis attitude deadbands. A novel recursive sigmapoint consider-covariance filter was designed, validated and ultimately utilized extensively during flight operations, to estimate the RCS force vectors, per individual thruster. The estimate was achieved through ground-based processing of Deep Space Network (DSN) and telemetered gyroscope data from the spacecraft's inertial measurement unit (IMU), using a novel sigma-point consider filter (SPCF) formulation. During early-cruise active calibration, the spacecraft was flown in attitudes chosen, using this filter, to maximize observability of all thruster axes, to an extent constrained by vehicle thermal and communication considerations. The design of the Phoenix thruster calibration filter, and its validation through processing of archived Mars Odyssey thruster calibration radiometric data, and simulated sets of data, are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes with the formulation of the thruster calibration campaign and a summary of the thruster calibration campaign results. The SPCF algorithm is summarized in the Appendix.

  13. Afm Measrurements of Martian Soil Particles Using Mems Technology - Results from the PHOENIX Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautsch, S.; Parrat, D.; de Rooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Morookian, J. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Vijendran, S.; Sykulska, H.; Pike, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    Light scattering experiments conducted on Mars indicated that soil particles have dimensions around 1 μm. Particles in that range play an important role in the gas exchange between sub-surface water ice and the atmosphere. Their shape can help tracing the geological history and may indicate past presence of liquid water. NASA's Phoenix mission therefore decided to analyze soil and dust particles in the sub-micrometer to a few micrometer range using an atomic force microscope (AFM) for the first time on another planet. The co-axially mounted AFM was capable of resolving particles with 10nm lateral resolution. A MEMS approach combined with mechatronic concepts for the scanner was selected for implementing the AFM. For redundancy, the sensor chip featured eight silicon cantilevers each with a 7 to 8 μm high tip. The cantilevers could be cleaved off if contaminated. During NASA's Phoenix Mission, which operated on the red planet from May to October 2008, we could demonstrate successful AFM operations. The instrument has executed 85 experiments of which 26 were needed for calibration. Of the remaining experiments about half (28) returned images where signatures of particles could be discerned.

  14. What a Tangled Web We Weave: Hermus as the Northern Extension of the Phoenix Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, Carl J.; Carlberg, Raymond G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the recently discovered Phoenix stream may be part of a much longer stream that includes the previously discovered Hermus stream. Using a simple model of the Galaxy with a disk, bulge, and a spherical dark matter halo, we show that a nearly circular orbit, highly inclined with respect to the disk, can be found that fits the positions, orientations, and distances of both streams. While the two streams are somewhat misaligned in the sense that they do not occupy the same plane, nodal precession due to the Milky Way disk potential naturally brings the orbit into line with each stream in the course of half an orbit. We consequently consider a common origin for the two streams as plausible. Based on our best-fitting orbit, we make predictions for the positions, distances, radial velocities, and proper motions along each stream. If our hypothesis is borne out by measurements, then at ≈183° (≈235° with respect to the Galactic center) and ≈76 kpc in length, Phoenix-Hermus would become the longest cold stream yet found. This would make it a particularly valuable new probe of the shape and mass of the Galactic halo out to ≈20 kpc.

  15. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Planetary Protection challenges and implementation for Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Y.; Koukol, R.; Kastner, J.

    The Phoenix Lander to be launched in September 2007 and the Mars Science Laboratory MSL Rover to be launched in October 2009 each present unique challenges from a planetary protection standpoint The Phoenix spacecraft will land in the polar region of Mars where its robotic arm will dig into the soil in search of subsurface frozen water Since water is considered a special region the project is required to microbially reduce to a final average level of 0 03 viable spores m 2 the robotic arm and then protect it from recontamination until the spacecraft reaches the surface of Mars While MSL does not contain scientific instruments that can deeply access the subsurface it does have the capability to sample up to 10 cm In addition the large size of the rover means that during normal operations a wheel may penetrate to a depth of over one-half meter The size also presents challenges in managing the total bioburden allocation In this presentation we describe the basic configuration of both spacecraft review the planetary protection requirements and describe the steps taken to ensure that they are in full compliance with planetary protection

  17. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Lisa S.; Seidel, Michael A.; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F.; Al-Dous, Eman K.; Al-Azwani, Eman K.; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm–growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000–65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm. PMID:25957276

  18. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  19. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  20. Zooming in on Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

    This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  1. A genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two independent domestication events in Phoenix dactylifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is a key fruit crop in many arid regions of the world. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors and sizes growing mainly from the west of North Africa to India. However, the origin o...

  2. 77 FR 5782 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Hill PHOENIX From the Department of Energy Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... refrigeration equipment, effective January 8, 2007. 71 FR 71340. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10... refrigerators effective January 1, 2012 (74 FR 1092, Jan. 9, 2009). The basic models included in Hill PHOENIX's... petition: FBI FT FEA NFD NFO NFT OB SF DOE makes decisions on waivers for only those models...

  3. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 8: Phoenix Area, 1966-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The eighth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Phoenix Area Office and the Tucson Sub-Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context: Political and Geographic (the…

  4. Deposition of extreme-tolerant bacterial strains isolated during different phases of phoenix spacecraft assembly in a public culture collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme-tolerant bacteria (82 strains; 67 species) isolated during various assembly phases of the Phoenix spacecraft were permanently archived within the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection in Peoria, Illinois. This represents the first microbial collect...

  5. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  6. Boundary-Layer Evolution over Phoenix, Arizona, and the Premature Mixing of Pollutants in the Early Morning

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, William J.; Doran, J C.; Coulter, Richard L.

    2005-02-01

    The 2001 Phoenix Sunrise campaign was a field measurement program to investigate the early-morning chemical and meteorological processes associated with the development of ozone pollution in Phoenix, Arizona. As part of that study, atmospheric structure was measured using wind profiling radars, sodars, and radiosondes at several locations in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Chemical measurements made by other investigators showed that vertical mixing of pollutants began prior to sunrise on a number of occasions. This was surprising, since we expected sustained mixing to occur only after sunrise and the onset of solar heating. We have used the meteorological measurements to identify a density current that commonly arrives in downtown Phoenix in the hour or two before sunrise when conditions are undisturbed. Both winds and cold advection associated with this feature act to destabilize the lower atmosphere, and the resulting mixing continues through the morning transition to convective conditions. Because photochemical production of ozone is non-linearly dependent on the concentrations of precursor species, this early mixing will need to be properly represented in combined meteorological and chemical models if they are to be fully successful in simulating ozone concentrations.

  7. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (sphinx date palm) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that the petition does not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. We find that......

  8. Would Phoenix Dactyflera Pollen (palm seed) be considered as a treatment agent against Males’ infertility? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Soghra; Rajaei, Minoo; Malekzadeh, Kianoosh; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in male infertility, which is due to an unnatural increase in environmental free radicals. In the majority of cases, this has a negative effect on a male’s ability to impregnate a female. Currently, it is believed that spermatozoa can be protected against the damages induced by oxidative stress by saturating sperm with antioxidants. The antioxidant role of phoenix dactylifera pollen is capable of collecting the reactive oxygen and neutralizing it in and out of body cells. The present research provides a review of the antioxidant roles of phoenix dactylifera pollen on male infertility. Methods This research is based on English-Language studies and articles found by comprehensively reviewing electronic databases, websites, books, and academic articles over the last 10 years. Results The phenolic compounds of phoenix dactylifera pollen, due to the existing polyphenols, are strong chelators of heavy metals. Therefore, they are effective in eliminating environmental hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, these plants have high capacities of eliminating hydroxyl free radicals, picrylhydrazyl, diphenyl and phoenix dactylifera pollen and also inhibiting glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Conclusion Currently, the use of herbal antioxidants to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce the negative effects of oxidative stress on body cells and tissues has attracted researchers’ attention. Various substances, such as flavonoids and catechins, perform their antioxidant role by increasing the concentration of glutathione peroxidase. The final product of this process is an increase in the number of motile sperm, which can have significant effects on fertility. PMID:26816585

  9. Evaluation of Vitek2 and BD Phoenix in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jekarl, Dong Wook; Han, Sang Bong; Kim, Yoon Joo; Shin, Sang Hyun; Park, Kang Gyun; Park, Jung Jun; Han, Kyungja; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2010-08-01

    The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vitek2 and BD Phoenix against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Both systems showed overall categoric agreement of < or =90% for cefepime and ceftazidime against A. baumannii and imipenem and cefepime (and ceftazidime with Vitek2) against P. aeruginosa because of high minor error rates. PMID:20638609

  10. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30% relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern California

  11. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem control simulations, based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National Emissions Inventories (NEI05), are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOX, and wind fields, the control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are comparable with the previous studies in this region. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedances within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for Biogenic emissions and lateral boundary inflow (BILB). Based on the USEPA NEI05, results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30 % relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BILB contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the Southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the Southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass

  12. Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococci and Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Karen C.; Borek, Anita P.; Burger, Chad; Glanz, Brian; Bhally, Hasan; Henciak, Susan; Flayhart, Diane C.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) for the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of challenge and clinical staphylococci and enterococci recovered from patients in a tertiary-care medical center. In total, 424 isolates were tested: 90 enterococci; 232 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including 14 vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus isolates; and 102 staphylococci other than S. aureus (non-S. aureus). The Phoenix panels were inoculated according to the manufacturer's instructions. The reference methods for ID comparisons were conventional biochemicals and cell wall fatty acid analysis with the Sherlock microbial identification system (v 3.1; MIDI, Inc. Newark, DE). Agar dilution was the reference AST method. The overall rates of agreement for identification to the genus and the species levels were 99.7% and 99.3%, respectively. All S. aureus isolates and enterococci were correctly identified by the Phoenix panels. For the non-S. aureus staphylococci, there was 98.0% agreement for the ID of 16 different species. The AST results were stratified by organism group. For S. aureus, the categorical agreement (CA) and essential agreement (EA) were 98.2% and 98.8%, respectively. Three of three very major errors (VMEs; 1.7%) were with oxacillin. For non-S. aureus staphylococci, the CA, EA, VME, major errors, and minor error rates were 95.7%, 96.8%, 0.7%, 1.7%, and 2.9%, respectively. The two VMEs were with oxacillin. For the enterococci, there was 100% CA and 99.3% EA. All 36 vancomycin-resistant enterococci were detected by the Phoenix system. The Phoenix system compares favorably to traditional methods for the ID and AST of staphylococci and enterococci. PMID:16757600

  13. Evaluation of the BD PHOENIX Automated Microbiology System for Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Rohde, Holger; Dobinsky, Sabine; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    The new BD PHOENIX automated microbiology system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) is designed for automated rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing and identification of clinically relevant bacteria. In our study, the accuracy and speed of the BD PHOENIX oxacillin MIC determination for detecting methicillin resistance was evaluated for 200 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Compared to mecA PCR, the BD PHOENIX system detected methicillin resistance with a sensitivity of 99.2%. According to the actual NCCLS oxacillin MIC breakpoint of ≥0.5 μg/ml, the specificity was only 64.9%, attributable to false-positive results in 26 mecA-negative strains, including 16 non-Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Alternative oxacillin breakpoints of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥4 μg/ml resulted in increased specificities of 83.8, 94.6, and 100% and high sensitivities of 99.2, 99.2, and 96.7%, respectively. Similarly, NCCLS broth microdilution oxacillin MICs exhibited a sensitivity of 100% but a low degree of specificity. However, the previous oxacillin MIC breakpoint of ≥4 μg/ml performed with a sensitivity of 98.4% and a specificity of 98.7%. BD PHOENIX oxacillin MIC results were available after 9 h for 40.5% of the examined CoNS strains and were completed after 17 h. Our results revealed the high reliability of the BD PHOENIX system as a phenotypic method for detection of resistance to oxacillin in mecA-positive CoNS. However, for the improvement of specificity, reevaluation of the optimal oxacillin MIC breakpoint for CoNS appears to be necessary. PMID:15528693

  14. Phoenix Risen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 1974, John G. Sperling left a tenured position at San Jose State University with $26,000 in savings to start an academic program for working adults. In the beginning, he ran the operation out of his house. The program soon outgrew the house, Sperling relocated to Arizona, and the program adopted the name of that state's capital. Now the…

  15. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  16. Summary of Results from the Mars Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Hoffman, J.; Lauer, H. V.; Golden, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect evolved volatiles and organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS) that can detect masses in the 2 to 140 dalton range [1]. Five Martian soils were individually heated to 1000 C in the DSC ovens where evolved gases from mineral decompostion products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil.

  17. NERL PM research monitoring platforms: Baltimore, Fresno, and Phoenix. Data report for February 1995--April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zweidinger, R.; Purdue, L.; Fitzgerald, K.; Carmichael, L.; Kellogg, R.

    1998-12-01

    EPA`s National Exposure Research Laboratory, NERL, established PM research monitoring platforms in three metropolitan areas with differing PM size and composition characteristics: Phoenix, AZ (established February 1995), an arid, desert dust dominated western US city where the PM10 mass is dominated by the coarse fraction; Baltimore, MD (established January 1997), a typical eastern city with high sulfates; and Fresno, CA (established June 1997); characteristic of a western area with high nitrates. The primary objective of the research platforms was to collect daily, ambient air quality data to relate the chemical and/or physical properties of PM to support exposure, source apportionment, receptor modeling, and health effects studies. Daily fine and coarse particle mass and composition data, meteorology data, and data for other parameters relevant to the characterization of the size and composition of PM were collected, including: 24 hour integrated and hourly maximum mass concentrations, metals (XRF), organic and elemental carbon.

  18. Ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in arbusculate coils of mycorrhizal Phoenix canariensis roots.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Beatriz; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Olmos, Enrique; Honrubia, Mario; Morte, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity has been detected in roots of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Phoenix canariensis. This enzyme was ultrastructurally localized in arbusculate coils for the first time. This localization was carried out using a cerium-based method, which minimizes non-specific precipitation. The ACP was localized in inter- and intracellular hyphae, in the fungal cytoplasm as well as at the interface and the fungal cell wall and the periarbuscular membrane limiting it. The novel localization of an ACP in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) interface of arbusculate coils suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the phosphorus efflux from the mycorrhizal fungus to the host. The results presented in this article indicate that the role played by ACP in AM symbiosis may be more important than was previously thought and that arbusculate coils are highly relevant when considering nutrient transfer through AM symbiosis. PMID:18334003

  19. Destruction of organics on Mars by oxychlorines: Evidence from Phoenix, Curiosity, and EETA79001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Carrier, B. L.; O'Neil, G. D.; Stroble, S. T.; Claire, M. W.

    2013-09-01

    The Phoenix lander measured 0.6 wt% perchlorate (ClO4-) in the martian soil. The Curiosity rover has also found CH3Cl, CH2Cl2 and ClO4-. New analyses of martian meteorite EETA79001 show the presence of ClO4-, and chlorite (ClO3-). The ubiquity of ClO4- and ClO3- points to the global presence of highly oxidizing oxychlorines (ClOx-) on Mars. Produced both by oxidation of Cl- and radiolysis of ClO4-, the oxychlorines are very highly destructive to organics. Their global presence has broad implications for the presence and detection of organics and life on Mars.

  20. Reconciling the Differences between the Measurements of CO2 Isotopes by the Phoenix and MSL Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Trainer, M.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. There have been several different measurements by landers and Earth based systems performed in recent years that have not been in agreement. In particular, measurements of the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 by the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are in stark disagreement. This work attempts to use measurements of mass 45 and mass 46 of martian atmospheric CO2 by the SAM and TEGA instruments to search for agreement as a first step towards reaching a consensus measurement that might be supported by data from both instruments.

  1. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  2. The Phoenix Physician: defining a pathway toward leadership in patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Good, Robert G; Bulger, John B; Hasty, Robert T; Hubbard, Kevin P; Schwartz, Elliott R; Sutton, John R; Troutman, Monte E; Nelinson, Donald S

    2012-08-01

    Health care delivery has evolved in reaction to scientific and technological discoveries, emergent patient needs, and market forces. A current focus on patient-centered care has pointed to the need for the reallocation of resources to improve access to and delivery of efficient, cost-effective, quality care. In response to this need, primary care physicians will find themselves in a new role as team leader. The American College of Osteopathic Internists has developed the Phoenix Physician, a training program that will prepare primary care residents and practicing physicians for the changes in health care delivery and provide them with skills such as understanding the contributions of all team members (including an empowered and educated patient), evaluating and treating patients, and applying performance metrics and information technology to measure and improve patient care and satisfaction. Through the program, physicians will also develop personal leadership and communication skills. PMID:22904250

  3. Intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in wheat canopies estimated by spectral reflectance. [Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was evaluated relative to greenness and normalized difference (MSS 7-5/7+5) for five planting dates of wheat for 1978-79 and 1979-80 in Phoenix. Intercepted PAR was calculated from a model driven by leaf area index and stage of growth. Linear relationships were found between greenness and normalized difference with a separate model representing growth and senescence of the crop. Normalized difference was a significantly better model and would be easier to apply than the empirically derived greenness parameter. For the leaf area growth portion of the season the model between PAR interception and normalized difference was the same over years, however, for the leaf senescence the models showed more variability due to the lack of data on measured interception in sparse canopies. Normalized difference could be used to estimate PAR interception directly for crop growth models.

  4. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  5. Suzaku observations of the type 2 QSO in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Shutaro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2013-11-20

    We report the Suzaku/XIS and HXD and Chandra/ACIS-I results on the X-ray spectra of the Phoenix cluster at the redshift z = 0.596. The spectrum of the intracluster medium (ICM) is well reproduced with the emissions from low-temperature (∼3.0 keV and ∼0.76 solar) and high-temperature (∼11 keV and ∼0.33 solar) plasmas; the former is localized at the cluster core, while the latter distributes over the cluster. In addition to these ICM emissions, a strongly absorbed power-law component is found, which is due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the cluster center. The absorption column density and unobscured luminosity of the AGN are ∼3.2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2} and ∼4.7 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} (2-10 keV), respectively. Furthermore, a neutral iron (Fe I) K-shell line is discovered for the first time with the equivalent width (EW) of ∼150 eV at the rest frame. The column density and the EW of the Fe I line are exceptionally large for such a high-luminosity AGN, and hence the AGN is classified as a type 2 quasi-stellar object (QSO). We speculate that a significant fraction of the ICM cooled gas would be consumed to maintain the torus and to activate the type 2 QSO. The Phoenix cluster has a massive starburst in the central galaxy, indicating that suppression in the cooling flow is less effective. This may be because the onset of the latest AGN feedback has occurred recently and has not yet been effective. Alternatively, the AGN feedback is predominantly in radiative mode, not in kinetic mode, and the torus may work as a shield to reduce its effect.

  6. On pressure measurement and seasonal pressure variations during the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Peter A.; Kahanpää, Henrik; Weng, Wensong; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Cook, Clive; Daly, Mike; Dickinson, Cameron; Harri, Ari-Matti; Hill, Darren; Hipkin, Victoria; Polkko, Jouni; Whiteway, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In situ surface pressures measured at 2 s intervals during the 150 sol Phoenix mission are presented and seasonal variations discussed. The lightweight Barocap®/Thermocap® pressure sensor system performed moderately well. However, the original data processing routine had problems because the thermal environment of the sensor was subject to more rapid variations than had been expected. Hence, the data processing routine was updated after Phoenix landed. Further evaluation and the development of a correction are needed since the temperature dependences of the Barocap sensor heads have drifted after the calibration of the sensor. The inaccuracy caused by this appears when the temperature of the unit rises above 0°C. This frequently affects data in the afternoons and precludes a full study of diurnal pressure variations at this time. Short-term fluctuations, on time scales of order 20 s are unaffected and are reported in a separate paper in this issue. Seasonal variations are not significantly affected by this problem and show general agreement with previous measurements from Mars. During the 151 sol mission the surface pressure dropped from around 860 Pa to a minimum (daily average) of 724 Pa on sol 140 (Ls 143). This local minimum occurred several sols earlier than expected based on GCM studies and Viking data. Since battery power was lost on sol 151 we are not sure if the timing of the minimum that we saw could have been advanced by a low-pressure meteorological event. On sol 95 (Ls 122), we also saw a relatively low-pressure feature. This was accompanied by a large number of vertical vortex events, characterized by short, localized (in time), low-pressure perturbations.

  7. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    PubMed

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions. PMID:25243569

  8. Martian airfall dust on smooth, inclined surfaces as observed on the Phoenix Mars Lander telltale mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Ha, Taesung; Lemmon, Mark T.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Páll

    2015-10-01

    The telltale mirror, a smooth inclined surface raised over 1 m above the deck of the Phoenix Mars Lander, was observed by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) several times per sol during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission. These observations were combined with a radiative transfer model to determine the thickness of dust on the wind telltale mirror as a function of time. 239 telltale sequences were analyzed and dustiness was determined on a diurnal and seasonal basis. The thickness of accumulated dust did not follow any particular diurnal or seasonal trend. The dust thickness on the mirror over the mission was 0.82±0.39 μm, which suggests a similar thickness to the modal scattering particle diameter. This suggests that inclining a surface beyond the angle of repose and polishing it to remove surface imperfections is an effective way to mitigate the accumulation of dust to less than a micron over a wide range of meteorological conditions and could be beneficial for surfaces which can tolerate some dust but not thick accumulations, such as solar panels. However, such a surface will not remain completely dust free through this action alone and mechanical or electrical clearing must be employed to remove adhered dust if a pristine surface is required. The single-scattering phase function of the dust on the mirror was consistent with the single-scattering phase function of martian aerosol dust at 450 nm, suggesting that this result is inconsistent with models of the atmosphere which require vertically or horizontally separated components or broad size distributions to explain the scattering behavior of these aerosols in the blue. The single-scattering behavior of the dust on the mirror is also consistent with Hapke modeling of spherical particles. The presence of a monolayer of particles would tend to support the spherical conclusion: such particles would be most strongly adhered electrostatically.

  9. A revised calibration function and results for the Phoenix mission TECP relative humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Hudson, T. L.; Wood, S. E.; Chevrier, V. F.

    2016-04-01

    A new calibration function for the humidity sensor in the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) on the Phoenix (PHX) Mars mission has been developed. Two changes are incorporated: (1) it is now cast in terms of frost point (Tf) rather than relative humidity (RH), and (2) flight data, taken when the atmosphere is independently known to be saturated, are included in the calibration data set. Daytime (6:00 h-19:00 h) frost points ranged from 194 K to 209 K; the nighttime frost point ranged from 179 K to 206 K. The response of the sensor was smooth and continuous throughout. Daytime humidity exhibited large, high-frequency variance driven by turbulence, whereas nighttime humidity varied smoothly with the temperature of the atmosphere. Nighttime saturation of the atmosphere begins at Ls 101°, (Martian solar day (sol) 55), which is earlier than reported by either Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) or solid-state imager (SSI). Early mornings are the most humid part of the sol after Ls 113° (sol 80), due to sublimation of surface ice that precipitates overnight. H2O is removed from the atmosphere into the regolith, mostly during the late afternoon, although this continues into the evening. The ground ice exposed by Phoenix operations masks the naturally occurring process in the early evening and may cause the atmosphere immediately around the lander to saturate somewhat earlier in the evening than it otherwise would have. The average H2O vapor density is close to the summertime value expected for equilibrium with ground ice. A discrepancy between the H2O column calculated from TECP data and the column measured by CRISM and SSI is likely due to comparable timescales between turbulent mixing through the planetary boundary layer and adsorptive drawdown of H2O. We find that RH is mostly < 5% (daytime) or > 95% (nighttime), and the transition between the two extremes is extremely rapid.

  10. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  11. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao Yang; Francina Dominguez; Hoshin Gupta; Xubin Zeng; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  12. A Possible Organic Contribution to the Low Temperature CO2 Release Seen in Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, P. D. Jr.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Niles, P. B.; Boynton, W. V.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most important discoveries of the Phoenix Mars Lander were the discovery of approx.0.6% perchlorate [1] and 3-5% carbonate [2] in the soils at the landing site in the martian northern plains. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument was one of the tools that made this discovery. After soil samples were delivered to TEGA and transferred into small ovens, the samples could be heated up to approx.1000 C and the gases that evolved during heating were monitored by a mass spectrometer. A CO2 signal was detected at high temperature (approx.750 C) that has been attributed to calcium carbonate decomposition. In addition to this CO2 release, a lower temperature signal was seen. This lower temperature CO2 release was postulated to be one of three things: 1) desorption of CO2, 2) decomposition of a different carbonate mineral, or 3) CO2 released due to organic combustion. Cannon et al. [3] present another novel hypothesis involving the interaction of decomposition products of a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate.

  13. Assessing Molecular Signature for Some Potential Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Saudi Arabia, Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequences rpoB and psbA-trnH

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Khan, Salim; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.; Ali, M. Ajmal; Tarroum, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm), being economically very important, is widely cultivated in the Middle East and North Africa, having about 400 different cultivars. Assessment of date cultivars under trading and farming is a widely accepted problem owing to lack of a unique molecular signature for specific date cultivars. In the present study, eight different cultivars of dates viz., Khodry, Khalas, Ruthana, Sukkari, Sefri, Segae, Ajwa and Hilali were sequenced for rpoB and psbA-trnH genes and analyzed using bioinformatics tools to establish a cultivar-specific molecular signature. The combined aligned data matrix was of 1147 characters, of which invariable and variable sites were found to be 958 and 173, respectively. The analysis clearly reveals three major groups of these cultivars: (i) Khodary, Sefri, Ajwa, Ruthana and Hilali (58% BS); (ii) Sukkari and Khalas (64% BS); and (iii) Segae. The economically most important cultivar Ajwa showed similarity with Khodary and Sefri (67% BS).The sequences of the date cultivars generated in the present study showed bootstrap values between 38% and 70% so these sequences could be carefully used as molecular signature for potential date cultivars under trading and selection of genuine cultivars at the seedling stage for farming. PMID:22072924

  14. Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafu, Mhlambululi; Garapo, Kevin; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, König, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.020504] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

  15. Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci by Using the BD Phoenix System in the Low-Inoculum Mode▿

    PubMed Central

    Brigante, Gioconda; Menozzi, Maria Grazia; Pini, Beatrice; Porta, Rosaria; Somenzi, Pietro; Sciacca, Agata; Spanu, Teresa; Stefani, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    The new “low-inoculum” mode of the Phoenix system was evaluated to identify clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci. API ID32 Staph panels were used as comparators, and discrepancies were resolved by 16S rRNA and tuf gene analysis. The system correctly identified 90.5% of isolates, with a mean time of 10.2 h. Accuracy was satisfactory for Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, and S. haemolyticus. PMID:18784315

  16. Reactive Sequencing for Autonomous Navigation Evolving from Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher A.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is an award-winning advanced procedural sequencing language in use on NASA deep-space missions since 1997, and was used for the successful entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of the Phoenix spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Phoenix EDL utilized a state-oriented operations architecture which executed within the constraints of the existing VML 2.0 flight capability, compatible with the linear "land or die" nature of the mission. The intricacies of Phoenix EDL included the planned discarding of portions of the vehicle, the complex communications management for relay through on-orbit assets, the presence of temporally indeterminate physical events, and the need to rapidly catch up four days of sequencing should a reboot of the spacecraft flight computer occur shortly before atmospheric entry. These formidable operational challenges led to new techniques for packaging and coordinating reusable sequences called blocks using one-way synchronization via VML sequencing global variable events. The coordinated blocks acted as an ensemble to land the spacecraft, while individually managing various elements in as simple a fashion as possible. This paper outlines prototype VML 2.1 flight capabilities that have evolved from the one-way synchronization techniques in order to implement even more ambitious autonomous mission capabilities. Target missions for these new capabilities include autonomous touch-and-go sampling of cometary and asteroidal bodies, lunar landing of robotic missions, and ultimately landing of crewed lunar vehicles. Close proximity guidance, navigation, and control operations, on-orbit rendezvous, and descent and landing events featured in these missions require elaborate abort capability, manifesting highly non-linear scenarios that are so complex as to overtax traditional sequencing, or even the sort of one-way coordinated sequencing used during EDL. Foreseeing advanced command and control needs for small body and lunar landing

  17. Learning to Live on a Mars Day: Fatigue Countermeasures during the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Fiedler, Edna R.; McKenna, Laurence M.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Gilliland, Kirby; Sipes, Walter E.; Smith, Peter H.; Brainard, George C.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of a fatigue management program to facilitate synchronization with the Mars day and alleviate circadian misalignment, sleep loss, and fatigue. Design: Operational field study. Setting: PML Science Operations Center. Participants: Scientific and technical personnel supporting PML mission. Interventions: Sleep and fatigue education was offered to all support personnel. A subset (n = 19) were offered a short-wavelength (blue) light panel to aid alertness and mitigate/reduce circadian desynchrony. They were assessed using a daily sleep/work diary, continuous wrist actigraphy, and regular performance tests. Subjects also completed 48-h urine collections biweekly for assessment of the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm. Measurements and Results: Most participants (87%) exhibited a circadian period consistent with adaptation to a Mars day. When synchronized, main sleep duration was 5.98 ± 0.94 h, but fell to 4.91 ± 1.22 h when misaligned (P < 0.001). Self-reported levels of fatigue and sleepiness also significantly increased when work was scheduled at an inappropriate circadian phase (P < 0.001). Prolonged wakefulness (≥ 21 h) was associated with a decline in performance and alertness (P < 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The ability of the participants to adapt successfully to the Mars day suggests that future missions should utilize a similar circadian rhythm and fatigue management program to reduce the risk of sleepiness-related errors that jeopardize personnel safety and health during critical missions. Citation: Barger LK; Sullivan JP; Vincent AS; Fiedler ER; McKenna LM; Flynn-Evans EE

  18. Organic Components and Elemental Carbon in Soils and Ambient Particles near Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. P.; Jia, Y.; Clements, A.

    2008-12-01

    In the desert southwest, fugitive dust emissions contribute significantly to ambient aerosol concentrations. Wind erosion from the arid land is a primary contributor to ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations but, in regions including Central Arizona, desert lands have been converted for agriculture use and thus agriculture processes constitute another contributor. As the metropolitan Phoenix region expands into these agricultural lands, urban sources and construction also contributes to the ambient PM load. In an effort to identify and access relative contribution of these and other major PM sources in the region, a series of ambient PM samples and soil samples were collected near Higley, AZ, a suburb of Phoenix which has seen rapid urbanization onto agricultural lands between January and May 2008. The soil samples collected were resuspended and samples of resuspended dust were collected to represent particles smaller than 2.5 microns and 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively). The size segregated soil and ambient PM samples were analyzed for bulk mass, elemental and organic carbon content, and a number of specific compounds including ions, metals, alkanes, organic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saccharides. The saccharide contribution to soil organic carbon has been studied to elucidate key factors in the soil carbon balance and markers have been developed for tracing fungal metabolites, plant growth and budding and organic matter decay. Using organic markers, the contribution of various sources to PM10 and PM2.5 levels have been determined by positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the ambient aerosol marker concentrations quantified from PM samples. Subsequently, samples of local soil from native and agricultural fields and local roadways wers size- segregated and analyzed in an effort to create a source profile for the dust in the area. A chemical mass balance model has been used to compare with the PMF results

  19. Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA.

    PubMed

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Harlan, Sharon L; Stefanov, William L; Martin, Chris A

    2011-10-01

    Urban ecosystems are subjected to high temperatures--extreme heat events, chronically hot weather, or both-through interactions between local and global climate processes. Urban vegetation may provide a cooling ecosystem service, although many knowledge gaps exist in the biophysical and social dynamics of using this service to reduce climate extremes. To better understand patterns of urban vegetated cooling, the potential water requirements to supply these services, and differential access to these services between residential neighborhoods, we evaluated three decades (1970-2000) of land surface characteristics and residential segregation by income in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA metropolitan region. We developed an ecosystem service trade-offs approach to assess the urban heat riskscape, defined as the spatial variation in risk exposure and potential human vulnerability to extreme heat. In this region, vegetation provided nearly a 25 degrees C surface cooling compared to bare soil on low-humidity summer days; the magnitude of this service was strongly coupled to air temperature and vapor pressure deficits. To estimate the water loss associated with land-surface cooling, we applied a surface energy balance model. Our initial estimates suggest 2.7 mm/d of water may be used in supplying cooling ecosystem services in the Phoenix region on a summer day. The availability and corresponding resource use requirements of these ecosystem services had a strongly positive relationship with neighborhood income in the year 2000. However, economic stratification in access to services is a recent development: no vegetation-income relationship was observed in 1970, and a clear trend of increasing correlation was evident through 2000. To alleviate neighborhood inequality in risks from extreme heat through increased vegetation and evaporative cooling, large increases in regional water use would be required. Together, these results suggest the need for a systems evaluation of the

  20. Direct and indirect abortion in the Roman Catholic tradition: a review of the Phoenix case.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Gerald D

    2013-06-01

    In Roman Catholic Moral Theology, a direct abortion is never permitted. An indirect abortion, in which a life threatening pathology is treated, and the treatment inadvertently leads to the death of the fetus, may be permissible in proportionately grave situations. In situations in which a mother's life is endangered by the pregnancy before the fetus is viable, there is some debate about whether the termination of the pregnancy is a direct or indirect abortion. In this essay a recent case from a Roman Catholic sponsored hospital in Phoenix is reviewed along with the justifications for and arguments against viewing the pregnancy termination as an indirect abortion. After review of several arguments on both sides of the debate, it is concluded that termination of the pregnancy itself as the means of saving the mother cannot be considered an indirect abortion and that the principle of "double effect" does not justify the termination. In addition, the importance of a breakdown in communication between the local bishop and the administration of the hospital is shown to have contributed to the ultimate loss of Catholic sponsorship of the hospital. PMID:23539470

  1. Exo-Planetary Phoenix: Rebirth of Planetary Systems Beyond the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, M.

    2014-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that planetary systems may be a common feature of stars that have evolved beyond the main sequence. Warm debris disks around white dwarfs and "pulsar" planets orbiting a neutron star are a strong indication that planetary systems may, at least in same cases, survive the dramatic phenomena leading to stellar death. A close look at these late evolutionary stages, however, suggests that these systems may be more than mere survivors of doomed pre-existing exo-planetary systems. The circumstellar environment of post-main sequence stars bears surprising similarities to the conditions leading to pre-main sequence planetary formation: a metal-rich environment often characterized by the presence of circumstellar or circumbinary disks. Are these conditions conducive to the birth of a second-generation planetary system, like a phoenix rising from the ashes of ancient worlds? In this talk we will discuss how the physical conditions in the winds of dusty giant stars may be favorable for renewed planetary formation, with particular emphasis on the effects of enhanced metallicity, binarity and the timescales available for the formation of a new generation of planets.

  2. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development. PMID:25638647

  3. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp

    PubMed Central

    Shajib, Md. Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders. PMID:26483687

  4. Molecular Identification of Sex in Phoenix dactylifera Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Abdulhafed A.; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman Z.; Khan, Salim; Nadeem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Early sex identification of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at seedling stage is an economically desirable objective, which will significantly increase the profits of seed based cultivation. The utilization of molecular markers at this stage for early and rapid identification of sex is important due to the lack of morphological markers. In this study, a total of two hundred Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were screened among male and female Date palm plants to identify putative sex-specific marker, out of which only two primers (IS_A02 and IS_A71) were found to be associated with sex. The primer IS_A02 produced a unique band of size 390 bp and was found clearly in all female plants, while it was absent in all male plants. Contrary to this, the primer IS_A71 produced a unique band of size 380 bp and was clearly found in all male plants, whereas it was absent in all the female plants. Subsequently, these specific fragments were excised, purified, and sequenced for the development of sequence specific markers further in future for the implementation on dioecious Date Palm for sex determination. These markers are efficient, highly reliable, and reproducible for sex identification at the early stage of seedling. PMID:27419132

  5. Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from the phyllosphere of Phoenix dactylifera.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-03-01

    A bacterial strain, designated PALXIL04(T), was isolated from the phyllosphere of Phoenix dactylifera. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate within the genus Paenibacillus with the closest relatives being Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus and Paenibacillus kobensis. DNA-DNA hybridization measurements showed low DNA relatedness (15-20 %) between the isolate and its closest relatives. Cells were Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, motile, sporulating rods. Catalase and oxidase were produced by the organism. Cellulose, starch, aesculin and xylan were hydrolysed. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as the carbon source. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C(15 : 0) the major fatty acid. The G+C content of the DNA was 50.7 mol%. Phylogenetic, DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic analyses indicated that strain PALXIL04(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PALXIL04(T) (=LMG 22192(T)=CECT 5862(T)). PMID:15774655

  6. Delivery of ibuprofen by natural macroporous sporopollenin exine capsules extracted from Phoenix dactylifera L.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Saad M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Al-Farraj, Eida; Alhokbany, Norah; Issa, Zuheir; Alhousine, Sami; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-06-10

    Sporopollenin macroporous capsules (SMCs) were extracted from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) spores and coated by a natural polymer composite (chitosan with glutaraldehyde). The polymer coated macroporous capsules SMC@poly were used in the in vitro-controlled delivery of ibuprofen. The materials obtained were characterized through spectral, thermal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The IBU loading and releasing was studied by investigating the changes in various factors such as pH, temperature, and initial concentration. The results revealed that the loading of IBU increased when the concentration of IBU was decreased, following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum loading of the IBU was observed at pH6.0 (97.2%, with 50mg/mL). The releasing results indicate that IBU was released faster when the pH was changed from 1.4 to 7.4. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the SMC, SMC@poly, and SMC@poly-IBU were tested against human intestinal Caco-2 cell line using MTT assay, and the results revea'led that all the materials in this study were biocompatible. PMID:26872877

  7. Macroporous natural capsules extracted from Phoenix dactylifera L. spore and their application in oral drugs delivery.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Saad M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Farraj, Eida; Alhokbany, Norah; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-05-17

    Macroporous natural sporopollenin exine capsules (SEC) were extracted from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and coated by natural polymer composite (carboxymethyl cellulose with epichlorohydrin). The polymer coated exine capsules (PCEC) were used in in-vitro investigations for controlled delivery of paracetamol. SEC, PCEC, and drugs loaded capsules (PCEC-PAR) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface area (BET), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The length of SEC was found to be 20-20.5 μm, and the pore sized was 50-135 nm, as measured using SEM. The studies revealed that maximum loading of the drug was at pH 6.0 (97.2%, with 50 mg mL(-1)). The results indicate that by increasing the pH from 1.4 to 7.4, the cumulative release rates of paracetamol in physiological buffer solution (PBS) is more than two times as in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). In addition, the in-vitro toxicity of PCEC against Caco-2 cells was tested by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the results revealed that PCEC are biocompatible materials. The overall results encourage further studies on the clinical use of PCEC as drug carriers. PMID:26945735

  8. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample. PMID:23811162

  9. Towards a phoenix phase in aeolian research: shifting geophysical perspectives from fluvial dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Field, Jason P; Breshears, David D

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian processes are a fundamental driver of earth surface dynamics, yet the importance of aeolian processes in a broader geosciences context may be overshadowed by an unbalanced emphasis on fluvial processes. Here we wish to highlight that aeolian and fluvial processes need to be considered in concert relative to total erosion and to potential interactions, that relative dominance and sensitivity to disturbance vary with mean annual precipitation, and that there are important scale-dependencies associated with aeolian-fluvial interactions. We build on previous literature to present relevant conceptual syntheses highlighting these issues. We then highlight the relative investments that have been made in aeolian research on dust emission and management relative to that in fluvial research on sediment production. Literature searches highlight that aeolian processes are greatly understudied relative to fluvial processes when considering total erosion in different environmental settings. Notably, within the USA, aeolian research was triggered by the Dust Bowl catastrophe of the 1930s, but the resultant research agencies have shifted to almost completely focusing on fluvial processes, based on number of remaining research stations and on monetary investments in control measures. However, numerous research issues associated with intensification of land use and climate change impacts require a rapid ramping up in aeolian research that improves information about aeolian processes relative to fluvial processes, which could herald a post-Dust Bowl Phoenix phase in which aeolian processes are recognized as broadly critical to geo- and environmental sciences.

  10. Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric CO2 by the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Boynton, W. V.; Hoffman, J. H.; Ming, D. W.; Hamara, D.

    2010-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars [1]. The isotopic composition of the martian atmosphere has been measured using a number of different methods (Table 1), however a precise value (<1%) has yet to be achieved. Given the elevated Delta(sup 13)C values measured in carbonates in martian meteorites [2-4] it has been proposed that the martian atmosphere was enriched in 13C [8]. This was supported by measurements of trapped CO2 gas in EETA 79001[2] which showed elevated Delta(sup 13)C values (Table 1). More recently, Earth-based spectroscopic measurements of the martian atmosphere have measured the martian CO2 to be depleted in C-13 relative to CO2 in the terrestrial atmosphere[ 7, 9-11]. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander [12] included a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (EGA) [13] which had the goal of measuring the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 to within 0.5%. The mass spectrometer is a miniature instrument intended to measure both the martian atmosphere as well as gases evolved from heating martian soils.

  11. Perchlorate induced low temperature carbonate decomposition in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R.

    2012-07-01

    Simulated Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) analyses have shown that a CO2 release detected between 400°C and 680°C by the Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument may have been caused by a reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrated magnesium perchlorate. In our experiments a CO2 release beginning at 385 ± 12°C was attributed to calcite reacting with water vapor and HCl gas from the dehydration and thermal decomposition of Mg-perchlorate. The release of CO2 is consistent with the TEGA detection of CO2 released between 400 and 680°C, with the amount of CO2 increasing linearly with added perchlorate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed CaCl2 formation from the reaction between calcite and HCl. These results have important implications for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. Heating soils may cause inorganic release of CO2; therefore, detection of organic fragments, not CO2 alone, should be used as definitive evidence for organics in Martian soils.

  12. Urban effects on regional climate: A case study in the Phoenix-Tucson Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Dominguez, F.; Gupta, H. V.

    2014-12-01

    Human activity in urban environments impacts climate from the local to the global scale by changing the atmospheric composition and impacting components of the water and energy cycles. Specifically land use and land cover change due to urban expansion changes the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban region is different from that of natural surfaces. In this research, we apply the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM, which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme, to evaluate the changes in regional climate that would arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, in Arizona. We use the land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050 (for areas north to Tucson from Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) using the Red Dot Algorithm (RDA), and for areas around Tucson and South is from SLEUTH model) with historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data as the lateral boundary condition. Result shows that temperature changes are well defined and reflect the urban heat island (UHI) effect within the areas experiencing LULCC. The heat index is also examined, the magnitude of change is similar to that of temperature change. The timing of the maximum and minimum temperature is delayed by approximately one hour. Precipitation was analyzed according to both the occurrence of rainfall and according to flow regime, however no clear evidence of changes in precipitation amount or occurrence was found due to urbanization.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of CLIMEX parameters in modeling potential distribution of Phoenix dactylifera L.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Using CLIMEX and the Taguchi Method, a process-based niche model was developed to estimate potential distributions of Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm), an economically important crop in many counties. Development of the model was based on both its native and invasive distribution and validation was carried out in terms of its extensive distribution in Iran. To identify model parameters having greatest influence on distribution of date palm, a sensitivity analysis was carried out. Changes in suitability were established by mapping of regions where the estimated distribution changed with parameter alterations. This facilitated the assessment of certain areas in Iran where parameter modifications impacted the most, particularly in relation to suitable and highly suitable locations. Parameter sensitivities were also evaluated by the calculation of area changes within the suitable and highly suitable categories. The low temperature limit (DV2), high temperature limit (DV3), upper optimal temperature (SM2) and high soil moisture limit (SM3) had the greatest impact on sensitivity, while other parameters showed relatively less sensitivity or were insensitive to change. For an accurate fit in species distribution models, highly sensitive parameters require more extensive research and data collection methods. Results of this study demonstrate a more cost effective method for developing date palm distribution models, an integral element in species management, and may prove useful for streamlining requirements for data collection in potential distribution modeling for other species as well. PMID:24722140

  14. NASA Mars 2007 Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm and Icy Soil Acquisition Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.; Paulsen, G.; Kusack, A. G.; Archer, Doug; Smith, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars 2007 Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm (RA) and associated Icy Soil Acquisition Device (ISAD) is to acquire samples of Martian dry and icy soil (DIS) by digging, scraping, and rasping, and delivering them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer. The RA will also position (1) the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) in the DIS; (2) the TECP at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements, and (3) the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trench, DIS samples within the ISAD scoop, magnetic targets, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. The RA/ISAD will also be used to generate DIS piles for monitoring; conduct DIS scraping, penetration, rasping, and chopping experiments; perform compaction tests; and conduct trench cave-in experiments. Data from the soil mechanics experiments will yield information on Martian DIS properties such as angle of repose, cohesion, bearing strength, and grain size distribution.

  15. Object-based land-cover classification for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, using aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Myint, Soe W.; Zhang, Yujia; Galletti, Chritopher; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Turner, Billie L.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed land-cover mapping is essential for a range of research issues addressed by the sustainability and land system sciences and planning. This study uses an object-based approach to create a 1 m land-cover classification map of the expansive Phoenix metropolitan area through the use of high spatial resolution aerial photography from National Agricultural Imagery Program. It employs an expert knowledge decision rule set and incorporates the cadastral GIS vector layer as auxiliary data. The classification rule was established on a hierarchical image object network, and the properties of parcels in the vector layer were used to establish land cover types. Image segmentations were initially utilized to separate the aerial photos into parcel sized objects, and were further used for detailed land type identification within the parcels. Characteristics of image objects from contextual and geometrical aspects were used in the decision rule set to reduce the spectral limitation of the four-band aerial photography. Classification results include 12 land-cover classes and subclasses that may be assessed from the sub-parcel to the landscape scales, facilitating examination of scale dynamics. The proposed object-based classification method provides robust results, uses minimal and readily available ancillary data, and reduces computational time.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in response to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier attacks

    PubMed Central

    Giovino, Antonio; Bertolini, Edoardo; Fileccia, Veronica; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Labra, Massimo; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) threatens most palm species worldwide. Until now, no studies have analyzed the gene regulatory networks of Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) in response to RPW attacks. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Providing this basic knowledge is very important to improve its management. Results: A deep transcriptome analysis was performed on fully expanded leaves of healthy non-infested trees and attacked trees at two symptom stages (middle and late infestation). A total of 54 genes were significantly regulated during middle stage. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid-related pathways were induced at this stage. More than 3300 genes were affected during late stage of attacks. Higher transcript abundances were observed for lipid fatty acid metabolism (fatty acid and glycerolipids), tryptophan metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism. Key RPW-modulated genes involved in innate response mediated by hormone crosstalk were observed belonging to auxin, jasmonate and salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Among transcription factors, some WRKYs were clearly induced. qRT-PCR validation confirmed the upregulation of key genes chosen as validation of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: A subset of these genes may be further analyzed in future studies to confirm their specificity to be induced by RPW infestations. PMID:26528297

  17. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A large landslide on the urban fringe of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, John; Dorn, Ronald I.; Gootee, Brian

    2005-02-01

    A granitic rock avalanche, one of the largest Quaternary landslides in Arizona outside the Grand Canyon with a volume of approximately 5.25 M m 3 and a width a little under 0.5 km, ran ˜1 km from the eastern McDowell Mountains. With lateral levees and pressure ridges, the rock avalanche deposit displays many features found on classic sturzstroms. Failure occurred along a major joint plane paralleling the slope with a dip of 44°, when a major base level lowering event in the Salt River system would have undermined the base of the failed slope, and probably during a period of more moisture than normally available in the present-day arid climate. Failure at the subsurface weathering front highlights the importance of the dramatic permeability change between grussified regolith and relatively fresh bedrock. Rock varnish microlaminations (VMLs) dating, in concert with other geomorphic evidence, suggests that the rock avalanche deposit is slightly older than ˜500 ka. The rock vanish results also have important implications for sampling strategies designed to use cosmogenic nuclide to date Quaternary landslide deposits. Discovery of a large landslide in close proximity to the extending urban fringe of metropolitan Phoenix argues for a more careful analysis of landslide hazards in the region, especially where rapid development excavates bedrock at the base of steep mountain slopes and where the subsurface weathering front is near the surface.

  19. Crucible of Creativity: Testing Public Outreach Activities at the Phoenix Comicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Phoenix Comicon (PCC) is a growing four-day pop culture event that features guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. The 2014 and 2015 shows (which drew 75,000+ unique attendees each) featured a science programming track coordinated and organized by Horodyskyj. The track consisted of discussion panels, mixers, shows, interactive displays, and signature events (over 30 hours of programming each year). Topics ranged from planetary sciences to biotechnology to artificial intelligence and event staff were recruited from all levels of experience in academia, industry, and STEM outreach. The PCC science programming track for both 2014 and 2015 received very positive feedback from the audience, PCC management, and even scientists who participated in the event. Panelists and staff received frequent unsolicited praise about the content and events, and surveys showed requests for more science content in future years. Demand for good science programming, especially the kind that links the audience to local scientists, is high. The unique organizational structure of PCC, which draws heavily on the fan community rather than industry professionals, provides a rich test bed for public outreach activities generated by scientists themselves. In 2014, we tested science-based game shows, such as the bloody Exoplanet Survivor. In 2015, we ran a science interactivity booth and an interactive stage show about forensics based on the BBC series Sherlock. I will detail some of the successes and failures of these various events and what we're planning for 2016.

  20. 77 FR 74457 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... (Board Order 185, 47 FR 14931, 04/07/82), and was expanded on July 2, 1993 (Board Order 647, 58 FR 37907, 07/14/93), on February 27, 2008 (Board Order 1545, 73 FR 13531, 03/13/08), and on March 23, 2010 (Board Order 1672). FTZ 75 was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1716, 75...

  1. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of the Canarian endemic palm (Phoenix canariensis)

    PubMed Central

    Saro, I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Pérez, M A; Sosa, P A

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of small populations is greatly influenced by local dispersal patterns and genetic connectivity among populations, with pollen dispersal being the major component of gene flow in many plants species. Patterns of pollen dispersal, mating system parameters and spatial genetic structure were investigated in a small isolated population of the emblematic palm Phoenix canariensis in Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands). All adult palms present in the study population (n=182), as well as 616 seeds collected from 22 female palms, were mapped and genotyped at 8 microsatellite loci. Mating system analysis revealed an average of 5.8 effective pollen donors (Nep) per female. There was strong variation in correlated paternity rates across maternal progenies (ranging from null to 0.9) that could not be explained by the location and density of local males around focal females. Paternity analysis revealed a mean effective pollen dispersal distance of ∼71 m, with ∼70% of effective pollen originating from a distance of <75 m, and 90% from <200 m. A spatially explicit mating model indicated a leptokurtic pollen dispersal kernel, significant pollen immigration (12%) from external palm groves and a directional pollen dispersal pattern that seems consistent with local altitudinal air movement. No evidence of inbreeding or genetic diversity erosion was found, but spatial genetic structure was detected in the small palm population. Overall, the results suggest substantial pollen dispersal over the studied population, genetic connectivity among different palm groves and some resilience to neutral genetic erosion and subsequently to fragmentation. PMID:24619186

  2. Large-scale collection and annotation of gene models for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera, L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Yin, Yuxin; Liu, Wanfei; Huang, Dawei; Zhang, Tongwu; Wang, Lei; Xin, Chengqi; Lin, Qiang; Sun, Gaoyuan; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), famed for its sugar-rich fruits (dates) and cultivated by humans since 4,000 B.C., is an economically important crop in the Middle East, Northern Africa, and increasingly other places where climates are suitable. Despite a long history of human cultivation, the understanding of P. dactylifera genetics and molecular biology are rather limited, hindered by lack of basic data in high quality from genomics and transcriptomics. Here we report a large-scale effort in generating gene models (assembled expressed sequence tags or ESTs and mapped to a genome assembly) for P. dactylifera, using the long-read pyrosequencing platform (Roche/454 GS FLX Titanium) in high coverage. We built fourteen cDNA libraries from different P. dactylifera tissues (cultivar Khalas) and acquired 15,778,993 raw sequencing reads-about one million sequencing reads per library-and the pooled sequences were assembled into 67,651 non-redundant contigs and 301,978 singletons. We annotated 52,725 contigs based on the plant databases and 45 contigs based on functional domains referencing to the Pfam database. From the annotated contigs, we assigned GO (Gene Ontology) terms to 36,086 contigs and KEGG pathways to 7,032 contigs. Our comparative analysis showed that 70.6 % (47,930), 69.4 % (47,089), 68.4 % (46,441), and 69.3 % (47,048) of the P. dactylifera gene models are shared with rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis, and grapevine, respectively. We also assigned our gene models into house-keeping and tissue-specific genes based on their tissue specificity. PMID:22736259

  3. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-12-01

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents. PMID:23948523

  4. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guiming; Yin, Yuxin; Chen, Kaifu; Yun, Quanzheng; Zhao, Duojun; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Yu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), a member of Arecaceae family, is one of the three major economically important woody palms—the two other palms being oil palm and coconut tree—and its fruit is a staple food among Middle East and North African nations, as well as many other tropical and subtropical regions. Here we report a complete sequence of the data palm chloroplast (cp) genome based on pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings After extracting 369,022 cp sequencing reads from our whole-genome-shotgun data, we put together an assembly and validated it with intensive PCR-based verification, coupled with PCR product sequencing. The date palm cp genome is 158,462 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 86,198 bp) and small single-copy (SSC, 17,712 bp) regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27,276 bp). Similar to what has been found among most angiosperms, the date palm cp genome harbors 112 unique genes and 19 duplicated fragments in the IR regions. The junctions between LSC/IRs and SSC/IRs show different features of sequence expansion in evolution. We identified 78 SNPs as major intravarietal polymorphisms within the population of a specific cp genome, most of which were located in genes with vital functions. Based on RNA-sequencing data, we also found 18 polycistronic transcription units and three highly expression-biased genes—atpF, trnA-UGC, and rrn23. Conclusions Unlike most monocots, date palm has a typical cp genome similar to that of tobacco—with little rearrangement and gene loss or gain. High-throughput sequencing technology facilitates the identification of intravarietal variations in cp genomes among different cultivars. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of cp genes provides clues for uncovering regulatory mechanisms of transcription and translation in chloroplasts. PMID:20856810

  5. Martian Dust Aerosol Size and Shape as Constrained by Phoenix Lander Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, Mark T.; Mason, Emily L.

    2014-11-01

    Dust aerosol morphology is important to dust transport and the radiative heating of the Martian atmosphere. Previous analyses of Mars dust have shown that spherical particles are a bad analog for the dust, in terms of reproducing the distribution of scattered light. Parameterized scattering, based on laboratory observations of scattering by irregular dust particles, has been used for Viking, Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover data [Pollack et al., J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1995; Tomasko et al., J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1999; Lemmon et al., Science 306, 2004]. Analytical calculations have shown that cylinders are a better scattering analog than spheres [Wolff et al., J. Geophys. Res. 114, 2009]. Terrestrial studies have shown that a diverse assortment of triaxial ellipsoids is a good analog for dust aerosol [Bi et al., Applied Optics 48, 2009].The Phoenix Lander operated in the Martian arctic for 5 months of 2008, around the northern summer solstice. During the mission atmospheric optical depth was tracked through direct solar imaging by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). For solar longitude (Ls) 78-95 and 140-149, small dust storms dominated the weather. Low-dust conditions (optical depths <0.4) dominated during Ls 95-140, with sporadic ice clouds becoming more common after Ls 108. The SSI also obtained occasional cross-sky photometric data through several filters from 440 to 1000 nm and cross-sky polarimetry at 750 nm wavelength. Radiative transfer models of the sky radiance distribution are consistent with dust aerosols in the same 1.3-1.6 micron range reported for models of observations from previous missions. Cylinders, triaxial ellipsoids, and the parametric model can fit sky radiances; spheres cannot. The observed linear polarization, which reached 4-5% and had a similar angular distribution to Rayleigh polarization, is similar to the triaxial ellipsoid model, but not spheres or cylinders. An extension to the parametric model using 7-10% Rayleigh scattering mixed

  6. Metabolism of spacecraft cleaning reagents by Mars Odyssey and Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Barding, Gregory; Baki, Ryan; Perkins, Nicole; Lee, Sooji; Lalla, Sid; Campos, Alexa; Sripong, Kimberly; Madrid, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The metabolomic and proteomic properties that promote microbial survival in spacecraft assembly facilities are important aspects to planetary protection and astrobiology. In this presentation, we will provide molecular and biological evidence that the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter metabolize/degrade spacecraft cleaning reagents such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and Kleenol-30. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies on A. radioresistens 50v1 (Mars Odyssey) show that the metabolome is dependent upon growth conditions and that ^{13}C-labeled ethanol is incorporated into metabolites such as TCA/glyoxylate cycle intermediates, amino acids, monosaccharides, and disaccharides (e.g., trehalose). In fact, plate count assays show that ethanol is a sole carbon source under minimal conditions for several Mars Phoenix and Odyssey-associated Acinetobacter strains, which may explain why the Acinetobacter are among the most abundant genera found in spacecraft assembly facilities. Biochemical analyses support the enzymatic oxidation of ethanol and 2-propanol by a membrane-bound and NAD+/PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, with current kinetic data providing similar apparent K _{M} and maximum growth rate values of ˜5 and 8 mM ethanol, respectively. Preliminary GC-MS analysis also suggests that Kleenol-30 is degraded by A. radioresistens 50v1 when grown in ethanol mixtures. Under minimal conditions, A. radioresistens 50v1 (˜10 ^{8} cfu/mL) also displays a remarkable oxidative extremotolerance (˜2-log reduction in 10 mM hydrogen peroxide), which suggests crucial roles for metabolites associated with oxidative stress (e.g., trehalose) and the observed appreciable catalase specific activities. In conclusion, these results provide key insights into the survival strategies of spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter and emphasize the importance of characterizing the carbon metabolism of forward contaminants.

  7. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  8. Evaluation of the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban watersheds in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding in urban areas routinely causes severe damage to property and often results in loss of life. To investigate the effect of urbanization on the magnitude and frequency of flood peaks, a flood frequency analysis was carried out using data from urbanized streamgaging stations in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona. Flood peaks at each station were predicted using the log-Pearson Type III distribution, fitted using the expected moments algorithm and the multiple Grubbs-Beck low outlier test. The station estimates were then compared to flood peaks estimated by rural-regression equations for Arizona, and to flood peaks adjusted for urbanization using a previously developed procedure for adjusting U.S. Geological Survey rural regression peak discharges in an urban setting. Only smaller, more common flood peaks at the 50-, 20-, 10-, and 4-percent annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) demonstrate any increase in magnitude as a result of urbanization; the 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEP flood estimates are predicted without bias by the rural-regression equations. Percent imperviousness was determined not to account for the difference in estimated flood peaks between stations, either when adjusting the rural-regression equations or when deriving urban-regression equations to predict flood peaks directly from basin characteristics. Comparison with urban adjustment equations indicates that flood peaks are systematically overestimated if the rural-regression-estimated flood peaks are adjusted upward to account for urbanization. At nearly every streamgaging station in the analysis, adjusted rural-regression estimates were greater than the estimates derived using station data. One likely reason for the lack of increase in flood peaks with urbanization is the presence of significant stormwater retention and detention structures within the watershed used in the study.

  9. Initial results from the thermal and electrical conductivity probe (TECP) on Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Wood, Stephen E.; Hudson, Troy L.; Milkovich, Sarah M.; DeFlores, Lauren P.; Mellon, Michael T.

    2010-03-01

    The thermal and electrical conductivity probe (TECP), a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA), was included on the Phoenix Lander to conduct in situ measurements of the exchange of heat and water in the Martian polar terrain. TECP measured regolith thermal conductivity, heat capacity, temperature, electrical conductivity, and dielectric permittivity throughout the mission. A relative humidity sensor returned the first in situ humidity measurements from the Martian surface. The dry overburden above the ground ice is a good thermal insulator (average $\\kappa$ = 0.085 W m-1 K-1 and average Cρ = 1.05 × 106 J m-3 K-1). Surface thermal inertia (I) calculated from these values agrees well with daytime orbital determinations, but differences in the spatial and temporal scale of heat transport lead to very different measurements at night. Electrical conductivity was consistent with open circuit throughout the mission; an upper limit conductivity of 2 nS cm-1 is derived. Bulk dielectric permittivity ($\\varepsilon$b) shows several puzzling signals but also a systematic increase overnight in the latter half of the mission, contemporaneous with H2O adsorption. The magnitude of the increase is difficult to reconcile with expected changes in unfrozen water. Atmospheric H2O averages around 1.8 Pa during the day, corresponding to a RH < 5%. At night, much of the H2O disappears from the atmosphere, and RH increases to ˜100%. Temperature and H2O partial pressure data suggest that adsorption on mineral surfaces plays a major role in scrubbing H2O, with a possible contribution from perchlorate salts.

  10. A DISTANT RADIO MINI-HALO IN THE PHOENIX GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Intema, H. T.; Lal, D. V.; Brüggen, M.; De Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.; Nuza, S. E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stroe, A.

    2014-05-10

    We report the discovery of extended radio emission in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CL J2344-4243, z = 0.596) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610 MHz. The diffuse emission extends over a region of at least 400-500 kpc and surrounds the central radio source of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy, but does not appear to be directly associated with it. We classify the diffuse emission as a radio mini-halo, making it the currently most distant mini-halo known. Radio mini-halos have been explained by synchrotron emitting particles re-accelerated via turbulence, possibly induced by gas sloshing generated from a minor merger event. Chandra observations show a non-concentric X-ray surface brightness distribution, which is consistent with this sloshing interpretation. The mini-halo has a flux density of 17 ± 5 mJy, resulting in a 1.4 GHz radio power of (10.4 ± 3.5) × 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup –1}. The combined cluster emission, which includes the central compact radio source, is also detected in a shallow GMRT 156 MHz observation and together with the 610 MHz data we compute a spectral index of –0.84 ± 0.12 for the overall cluster radio emission. Given that mini-halos typically have steeper radio spectra than cluster radio galaxies, this spectral index should be taken as an upper limit for the mini-halo.

  11. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of the Canarian endemic palm (Phoenix canariensis).

    PubMed

    Saro, I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Pérez, M A; Sosa, P A

    2014-09-01

    The genetic diversity of small populations is greatly influenced by local dispersal patterns and genetic connectivity among populations, with pollen dispersal being the major component of gene flow in many plants species. Patterns of pollen dispersal, mating system parameters and spatial genetic structure were investigated in a small isolated population of the emblematic palm Phoenix canariensis in Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands). All adult palms present in the study population (n=182), as well as 616 seeds collected from 22 female palms, were mapped and genotyped at 8 microsatellite loci. Mating system analysis revealed an average of 5.8 effective pollen donors (Nep) per female. There was strong variation in correlated paternity rates across maternal progenies (ranging from null to 0.9) that could not be explained by the location and density of local males around focal females. Paternity analysis revealed a mean effective pollen dispersal distance of ∼71 m, with ∼70% of effective pollen originating from a distance of <75 m, and 90% from <200 m. A spatially explicit mating model indicated a leptokurtic pollen dispersal kernel, significant pollen immigration (12%) from external palm groves and a directional pollen dispersal pattern that seems consistent with local altitudinal air movement. No evidence of inbreeding or genetic diversity erosion was found, but spatial genetic structure was detected in the small palm population. Overall, the results suggest substantial pollen dispersal over the studied population, genetic connectivity among different palm groves and some resilience to neutral genetic erosion and subsequently to fragmentation. PMID:24619186

  12. The MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Hecht, Michael H.; West, Steven J.; Morookian, John-Michael; Young, Suzanne M. M.; Quinn, Richard; Grunthaner, Paula; Wen, Xiaowen; Weilert, Mark; Cable, Casey A.; Fisher, Anita; Gospodinova, Kalina; Kapit, Jason; Stroble, Shannon; Hsu, Po-Chang; Clark, Benton C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Smith, Peter H.

    2009-02-01

    To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower ``beaker'' containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper ``actuator assembly'' for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membrane-based ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NO3 -/ClO4 -, and NH4 +; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO4 2- two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I- an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  13. The MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Scout Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Hecht, Michael H.; West, Steven J.; Morookian, John-Michael; Young, Suzanne M. M.; Quinn, Richard; Grunthaner, Paula; Wen, Xiaowen; Weilert, Mark; Cable, Casey A.; Fisher, Anita; Gospodinova, Kalina; Kapit, Jason; Stroble, Shannon; Hsu, Po-Chang; Clark, Benton C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Smith, Peter H.

    2009-03-01

    To analyze and interpret the chemical record, the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander includes four wet chemistry cells. These Wet Chemistry Laboratories (WCLs), part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) package, each consist of a lower "beaker" containing sensors designed to analyze the chemical properties of the regolith and an upper "actuator assembly" for adding soil, water, reagents, and stirring. The beaker contains an array of sensors and electrodes that include six membrane-based ion selective electrodes (ISE) to measure Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NO3-/ClO4-, and NH4+; two ISEs for H+ (pH); a Ba2+ ISE for titrimetric determination of SO42-; two Li+ ISEs as reference electrodes; three solid crystal pellet ISEs for Cl-, Br-, and I-; an iridium oxide electrode for pH; a carbon ring electrode for conductivity; a Pt electrode for oxidation reduction potential (Eh); a Pt and two Ag electrodes for determination of Cl-, Br-, and I- using chronopotentiometry (CP); a Au electrode for identifying redox couples using cyclic voltammetry (CV); and a Au microelectrode array that could be used for either CV or to indicate the presence of several heavy metals, including Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Fe2/3+, and Hg2+ using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The WCL sensors and analytical procedures have been calibrated and characterized using standard solutions, geological Earth samples, Mars simulants, and cuttings from a Martian meteorite. Sensor characteristics such as limits of detection, interferences, and implications of the Martian environment are also being studied. A sensor response library is being developed to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  14. Paenibacillus phoenicis sp. nov., isolated from the Phoenix Lander assembly facility and a subsurface molybdenum mine.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Schwendner, Petra; Swanner, Elizabeth; Fukui, Youhei; Osman, Sharif; Satomi, Masakata; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2011-06-01

    A novel Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium was isolated from the NASA Phoenix Lander assembly clean room that exhibits 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to two strains isolated from a deep subsurface environment. All strains are rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria, whose endospores are resistant to UV radiation up to 500 J m(-2). A polyphasic taxonomic study including traditional phenotypic tests, fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis was performed to characterize these novel strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing convincingly grouped these novel strains within the genus Paenibacillus as a separate cluster from previously described species. The similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences among the novel strains was identical but only 98.1 to 98.5 % with their nearest neighbours Paenibacillus barengoltzii ATCC BAA-1209(T) and Paenibacillus timonensis CIP 108005(T). The menaquinone MK-7 was dominant in these novel strains as shown in other species of the genus Paenibacillus. The DNA-DNA hybridization dissociation value was <45 % with the closest related species. The novel strains had DNA G+C contents of 51.9 to 52.8 mol%. Phenotypically, the novel strains can be readily differentiated from closely related species by the absence of urease and gelatinase and the production of acids from a variety of sugars including l-arabinose. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) as seen in P. barengoltzii and P. timonensis whereas the proportion of C(16 : 0) was significantly different from the closely related species. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic results, it was concluded that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus phoenicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3PO2SA(T) ( = NRRL B-59348(T)  = NBRC 106274(T)). PMID:20584815

  15. How do variations in Urban Heat Islands in space and time influence household water use? The case of Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Rimjhim M.; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Lathey, Vasudha

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores how urbanization, through its role in the evolution of Urban Heat Island (UHI), affects residential water consumption. Using longitudinal data and drawing on a mesoscale atmospheric model, we examine how variations in surface temperature at the census tract level have affected water use in single family residences in Phoenix, Arizona. Results show that each Fahrenheit rise in nighttime temperature increases water consumption by 1.4%. This temperature effect is found to vary significantly with lot size and pool size. The study provides insights into the links between urban form and water use, through the dynamics of UHI.

  16. Phoenix 07 MET Pressure Sensor: Instrument, Observations and Their Interpretation Using FMIs Mars Limited Area Model MLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Kahanpää, H.; Kauhanen, J.; Merikallio, S.; Polkko, J.; Savijärvi, H.; Siili, T.; Taylor, P.; Mäkelä, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix '07 Lander landed successfully in the Martian northern polar region on May 25, 2008. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Its Canadian Meteorology experiment (MET) [1] was providing the first surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind as well as dust and ice particles in the Martian polar region above the polar circle. The pressure observations were performed by an FMI instrument, based on micro machined Barocap capacitive pressure sensor heads manufactured by Vaisala Inc. Similar instruments have been used in several earlier missions (Mars-96, Mars Polar Lander, Beagle-2 and Huygens), Phoenix being the first successful landing on Mars. A similar instrument will be included in the Mars Science Laboratory '09 rover. Pressure sensor technology, characteristics and data processing will be presented together with data of the first months on Mars. The Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) has been jointly developed by the Helsinki University and the Finnish Meteorological Institute to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [2]. It is based on the hydro-static dynamical core of the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), an operational weather prediction model-analysis system used by several European countries. To support the Phoenix mission to high Martian latitudes, the model was optimized in its grid definition and the way carbon dioxide and water ice development is treated. The MLAM based simulations were used to understand the conditions leading to the meteorological conditions as observed by Phoenix. Initial comparisons of model runs for the actual landing location and season were in good agreement with the first pressure, temperature and wind data received from the instruments. The results of more detailed studies will be presented, covering several months of data and conclusions drawn from the model comparisons. References: [1] Michelangeli, D.V., et

  17. A provider-based water planning and management model--WaterSim 4.0--for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Sampson, D A; Escobar, V; Tschudi, M K; Lant, T; Gober, P

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainty in future water supplies for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (Phoenix) are exacerbated by the near certainty of increased, future water demands; water demand may increase eightfold or more by 2030 for some communities. We developed a provider-based water management and planning model for Phoenix termed WaterSim 4.0. The model combines a FORTRAN library with Microsoft C# to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of current and projected future water supply and demand as influenced by population demographics, climatic uncertainty, and groundwater availability. This paper describes model development and rationale. Water providers receive surface water, groundwater, or both depending on their portfolio. Runoff from two riverine systems supplies surface water to Phoenix while three alluvial layers that underlie the area provide groundwater. Water demand was estimated using two approaches. One approach used residential density, population projections, water duties, and acreage. A second approach used per capita water consumption and separate population growth estimates. Simulated estimates of initial groundwater for each provider were obtained as outputs from the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) Salt River Valley groundwater flow model (GFM). We compared simulated estimates of water storage with empirical estimates for modeled reservoirs as a test of model performance. In simulations we modified runoff by 80%-110% of the historical estimates, in 5% intervals, to examine provider-specific responses to altered surface water availability for 33 large water providers over a 25-year period (2010-2035). Two metrics were used to differentiate their response: (1) we examined groundwater reliance (GWR; that proportion of a providers' portfolio dependent upon groundwater) from the runoff sensitivity analysis, and (2) we used 100% of the historical runoff simulations to examine the cumulative groundwater withdrawals for each provider. Four groups of water

  18. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-05

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, April 5th, at the downtown Phoenix Hyatt. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE Office of Indian Energy) and facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute). Approximately thirty-eight people attended the meeting, including representatives of ten different tribes, as well as representatives of the Colorado Indian Tribes, the All Indian Pueblo Council and the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Interested state, federal, university, NGO and industry representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. DOE representatives were Tracey LeBeau, Directory of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, and David Conrad, Director of Tribal and Intergovernmental Affairs, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  20. The Mars Phoenix Thermal Evolved-Gas Analysis: The Role of an Organic Free Blank in the Search for Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, Douglas W.; Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, Richard V.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument onboard the 2007 Phoenix Lander will perform differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved-gas analysis of soil samples collected from the surface. Data from the instrument will be compared with Mars analog mineral standards, collected under TEGA Mars-like conditions to identify the volatile-bearing mineral phases [1] (e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates) found in the Martian soil. Concurrently, the instrument will be looking for indications of organics that might also be present in the soil. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. The spacecraft will certainly bring organic contaminants to Mars even though numerous steps were taken to minimize contamination during the spacecraft assembly and testing. It will be essential to distinguish possible Mars organics from terrestrial contamination when TEGA instrument begins analyzing icy soils. To address the above, an Organic Free Blank (OFB) was designed, built, tested, and mounted on the Phoenix spacecraft providing a baseline for distinguishing Mars organics from terrestrial organic contamination. Our objective in this report is to describe some of the considerations used in selecting the OFB material and then report on the processing and analysis of the final candidate material

  1. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  2. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A.

    2014-12-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical RH values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high RH in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T < 203K. However, sensor response duringf the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. Tf remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P < 0.75 Pa). RH, conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to ~50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to Tf, water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O pressure does not change substantially over the course of the mission, although the

  3. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the R(sub H) sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical R(sub H) values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (T(sub f)), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high R(sub H) in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T is greater than 203K. However, sensor response during the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. T(sub f) remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P is greater than 0.75 Pa). R(sub H), conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to approximately 50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to T(sub f), water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O

  4. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  5. Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na

    2011-01-01

    This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

  6. Not for School, but for Life: Lessons from the Historical Archaeology of the Phoenix Indian School. Office of Cultural Resource Management Report #95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Owen

    The Phoenix Indian School, which served as a coeducational federal boarding school for American Indian students between 1891 and 1990, was partially excavated in 1995. Drawing upon written records, books, student recollections, and the school newspaper, this report summarizes what was learned from the excavation about life at the school. The first…

  7. One Day Every 216 Years, Three Days Each Decan. Rebirth Cycle of Pythagoras, Phoenix, Hazon Gabriel, and Christian Dogma of Resurrection Can Be Explained by the Metonic Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwangl, S.

    2009-08-01

    This article explains how the Metonic cycle is at the base of the period of 216 years Pythagoras believed in being reborn after that period. It shows how this period calendrically is related to other mythological worldviews such as the Phoenix myth, the Hebrean Hazon Gabriel, and the Christian dogma of resurrection on the third day.

  8. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl). PMID:24934130

  9. Historical Archaeology of the United States Industrial Indian School at Phoenix: Investigations of a Turn of the Century Trash Dump. Anthropological Field Studies Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Owen; Ferguson, Deborah; Glass, Margaret; Hatfield, Virginia; McKenna, Jeanette A.; Dering, Phil

    The Phoenix Indian School served as a coeducational, federal educational institution for American Indian primary and secondary students between 1891 and 1990. Covering 10 blocks and enrolling over 600 Indian children aged 8-18, this boarding school used education to assimilate students into Anglo-American culture. This monograph describes…

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON THE WESTERN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. THE OLD PLANT IS ON THE RIGHT BANK, NEAREST THE CANAL. THE NEW PLANT IS ON THE LEFT BANK AT THE END OF THE INLET CANAL. THE KYRENE DITCH RUNS OUT OF THE BOTTOM OF THE PICTURE, AND PART OF THE SWITCHYARD FOR THE KYRENE STEAM PLANT IS VISIBLE AT LOWER RIGHT. c. 1955 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1973: ERTS as an aid in a nationwide program for mapping general land use. [Phoenix Quadrangle, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in land use between 1970 and 1973 in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a standard land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. Types of changes detected have been: (1) new residential development of former cropland and rangeland; (2) new cropland from the desert; and (3) new reservoir fill-up. The seasonal changing of vegetation patterns in ERTS has complemented air photos in delimiting the boundaries of some land use types. ERTS images, in combination with other sources of information, can assist in mapping the generalized land use of the fifty states by the standard 1:250,000 quadrangles. Several states are already working cooperatively in this type of mapping.

  12. [Clinical and therapeutic characteristics of social phobia in French psychiatry (Phoenix study)].

    PubMed

    Pélissolo, A; Huron, C; Fanget, F; Servant, D; Stiti, S; Richard-Berthe, C; Boyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Only few clinical epidemiologic studies have been conducted on social phobia in France to date. It is however a frequent disorder, with often severe alteration of social adaptation and quality of life, and for which effective treatments exist. Thus, it seems really important to further explore how these patients are nowadays identified and treated in psychiatry. It was the objective of the Phoenix study. In this observational multi-center study, 952 psychiatric in- or out-patients, with a primary diagnosis of social phobia according to DSM IV criteria, were included. Numerous diagnostic and psychometric evaluations were carried out, in order to evaluate the comorbidity (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), the intensity of social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and various aspects of the functional and emotional impact (Various Impact of Social Anxiety scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, SF-36, Positive and Negative Emotionality scale). The patients were in majority females (57.6%), with a mean age 37.5 years, and with a mean duration of social anxiety disorder 12.5 years. The mean scores of social anxiety on Liebowitz scale was 40.3 +/- 12.6 for the fear factor, and 38.3 +/- 13.6 for the avoidance factor. The generalized social anxiety subtype (anxiety in most social situations) was present in 67.8% of the patients. A major depressive disorder was found in 47.7% of the sample, and the prevalence of agoraphobia was even higher (49.2%). As known in clinical practice and in other studies, the prevalence rates of current alcohol dependence and substances abuse were also important in this population (respectively 10.6% and 12.7%). Mean scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) sub-scales were 13.9 +/-3.8 for anxiety and 9.1 +/-4.5 for depression. About 15% of the patients had a history of suicide attempt, and a suicidal risk was present in nearly 40% of the sample. The psychosocial impact and the

  13. Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties in nine Israeli varieties.

    PubMed

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties were examined in nine diverse Israeli grown varieties. Ethanol and acetone extracts of 'Amari', 'Barhi', 'Deglet Noor', 'Deri', 'Hadrawi', 'Hallawi', 'Hayani', 'Medjool', and 'Zahidi' fruit were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for anti-atherogenicity by measuring their effects on LDL susceptibility to copper ion- and free radical-induced oxidation, and on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The most frequently detected phenolics were hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonols. Significant differences in phenolics composition were established between varieties as well as extraction solvents. All extracts inhibited LDL oxidation, and most extracts also stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Considerable varietal differences were measured in the levels of the bioactivities. Also, acetone extracts exhibited a significantly higher anti-atherogenic potency for most varieties. The presence of soluble ingredients with anti-atherogenic capacities in dates and the possible involvement of phenolics are discussed. PMID:23587027

  14. Dust Layering in the Atmosphere of Mars Observed by the Phoenix LIDAR and Explained Using a General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, J. A.; Daerden, F.; Komguem, L.; Neary, L.

    2014-12-01

    The LIDAR instrument on the Phoenix mission obtained measurements of atmospheric dust and clouds from the surface in the Arctic region of Mars during late-spring through mid-summer. The observed vertical distribution of dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was evenly mixed up to heights of 4 km by daytime convection and turbulence. The dust loading within the PBL was a maximum around summer solstice and then declined over the next 60 Martian days (sols). Detached layers of dust were also detected above the top of the PBL around summer solstice. An atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) was applied to simulate the variability in the total dust loading and the detached layers. The model showed that the enhanced dust loading and the detached layers around summer solstice could be traced back to dust storm activity near the edge of the north polar ice cap. The mechanisms for producing the detached dust layers will be described.

  15. ESTSS at 20 years: “a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma”

    PubMed Central

    Ørner, Roderick J.

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors’ experiences and turning away from survivors’ narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers’ theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity. PMID:23755328

  16. Tissue and cellular localization of tannins in Tunisian dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Hédi; Alvarado, Camille; Bouchet, Brigitte; Kalthoum-Chérif, Jamila; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-07-16

    A histological approach including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to provide accurate information on the localization of condensed tannins in the edible tissues and in the stone of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Light microscopy was carried out on fresh tissues after staining by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) for a specific detection of condensed tannins. Thus, whether under light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), results showed that tannins are not located in the epidermis but more deeply in the mesocarp in the vacuole of very large cells. Regarding the stones, tannins are found in a specific cell layer located at 50 μm from the sclereid cells of the testa. PMID:24987926

  17. Searching for 300, 000 Degree Gas in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster with HST-COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The high central density of the intracluster medium in some galaxy clusters suggests that the hot 10,000,000K gas should cool completely in less than a Hubble time. In these clusters, simple cooling models predict 100-1000 solar masses per year of cooling gas should fuel massive starbursts in the central galaxy. The fact that the typical central cluster galaxy is a massive, "red and dead" elliptical galaxy, with little evidence for a cool ISM, has led to the realization of the "cooling flow problem". It is now thought that mechanical feedback from the central supermassive blackhole, in the form of radio-blown bubbles, is offsetting cooling, leading to an exceptionally precise {residuals of less than 10 percent} balance between cooling and feedback in nearly every galaxy cluster in the local Universe. In the recently-discovered Phoenix cluster, where z=0.596, we observe an 800 solar mass per year starburst within the central galaxy which accounts for about 30 percent of the classical cooling prediction for this system. We speculate that this may represent the first "true" cooling flow, with the factor of 3 difference between cooling and star formation being attributed to star formation efficiency, rather than a problem with cooling. In order to test these predictions, we propose far-UV spectroscopic observations of the OVI 1032A emission line, which probes 10^5.5K gas, in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. If detected at the expected levels, this would provide compelling evidence that the starburst is, indeed, fueled by runaway cooling of the intracluster medium, confirming the presence of the first, bonafide cooling flow.

  18. Monitoring cropping patterns using sequential Landsat imagery: An adaptive threshold approach and its application in Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C.; Zheng, B.; Myint, S. W.; Aggarwal, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cropping intensity is the number of crops grown per year per unit area of cropland. Since 1970s, the Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA) has undergone rapid urbanization mostly via land conversions from agricultural prime lands to urban land use. Agricultural intensification, or multiple cropping, has been observed globally as a positive response to the growing land pressure as a consequence of urbanization and exploding population. Nevertheless, increased cropping intensity has associated local, regional, and global environmental outcomes such as degradation of water quality and soil fertility. Quantifying spatio-temporal patterns of cropping intensity can serve as a first step towards understanding these environmental problems and developing effective and sustainable cropping strategies. In this study, an adaptive threshold method was developed to measure the cropping intensity in the Phoenix AMA from 1995 to 2010 at five-year intervals. The method has several advantages in terms of (1) minimization of errors arising from missing data and noise; (2) ability to distinguish growing cycles from multiple small false peaks in a vegetation index time series; (3) flexibility when dealing with temporal profiles with diffing numbers of observations. The adaptive threshold approach measures the cropping intensity effectively with overall accuracies higher than 97%. Results indicate a dramatic decline in the area of total croplands, single crops, and double crops. A small land conversion was witnessed from single crops into double crops from 1995 to 2000, whereas a reverse trend was observed from 2005 to 2010. Changes in cropping intensity can affect local water consumption. Therefore, joint investigation of cropping patterns and agricultural water use can provide implications for future water demand, which is an increasingly critical issue in this rapidly expanding desert city.

  19. Mt Pamola, the Electromagnetic Field, EMF, Thunderbird, Mothman and Environmental Monitoring Signals Via the Southern Constellation Phoenix As Detectable In Potato Cave, Acton, MA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Andrea S.; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Just below the peak of Mt Pamola in ME, at the juncture with the Knife Edge, downwardly arcing segments of Earths EMF, are manifested by a faint lotus-blossom-blue, neon-like glow at 3 pm some sunny afternoons. Similarly hued glows, and horizontal but variable-arced segmented trajectories, are somewhat periodically detectable under certain conditions in chambers at Acton, MA. These phenomena curiously have the filled-in profile that precisely matches the outline of the southern constellation Phoenix, which is never visible above the nighttime horizon locally. The stick-figure representation of the constellation Canis Major can also be detected in a chamber at Americas Stonehenge, two hours before it has arisen, at certain times. The sequence of phenomena visible at Acton correctly correlates with eclipses and other alignments of our solar system. Phoenix, a.k.a. Thunderbird and Mothman, is detectable elsewhere in MA.

  20. Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yasin, Bibi R.; El-Fawal, Hassan A. N.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2015-01-01

    This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients. PMID:26694370

  1. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  2. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  3. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (Landin+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2009-11-01

    These data present pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks, including local and global convective turnover times and Rossby numbers, for 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 solar masses. The tracks were generated with a modified version of D'Antona & Mazzitelli's code (the ATON code, Ventura et al., 1998A&A...334..953V) which take into account stellar rotation (Mendes et al., 1999A&A...341..174M). All models were computed with solar metallicity (Z=0.0175, Y=0.27) and alpha=1.5 (mixing length theory parameter). (1 data file).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (Landin+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2008-11-01

    These data present new pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (including apsidal motion constants and gyration radii) for 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.3, 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, 3.3, 3.5 and 3.8 solar masses. The track was generated with a modified version of D'Antona & Mazzitelli's code (the ATON code) described in Ventura et al. (1998A&A...334..953V). We include the combined distortions effects of tidal and rotational forces in the ATON code and the results are presented in four tables for four sets of tracks: standard models (including no distortion effect), binary models (including only tidal distortions), rotating models (including only rotational distortions) and rotating binary models (including both tidal and rotational distortions). All models were computed with solar metallicity (Z=0.0175, Y=0.27) and alpha=1.5 (mixing length theory parameter). (4 data files).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Disk-locking PMS evolutionary tracks (Landin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Alencar, S. H. P.

    2015-11-01

    These data present new pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (including moments of inertia and rotation periods) for 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 solar masses. The tracks were generated with a modified version of D'Antona & Mazzitelli's code (the ATON code) described in Ventura et al. (1998A&A...334..953V). In this new version we included non-gray boundary conditions, rotation with conservation of angular momentum and with conservation of angular velocity (the disk-locking mechanism). Our results are presented in five tables for five sets of tracks: 1) models with conservation of angular momentum, 2) disk-locking models with locking period, Plock, of 5 days and disk lifetime, Tdisk, of 0.5Myr, 3) disk-locking models with Plock=5 days and Tdisk=1Myr, 4) disk-locking models with Plock=8 days and Tdisk=0.5Myr, 5) disk-locking models with Plock=8 days and Tdisk=1 Myr. All models were computed with solar metallicity (Z=0.0175, Y=0.27) and alpha=2.0 (mixing length theory parameter). (5 data files).

  7. Comparison of Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer to BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli▿

    PubMed Central

    Saffert, Ryan T.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Ihde, Sherry M.; Monson Jobe, Kristine E.; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

    2011-01-01

    We compared the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system to the Bruker Biotyper (version 2.0) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system for identification of Gram-negative bacilli, using biochemical testing and/or genetic sequencing to resolve discordant results. The BD Phoenix correctly identified 363 (83%) and 330 (75%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. The Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 408 (93%) and 360 (82%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. The 440 isolates were grouped into common (308) and infrequent (132) isolates in the clinical laboratory. For the 308 common isolates, the BD Phoenix and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 294 (95%) and 296 (96%) of the isolates to the genus level, respectively. For species identification, the BD Phoenix and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 93% of the common isolates (285 and 286, respectively). In contrast, for the 132 infrequent isolates, the Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 112 (85%) and 74 (56%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively, compared to the BD Phoenix, which identified only 69 (52%) and 45 (34%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. Statistically, the Bruker Biotyper overall outperformed the BD Phoenix for identification of Gram-negative bacilli to the genus (P < 0.0001) and species (P = 0.0005) level in this sample set. When isolates were categorized as common or infrequent isolates, there was statistically no difference between the instruments for identification of common Gram-negative bacilli (P > 0.05). However, the Bruker Biotyper outperformed the BD Phoenix for identification of infrequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.0001). PMID:21209160

  8. Comparative studies of criteria pollutants in New Delhi and Agra (India), Ambos Nogales (Mexico-Arizona border) and Phoenix (Arizona)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, C.; Goyal, P.; Parmar, S.

    1998-12-31

    In recent years, the levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SPM and other air contaminants over the metropolitan cities of India such as New Delhi and Agra have increased dramatically. The effect of environmental pollution on historical monuments in New Delhi and Agra is a topic of vital concern. Agra is a city of historical importance where the Taj Mahal and other traditional monuments are located. The major contributors of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SPM in Agra are vehicles, domestic fuel consumers, industries railway shunting yards and thermal power plants. The contribution from the Mathura Refinery Complex, located about 40 km upwind of Agra possibly adds to the emissions from local sources. Airborne pollution is blamed for the growing incidence of asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and other ailments that have obvious implications for health care. It is therefore important to estimate SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and SPM concentrations due to local sources in Agra to assist in developing appropriate protection measures. Preliminary monitoring studies have been conducted regarding the criteria pollutants -- SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and PM-10 -- in Ambos Nogales along the Arizona-Mexico border and these results will be compared with those obtained in New Delhi and Agra, India as well as with those found in Phoenix, Arizona.

  9. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  10. Paenibacillus cellulosilyticus sp. nov., a cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterium isolated from the bract phyllosphere of Phoenix dactylifera.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2006-12-01

    A bacterial strain designated PALXIL08(T) was isolated from the phyllosphere of Phoenix dactylifera bracts. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate within the genus Paenibacillus in the same subgroup as Paenibacillus kobensis and Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus (98.9 and 97.9 % sequence similarity, respectively). The DNA hybridization values between the isolate and the type strains of Paenibacillus kobensis and Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus were found to be 27.4 and 17.6 %, respectively. The isolate comprised Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, motile, sporulating rods. Catalase and oxidase were produced and cellulose, xylan, starch and aesculin were hydrolysed. Many carbohydrates served as carbon sources for growth. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, and anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0) were the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 51 mol%. DNA relatedness data and the results of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain PALXIL08(T) should be considered as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus cellulosilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PALXIL08(T) (=LMG 22232(T)=CECT 5696(T)). PMID:17158977

  11. A three-dimensional numerical modelling of the PHOENIX-SPES charge breeder based on the Langevin formalism.

    PubMed

    Galatà, A; Mascali, D; Neri, L; Torrisi, G; Celona, L

    2016-02-01

    A Charge Breeder (CB) is a crucial device of an ISOL facility, allowing post-acceleration of radioactive ions: it accepts an incoming 1+ beam, then multiplying its charge with a highly charged q+ beam as an output. The overall performances of the facility (intensity and attainable final energy) critically depend on the charge breeder optimization. Experimental results collected along the years confirm that the breeding process is still not fully understood and room for improvements still exists: a new numerical approach has been therefore developed and applied to the description of a (85)Rb(1+) beam capture by the plasma of the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX ECR-based CB, installed at the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), and adopted for the Selective Production of Exotic Species project under construction at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The results of the numerical simulations, obtained implementing a plasma-target model of increasing accuracy and different values for the plasma potential, will be described along the paper: results very well agree with the theoretical predictions and with the experimental results obtained on the LPSC test bench. PMID:26932060

  12. Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet nour', Arecales) fruit during development.

    PubMed

    Gribaa, Ali; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud; Rihouey, Christophe; Burel, Carole; Ferchichi, Ali; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the Middle East and North Africa. In recent years, the amount of rain in North Africa and especially in the Tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. We investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. During development, cell wall solubilization and remodelling was characterized by a decrease of the degree of methylesterification of pectin, an important loss of galactose content and a reduction of the branching of xylan by arabinose in irrigated condition. Water deficit had a profound effect on fruit size, pulp content, cell wall composition and remodelling. Loss of galactose content was not as important, arabinose content was significantly higher in the pectin-enriched extracts from non-irrigated condition, and the levels of methylesterification of pectin and O-acetylation of xyloglucan were lower than in irrigated condition. The lower levels of hydrophobic groups (methylester and O-acetyl) and the less intensive degradation of the hydrophilic galactan, arabinan and arabinogalactan in the cell wall may be implicated in maintaining the hydration status of the cells under water deficit. PMID:23176574

  13. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology – Review

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, M.; Bahkali, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent an average of 10% of the date fruits. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable applications for this waste. In spite of several studies on date palm cultivation, their utilization and scope for utilizing date fruit in therapeutic applications, very few reviews are available and they are limited to the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits and phytochemical composition, nutritional significance and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption. In this context, in the present review the prospects of valorization of these date fruit processing by-products and wastes’ employing fermentation and enzyme processing technologies towards total utilization of this valuable commodity for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, biosurfactants, organic acids, antibiotics, industrial enzymes and other possible industrial chemicals are discussed. PMID:23961227

  14. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology - Review.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, M; Bahkali, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent an average of 10% of the date fruits. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable applications for this waste. In spite of several studies on date palm cultivation, their utilization and scope for utilizing date fruit in therapeutic applications, very few reviews are available and they are limited to the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits and phytochemical composition, nutritional significance and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption. In this context, in the present review the prospects of valorization of these date fruit processing by-products and wastes' employing fermentation and enzyme processing technologies towards total utilization of this valuable commodity for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, biosurfactants, organic acids, antibiotics, industrial enzymes and other possible industrial chemicals are discussed. PMID:23961227

  15. A three-dimensional numerical modelling of the PHOENIX-SPES charge breeder based on the Langevin formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Torrisi, G.; Celona, L.

    2016-02-01

    A Charge Breeder (CB) is a crucial device of an ISOL facility, allowing post-acceleration of radioactive ions: it accepts an incoming 1+ beam, then multiplying its charge with a highly charged q+ beam as an output. The overall performances of the facility (intensity and attainable final energy) critically depend on the charge breeder optimization. Experimental results collected along the years confirm that the breeding process is still not fully understood and room for improvements still exists: a new numerical approach has been therefore developed and applied to the description of a 85Rb1+ beam capture by the plasma of the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX ECR-based CB, installed at the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), and adopted for the Selective Production of Exotic Species project under construction at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The results of the numerical simulations, obtained implementing a plasma-target model of increasing accuracy and different values for the plasma potential, will be described along the paper: results very well agree with the theoretical predictions and with the experimental results obtained on the LPSC test bench.

  16. Spatiotemporal characterization of land subsidence and uplift in Phoenix using InSAR time series and wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Megan Marie; Shirzaei, Manoochehr

    2015-08-01

    The effects of land subsidence pose a significant hazard to the environment and infrastructure in the arid, alluvial basins of Phoenix, Arizona. Improving our understanding of the source and mechanisms of subsidence is important for planning and risk management. Here we employ multitemporal interferometric analysis of large synthetic aperture radar data sets acquired by ERS and Envisat satellites to investigate ground deformation. The ERS data sets from 1992 to 1996 and Envisat, 2003-2010, are used to generate line of sight (LOS) time series and velocities in both the ascending and descending tracks. The general deformation pattern is consistent among data sets and is characterized by three zones of subsidence and a broad zone of uplift. The multitrack Envisat LOS time series of surface deformation are inverted to obtain spatiotemporal maps of the vertical and horizontal deformation fields. We use observation wells to provide an in situ, independent data set of hydraulic head levels. Then we analyze vertical interferometric synthetic aperture radar and hydraulic head level time series using continuous wavelet transform to separate periodic signal components and the long-term trend. The isolated signal components are used to estimate the elastic storage coefficient, the inelastic skeletal storage coefficient, and compaction time constants. Together these parameters describe the storage response of an aquifer system to changes in hydraulic head and surface elevation. Understanding aquifer parameters is useful for the ongoing management of groundwater resources.

  17. Proline accumulation is a general response to abiotic stress in the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    PubMed

    Yaish, M W

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to certain abiotic stress conditions tend to produce the amino acid proline, which acts as an active osmolyte, a metal chelator, an antioxidant, and a signaling molecule. There is increasing evidence that proline accumulates in plants due to a wide range of abiotic stress, in particular high soil salinity and drought. Therefore, proline content is often used as a marker-assisted breeding tool aimed at improving drought and salinity tolerance. In this study, it was investigated whether proline accumulation in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedlings occurs solely due to high salinity and drought stresses or due to other unspecified abiotic stresses, including salinity and salinity shock, drought, extreme temperatures, and abscisic acid. The free proline assays revealed that this amino acid over-accumulated in the roots and leaves of each stress-treated plant, and was remarkably high when leaves were exposed to suboptimum temperatures and salinity stress. These results indicate that the production of proline is a common response to various abiotic stresses and its differential accumulation cannot be used as a molecular marker in date palm breeding programs aimed at improving drought or salinity tolerance traits in date palms. This conclusion is consistent with the theory that the molecular outcomes of abiotic stresses are often non-specific. PMID:26345930

  18. Deinococcus phoenicis sp. nov., an extreme ionizing-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from the Phoenix Lander assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Roberts, Anne Hayden; Augustus, Angela; Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Schwendner, Petra; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Salmassi, Tina; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2014-10-01

    A bacterial strain, designated 1P10ME(T), which was resistant to extreme doses of ionizing radiation, pale-pink, non-motile, and a tetrad-forming coccoid was isolated from a cleanroom at the Kennedy Space Center, where the Phoenix spacecraft was assembled. Strain 1P10ME(T) showed optimum growth at 30 °C, with a pH range for growth of 6.5-9.0 and was highly sensitive to sodium chloride, growing only in medium with no added NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1P10ME(T) represents a novel member of the genus Deinococcus, with low sequence similarities (<93.5%) to recognized species of the genus Deinococcus. The predominant cellular fatty acid was C15:1ω6c. This novel strain exhibits extreme resistance to gamma radiation (D10 >8 kGy) and UV (D10 >1000 Jm(-2)). The results of our polyphasic taxonomic analyses suggest that strain 1P10ME(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus phoenicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1P10ME(T) ( = NRRL B-59546(T) = DSM 27173(T)). PMID:25030518

  19. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, A.

    2007-07-15

    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  20. Fungal diversity in adult date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches*

    PubMed Central

    Ben Chobba, Ines; Elleuch, Amine; Ayadi, Imen; Khannous, Lamia; Namsi, Ahmed; Cerqueira, Frederique; Drira, Noureddine; Gharsallah, Néji; Vallaeys, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especially in harsh environments, such as arid regions. This flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various troublesome host diseases. The present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of Tunisian date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera). Accordingly, 13 isolates from both root and leaf samples, exhibiting distinct colony morphology, were selected from potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and identified by a sequence match search wherein their 18S–28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were compared to those available in public databases. These findings revealed that the cultivable root and leaf isolates fell into two groups, namely Nectriaceae and Pleosporaceae. Additionally, total DNA from palm roots and leaves was further extracted and ITS fragments were amplified. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS from 200 fungal clones (leaves: 100; roots: 100) using HaeIII restriction enzyme revealed 13 distinct patterns that were further sequenced and led to the identification of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Davidiella (Cladosporium teleomorph), Pythium, Curvularia, and uncharacterized fungal endophytes. Both approaches confirmed that while the roots were predominantly colonized by Fusaria (members of the Nectriaceae family), the leaves were essentially colonized by Alternaria (members of the Pleosporaceae family). Overall, the findings of the present study constitute, to the authors’ knowledge, the first extensive report on the diversity of endophytic fungal flora associated with date palm trees (P. dactylifera). PMID:24302709

  1. Pseudovertical Temperature Profiles and the Urban Heat Island Measured by a Temperature Datalogger Network in Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Torcolini, Joel C.; Redman, Randy

    2005-01-01

    As part an air quality field campaign conducted in Phoenix during the summer of 2001, a network of temperature dataloggers and surface meteorological stations were deployed across the metropolitan area for a 61-day period. The majority of the dataloggers were deployed along two intersecting lines across the city to quantify characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI). To obtain pseudo-vertical temperature profiles, some of the instrumentation was also deployed along a mountain slope that rose to 480 m above the valley floor. The instrumentation along the mountain slope provided a reasonable approximation of the vertical temperature profile of the free atmosphere over the valley center during the night and a few hours after sunrise. Mean differences of 0.63 and 0.92o K and standard deviations of 1.33 and 1.45o K were obtained when compared with the in situ radiosonde and remote radio acoustic sounding system measurements, respectively. The vertical temperature gradients associated with temperature inversions within 200 m of the surface during the morning were also close to those obtained from the radiosondes. The average UHI during the measurement period was between 2.5 and 3.5oC; however, there was significant day-to-day variability and it was as large as 10oC during one evening. The peak UHI usually occurred around midnight; however, a strong UHI was frequently observed 2-3 hours after sunrise that coincided with the persistence of strong temperature inversions obtained from the radiosonde and the pseudo-vertical temperature profiles. The nocturnal horizontal temperature gradient was somewhat different than reported for other large cities and the UHI did not decrease with increasing wind speeds until the wind speeds exceeded 7 m s-1.

  2. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2)) ≈ 1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C). PMID:26243917

  3. AN HST/WFC3-UVIS VIEW OF THE STARBURST IN THE COOL CORE OF THE PHOENIX CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Benson, Bradford; Veilleux, Sylvain; Reichardt, Christian L.

    2013-03-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations of the core of the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243) in five broadband filters spanning rest-frame 1000-5500 A. These observations reveal complex, filamentary blue emission, extending for >40 kpc from the brightest cluster galaxy. We observe an underlying, diffuse population of old stars, following an r {sup 1/4} distribution, confirming that this system is somewhat relaxed. The spectral energy distribution in the inner part of the galaxy, as well as along the extended filaments, is a smooth continuum and is consistent with that of a star-forming galaxy, suggesting that the extended, filamentary emission is not due to the central active galactic nucleus, either from a large-scale ionized outflow or scattered polarized UV emission, but rather a massive population of young stars. We estimate an extinction-corrected star formation rate of 798 {+-} 42 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, consistent with our earlier work based on low spatial resolution ultraviolet, optical, and infrared imaging. The lack of tidal features and multiple bulges, combine with the need for an exceptionally massive (>10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) cold gas reservoir, suggest that this star formation is not the result of a merger of gas-rich galaxies. Instead, we propose that the high X-ray cooling rate of {approx}2700 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} is the origin of the cold gas reservoir. The combination of such a high cooling rate and the relatively weak radio source in the cluster core suggests that feedback has been unable to halt cooling in this system, leading to this tremendous burst of star formation.

  4. Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models. I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passegger, V. M.; Wende-von Berg, S.; Reiners, A.

    2016-03-01

    M-dwarf stars are the most numerous stars in the Universe; they span a wide range in mass and are in the focus of ongoing and planned exoplanet surveys. To investigate and understand their physical nature, detailed spectral information and accurate stellar models are needed. We use a new synthetic atmosphere model generation and compare model spectra to observations. To test the model accuracy, we compared the models to four benchmark stars with atmospheric parameters for which independent information from interferometric radius measurements is available. We used χ2-based methods to determine parameters from high-resolution spectroscopic observations. Our synthetic spectra are based on the new PHOENIX grid that uses the ACES description for the equation of state. This is a model generation expected to be especially suitable for the low-temperature atmospheres. We identified suitable spectral tracers of atmospheric parameters and determined the uncertainties in Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] resulting from degeneracies between parameters and from shortcomings of the model atmospheres. The inherent uncertainties we find are σTeff = 35 K, σlog g = 0.14, and σ[Fe/H] = 0.11. The new model spectra achieve a reliable match to our observed data; our results for Teff and log g are consistent with literature values to within 1σ. However, metallicities reported from earlier photometric and spectroscopic calibrations in some cases disagree with our results by more than 3σ. A possible explanation are systematic errors in earlier metallicity determinations that were based on insufficient descriptions of the cool atmospheres. At this point, however, we cannot definitely identify the reason for this discrepancy, but our analysis indicates that there is a large uncertainty in the accuracy of M-dwarf parameter estimates. Based on observations carried out with UVES at ESO VLT.

  5. Evaluating the Phoenix Definition of Biochemical Failure After {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy: Can PSA Kinetics Distinguish PSA Failures From PSA Bounces?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy (PB). Methods and Materials: The study included 1,006 consecutive low and 'low tier' intermediate-risk patients treated with {sup 125}I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL{sup -1}) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to {<=}0.5 ng/mL{sup -1}without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Results: Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. Conclusions: With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions.

  6. Predicting Hospitalization for Heat-Related Illness at the Census-Tract Level: Accuracy of a Generic Heat Vulnerability Index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Gober, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Vulnerability mapping based on vulnerability indices is a pragmatic approach for highlighting the areas in a city where people are at the greatest risk of harm from heat, but the manner in which vulnerability is conceptualized influences the results. Objectives We tested a generic national heat-vulnerability index, based on a 10-variable indicator framework, using data on heat-related hospitalizations in Phoenix, Arizona. We also identified potential local risk factors not included in the generic indicators. Methods To evaluate the accuracy of the generic index in a city-specific context, we used factor scores, derived from a factor analysis using census tract–level characteristics, as independent variables, and heat hospitalizations (with census tracts categorized as zero-, moderate-, or high-incidence) as dependent variables in a multinomial logistic regression model. We also compared the geographical differences between a vulnerability map derived from the generic index and one derived from actual heat-related hospitalizations at the census-tract scale. Results We found that the national-indicator framework correctly classified just over half (54%) of census tracts in Phoenix. Compared with all census tracts, high-vulnerability tracts that were misclassified by the index as zero-vulnerability tracts had higher average income and higher proportions of residents with a duration of residency < 5 years. Conclusion The generic indicators of vulnerability are useful, but they are sensitive to scale, measurement, and context. Decision makers need to consider the characteristics of their cities to determine how closely vulnerability maps based on generic indicators reflect actual risk of harm. Citation Chuang WC, Gober P. 2015. Predicting hospitalization for heat-related illness at the census-tract level: accuracy of a generic heat vulnerability index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). Environ Health Perspect 123:606–612; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307868

  7. Phoenix dactylifera L. sap enhances wound healing in Wistar rats: Phytochemical and histological assessment.

    PubMed

    Abdennabi, Raed; Bardaa, Sana; Mehdi, Meriem; Rateb, Mostafa E; Raab, Andrea; Alenezi, Faizah N; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2016-07-01

    The sap of the date palm "Lagmi" is a clear liquid, rich in sugars and minerals, with a pleasant flavour. Folk remedies based on the use of "Lagmi" for wound healing are still practiced. However, no studies investigated the relevance of "Lagmi" for wound healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the in vivo healing properties of "lagmi" on mechanically wounded wistar rats. Injured rats were divided into three groups: a first group treated by "lagmi", a second reference group processed by CICAFLORA(®) and a third untreated control group. On the 12th day of the experiment, total healing in the first group was reached, while healing was incomplete in the other groups. The sap seems to accelerate cell proliferation and contribute to faster healing with a gain of more than 30% as compared to CICAFLORA(®). Chemical Analysis of "Lagmi" showed important radical scavenging activity and high total antioxidant capacity. Features reported to help healing process and/or provides a favourable environment for tissue healing in wound sites. Extensive characterization of "Lagmi" phenolic and flavonoid compounds by High Resolution LC-MS (LC-HRESIMS) analysis indicates "Lagmi" is an important source of known anti-inflammatory compounds as well as promising wound healing candidates. PMID:27064088

  8. Thermally evolved gas analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru: Implications for the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2009-07-01

    TEGA, one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander, performed differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer (MS) that was used to analyze samples delivered to the instrument via a robotic arm. The samples were heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000 °C. The power required for heating can be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process can be analyzed with the evolved gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolyzer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya in southern Peru (a possible analog to Mars), to which we have added with microorganisms ( Salmonella typhimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) in order to investigate the effect of the soil matrix on the TEGA response. Between 20 and 40 mg of soil, with or without ˜5 mg of lyophilized microorganism biomass (dry weight), were placed in the pyrolyzer and heated from room temperature to 1200 °C in 1 h at a heating rate of 20 °C/min. The volatiles released were transferred to a MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 10 to 200 m/z. In addition, ˜20 mg of each microorganism without a soil matrix were analyzed. As expected, there were significant differences in the gases released from microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix, under similar heating conditions. Furthermore, samples from the most arid environments had significant differences compared with less arid soils

  9. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru (Pampas de la Joya): Implications for the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chris

    TEGA is one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander that will perform differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high-temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer that will be use to analyze samples delivered to instrument via a robotic arm. The samples will be heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000° C and the power required for heating will be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process will be analyzed with the evolved-gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolizer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya southern Peru, a possible analog to Mars, which has been previously enriched with microorganisms (Salmonella thypimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) to investigate the effect of soil matrix over TEGA response. Between 20 to 40 mg of soil pre-treated to 500° C for 24 hours to remove traces of organics, was mixed with or without 5mg biomass lyophilized (dry weight). Additionally 20 mg of each one microorganism were analyzed. The samples were placed in the pyrolizer that reached 1200° C at 1 hour. The volatiles released were transferred to the MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 40-350m/z. As expected, there were significant differences in the evolved gas behaviors for microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix under similar heating conditions. In addition, samples belonging to the most arid environments had significant differences compared with

  10. Microbial enhanced waterflooding Mink Unit and Phoenix field pilots. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Steep, A.K.; Bertus, K.M.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, M.

    1993-07-01

    To determine the feasibility of improving oil recovery and the economics of microbial enhanced waterflooding in mature oil wells in the United States, two field pilots have been conducted. Candidate fields were screened to determine whether they have any potential for a microbial system developed at the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), and microbial compatibility tests were conducted in the laboratory to select the target field. A specific microbial formulation was selected that was compatible with the chosen reservoir environment and had been shown to recover oil after waterflooding in Berea sandstone and field core. The microbial formulation was designed to improve microscopic oil displacement efficiency by surfactant, gas and acid production from fermentation of molasses. A 20-acre pilot test was initiated in October 1986, and completed in December 1989. Results from this pilot demonstrated that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood and that such injection could increase oil production by at least 13%. A larger test (520 acres) was completed in the same formation to evaluate the feasibility of commercial application of the technology. This field pilot was injected with microorganisms and molasses from a centralized injection station in June 1990. Although microorganisms were injected only once per site, nutrient injection continued throughout the project life. All 19 injection wells were treated, and oil production was monitored from the 47 production wells. Injection pressures and volumes were monitored throughout the project. No operational problems were encountered. At the end of May 1993, oil production was improved by 19.6 %. Results from both projects are presented and the potential for microbial-enhanced waterflooding technology is evaluated.

  11. Regional-scale influences on urban air quality : a field study in Phoenix, Arizona.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.

    1998-10-12

    Regional air quality can play an important role in determining whether urban ozone or PM-2.5 standards are exceeded. Background levels of nitrogen oxide species (NO{sub x}) and their interactions with natural organics can generate secondary aerosol products via formation of nitric acid and its subsequent reaction with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. Natural organics and reactive anthropogenic organic compounds, particularly aromatic species and monoterpenes, can also lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, contributing to the formation of PM-2.5. Long-range transport and chemical transformation of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} via both photochemical reactions and nighttime chemistry can yield significant regional levels of ozone and other oxidants, such as peroxyacyl nitrates (R-C=O-O-O-NO{sub 2}; PANs). The PANs are key species in determining the apparent age of an air parcel (Gaffney et al., 1989, 1993, 1997). The most common member of the family is peroxyacetyl nitrate (R=CH3-; PAN), which typically accounts for more than 85% of the PANs found in an urban or rural site. The PANs are in equilibrium with NO{sub 2}. Peroxyacyl radicals (R-C=O-O-O) are typically produced by the photooxidation reactions of organics, particularly those of aldehyde oxidation products with OH radical during the daytime (photochemically active) periods. Proposed mechanisms for nighttime formation of PANs (Gaffney et al., 1989) include abstraction reactions of nitrate radical (NO{sub 3}) and the initiation of OH chemistry by olefin-ozone reactions.

  12. Vulnerability of Water Systems to the Effects of Climate Change and Urbanization: A Comparison of Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Polsky, Colin; Gober, Patricia; Chang, Heejun; Shandas, Vivek

    2013-07-01

    The coupled processes of climate change and urbanization pose challenges for water resource management in cities worldwide. Comparing the vulnerabilities of water systems in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, this paper examines (1) exposures to these stressors, (2) sensitivities to the associated impacts, and (3) adaptive capacities for responding to realized or anticipated impacts. Based on a case study and survey-based approach, common points of vulnerability include: rising exposures to drier, warmer summers, and suburban growth; increasing sensitivities based on demand hardening; and limited capacities due to institutional and pro-growth pressures. Yet each region also exhibits unique vulnerabilities. Comparatively, Portland shows: amplified exposures to seasonal climatic extremes, heightened sensitivity based on less diversified municipal water sources and policies that favor more trees and other irrigated vegetation, and diminished adaptive capacities because of limited attention to demand management and climate planning for water resources. Phoenix exhibits elevated exposure from rapid growth, heightened sensitivities due to high water demands and widespread increases in residential and commercial uses, and limited adaptive capacities due to weak land use planning and "smart growth" strategies. Unique points of vulnerability suggest pathways for adapting to urban-environmental change, whether through water management or land planning. Greater coordination between the land and water sectors would substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the study regions and beyond.

  13. High-Density 16S Microarray and Clone Library-Based Microbial Community Composition of the Phoenix Spacecraft Assembly Clean Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-06-01

    The bacterial diversity and comparative community structure of a clean room used for assembling the Phoenix spacecraft was characterized throughout the spacecraft assembly process by using 16S rRNA gene cloning/sequencing and DNA microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. Samples were collected from several locations of the clean room at three time points: before Phoenix's arrival (PHX-B), during hardware assembly (PHX-D), and after the spacecraft was removed for launch (PHX-A). Bacterial diversity comprised of all major bacterial phyla of PHX-B was found to be statistically different from PHX-D and PHX-A samples. Due to stringent cleaning and decontamination protocols during assembly, PHX-D bacterial diversity was dramatically reduced when compared to PHX-B and PHX-A samples. Comparative community analysis based on PhyloChip results revealed similar overall trends as were seen in clone libraries, but the high-density phylogenetic microarray detected larger diversity in all sampling events. The decrease in community complexity in PHX-D compared to PHX-B, and the subsequent recurrence of these organisms in PHX-A, speaks to the effectiveness of NASA cleaning protocols. However, the persistence of a subset of bacterial signatures throughout all spacecraft assembly phases underscores the need for continued refinement of sterilization technologies and the implementation of safeguards that monitor and inventory microbial contaminants.

  14. Vulnerability of water systems to the effects of climate change and urbanization: a comparison of Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon (USA).

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelli L; Polsky, Colin; Gober, Patricia; Chang, Heejun; Shandas, Vivek

    2013-07-01

    The coupled processes of climate change and urbanization pose challenges for water resource management in cities worldwide. Comparing the vulnerabilities of water systems in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, this paper examines (1) exposures to these stressors, (2) sensitivities to the associated impacts, and (3) adaptive capacities for responding to realized or anticipated impacts. Based on a case study and survey-based approach, common points of vulnerability include: rising exposures to drier, warmer summers, and suburban growth; increasing sensitivities based on demand hardening; and limited capacities due to institutional and pro-growth pressures. Yet each region also exhibits unique vulnerabilities. Comparatively, Portland shows: amplified exposures to seasonal climatic extremes, heightened sensitivity based on less diversified municipal water sources and policies that favor more trees and other irrigated vegetation, and diminished adaptive capacities because of limited attention to demand management and climate planning for water resources. Phoenix exhibits elevated exposure from rapid growth, heightened sensitivities due to high water demands and widespread increases in residential and commercial uses, and limited adaptive capacities due to weak land use planning and "smart growth" strategies. Unique points of vulnerability suggest pathways for adapting to urban-environmental change, whether through water management or land planning. Greater coordination between the land and water sectors would substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the study regions and beyond. PMID:23694972

  15. A First Look at Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Measurements of Martian Atmospheric C02 by the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P.B.; Ming, D.W.; Boynton, W.V.; Hamara, D.; Hoffman, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Precise stable isotope measurements of the CO2 in the martian atmosphere have the potential to provide important constraints for our understanding of the history of volatiles, the carbon cycle, current atmospheric processes, and the degree of water/rock interaction on Mars. The isotopic composition of the martian atmosphere has been measured using a number of different methods (Table 1), however a precise value (<1%) has yet to be achieved. Given the elevated 13C values measured in carbonates in martian meteorites it has been supposed that the martian atmosphere was enriched in delta(sup 13)C. This was supported by measurements of trapped CO2 gas in EETA 79001[2] which showed elevated delta(sup 13)C values (Table 1). More recently, Earth-based spectroscopic measurements of the martian atmosphere have measured the martian CO2 to be depleted in delta(sup 13)C relative to CO2 in the terrestrial atmosphere. The spectroscopic measurements performed by Krasnopolsky et al. were reported with approx.2% uncertainties which are much smaller than the Viking measurements, but still remain very large in comparison to the magnitude of carbon and oxygen isotope fractionations under martian surface conditions. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument on the Mars Phoenix Lander included a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (EGA) which had the goal of measuring the isotopic composition of martian atmospheric CO2 to within 0.5%. The mass spectrometer is a miniature magnetic sector instrument intended to measure both the martian atmosphere as well as gases evolved from heating martian soils. Ions produced in the ion source are drawn out by a high voltage and focused by a magnetic field onto a set of collector slits. Four specific trajectories are selected to cover the mass ranges, 0.7 - 4, 7 - 35, 14 - 70, and 28 - 140 Da. Using four channels reduces the magnitude of the mass scan and provides simultaneous coverage of the mass ranges. Channel electron multiplier (CEM

  16. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Aquifers Using InSAR Time Series and Time-dependent Poroelastic Modeling in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial basins in Phoenix experience surface deformation due to large volumes of fluid withdrawn and added to aquifers. The spatiotemporal pattern of deformation is controlled by pumping and recharge rates, hydraulic boundaries, and properties such as diffusivity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity. Land subsidence can cause damages to structures, earth fissures, and a permanent loss of aquifer storage; effects are often apparent after the onset of sustained events. Improving our understanding of the source and mechanisms of deformation is important for risk management and future planning. Monitoring subsidence and uplift using InSAR allows for detailed, dense spatial coverage with less than one cm measurement precision. Envisat data acquired from 2003-11 includes 38 ascending and 53 descending SAR images forming 239 and 423 coherent interferograms respectively. Displacement is separated into vertical and horizontal components by accounting for the satellite look angle and combining ascending and descending line of sight (LOS) data. Vertical velocity from Envisat reveals subsidence reaching -1.84 cm/yr and 0.60 cm/yr uplift. ERS 1&2 satellites delivered useful data from 1992-97, comprised of 6 ascending and 12 descending SAR images. Ascending images form 7 interferograms with LOS velocity from -1.23 to 1.65 cm/yr; descending images produce 25 interferograms with LOS velocity rates from -1.40 to 0.75 cm/yr. InSAR time series are compared with hydraulic head levels from 33 observation wells. Wavelet decomposition is used to separate the long-term, inelastic components from cyclic, elastic signals in InSAR and well level data. The specific storage coefficient, a parameter used in poroelastic models, is estimated as the ratio of cyclic vertical deformation to the equivalent component of the well level time series. Poroelastic theory assumes that pore pressure and fluid mass within the aquifer change during fluid withdrawal, while the relatively impermeable

  17. SITE RANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site rank is formulated for ranking the relative hazard of contamination sources and vulnerability of drinking water wells. Site rank can be used with a variety of groundwater flow and transport models.

  18. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  19. Direct comparison of the BD phoenix system with the MicroScan WalkAway system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative gram-negative organisms.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J W; Munier, G K; Johnson, C L

    2008-07-01

    The Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) is designed for the rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinically significant human bacterial pathogens. We evaluated the performance of the Phoenix instrument in comparison with that of the MicroScan WalkAway system (Dade Behring, West Sacramento, CA) in the ID and AST of gram-negative clinical strains and challenge isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 150) and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB; 45 clinical isolates and 8 challenge isolates). ID discrepancies were resolved with the API 20E and API 20NE conventional biochemical ID systems (bioMerieux, Durham, NC). The standard disk diffusion method was used to resolve discordant AST results. The overall percentages of agreement between the Phoenix ID results and the MicroScan results at the genus and species levels for clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were 98.7 and 97.7%, respectively; following resolution with conventional biochemical testing, the accuracy of the Phoenix system was determined to be 100%. For NFGNB, the levels of agreement were 100 and 97.7%, respectively. Both systems incorrectly identified the majority of the uncommon nonfermentative nonpseudomonal challenge isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis patients; these isolates are not included in the databases of the respective systems. For AST of Enterobacteriaceae, the rate of complete agreement between the Phoenix results and the MicroScan results was 97%; the rates of very major, major, and minor errors were 0.3, 0.2, and 2.7%, respectively. For NFGNB, the rate of complete agreement between the Phoenix results and the MicroScan results was 89.1%; the rates of very major, major, and minor errors were 0, 0.5, and 7.7%, respectively. Following the confirmatory testing of nine clinical isolates initially screened by the MicroScan system as possible extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms (seven Klebsiella

  20. The Phoenix Pluto Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, George R.; Spapperi, Jeff; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.; Eldred, Jim; Labij, Dennis; Strinni, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    A design proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto is presented. The topics covered include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion system; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.