Lindamood, P C; Bell, N; Lindamood, P
Awareness of the internal phonological structure of words is a causal factor in success with the alphabetic principle in word recognition. However, findings with the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization (LAC) Test reveal 25-30% of the population show deficiency in a subtle component of phonological awareness termed comparator function. We argue that this comparator function-an ability to hold the phoneme and/or syllable segments of two phonological structures in mind and compare and represent any variations in the number, identity, or order of their segments-is a primary sensory-cognitive function underlying the secondary function of self-correction in word recognition and spelling. And since word recognition correlates highly with comprehension, comparator function also indirectly impacts this basic purpose for reading. We suggest that the needs of many individuals, including educators themselves, for development and refinement of phonological awareness/comparator function may be misdiagnosed and underaddressed unless more sensitive measures of phonological awareness are used. The consequence of inadequate assessment/remediation of these deficiencies in educators is that they may be less able to assess and address these deficiencies in their students. Standard phonics instruction is known to be ineffective in developing phonological awareness for many individuals. However, phonological deficits can be addressed both preventively and remedially using procedures that are fundamentally different from typical phonics instruction. PMID:24233878
Phonological Awareness Clinic Communication Disorders PA. ScienceSPTH4108 Children@cmds.canterbury.ac.nz We are located in the Department of Communication Disorders, on the west side of the University
Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Little, Todd D.
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) use phonological awareness assessments in many ways. This study examines the usefulness of these assessments in kindergarten and 2nd grade. Method: Measures of phonological awareness and letter identification were administered in kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, phonetic decoding…
of Communication Disorders Speech and Hearing Clinic #12;REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC Concerns regarding communication Please return this form to: Clinical Administrator Email: email@example.com Department of Communication
Venkatagiri, H. S.; Levis, John M.
This study examined whether differences in phonological awareness were related to differences in speech comprehensibility. Seventeen adults who learned English as a foreign language (EFL) in academic settings completed 14 tests of phonological awareness that measured their explicit knowledge of English phonological structures, and three tests of…
Webb, Mi-young L.; Lederberg, Amy R.
Purpose: This study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA. Method: One hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with…
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…
Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…
Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao
We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…
Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro
The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors. PMID:20667272
Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K; Schmitt, Braden A; Bradfield, Tracy A; Rodriguez, Michael C; McConnell, Scott R
Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success. Presented here are two studies that describe the development and revision of four measures of phonological awareness skills: Individual Growth and Development Indicators Sound Blending, Syllable Sameness, Rhyming, and Alliteration 2.0. The authors discuss the measure development process, revision, and utility within an early childhood Response to Intervention framework. PMID:24232734
Lindamood, Patricia C.; And Others
This paper argues that the ability to rapidly compare phonemes is a primary sensory-cognitive function underlying self-correction in word recognition and spelling and thus, indirectly, reading comprehension. Such phonological defects can be addressed both preventively and remedially using procedures that are fundamentally different from typical…
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983
Etchepareborda, M C
Taking into account the systems for the treatment of brain information when drawing up a work plan allows us to recreate processing routines that go from multisensory perception to motor, oral and cognitive production, which is the step prior to executive levels of thought, bottom-up and top-down processing systems. In recent years, the use of phonological methods to prevent or resolve reading disorders has become the fundamental mainstay in the treatment of dyslexia. The work is mainly based on phonological proficiency, which enables the patient to detect phonemes (input), to think about them (performance) and to use them to build words (output). Daily work with rhymes, the capacity to listen, the identification of phrases and words, and handling syllables and phonemes allows us to perform a preventive intervention that enhances the capacity to identify letters, phonological analysis and the reading of single words. We present the different therapeutic models that are most frequently employed. Fast For Word (FFW) training helps make progress in phonematic awareness and other linguistic skills, such as phonological awareness, semantics, syntax, grammar, working memory and event sequencing. With Deco-Fon, a programme for training phonological decoding, work is carried out on the auditory discrimination of pure tones, letters and consonant clusters, auditory processing speed, auditory and phonematic memory, and graphophonological processing, which is fundamental for speech, language and reading writing disorders. Hamlet is a programme based on categorisation activities for working on phonological conceptualisation. It attempts to encourage the analysis of the segments of words, syllables or phonemes, and the classification of a certain segment as belonging or not to a particular phonological or orthographical category. Therapeutic approaches in the early phases of reading are oriented towards two poles based on the basic mechanisms underlying the process of learning to read, the grapheme phoneme transformation process and global word recognition. The interventionalist strategies used at school are focused on the use of cognitive strategy techniques. The purpose of these techniques is to teach pupils practical strategies or resources aimed at overcoming specific deficiencies. PMID:12599098
Denne, M.; Langdown, N.; Pring, T.; Roy, P.
Background: Recent research has shown that phonological awareness therapy can improve speech production in children with expressive phonological disorders. This approach may be appealing to clinicians as the therapy may also benefit the children's general phonological abilities and lead to gains in their literacy skills. Aims: To examine the…
Denise Swan; Usha Goswami
The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and
Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B
Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning's (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614
Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B
Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614
Bridges, Melinda Sittner
validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness. In Study I, the dynamic screening measure was administered to students at the beginning of kindergarten. The results demonstrated that the dynamic screening measure can be administered by school...
Timothy J. Runge; Marley W. Watkins
Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical difficulties. The present study clarified this situation by factor analyzing 23 preliteracy tests among a sample of 161
Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.
This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…
Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha
We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…
Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…
An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…
Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...
Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.
Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161
Susan Brady; Anne Fowler; Brenda Stone; Nancy Winbury
A small-scale, longitudinal, phonological awareness training study with inner-city kindergarten children was conducted in\\u000a four classrooms. The central goals of the study were the creation and evaluation of a phonological awareness training program\\u000a and a preliminary look at the consequence of that training on basic phonological processes.\\u000a \\u000a Assessment of phonological awareness and basic phonological processes was carried out in the
Spector, Cecile Cyrul
Kids love jokes--and teachers and SLPs love fast and easy ways to improve students' phonological awareness. That's why every elementary and middle-school SLP and educator needs this playful, effective activity book, packed with jokes and riddles that increase students' awareness of the phonemes that make up words. The perfect way to avoid "drill…
Wise, Barbara W.; Olson, Richard K.
Elementary students (n=105) with problems in word recognition were given computer-assisted instruction involving either only reading words in context, or reading words in context and completing exercises involving individual words (to increase their phonological awareness). The latter group showed significant gains on tests of phoneme awareness…
Immediate memory for pseudowords and phonological awareness are associated in adults and pre-old children together with a standardized test of phonological awareness (PA). PA and pseudoword repetition, employed the same pseudoword materials, with a different administration protocol, together
Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun
The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10?min on a daily basis over a period of 20?weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age. PMID:21734895
Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans
The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…
Verucci, L.; Menghini, D.; Vicari, S.
Background: Although reading abilities play a fundamental role in the acquisition of personal autonomy, up until now studies investigating these abilities in Down syndrome (DS) are aimed at defining educational or rehability acquisition. However, studies describing the relationship between reading and phonological awareness in individuals with DS…
Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Lokteff, Maegan
Curriculum development during early childhood is informed through an understanding of the cognitive skills that develop concurrently in the earliest years. Extending previous work, this study examined the relationship between early mathematics and phonological awareness (PA) skills for 37 children (14 girls; overall mean age?=?47.6 months,…
Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.
To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants. Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn…
Layton, Lyn; And Others
Examines (in a pilot study and the first two phases of a longitudinal study) preventing the emergence of written language difficulties by addressing the ability of preschoolers to make phonological judgments. Notes that children identified as having poor rhyme awareness were given one-to-one training, and that students were given training in…
Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to analyze spoken language into its component sounds and to manipulate these smaller units. Literature review related to PA shows that a variety of factor groups play a role in PA in Mandarin such as linguistic experience (spoken language, alphabetic literacy, and second language learning), item type,…
This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…
Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.
Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…
Kilpatrick, David A.
Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.
This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…
Jimenez, Juan E.; Venegas, Enrique
The main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the relative importance of complexity of syllable structure and task differences in measuring phonological awareness in low-literacy adults. This study is a replication of a study with children conducted by S. A. Stahl and B. A. Murray (1994). Results indicated that the complexity of…
Jerrell C. Cassady; Lawrence L. Smith
Children with and without access to a reading-focused Integrated Learning System (ILS) in their daily reading instruction were compared at three points (beginning, middle, end) through their kindergarten year on phonological awareness and concepts about print. The results demonstrated no significant differences in learning print concepts. However, repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that the children with access to the
Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan
The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…
Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong
Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological…
Mishra, Ranjita; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study investigated the relationships between phonological awareness and reading in Oriya and English. Oriya is the official language of Orissa, an eastern state of India. The writing system is an alphasyllabary. Ninety-nine fifth grade children (mean age 9 years 7 months) were assessed on measures of phonological awareness, word reading and…
Paige C. Pullen; Laura M. Justice
The preschool years are critical to the development of emergent literacy skills that will ensure a smooth transition into formal reading. Phonological awareness, print awareness, and oral language development are three areas associated with emergent literacy that play a crucial role in the acquisition of reading. This article presents an overview of these critical components of emergent literacy. The overview
Lewis, Fiona M; Coman, David J; Syrmis, Maryann; Kilcoyne, Sarah; Murdoch, Bruce E
Educational achievement, which for individuals with the metabolic disorder classic galactosemia (GAL) is significantly lower than in the wider population, correlates with self-reported quality of life. Phonological awareness skills underpin the development of literacy, and although literacy is a key contributor to successful academic outcomes, no study to date has investigated phonological awareness skills in children with GAL. This study investigated phonological awareness (PA) in four school-aged children with the disorder, two of whom were siblings. Age range for the children was 7 years 7 months to 9 years 2 months. Each child was assessed with the Phonological Awareness criterion-referenced subtest from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition. Included in the data for analysis was each child's performance measures obtained from their most recent assessment of cognitive and lexical development. A number of descriptive analyses were undertaken on the data. One child, who met her age criterion for PA, had cognitive and lexical development skills in the average range. The remaining three children failed to meet their age criteria. Although these three children presented with clinically similar cognitive and lexical development skills, disparate PA skills were identified. The PA skills of one of the sibling pair were notably more advanced than his older sibling. The limitations of relying on behavioural test results in children with GAL to predict those most at risk of reduced skill development are discussed in terms future research directions. PMID:23430800
Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John
This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…
Joseph K. Torgesen; Sharon T. Morgan; Charlotte Davis
The effects of two types of oral-language training programs on development of phonological awareness skills and word learning ability was examined. One of the training programs provided explicit instruction on both analytic (segmenting) and synthetic (blending) phonological tasks; the other program trained synthetic skills only. Effects of these programs were contrasted with a language-experience control group that received no phonologically
Sittner Bridges, Mindy; Catts, Hugh W
This study examined the usefulness and predictive validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness in two samples of kindergarten children. In one sample (n = 90), the predictive validity of the dynamic assessment was compared to a static version of the same screening measure. In the second sample (n = 96), the dynamic screening measure was compared to a commonly used screening tool, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Initial Sound Fluency. Results showed that the dynamic screening measure uniquely predicted end-of-year reading achievement and outcomes in both samples. These results provide preliminary support for the usefulness of a dynamic screening measure of phonological awareness for kindergarten students. PMID:21571700
Amaral, M. I. R.; Casali, R. L.; Boscariol, M.; Lunardi, L. L.; Guerreiro, M. M.; Colella-Santos, M. F.
The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample. PMID:25685775
Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.
Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…
Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas
One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573
Kjeldsen, Ann-Christina; Kärnä, Antti; Niemi, Pekka; Olofsson, Åke; Witting, Katarina
The effects of a kindergarten training program in phonological awareness with 209 Swedish-speaking children were followed up until the end of Grade 9. Initial levels of letter knowledge and phonological awareness were positively associated with the level of decoding skill in Grade 3 but not with its growth afterward. The intervention group…
Pape-Neumann, Julia; Ermingen-Marbach, Muna van; Grande, Marion; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan
The present study investigated whether phonological awareness training is an effective intervention to significantly improve reading in German dyslexic third and fourth graders with a phonological awareness deficit, and whether these children can equally benefit from a phonology-based reading training or a visually-based reading training. German speaking dyslexic elementary school children (n=30; M=9.8 years) were matched by forming triplets based on IQ, reading quotient and phonological awareness and then randomly assigned to one out of three interventions (n=10): a phonological awareness training, a phonology-based reading training (phonics instruction), and a visually-based reading training (repeated reading of sight words). A total of 20 training sessions (30 minutes each) were distributed over four weeks. Typical readers (n=10; M=9.5 years) were assigned to the control group. Phonological awareness training directly improves reading comprehension in German dyslexic children with a phonological awareness deficit. However, these children can equally benefit from a visually-based reading training. In contrast, the phonology-based reading training has a direct selective effect on decoding but not on reading comprehension. Despite divergent short-term patterns, long-term improvement of reading comprehension and decoding is similar across all training groups, irrespective of the training method. Phonological awareness may but does not need to be part of reading remediation in dyslexic children with a phonological deficit when learning to read a consistent orthography. Rather, a visually-based reading strategy might compensate for the phonological deficit in dyslexic children after the initial stage of reading acquisition. PMID:25856525
Kovelman, Ioulia; Norton, Elizabeth S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E
Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7-13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5-6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783
Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Catts, Hugh W.
This study examined the usefulness and predictive validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness in two samples of kindergarten children. In one sample (n = 90), the predictive validity of the dynamic assessment was compared to a static version of the same screening measure. In the second sample (n = 96), the dynamic screening measure…
Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.
The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…
Williams, Jennifer S.
In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…
Skeide, Michael A; Kirsten, Holger; Kraft, Indra; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Neef, Nicole; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Emmrich, Frank; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D
Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia. PMID:26080313
Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline
The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological…
Jordan, Julie-Ann; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry
The present longitudinal study sought to investigate the impact of poor phonology on children's mathematical status. From a screening sample of 256 five-year-olds, 82 children were identified as either typically achieving (TA; N = 31), having comorbid poor phonology and mathematical difficulties (PDMD; N = 31), or having only poor phonology…
Jan Carol Näslund; Wolfgang Schneider
This study addresses the longitudinal relationship among verbal ability, memory capacity, phonological awareness, and reading\\u000a performance. Data from 92 German children were used to explore the exact relation among these variables. Indicators of verbal\\u000a ability, memory capacity, and phonological awareness were assessed in kindergarten and again after the first grade. The interrelationships\\u000a among these factors, and the subsequent influence they
Ayd? Yücesan Durguno?lu; Banu Öney
Phonological awareness is one of the critical skills in the acquisition of reading in an alphabetic orthography. The development of phonological awareness was compared across Turkish and English-speaking kindergarten and first-grade children (n = 138). The Turkish-speakers were more proficient in both handling of the syllables and deleting final phonemes of words. These patterns were related to the characteristics of
Melinda Daniel; Mary E. Reynolds
Using electronic surveys, this study asked education professionals which components of phonologi- cal awareness they thought best supported the develop- ment of literate language, and to what extent each respondent was involved in phonological awareness instruction. Participants were kindergarten and first-grade teachers, reading specialists and special education teachers, and speech-language pathologists. The majority of respondents felt that knowledge of letter-sound
Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.
Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…
Olson, Richard K.; Wise, Barbara; Ring, Jerry; Johnson, Mina
Reports results from one- and two-year follow-up tests for children with reading problems who had previously received 25 hours of training in one of two computer-based remediation programs. Finds children initially trained in phonological skills made greater gains in phonological awareness, phonological decoding, and untimed word recognition at…
Qureshi, Saira I.
Certain aspects of meta-linguistic awareness are known to be essential for bilingual children's literacy acquisition. Phonological awareness is one of these skills. Beginning with a discussion of a pivotal developmental research model of control & analysis of cognitive skills in bilinguals, this review will discuss several studies that explored…
Nittrouer, Susan; Sansom, Emily; Low, Keri; Rice, Caitlin; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda
Objective Listeners use their knowledge of how language is structured to aid speech recognition in everyday communication. When it comes to children with congenital hearing loss severe enough to warrant cochlear implants (CIs), the question arises of whether these children can acquire the language knowledge needed to aid speech recognition, in spite of only having spectrally degraded signals available to them. That question was addressed in the current study. Specifically there were three goals: (1) to compare the language structures used by children with CIs to those of children with normal hearing (NH); (2) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness and lexical knowledge; and (3) to assess the amount of variance in the language measures explained by factors related to the hearing loss itself and subsequent treatment. Design Language samples were obtained and transcribed for 40 children who had just completed kindergarten: 19 with NH and 21 with CIs. Five measures were derived from Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT): (1) mean length of utterance in morphemes, (2) number of conjunctions, excluding and, (3) number of personal pronouns, (4) number of bound morphemes, and (5) number of different words. Measures were also collected on phonological awareness and lexical knowledge. Statistics examined group differences, as well as the amount of variance in the language measures explained by phonological awareness, lexical knowledge, and factors related to hearing loss and its treatment for children with CIs. Results Mean scores of children with CIs were roughly one standard deviation below those of children with NH on all language measures, including lexical knowledge, matching outcomes of other studies. Mean scores of children with CIs were closer to two standard deviations below those of children with NH on two out of three measures of phonological awareness (specifically those related to phonemic structure). Lexical knowledge explained significant amounts of variance on three language measures, but only one measure of phonological awareness (sensitivity to word-final phonemic structure) explained any significant amount of unique variance beyond that, and on only one language measure (number of bound morphemes). Age at first implant, but no other factors related to hearing loss or its treatment, explained significant amounts of variance on the language measures, as well. Conclusion In spite of early intervention and advances in implant technology, children with CIs are still delayed in learning language, but grammatical knowledge is less affected than phonological awareness. Because there was little contribution to language development measured for phonological awareness independent of lexical knowledge, it was concluded that children with CIs could benefit from intervention focused specifically on helping them learn language structures, in spite of the likely phonological deficits they experience as a consequence of having degraded inputs. PMID:24992492
Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard
Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…
Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.
Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…
Blomert, Leo; Willems, Gonny
The knowledge that reading and phonological awareness are mainly reciprocally related has hardly influenced the status of a phonological awareness deficit as the main cause of a reading deficit in dyslexia. Because direct proofs for this theory are still lacking we investigated children at familial risk for dyslexia in kindergarten and first…
Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah
Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual disability who commonly suffer from reading decoding problems. This study is aimed at determining the contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, as three well known phonological processing skills, to decoding ability among 60 participants with mild intellectual disability of unspecified origin ranging from 15 to 23 years old. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that all three aspects of phonological processing are significantly correlated with decoding ability. Furthermore, a series of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after controlling the effect of IQ, phonological awareness, and rapid automated naming are two distinct sources of decoding ability, but phonological short-term memory significantly contributes to decoding ability under the realm of phonological awareness. PMID:23314249
Lemons, Christopher J; King, Seth A; Davidson, Kimberly A; Puranik, Cynthia S; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A; Partanen, Jane; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Fidler, Deborah J
Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome would increase children's learning of phonological awareness, letter sounds, and words. Five children with Down syndrome, ages 6 to 8 years, participated in a multiple baseline across participants single case design experiment in which response to an adapted phonological awareness intervention was compared with response to the nonadapted program. Results indicate a functional relation between the adapted program and phonological awareness. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are provided. PMID:26214557
This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…
Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele
There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873 PMID:26407242
Gorman, Brenda K.
Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…
Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May
A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…
Rodríguez, Cristina; van den Boer, Madelon; Jiménez, Juan E.; de Jong, Peter F.
We examined the developmental relations of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) with reading in a cross-sectional study with 874 Spanish children from Grades 2 to 6. Our main prediction was that the RAN-reading relationship would decrease due to a gradual change in reading strategy, from serial decoding to sight word…
Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.
The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…
Zourou, Filio; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie; Sanchez, Monique
Previous studies have suggested that children with specific language impairment (SLI) risk encountering subsequent literacy difficulties, due to difficulties in phonological awareness (PA). This longitudinal study provides evidence in support of this view based on a group of 20 French-speaking children with SLI examined at the start of learning to…
Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R
The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness. PMID:23303378
Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…
Rvachew, Susan; Chiang, Pi-Yu; Evans, Natalia
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the types of speech errors that are produced by children with speech-sound disorders and the children's phonological awareness skills during their prekindergarten and kindergarten years. Method: Fifty-eight children with speech-sound disorders were assessed during the…
Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.
Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…
Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru
This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…
Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.
This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…
Schaefer, Blanca; Fricke, Silke; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Fox-Boyer, Annette V.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill
The development of phonological awareness (PA), the ability to reflect on the sound structure of words independent of their meaning, has been extensively explored in English-speaking children. However, this is not the case for other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive PA test battery for German-speaking preschool…
Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley
This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…
Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard
This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention.…
Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
The present study examined the long-term effects of a computer intervention for the development of phonological awareness in Dutch kindergartners. Native Dutch and immigrant children worked with the software 15 min per week during one school year. Following a pretest - interim test - post-test - retention test design, the effects on rhyming,…
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…
Lourenço, Mónica; Andrade, Ana Isabel
This article aims at evaluating and understanding the effects of an awakening to languages (AtL) programme, carried out with a group of 21 Portuguese children aged three to six, in the development of phonological awareness (PA). Using mixed-methods research, data was gathered from video recordings of seven AtL sessions and PA tests for an…
Bajaj, Amit; Hodson, Barbara; Schommer-Aikins, Marlene
This study was undertaken to examine the performance of 23 children who stutter (CWS) and 23 children who do not stutter (CWNS) on three metalinguistic tasks. These included two phonological awareness assessment procedures (The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC) and a Phoneme Reversal Task) and one modified Grammar Judgments Task…
Schneider, Wolfgang; Ennemoser, Marco; Roth, Ellen; Kuspert, Petra
A study examined effects of phonological awareness training on 191 German kindergartners. Comparisons of children at risk with average and advanced children revealed that training gains were similar for all of these groups. Furthermore, training had comparable long-term effects on reading and spelling in grades 1 and 2 for each group. (Author/CR)
Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine
The present study examined associations of levels of phonological awareness to word recognition in Korean and English in a 1-year longitudinal study of 91 children from Masan, Korea. With performances on tasks of speeded naming, vocabulary, and Korean Hangul in 2nd grade statistically controlled, only Korean syllable deletion predicted unique…
Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.
Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…
Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea
Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…
Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette
This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…
Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan
In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) was investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230…
Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin
We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…
Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R
It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229
Susie Russak; Elinor Saiegh-Haddad
The present study examined cross-linguistic relationships between phonological awareness in L1 (Hebrew) and L2 (English) among\\u000a normal (N = 30) and reading disabled (N = 30) Hebrew native speaking college students. Further, it tested the effect of two factors: the lexical status of the stimulus\\u000a word (real word vs. pseudoword) and the linguistic affiliation of the target phoneme (whether it is within L1 or
Pokorni, Judith L.; Worthington, Colleen K.; Jamison, Patricia J.
Researchers have found that training in phonemic awareness (PA), a fundamental element for reading acquisition, is effective in varying degrees, depending on characteristics of the audience. In this study, the authors explored the relative effectiveness of 3 programs--Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS. The authors randomly assigned 60 students with…
Naples, Adam J.; Chang, Joseph T.; Katz, Leonard; Grigorenko, Elena L.
This work’s objective was to offer additional insights into the psychological and genetic bases of reading ability and disability, and to evaluate the plausibility of a variety of psychological models of reading involving phonological awareness (PA) and rapid naming (RN), both hypothesized to be principal components in such models. In Study 1, 488 unselected families were assessed with measures of PA and RN to investigate familial aggregation and to obtain estimates of both the number and effect-magnitude of genetic loci involved in these traits’ transmission. The results of the analyses from Study 1 indicated the presence of genetic effects in the etiology of individual differences for PA and RN and pointed to both the shared and unique sources of this genetic variance, which appeared to be exerted by multiple (3–6 for PA and 3–5 for RN) genes. These results were used in Study 2 to parameterize a simulation of 3,000 families with quantitatively distributed PA and RN, so that the robustness and generalizability of the Study 1 findings could be evaluated. The findings of both studies were interpreted according to established theories of reading and our own understanding of the etiology of complex developmental disorders. PMID:19007845
Mayberry, Rachel I.; del Giudice, Alex A.; Lieberman, Amy M.
The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found statistically significant evidence for PCA skills and half did not. A subset of 25 studies also tested reading proficiency and showed a wide range of effect sizes. Overall PCA skills predicted 11% of the variance in reading proficiency in the deaf participants. Other possible modulating factors, such as task type and reading grade level, did not explain the remaining variance. In 7 studies where it was measured, language ability predicted 35% of the variance in reading proficiency. These meta-analytic results indicate that PCA skills are a low to moderate predictor of reading achievement in deaf individuals and that other factors, most notably language ability, have a greater influence on reading development, as has been found to be the case in the hearing population. PMID:21071623
Coventry, William L; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan
The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current level of PA such as blending and elision, and the dynamic test included instruction in phoneme identity to assess the child's ability to respond to this instruction. Both forms were influenced by genes and by shared and nonshared environment. The static and dynamic versions were influenced by the same genes, and part of the total genetic influence was shared with LK. They were subject to both overlapping and independent shared environment influences, with the component in common also affecting LK. Nonshared environment influences were mostly independent. Scores from dynamic assessment added only minimally to variance explained in kindergarten reading after LK and static assessment had been factored in. Although one of the genetic factors that influenced both forms of PA also affected kindergarten reading, it was only the one shared with LK. The authors conclude that dynamic assessment of PA in preschool offers little advantage over the more commonly used static forms, especially if LK scores are available, although they acknowledge its potential in cases of preschool educational disadvantage. PMID:21571699
Background Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. Method and results A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (p nominal ?=?6.85 10 -5 and p corrected ?=?0.0029). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill. PMID:25015435
Majsterek, David J.; Ellenwood, Audrey E.
Experimental phonological synthesis (sound blending) and analysis (rhyme detection) tasks were administered to children (n=76) preceding kindergarten entry. Measures of beginning reading were administered after kindergarten, first grade, and second grade. The sound blending task was significantly related to most interim and outcome measures. The…
Foster, Matthew E; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D
Abstract Objective: Both phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed have been identified as two skills related to the development of mathematics skills for children with and without learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PA and colour naming speed for 265 elementary school students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Methods: Participants were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes and the KeyMath Revised Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. Results: Hierarchical regression analyses accounting for the effects of age indicated that children with MID rely on both PA and naming speed when solving mathematics problems, although PA was the more robust indicator of the two. Conclusion: As a whole, these results suggest that children with intellectual disabilities evidence the same types of reading and math relationships as shown for other populations of children. PMID:24564185
Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu
In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…
Smith, Andrea; Wang, Ye
The researchers explored the effectiveness of Visual Phonics as a reading instructional tool when used in conjunction with a modified version of the Fountas and Pinnell Kindergarten Phonics Curriculum (Fountas & Pinnell, 2002) with a preschool student who was deaf. The study participant was a 4-year-old deaf child who had a cochlear implant. The goal of the study was to determine whether the student's phonological awareness and speech production improved over the course of a 6-week intervention. Identical pre- and postintervention tests were administered to measure the extent of any improvement. It was found that Visual Phonics used with a phonics-based curriculum significantly increased phonological awareness and speech production. PMID:20925283
Jun Ren Lee; Daisy L. Hung; Ovid J. L. Tzeng
Phonological processing deficit has been ascertained to be the core cognitive deficit of developmental dyslexia—in alphabetic languages at least. Measures of phonological processing typically include three components: phonemic awareness, phonological working memory, and rapid automatic naming. Among the three tasks, phonemic awareness was the most powerful predictor of reading abilities. Because the Chinese language has no explicit rules for mapping
Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi
In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…
He, Tung-hsien; Wang, Wen-lien
This qualitative study investigates the invented spellings of young EFL writers in terms of the relationship between phonological awareness and internalized grapheme-phoneme principles. Two kindergarteners and two first graders participated in weekly English writing tasks for 14 months. Results obtained from protocols of the students' free writing…
Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…
Alcock, K. J.; Ngorosho, D.; Deus, C.; Jukes, M. C. H.
Background: A strong link between phonological awareness (PA) and literacy exists, but the origins of this link are difficult to investigate, since PA skills are hard to test in young, pre-literate children, and many studies neither include such children nor report children's initial literacy levels. Aims: To examine PA and literacy in children…
Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen
The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…
Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca
To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…
Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.
This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…
Puolakanaho, Anne; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki
Emerging phonological awareness was compared in two groups of 3.5-year-old children belonging to the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD): children with familial risk of dyslexia (at-risk group n = 98) and children without such risk (control group n = 91). Four computer animated tasks were used: Word-level and Syllable-level Segment…
Wolfgang Schneider; Petra Küspert; Ellen Roth; Mechtild Visé; Harald Marx
Two training studies replicated and extended a Scandinavian study by Lundberg, Frost, and Petersen (1988). In Study 1, a 6-month metalinguistic training program was given to kindergartners (mean age: 5 years 7 months) who were later compared to a control group in the regular kindergarten program. Tests of phonological awareness and other metalinguistic and cognitive variables were given before and
Lemons, Christopher J.; Fuchs, Douglas
Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in our language. It is key to learning to read for typically developing children. Some have suggested that this is not true for children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this review was to provide a better understanding of the role PA plays for…
Dyer, Annabella; MacSweeney, Mairead; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Green, Louise; Campbell, Ruth
A study involving 49 students with deafness (MA=13) whose reading age (RA) was around age 7 found that although phonological awareness and decoding performance was poor compared with RA-matched controls, it nevertheless correlated with their RA. Rapid automatized naming of visual material was much faster in subjects than controls. (Contains…
A Latent Variable Investigation of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening-Kindergarten Assessment: Construct Identification and Multigroup Comparisons between Spanish-Speaking English-Language Learners (ELLs) and Non-ELL Students
Huang, Francis L.; Konold, Timothy R.
Psychometric properties of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarten (PALS-K) instrument were investigated in a sample of 2844 first-time public school kindergarteners. PALS-K is a widely used English literacy screening assessment. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a theoretically defensible measurement structure that was…
Lefrancois, Pascale; Armand, Francoise
Explores the role of phonological and syntactic awareness of 9- to 11-year-old Spanish-speaking learners of French in four components of second-language reading. Finds (1) phonological tasks in L2 better explain decoding; (2) word recognition through the visual route is best explained by corresponding ability in L1; (3) sentence comprehension is…
Rees, Rachel; Bladel, Judith
Many studies have shown that French Cued Speech (CS) can enhance lipreading and the development of phonological awareness and literacy in deaf children but, as yet, there is little evidence that these findings can be generalized to English CS. This study investigated the possible effects of English CS on the speech perception, phonological…
Terry, Nicole Patton
Children's spoken nonmainstream American English (NMAE) dialect use and their knowledge about phonological representations of word pronunciations were assessed in a sample of 105 children in kindergarten through second grade. Children were given expressive and receptive tasks with dialect-sensitive stimuli. Students who produced many NMAE…
Saygin, Zeynep M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Osher, David E; Beach, Sara D; Cyr, Abigail B; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E
Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384
Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged
Carson, Karyn; Boustead, Therese; Gillon, Gail
The screening and monitoring of phonological awareness (PA) in the classroom is of great importance to the early identification and prevention of reading disorder. This study investigated whether a time-efficient computer-based PA screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA) could accurately predict end-of-year reading outcomes for 5-year-old children in the first year of schooling. A longitudinal design was employed where the Com-PASMA was used to measure the PA ability of 95 5-year-old children at the start, middle, and end of the first year of school. Of this group, 21 children presented with spoken language impairment. Reading outcomes were formally measured after 1 year of schooling. School-entry measures of PA using the Com-PASMA (p < .001), in conjunction with language ability (p = .004), accounted for 68.9% of the variance in end-of-year word decoding ability. Sensitivity and specificity calculations demonstrated that the Com-PASMA was 92% accurate at school-entry, and 94% accurate by the middle of the school year in predicting reading outcomes at 6-years of age. Results suggest that a time-efficient computer-based method of screening and monitoring PA can support the early identification of reading difficulties in the first year of schooling. PMID:24236912
Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Bowles, Ryan P
The implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention were observed for mothers and their 4-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI). Mother-child dyads (n = 13) read books four times per week over 12 weeks; each book contained nine embedded phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Four hundred and ninety-eight book reading sessions were coded for three variables of interest: maternal support of concept development, quantity of maternal instructional support, and accuracy of children's responses to the PA tasks. Using growth curve modelling, results indicate that maternal support of concept development decreased over the course of the 12-week program, and the quantity of maternal supports changed considerably reflecting intra-individual differences among mothers. Both support of concept development and quantity of support decreased over the course of a given week. In addition, children's responses to the phonological awareness tasks significantly increased over the 12-week intervention. Overall, mothers did not provide support that consistently supported children's learning over time, and the increases in children's correct responses, although significant, were less than anticipated given the length of the intervention. These findings indicate that mothers may need additional supports when implementing emergent literacy programs with their children. PMID:21480808
Clark, Nathaniel B.; McRoberts, Gerald W.; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Braze, David
This study investigated phonological components of reading skill at two ages, using a novel pseudoword repetition task for assessing phonological memory (PM). Pseudowords were designed to incorporate control over segmental, prosodic and lexical features. In Experiment 1, the materials were administered to 3- and 4-year-old children together with a…
Yeong, Stephanie H M; Rickard Liow, Susan J
Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed. PMID:22382048
Trainor, Laurel J.
Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool Abstract We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music
Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood
The researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both respondent groups demonstrated gaps in PA knowledge and skills; however, SLPs performed significantly better, on average, than TODs. The educators expressed feelings of moderate confidence in their skills related to teaching children with hearing loss and assessing their PA. Correlations between educator demographics or levels of confidence and educator performance on PA measures did not yield significant findings. The results underscore the need for improved personnel preparation and PA continuing education for educators supporting literacy education of children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:24745107
Brady, Susan; Gillis, Margie; Smith, Tara; Lavalette, MaryEllen; Liss-Bronstein, Linda; Lowe, Evelyn; North, Wendy; Russo, Evelyn; Wilder, T. Diane
The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and…
Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of an embedded parent-child shared reading intervention on children's phonological awareness skills. Seven children considered at-risk for reading difficulty listened to 6 pre-recorded children's books with embedded early literacy activities three times each with a parent. Children's…
De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica
Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…
Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma
This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…
Wise, Justin C.; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen; Wolf, Maryanne
Limited research has examined the skills of children with a reading disability (RD) and children with RD and a mathematics disability (MD). Even less research has examined the phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in these two groups of children and how these skills relate to reading and math achievement.…
This study examines the effects of phonological skill training on consonantal phoneme deletion and word reading performance in two groups of adolescent Chinese readers who were also literate in English. The research questions were: (1) whether training would promote segmentation skills over and above years of contact with the alphabetic (English) writing system, given an initial logographic (Chinese) reading background; (2) whether improvements in segmentation skills due to training would enhance word reading in the alphabetic script. The participants were trained on phoneme counting, phoneme blending and rime judgement with English materials over a period of two months. Resultant changes in consonantal phoneme deletion and English word reading performance were examined. Significant improvements in both activities due to training were observed for the younger (mean age 12.7 years) but not the older (mean age 15.8 years) participants. Follow-up analyses showed that language proficiency might be the factor underlying this age effect. Individual differences in phoneme deletion uniquely predicted word reading for both age groups, although the relationship tended to be stronger for the less proficient than the more proficient members. These findings suggest that beyond years of normal reading instruction in the alphabetic system, specialized segmentation training could still contribute to promoting consonantal phonemic analysis that is not supported by the logographic first-learned script. Moreover, improved phonological skills do lead to better word reading in the later-learned writing system. Implications of the present findings for second script reading instruction are considered. PMID:10193054
Sharon A. Craig
Using a pretest–posttest comparison-group design, this 16-week study investigated the effects of 2 instructional approaches on the phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and early reading of kindergarten children. The primary goal was to compare a form of contextualized instruction based on an adapted interactive writing program with a field-tested program of metalinguistic games. For instructional purposes, the children in each treatment
Adina Shamir; Inessa Shlafer
Despite the young child’s increasing access to electronic books and the evidence indicating it’s effectiveness for promoting emergent literacy, research among young children at risk for learning disabilities is only just beginning. Motivated by this challenge, the study reported here compared the effect of an educational e-book on improvements in Phonological Awareness (PA) and Concept About Print (CAP) among 136
Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.
This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures…
Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David
The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…
Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.
Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and…
Dixon, Maureen; Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie
Investigates the relationship between phoneme segmentation ability and the development of orthographic representations. Finds that children who were most well equipped to perform phoneme segmentation tasks acquired the new reading vocabulary significantly faster than those who were less phonemically aware. Provides strong support for the thesis…
Mokharti, Kouider; Sheorey, Ravi
Describes the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument, which is intended to measure adolescent and adult ESL students' metacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic materials such as textbooks. Discusses the development of SORS and offers guidance for using it as a means of raising learner awareness…
Many articles have been written on malaria, but few have addressed travellers' awareness and compliance with preventive measures. The U.K. has an increasing number of travellers visiting high-risk destinations and undertaking high-risk activities, who either do not seek pre-travel advice or do not act on it. Community involvement, developing cultural competence and improved communication may help to raise awareness and encourage travellers to seek advice and change their behaviour. PMID:16097198
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Ford, Mikenzi Bentley
The current study was designed to examine the relationships between performance on a nonverbal phoneme deletion task administered in a dynamic assessment format with performance on measures of phoneme deletion, word-level reading, and speech sound production that required verbal responses for school-age children with speech sound disorders (SSDs).…
Gómez Taibo, María Luisa; Vieiro Iglesias, Pilar; González Raposo, María del Salvador; Sotillo Méndez, María
Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:20977006
Tove, Dragesund; Målfrid, Råheim; Liv Inger, Strand
The purpose of present study was to investigate important measurement properties of the Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) subscales: Function; Mood; Feelings; and Awareness. Samples of 50 patients with prolonged musculoskeletal pain and psychosomatic disorders, and 50 gender and age-matched healthy persons participated in the study. Relative (ICC 2,1) and absolute reliability (S(w)) were calculated. Construct validity was examined by testing hypothesis using Pearson (r) or Spearman rank (r(s)) correlation. Discriminate ability was examined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the curve (aROC) being the measure of discriminative validity. All patients reported more or less improvement after treatment, using the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) as an external indicator of important change. Responsiveness to important change was therefore examined by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), relating change scores of BARQ subscales to the PGIC categories. Relative and absolute reliability values were within recommended limits for all four subscales. Construct and discriminate validity was indicated for Function, Feelings and Awareness, but not for Mood. Responsiveness was indicated for the subscales Function and Awareness, but not for Feelings and Mood. Further research is needed to complement the subscales of BARQ, found with appropriate measurement properties. PMID:22288720
This study examines a salient intrasyllabic phonological unit in Korean, the body-coda unit, its role in literacy skills in Korean, and a possible source of the salience of body-coda units in the spoken language. Data were collected from Korean-speaking, monolingual beginning readers (41 kindergarteners, 40 first graders). The results indicate…
DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)
The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.
Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane
This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997
Deacon, S. Helene
This study was designed to examine the independent contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic processing and morphological awareness on early word reading. English-speaking children in Grades 1 and 3 completed measures of these three constructs, as well as standardised measures of real and pseudoword reading and of vocabulary. Each of…
PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography
Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames Research Center, each pilot flew eight trials, four using SAGAT and four using performance measures. Each set of four trials differed by level of visibility as well. The flight paths were very similar in appearance and hazard number, allowing comparison between flight paths. The pilots were tasked with flying along a road at an assigned altitude and speed while avoiding any hazards that they happened upon. The attempt here was not to find a single best measure of SA, but rather to begin an investigation of the sensitivity of common measures of SA. Upon completion of this study, its results, in combination with future studies, should allow us to develop an empirically based taxonomy of SA measures and the contexts for their appropriate use.
Rebuschat, Patrick; Hamrick, Phillip; Riestenberg, Kate; Sachs, Rebecca; Ziegler, Nicole
Williams's (2005) study on "learning without awareness" and three subsequent extensions (Faretta-Stutenberg & Morgan-Short, 2011; Hama & Leow, 2010; Rebuschat, Hamrick, Sachs, Riestenberg, & Ziegler, 2013) have reported conflicting results, perhaps in part due to differences in how awareness has been measured. The present…
Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)
Nelson, Jason M.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…
Rispens, Judith E.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Reitsma, Pieter
This study investigated the relations of three aspects of morphological awareness to word recognition and spelling skills of Dutch speaking children. Tasks of inflectional and derivational morphology and lexical compounding, as well as measures of phonological awareness, vocabulary and mathematics were administered to 104 first graders (mean age 6…
Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun
Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530
Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita
Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding of the multi-dimensional construct and suggest next steps for further research. PMID:19440300
The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.
Fracker, Martin L.
Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.
Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan
This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences. PMID:25071512
Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.
The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062
Kaber, David B.
the efficacy of a computer-based situation awareness (SA) measurement system for training dismounted infantry of their status in the near future (Level 3)" (p. 36). Soldier SA includes knowledge of events in the battlefield, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, North Carolina State University; Jennifer M. Riley and Mica
Braun, Pam; And Others
This is a teacher-developed guide for use with a unit on measurement in the elementary school. Contents are organized under the three main headings of awareness, English units, and metric units. Objectives are stated, accompanied by a description of suggested implementation activities. Also included are the relationship of the activity to a…
Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M
WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Remia, K. R.
The context of this paper is studies worldwide on influence of phonological factors in language development of children. Such studies reveal the significance of Phonological Awareness in development language skills: including, predictive value of phonological short-term memory for reading skills in Grade 1. This paper throws light on factors in…
Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.
This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739
Clin, Ellie; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Heggie, Lindsay
This study examined the relationships among prosodic sensitivity, morphological awareness, and reading ability in a sample of 104 8- to 13-year-olds. Using a task adapted from Carlisle ("Applied Psycholinguistics," 9 (1988) 247-266), we measured children's ability to produce morphological derivations with differing levels of phonological…
This article presents a theoretical overview at the cognitive level of the role of phonological awareness in reading development and developmental dyslexia across languages. It is argued that the primary deficit in developmental dyslexia in all languages lies in representing speech sounds: a deficit in phonological representation. (Contains…
Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel
Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…
Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo
It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity. PMID:24060646
Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Renee McDonald; Deborah Corbitt-Shindler; Coleen D. Carlson; David J. Francis
Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play\\u000a important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological\\u000a processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was Spanish. Confirmatory factor\\u000a analysis (CFA) supported the validity of each PPA as separate
Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Renee McDonald; David J. Francis
Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring\\u000a literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA)\\u000a in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each PPA as separate from general\\u000a cognitive ability and separate from each other. Multigroup structural equation
Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J.
Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study…
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B
Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919
The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…
This study seeks to provide new insight into the phonemic, orthographic, and syntactic awareness of individuals with prelingual\\u000a deafness and the way those contribute to reading. Two tests were used: one designed for the assessment of phonemic\\/orthographic\\u000a awareness (PO\\/OA) and another examining reading comprehension (RC) in contexts where prior knowledge was either helpful or\\u000a not. Participants were 83 prelingually deaf
Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even
Dodd, Barbara; McEvoy, Sandra
The claim that multiple-birth children use "twin language" was investigated by describing and comparing the phonological characteristics of the speech of 19 sets of multiple birth children (aged 2-4) and by measuring multiple-birth children's understanding of their twins' or triplets' context-free speech. Results indicated that multiple birth…
Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J
Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study investigated both Mandarin and English phonological patterns in typically-developing 5-year-old bilingual children in an English-immersion programme in Taiwan. Consonant and vowel accuracy, number and types of phonological processes, and Mandarin-influenced English patterns were assessed on a single-word assessment in each language. Results indicated comparable levels of phoneme accuracy and similar rates and types of phonological processes for bilinguals and their monolingual counterparts. A number of English phonological processes for bilinguals, however, suggested a possible Mandarin influence. The present results reiterate Dr Miccio's call for interdisciplinary collaboration to enhance one's understanding of bilingual language development, to advance successful intervention for bilingual children. PMID:20345265
Clin, Ellie; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Heggie, Lindsay
This study examined the relationships among prosodic sensitivity, morphological awareness, and reading ability in a sample of 104 8- to 13-year-olds. Using a task adapted from Carlisle (Applied Psycholinguistics, 9 (1988) 247-266), we measured children's ability to produce morphological derivations with differing levels of phonological complexity between stem and derivation: No Change, Phonemic Change, Stress Change, and Both Phonemic and Stress Change. A 3 (Grade) x 4 (Derivation Type) analysis of variance showed that children perform significantly more poorly on both types of derivations that involve stress changes than on phonemic change and no change derivations. Regression analyses showed that both prosodic sensitivity and morphological awareness, especially in derivations that require manipulation of stress, are significant predictors of reading ability after controlling for age, verbal and nonverbal abilities, and phonological awareness. PMID:19539306
Bednarek, Dorota; Saldaña, David; García, Isabel
Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent motion perception tasks. No differences were found between groups on the coherent motion tasks, whereas dyslexic readers were impaired relative to controls on phonological discrimination tasks. Gender differences followed the opposite pattern, with no differences on phonological tasks, and dyslexic girls performing significantly worse than dyslexic boys in coherent motion perception. These results point to the importance of phonological deficits related to speech perception in Spanish, and to possible gender differences in the neurobiological bases for dyslexia. PMID:19332361
This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…
Qian, Yi; Deng, Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Bi, Hong-Yan
Numerous studies have shown that magnocellular-dorsal (MD) pathway function is highly associated with reading ability, which is mostly indexed by phonological skill in alphabetic languages. However, it is less clear how MD pathway function influences phonological skill. As a logographic language, Chinese does not follow grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, and thus provides a tool for delineating the effects of orthographic and phonological processing on reading. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure MD pathway function in a coherent motion detection task for readers skilled in Chinese. A series of tests was used to assess participants' reading abilities, including orthographic and phonological processing skills. Results showed that several cortical regions of the MD pathway, including bilateral middle temporal visual motion areas (MT+) and the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), were activated during the coherent motion detection task. Moreover, the activation was positively correlated with rapid naming speed, and greater activation in the left MT+ was associated with superior fluency and reduced accuracy in reading, suggesting that this pathway is also involved in modulating the speed of visual processing during reading. The most important finding was that activation of the right PPC was associated with orthographic awareness, but MD pathway activation was not related to phonological awareness. The results suggest that the MD pathway is highly associated with orthographic processing, which in turn influences more general aspects of reading skill. PMID:25813780
Galluzzi, Claudia; Bureca, Ivana; Guariglia, Cecilia; Romani, Cristina
Research on aphasia has struggled to identify apraxia of speech (AoS) as an independent deficit affecting a processing level separate from phonological assembly and motor implementation. This is because AoS is characterized by both phonological and phonetic errors and, therefore, can be interpreted as a combination of deficits at the phonological and the motoric level rather than as an independent impairment. We apply novel psycholinguistic analyses to the perceptually phonological errors made by 24 Italian aphasic patients. We show that only patients with relative high rate (>10%) of phonetic errors make sound errors which simplify the phonology of the target. Moreover, simplifications are strongly associated with other variables indicative of articulatory difficulties - such as a predominance of errors on consonants rather than vowels - but not with other measures - such as rate of words reproduced correctly or rates of lexical errors. These results indicate that sound errors cannot arise at a single phonological level because they are different in different patients. Instead, different patterns: (1) provide evidence for separate impairments and the existence of a level of articulatory planning/programming intermediate between phonological selection and motor implementation; (2) validate AoS as an independent impairment at this level, characterized by phonetic errors and phonological simplifications; (3) support the claim that linguistic principles of complexity have an articulatory basis since they only apply in patients with associated articulatory difficulties. PMID:25772602
Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi
Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223
Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi
Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7-12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223
Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn
Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730
While metalinguistic awareness and speech perception have been found to each be related to numerous other linguistic processes, e.g. reading acquisition, phonological development, phonological disorders, it is only ...
The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679
Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos
Background ‘Self-objectification’ is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. Conclusions/Significance We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders. PMID:23405173
Pierce, Joe E.
While reviewing the controversial concept of describing language via the phoneme, the author spells out many problems caused by the discrepancies of phonemic theory and actual speech production. Phonological variation in actual speech utterances prompts the analysis of the phonology of language on two levels--the phonemic and the distinctive…
Ryan, Kevin Michael
Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…
Moskowitz, Arlene I.
This paper deals with methods and models appropriate to the systematic linguistic study of the child's acquisiton of phonology. Sections I through IV present a review of previous studies in the field, discuss the usefulness of the concept of "innateness," discriminate between phonetic and phonological ability, and discuss the concept of discrete…
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios
Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…
Measuring Distraction and Awareness Caused by Graphical and Textual Displays in the Periphery Jacob: human-computer interaction, awareness, peripheral displays, peripheral tasks, evaluation, graphical presenting the information in a graphical way become more effective than using text? Which types of displays
Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi
Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613
Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moura, Ricardo; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G.; Wood, Guilherme
Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744
Jimenez, Virginia; Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesus M.; Arrebillaga, Lorena
Introduction: Current cognitive approaches highlight the importance of metacognition. "Learning how to learn" facilities awareness of one's own learning process, how they work, how to optimize their functioning, control of reading process, and so on. Acquisition of these skills is one of the new educational requirements for students, as is…
Feehan, Angela; Francis, Charmaine; Bernhardt, B. May; Colozzo, Paola
Two 6-year-old male fraternal twins each received 8 weeks of morphosyntactic and phonological intervention in counterbalanced order. Progress occurred for most targets and measures, with each child making greater progress for either phonology or morphosyntax during the corresponding unitary-domain block. Gains were maintained during the subsequent…
Shukla, R. S.
First and second formant frequencies of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were measured to determine the phonological space in the speech of 30 Kannada-speaking hearing-impaired individuals in India. Compared to controls, subjects' phonological space was found to be reduced, primarily due to the lowering of the second formant of the vowel /i/.…
Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.
Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…
Gafos, Adamantios I; Benus, Stefan
A fundamental problem in spoken language is the duality between the continuous aspects of phonetic performance and the discrete aspects of phonological competence. We study 2 instances of this problem from the phenomenon of voicing neutralization and vowel harmony. In each case, we present a model where the experimentally observed continuous distinctions are linked to the discreteness of phonological form using the mathematics of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:21702841
Allen, Thomas E; Clark, M Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Miller, Paul
Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological awareness for the development of reading skills among deaf readers. Research findings (not cited by Wang and colleagues) are pointed out that reveal weak correlations between phonemic awareness and reading comprehension, and stronger correlations between other variables such as overall language skill and early exposure to a visual language. PMID:20066916
DAVID N. HOGG; KNUT FOLLESø; FRODE STRAND-VOLDEN; BELÉN TORRALBA
The process controller is required to remain updated regarding developments in the dynamically changing process state, this being referred to as the maintenance of situation awareness. Alarm systems play an important role within this task, and therefore a measure of how effective the system is for enhancing the operator's situation awareness is desirable. One proposed measure is the Situation Awareness
Samuels, Bridget D.
This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…
Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604
Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H
Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were word recognition, discrimination of spectral glides, and phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but they did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for nonspeech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251
Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.
Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were: 1) word recognition; 2) discrimination of spectral glides; and 3) phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for non-speech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251
Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui
Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.
Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas
The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.
Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.
Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364
Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P; Manser, Marta B; Townsend, Simon W
Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364
Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Vauras, Marja
Twenty-six Finnish at-risk first-graders received practice in linguistic awareness. When compared to controls on phonological awareness, listening comprehension, and WISC-R scores, the intervention group showed a more rapid building-up of phonological awareness, especially phoneme-blending ability, as well as superiority in word recognition,…
Killian, Kyle D.
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…
Cordon, Shari L.; Finney, Sara J.
In this study, the authors examine the measurement invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) across adult attachment style. A 1-factor model and measurement invariance was supported across groups. As predicted, latent mean differences showed that securely attached individuals reported significantly more mindfulness than did…
Zeng, Xianglong; Oei, Tian P S; Ye, Yiqing; Liu, Xiangping
Goenka's Vipassana meditation (GVM), a widely applied mindfulness training system rooted in Buddhism, is currently widely used. Although the two abilities cultivated in GVM, awareness and equanimity, exhibit certain similarities with the mindfulness cultivated in mindfulness-based psychotherapies (MBTs), they are not major concerns in MBTs. While many mindfulness scales have been created to measure different aspects of mindfulness constructs and certain scales and items can indeed reflect the basic abilities of awareness and equanimity, none of them can adequately capture the way in which those abilities and related ideas are applied in GVM. This paper presents a critical examination of the problems associated with the concepts and measurement of awareness and equanimity and presents potential solutions for achieving better measurement of these concepts in the future. PMID:24222100
Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.
This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…
Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris
This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…
Gafos, Adamantios I.; Benus, Stefan
A fundamental problem in spoken language is the duality between the continuous aspects of phonetic performance and the discrete aspects of phonological competence. We study 2 instances of this problem from the phenomenon of voicing neutralization and vowel harmony. In each case, we present a model where the experimentally observed continuous…
Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E.
Background Children’s exposure to food marketing is one environmental determinant of childhood obesity. Measuring the extent to which children are aware of food brands may be one way to estimate relative prior exposures to food marketing. This study aimed to develop and validate an Australian Brand Awareness Instrument (ABAI) to estimate children’s food brand awareness. Methods The ABAI incorporated 30 flashcards depicting food/drink logos and their corresponding products. An abbreviated version was also created using 12 flashcards (ABAI-a). The ABAI was presented to 60 primary school aged children (7-11yrs) attending two Australian after-school centres. A week later, the full-version was repeated on approximately half the sample (n=27) and the abbreviated-version was presented to the remaining half (n=30). The test-retest reliability of the ABAI was analysed using Intra-class correlation coefficients. The concordance of the ABAI-a and full-version was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. The ‘nomological’ validity of the full tool was investigated by comparing children’s brand awareness with food marketing-related variables (e.g. television habits, intake of heavily promoted foods). Results Brand awareness increased with age (p<0.01) but was not significantly correlated with other variables. Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the ABAI and ABAI-a. Reliability analyses revealed excellent agreement between the two administrations of the full-ABAI. Conclusions The ABAI was able to differentiate children’s varying levels of brand awareness. It was shown to be a valid and reliable tool and may allow quantification of brand awareness as a proxy measure for children’s prior food marketing exposure. PMID:26222624
Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written
Dickinson, Terry L.; Milkulka, Peter J.; Kwan, Doris; Fitzgibbons, Amy A.; Jinadu, Florence R.; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Pope, A. T. (Technical Monitor)
Two studies explored user acceptance of devices that measure hazardous states of awareness. In the first study, critical incident data were collected in two workshops from 11 operators working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. These critical incident data were used to develop a survey of the acceptability of awareness measures. In the second study, the survey was administered to 100 people also working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. Results show that operators are open to the inclusion of technology to measure HSAs even if that technology is somewhat invasive as long as feedback about the HSAs is considered to be useful and helpful. Nonetheless, a major concern is the legal complications associated with being recorded, particularly for older and more experienced operators. Air traffic controllers emphasized the importance of sharing technology information with supervisors in order to receive backup or assistance under conditions of task overload, whereas pilots emphasized the influence of work schedules on problems with awareness. Recommendations are offered concerning the implementation of devices to measure hazardous states of awareness.
Wobbrock, Jacob O.
Remote Door Awareness This system is comprised of three parts: sensors to measure the state of a door, a history database of door information, and a visualization system for commu- nicating history to end users. Door Sensors & History Database We made our sensors using two magnetic contact switches
Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl
We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of . However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF . Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.
Barker, R Michael; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Saunders, Kathryn J
Most assessments of phonemic awareness require speech responses and cannot be used with individuals with severe speech impairments who may use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This study investigated the reliability and construct validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Phonemic Awareness via the Alphabetic Principle (DAPA-AP), which does not require speech. In all, 17 adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities completed the DAPA-AP, a letter-sound knowledge task, four measures of phonological awareness, and two reading assessments. Results indicated the DAPA-AP was both a reliable and valid assessment of phonemic awareness for this sample. Consequently, the DAPA-AP represents an important step in developing phonemic awareness assessments that have the potential to be suitable for use with a wide range of individuals, including those with SSI. PMID:24564701
Gombeski, W R; Miller, P L; Levine, M J
The authors used a relatively new advertising medium to increase public awareness of their children's hospital. They found that street pole banners, a form of outdoor advertising, made a measurable, positive impression on consumer consciousness. Banners effectively supplemented a product awareness campaign that included more traditional media. This study is the first documentation of the use of banners to market health care services. Using a two-phase approach, respondents were surveyed via telephone before and after exposure. Results of the follow-up survey show significant increases in levels of awareness and preference. The authors hope their report on the successful use of street pole banners will spur further research on the use of this innovative media. PMID:10623192
Uppstad, Per Henning; Tønnessen, Finn Egil
Phonology has been a central concept in the scientific study of dyslexia over the past decades. Despite its central position, however, it is a concept with no precise definition or status. The present article investigates the notion of 'phonology' in the tradition of cognitive psychology. An attempt is made to characterize the basic assumptions of the phonological approach to dyslexia and to evaluate these assumptions on the basis of commonly accepted standards of empirical science. First, the core assumptions of phonological awareness are outlined and discussed. Second, the position of Paula Tallal is presented and discussed in order to shed light on an attempt to stretch the cognitive-psychological notion of 'phonology' towards auditory and perceptual aspects. Both the core assumptions and Tallal's position are rejected as unfortunate, albeit for different reasons. Third, the outcome of this discussion is a search for what is referred to as a 'vulnerable theory' within this field. The present article claims that phonological descriptions must be based on observable linguistic behaviour, so that hypotheses can be falsified by data. Consequently, definitions of 'dyslexia' must be based on symptoms; causal aspects should not be included. In fact, we claim that causal aspects, such as 'phonological deficit', both exclude other causal hypotheses and lead to circular reasoning. If we are to use terms such as 'phonology' and 'phoneme' in dyslexia research, we must have more precise operationalizations of them. PMID:17624910
Chapman, Marilyn L.
In this article, Marilyn Chapman provides educators and others interested in early literacy with important information about phonemic awareness to help them make decisions about what to do in their schools. She begins with an explanation of phonemic awareness and how it relates to other aspects of literacy development such as phonological…
Roon, Kevin D.
This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…
Dinnsen, Daniel A.; O'Connor, Kathleen M.
Two common and seemingly independent error patterns, namely consonant harmony and gliding, are examined for their typological characteristics based on cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from young children's developing phonologies. Data are drawn from the published literature and from the developmental phonology archives at Indiana…
Slocum, Timothy A.; And Others
Several phonological manipulation skills were taught to 35 Head Start preschool children and the degree to which learning 1 of these skills resulted in improved skill performance and learning of a second skill was studied. Results imply that the class of phonological manipulation skills does not have a simple structure. (SLD)
Salus, Peter H.
This paper is concerned with the Aristotelian notion of "universal" as applied to phonological phenomena. It is claimed that speech production in children and adults, in normal and deviant speakers, and in a variety of languages, can all be described according to the same universal phonological rules which constitute the universal process of…
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
McGregor, K K
Two children with word-finding deficits characterized largely by semantic substitutions participated in a treatment involving phonological information about target words. The treatment was motivated by models of naming where semantic information and phonological information are stored in independent ordered components. Given such models, it is possible to characterize some semantic word-finding substitutions as well as phonological word-finding substitutions as the result of breakdown at the level of the phonological output representation. The treatment was organized according to a single-subject multiple baseline design across behaviors and subjects. As hypothesized, the phonologically based treatment resulted in reduction not only of occasional phonological word-finding substitutions but also of the large number of semantic word-finding substitutions displayed during baseline and control measures of confrontation naming. In light of these data, the possible source of word-finding breakdowns in these children is explored. PMID:7877295
Jefferies, Elizabeth; Bott, Samantha; Ehsan, Sheeba; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A
Patients with semantic dementia (SD) have anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy that gives rise to a highly selective deterioration of semantic knowledge. Despite pronounced anomia and poor comprehension of words and pictures, SD patients have well-formed, fluent speech and normal digit span. Given the intimate connection between phonological STM and word learning revealed by both neuropsychological and developmental studies, SD patients might be expected to show good acquisition of new phonological forms, even though their ability to map these onto meanings is impaired. In contradiction of these predictions, a limited amount of previous research has found poor learning of new phonological forms in SD. In a series of experiments, we examined whether SD patient, GE, could learn novel phonological sequences and, if so, under which circumstances. GE showed normal benefits of phonological knowledge in STM (i.e., normal phonotactic frequency and phonological similarity effects) but reduced support from semantic memory (i.e., poor immediate serial recall for semantically degraded words, characterised by frequent item errors). Next, we demonstrated normal learning of serial order information for repeated lists of single-digit number words using the Hebb paradigm: these items were well-understood allowing them to be repeated without frequent item errors. In contrast, patient GE showed little learning of nonsense syllable sequences using the same Hebb paradigm. Detailed analysis revealed that both GE and the controls showed a tendency to learn their own errors as opposed to the target items. Finally, we showed normal learning of phonological sequences for GE when he was prevented from repeating his errors. These findings confirm that the ATL atrophy in SD disrupts phonological processing for semantically degraded words but leaves the phonological architecture intact. Consequently, when item errors are minimised, phonological STM can support the acquisition of new phoneme sequences in patients with SD. PMID:21277879
Robert Rousseau; Sébastien Tremblay; Simon Banbury; Richard Breton; Adel Guitouni
The present paper is concerned with the relationship between subjective and objective measures of situation awareness (SA) within the context of a realistic command and control (C2) scenario. A 2-day scenario involved a joint military–civilian C2 exercise relating to the (crisis) management of a large event held in a metropolitan area. The role of participants comprised both the acquisition and
Yoncheva; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason; McCandliss, Bruce
Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective atten tion to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by ma nipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data- driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater re cruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings support the key role of selective attention to phonology in the development of literacy and motivate future research on the neural bases of the interaction between phonological awareness and literacy, deemed central to both typical and atypical reading development. PMID:24746955
Petersen, Douglas B.
This study investigated the validity of measures that were hypothesized to account for significant variance in English reading ability. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Hispanic children completed letter identification, English and Spanish phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition static assessment tasks. They also…
van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; Sass, Katharina; Heim, Stefan
Developmental dyslexia can be distinguished as different cognitive subtypes with and without phonological deficits. However, despite some general agreement on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia, the neurofunctional mechanisms underlying these cognitive subtypes remain to be identified. The present BOLD fMRI study thus aimed at investigating by which distinct and/or shared neural activation patterns dyslexia subtypes are characterized. German dyslexic fourth graders with and without deficits in phonological awareness and age-matched normal readers performed a phonological decision task: does the auditory word contain the phoneme/a/? Both dyslexic subtypes showed increased activation in the right cerebellum (Lobule IV) compared to controls. Subtype-specific increased activation was systematically found for the phonological dyslexics as compared to those without this deficit and controls in the left inferior frontal gyrus (area 44: phonological segmentation), the left SMA (area 6), the left precentral gyrus (area 6) and the right insula. Non-phonological dyslexics revealed subtype-specific increased activation in the left supramarginal gyrus (area PFcm; phonological storage) and angular gyrus (area PGp). The study thus provides the first direct evidence for the neurobiological grounding of dyslexia subtypes. Moreover, the data contribute to a better understanding of the frequently encountered heterogeneous neuroimaging results in the field of dyslexia. PMID:24936406
Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen
Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.
Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar
Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850
Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.
These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…
Do, Young Ah
What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...
This paper examines several research assumptions and procedures of two recent studies of interlanguage (IL) phonology that use 'syllable structure' as a primary variable, but make opposing claims about 'open' and 'closed' IL syllable structure...
Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B
The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs. PMID:23622464
Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith
Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive to subtle relationships between sound and syntactic function and that they make rapid use of this information in comprehension. The present article reports attempts to replicate this result using both eyetracking during normal reading (Experiment 1) and word-by-word self-paced reading (Experiment 2). No hint of a phonological typicality effect emerged on any reading-time measure in Experiment 1, nor did Experiment 2 replicate Farmer et al.'s finding from self-paced reading. Indeed, the differences between condition means were not consistently in the predicted direction, as phonologically atypical verbs were read more quickly than phonologically typical verbs, on most measures. Implications for research on visual word recognition are discussed. PMID:19379050
Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith
Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, Farmer, Christiansen, and Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive to subtle relationships between sound and syntactic function, and that they make rapid use of this information in comprehension. The present article reports attempts to replicate this result using both eyetracking during normal reading (Experiment 1) and word-by-word self-paced reading (Experiment 2). No hint of a phonological typicality effect emerged on any reading time measure in Experiment 1, nor did Experiment 2 replicate Farmer et al.’s finding from self-paced reading. Indeed, the differences between condition means were not consistently in the predicted direction, as phonologically atypical verbs were read more quickly than phonologically typical verbs, on most measures. Implications for research on visual word recognition are discussed. PMID:19379050
Paul, Rhea; Jennings, Patricia
Toddlers with slow expressive language development were compared on three global measures of phonological behavior to age-mates with normal speech development. The measures were the average level of complexity of syllable structures, the number of different consonant phonemes produced, and the percentage of consonants correctly produced in…
Three experiments were undertaken to examine second and fifth grade Telugu-speaking children's awareness of phonological and orthographic properties of familiar Telugu words. Experiment 1 focused on the strategies the children used in completing word fragments. Experiment 2 examined the children's ability to judge and generate rhyming words, and…
Schaffler, Tina; Sonntag, Juliane; Hartnegg, Klaus; Fischer, Burkhart
Phonological awareness is believed to play a major role in the auditory contribution to spelling skills. The previous paper reports low-level auditory deficits in five different subdomains in 33-70% of the dyslexics. The first study of this paper reports the results of an attempt to improve low-level auditory skills by systematic daily practice of…
Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.
The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.
phonology Tea/Coffee Session 1 Chair: Richard Sproat Segmenting speech without a h,xicon: the roles Carpenter Parsing using linearly ordered phonological rules Michael Maxwell Tea/Coffee, followed hy informal
Wheeler, Max W.
Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)
Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…
A DISCOVERY PROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN PHONOLOGICAL RULES Mark Johnson Linguistics, UCSD. ABSTRACT Acquisition of phonological systems can be insightfully studied in terms of discovery procedures. This paper describes a discovery procedure, implemented in Lisp, capable of deter- mining a set of ordered phonological
White, James Clifford
Understanding how people learn the phonological patterns of their language is a major challenge facing the field of phonology. In this dissertation, I approach the issue of phonological learning by focusing on "saltatory" alternations, which occur when two alternating sounds "leap over" an intermediate, invariant sound (e.g.,…
Defior, Sylvia; Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Cano-Marin, Maria Jose
There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and…
Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs
During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature. PMID:24863157
Stow, C; Pert, S
This paper describes the development of a phonological assessment procedure for children speaking Mirpuri, Punjabi or Urdu in combination with English. The Rochdale Assessment of Mirpuri Phonology (RAMP) was produced in response to the practical difficulties of a monolingual therapist wishing to assess a child's phonological systems across all languages used. The assessment is currently being used both as a clinical tool within the Rochdale Healthcare NHS Trust Speech and Language Therapy Department and as a research tool in collaboration with the Department of Speech, University of Newcastle to provide further data on patterns of bilingual phonological acquisition. Outcomes include therapy targeted more accurately at deficits within each phonological system. PMID:10343716
McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.
This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…
Perez, Idalia Rodriguez
This guide will help teach phonemic awareness to Pre K-3 students. It presents phonemic awareness as a sophisticated branch of phonological awareness through interactive activities that allows the student to succeed in learning the sounds represented by the letters of the alphabet. The book is designed to provide easy-to-follow suggestions for:…
Girolametto, L; Pearce, P S; Weitzman, E
The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a focused stimulation intervention focusing on lexical training has indirect, secondary effects on children's phonological abilities. Twenty-five toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays and their mothers were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The children were between 23 and 33 months of age at entry into the study and were at the single-word stage of language development. Parents of late talkers in the experimental group were trained to employ frequent, highly concentrated presentations of target words without requiring responses. Two measures of phonological diversity (i.e., syllable structure level and consonant inventory) and one measure of accuracy of production (i.e., percent consonants correct) were measured prior to and following intervention within the context of mother-child interactions. The toddlers who received intervention made treatment gains in two areas of phonological ability. They used a greater variety of complex syllable shapes and expanded their speech sound inventories to include more consonant sounds in both initial and final position. In contrast, there were no effects of language treatment on the accuracy of correct production when compared to the adult phonological system. PMID:9130202
Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg
The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor
Lewis, Barbara A.
Case studies are presented of four children, age four to six, with severe phonological disorders, demonstrating three generations of family members with speech/language problems. An autosomal dominant mode, a multifactorial-polygenic model, and a sex-specific threshold model for expression are discussed. (Author/JDD)
Suleiman, Saleh M.
Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…
of the network is close to the best case performance bounds We evaluate the protocol via simulations using real, these high-fidelity monitors need to be configured properly and strategically placed across the network. Most Engineering, University of California, Davis Abstract--Network-wide traffic measurement is important
Glaspey, Amy M.; MacLeod, Andrea A. N.
The purpose of the current study is to document phonological change from a multidimensional perspective for a 3-year-old boy with phonological disorder by comparing three measures: (1) accuracy of consonant productions, (2) dynamic assessment, and (3) acoustic analysis. The methods included collecting a sample of the targets /s, [image omitted],…
Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse
The present study is the first part of a longitudinal research project investigating whether children become more aware of phonemes or rhyming when they learn letters or letter sounds or even begin to read, and if so how. For the present paper, the phonological awareness of young children aged 2-6 years was analyzed, particularly their auditory…
This study uses design-based research (DBR) to develop an empirically-substantiated instructional theory about students' development of angle and angle measure, with real-world connections and technological tools through the use of context-aware ubiquitous learning. The research questions guiding this research are: 1) How do students come to…
Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.
There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…
Miller, Laura Little
Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…
Brunellière, Angèle; Soto-Faraco, Salvador
This study investigates the specificity of predictive coding in spoken word comprehension using event-related potentials (ERPs). We measured word-evoked ERPs in Catalan speakers listening to semantically constraining sentences produced in their native regional accent (experiment 1) or in a non-native accent (experiment 2). Semantically anomalous words produced long-lasting negative shift (N400) starting as early as 250 ms, thus reflecting phonological as well as semantic mismatch. Semantically expected but phonologically unexpected (non-native forms embedded in a native context) produced only an early (?250 ms) negative difference. In contrast, this phonological expectancy effect failed for native albeit phonologically unexpected target words embedded in a non-native context. These results suggest phonologically precise expectations when operating over native input, whilst phonologically less specified expectations in a non-native context. Our findings shed light on contextual influence during word recognition, suggesting that word form prediction based on context is sensitive and adaptive to phonological variability. PMID:23454076
Killian, Kyle D
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed. PMID:22804468
McAllister, Tara Kathleen
Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...
Alshaboul, Yousef; Asassfeh, Sahail; Alshboul, Sabri; Alodwan, Talal
Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between…
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…
Cantiani, Chiara; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Sabisch, Beate; Männel, Claudia
This study explores the morphosyntactic processing deficit in developmental dyslexia, addressing the on-going debate on the linguistic nature of the disorder, and directly testing the hypothesis that the deficit is based on underlying processing difficulties, such as acoustic and/or phonological impairments. Short German sentences consisting of a pronoun and a verb, either correct or containing a morphosyntactic violation, were auditorily presented to 17 German-speaking adults with dyslexia, and 17 matched control participants, while an EEG was recorded. In order to investigate the interaction between low-level phonological processing and morphosyntactic processing, the verbal inflections were manipulated to consist of different levels of acoustic salience. The event-related potential (ERP) results confirm altered morphosyntactic processing in participants with dyslexia, especially when morphosyntactic violations are expressed by both lexical and inflectional changes. Moreover, ERP data on phoneme discrimination and behavioural data on phonemic awareness and verbal short-term memory reveal phonological deficits in dyslexic participants. However, a causal relationship between phonological and morphosyntactic processing was not conclusive, because anomalous morphosyntactic processing in dyslexia is not directly mediated by acoustic salience, rather it correlates with high-level phonological skills and is mediated by lexical cues. PMID:23628368
Freund, Louis E.; Knapp, Benjamin
This project got underway without funding approved during the summer of 1998. The initial project steps were to identify previously published work in the fields of error classification systems, physiological measurements of awareness, and related topics. This agenda was modified at the request of NASA Ames in August, 1998 to include supporting the new Cargo Air Association (CAA) evaluation of the Human Factors related to the ADS-B technology. Additional funding was promised to fully support both efforts. Work on library research ended in the late Fall, 1998 when the SJSU project directors were informed that NASA would not be adding to the initial funding of the research project as had been initially committed. However, NASA did provide additional funding for the CAA project activity. NASA elected to leave the research grant in place to provide a pathway for the CAA project funding to SJSU (San Jose State University) to support Dr. Freund's work on the CAA tasks. Dr. Knapp essentially terminated his involvement with the project at this time.
Many researchers believe that a connection exists between phonological processing skills and reading ability, and phonological deficits have often been cited as possible explanation for reading disability among both children and adults. This study will present research findings on phonological processing of various speech sounds among school-aged children who were classified as good and poor readers by standardized tests. These subjects will be administered speech discrimination tests using a variety of speech stimuli. Results of their performance on these tasks will be presented and a relationship between their reading and phonological processing abilities will be discussed.
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.
Purpose This study investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory and lexical competition were investigated. Method Participants included 32 children (ages 8;5–12;3), 16 children with SLI and 16 typically developing age- and nonverbal IQ matched peers (CA). Children’s word definitions were investigated. The words to be defined were manipulated for phonological neighborhood density. Nonword repetition and two lexical competition measures were tested as predictors of word definition abilities. Results Children with SLI gave word definitions with fewer content details than children in the CA group. Compared to the CA group, the definitions of children in the SLI group were not disproportionately impacted by phonological neighborhood density. Lexical competition was a significant unique predictor of children’s word definitions, but nonword repetition was not. Conclusions Individual differences in richness of lexical semantic representations as well as differences between children with SLI and typically developing peers may, at least in part, be explained by processes of competition. However, difficulty with auditory perception or phonological working memory does not fully explain difficulties in lexical semantics. PMID:20705746
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121
Dinnsen, D A; O'Connor, K M
Two common and seemingly independent error patterns, namely consonant harmony and gliding, are examined for their typological characteristics based on cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from young children's developing phonologies. Data are drawn from the published literature and from the developmental phonology archives at Indiana University. An asymmetry is observed such that the occurrence of harmony is found to imply the occurrence of gliding, but not vice versa. While this finding would be unexpected within contemporary derivational theories, it can be shown to follow within optimality theory from a fixed universal ranking relationship among certain constraints. Optimality theory is also argued to offer a viable developmental account with clinical implications that can serve as a further test of the theory. PMID:11797541
Joly-Pottuz, Barbara; Mercier, Melina; Leynaud, Aurelie; Habib, Michel
A group of 19 children with dyslexia aged 7 years 2 months to 10 years 9 months were selected from a clinical sample and tested using a large neuropsychological battery in order to specify the severity and subtype of dyslexia as well as the presence of comorbid conditions. Thereafter, they received a standardised training of 6 weeks of daily auditory exercises aimed at reinforcing explicit and implicit phonological awareness. Ten participants also received specific training of the sensory-motor aspects of articulatory production of individual phonemes during the first 3 weeks of auditory training, whereas the remaining received the same specific training during the last 3 weeks of auditory training. Repetition, phonological awareness, reading and spelling were assessed before the first session, between the two sessions and after the second session. Results confirm the overall efficiency of intensive phonological training, even with exclusively auditory material. The main outcome of this study is a significant improvement of phonology and non-word reading specifically during the periods where the two methods were associated, suggesting a significant contribution of articulatory training to the observed improvement. Finally performance to a motor tapping task proved to be one of the best predictors of training efficiency while comorbid co-ordination or attention deficit did not interfere. Results are interpreted with reference to current theories about mechanisms underlying dyslexia. PMID:18576269
Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz
Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138
Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L
The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438
Gabig, Cheryl Smith; Zaretsky, Elena
Recent research has acknowledged the importance of morphological awareness, beyond phonological awareness, to literacy achievement in both reading and writing for children, adolescents, and adults. Morphological awareness is the ability to recognize, reflect on, and manipulate the sublexical structure of words--the roots, prefixes, and suffixes.…
Zeng, Xianglong; Li, Mengdan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xiangping
Goenka's 10-day Vipassana course is a widespread mindfulness course rooted in traditional Buddhism. Awareness and equanimity are two abilities cultivated in this course that are not featured in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies and thereby not adequately measured by current mindfulness scales. The present article analyzed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al. in Assessment 15(2):204-223, 2008) and revised it into a short version to avoid confusion when measuring awareness and equanimity. Empirical data obtained using Chinese university students and Chinese Buddhists showed that the psychometric properties of the original version of the PHLMS had low factor loading on some items and that the short version had improved psychometric properties, especially for Buddhists. The short PHLMS also exhibited reasonable relationships with emotional outcomes and meditation practices among Buddhists. Implications for the future application of the PHLMS among Buddhists were also discussed. PMID:24824919
Berndt, Rita Sloan
The article examines the relationship of a sound-based, or phonological, code to the comprehension of written sentences, and reviews research dealing with normal and brain damaged adult readers to confirm the hypotheses that the availability of phonological information is necessary for the syntactic analysis of written sentences during…
Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…
Lewis, Barbara A.
This study examined 87 pedigrees of individuals with histories of preschool phonology disorders. Significantly more family members with dyslexia and learning disabilities, but not stuttering or hearing impairment, were found in pedigrees of individuals with phonology disorders than in pedigrees of nondisabled individuals. (Author/JDD)
Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin
In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…
Jarrah, Ali Saleh
This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…
Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim
Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…
Key, Michael Parrish
This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…
This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…
Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Park, Hyeongsaeng; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, Michael T.
Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform…
Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F.-Xavier
Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider…
Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn
This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…
Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.
The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological…
Arezzo, Emilia La Pergola
This article first gives the definition of "phonology" most widely accepted today, and then illustrates briefly the role that phonology has had in the works of European and American linguists, such as De Saussure, Trubetckoj, Sapir, Bloomfield, H. Sweet, D. Jones, O. Jesperson, K. Pike, Trager and Smith, and N. Chomsky. (CFM)
Samuels, Bridget D.
A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways.
Hall, Kathleen Currie
This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…
Karen Bogen; Lois Biener; Catherine A Garrett; Jane Allen; K Michael Cummings; Anne Hartman; Stephen Marcus; Ann McNeill; Richard J O'Connor; Mark Parascandola; Linda Pederson
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected
Johnson, Eric E.
through the Environmental Health and Safety Office website at www.nmsu.edu/~safety.) Fire ExtinguishersLaboratory Safety Scientists responsible for laboratories should be aware of several basic safety be arranged through the NMSU Environmental Health & Safety Office and/or NMSU Police Department. Chemical
Saarinen, Thomas F.
The relationship between an individual's or community's awareness of natural hazards and subsequent behavior change is examined in this review of research. The document is presented in seven sections. Following Section I, the introduction, Section II discusses the role of experience in behavior change. Section III examines the role of education…
Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara
Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…
Lean, Debra S.; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.
To examine changes in phonetic coding two age groups of 40 preschoolers were shown rhyming and nonrhyming letter sets. Recall was measured by oral free recall (testing item memory) and serial reconstruction (testing order memory). A large phonetic similarity effect was present in both groups with no developmental changes in the effect magnitude.…
February 2009 /Published online: 21 March 2009 # The International Dyslexia Association 2009 Abstract Using. of Dyslexia (2009) 59:7897 DOI 10.1007/s11881-009-0024-y S. J. Frost (*) :N. Landi :W. E. Mencl :R. Sandak :R
Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Ashwell, Sylvia
Language plays a critical role in theory of mind (ToM) development, particularly the understanding of false beliefs (FB). Further, there is some evidence that the development of FB is important for metalinguistic development, such as the understanding of homonyms and synonyms. However, there is debate regarding the nature of this relationship.…
Moritz, Catherine; Yampolsky, Sasha; Papadelis, Georgios; Thomson, Jennifer; Wolf, Maryanne
A small number of studies show that music training is associated with improvements in reading or in its component skills. A central question underlying this present research is whether musical activity can enhance the acquisition of reading skill, potentially before formal reading instruction begins. We explored two dimensions of this question: an…
Ambrose, Sophie Eva
thankful to Madison and Lila Self for developing and funding the Self Fellowship, which funded my education and helped me become a better leader and scholar. Financially, I am also indebted to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation, which................................................................................................................v? Table of Contents..............................................................................................................vii? List of Tables...
Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek
The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…
Lundeborg, Inger; Nordin, Elin; Zeipel-Stjerna, Marie; McAllister, Anita
Mastering spatial and temporal co-ordination in speech production is a challenge for children. Voice onset time (VOT) reflects timing in speech. The objective was to study VOT in Swedish children with a diagnosed phonological impairment and compare results with normative data. Thus 38 children, aged 4-11 years, in three age-groups were audio-recorded when producing minimal pairs with the plosives /p b t d k g/. Waveforms and spectrograms were analysed. Results show that children with phonological impairment produced plosives with deviant VOT values and greater variability compared to normative data. No developmental trend was seen with increasing age. Also, no relationship was found between VOT values and degree of impairment measured by percentage phonemes correct. Furthermore no relation was found between number of errors on auditory discrimination of nine minimal pairs with the different plosives and number of deviant VOT. Findings were interpreted as displaying motor co-ordination difficulties. PMID:24992946
Paul, R; Jennings, P
Toddlers with slow expressive language development were compared to normally speaking age-mates on three global measures of phonological behavior: the average level of complexity of their syllable structures, the number of different consonant phonemes produced, and the percentage of consonants correctly produced in intelligible utterances. The groups were found to differ significantly on all three variables. Further analyses were done, breaking the groups down into narrower age ranges. These comparisons also revealed differences between late-talking and normal youngsters. Detailed analyses of the range of phonemes and syllable structures produced, as well as the appearance of phoneme classes within syllable structures and positions, revealed that late talkers showed a delayed rather than a deviant pattern of phonological development. The implications of these findings for identifying and monitoring expressive delay in toddlers are discussed. PMID:1735981
Wolter, Julie A.; Green, Laura
This article highlights the clinical application of morphological awareness intervention to facilitate phonological, vocabulary, reading, and spelling success in children with language and literacy deficits. First, the research-based benefits of morphological awareness instruction are reviewed and current theoretical and research-based…
Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson
This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…
Toyoda, Etsuko; Scrimgeour, Andrew
Regardless of the script, in the process of learning to read words, readers develop awareness of the structural and functional properties of words with increased exposure to the script. However, as sub-word units that are critical for phonological or morphological processing or both are not uniform, the types of the awareness may vary from script…
Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M-Y.
This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically…
Baser, Ulku; Germen, Meliha; Erdem, Yelda; Issever, Halim; Yalcin, Funda
Objective: The aims of this descriptive, cross-sectional investigation were to evaluate the gingival health awareness of dental students by comparing their clinical gingival bleeding scores and self-reports, and to compare differences in awareness between males and females. Methods: In total, 100 (51 males, 49 females) freshman dental students were included in the study. Periodontal indices recorded were: Presence of plaque percentage (plaque index [PI], %), percentage of sites of bleeding on probing (BOP, %), probing depth, and community periodontal index (CPI). Percent agreement, kappa agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated by comparing their self-reported gingival bleeding and BOP%. Results: The self-reports of gingival bleeding exhibited statistically significant correlations with BOP% in females (r = 0.42, P = 0.003). Female students showed a higher degree of awareness when kappa agreement, 0.23 (males: 0.16, females: 0.39), sensitivity, 48% (males: 42%, females: 51%), and specificity, 95% (males: 90%, females: 100%) were calculated. Although male dental students had higher PI and CPI scores, there was no significant difference by gender in the clinical measurements. Conclusions: According to our results, the validity of self-reported gingival bleeding was higher among dental students than in previous population-based studies. Female dental students showed a higher degree of awareness than males of their gingival health. Half of the included dental students could not differentiate whether they had gingival bleeding when there was actual bleeding. More emphasis should be given to the education of dental students regarding the relationship between gingival bleeding and active periodontal disease. PMID:25202217
Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…
Harrison, Gina L.; Krol, Lisa
Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological…
Maïonchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Écalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta
To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to sonority-related markedness constraints. We tested 10 French dyslexic children compared with 20 typically developing chronological age-matched and reading level-matched controls. All were tested with two aurally administered syllable counting tasks that manipulated well-formedness of unattested consonant clusters, as determined by universal phonological sonority-related markedness constraints (onset clusters in Experiment 1; intervocalic clusters in Experiment 2). Surprisingly, dyslexic children's response patterns were similar to those in both control groups; as universal phonological sonority-related markedness increased, dyslexic children increasingly perceptually confused and phonologically repaired clusters with an illusory epenthetic vowel (e.g., /??bal/). Although dyslexic children were systematically slower, like both control groups, they were influenced by universal sonority-related markedness constraints and hierarchically ranked constraints specific to French over evident acoustic-phonetic contrasts or sonority-unrelated cues. Our results are counterintuitive but innovative and compete to question an impaired universal phonological grammar because dyslexic children were found to have normal universal phonological constraints and were skilled to restore phonotactically legal syllable structures with a language-specific illusory epenthetic vowel (i.e., /?/-like vowel). We discuss them regarding active phonological decoding and recoding processes within the framework of the optimality theory. PMID:23374605
Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne
While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and deaf native signers. 3. Free recall memory (primacy effect) better predicted reading comprehension in deaf native signers as compared to oral deaf or hearing individuals. 4. Language experience should be taken into account when considering cognitive processes that mediate reading in deaf individuals.
Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...
Albro, Daniel M.
This report describes a computational system with which phonologists may describe a natural language in terms of autosegmental phonology, currently the most advanced theory pertaining to the sound systems of human ...
Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R
Can our decisions be guided by unconscious or implicit influences? According to the somatic marker hypothesis, emotion-based signals can guide our decisions in uncertain environments outside awareness. Postdecision wagering, in which participants make wagers on the outcomes of their decisions, has been recently proposed as an objective and sensitive measure of conscious content. In 5 experiments we employed variations of a classic decision-making assessment, the Iowa Gambling Task, in combination with wagering in order to investigate the role played by unconscious influences. We examined the validity of postdecision wagering by comparing it with alternative measures of conscious knowledge, specifically confidence ratings and quantitative questions. Consistent with a putative role for unconscious influences, in Experiments 2 and 3 we observed a lag between choice accuracy and the onset of advantageous wagering. However, the lag was eliminated by a change in the wagering payoff matrix (Experiment 2) and by a switch from a binary wager response to either a binary or a 4-point confidence response (Experiment 3), and wagering underestimated awareness compared to explicit quantitative questions (Experiments 1 and 4). Our results demonstrate the insensitivity of postdecision wagering as a direct measure of conscious knowledge and challenge the claim that implicit processes influence decision making under uncertainty. PMID:25313949
Siew, Cynthia S. Q.
Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735
Moore, David R; Rosenberg, Joy F; Coleman, John S
Auditory perceptual learning has been proposed as effective for remediating impaired language and for enhancing normal language development. We examined the effect of phonemic contrast discrimination training on the discrimination of whole words and on phonological awareness in 8- to 10-year-old mainstream school children. Eleven phonemic contrast continua were synthesised using linear interpolation coding from real speaker endpoints. Thirty children were pre-tested on the Word Discrimination Test (WDT) and the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB). Eighteen then trained for 12 x 30min sessions over 4 weeks using an adaptive three interval two alternative phonemic matching task. The remaining children participated in regular classroom activities. In Post-testing, trained children significantly increased their age-equivalent scores on both the WDT and PhAB by about 2 years. For the PhAB, no improvement was found in the controls. Enhanced performance in the trained children was maintained in a delayed test 5-6 weeks following training. Enhancements on the trained discriminations were weak and variable. The results indicate a dramatic improvement in phonological awareness following phonemic discrimination training without matching perceptual learning. PMID:15896385
Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian
Purpose The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M = 11.8 years, SD = 1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M = 11.8 years, SD = 1.5). Method Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in the phoneme monitoring task was compared to an auditory tone monitoring task. Results Repeated measures analysis of the response time data revealed significant Group × Task × Position interaction with the CWS becoming progressively slower than the CNS in monitoring subsequent phonemes located within the bisyllabic words; differences were not observed in the auditory tone monitoring task. Repeated measures analysis of the error data indicated that the groups were comparable in the percent errors in phoneme vs. tone monitoring. The CWS group was also significantly slower in a picture naming task compared to the CNS. Conclusions Present findings suggest that CWS experience temporal asynchronies in one or more processes leading up to phoneme monitoring. The findings are interpreted within the scope of contemporary theories of stuttering. Educational objectives At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) discuss the literature on phonological encoding skills in children who stutter, (b) identify theories of phonological encoding in stuttering, (c) define the process of phonological encoding and its implications for fluent speech, (d) suggest future areas of research in the investigation of phonological encoding abilities in children who stutter. PMID:23540912
Although awareness of the underlying phonological structure of a language is said to be a prerequisite in learning to read, there is still much debate as to which phonological units are the best predictors. The syllable plays an important role in accounting for various phonological phenomena observed cross-linguistically, and studies have shown its importance in promoting reading abilities. However, in the case of Tokyo Japanese, the role of the syllable is inconspicuous compared to the mora unit. This is due to the fact that in practice, the syllable often overlaps with the mora, exceptions arising from the syllables that contain the so-called 'special moras', i.e. the heavy syllables containing two moras. Traditionally, the main focus of attention in Japanese had been laid on different behaviours observed between the plain 'normal' moras and the 'special' moraic phonemes. However, in recent years, studies conducted have been focused on the different phonological patterning observed within the moraic phonemes themselves. In order to better understand the characteristics of these moraic phonemes, we report on our findings based on reversal tasks administered to elementary school students. The result of the experiment suggests that the degree of independency of these moraic phonemes in terms of phonological make-up seems to have an effect on the error patterns observed. PMID:25909862
Riley, Ellyn Anne
Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…
Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf
Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…
Schwartz, Richard G.
This response to Fey (EC 604 058) reviews recent advances in phonological theories, including autosegmental, metrical, and lexical phonology, and their potential applications. A new theory of developmental change that is also cognitive in orientation is presented, along with some suggestions for clinical applications. (DB)
There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...
The year-long Introduction to Phonology reviews at the graduate level fundamental notions of phonological analysis and introduces students to current debates, research and analytical techniques. The Fall term reviews issues ...
Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B
Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372
Linklater, Danielle L.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Palardy, Gregory J.
The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined…
Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun
The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…
Weekes, B. S.; Chen, M. J.; Lin, Y-B.
Finds phonological priming effects on compound targets (characters containing separate radical components); no evidence of phonological priming on integrated targets (those not containing separate radicals); semantic priming effects on both compound and integrated target recognition, suggesting that phonological and semantic activation are…
In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously in the definition of the set of features used to describe phonological processes. The Jakobsonian statement of distinctive feature theory in the 1952 caused a paradigm shift in the relations between phonetics and phonology. Changes
Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja
Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony…
Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim
Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…
One hundred twenty 6- to 10-year-olds were administered three measures of speed of processing, three memory span tasks, three tasks assessing phonological skill, and three articulation tasks assessing the speed with which they could say familiar stimuli aloud. Regression analyses revealed that performance on the span tasks was predicted by performance on the phonology and articulation tasks but not by age or performance on the processing speed tasks. Results are discussed in terms of the processes responsible for age-related change in memory span. PMID:9344487
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.
Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.
The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…
Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.
Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of speech errors that uncovers non-accommodated or mismatch errors. A mismatch error is a sub-phonemic error that results in an incorrect surface phonology. This type of error could arise during the processing of phonological rules or they could be made at the motor level of implementation. The results of this work have important implications for both experimental and theoretical research. For experimentalists, it validates the tools used for error induction and the acoustic determination of errors free of the perceptual bias. For theorists, this methodology can be used to test the nature of the processes proposed in language production. PMID:24389843
Steinbrink, Claudia; Klatte, Maria; Lachmann, Thomas
It is still unclear whether phonological processing deficits are the underlying cause of developmental dyslexia, or rather a consequence of basic auditory processing impairments. To avoid methodological confounds, in the current study the same task and stimuli of comparable complexity were used to investigate both phonological and basic auditory (temporal and spectral) processing in dyslexia. German dyslexic children (Grades 3 and 4) were compared to age- and grade-matched controls in a vowel length discrimination task with three experimental conditions: In a phonological condition, natural vowels were used, differing both with respect to temporal and spectral information (in German, vowel length is phonemic, and vowel length differences are characterized by both temporal and spectral information). In a temporal condition, spectral information differentiating between the two vowels of a pair was eliminated, whereas in a spectral condition, temporal differences were removed. As performance measure, the sensitivity index d' was computed. At the group level, dyslexic children's performance was inferior to that of controls for phonological as well as temporal and spectral vowel length discrimination. At an individual level, nearly half of the dyslexic sample was characterized by deficits in all three conditions, but there were also some children showing no deficits at all. These results reveal on the one hand that phonological processing deficits in dyslexia may stem from impairments in processing temporal and spectral information in the speech signal. On the other hand they indicate, however, that not all dyslexic children might be characterized by phonological or auditory processing deficits. PMID:25128788
Yip, Moira J
Human language draws on a complex set of cognitive, motor and auditory skills. Some of these are found in other species but others are thought to be absent. There has been a burst of research in this area over the past five years, both in examining natural communication systems and also in the laboratory, exposing animals to human language. Most of the work has focused on analogies to syntax. Although many of the fundamental building blocks for basic phonological skills might be found outside humans, most aspects of core phonology have never been investigated. PMID:16931109
Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.
Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…
McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne
The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon
The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…
Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro
Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…
Schnur, Tatiana T.
The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396
Siddeswara Mayura Guru; Suhinthan Maheswararajah
\\u000a In wireless sensor network applications, sensor measurements are corrupted by noise resulting from harsh environmental conditions,\\u000a hardware and transmission errors. Minimising the impact of noise in an energy constrained sensor network is a challenging\\u000a task. We study the problem of estimating environmental phenomena (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure) based on noisy sensor\\u000a measurements to minimise the estimation error. An environmental phenomenon
Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth
Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...
The lexical bias effect refers to the fact that phonological errors result in real words more often than would be predicted by chance. It has also been observed that phonemes are more likely to be exchanged if they are ...
Prashanth Aravinda Kumar Acharya; Ashish Sharma; Elizabeth M. Belding; Kevin C. Almeroth; Konstantina Papagiannaki
Traditional rate adaptation solutions for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks perform poorly in congested networks. Measurement studies show that congestion in a wireless network leads to the use of lower transmission data rates and thus reduces overall network throughput and capacity. The lack of techniques to reliably identify and characterize congestion in wireless networks has prevented development of rate adaptation solutions
Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.
In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…
morphographic nature of Chinese. In light of the inapplicability of the DRC model to Chinese reading, Yin and Weekes (2003), based on several cases of Chinese dyslexia, proposed a “triangle model” to describe how Chinese characters can be read. This “triangle... representation is supported by the cases of deep and surface dyslexia in Chinese (Law & Or, 2001; Law, Wong, & Chiu, 2005; Yin & Butterworth, 1992). For example, deep dyslexia, which is characteristic of semantic errors in reading, is caused by the impairment...
Chung, Young Hee
A study of Karok, an American Indian language spoken in northern California, provides an argument for CV theory over moraic theory from compensatory lengthening. In a previous study, moraic theory is argued to be superior to CV phonology in accounting for compensatory lengthening; it is shown here that compensatory lengthening in Karok cannot be…
Describes a study that examined phonological features of a group of 10 Urdu speaking children (20 to 30 months) to determine if a general theory of language learning can be deduced on the basis of Jakobson's theory of language universals. Addresses the question of how far such a theory is applicable to Urdu speaking children acquiring their native…
1 1 Phonological category resolution: A study of handshapes in younger and older sign languages* Assaf Israel Sign Language Research Lab The University of Haifa 31905 Haifa, Israel firstname.lastname@example.org Wendy Sandler Sign Language Research Lab The University of Haifa 31905 Haifa, Israel wsandler
This paper discusses phonological processes which assign ultimate phonetic realizations to function words. Stress patterns of function words are studied along with phonetic variation between strong and weak forms. The Auxiliary Reduction Rule is extended to account for the phonetic variation. (Author/AM)
Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…
Rubrecht, August Weston
Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…
Yoo, Jeewon; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
In the present study, we examined the effects of lexical-semantic knowledge and of difficulty level on phonological memory performance by monolingual adult English speakers and bilingual adult Korean-English speakers. The monolingual English speakers were more proficient in English than the bilingual speakers. All participants were tested on a range of phonological memory tasks in English. We manipulated the degree to which the phonological memory tasks involved lexical-semantic knowledge of English (word-span task, digit-span task, and nonword repetition task), as well as the difficulty level of the tasks. Results revealed that on the word-span task (highest level of lexical-semantic knowledge), monolinguals outperformed bilinguals at the easier levels of the task but bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the more difficult levels of the task. For the digit-span and nonword repetition tasks, monolinguals outperformed bilinguals at the easier levels of the tasks, but the differences between the two groups vanished with the increase in the difficulty levels. Together, these results suggest that proficiency-based differences between monolingual and bilingual phonological memory performance depend on the degree to which the tasks rely on lexical-semantic knowledge and the difficulty level of the task. PMID:22907206
In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…
White, Katherine S.; Peperkamp, Sharon; Kirk, Cecilia; Morgan, James L.
We explore whether infants can learn novel phonological alternations on the basis of distributional information. In Experiment 1, two groups of 12-month-old infants were familiarized with artificial languages whose distributional properties exhibited either stop or fricative voicing alternations. At test, infants in the two exposure groups had…
LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley
The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…
The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…
Dautriche, Isabelle; Swingley, Daniel; Christophe, Anne
Novel words (like tog) that sound like well-known words (dog) are hard for toddlers to learn, even though children can hear the difference between them (Swingley & Aslin, 2002, 2007). One possibility is that phonological competition alone is the problem. Another is that a broader set of probabilistic considerations is responsible: toddlers may resist considering tog as a novel object label because its neighbor dog is also an object. In three experiments, French 18-month-olds were taught novel words whose word forms were phonologically similar to familiar nouns (noun-neighbors), to familiar verbs (verb-neighbors) or to nothing (no-neighbors). Toddlers successfully learned the no-neighbors and verb-neighbors but failed to learn the noun-neighbors, although both novel neighbors had a familiar phonological neighbor in the toddlers' lexicon. We conclude that when creating a novel lexical entry, toddlers' evaluation of similarity in the lexicon is multidimensional, incorporating both phonological and semantic or syntactic features. PMID:26114905
Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.
Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…
Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…
The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…
This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…
Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…
In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…
Shibamoto, J. S.; Olmstead, D. L.
Looks at phonological development in lexical terms and extends the method of Ferguson and Farwell to consideration of syllables within words. The research is directed toward the question of whether children acqure a sound system by following "universal" orders of acquistion or by developing distinct strategies. (EJS)
Statistical learning, implicit memory, and phonology Prahlad Gupta (prahlad memory is based on statistical learning; (2) phonological learning of word forms is based on implicit memory, and therefore that (3) phonological learning of word forms is statistical learn- ing. Implicit
Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.
The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343
Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O
The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one's native language, in one's second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343
Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.
Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…
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Meilach, Dona Z.
Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)
Paul Miller; M. Diane Clark
A review of research investigating prelingually deaf individuals’ word reading skills, phonemic awareness, and reading comprehension\\u000a challenges the widely held conclusion that the impoverished readings skills of such individuals are the result of poor phonological\\u000a processing abilities. Compelling findings show that—notwithstanding often remarkably poor phonemic awareness of the prelingually\\u000a deaf—such readers succeed in developing word-reading strategies that sustain written word
B. A. Blachman; E. W. Ball; R. S. Black; D. M. Tangel
Recent evidence suggests that training in phoneme awareness has a positive impact on beginning reading and spelling. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction in phonological awareness provided in low-income, inner-city kindergarten classrooms by kindergarten teachers and their teaching assistants. Prior to the intervention, the 84 treatment children and 75 control children, who attended inner-city
Phillips, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hamilton, C.B.
The pending OSHA standard revision proposed in 1990 to lower the asbestos Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and to mandate effective asbestos control measures (ACM) in brake and clutch assembly work may have a profound effect on industries involved in such operations. Health protection of workers will be improved and costs of improved control methods and training will increase. Considering these facts, this preliminary study was designed to assess the level of worker and management awareness of asbestos hazards associated with brake and clutch repair and to determine what ACM had been implemented by businesses in Knoxville and Knox County, Tennessee. The study, in a metropolitan area of approximately 336,000 people, revealed eight different categories of businesses conducting brake and clutch repair work with an estimated 363 potentially exposed employees. Results of the study suggest that managers and employees of the 80 businesses studied were in need of asbestos hazard awareness training and more adequate asbestos control measures.
Hanley, J Richard; Bakopoulou, Eirini
Two experiments tested competing predictions about the nature of the irrelevant speech effect that were derived from Neath's (2000) feature model and from Salamé and Baddeley's (1982) phonological loop model. The first experiment examined the combined effects of irrelevant speech and articulatory suppression when target items were presented auditorily. Contrary to the suggestions of Neath, but consistent with the phonological loop model, the effects of articulatory suppression and irrelevant speech were additive even when the irrelevant speech was presented during the retention interval The second experiment examined the combined effects of irrelevant speech and phonological similarity when target items were presented visually. Consistent with the phonological loop model, the effects of phonological similarity and irrelevant speech were additive when participants were specifically instructed to use articulatory/phonological rehearsal to remember the list items. The results therefore contradicted Neath's claim that irrelevant speech abolishes the phonological similarity effect when list items are presented visually. However, the effect of phonological similarity was abolished in the irrelevant speech conditions when no instructions were given concerning rehearsal. It is argued that the phonological similarity effect disappears in some experiments because participants sometimes employ a semantic rehearsal strategy, consistent with the views of Salamé and Baddeley (1986). PMID:12921421
Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity during tasks demanding selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli delivered in concurrent streams. Auditory stimuli were syllables spoken by different voices and occurring in central or peripheral space. Visual stimuli were centrally or more peripherally presented letters in darker or lighter fonts. The participants performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task in either modality. Within each modality, we expected a clear distinction between brain activations related to nonspatial and spatial processing, as reported in previous studies. However, within each modality, different tasks activated largely overlapping areas in modality-specific (auditory and visual) cortices, as well as in the parietal and frontal brain regions. These overlaps may be due to effects of attention common for all three tasks within each modality or interaction of processing task-relevant features and varying task-irrelevant features in the attended-modality stimuli. Nevertheless, brain activations caused by auditory and visual phonological tasks overlapped in the left mid-lateral prefrontal cortex, while those caused by the auditory and visual spatial tasks overlapped in the inferior parietal cortex. These overlapping activations reveal areas of multimodal phonological and spatial processing. There was also some evidence for intermodal attention-related interaction. Most importantly, activity in the superior temporal sulcus elicited by unattended speech sounds was attenuated during the visual phonological task in comparison with the other visual tasks. This effect might be related to suppression of processing irrelevant speech presumably distracting the phonological task involving the letters. PMID:23261663
Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al
Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281
Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno
We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…
The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological…
Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer
The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…
Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.
This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…
Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: Research has shown that young children with speech sound disorders may have weaknesses in phonological processing. However, such skills have not been thoroughly examined in adolescents with residual speech sound errors. Therefore, this study compared the phonological processing abilities of adolescents with residual speech sound errors to…
Holmes, Virginia M.; Quinn, Lisa
This study investigated the phonological skills of university students who were unexpectedly poor spellers relative to their word reading accuracy. Compared with good spellers, unexpectedly poor spellers showed no deficits in phonological memory, selection of appropriate graphemes for phonemes in word misspellings and nonword spellings, and…
I-Ping Wan; Jeri J. Jaeger
One of the fundamental goals of every phonological theory is to account for the nature of the basic units of speech sounds, and the relationships between these units and their contextual variants. This relationship is equally crucial to phonological theory whether it is called `phonemes and allophones', `underlying and surface forms', or `input and output'. However, purely structural analyses of
oriented theories of morphology. For any particular aspect of phonological form, it is an empirical of July, 2014*** Abstract. This paper compares the predictions of theories that allow phonological realiza- tion (Vocabulary Insertion) only at morphemes (MIO), versus theories that also allow re- alization
De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart
The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…
Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Rayner, Keith
Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive…
French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena
This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan
The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…
Silbert, Noah H.
Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…
Lee, Chang H.
Three experiments were conducted to test the phonological recoding hypothesis in visual word recognition. Most studies on this issue have been conducted using mono-syllabic words, eventually constructing various models of phonological processing. Yet in many languages including English, the majority of words are multi-syllabic words. English…
Daigle, Daniel; Armand, Francoise
In order to become expert readers of an alphabetical language like French, students must develop and adequately use phonological knowledge. Considering that the phonological knowledge used in reading largely comes from knowledge of the oral language, what happens when the oral language is not accessible, as is the case for many deaf children? In…
Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel
Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…
Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker
Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch, reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study investigated…
Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan
In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…
Phonological neutralization from a generative viewpoint is examined, and the process of solving the problems of representing the products of neutralization is described. First, in generative phonological terms, the product must be morphologically irresoluble in order to be considered a true neutralization. This distinguishes neutralization from…
Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang
Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…
Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack
The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits
A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links between performance for real words was better preserved than nonwords (lexicality effect). A 2-stage treatment
Girolametto, Luigi; And Others
A study of 25 toddlers with expressive language delays and their mothers investigated whether a focused stimulation intervention concentrating on lexical training had indirect, secondary effects on the children's phonological abilities. Results indicate the toddlers that received the intervention made treatment gains in two areas of phonological…
Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…
Proctor, Michael Ian
Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…
Jackson, Dianna Dale
The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the perceptions of special education teachers and the eight factors (Teacher Beliefs, School climate, Culturally responsive Classroom Management, Home and Community Support, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum and Instruction, Cultural Sensitivity and Teacher…
Giacobe, Nicklaus A.
Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…
Doscher, Stephanie Paul
Higher education institutions across the United States have developed global learning initiatives to support student achievement of global awareness and global perspective, but assessment options for these outcomes are extremely limited. A review of research for a global learning initiative at a large, Hispanic-serving, urban, public, research…
McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K
This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A left-dominant network of temporal and motor cortex showed increased activity for longer items, with motor cortex only showing greater activity concomitant with adding consonant clusters. An individual-differences analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between activity in the angular gyrus and the hippocampus, and accuracy on pseudoword repetition. As models of pWM stipulate that its neural correlates should be activated during both perception and production/rehearsal [Buchsbaum, B. R., & D'Esposito, M. The search for the phonological store: From loop to convolution. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 762-778, 2008; Jacquemot, C., & Scott, S. K. What is the relationship between phonological short-term memory and speech processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 480-486, 2006; Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). New York: Academic Press, 1974], we further assessed the effects of the two factors in a separate passive listening experiment (Experiment 2). In this experiment, the effect of the number of syllables was concentrated in posterior-medial regions of the supratemporal plane bilaterally, although there was no evidence of a significant response to added clusters. Taken together, the results identify the planum temporale as a key region in pWM; within this region, representations are likely to take the form of auditory or audiomotor "templates" or "chunks" at the level of the syllable [Papoutsi, M., de Zwart, J. A., Jansma, J. M., Pickering, M. J., Bednar, J. A., & Horwitz, B. From phonemes to articulatory codes: an fMRI study of the role of Broca's area in speech production. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2156-2165, 2009; Warren, J. E., Wise, R. J. S., & Warren, J. D. Sounds do-able: auditory-motor transformations and the posterior temporal plane. Trends in Neurosciences, 28, 636-643, 2005; Griffiths, T. D., & Warren, J. D. The planum temporale as a computational hub. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 348-353, 2002], whereas more lateral structures on the STG may deal with phonetic analysis of the auditory input [Hickok, G. The functional neuroanatomy of language. Physics of Life Reviews, 6, 121-143, 2009]. PMID:20350182
Ziegler, J C; Van Orden, G C; Jacobs, A M
Phonological manipulations affect performance in a letter search task that requires only a shallow level of processing. In Experiment 1, phonology reduced accuracy in the letter search task when a pseudohomophone (GAIM) contained a target letter ("i") that was missing in the spelling of its (nonpresented) sound-alike base word (GAME). In Experiment 2, phonology increased accuracy in the letter search task when the target letter was present in both the spelling of the pseudohomophone and the spelling of its sound-alike base word ("m" in GAIM and GAME). In Experiment 3, we showed that the phonology-hurts effect of Experiment 1 is not peculiar to nonword letter strings but generalizes to familiar words. In Experiment 4, we obtained a phonology-hurts effect on correct response times when stimuli were visible until participants responded (stimuli were not masked). PMID:9180046
Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)
Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.
This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…
Pearce, Mary Dorothy
This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.
Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith
We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065
Buchsbaum, Bradley R; D'Esposito, Mark
The phonological loop system of Baddeley and colleagues' Working Memory model is a major accomplishment of the modern era of cognitive psychology. It was one of the first information processing models to make an explicit attempt to accommodate both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological loop was expanded to include the emerging field of functional brain imaging. The modular and componential structure of the phonological loop seemed to disclose a structure that might well be transcribed, intact, onto the convolutions of the brain. It was the phonological store component, however, with its simple and modular quality, that most appealed to the neuroimaging field as the psychological "box" that might most plausibly be located in the brain. Functional neuroimaging studies initially designated regions in the parietal cortex as constituting the "neural correlate" of the phonological store, whereas later studies pointed to regions in the posterior temporal cortex. In this review, however, we argue the phonological store as a theoretical construct does not precisely correspond to a single, functionally discrete, brain region. Rather, converging evidence from neurology, cognitive psychology, and functional neuroimaging argue for a reconceptualization of phonological short-term memory as emerging from the integrated action of the neural processes that underlie the perception and production of speech. PMID:18201133
The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.
Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K
In this article, we advance the concept of "evolutionary awareness," a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities-which we refer to as "intergenerational extended phenotypes"-by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment. PMID:25300054
Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Simmons, Deborah C.
There is growing evidence of cross-language transfer in metalinguistic processes related to reading acquisition and development. In particular, phonological awareness is a requisite process that shares similarities across Spanish and English. Through explicit instruction and instructional design analyses, we propose principles to facilitate…
Compiled monthly by the Education Information Center of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction in association with The Landmark Project, Current Awareness is a bibliographic database of the most recent literature on issues related to education and technology. Garnered from an extensive journal collection, the citations in the database are indexed into more than 200 topic areas. Educators may browse the database by topic or conduct keyword searches on topic or title. Queries yield brief citations in a tabular format.
This guide on avalanche awareness and safety discusses the anatomy of an avalanche (starting zone, track, and runout zone), avalanche factors and conditions, determining if the snowpack is safe (using snowpits and shear tests), when and where avalanches happen, the typical victims, tips for survival, an avalanche danger scale, and a list of avalanche quick checks. Avalanche conditions discussed include weather, snowfall, temperature and wind direction, snowpack, slope angle, slope orientation, terrain, and vegetation.
Smith, Louis M.; Kleine, Paul F.
An experiment was conducted to test three hypotheses: (1) as teacher cognitive complexity increases then teacher awareness increases, (2) as teacher cognitive differentiation increases then teacher awareness increases, (3) as teacher awareness increases then pupil esteem for the teacher increases. Measurements were made in the late spring using 69…
van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Pape-Neumann, Julia; Grande, Marion; Grabowska, Anna; Heim, Stefan
The present study investigates the neurobiological basis of two subtypes of dyslexia with either a double deficit (concerning phonological awareness and rapid naming) or a single rapid naming deficit. We compared such groups of German dyslexic primary school children to each other and with good reading children in a phoneme deletion task performed during fMRI scanning. Children heard German words or pseudowords and repeated the remainder of the stimulus while deleting the initial phoneme (e.g. tear - _ear). In four conditions, the input stimulus (word or pseudoword) could either become another word or pseudoword as output. The word-word condition stuck out against all other conditions involving pseudowords: Dyslexics with a double deficit showed a strong response in left areas 44 and 45 in Boca's region, whereas dyslexics with rapid naming difficulties revealed a contralateral effect in right areas 44 and 45. These findings, which were obtained without presenting written or pictorial stimuli, reveal that a double deficit in dyslexia is not the sum of single deficits, but rather involves the interaction of lexical and phonological processing, making strong demands on the left inferior frontal cortex. In general, the results stress the importance of considering subtypes of dyslexia differentially in order to obtain better insights in the neurocognitive mechanisms of impaired and successful reading. PMID:24129489
Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the "phonological mean length of utterance", a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the…
Brysbaert, M; Van Dyck, G; Van de Poel, M
Bilingual written language representation was investigated with the masked phonological priming paradigm. Pseudohomophonic and control primes of French target words were used to show that Dutch-French bilinguals exhibit the same pattern of phonological and orthographic priming as native French speakers, which suggests that the same processes underlie first-and second-language processing. It was also found that for bilinguals, but not monolinguals, it is possible to prime a target word of the second language with a homophonic stimulus (either word or nonword) of the first language. This interlingual phonological priming effect was of the same size as the intralingual priming effect. Implications for theories of bilingual written language representation and for the interpretation of the masked phonological priming paradigm are discussed. PMID:10069030
, the one-way interaction between phonological and ortho- graphic word forms is prevented by damage comprehension (auditory, visual, tactile, etc.) and picture naming tasks (spoken and written) (e.g. Hillis, Rapp
Mandel, Mark A.
Presents three sets of data (signs from the "Dictionary of ASL," 1976; loan signs; and case histories of specific signs) that demonstrate the involvement of the "knuckle-wrist connection" with American Sign Language phonology. (AM)
Grainger, Jonathan; Kiyonaga, Kristi; Holcomb, Phillip J.
The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the time course of orthographic and phonological priming in the masked priming paradigm. Participants monitored visual target words for occasional animal names, and ERPs to nonanimal critical items were recorded. These critical items were preceded by different types of primes: Orthographic priming was examined using transposed-letter (TL) primes (e.g., barin-BRAIN) and their controls (e.g., bosin-BRAIN); phonological priming was examined using pseudohomophone primes (e.g., brane-BRAIN) and their controls (e.g., brant-BRAIN). Both manipulations modulated the N250 ERP component, which is hypothesized to reflect sublexical processing during visual word recognition. Orthographic (TL) priming and phonological (pseudohomophone) priming were found to have distinct topographical distributions and different timing, with orthographic effects arising earlier than phonological effects. PMID:17201781
Ananian, C. Scott
Phonology Project Part II: Laryngeal Neutralization and Syllable Structure C. Scott Ananian Andrew Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3.2 Sanskrit Overview Optimality Theoretic Treatments of Sanskrit 13 4.1 Lombardi: Alignment Constraints
Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.
Kurczek, Jake C.
Aging affects the ability to retrieve words for production, despite maintainence of lexical knowledge. In this study, we investigate the influence of lexical variables on picture naming accuracy and latency in adults ranging in age from 22 to 86 years. In particular, we explored the influence of phonological neighborhood density, which has been shown to exert competitive effects on word recognition, but to facilitate word production, a finding with implications for models of the lexicon. Naming responses were slower and less accurate for older participants, as expected. Target frequency also played a strong role, with facilitative frequency effects becoming stronger with age. Neighborhood density interacted with age, such that naming was slower for high-density than low-density items, but only for older subjects. Explaining this finding within an interactive activation model suggests that, as we age, the ability of activated neighbors to facilitate target production diminishes, while their activation puts them in competition with the target. PMID:24563568
Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E
This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372
Simner, J; Smyth, R
Simner and Smyth (1998) propose that anaphoric lexical access (ALA) occurs at an anaphor and targets the lexical entry (specifically, the lemma) of the antecedent. Since the word frequency effect (e.g., Rubenstein et al., 1970) resides at the lexeme (Jescheniak & Levelt, 1994) Simner and Smyth predict, and subsequently illustrate, that ALA exhibits no frequency effect. A problem arises, however: if ALA does not access the lexeme, how do we account for phonological priming at anaphor sites (e.g., Tanenhaus et al., 1985)? We claim that this is the result of "incidental" lemma-to-lexeme activation. Furthermore, we argue that since lexeme activation is not crucial to anaphor comprehension, anaphor reading times indicate lemma search times only (therefore there is no frequency effect). An experiment is presented demonstrating that lemma-access during ALA can cause incidental lexeme activation without invoking a frequency effect. PMID:10433737
Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O
The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994
McNab, Fiona; Hillebrand, Arjan; Swithenby, Stephen J.; Rippon, Gina
Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyze magnetoencephalography data, we localized the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14–30?Hz) and gamma (30–50?Hz) frequency bands were analyzed in pre-selected time windows of 350–550 and 500–700?ms In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350–550?ms), but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14–20?Hz) for the phonological task and high beta (20–30?Hz) for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10), both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30–50?Hz), but in different time windows, 500–700?ms for the phonological task and 350–550?ms for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40), both tasks elicited changes in the 20–30?Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350–550?ms for the phonological task and 500–700?ms for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains. PMID:22908001
MacLeod, Andrea A N; Glaspey, Amy M
The acquisition of phonemes does not occur in an "all or nothing" manner; instead, children gradually acquire dimensions of phonological knowledge. This gradual acquisition of phonemes is explored in the present study by comparing three types of measures taken from speech samples of three preschool-aged girls with a Speech Sound Disorder. The process of acquisition of velar stops was measured during 16 weeks of Cycles based speech treatment. Three types of measures were used to study the gradual acquisition of velar stops: acoustic analyses using voice onset time (VOT) for initial consonants and vowel duration for final consonants, speech adaptability using the Glaspey Dynamic Assessment of Phonology, and phonetic accuracy based on phonetic transcription. The children were assessed prior-to, after 8, and after 16 sessions of treatment based on a modified Cycles approach. At the onset of the study, the children had begun the process of acquiring velar stops. Differences on acoustic measures and speech adaptability measures were observed for velars that were not reflected in the phonetic transcription. The acoustic analyses and the speech adaptability measures were more sensitive and incremental in showing change over time when compared to phonetic transcription, with fewer ceiling and floor effects across the children. Although the individual profiles of gradient change were not simple, the acoustic and adaptability measures provided additional information regarding gradient change, and support our argument that a necessary approach is one that describes multiple dimensions of a child's phonological knowledge. PMID:24588471
Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the 'self.' However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish 'self' from 'other' in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the 'simulationist' account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task' for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the 'Director Task' but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715
Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the ‘self.’ However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘other’ in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the ‘simulationist’ account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task’ for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the ‘Director Task’ but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715
Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...
Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhang, Jie
We investigate the role of phonological alternation during speech production in Mandarin using implicit priming, a paradigm in which participants respond faster to words in sets that are phonologically homogeneous than in ...
Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N.
The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed. PMID:24809477
Vitevitch, Michael S.
In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890
Lorentz, James P.
This is a report on the deviant phonological system of a 4-year-old child. Although this system is characterized by deletions, assimilations, simplifications, and distortions, there is a regularity in the system which lends itself to systematic phonological analysis. Based on an examination of sample phonological deviations, the following rules…
Tsai, Jie-Li; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Hung, Daisy L.; Yen, Nai-Shing
The role of phonological coding for character identification was examined with the benefit of processing parafoveal characters in eye fixations while reading Chinese sentences. In Experiment 1, the orthogonal manipulation of phonological and orthographic similarity can separate two types of phonological benefits for homophonic previews, according…
Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may facilitate lexical learning in adults. The goals of this research were (i) to examine whether bilingual influences on word learning diverge for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words, and (ii) to examine whether increased phonological memory capacity can account for…
It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
Christophe, Anne; Guasti, Teresa; Nespor, Marina; Van Ooyen, Brit; Dupoux, Emmanuel
Reviews the hypothesis, "phonological bootstrapping," that a purely phonological analysis of the speech signal may allow infants to start acquiring the lexicon and syntax of their native language. Study presents a model of phonological bootstrapping of the lexicon and syntax that helps illustrate the congruence between problems. Article argues…
Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert
In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological…
Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle
Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…
Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul
Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological…
Holyk, Gregory G.; Pexman, Penny M.
Lukatela and Turvey (2000) demonstrated a phonological priming effect in the lexical decision task (LDT) with a 14-ms prime and concluded that phonology plays a central role in word meaning activation. In contrast, several other researchers reported that phonological priming is significant only at much longer prime durations (e.g., Ferrand &…
Lukatela, Georgije; Eaton, Thomas; Sabadini, Laura; Turvey, M. T.
What form is the lexical phonology that gives rise to phonological effects in visual lexical decision? The authors explored the hypothesis that beyond phonological contrasts the physical phonetic details of words are included. Three experiments using lexical decision and 1 using naming compared processing times for printed words (e.g., plead and…
Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Ramus, Franck
We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting…
Tang, Giang; Barlow, Jessica
There has been little or no research on Vietnamese phonological development, let alone on phonological disorders of Vietnamese-speaking children. The goal of this study is to evaluate the sound systems of monolingual Vietnamese-speaking children with phonological impairment. Independent and relational analyses of four children (ages 4;4 to 5;5)…
Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R; Velleman, Shelley L
Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some phonological processes were observed only in the Down syndrome group. Kannada is a non-Indo European language spoken in the southern Indian state of Karnataka that has not had much research attention, especially with respect to persons with communication disorders. This paper highlights the phonological processes observed in school-aged persons with Down syndrome, some of which are similar to those observed in English and Dutch (cluster reduction, stopping, gliding, consonant harmony) and others that differ owing to differences in Kannada's phonology (e.g. retroflex fronting, degemination). The study gives a cross-linguistic perspective to the study of phonological processes in Down syndrome. PMID:20136507
Newbury, Dianne F.; Winchester, Laura; Addis, Laura; Paracchini, Silvia; Buckingham, Lyn-Louise; Clark, Ann; Cohen, Wendy; Cowie, Hilary; Dworzynski, Katharina; Everitt, Andrea; Goodyer, Ian M.; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Kindley, A. David; Miller, Laura L.; Nasir, Jamal; O'Hare, Anne; Shaw, Duncan; Simkin, Zoe; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky; Watson, Jocelynne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Fisher, Simon E.; Seckl, Jonathon R.; Helms, Peter J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Baird, Gillian; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Monaco, Anthony P.
Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the absence of any obvious explanatory factors. We performed a high-density screen of SLI1, a region of chromosome 16q that shows highly significant and consistent linkage to nonword repetition, a measure of phonological short-term memory that is commonly impaired in SLI. Using two independent language-impaired samples, one family-based (211 families) and another selected from a population cohort on the basis of extreme language measures (490 cases), we detected association to two genes in the SLI1 region: that encoding c-maf-inducing protein (CMIP, minP = 5.5 × 10?7 at rs6564903) and that encoding calcium-transporting ATPase, type2C, member2 (ATP2C2, minP = 2.0 × 10?5 at rs11860694). Regression modeling indicated that each of these loci exerts an independent effect upon nonword repetition ability. Despite the consistent findings in language-impaired samples, investigation in a large unselected cohort (n = 3612) did not detect association. We therefore propose that variants in CMIP and ATP2C2 act to modulate phonological short-term memory primarily in the context of language impairment. As such, this investigation supports the hypothesis that some causes of language impairment are distinct from factors that influence normal language variation. This work therefore implicates CMIP and ATP2C2 in the etiology of SLI and provides molecular evidence for the importance of phonological short-term memory in language acquisition. PMID:19646677
Newbury, Dianne F; Winchester, Laura; Addis, Laura; Paracchini, Silvia; Buckingham, Lyn-Louise; Clark, Ann; Cohen, Wendy; Cowie, Hilary; Dworzynski, Katharina; Everitt, Andrea; Goodyer, Ian M; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Kindley, A David; Miller, Laura L; Nasir, Jamal; O'Hare, Anne; Shaw, Duncan; Simkin, Zoe; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky; Watson, Jocelynne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Fisher, Simon E; Seckl, Jonathon R; Helms, Peter J; Bolton, Patrick F; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Baird, Gillian; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Monaco, Anthony P
Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the absence of any obvious explanatory factors. We performed a high-density screen of SLI1, a region of chromosome 16q that shows highly significant and consistent linkage to nonword repetition, a measure of phonological short-term memory that is commonly impaired in SLI. Using two independent language-impaired samples, one family-based (211 families) and another selected from a population cohort on the basis of extreme language measures (490 cases), we detected association to two genes in the SLI1 region: that encoding c-maf-inducing protein (CMIP, minP = 5.5 x 10(-7) at rs6564903) and that encoding calcium-transporting ATPase, type2C, member2 (ATP2C2, minP = 2.0 x 10(-5) at rs11860694). Regression modeling indicated that each of these loci exerts an independent effect upon nonword repetition ability. Despite the consistent findings in language-impaired samples, investigation in a large unselected cohort (n = 3612) did not detect association. We therefore propose that variants in CMIP and ATP2C2 act to modulate phonological short-term memory primarily in the context of language impairment. As such, this investigation supports the hypothesis that some causes of language impairment are distinct from factors that influence normal language variation. This work therefore implicates CMIP and ATP2C2 in the etiology of SLI and provides molecular evidence for the importance of phonological short-term memory in language acquisition. PMID:19646677
A tale of two studies on auditory training in children: A response to the claim that 'discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children' by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005).
Halliday, Lorna F
In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. PMID:24470350
(FM), a group of adults with dyslexia, and a group of normal readers in a divided visual field paradigm. FM had been diagnosed with developmental dyslexia at age 8. This type of dyslexia is marked by a deficient usage of phonological encoding... by the group with dyslexia--even though the effect was not as strong. No effect of orthography was found with the controls. Lavidor et al. argue that FM and the dyslexic individuals are more sensitive to orthographic cues because the phonological system...
Qi, Sharon; O'Connor, Rollanda
A study examined which phonological skills, as primary skills, can more effectively be developed and lead to decoding skills in low-skilled kindergartners: (1) segmentation/blending, or (2) rhyming/first sound identification? Low-skilled kindergartners (n=61), who scored less than 4 items correctly in 3 out of 5 measures, were randomly assigned to…
Lennox, C; Siegel, L S
To investigate the development of phonological and visual skills used in spelling, 420 children between the ages of 6 and 16 completed the spelling dictation test of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised. The misspellings were scored for phonological as well as visual accuracy using a constrained (inclusion of position cues) and an unconstrained system. Poor spellers made fewer phonologically accurate and fewer visual matches than age-matched average spellers. Poor spellers produced significantly more misspellings that were close visual matches to the target word and fewer phonologically unconstrained misspellings than spelling grade-matched average spellers. The groups did not differ in their production of phonologically constrained misspellings. Average spellers used a phonological approach more frequently than a visual approach, while the reverse pattern was true for poor spellers. When phonological rules are less well developed, then individuals are more likely to use orthographic skills. PMID:8683185
Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Park, Soon-Gil
A large battery of reading related skills were orally administered to 111 4-year old and 118 5-year old Korean kindergartners, who were also tested on reading of regular and irregular Korean Hangul words. In regression equations, speeded naming was uniquely associated with reading of both regular and irregular words. In contrast, only the three…
Bertolin, Marta; Cercatto, Maria C; Requena, Celia; Serra-Guillen, Carlos; Llombart, Beatriz; Sanmartin, Onofre; Guillen, Carlos; Nagore, Eduardo
Melanoma is potentially curable if diagnosed at its earliest stages and treated properly. The best approaches for reducing deaths due to melanoma are primary and secondary prevention. The objective of this study is to evaluate patient awareness of the risk factors for developing melanoma and attitudes toward its prevention. Also, this study aims to assess observance of recommended preventive measures and to identify possible factors associated with a low adoption of these measures. This cross-sectional study based on an online questionnaire included 185 consecutively enrolled subjects at risk of developing melanoma monitored in a pigmented lesion unit in Valencia (Spain). Level of knowledge, attitude, and observance of preventive measures were evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out using contingency tables, chi-squared test, and Spearman correlation. Out of those who reported practicing skin self-examination, only 24.1 % performed it in the optimal way. A better attitude was observed in low-risk patients (r?=?-0.28, p?0.01). Being female (p?0.01), aged 18-35 (p?=?0.02), fair-haired (p?=?0.02), having skin phototype I-II (p?0.01), and a suitable attitude (p?=?0.05) and knowledge (p?0.01) were related to a better use of sunscreens and avoidance of sun exposure. Knowledge was inversely associated with age (p?=?0.01). Despite the high level of knowledge and positive attitude, inadequate practice of compliance with recommended primary and secondary preventive measures was observed in our risk population. PMID:25510366
Broen, Patricia A.; And Others
The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…
It is asserted that the glottal stop in Thai must be present in underlying forms, even though it could be derived by phonological rule. It is argued that unless the glottal stop is present in the underlying form, certain linguistically significant generalizations are either obscured or lost altogether. (RM)
Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.
Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…
Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi
This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Ziemer, Suzanne M.
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of using nonword (NW) stimuli in treatment of children with phonological disorders relative to real words (RWs). Methods: Production data from 60 children were examined retrospectively. Thirty of the participants were previously treated on sounds in error using NWs, and the other 30 had been treated using RWs.…
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.
Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…
Ferguson, Charles A.
A series of studies will collect empirical data on consonant development in children, in relation to three major issues of phonological theory: basic units, universal hierarchy, and recognition vs. production. Topics of investigation will be: English initial fricatives, English glide consonants singly and in clusters, and Spanish intervocalic…
Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis
We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…
Katz, R B; Lanzoni, S M
The performance of deep dyslexics in oral reading and other tasks suggests that they are poor at activating the phonology of words and non-words from printed stimuli. As the tasks ordinarily used to test deep dyslexics require controlled processing, it is possible that the phonology of printed words can be better activated on an automatic basis. This study investigated this possibility by testing a deep dyslexic patient on a lexical decision task with pairs of stimuli presented simultaneously. In Experiment 1, which used content words as stimuli, the deep dyslexic, like normal subjects, showed faster reaction times on trials with rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. bribe-tribe) than on control trials (consisting of non-rhyming, dissimilarly spelled words), but slower reaction times on trials with non-rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. couch-touch). When the experiment was repeated using function words as stimuli, the patient no longer showed a phonological effect. Therefore, the phonological activation of printed content words by deep dyslexics may be better than would be expected on the basis of their oral reading performance. PMID:1484974
Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Goldenberg, Georg; Ziegler, Wolfram
Imitation in speech refers to the unintentional transfer of phonologically irrelevant acoustic-phonetic information of auditory input into speech motor output. Evidence for such imitation effects has been explained within the framework of episodic theories. However, it is largely unclear, which neural structures mediate speech imitation and how…
Politzer, Robert L.; Bartley, Diana E.
This memorandum is a systematic listing and description of the salient features of English phonology and morphology, accompanied by a listing of parallel features in nonstandard dialects that account for the difficulties the speakers of nonstandard speech experience in the acquisition of standard English. The dialects considered are English as…
Sosa, Anna V.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol
Purpose: This study examines the influence of word frequency, phonological neighborhood density (PND), age of acquisition (AoA), and phonotactic probability on production variability and accuracy of known words by toddlers with no history of speech, hearing, or language disorders. Method: Fifteen toddlers between 2;0 (years;months) and 2;5…
Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.
There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…