Webb, Mi-young L.; Lederberg, Amy R.
Purpose: This study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA. Method: One hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with…
REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC Concerns regarding communication Please return this form to: Clinical Administrator Email: email@example.com Department of Communication/s: Home Phone: Work Phone: Mobile Phone: Email: Preferred method of contact during the day: (Between 9am
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…
Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao
We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…
de Jong, Peter F
The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were taught the letter sounds that were paired to these same symbols. Each letter sound corresponded to the first sound of the word that was previously associated with that symbol in the phonological similarity group, whereas such a relation was absent in the other group. In addition, measures of vocabulary, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness were administered. Phonological similarity facilitated letter-sound learning. Individual differences in phonological awareness had a strong effect on letter-sound learning even after current letter knowledge was controlled. Unexpectedly, the effects of phonological awareness and the ability to use phonological similarity on letter-sound learning were found to be independent. PMID:17692331
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological…
Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan
This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.
Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan
This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…
A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Denise Swan; Usha Goswami
The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and
Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B
Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614
Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.
This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…
Runge, Timothy J.; Watkins, Marley W.
Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…
Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha
We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…
Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the first year students at primary school. In the study, the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the students were measured at the beginning of the term. Students' writing skills were measured in the middle of…
Judith M. T. Vloedgraven; Ludo Verhoeven
The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of\\u000a children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming,\\u000a phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory factor analysis and analyses\\u000a conducted within the framework of item response
Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan
The goals of the current study were to examine concurrent and longitudinal relationships of expressive morphosyntax and phonological awareness in a group of children with speech sound disorders. Tests of phonological awareness were administered to 38 children at the end of their prekindergarten and kindergarten years. Speech samples were elicited and analyzed to obtain a set of expressive morphosyntax variables. Finite verb morphology and inflectional suffix use by prekindergarten children were found to predict significant unique variance in change in phonological awareness a year later. These results are consistent with previous research showing finite verb morphology to be a sensitive indicator of language impairment in English. PMID:19076403
Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan
This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. PMID:25149961
de Jong, Peter F.
The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…
Saunders, Kathryn J.; DeFulio, Anthony
In this study we asked whether measures of phonological awareness and rapid naming were correlated with single-word reading skills of 30 adults with mild mental retardation. We presented four tests of phonological awareness (for rime, first, middle, and end-sound categorization), two rapid-naming tests (pictures and letters), and the Woodcock…
Ambrose, Sophie Eva
Purpose: 1) To assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant (CI) enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. 2...
Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...
Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.
Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161
Phonological awareness and morphological awareness have been shown to affect Chinese children's reading development. Previous studies conducted in Hong Kong, which required children to read two-character words only or a ...
BRUNO D E C ARA; USHA G OSWAMI
Phonological awareness skills are critical for reading acquisition, yet relatively little is known about the origins of phonological awareness. This study investigates one plausible source of the emergence of phono- logical awareness, phonological neighbourhood density. As vocabulary grows, the number of similar-sounding words in the child's mental lexicon increases. This could create developmental pressure to develop awareness of sub-units within
Chen, Xi; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Hao, Meiling; Wu, Xinchun; Shu, Hua
The effect of bilingualism on the development of phonological awareness of Chinese children was investigated in 2 studies comparing bilingual speakers of both Cantonese and Mandarin with monolingual speakers of Mandarin. Cantonese-speaking children had developed more advanced onset and rime awareness by 2nd grade as they learned Mandarin in school…
Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling
This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…
Virginia A. Mann; Judith G. Foy
To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked\\u000a at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants.\\u000a Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn and Lewis, The Kahn-Lewis phonological analysis, 1986; Shriberg, Journal of
Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed
Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language. PMID:25515022
Gabig, Cheryl Smith
This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…
Opitz, Michael F.
This book addresses common questions to enable teachers to make informed decisions about the appropriateness of integrating phonological awareness activities into their language arts programs. The primary purpose is to call attention to recently published (mid to late 1990s) children's literature that can be used to foster children's…
Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to analyze spoken language into its component sounds and to manipulate these smaller units. Literature review related to PA shows that a variety of factor groups play a role in PA in Mandarin such as linguistic experience (spoken language, alphabetic literacy, and second language learning), item type,…
Rvachew, Susan; Grawburg, Meghann
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness (PA) skills in preschool-aged children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: Ninety-five 4- and 5-year-old children with SSD were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year. Linear structural…
Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.
Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…
Layton, Lyn; And Others
Examines (in a pilot study and the first two phases of a longitudinal study) preventing the emergence of written language difficulties by addressing the ability of preschoolers to make phonological judgments. Notes that children identified as having poor rhyme awareness were given one-to-one training, and that students were given training in…
Ambrose, Sophie E.
Purpose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether preschoolage…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.
Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brown, Tracey; Sirimanna, Tony; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to investigate possible benefits of cochlear implant (CI) use on the development of phonological awareness in deaf children. Nineteen CI users were tested on 2 occasions. Two groups of deaf children using hearing aids were tested once: 11 profoundly deaf and 10 severely deaf children. A battery of…
Dixon, L. Quentin
This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…
Waring, Phoebe; Woodyatt, Gail
Substantial research has detailed the reading deficits experienced by children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although phonological awareness (PA) is vital in reading development, little is known about PA in the DMD population. This pilot study describes the PA abilities of a group of five young children with DMD, comparing the results…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.
This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…
Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan
The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…
Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong
Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological…
Mishra, Ranjita; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study investigated the relationships between phonological awareness and reading in Oriya and English. Oriya is the official language of Orissa, an eastern state of India. The writing system is an alphasyllabary. Ninety-nine fifth grade children (mean age 9 years 7 months) were assessed on measures of phonological awareness, word reading and…
Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann
The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological…
Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.
The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation,…
Gillon, Gail T.
This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…
Goodman, Ilana; Libenson, Amanda; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
Recent research has found that sensitivity to linguistic stress is related to phonological awareness and reading development. This study investigated the roles of two types of linguistic stress sensitivity (lexical and metrical stress) in the phonological awareness and reading development of young children. Forty-five kindergarten children were…
Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.
Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…
Lundberg, Ingvar; And Others
Examines a program in Denmark that uses metalinguistic games and exercises to stimulate preschool children's discovery of the phonological structure of language. Concludes that phonological awareness can be developed outside the context of the acquisition of an alphabetic writing system, and that this awareness facilitates subsequent reading and…
Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas
One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573
Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.
This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…
Chera, Pav; Wood, Clare
Used software in the form of talking books to promote phonological awareness in children beginning to read. The 15 children, aged 3 to 6, who received the intervention showed higher increases in phonological awareness than the 15 comparisons, but there were no significant benefits observed for word reading. (SLD)
Maslanka, Phyllis; Joseph, Laurice M.
Examines the differential effects of sound boxes and sound sort phonological awareness instructional techniques on preschoolers' phonological awareness performance. Finds that children in the sound box group significantly outperformed children in the sound sort group on isolating medial sounds and segmenting phonemes. Reveals that preschool…
Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Catts, Hugh W.
This study examined the usefulness and predictive validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness in two samples of kindergarten children. In one sample (n = 90), the predictive validity of the dynamic assessment was compared to a static version of the same screening measure. In the second sample (n = 96), the dynamic screening measure…
Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.
The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…
Williams, Jennifer S.
In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…
Foster, Kelli C.; And Others
DaisyQuest is a computer program that teaches and provides practice in synthetic and analytic phonological skills. Researchers found young children trained on DaisyQuest had significantly greater phonological awareness gains than children without training. Children trained on a more developed version significantly outperformed a matched group on…
Examines relationships between levels of phonological awareness and early reading ability. Finds significant correlations between metaphonological abilities and reading for kindergarteners but weak or nonexistent correlations in the tasks involving sensitivity to phonological similarities for first graders. Notes that all children who developed…
Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat
Background and Objectives The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. Subjects and Methods 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Results Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Conclusions Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area. PMID:25279225
Fracasso, Lucille E; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S
The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…
Schiff, Rachel; Calif, Sharon
In this study, 57 fifth-grade native Hebrew speakers performed orthographic-phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and oral word reading tasks in both Hebrew (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). The results of the language-specific task scores in the two languages reflect, with certain qualifications, participants'…
Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling; Charles Hulme; Jim Stevenson
A short-term longitudinal study was carried out on a group of 67 preschool children. At three points in time over a 12-month period, the children were given tests measuring their syllable, rime, and phoneme awareness, speech and language skills, and letter knowledge. In general, children's rime skills developed earlier than their phoneme skills. Structural equation models showed that articulatory skills
Mora, Joan C.; Rochdi, Youssef; Kivistö-de Souza, Hanna
This study investigated Spanish-speaking learners' awareness of a non-distinctive phonetic difference between Spanish and English through a delayed mimicry paradigm. We assessed learners' speech production accuracy through voice onset time (VOT) duration measures in word-initial pre-vocalic /p t k/ in Spanish and English words, and in…
Lathroum, Linda M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music perception in predicting phonological awareness in five- and six-year-old children. This study was based on the hypothesis that music perception and phonological awareness appear to have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms. Previous research investigating the relationship between these…
M. H. J. Peeters; L. T. W. Verhoeven; A. J. L. M. van Balkom; J. M. H. de Moor
Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and accompanying disabilities are prone to reading difficulties. The aim of the present study was to examine the foundations of phonological awareness in pre-school children with CP in comparison with a normally developing control group. Rhyme perception was regarded as an early indicator of phonological awareness, whereas non-verbal reasoning, speech ability, auditory perception, auditory
M. Peeters; L. Verhoeven; H. van Balkom; J. de Moor
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and accompanying disabilities are prone to reading difficulties. The aim of the present study was to examine the foundations of phonological awareness in pre-school children with CP in comparison with a normally developing control group. Rhyme perception was regarded as an early indicator of phonological awareness, whereas non-verbal reasoning, speech ability, auditory perception, auditory
Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine
The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…
Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard
Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…
Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna
Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…
Hansen, Blake D; Wadsworth, Jamie P; Roberts, Mallory R; Poole, Tawni N
This study evaluated the effects of an intervention for teaching phonological awareness skills to kindergarten-age children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The intervention employed a combined multiple treatment and multiple baseline design, embedded in playtime and implemented under naturally occurring conditions. Six children in a special education kindergarten class were taught syllable segmentation, first sound identification, and phoneme segmenting. Results indicated that all children made gains on each skill. Results are discussed in light of current research on phonological awareness intervention for young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:25086428
Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley
This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…
Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea
Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…
Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…
Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…
Laing, Sandra P.; Espeland, Wendy
Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Dickson, Shirley; Bursuck, William D.; White, Jennifer M.
The content of four phonological awareness training programs was analyzed according to six principles of effective instructional design related to teaching students at risk for reading failure. Analysis revealed that no program effectively included all six principles, implying that teachers need to adapt programs to improve their effectiveness.…
Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru
This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…
Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha
Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…
Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.
Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…
Pae, Hye Kyeong; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.
Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) skills in relation to reading acquisition were examined using two languages, one with a deep orthography (English) and the other with a shallow orthography (Korean). Participants were 50 Korean American children who spoke English as a dominant language (DL) and were learning to read…
Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.
This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…
Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.
Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…
Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Williams, Mira Cole; Ely, Emily
Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers' understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called…
Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May
A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…
Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.
It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…
Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Duran, Lillian K.; Gillam, Sandra Laing; Liang, Lan; Aghara, Rachel; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Mike A.; Landry, Susan H.
This study describes the dimensionality and continuum of Spanish phonological awareness (PA) skills in 3- to 6-year-old children. A 3 x 4 factorial design crossed word structure of test items (word, syllable, phoneme) with task (blending multiple-choice, blending free-response, elision multiple-choice, elision free-response) to assess 12 PA…
Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.
A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…
Emad M. Alghazo; Yasser A. Al-Hilawani
A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom practices, on the other hand, was significantly noticeable, an indication that
Zhang, Lawrence Jun
This paper reports on two phases of a study of a group of advanced TEFL (teachers-of-English-as-a-foreign-language) students. To raise their awareness of the importance of discourse intonation while they were receiving teacher training, this study focuses on examining their sociocultural and psychological inclinations in the choice of phonological…
Gorman, Brenda K.
Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…
Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.
The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…
Littleton, K.; Wood, C.; Chera, P.
Framed by current concerns about boys' attainment in literacy, this paper investigates the potential of talking books software to support the literacy development of male beginning readers. The study primarily considered whether typically developing boys who showed lower levels of attainment in phonological awareness would show a greater degree of…
Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard
This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention.…
The purpose of this study was to identify relationships that exist between reading ability in 3rd grade and phonological awareness in kindergarten. A second purpose was to identify specific prereading skills that best predict later reading success. This study used a quantitative research design to answer the research questions posed. The…
Ostad, Snorre A
The majority of recent studies conclude that children's private speech development (private speech internalization) is related to and important for mathematical development and disabilities. It is far from clear, however, whether private speech internalization itself plays any causal role in the development of mathematical competence. The main concerns of the present study were whether phonological awareness skills relate to private speech internalization, and whether the answer to this question changes with children's age and mathematical achievement levels. Comparisons were made between 67 children diagnosed with math difficulties and 67 children without math difficulties from Grade 2 to Grade 7 in primary schools. Two separate laboratory investigations were performed to explore children's developmental levels of private speech and phonological awareness, respectively. Analysis was based on private speech differences, phonological awareness differences, and differences in occurrence of private-speech/phonological-awareness category combinations. Children without math difficulties showed a grade-determined shift from less to more internalized private speech and from lower to higher levels of phonological awareness. In contrast, the development of children with math difficulties seemed almost to stop at the inaudible private speech/low level of phonological awareness combinations. Silence/high phonological level was the primary alternative for typical math achievers. Results are discussed in terms of directions for future research. PMID:22134964
Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin
We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…
JUDITH WRIGHT; BARRIE JACOBS
This paper describes an applied training study which investigated the differential effects of two instructional methods on the reading performance of primary school children with reading difficulties. Sixty five children aged 7-10 participated. Twenty five children were assigned to each of two experimental groups: direct instruction in phonological awareness and the alphabetic principle, or the same direct instruction in phonological
Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital
This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for…
Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R
It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229
Patrick M. O’Leary; Mary K. Cockburn; Douglas R. Powell; Karen E. Diamond
Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income\\u000a children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current\\u000a study examined Head Start teachers’ views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve children’s sound and word\\u000a skills. Teachers’ descriptions of their instructional strategies emphasized more planning
Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…
Mayberry, Rachel I.; del Giudice, Alex A.; Lieberman, Amy M.
The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found statistically significant evidence for PCA skills and half did not. A subset of 25 studies also tested reading proficiency and showed a wide range of effect sizes. Overall PCA skills predicted 11% of the variance in reading proficiency in the deaf participants. Other possible modulating factors, such as task type and reading grade level, did not explain the remaining variance. In 7 studies where it was measured, language ability predicted 35% of the variance in reading proficiency. These meta-analytic results indicate that PCA skills are a low to moderate predictor of reading achievement in deaf individuals and that other factors, most notably language ability, have a greater influence on reading development, as has been found to be the case in the hearing population. PMID:21071623
Background Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. Method and results A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (p nominal ?=?6.85 10 -5 and p corrected ?=?0.0029). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill. PMID:25015435
Naples, Adam J.; Chang, Joseph T.; Katz, Leonard; Grigorenko, Elena L.
This work’s objective was to offer additional insights into the psychological and genetic bases of reading ability and disability, and to evaluate the plausibility of a variety of psychological models of reading involving phonological awareness (PA) and rapid naming (RN), both hypothesized to be principal components in such models. In Study 1, 488 unselected families were assessed with measures of PA and RN to investigate familial aggregation and to obtain estimates of both the number and effect-magnitude of genetic loci involved in these traits’ transmission. The results of the analyses from Study 1 indicated the presence of genetic effects in the etiology of individual differences for PA and RN and pointed to both the shared and unique sources of this genetic variance, which appeared to be exerted by multiple (3–6 for PA and 3–5 for RN) genes. These results were used in Study 2 to parameterize a simulation of 3,000 families with quantitatively distributed PA and RN, so that the robustness and generalizability of the Study 1 findings could be evaluated. The findings of both studies were interpreted according to established theories of reading and our own understanding of the etiology of complex developmental disorders. PMID:19007845
Foster, Matthew E; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D
Abstract Objective: Both phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed have been identified as two skills related to the development of mathematics skills for children with and without learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PA and colour naming speed for 265 elementary school students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Methods: Participants were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes and the KeyMath Revised Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. Results: Hierarchical regression analyses accounting for the effects of age indicated that children with MID rely on both PA and naming speed when solving mathematics problems, although PA was the more robust indicator of the two. Conclusion: As a whole, these results suggest that children with intellectual disabilities evidence the same types of reading and math relationships as shown for other populations of children. PMID:24564185
Susan L. Nullman
This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy development because they often concurrently exhibit weaknesses in the development of phonological awareness skills (Rvachew, Ohberg, Grawburg, & Heyding,
Susan L Nullman
This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy development because they often concurrently exhibit weaknesses in the development of phonological awareness skills (Rvachew, Ohberg, Grawburg, & Heyding,
Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.
Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…
Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu
In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…
Truxler, Joan E; O'Keefe, Bernard M
This investigation examined the effects of phonological awareness instruction on four children, aged 8-9 years, with complex communication needs (CCN) who used augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). During Experiment 1 all four children acquired letter/sound correspondence and phoneme awareness at varying levels. One child reached criterion. Three children maintained their skills and one child generalized to 10 untaught letters/sounds. During Experiment 2 one of four children reached criterion in beginning word recognition and improved her post-intervention word identification. Three children increased their spelling ability. The results are interpreted within the framework of current theory and are suggestive of the skills children with complex communication needs may need in order to acquire early decoding skills. PMID:17487629
Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta
Capacity limitations of attentional resources allow only a fraction of sensory inputs to enter our awareness. Most prominently, in the attentional blink the observer often fails to detect the second of two rapidly successive targets that are presented in a sequence of distractor items. To investigate how auditory inputs enable a visual target to escape the attentional blink, this study presented the visual letter targets T1 and T2 together with phonologically congruent or incongruent spoken letter names. First, a congruent relative to an incongruent sound at T2 rendered visual T2 more visible. Second, this T2 congruency effect was amplified when the sound was congruent at T1 as indicated by a T1 congruency × T2 congruency interaction. Critically, these effects were observed both when the sounds were presented in synchrony with and prior to the visual target letters suggesting that the sounds may increase visual target identification via multiple mechanisms such as audiovisual priming or decisional interactions. Our results demonstrate that a sound around the time of T2 increases subjects' awareness of the visual target as a function of T1 and T2 congruency. Consistent with Bayesian causal inference, the brain may thus combine (1) prior congruency expectations based on T1 congruency and (2) phonological congruency cues provided by the audiovisual inputs at T2 to infer whether auditory and visual signals emanate from a common source and should hence be integrated for perceptual decisions. PMID:25309357
Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…
Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…
Annabella Dyer; Mairéad MacSweeney; Marçin Szczerbinski; Louise Green; Ruth Campbell
Deaf readers often fail to achieve age-appropriate reading lev- els. In hearing children, two cognitive factors correlated with reading delay are phonological awareness and decoding (PAD) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) of visual material. In this study we explored the contribution of these factors to reading and reading delay in a sample of deaf students (N = 49, mean age
Alcock, K. J.; Ngorosho, D.; Deus, C.; Jukes, M. C. H.
Background: A strong link between phonological awareness (PA) and literacy exists, but the origins of this link are difficult to investigate, since PA skills are hard to test in young, pre-literate children, and many studies neither include such children nor report children's initial literacy levels. Aims: To examine PA and literacy in children…
Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.
This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…
Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca
To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…
Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.
This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…
Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen
The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…
Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D
It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their roles in nonverbal LD and phonological dyslexia, respectively. Nonverbal tests of PO and non-reading tests of PA were administered to a sample of adults with postsecondary education. Approximately two thirds of the sample had previously been diagnosed as having LD. In a multiple regression analysis, tests of PO and PA were used to predict scores for tests of reading comprehension and mechanics. Despite the nonverbal nature of the perceptual organizational test stimuli, PO strongly predicted reading comprehension. Tests of PA predicted decoding and reading speed. Results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that integrative processes usually characterized as nonverbal were nonetheless used by readers with and without disabilities to understand text. The study's findings have implications for understanding the reading of adults with learning disabilities, and the nature of reading comprehension in general. PMID:20838941
Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method Preschoolers with SSD (n=43) participated in PA and speech sound production assessment. Errors from a 125-item picture naming task were coded in two ways: (1) considering all consonant errors equally (Percent Consonants Correct, PCC), and (2) using a three-category system that captures component features of sound errors: typical sound changes, atypical sound changes, and distortions. PA tasks included rhyme matching, onset matching, onset segmentation and matching, and blending. Results Variance in a PA composite score could be predicted partly by vocabulary and age (33%). Atypical sound changes accounted for an additional 6% of variance in PA, but distortions and typical errors did not account for significant variance. When the same consonant errors were analyzed using PCC, speech errors did not predict significant variance in PA. Conclusions Poorer PA is associated with lower receptive vocabularies and more atypical sound errors. Results are interpreted in the context of the accuracy of phonological representations. PMID:19717651
Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.
Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384
Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged
Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Bowles, Ryan P
The implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention were observed for mothers and their 4-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI). Mother-child dyads (n = 13) read books four times per week over 12 weeks; each book contained nine embedded phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Four hundred and ninety-eight book reading sessions were coded for three variables of interest: maternal support of concept development, quantity of maternal instructional support, and accuracy of children's responses to the PA tasks. Using growth curve modelling, results indicate that maternal support of concept development decreased over the course of the 12-week program, and the quantity of maternal supports changed considerably reflecting intra-individual differences among mothers. Both support of concept development and quantity of support decreased over the course of a given week. In addition, children's responses to the phonological awareness tasks significantly increased over the 12-week intervention. Overall, mothers did not provide support that consistently supported children's learning over time, and the increases in children's correct responses, although significant, were less than anticipated given the length of the intervention. These findings indicate that mothers may need additional supports when implementing emergent literacy programs with their children. PMID:21480808
This study applies the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance measurement (PMLU; Ingram & Ingram, 2001; Ingram, 2002) to the data of five children acquiring Finnish and evaluates their phonological development longitudinally at four different age points: 2;0, 2;6, 3;0, and 3;6. The children's results on PMLU and related measures are discussed…
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…
Lin, Zhicheng; Murray, Scott O
A foundational issue in the study of unconscious processing concerns whether the stimuli of interest are truly out of awareness. Objective methods employing forced choice are typically championed as the gold standard and widely thought to be conservative. Here, however, as a case study, we demonstrate an underestimation of awareness in a collection of studies on unconscious cognitive control. Specifically, we found that (a) in addition to genuine unawareness, chance performance could be due to a failure to perform the task; (b) visual awareness for low-visibility trials was elevated when mixed with high-visibility trials compared with when presented alone as demonstrated in both objective awareness (forced-choice performance) and subjective awareness (rating based on a perceptual awareness scale); and (c) the elevation effect was partly due to a shape-specific template enhancement at both the block and intertrial levels. We term the awareness elevation effect priming of awareness: Visual priming fundamentally alters awareness, boosting otherwise invisible objects into consciousness. These results implicate two key requirements for measuring awareness: (a) verify that participants are truly performing the awareness task and (b) use all types of trials in the awareness test as in the main experiment. Priming of awareness is consistent with an expanded model of awareness and top-down attention in which awareness is determined by (a) retinal stimulus strength and (b) both goal-dependent and goal-independent extra-retinal modulation. PMID:24474824
Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V.
Background: The effectiveness of two treatment approaches (phonological therapy and articulation therapy) for treatment of 14 children, aged 4;0-6;7 years, with phonologically based speech-sound disorder (SSD) has been previously analysed with severity outcome measures (percentage of consonants correct score, percentage occurrence of phonological…
Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.
This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia
This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20161557
Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood
The researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both respondent groups demonstrated gaps in PA knowledge and skills; however, SLPs performed significantly better, on average, than TODs. The educators expressed feelings of moderate confidence in their skills related to teaching children with hearing loss and assessing their PA. Correlations between educator demographics or levels of confidence and educator performance on PA measures did not yield significant findings. The results underscore the need for improved personnel preparation and PA continuing education for educators supporting literacy education of children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:24745107
Taibo, Maria Luisa Gomez; Iglesias, Pilar Vieiro; Mendez, Maria Sotillo; del Salvador, Maria Gonzalez Raposo
Ten cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who use augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their high versus low working memory capacity and according to their high versus low phonological skills into two groups of participants. These groups were compared on…
Yang, Hui Chen
The problem. The Taiwanese educational system incorporated English classes into the third grade curriculum beginning in 2005, making English language education more and more important in Taiwan. The goals for implementing this English educational policy in elementary schools are for students to be able to comprehend letters, phonology, and…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…
Wise, Justin C.; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen; Wolf, Maryanne
Limited research has examined the skills of children with a reading disability (RD) and children with RD and a mathematics disability (MD). Even less research has examined the phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in these two groups of children and how these skills relate to reading and math achievement.…
Minna Torppa; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Marja-Leena Laakso; Asko Tolvanen; Esko Leskinen; Paavo H. T. Leppanen; Anne Puolakanaho; Heikki Lyytinen
The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to the age of 6.5 years. Of these children, about
McNorgan, Chris; Randazzo-Wagner, Melissa; Booth, James R.
Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD) readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD), suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD) children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). For typically developing children, correlations between elision and neural activation were found for the cross-modal but not unimodal task, whereas in children with RD, no correlation was found. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty. PMID:23888137
Sharon A. Craig
Using a pretest–posttest comparison-group design, this 16-week study investigated the effects of 2 instructional approaches on the phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and early reading of kindergarten children. The primary goal was to compare a form of contextualized instruction based on an adapted interactive writing program with a field-tested program of metalinguistic games. For instructional purposes, the children in each treatment
Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.
This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures…
Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R
This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N=24; aged 10-12?years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N=24; aged 10-12?years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N=24; aged 7-9?years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. PMID:25530196
Morris, Sherrill R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal stability of 5 independent measures of phonological skill: phonetic inventory (initial, final), word shape, syllable structure level, and the index of phonetic complexity. Method: Ten toddlers with typical development participated in two 20-min play sessions within a 1-week period.…
Bourne, Roger J.; Whiting, Paul R.
Although research has established that phonological awareness is a predictor of future reading skill, the effects of variant vs. contiguous presentations of grapheme-phoneme correspondences as part of a teaching program have not been examined. A variant presentation is one in which there is a mismatch between the letter and sound or sound and…
Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Guy H. Walker; Daniel Jenkins; Darshna Ladva; Laura Rafferty; Mark Young
Assessing operator situation awareness is a key component of sociotechnical system design and evaluation. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare two different situation awareness measures (a freeze probe recall approach and a post trial subjective rating approach) when used to assess participant situation awareness during a military planning task. The results indicate that only
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Ford, Mikenzi Bentley
The current study was designed to examine the relationships between performance on a nonverbal phoneme deletion task administered in a dynamic assessment format with performance on measures of phoneme deletion, word-level reading, and speech sound production that required verbal responses for school-age children with speech sound disorders (SSDs).…
Gómez Taibo, María Luisa; Vieiro Iglesias, Pilar; González Raposo, María del Salvador; Sotillo Méndez, María
Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:20977006
This study examines a salient intrasyllabic phonological unit in Korean, the body-coda unit, its role in literacy skills in Korean, and a possible source of the salience of body-coda units in the spoken language. Data were collected from Korean-speaking, monolingual beginning readers (41 kindergarteners, 40 first graders). The results indicate…
Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.
Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…
George P. Tadda
Enabling situation awareness necessitates working with processes capable of identifying domain specific activities. This paper addresses metrics developed to assess research level systems and to measure their performance in providing those processes. The metrics fall into four dimensions; confidence, purity, cost utility, and timeliness. The bulk of the discussion will provide an overview of each of these dimensions, the anticipated
Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze
Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…
DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)
The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.
Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane
This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997
Murphy, Cristina F B; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O; Wertzner, Haydée F; Schochat, Eliane
This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997
PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography
Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.
A growing body of research has documented effects of phonotactic probability on young children's nonword repetition. This study extends this research in 2 ways. First, it compares nonword repetitions by 40 young children with phonological disorders with those by 40 same-age peers with typical phonological development on a nonword repetition task…
Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames Research Center, each pilot flew eight trials, four using SAGAT and four using performance measures. Each set of four trials differed by level of visibility as well. The flight paths were very similar in appearance and hazard number, allowing comparison between flight paths. The pilots were tasked with flying along a road at an assigned altitude and speed while avoiding any hazards that they happened upon. The attempt here was not to find a single best measure of SA, but rather to begin an investigation of the sensitivity of common measures of SA. Upon completion of this study, its results, in combination with future studies, should allow us to develop an empirically based taxonomy of SA measures and the contexts for their appropriate use.
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.
The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities (PPA) represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of PPA in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304 older preschoolers (M = 56.49 months, SD = 5.31). A 2-factor model in which phonological awareness and phonological memory was represented by one factor and lexical access was represented by a second factor provided the best fit for both samples and was largely invariant across samples. Measures of vocabulary, cognitive abilities, and print knowledge were significantly correlated with both factors, but phonological awareness/memory had unique relations with word reading. Despite significant development of PPA across the preschool years and into kindergarten, these results show that the structure of these skills remains invariant. PMID:22180662
Carolyn Prince; Erica Ellis; Michael T. Brannick; Eduardo Salas
Two measurement methods for situation awareness were tested on 2-person aircrews and compared for the information they yielded on team situation awareness. Forty-one crews of low experience level military aviators flew 2 different scenarios, 1 in a full-mission simulator, a 1 in a low-fidelity trainer. Team situation awareness was measured by instructor and observers in the high-fidelity simulator scenario and
al Mannai, Haya; Everatt, John
This paper reports a study of the reading and spelling skills of grades 1-3 Arabic-speaking children in Bahrain. Children were tested on their literacy skills (single word reading and spelling), their ability to decode letter strings (non-word reading) and measures of phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing and non-verbal…
Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.
We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…
Hester, E.; Hodson, B. W.
Phonological awareness reflects the strength of a child's ability to represent linguistic information cognitively at the phonological level. Although the role of phonological awareness in early reading decoding has been well documented, its relationship to other factors affecting reading decoding has yet to be fully examined. In this study, the…
Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)
de Jong, P F; Seveke, M J; van Veen, M
Two studies are reported which aimed to examine the relationship between phonological sensitivity and the acquisition of new words that systematically differed in the familiarity of their sound structures. In the first study measures of phonological sensitivity, phonological short-term memory, vocabulary, and nonverbal ability were administered to forty-one 5-year-old children. Phonological sensitivity was related to the paired-associate learning of phonologically unfamiliar words, but not to the learning of familiar words. In the second study a group of 14 nonreading 5-year-old children received phonological sensitivity training. A control group was trained in semantic categorization. After the training, the phonological sensitivity group did perform better on measures of letter knowledge and phonological sensitivity (rhyme and first-sound categorization) and appeared to learn phonologically unfamiliar words more easily. The findings of both studies suggest that phonological sensitivity can support the acquisition of novel words. PMID:10882476
Gupta, Ankur; Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott
We propose measures for compressed data structures, in which space usage is mea- sured in a data-aware manner. In particular, we consider the fundamental dictionary problem on set data, where the task is to construct a ...
Nelson, Jason M.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…
Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee
Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various
Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García
ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;
Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun
Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530
Desroches, Amy S; Joanisse, Marc F; Robertson, Erin K
Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a display (e.g., candle) were accompanied by distractors sharing a cohort (candy) or rhyme (sandal). Like controls, dyslexics showed slower recognition times when a cohort distractor was present than in a baseline condition with only phonologically unrelated distractors. However, unlike controls, dyslexic children did not show slowed recognition of targets with a rhyme distractor, suggesting they had not encoded rhyme relationships. This was further explored in an overt phonological awareness test of cohort and rhyme. Surprisingly, dyslexics showed normal rhyme performance but poorer judgment of initial sounds on these overt tests. The results implicate impaired knowledge of rhyme information in dyslexia; however they also indicate that testing methodology plays a critical role in how such problems are identified. PMID:16288732
Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.
The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062
Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita
Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding of the multi-dimensional construct and suggest next steps for further research. PMID:19440300
M C Wright; J M Taekman; M R Endsley
One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers
Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M
WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081
Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.
We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081
Fracker, Martin L.
Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.
The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.
Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.
This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739
Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Poncelet, Martine; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) who show impaired phonological processing are at risk of developing reading disabilities, which raises the question of phonological impairment commonality between developmental dyslexia (DD) and SLI. In order to distinguish the failing phonological processes in SLI and DD, we investigated the different steps involved in speech processing going from perceptual discrimination through various aspects of phonological memory. Our results show that whereas the memory for sequence is likewise impaired in either disorder, children with SLI have to face additional impairment in phonological discrimination and short-term memory, which may account for even poorer phonological awareness than dyslexics'. PMID:19437205
Vidulich, M A; Stratton, M; Crabtree, M; Wilson, G
Several situational awareness (SA) and workload measurement techniques were investigated in simulated air-to-ground missions. These techniques included measures of effectiveness, subjective ratings, performance measures, and physiological measures. The results demonstrated strengths and weaknesses in all of these techniques. Measures of effectiveness and subjective ratings suggested that the experimental manipulations were effective in altering SA. The performance measures produced mixed results. Physiological measures detected some intriguing effects in the EEG. Overall, the complexity of the relationship between SA and workload encourages the use of multiple tools in any SA evaluation. PMID:8018083
Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M
One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented. PMID:15465958
Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J.
Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study…
Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia
Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…
White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina
Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956
Monique A. M. Smeets; Hendrik N. J. Schifferstein; Sarai R. Boelema; Gerty Lensvelt-Mulders
The Odor Awareness Scale (OAS) is a questionnaire designed to assess individual differences in awareness of odors in the environment. The theory that odor awareness can be distinguished in awareness of negative (to be avoided) odors and positive (to be approached) odors was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the 34-item questionnaire after completion by 525 respondents. CFA (after
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B
Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…
Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even
This study seeks to provide new insight into the phonemic, orthographic, and syntactic awareness of individuals with prelingual\\u000a deafness and the way those contribute to reading. Two tests were used: one designed for the assessment of phonemic\\/orthographic\\u000a awareness (PO\\/OA) and another examining reading comprehension (RC) in contexts where prior knowledge was either helpful or\\u000a not. Participants were 83 prelingually deaf
Dodd, Barbara; McEvoy, Sandra
The claim that multiple-birth children use "twin language" was investigated by describing and comparing the phonological characteristics of the speech of 19 sets of multiple birth children (aged 2-4) and by measuring multiple-birth children's understanding of their twins' or triplets' context-free speech. Results indicated that multiple birth…
Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J
Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study investigated both Mandarin and English phonological patterns in typically-developing 5-year-old bilingual children in an English-immersion programme in Taiwan. Consonant and vowel accuracy, number and types of phonological processes, and Mandarin-influenced English patterns were assessed on a single-word assessment in each language. Results indicated comparable levels of phoneme accuracy and similar rates and types of phonological processes for bilinguals and their monolingual counterparts. A number of English phonological processes for bilinguals, however, suggested a possible Mandarin influence. The present results reiterate Dr Miccio's call for interdisciplinary collaboration to enhance one's understanding of bilingual language development, to advance successful intervention for bilingual children. PMID:20345265
Tomblin, J. Bruce
This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother’s educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience. PMID:18424771
Spencer, Linda J; Tomblin, J Bruce
This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience. PMID:18424771
This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…
Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn
Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730
De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart
The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact retrieval. The present study tested this proposal in 25 adults with developmental dyslexia and 25 matched controls by examining strategy use during single-digit multiplication and subtraction and its associations with phonological processing. Findings revealed that individuals with dyslexia retrieved fewer arithmetic facts from memory and were less efficient in doing so. At the same time, they showed deficits in phonological processing. Phonological processing, particularly phonological awareness, was related to arithmetic fact retrieval. This association was especially prominent in multiplication, indicating that fact retrieval in multiplication rather than subtraction is mediated by phonological processes. These data provide ground for future neuroimaging studies, who should examine the neural overlap between phonological processing and multiplication fact retrieval in the same sample of participants. PMID:20965205
The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679
Roca, Ignacio M.
A re-examination of phonological rules called "reciprocal rules" for Catalan. Their use is disclaimed as being responsible for processes of stop deletion and stop insertion since the rules violate ordering constraints and morpheme structure conditions and confuse phonetics with phonology. (SC)
Ryan, Kevin Michael
Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios
Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…
Marx, Nicole; Mehlhorn, Grit
Compared to monolinguals, multilingual learners possess a larger repertoire of phonetic-phonological parameters, have a higher degree of language and meta-linguistic awareness, and have developed increased phonological knowledge. This, combined with the increased cognitive flexibility that accompanies experienced learners, supports their…
Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos
Background ‘Self-objectification’ is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. Conclusions/Significance We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders. PMID:23405173
Jun Ma; Jie Lu; Guangquan Zhang
Team decision-making is a remarkable feature in a complex dynamic decision environment, which can be supported by team situation\\u000a awareness. In this paper, a team situation awareness measure (TSAM) method using a semantic utility function is proposed.\\u000a The semantic utility function is used to clarify the semantics of qualitative information expressed in linguistic terms. The\\u000a individual and team situation awareness
Saygin, Zeynep M.
Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these ...
Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis
Educational Objectives The reader will 1) understand the broad range of deficits in phonological perception and processing that accompany deficits in musical pitch recognition, and 2) recognize the possible utility of musical evaluation measures and music-based therapies in the treatment of phonological and other speech disorders. PMID:19233383
Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol
Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological…
Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan
Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…
Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.
Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…
Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Henry, Maya L.; Leyden, Anne; Kim, Esther; Rising, Kindle; Andersen, Sarah; Cho, HyeSuk
To examine the validity of different theoretical assumptions about the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written and spoken language performance in a large cohort of patients with focal damage to perisylvian cortical regions implicated in phonological processing. Despite considerable variation in accuracy for both words and non-words, the majority of participants demonstrated the increased lexicality effects in reading and spelling that are considered the hallmark features of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia. Increased lexicality effects were also documented in spoken language tasks such as oral repetition, and patients performed poorly on a battery of phonological tests that did not involve an orthographic component. Furthermore, a composite measure of general phonological ability was strongly predictive of both reading and spelling accuracy, and we obtained evidence that the continuum of severity that characterized the written language disorder of our patients was attributable to an underlying continuum of phonological impairment. Although patients demonstrated qualitatively similar deficits across measures of written and spoken language processing, there were quantitative differences in levels of performance reflecting task difficulty effects. Spelling was more severely affected than reading by the reduction in phonological capacity and this differential vulnerability accounted for occasional disparities between patterns of impairment on the two written language tasks. Our findings suggest that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in patients with perisylvian lesions are manifestations of a central or modality-independent phonological deficit rather than the result of damage to cognitive components dedicated to reading or spelling. Our results also provide empirical support for shared-components models of written language processing, according to which the same central cognitive systems support both reading and spelling. Lesion-deficit correlations indicated that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to a variety of perisylvian cortical regions, consistent with distributed network models of phonological processing. PMID:18625494
Royal Holloway, University of London
by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders. Citation: Ainley V eating disorders, depression and sexual dysfunction . Anorexia nervosa has been associated for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we
Thomas Z. Strybel; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; L. Paige Bacon; Joshua Kraut; Vernol Battiste; W. Johnson
An online probe technique for measuring situation awareness and workload was evaluated for its ability to detect changes in awareness and workload caused by changes in roles and responsibilities for traffic separation. Three plausible NextGen concepts of operation were evaluated: Pilot primary (pilots responsible for traffic separation), ATC primary (ATC responsible for most traffic separation) and Automation Primary (automated conflict
Jimenez, Virginia; Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesus M.; Arrebillaga, Lorena
Introduction: Current cognitive approaches highlight the importance of metacognition. "Learning how to learn" facilities awareness of one's own learning process, how they work, how to optimize their functioning, control of reading process, and so on. Acquisition of these skills is one of the new educational requirements for students, as is…
Samuels, Bridget D.
This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…
Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.
DAVID N. HOGG; KNUT FOLLESø; FRODE STRAND-VOLDEN; BELÉN TORRALBA
The process controller is required to remain updated regarding developments in the dynamically changing process state, this being referred to as the maintenance of situation awareness. Alarm systems play an important role within this task, and therefore a measure of how effective the system is for enhancing the operator's situation awareness is desirable. One proposed measure is the Situation Awareness
Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui
Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.
Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda
Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394
Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.
Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…
Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.
Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364
Tenney, Yvette J.; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Pew, Richard W.; Huggins, A. W. F.; Rogers, William H.
The issue of how to support situation awareness among crews of modern commercial aircraft is becoming especially important with the introduction of automation in the form of sophisticated flight management computers and expert systems designed to assist the crew. In this paper, cognitive theories are discussed that have relevance for the definition and measurement of situation awareness. These theories suggest that comprehension of the flow of events is an active process that is limited by the modularity of attention and memory constraints, but can be enhanced by expert knowledge and strategies. Three implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situation awareness are considered: (1) Scenario variations are proposed that tax awareness by placing demands on attention; (2) Experimental tasks and probes are described for assessing the cognitive processes that underlie situation awareness; and (3) The use of computer-based human performance models to augment the measures of situation awareness derived from performance data is explored. Finally, two potential example applications of the proposed assessment techniques are described, one concerning spatial awareness using wide field of view displays and the other emphasizing fault management in aircraft systems.
Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D
These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills. PMID:23635337
Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.
This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…
Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris
This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…
Newman, Ellen Hamilton; Tardif, Twila; Huang, Jingyuan; Shu, Hua
The importance of phonological awareness for learning to read may depend on the linguistic properties of a language. This study provides a careful examination of this language-specific theory by exploring the role of phoneme-level awareness in Mandarin Chinese, a language with an orthography that, at its surface, appears to require little phoneme-level insight. A sample of 71 monolingual Mandarin-speaking children completed a phonological elision task and a measure of single-character reading. In this sample, 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers were unable to complete phoneme-level deletions, whereas 6- to 8-year-old first graders were able to complete initial, final, and medial phoneme-level deletions. In this older group, performance on phoneme deletions was significantly related to reading ability even after controlling for syllable- and onset/rime-level awareness, vocabulary, and Pinyin knowledge. We believe that these results reopen the question of the role of phonological awareness in reading in Chinese and, more generally, the nature of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:20980019
Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written
Killian, Kyle D.
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…
Zeng, Xianglong; Oei, Tian P S; Ye, Yiqing; Liu, Xiangping
Goenka's Vipassana meditation (GVM), a widely applied mindfulness training system rooted in Buddhism, is currently widely used. Although the two abilities cultivated in GVM, awareness and equanimity, exhibit certain similarities with the mindfulness cultivated in mindfulness-based psychotherapies (MBTs), they are not major concerns in MBTs. While many mindfulness scales have been created to measure different aspects of mindfulness constructs and certain scales and items can indeed reflect the basic abilities of awareness and equanimity, none of them can adequately capture the way in which those abilities and related ideas are applied in GVM. This paper presents a critical examination of the problems associated with the concepts and measurement of awareness and equanimity and presents potential solutions for achieving better measurement of these concepts in the future. PMID:24222100
Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl
We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of . However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF . Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.
Bishop, Dorothy V M; Maybery, Murray; Wong, Dana; Maley, Alana; Hill, Wayne; Hallmayer, Joachim
Two tests of phonological processing, nonword repetition, and nonsense passage reading, were administered to 80 probands with autistic disorder or PDDNOS (index cases) and 59 typically developing controls, together with their parents and siblings. In addition, parents completed a questionnaire about history of language and literacy problems, and all participants were given tests of verbal (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ). Parents also completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, which was used to index the broad autism phenotype. Index probands scored well below control probands on the two phonological tests. However, on neither phonological measure did index relatives differ from control relatives. Within the index group, there was no relationship between the proband's level of VIQ, or age at achieving phrase speech, and phonological score of relatives. VIQ was the only measure to show any familiality within the index group. Reported history of language and literacy problems did not differentiate index parents from control parents overall, but those who were categorized as cases of the broad phenotype reported more history of language and literacy problems than did other index parents. However, they did not have poorer scores on the phonological measures. It is concluded that phonological processing deficits are not part of the broad autism phenotype. PMID:15211632
Dickinson, Terry L.; Milkulka, Peter J.; Kwan, Doris; Fitzgibbons, Amy A.; Jinadu, Florence R.; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Pope, A. T. (Technical Monitor)
Two studies explored user acceptance of devices that measure hazardous states of awareness. In the first study, critical incident data were collected in two workshops from 11 operators working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. These critical incident data were used to develop a survey of the acceptability of awareness measures. In the second study, the survey was administered to 100 people also working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. Results show that operators are open to the inclusion of technology to measure HSAs even if that technology is somewhat invasive as long as feedback about the HSAs is considered to be useful and helpful. Nonetheless, a major concern is the legal complications associated with being recorded, particularly for older and more experienced operators. Air traffic controllers emphasized the importance of sharing technology information with supervisors in order to receive backup or assistance under conditions of task overload, whereas pilots emphasized the influence of work schedules on problems with awareness. Recommendations are offered concerning the implementation of devices to measure hazardous states of awareness.
M. Roggemann; D. Douglas; E. Therkildsen; D. Archambeault; R. Maeda; D. Schultz; B. Wheeler
An operational technology for imaging satellites during the daytime hours would vastly increase the ability of optical space situational awareness (SSA) systems to gather information about satellites. During the day the atmospheric seeing is generally worse than in terminator, and the contribution of sky background noise to the image measurement is significant. We have developed a straightforward model for estimating
1 Network Awareness of P2P Live Streaming Applications: a Measurement Study Delia Ciullo, Maria Abstract--Early P2P-TV systems have already attracted mil- lions of users, and many new commercial to compare three of the most successful P2P-TV systems, namely PPLive, SopCast and TVAnts. Our goal
Louise Eriksson; Jörgen Garvill; Annika M. Nordlund
Acceptability of travel demand management (TDM) with the aim of reducing private car use is modeled following a hierarchical set of beliefs. In a two-part model, pro-environmental orientation, problem awareness, personal norm, and willingness to reduce car use are linked to beliefs about to which extent the specific TDM measure is perceived to influence freedom to choose travel mode, own
Paul Salmon; Neville Stanton; Guy Walker; Damian Green
The construct of situation awareness (SA) has become a core theme within the human factors (HF) research community. Consequently, there have been numerous attempts to develop reliable and valid measures of SA but there is a lack of techniques developed specifically for the assessment of SA in command, control, communication, computers and intelligence (C4i) environments. During the design, development and
Stemberger, Joseph Paul
It has been shown that the processing of irregular past-tense forms is affected by phonological factors that are inherent in the relationship of the past-tense forms to other words in the lexicon (rhyming families of irregulars) or to their base forms (vowel dominance effects). This paper addresses more ephemeral phonological effects. In a…
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of consonant cluster phonotactics is presented as an example of how ultrasound
It is asserted that the treatment of intonation within the framework of generative grammar has not shown whether surface syntactic structure is sufficient for formulation of phonological rules. An attempt is made to demonstrate that within English phonology reference to deep structure is necessary. (Available from: See FL 508 214). (RM)
Roon, Kevin D.
This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.
Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…
The paper focuses on an unexplored area of metalinguistic awareness in the acquisition of third language (L3) phonology, hereafter referred to as metaphonological awareness. It addresses the role of attention and noticing in input processing. The contribution constitutes a part of a larger scale project on metaphonological awareness in various…
Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao
In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657
van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; Sass, Katharina; Heim, Stefan
Developmental dyslexia can be distinguished as different cognitive subtypes with and without phonological deficits. However, despite some general agreement on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia, the neurofunctional mechanisms underlying these cognitive subtypes remain to be identified. The present BOLD fMRI study thus aimed at investigating by which distinct and/or shared neural activation patterns dyslexia subtypes are characterized. German dyslexic fourth graders with and without deficits in phonological awareness and age-matched normal readers performed a phonological decision task: does the auditory word contain the phoneme/a/? Both dyslexic subtypes showed increased activation in the right cerebellum (Lobule IV) compared to controls. Subtype-specific increased activation was systematically found for the phonological dyslexics as compared to those without this deficit and controls in the left inferior frontal gyrus (area 44: phonological segmentation), the left SMA (area 6), the left precentral gyrus (area 6) and the right insula. Non-phonological dyslexics revealed subtype-specific increased activation in the left supramarginal gyrus (area PFcm; phonological storage) and angular gyrus (area PGp). The study thus provides the first direct evidence for the neurobiological grounding of dyslexia subtypes. Moreover, the data contribute to a better understanding of the frequently encountered heterogeneous neuroimaging results in the field of dyslexia. PMID:24936406
Simon Banbury; Helen Dudfield; Hans-Juergen Hoermann; Henning Soll
The present study took a novel approach to the assessment of a commercial airline pilot Situation Awareness (SA) training programme. The Factors Affecting Situation Awareness (FASA) questionnaire was developed to provide a more diagnostic measure of aircrews' acquisition and maintenance of SA. Thirty-two aircrew participants took part in this study; half received standard Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and half received
Robert Rousseau; Sébastien Tremblay; Simon Banbury; Richard Breton; Adel Guitouni
The present paper is concerned with the relationship between subjective and objective measures of situation awareness (SA) within the context of a realistic command and control (C2) scenario. A 2-day scenario involved a joint military–civilian C2 exercise relating to the (crisis) management of a large event held in a metropolitan area. The role of participants comprised both the acquisition and
Petersen, Douglas B.
This study investigated the validity of measures that were hypothesized to account for significant variance in English reading ability. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Hispanic children completed letter identification, English and Spanish phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition static assessment tasks. They also…
Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca
Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…
This article reports the findings from a longitudinal study investigating the influence of phonological processing and inattentive behavior on reading acquisition. Data from individually administered measures of phonological processing and reading, as well as teacher ratings of children's behavior, were collected from a cohort of 132 children at…
Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.
These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…
Do, Young Ah
What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...
80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar
Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar
Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850
... when ovulation happens. Couples use a calendar, a thermometer to measure body temperature, the thickness of cervical ... fertility awareness — such as ovulation detection kits and thermometers, for example — are available in drugstores. But they ...
Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.
Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors
Schaffler, Tina; Sonntag, Juliane; Hartnegg, Klaus; Fischer, Burkhart
Phonological awareness is believed to play a major role in the auditory contribution to spelling skills. The previous paper reports low-level auditory deficits in five different subdomains in 33-70% of the dyslexics. The first study of this paper reports the results of an attempt to improve low-level auditory skills by systematic daily practice of…
Goswami, Usha; Gerson, Danielle; Astruc, Luisa
Here we explore relations between auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, prosodic sensitivity, and phonological awareness in a sample of 56 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We examine whether rise time sensitivity is linked to prosodic sensitivity, and whether prosodic sensitivity is linked to…
Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B
The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs. PMID:23622464
Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…
Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs
During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature. PMID:24863157
Ball, Martin J
It is noted that much previous work in phonology has attempted to provide economical theories of sound systems without explicitly attempting to provide theories that have psycholinguistic validity. The work of Bybee on a cognitive approach to phonology is described, and its possible application to disordered speech is considered. It is discussed that cognitive phonology, coupled with gestural phonology, provides descriptive as well as explanatory accounts of disordered speech, and has specific implications for approaches to therapy. The article concludes with a case study of child with severely unintelligible speech, where it seems that the insights of cognitive phonology provide both an explanation for and a description of her speech behaviors. PMID:14582829
Mihaljcic, Tijana; Haines, Terry P; Ponsford, Jennie L; Stolwyk, Renerus J
Research suggests that some older individuals may lack awareness of personal falls risk; however, there is no validated scale to measure self-awareness (SA) of falls risk in this population. Therefore, the objective of this study is to describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a new three part (intellectual, emergent, and anticipatory) SAFRM to be used in the older population undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. The SAFRM underwent a comprehensive scale development process. Ninety-one participants aged over 60 years were recruited from rehabilitation wards with their treating physiotherapist and occupational therapist. The results indicated a three factor structure of the scale corresponding to the theoretically developed intellectual, emergent and anticipatory SA sections which explained 50.26% of variance. The SAFRM demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's ?=.86-.92), inter-rater reliability between clinicians (ICC=.61-.87), and convergent validity with an SA interview (rs=.31-.50). The SAFRM scores were significantly correlated with clinician-rated SA (rs=-.40 to -.63) providing evidence of ecological validity. The present study provides initial empirical support of the reliability and validity of the SAFRM for assessment of SA of falls risk in the older inpatient population. The availability of this measure will allow further investigation into the causes and consequences of reduced SA in the older population. PMID:24997096
Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.
The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.
Kirk, Cecilia; Gillon, Gail T.
Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of an intervention program aimed to improve reading and spelling ability through instruction in morphological awareness together with other forms of linguistic awareness, including knowledge of phonology, orthography, syntax, and semantics. Method: Sixteen children aged between 8;07 (years;months) and…
Chun, Marvin M.
of Phonological Length on the Attentional Blink for Words Ingrid R. Olson Yale University Marvin M. Chun; Chun & Potter, 1995; Duncan, 1980; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992; Sperling, 1960; Weichselgartner store (Chun, 1997; Chun & Potter, 1995; Jolicoeur, 1998; Shapiro, Raymond, & Arnell, 1994; Shapiro
Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael; Tagliaferri, William; Canarelli, Kathie
Information Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision Making (INFERD) is a tool that was developed to supplement current graph matching techniques in Information Fusion models. Based on sensory data and a priori models, INFERD dynamically generates, evolves, and evaluates hypothesis on the current state of the environment. The a priori models developed are hierarchical in nature lending them to a multi-level Information Fusion process whose primary output provides a situational awareness of the environment of interest in the context of the models running. In this paper we look at INFERD's multi-level fusion approach and provide insight on the inherent problems such as fragmentation in the approach and the research being undertaken to mitigate those deficiencies. Due to the large variance of data in disparate environments, the awareness of situations in those environments can be drastically different. To accommodate this, the INFERD framework provides support for plug-and-play fusion modules which can be developed specifically for domains of interest. However, because the models running in INFERD are graph based, some default measurements can be provided and will be discussed in the paper. Among these are a Depth measurement to determine how much danger is presented by the action taking place, a Breadth measurement to gain information regarding the scale of an attack that is currently happening, and finally a Reliability measure to tell the user the credibility of a particular hypothesis. All of these results will be demonstrated in the Cyber domain where recent research has shown to be an area that is welldefined and bounded, so that new models and algorithms can be developed and evaluated.
Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg
The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor
Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya
Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…
DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.
TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…
Suleiman, Saleh M.
Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…
80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages
Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda
Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641
Marshall, Chloë; Rowley, Katherine; Atkinson, Joanna
We used fluency tasks to investigate lexical organisation in Deaf adults who use British sign language (BSL). The number of responses produced to semantic categories did not differ from reports in spoken languages. However, there was considerable variability in the number of responses across phonological categories, and some signers had difficulty retrieving items. Responses were richly clustered according to semantic and/or phonological properties. With respect to phonology, there was significantly more clustering around the parameters "handshape" and "location" compared to "movement". We conclude that the BSL lexicon is organised in similar ways to the lexicons of spoken languages, but that lexical retrieval is characterised by strong links between semantics and phonology; movement is less readily retrieved than handshape and location; and phonological fluency is difficult for signers because they have little metaphonological awareness in BSL and because signs do not display the onset salience that characterises spoken words. PMID:24043510
Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse
The present study is the first part of a longitudinal research project investigating whether children become more aware of phonemes or rhyming when they learn letters or letter sounds or even begin to read, and if so how. For the present paper, the phonological awareness of young children aged 2-6 years was analyzed, particularly their auditory…
Baslet, Gaston; Termini, Lindsay; Herbener, Ellen
Conscious awareness of emotion is adaptive and its disruption in schizophrenia can impact social functioning. This study assessed levels of emotional awareness for self and others in social scenarios (LEAS) in 21 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and 20 healthy individuals. Individuals with SSD had lower levels of emotional awareness for others in complex social scenarios, but not simple social scenarios; no difference was found in emotional awareness for self. Higher levels of emotional awareness were associated with better quality of life in patients. Patients also reported higher social anhedonia. Healthy individuals’ higher levels of emotional awareness for self were associated with lower anhedonia, but this relationship was not found in SSD patients. Individuals with schizophrenia have particular difficulty anticipating others’ emotional responses in complex social situations. Further, this deficit is independent of anhedonia in SSD patients, indicating a systemic disruption in the integration of emotional processing. PMID:19752644
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…
Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.
There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121
Lane, Richard D; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Locke, Dona E C; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Stonnington, Cynthia M
The goal of this study was to determine whether alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty in recognizing and describing emotions, is associated with impairments in the ability to mentally represent emotional states. We studied 89 outpatients including 29 conversion disorder patients, 30 functional somatic syndrome [e.g. fibromyalgia] patients and 30 medical controls. Groups did not differ on affective or cognitive Theory of Mind (ToM) measures, the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) or the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) after adjusting for Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) variables. Across all patients, LEAS but not TAS-20 correlated positively with affective and cognitive ToM measures after adjusting for PANAS scores. Impairments in ToM functioning influence LEAS performance but not TAS-20 scores. These findings support the distinction between a milder "anomia" form of alexithymia associated with impaired emotion naming and a more severe "agnosia" form associated with impaired mental representation of emotion. PMID:25766906
Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…
Wee, Tae-Kwon; Kuo, Ying-Hwa
of the fundamental difficulties that arise when using GPS Radio Occultation (RO) data in exploiting the stratosphere is that the air becomes rarefied with increasing height and accentuates the ionospheric effect and noise contained in the measurement. Customarily, the conventional linear combination (CLC) is used to extract neutral atmospheric components from dual-frequency (L1 and L2) RO data. The CLC combines and magnifies measurement noises, and thus works well only for those measurements of low noise. Although the L1 data are of considerably higher quality than the L2 data, the CLC does not take this into account and treats both equally; this makes the CLC-produced data less attractive. The authors propose a new approach, named Noise-Aware Combination (NAC), which is a generalized combination that factors in the presence of measurement noise. In this NAC method, the L1 and L2 data are each regarded independently, with each contributing to the combination according to its dynamically assessed accuracy. The performance of both the CLC and NAC are tested with two sets of data: one of synthetic data and the other of real data. The tests confirm that the NAC yields significant error reductions when compared to the CLC. While the noise in the CLC-produced data stands out in high altitudes and compels the data to be blended with the a priori, the NAC relies far less on this blending. The clear advantage of the NAC over the CLC would greatly enhance the value of RO for climate research.
Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin
We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact. PMID:23162515
Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz
Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138
Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies. PMID:23289791
Freund, Louis E.; Knapp, Benjamin
This project got underway without funding approved during the summer of 1998. The initial project steps were to identify previously published work in the fields of error classification systems, physiological measurements of awareness, and related topics. This agenda was modified at the request of NASA Ames in August, 1998 to include supporting the new Cargo Air Association (CAA) evaluation of the Human Factors related to the ADS-B technology. Additional funding was promised to fully support both efforts. Work on library research ended in the late Fall, 1998 when the SJSU project directors were informed that NASA would not be adding to the initial funding of the research project as had been initially committed. However, NASA did provide additional funding for the CAA project activity. NASA elected to leave the research grant in place to provide a pathway for the CAA project funding to SJSU (San Jose State University) to support Dr. Freund's work on the CAA tasks. Dr. Knapp essentially terminated his involvement with the project at this time.
Coleman, John; Local, John
A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After an…
Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn
This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…
Key, Michael Parrish
This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…
Jarrah, Ali Saleh
This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…
Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim
Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…
Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…
Cheryl A. Bolstad; Haydee M. Cuevas
This study presents an initial computational model of shared situation awareness (SA) based upon data collected from a simulated training exercise, designed to mimic real life events in a military personnel recovery center. Situation awareness was measured during the exercise using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). Our initial model examined how well five factors (social network distance, physical
Fortier, L. J.
and what functional value an awareness plan has for employees (customers). Quality concepts, including performance management, augmented marketing strategies by determining customer requirements, measurements and feedback. The agreed upon critical... MARKETING QUALITY ENERGY AWARENESS LONITA J. FORTIER Engineering Technologist 3M Company Saint Paul, Minnesota ABSTRACT Marketing and quality concepts were utilized in developing an employee awareness plan to facilitate long term...
Hall, Kathleen Currie
This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…
Monique Plaza; Henri Cohen
This paper focuses on the predictive influence of phonological awareness, morphological\\/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling. The retrospective study correlated spelling performance in a group of 199 French-speaking children at the end of grade 2 with earlier capacities for phonemic manipulation, morphological\\/syntactic correction, and naming speed, assessed at the end of grade 1. The results are consistent with an
Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia
The role of segmental phonology in developmental dyslexia (DD) is well established (e.g., deficit in phonological awareness), but the role of suprasegmental phonology (prosody) has been less widely investigated. Stress is one of the main prosodic features and refers to the relative prominence of syllables (strong/weak) within a word. The aim of the present study is to examine stress awareness in children with dyslexia and the possible mediation of phonemic awareness on suprasegmental phonological skills. Thirty-one Spanish children with DD and 31 chronological age-control children participated. Two stress awareness tasks were administrated, one with words and another with pseudowords. Results show that the children with dyslexia performed more poorly on both tasks than control children. The pattern of results in accuracy and reaction time suggest that, while children without difficulties use different strategies depending on the type of item, the children with dyslexia employ the same strategy to resolve the two tasks without any benefit of lexical knowledge about stress. Even so, this strategy did not work so efficiently as it did in the control group, which led the group with dyslexia to make a greater number of mistakes. It was also found that, when phonemic awareness was entered as a covariate, accuracy differences disappeared, but only in the word stress task. However, when lexical knowledge was not necessary (as in the pseudoword stress task) differences still remained statistically significant. Implications on the importance of suprasegmental processing in reading acquisition disabilities are discussed. PMID:25463247
Zeng, Xianglong; Li, Mengdan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xiangping
Goenka's 10-day Vipassana course is a widespread mindfulness course rooted in traditional Buddhism. Awareness and equanimity are two abilities cultivated in this course that are not featured in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies and thereby not adequately measured by current mindfulness scales. The present article analyzed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al. in Assessment 15(2):204-223, 2008) and revised it into a short version to avoid confusion when measuring awareness and equanimity. Empirical data obtained using Chinese university students and Chinese Buddhists showed that the psychometric properties of the original version of the PHLMS had low factor loading on some items and that the short version had improved psychometric properties, especially for Buddhists. The short PHLMS also exhibited reasonable relationships with emotional outcomes and meditation practices among Buddhists. Implications for the future application of the PHLMS among Buddhists were also discussed. PMID:24824919
Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek
The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…
February 2009 /Published online: 21 March 2009 # The International Dyslexia Association 2009 Abstract Using. of Dyslexia (2009) 59:7897 DOI 10.1007/s11881-009-0024-y S. J. Frost (*) :N. Landi :W. E. Mencl :R. Sandak :R
Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Al Otaiba, Stephanie
Purpose: The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction. Method: First-grade children were assessed on their phonological,…
Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F Xavier
Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g., in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey'). Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding how these words are processed. Determiners either are thought to have different representations for each of their surface forms, or they are thought to have only 1 representation while other forms are generated online after selection through a rule-based process. We tested the predictions derived from these 2 views in 3 picture naming experiments. Participants named pictures using determiner-adjective-noun phrases (e.g., la nouvelle table 'the new table'). Phonologically consistent or inconsistent conditions were contrasted, based on the phonological onsets of the adjective and the noun. Results revealed shorter naming latencies for consistent than for inconsistent sequences (i.e., a phonological consistency effect) for all the determiner types tested. Our interpretation of these findings converges on the assumption that determiners with varying surface forms are represented in memory with multiple phonological-lexical representations. This conclusion is discussed in relation to models of determiner processing and models of lexical variability. PMID:24797443
Sybilski, Adam J; Lusawa, Adam; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Barbara; Raciborski, Filip; Krzych-Fa?ta, Edyta; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Samoli?ski, Boles?aw
Reduction in asthma incidences and mortality, as well as improved quality of life, can be achieved via a wide use of prevention methods. A number of randomized cohort studies demonstrated the effectiveness of such management and the need for multiple treatments. Here, we evaluate whether asthma awareness influences the lifestyle and the use of prevention, as well as the effects of age, sex, economic status, and education on the use of prophylaxis. A total of 18,617 (53.8% female; 24.2% 6-7 years old, 25.4% 13-14 years old, and 50.4% 20-44 years old) were selected by a stratified cluster sampling method in eight cities and one rural area, each over 150,000 citizens. The sample was selected based on the methods and questionnaires of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Patients aware of asthma significantly less often (p < 0.05) reported owning asthma-inducing items and significantly more often reported behaviors minimizing the number of allergens (p < 0.05). Patients aware of asthma took all actions reducing their exposure to in-house allergens significantly more often than the healthy (p < 0.05) and individuals with symptoms only (p < 0.05). Allergy prevention was used more often in children (p < 0.0005), responders aware of diseases (p < 0.05), higher levels of education (p < 0.05), and higher household income (p < 0.05). The most common type of prophylaxis used is prophylactic actions, which are undertaken by patients diagnosed with asthma and who are aware of their disease. Adults do not use preventive measures as often as children or adolescents do. Higher rates of prevention-oriented behavior were observed in groups characterized by higher levels of education and higher household income. PMID:25715234
Dandache, Sophie; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol
The main focus of this article is to develop a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of literacy and phonological skills within Dutch-speaking children. Children at high and low risk for dyslexia were followed and compared at four different moments: kindergarten and first, third and sixth grades. Three groups were then compared: (1) dyslexic readers; (2) normal readers at high risk for dyslexia; and (3) normal readers at low risk for dyslexia. Children diagnosed with dyslexia scored lower than high-risk normal readers on phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory and literacy skills. Normal readers at high risk scored between both groups, confirming that dyslexia is to be considered as a continuum rather than an all-or-none condition. Growth analyses showed that the three groups evolved similarly on all measures except for phoneme deletion and literacy measures. Finally, solely PA and RAN explained a significant amount of variance in the evolution of reading skills. PMID:25257672
Anesthesia Awareness Very rarely – in only one or two out of every 10,000 medical procedures involving anesthesia – a patient may become aware or conscious. The condition – called anesthesia awareness – means the patient can recall the surroundings ...
Saarinen, Thomas F.
The relationship between an individual's or community's awareness of natural hazards and subsequent behavior change is examined in this review of research. The document is presented in seven sections. Following Section I, the introduction, Section II discusses the role of experience in behavior change. Section III examines the role of education…
Jeon, Eun Hee
This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…
Hawkins, Erin; Astle, Duncan E; Rastle, Kathleen
Learning a new word requires discrimination between a novel sequence of sounds and similar known words. We investigated whether semantic information facilitates the acquisition of new phonological representations in adults and whether this learning enhancement is modulated by overnight consolidation. Participants learned novel spoken words either consistently associated with a visual referent or with no consistent meaning. An auditory oddball task tested discrimination of these newly learned phonological forms from known words. The MMN, an electrophysiological measure of auditory discrimination, was only elicited for words learned with a consistent semantic association. Immediately after training, this semantic benefit on auditory discrimination was linked to explicit learning of the associations, where participants with greater semantic learning exhibited a larger MMN. However, although the semantic-associated words continued to show greater auditory discrimination than nonassociated words after consolidation, the MMN was no longer related to performance in learning the semantic associations. We suggest that the provision of semantic systematicity directly impacts upon the development of new phonological representations and that a period of offline consolidation may promote the abstraction of these representations. PMID:25269110
Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...
Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W
This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...
Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…
Tyler, Ann A
Children with phonological disorders often display difficulty in other domains of language. Language-based approaches focus on all aspects of language; therefore, little attention may be drawn to sound errors and these may not be specific targets of intervention. These approaches involve a variety of naturalistic, conversationally based techniques such as focused stimulation in the form of expansions and recasts, scaffolding narratives, and elicited production devices such as forced choice questions, cloze tasks, and preparatory sets. Results from well-controlled group studies are inconclusive regarding the cross-domain effects of morphosyntax approaches on phonology. There are, however, individual children whose phonology improves with a language-based approach. Preliminary evidence suggests that such an approach may be an appropriate choice for children with both speech and language impairments whose phonological systems are highly inconsistent. One advantage of a language-based approach is that it may lead to simultaneous improvements in both speech and language for children with difficulty in both these domains. It is also a viable option when service delivery dictates classroom and collaborative settings. When a language-based approach is chosen for children with phonological disorders, it is imperative that the practitioner monitor phonological progress closely to ensure its effectiveness. PMID:11938492
Siew, Cynthia S. Q.
Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735
Baser, Ulku; Germen, Meliha; Erdem, Yelda; Issever, Halim; Yalcin, Funda
Objective: The aims of this descriptive, cross-sectional investigation were to evaluate the gingival health awareness of dental students by comparing their clinical gingival bleeding scores and self-reports, and to compare differences in awareness between males and females. Methods: In total, 100 (51 males, 49 females) freshman dental students were included in the study. Periodontal indices recorded were: Presence of plaque percentage (plaque index [PI], %), percentage of sites of bleeding on probing (BOP, %), probing depth, and community periodontal index (CPI). Percent agreement, kappa agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated by comparing their self-reported gingival bleeding and BOP%. Results: The self-reports of gingival bleeding exhibited statistically significant correlations with BOP% in females (r = 0.42, P = 0.003). Female students showed a higher degree of awareness when kappa agreement, 0.23 (males: 0.16, females: 0.39), sensitivity, 48% (males: 42%, females: 51%), and specificity, 95% (males: 90%, females: 100%) were calculated. Although male dental students had higher PI and CPI scores, there was no significant difference by gender in the clinical measurements. Conclusions: According to our results, the validity of self-reported gingival bleeding was higher among dental students than in previous population-based studies. Female dental students showed a higher degree of awareness than males of their gingival health. Half of the included dental students could not differentiate whether they had gingival bleeding when there was actual bleeding. More emphasis should be given to the education of dental students regarding the relationship between gingival bleeding and active periodontal disease. PMID:25202217
Jones, Dylan M.; Macken, William J.; Nicholls, Alastair P.
The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was…
Connolly, M J; Crowley, J J; Charan, N B; Nielson, C P; Vestal, R E
BACKGROUND: Asthma death rates are rising, with the greatest rise and highest death rates in old age. A reduced cardiovascular response in the elderly may lead to the underestimation by physicians of the severity of acute asthma attacks. This would be compounded if elderly patients had reduced awareness of bronchoconstriction. METHODS: Methacholine provoked bronchoconstriction was compared in 34 elderly (17 asthmatic, 17 normal; age 60-83, mean 68 years) and 33 young subjects (16 asthmatic, 17 normal; 20-46, mean 30 years). None were smokers. All underwent inhaled methacholine challenge by the Newcastle dosimeter method, monitored by maximal expiratory flow-volume loops (MEFVL). The endpoints were a 35% fall in forced expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity or cumulative inhalation of 6.4 mg methacholine. The one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was derived from MEFVL. After challenge and before bronchodilatation subjects graded awareness of respiratory discomfort from 1 (no symptoms) to 4 (pronounced symptoms needing immediate treatment). RESULTS: Despite a greater fall in FEV1 in elderly asthmatic patients (mean (SE) 27.4% (2.2%)) than in young asthmatic patients (21.5% (1.7%)) elderly patients were less aware of bronchoconstriction (awareness score 2.00 (SE 0.15) than young patients (3.06 (0.11)). Similar differences in awareness score were seen between elderly normal subjects (1.53 (0.17)) and young normal subjects (2.76 (0.22)), despite no difference in degree of bronchoconstriction. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced awareness of moderate acute bronchoconstriction in old age may delay self referral in acute asthma and contribute to higher asthma mortality in the elderly. PMID:1496497
There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...
of Thok Reel phonetics, phonology and morphophonology. The description follows the topics on word and syllable structure, consonants, vowels, and tone. Each section accounts for the phonological distinctions and provides the phonetic description...
Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him
The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness),…
Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith
Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045
Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological…
van Deemter, Kees
applies to words within one language, but also across different languages, allowing high level cross morphological machinery. Our proposal extends the PolyLex word model down to the level of phonological features as morphology and phonology in a single phonology-based representation. This representation is more uniform
Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun
The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…
Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.
Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.
Sharolyn D. Pollard-Durodola; Deborah C. Simmons
There is growing evidence of cross-language transfer in metalinguistic processes related to reading acquisition and development. In particular, phonological awareness is a requisite process that shares similarities across Spanish and English. Through explicit instruction and instructional design analyses, we propose principles to facilitate phonemic awareness development and transfer from Spanish to English for children at risk for early reading difficulties.
Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.
The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…
Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of speech errors that uncovers non-accommodated or mismatch errors. A mismatch error is a sub-phonemic error that results in an incorrect surface phonology. This type of error could arise during the processing of phonological rules or they could be made at the motor level of implementation. The results of this work have important implications for both experimental and theoretical research. For experimentalists, it validates the tools used for error induction and the acoustic determination of errors free of the perceptual bias. For theorists, this methodology can be used to test the nature of the processes proposed in language production. PMID:24389843
Steinbrink, Claudia; Klatte, Maria; Lachmann, Thomas
It is still unclear whether phonological processing deficits are the underlying cause of developmental dyslexia, or rather a consequence of basic auditory processing impairments. To avoid methodological confounds, in the current study the same task and stimuli of comparable complexity were used to investigate both phonological and basic auditory (temporal and spectral) processing in dyslexia. German dyslexic children (Grades 3 and 4) were compared to age- and grade-matched controls in a vowel length discrimination task with three experimental conditions: In a phonological condition, natural vowels were used, differing both with respect to temporal and spectral information (in German, vowel length is phonemic, and vowel length differences are characterized by both temporal and spectral information). In a temporal condition, spectral information differentiating between the two vowels of a pair was eliminated, whereas in a spectral condition, temporal differences were removed. As performance measure, the sensitivity index d' was computed. At the group level, dyslexic children's performance was inferior to that of controls for phonological as well as temporal and spectral vowel length discrimination. At an individual level, nearly half of the dyslexic sample was characterized by deficits in all three conditions, but there were also some children showing no deficits at all. These results reveal on the one hand that phonological processing deficits in dyslexia may stem from impairments in processing temporal and spectral information in the speech signal. On the other hand they indicate, however, that not all dyslexic children might be characterized by phonological or auditory processing deficits. PMID:25128788
Schnur, Tatiana T.
The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396
Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro
Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…
Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura
Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…
Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.
Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…
Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia
The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…
Beech, John R.; Beauvois, Michael W.
Previous research has indicated possible reciprocal connections between phonology and reading, and also connections between aspects of auditory perception and reading. The present study investigates these associations further by examining the potential influence of prenatal androgens using measures of digit ratio (the ratio of the lengths of the…
Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.
This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…
Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina
There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004
Cummings, Alycia Erin
of their treated sound in high frequency words, as compareda given sound within the context of high frequency words washigh-frequency words induced phonological change in both treated and untreated sounds (in untreated words), while low-frequency
Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth
Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...
LaSalle, Lisa R
To study the effects of clinicians' slow rate on the speech of children who stutter with and without a concomitant phonological disorder, an A-B-A-B single case design was used with six clinician-child dyads, where B?=?Clinician's slow speech rate model. Two boys and one girl, aged 49-54 months, stuttering with disordered phonology (S?+?DP), were compared to three boys aged 42-50 months, stuttering with normal phonology (S?+?NP). Articulation rates were measured in phones per second (pps) in clinician-child adjacent utterance pairs. The S?+?NP dyads showed improved fluency in the B condition through a larger effect size, higher mean baseline stutter reductions and lower percentages of non-overlapping data than did the S?+?DP dyads. The S?+?DP girl showed relatively improved fluency in the B condition. S?+?DP children showed no articulation rate alignment (Range: 16% decrease to a 1.2% increase), whereas S?+?NP children averaged a 20% pps rate reduction (Range: 19.6-25.4% decrease), aligning with their clinicians who averaged a 38% pps rate reduction from baseline. The S?+?DP group spoke significantly (z?=?-4.63; p?0.00) slower at baseline (Mdn?=?6.9 pps; SE?=?0.07 pps) than S?+?NP children in previously published samples (Mdn?=?9.8 pps; SE?=?0.22 pps). Results suggest that a slow rate model alone is not effective for facilitating fluency in S?+?DP boys with time since onset of about 2 years. PMID:25651198
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.
Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.
A study of the pronunciation of an adult male Swahili speaker, a native and long-term resident of Mombasa Old Town, supplemented with notes on other adult speakers, suggests a new account of glides and phonological change in this variation of the language. The asymmetrical distribution of the two glide types (palatal and labiovelar) is analyzed…
This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…
The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…
The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…
Silva, Cristina; Alves-Martins, Margarida
Identifies causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in knowledge about writing in 90 middle-class Portuguese preschool children. Discusses how two experimental intervention programs proved equivalent in terms of the conceptual evolution they triggered, to the extent that the children in both experimental…
Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.
Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…
Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A very frequent reading error of the case is to misread
In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…
Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France firstname.lastname@example.org August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi
This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…
Rubrecht, August Weston
Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…
Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso
During the grammatical encoding of spoken multiword utterances, various kinds of information must be used to determine the order of words. For example, whereas in adjective-noun utterances like “red car”, word order can be determined on the basis of the word's grammatical class information, in noun-noun utterances like “…by car, bus, or…”, word order cannot be determined on the basis of a word's grammatical class information. We investigated whether a word's phonological properties play a role in grammatical encoding. In four experiments participants produced multiword utterances in which the words' onset phonology was manipulated. Phonological-onset relatedness yielded inhibitory effects in noun-noun utterances, no effects in noun-adjective utterances, and facilitatory effects in adjective-noun, noun-verb, and adjective-adjective-noun utterances. These results cannot be explained by differences in the stimulus displays used to elicit the utterances and suggest that grammatical encoding is sensitive to the phonological properties of words. PMID:19694981
Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.
In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…
Wolk, L; Giesen, J
Multiple autistic siblings of four or more are extremely rare. This study carried out a phonological investigation of four siblings in a unique family. Phonological investigations were carried out on four siblings with childhood autism (one female and three males). In addition, behavioral characteristics were described and compared among the four children. The two methods used for speech elicitation were object naming and spontaneous speech utterances. Data analyses included phonetic inventory and phonological process analyses. Phonological investigations showed that these autistic children, at least the more severely impaired ones, do not only exhibit delayed phonological behavior, but also show some atypical patterns that rarely occur in normal development. Findings from this study reveal five general patterns of phonological behavior, namely: (a) evidence of several phonological processes that are common in normal development; (b) persistence of several phonological processes, such as labialization, cluster reduction, or final consonant deletion, beyond the expected age; (c) evidence of unusual sound changes, such as extensive segment coalescence, frication of liquids, and velarization; (d) evidence of "chronological mismatch" (Grunwell, 1981), which is the notion of the absence of earlier sounds co-occurring with characteristics of later development; and (e) restricted use of contrasts. These findings support earlier work on a single autistic child using phonological investigations (Wolk & Edwards, 1993), but contrast with all previous research suggesting that autistic children exhibit delayed rather than unusual phonological development. Clinical implications are suggested. PMID:11081786
Luengo J, Víctor; Zapata P, Carola; Delfino, Alejandro; Calderón, Jorge; González Tugas, Matías
Anesthesia awareness, or "unintended intra-operative awareness" occurs during general anesthesia, on the operating table, when a patient has not had enough general anesthetic or analgesic to prevent consciousness or waking up during surgery. According to international studies its global incidence ranges from 0.1 to 0.2%. Its impact on people can be as severe as other traumatic experiences such as natural disasters, violent fights or sexual abuse. The prevalence of symptoms compatible with post traumatic stress disorder can be as high as 50%, after experiencing the awareness phenomenon. This paper reviews the main issues of the awareness phenomenon. PMID:20556341
Siddeswara Mayura Guru; Suhinthan Maheswararajah
\\u000a In wireless sensor network applications, sensor measurements are corrupted by noise resulting from harsh environmental conditions,\\u000a hardware and transmission errors. Minimising the impact of noise in an energy constrained sensor network is a challenging\\u000a task. We study the problem of estimating environmental phenomena (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure) based on noisy sensor\\u000a measurements to minimise the estimation error. An environmental phenomenon
Marie-Astrid A. Cauquy; Michael C. Roggemann; Timothy J. Schulz
The proliferation of small, lightweight, 'micro-' and 'nanosatellite' (largest dimension < 1m ) has presented new challenges to the space surveillance community. The small size of these satellites makes them unresolvable by ground-based imaging systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface,
Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326
Seghier, Mohamed L; Lazeyras, François; Pegna, Alan J; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Zimine, Ivan; Mayer, Eugène; Michel, Christoph M; Khateb, Asaid
Assessing inter-individual variability of functional activations is of practical importance in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a clinical context. In this fMRI study we addressed this issue in 30 right-handed, healthy subjects using rhyme detection (phonologic) and semantic categorization tasks. Significant activations, found mainly in the left hemisphere, concerned the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior/middle temporal gyri, the prefrontal cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, the superior parietal lobule/superior occipital gyrus, the pre-central gyrus, and the supplementary motor area. Intensity/spatial analysis comparing activations in both tasks revealed an increased involvement of frontal regions in the semantic task and of temporo-parietal regions in the phonologic task. The frequency of activation analyzed in nine regional subdivisions revealed a high inter-subject variability but showed that the most frequently activated regions were the inferior frontal gyrus and the prefrontal cortex. Laterality indices, strongly lateralizing in both tasks, were slightly higher in the semantic (0.76 +/- 0.19) than the phonologic task (0.66 +/- 0.27). Frontal dominance indices (a measure of frontal vs. posterior left hemisphere dominance) indicated more robust frontal activations in the semantic than the phonologic task. Our study allowed the characterization of the most frequently involved foci in two language tasks and showed that the combination of these tasks constitutes a suitable tool for determining language lateralization and for mapping major language areas. PMID:15449358
Igarashi, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken'ya; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Mazuka, Reiko
To date, the intonation of infant-directed speech (IDS) has been analyzed without reference to its phonological structure. Intonational phonology should, however, inform IDS research, discovering important properties that have previously been overlooked. The present study investigated "intonational exaggeration" in Japanese IDS using the intonational phonological framework. Although intonational exaggeration, which is most often measured by pitch-range expansion, is one of the best-known characteristics of IDS, Japanese has been reported to lack such exaggeration. The present results demonstrated that intonational exaggeration is in fact present and observed most notably at the location of boundary pitch movements, and that the effects of lexical pitch accents in the remainder of the utterances superficially mask the exaggeration. These results not only reveal dynamic aspects of Japanese IDS, but also in turn contribute to the theory of intonational phonology, suggesting that paralinguistic pitch-range modifications most clearly emerge where the intonation system of a language allows maximum flexibility in varying intonational contours. PMID:23927126
Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard
Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25584733
Collet, G; Colin, C; Serniclaes, W; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Deltenre, P; Leybaert, J
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen twenty-minute training sessions with feedback, and a control group of nine children with SLI did not receive any training. Identification, discrimination and categorical perception were evaluated before, during and after training as well as one month following the final session. Phonological awareness and vocabulary were also assessed for both groups. The results showed that children with SLI experienced strong difficulties in the identification, discrimination and categorical perception of the voicing continuum prior to training. However, as early as after the first nine training sessions, their performance in the identification and discrimination tasks increased significantly. Moreover, phonological awareness scores improved during training, whereas vocabulary scores remained stable across sessions. PMID:22699254
Roth, Froma P.; Troia, Gary A.; Worthington, Colleen K.; Handy, Dianne
The primary purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the blending portion of the Promoting Awareness of Sounds in Speech (PASS) program, a comprehensive and explicit phonological awareness intervention curriculum designed for preschool children with speech and language impairments. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of…
Cheung, Him; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Wong, Simpson Wai Lap; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Penney, Trevor Bruce; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
In this study, we examined the intercorrelations among speech perception, metalinguistic (i.e., phonological and morphological) awareness, word reading, and vocabulary in a 1st language (L1) and a 2nd language (L2). Results from 3 age groups of Chinese-English bilingual children showed that speech perception was more predictive of reading and…
Cláudia Cardoso-Martins; Uta Frith
Two studies investigating the relationship betweenphoneme awareness and word reading ability in Downsyndrome (DS) are reported. The first study included33 Brazilian individuals with DS (mean age = 23years). They all had begun to read and all showedclear signs of phonological recoding skills. Thirty-three normal children (mean age = 7 years),matched with the individuals with DS for readingability, participated as controls.
Wolter, Julie A.; Dilworth, Valisa
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness…
Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295
Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane
Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158
B. A. Blachman; E. W. Ball; R. S. Black; D. M. Tangel
Recent evidence suggests that training in phoneme awareness has a positive impact on beginning reading and spelling. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction in phonological awareness provided in low-income, inner-city kindergarten classrooms by kindergarten teachers and their teaching assistants. Prior to the intervention, the 84 treatment children and 75 control children, who attended inner-city
Birch, Stacy L
The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary. PMID:25297383
Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al
Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281
Wolk, L; Edwards, M L; Conture, E G
The purpose of the present study was to assess differences in stuttering, phonological, and diadochokinetic behaviors in young children who exhibit both stuttering and disordered phonology and children who exhibit only one of the disorders. Subjects were 21 male children (aged 4 to 6 years), representing three groups of seven children each: (a) stuttering and normal phonological abilities (S+NP), (b) stuttering and disordered phonology (S+DP), and (c) normal fluency and disordered phonology (NF+DP). Stuttering behavior was assessed during a 30-minute conversational speech task; phonological behavior was assessed during a 162 item picture-naming task; and diadochokinetic abilities were assessed during bi- and multisyllable productions. Results indicated that the S+DP group produced significantly more sound prolongations and significantly fewer iterations per whole-word repetition than the S+NP group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in other stuttering indices. Moreover, no differences were noted between the S+DP and NF+DP groups in phonological behavior. Diadochokinetic rates did not differ among the three groups. The possibility of two types of stuttering, one occurring with and one without disordered phonology, is discussed. PMID:8246479
Ruscello, Dennis M.
The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…
Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.
This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…
Purpose: Little is known about the phonological aspects of derivational processes. Neutral suffixes (e.g., "-ness") that do not change stress and rhythmic or nonneutral suffixes (e.g., "-ity") that alter stem stress were used in a production task that explored developmental changes in phonological accuracy of derived English words. Method: Three…
Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…
The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological…
Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang
Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…
Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack
The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits
Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum
The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would
Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.; Demille, Darcie
To examine interactions between young children's vocabulary size and their phonological abilities, spontaneous language samples were collected from 24-month-olds with precocious lexicons, their age mates (24-month-olds with average-sized lexicons), and their vocabulary mates (30-month-olds with average-sized lexicons). Phonological ability was…
Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara
Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic
French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena
This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…
Major, Roy C.
Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)
Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl
Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which
1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan
The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…
Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer
The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…
Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch
Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662
O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe
This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…
Proctor, Michael Ian
Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…
Reber, Paul J.
1 Running Head: SPEECH ERRORS AND PHONOLOGICAL THEORY Linking speech email@example.com #12; 2 Abstract Speech errors are a critical source of data on the tacit in spontaneous speech, in experimental paradigms such as tongue twisters, and those
Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling
Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of dyslexia and normally developing controls on phonological processing, phonological learning, phonological
Barbara R. Foorman
\\u000a When one’s assignment is the clean-up act—the last chapter in a two-volume series on The Varieties of Orthographic\\u000a Knowledge—one can claim poetic license. Through a few rhymes and orthographic maneuvers I have tried to capture many of the themes\\u000a discussed in the nine chapters of this second volume relating orthography to phonology, reading, and writing. The themes,\\u000a organized into stanzas
Tanya E. Sherman; Lisa J. Rapport; Kelly A. Ryan
The present study examined awareness of deficits among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 74 pairs of persons with MS and their significant others participated. Awareness of cognitive deficit was measured by discrepancy scores between patient reports of their cognitive abilities and objective test results. Awareness of functional deficit was measured by the discrepancy between the patient and
Jackson, Dianna Dale
The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the perceptions of special education teachers and the eight factors (Teacher Beliefs, School climate, Culturally responsive Classroom Management, Home and Community Support, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum and Instruction, Cultural Sensitivity and Teacher…
Hammann, Lynne A.; Stevens, Robert J.
This study investigated Self-Regulated Learning of 90 college students in an introductory educational psychology course at a large eastern university. Relationships among metacognition, motivational orientation, strategy use, and performance were examined. The study expanded on findings about The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) (G. Schraw…
Pearce, Mary Dorothy
This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.
Tadda, George P.; Salerno, John S.
Improving a decision maker’s1 situational awareness of the cyber domain isn’t greatly different than enabling situation awareness in more traditional domains2. Situation awareness necessitates working with processes capable of identifying domain specific activities as well as processes capable of identifying activities that cross domains. These processes depend on the context of the environment, the domains, and the goals and interests of the decision maker but they can be defined to support any domain. This chapter will define situation awareness in its broadest sense, describe our situation awareness reference and process models, describe some of the applicable processes, and identify a set of metrics usable for measuring the performance of a capability supporting situation awareness. These techniques are independent of domain but this chapter will also describe how they apply to the cyber domain.
Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)
Gilleen, J; Greenwood, K; David, A S
Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850
Brunellière, Angèle; Soto-Faraco, Salvador
This study addresses how top-down predictions driven by phonological and semantic information interact on spoken-word comprehension. To do so, we measured event-related potentials to words embedded in sentences that varied in the degree of semantic constraint (high or low) and in regional accent (congruent or incongruent) with respect to the target word pronunciation. The data showed a negative amplitude shift following phonological mismatch (target pronunciation incongruent with respect to sentence regional accent). Here, we show that this shift is modulated by sentence-level semantic constraints over latencies encompassing auditory (N100) and lexical (N400) components. These findings suggest a fast influence of top-down predictions and the interplay with bottom-up processes at sublexical and lexical levels of analysis. PMID:25039688
Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol
The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927
An experiment examined whether beginning readers can successfully learn to detect and define homonyms, and whether this ability correlates with vocabulary and/or phonological awareness. First graders received ambiguity instruction involving homonyms in isolation, in riddles, and in text. A control group received reading lessons without a…
Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Grigorenko, Elena L.
We studied the relationship between rapid serial naming (RSN) and orthographic processing in Russian, an asymmetrically transparent orthography. Ninety-six students (M age = 13.73) completed tests of word and pseudoword reading fluency, spelling, orthographic choice, phonological choice, phoneme awareness (PA), and RSN. PA was a better predictor…
The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.
Compiled monthly by the Education Information Center of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction in association with The Landmark Project, Current Awareness is a bibliographic database of the most recent literature on issues related to education and technology. Garnered from an extensive journal collection, the citations in the database are indexed into more than 200 topic areas. Educators may browse the database by topic or conduct keyword searches on topic or title. Queries yield brief citations in a tabular format.
This guide on avalanche awareness and safety discusses the anatomy of an avalanche (starting zone, track, and runout zone), avalanche factors and conditions, determining if the snowpack is safe (using snowpits and shear tests), when and where avalanches happen, the typical victims, tips for survival, an avalanche danger scale, and a list of avalanche quick checks. Avalanche conditions discussed include weather, snowfall, temperature and wind direction, snowpack, slope angle, slope orientation, terrain, and vegetation.
Schmalz, Xenia; Marinus, Eva; Castles, Anne
Learning to read fluently involves moving from an effortful phonological decoding strategy to automatic recognition of familiar words. However, little is known about the timing of this transition, or the extent to which children continue to be influenced by phonological factors when recognizing words even as they progress in reading. We explored this question by examining regularity effects in a lexical decision task, as opposed to the more traditionally used reading-aloud task. Children in Grades 3 and 4 made go/no-go lexical decisions on high- and low-frequency regular and irregular words that had been matched for consistency. The children showed regularity effects in their accuracy for low-frequency words, indicating that they were using phonological decoding strategies to recognize unfamiliar words. The size of this effect was correlated with measures of reading ability. However, we found no regularity effects on accuracy for high-frequency words or on response times for either word type, suggesting that even 8-year-old children are already relying predominantly on a direct lexical strategy in their silent reading of familiar words. PMID:22905801
Srinivasan, Narayanan; Pariyadath, Vani
Currently in humor research, there exists a dearth of computational models for humor perception. The existing theories are not quantifiable and efforts need to be made to quantify the models and incorporate neuropsychological findings in humor research. We propose a new computational model (GraPHIA) for perceiving phonological jokes or puns. GraPHIA consists of a semantic network and a phonological network where words are represented by nodes in both the networks. Novel features based on graph theoretical concepts are proposed and computed for the identification of homophonic jokes. The data set for evaluating the model consisted of homophonic puns, normal sentences, and ambiguous nonsense sentences. The classification results show that the feature values result in successful identification of phonological jokes and ambiguous nonsense sentences suggesting that the proposed model is a plausible model for humor perception. Further work is needed to extend the model for identification of other types of phonological jokes. PMID:18618159
King, Simon; Taylor, Paul
which uses binary features, 2) a multi valued (MV) feature system which uses traditional phonetic categories such as manner, place etc, and 3) Government Phonology (GP) which uses a set of structured primes. All experiments used recurrent neural networks...
Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja
Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261
Smith, Louis M.; Kleine, Paul F.
An experiment was conducted to test three hypotheses: (1) as teacher cognitive complexity increases then teacher awareness increases, (2) as teacher cognitive differentiation increases then teacher awareness increases, (3) as teacher awareness increases then pupil esteem for the teacher increases. Measurements were made in the late spring using 69…
Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology Philip M. Merikle*, Daniel been used to demonstrate perception without awareness are described. Each approach reÂ¯ects one of two logic has been either to demon- strate a dissociation between a measure of perception with awareness
Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg
We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited
Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.
Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O
The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994
LifeBridge Health developed and implemented an awareness campaign to generate buzz about the breast cancer services at the Alvin & Lois Lapidus Cancer Institute of LifeBridge Health and the Herman & Walter Samuelson Breast Cancer Care Center at Northwest Hospital Center. With the help of talented local breast cancer survivors, celebrities, fashion designers, and artists, LifeBridge Health created a campaign, including an interactive Web site, public relations outreach, and a unique event in October 2006 that featured a collection of hand-made decorated bras. PMID:17450952
Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...
Samuel, Arbesman; Strogatz, Steven H.; Vitevitch, Michael S.
of the island constituents. The results showed that Spanish words in the islands tended to be phonologically and semantically similar to each other, but English words in the islands tended only to be phonologically similar to each other. The results...
Julie A. Adams
This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation
Ninth Grade Teachers‘ Perceptions of Cultural Awareness and Teacher Beliefs as Measured by the Cultural Awareness and Beliefs Inventory: Relationship with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading Scores
Yandell, Shanah Lea
reported statistically significant difference when delineated by ethnicity: cultural awareness and teacher efficacy. The relationships between teachers‘ perceptions of the eight factors and the TAKS for ninth grade reading reported negative correlations...
Petra Verdonk; Yvonne W. M. Benschop; Toine L. M. Lagro-Janssen
Gender awareness in medicine consists of two attitudinal components: gender sensitivity and gender-role ideology. In this\\u000a article, the development of a scale to measure these attitudes in Dutch medical students is described. After a pilot study\\u000a and a feasibility study, 393 medical students in The Netherlands responded to a preliminary instrument consisting of 82 items\\u000a (response rate 61.3%). Reliability and
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Phonology and syntax in French children with SLI: a longitudinal study Christophe Parisse was extended to include syntax as well as phonology. Percentage of words correct was computed for both phonology and syntax. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed with children's age as covariate
Mischler, James J., III
This article presents a case study of phonological types of internal evaluation in the personal oral narrative of one non-native speaker of English. The purpose was twofold: (1) to study whether laughter and exhaled breath can serve the functions of expressive phonology; i.e., phonological features which provide commentary and point of view for…
Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert
In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological…
Transler, C.; Gombert, J. E.; Leybaert, J.
Examined whether phonological decoding could be observed among severely and profoundly deaf children during reading. The ability of 20 deaf children to detect phonological similarities between three written pseudo words was investigated. Results suggest a link between sensitivity to phonology in written language and speech skills. Implications of…
Dynamics: the non-derivational alternative to modeling phonetics-phonology Adamantios I. Gafos. Introduction The derivational view of phonetics-phonology (Ladd, this volume) expresses an intuition that seems of phonetics-phonology. Incomplete neutralization (Ernestus and Baayen, this volume) and other phenomena like
Millar, Andrew J.
Edinburgh Research Explorer Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology Citation for published version: Iosad, P 2012, 'Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology' Journal: Â© Cambridge University Press 2012. Iosad, P. Nov 2012, "Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Siegel, Linda S.; Bechennec, Danielle
Assesses 48 French children's phonological skills from kindergarten to the end of grade two. Finds that the French-speaking children used phonological mediation in silent-reading tasks and that phonological processing contributes to the construction of the orthographic lexicon. (RS)
Situation Awareness Umakishore Ramachandran College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology 1 leading to situation awareness. There are three communities -- sensor networks, pervasive computing, and high performance computing Â that carry out research that are relevant to achieving situation awareness
Michael Beigl; Albert Krohn; Tobias Zimmer; Christian Decker; Philip Robinson
Ubicomp environments impose tough constraints on networks, including immediate communication, low energy consumption, minimal maintenance and ad- ministration. With the AwareCon network, we address these challenges by prescribing an integrated architecture that differs from classical networking by featuring an aware- ness of the surrounding situation and context. In various settings, where AwareCon was implemented on tiny battery driven devices, we
Burrows, Lauren; Goldstein, Brian A.
Phonological acquisition traditionally has been measured using constructs that focus on segments rather than the whole words. Findings from recent research have suggested whole-word productions be evaluated using measures such as phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) and the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP). These measures have been…
Andin, Josefine; Fransson, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary
Arithmetic and language processing involve similar neural networks, but the relative engagement remains unclear. In the present study we used fMRI to compare activation for phonological, multiplication and subtraction tasks, keeping the stimulus material constant, within a predefined language-calculation network including left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus (AG) as well as superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Results revealed a generally left lateralized activation pattern within the language-calculation network for phonology and a bilateral activation pattern for arithmetic, and suggested regional differences between tasks. In particular, we found a more prominent role for phonology than arithmetic in pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus but domain generality in pars triangularis. Parietal activation patterns demonstrated greater engagement of the visual and quantity systems for calculation than language. This set of findings supports the notion of a common, but regionally differentiated, language-calculation network. PMID:25797099
Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer
The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999
Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer
The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999
H. Lee Swanson; Carole Sachse-Lee
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between working memory (WM) and mathematical problem solving in children with learning disabilities (LD). Children with LD (age 11.5 years) were compared to chronologically age-matched (CA-M) and younger comprehension\\/computation achievement-matched children (age 8.9 years) on measures of verbal and visual-spatial WM, phonological processing, components of problem solving, and word-problem solving
(FM), a group of adults with dyslexia, and a group of normal readers in a divided visual field paradigm. FM had been diagnosed with developmental dyslexia at age 8. This type of dyslexia is marked by a deficient usage of phonological encoding... by the group with dyslexia--even though the effect was not as strong. No effect of orthography was found with the controls. Lavidor et al. argue that FM and the dyslexic individuals are more sensitive to orthographic cues because the phonological system...
A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)
Halliday, Lorna F
In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350
Qi, Sharon; O'Connor, Rollanda
A study examined which phonological skills, as primary skills, can more effectively be developed and lead to decoding skills in low-skilled kindergartners: (1) segmentation/blending, or (2) rhyming/first sound identification? Low-skilled kindergartners (n=61), who scored less than 4 items correctly in 3 out of 5 measures, were randomly assigned to…
Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly
This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…
Burton, Martha W.
Lesion studies have demonstrated impairments of specific types of phonological processes. However, results from neuropsychological studies of speech sound processing have been inconclusive as to the role of specific brain regions because of a lack of a one-to-one correspondence between behavioural patterns and lesion location. Functional…
Majeres, Raymond L.
A previous explanation of the sex difference on so-called perceptual speed tests was in terms of a female advantage in accessing and using phonological name codes in making item comparisons. That explanation was extended to a task involving alphabetical transformations without the requirement for comparison of perceptually available items. A…
Broen, Patricia A.; And Others
The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…
Damian, Markus F.; Dumay, Nicolas
Current accounts of spoken production debate the extent to which speakers plan ahead. Here, we investigated whether the scope of phonological planning is influenced by changes in time pressure constraints. The first experiment used a picture-word interference task and showed that picture naming latencies were shorter when word distractors shared…
Padayodi, Cecile Mamalinani
This study suggests revisions to the segmental and tonal phonology of Kabiye following a reanalysis of consonants, vowels, and tones in the speech of 7 male native speakers. Acoustic investigations are also included to illustrate some phonetic aspects of segments and tone. Data were elicited through three speech styles--wordlists, short phrases,…
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…
Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.
The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…
Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline
What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…
Tagliamonte, Sali A.; D'Arcy, Alexandra
What is the mechanism by which a linguistic change advances across successive generations of speakers? We explore this question by using the model of incrementation provided in Labov 2001 and analyzing six current changes in English. Extending Labov's focus on recent and vigorous phonological changes, we target ongoing morphosyntactic(-semantic)…
Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola
This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…
Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon
In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…
Joffe, Victoria; Pring, T.
Background: Children with phonological problems are a significant proportion of many therapists' caseloads. However, little is known about current clinical practice with these children or whether research on the effects of therapy have influenced this practice. Aims: To investigate the methods of assessment and remediation used by therapists…
Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves
It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…
Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…
Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.
Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…
Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi
This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…
Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme
We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily
Campoy, Guillermo; Baddeley, Alan
It has been suggested that certain theoretically important anomalous results in the area of verbal short-term memory could be attributable to differences in strategy. However there are relatively few studies that investigate strategy directly. We describe four experiments, each involving the immediate serial recall of word sequences under baseline control conditions, or preceded by instruction to use a phonological or semantic strategy. Two experiments varied phonological similarity at a presentation rate of one item every 1 or 2 seconds. Both the control and the phonologically instructed group showed clear effects of similarity at both presentation rates, whereas these were largely absent under semantic encoding conditions. Two further experiments manipulated word length at the same two rates. The phonologically instructed groups showed clear effects at both rates, the control group showed a clear effect at the rapid rate which diminished with the slower presentation, while the semantically instructed group showed a relatively weak effect at the rate of one item per second, and a significant reverse effect with slower presentation. The latter finding is interpreted in terms of fortuitous differences in inter-item rated associability between the two otherwise matched word pools, reinforcing our conclusion that the semantically instructed group were indeed encoding semantically. Implications for controlling strategy by instruction are discussed. PMID:18432478
Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.
We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…
Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.
Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…
Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.
Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…
Sosa, Anna V.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol
Purpose: This study examines the influence of word frequency, phonological neighborhood density (PND), age of acquisition (AoA), and phonotactic probability on production variability and accuracy of known words by toddlers with no history of speech, hearing, or language disorders. Method: Fifteen toddlers between 2;0 (years;months) and 2;5…
Pierre Salamé; Alan Baddeley
Immediate memory for visually presented verbal material is disrupted by concurrent speech, even when the speech is unattended and in a foreign language. Unattended noise does not produce a reliable decrement. These results have been interpreted in terms of a phonological short-term store that excludes non-speechlike sounds. The characteristics of this exclusion process were explored by studying the effects of
Purpose: Significant challenges face speech-language pathologists when children raised in bilingual environments are referred for speech-language evaluations. The situation is compounded for bilingual Mandarin-English children because no research-based data is available to date. This study is a preliminary examination of phonological acquisition…
Martins, Margarida Alves; Silva, Cristina
The objective of this study was to identify causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in writing in preschool children. The participants were 44 children, with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, and whose writing was syllabic with phonetization. The children were divided into three groups. They were…
Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Murray Maybery; Dana Wong; Alana Maley; Wayne Hill; Joachim Hallmayer
Two tests of phonological processing, nonword repetition, and nonsense passage reading, were administered to 80 probands with autistic disor- der or PDDNOS (index cases) and 59 typically developing controls, together with their parents and siblings. In addition, parents completed a questionnaire about history of language and literacy problems, and all participants were given tests of verbal (VIQ) and performance IQ
Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia
Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…
Qi, Sharon; O'Connor, Rollanda
Compared the effect of two phonological training procedures (segmenting and blending or first sound identification and rhyming) on low-skilled kindergarten students' acquisition of reading and spelling skills. Both groups of students improved significantly in target skills, reading, and spelling. There were no significant differences between…
Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…
Nimmo, Lisa M.; Roodenrys, Steven
Suggests that phonological short-term memory (STM) tasks are influenced by both lexical and sublexical factors inherent in the selection and construction of the stimuli to be recalled. Examined whether long-term memory influences STM at a sublexical level by investigating whether the frequency with which one-syllable nonwords occur in polysyllabic…
Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.
This article discusses 4 types of phonological knowledge: knowledge of the acoustic and perceptual characteristics of speech sounds (perceptual knowledge), knowledge of the articulatory characteristics of speech sounds (articulatory knowledge), higher level knowledge of the ways that words can be divided into sounds and related phonotactic…
Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.
Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…
Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…
Phonemic phonology became important because it provided a descriptive account of dialects and languages that had never been transcribed before, and it derives its greatest strength from its practical orientation, which has proved beneficial to language teaching and learning. Noam Chomsky's criticisms of it are largely unjust because he has not…
Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.
Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…
Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.
There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…
Mica R. Endsley
Pilot-vehicle interface designs must be driven by the gaol of establishing and maintaining high pilot situation awareness. The situation-awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT), developed to assist in this process by providing an objective measure of pilot's situation awareness with any given aircraft design, is described. SAGAT is considered to represent a substantial improvement in the evaluation of pilot-vehicle interface designs,
Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176
Munson, Benjamin; Deboe, Nancy
A recent study (Pierrehumbert, Bent, Munson, and Bailey, submitted) found differences in vowel production between people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay (LBG) and people who are not. The specific differences (more fronted /u/ and /a/ in the non-LB women; an overall more-contracted vowel space in the non-gay men) were not amenable to an interpretation based on simple group differences in vocal-tract geometry. Rather, they suggested that differences were either due to group differences in some other skill, such as motor control or phonological encoding, or learned. This paper expands on this research by examining vowel production, speech-motor control (measured by diadochokinetic rates), and phonological encoding (measured by error rates in a tongue-twister task) in people who are LBG and people who are not. Analyses focus on whether the findings of Pierrehumbert et al. (submitted) are replicable, and whether group differences in vowel production are related to group differences in speech-motor control or phonological encoding. To date, 20 LB women, 20 non-LB women, 7 gay men, and 7 non-gay men have participated. Preliminary analyses suggest that there are no group differences in speech motor control or phonological encoding, suggesting that the earlier findings of Pierrehumbert et al. reflected learned behaviors.
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.
Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…
Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne
Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…
Velleman, Shelley L.
Although not the focus of her article, phonological development in young children with speech sound disorders of various types is highly germane to Stoel-Gammon's discussion (this issue) for at least two primary reasons. Most obvious is that typical processes and milestones of phonological development are the standards and benchmarks against which…
Rossi, A; Arduini, L; Prosperini, P; Kalyvoka, A; Stratta, P; Daneluzzo, E
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether awareness of illness affects specific measures of outcome in schizophrenia. Patient awareness was evaluated using a shortened version of the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Patient outcome was assessed by means of the Strauss-Carpenter scale. Our findings indicate that lack of awareness of "negative symptoms" has a considerable impact on outcome: in fact "Social Contacts" highly correlated with Blunt Affect, Anhedonia and Asociality items on the SUMD. Lack of awareness seems then to be a powerful predictor of poor outcome. PMID:10853921
Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard
Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…
Lemons, Christopher J.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Paterra, Matthew F.
Many children with intellectual disability, including children with Down syndrome, have teachers who are unsure what type of reading instruction is likely to increase outcomes for their students. Effectiveness of two commercially available, evidence-based reading interventions was evaluated through 3 multiple baseline across participants,…
Perrachione, Tyler K.; Lee, Jiyeon; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Wong, Patrick C. M.
Studies evaluating phonological contrast learning typically investigate either the predictiveness of specific pretraining aptitude measures or the efficacy of different instructional paradigms. However, little research considers how these factors interact—whether different students learn better from different types of instruction—and what the psychological basis for any interaction might be. The present study demonstrates that successfully learning a foreign-language phonological contrast for pitch depends on an interaction between individual differences in perceptual abilities and the design of the training paradigm. Training from stimuli with high acoustic-phonetic variability is generally thought to improve learning; however, we found high-variability training enhanced learning only for individuals with strong perceptual abilities. Learners with weaker perceptual abilities were actually impaired by high-variability training relative to a low-variability condition. A second experiment assessing variations on the high-variability training design determined that the property of this learning environment most detrimental to perceptually weak learners is the amount of trial-by-trial variability. Learners’ perceptual limitations can thus override the benefits of high-variability training where trial-by-trial variability in other irrelevant acoustic-phonetic features obfuscates access to the target feature. These results demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences in pretraining aptitudes when evaluating the efficacy of any speech training paradigm. PMID:21786912
Bates, Timothy C; Luciano, Michelle; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G
The region containing ROBO1 (Chromosome 3p12.3) has been implicated as a susceptibility gene for reading disorder and language deficit by translocation and linkage data. No association studies have yet been reported supporting any candidate gene. Here we report the first association of this gene with language deficits, specifically with phonological buffer deficits (a phenotype implicated in language acquisition, Specific Language Impairment and Speech Sound Disorder) and dyslexia (reading and spelling ability traits) in an unselected sample of adolescent twins and their siblings. Family-based analyses were performed on 144 tag SNPs in ROBO1, typed in 538 families with up to five offspring and tested for association with a developmental marker of language impairment (phonological buffer capacity, assessed using non word repetition). A reading and spelling ability measure--based on validated measures of lexical processing (irregular word) and grapheme-phoneme decoding (pseudo word)--and measures of short-term and working memory were also analysed. Significant association for phonological buffer capacity was observed for 21 of 144 SNPs tested, peaking at 8.70 × 10(-05) and 9.30 × 10(-05) for SNPs rs6803202 and rs4535189 respectively for nonword repetition, values that survive correction for multiple testing. Twenty-two SNPs showed significant associations for verbal storage (forward digit span)--a trait linked to phonological span. By contrast, just 5 SNPs reached nominal significance for working-memory, not surviving correction, and, importantly, only one SNP in the 144 tested reached nominal significance (0.04) for association with reading and spelling ability. These results provide strong support for ROBO1 as a gene involved in a core trait underpinning language acquisition, with a specific function in supporting a short-term buffer for arbitrary phonological strings. These effects of ROBO1 appear to be unrelated to brain mechanisms underpinning reading ability, at least by adolescence. While replication will be critical, the present results strongly support ROBO1 as the first gene discovered to be associated with language deficits affecting normal variation in language ability. Its functional role in neuronal migration underlying bilateral symmetry and lateralization of neuronal function further suggests a role in the evolution of human language ability. PMID:20949370
Mobile social awareness systems open up new social opportunities by enabling the automatic disclosure of awareness cues. We are trying to understand which cues work best to achieve feelings of connectedness between users and identify valid and comprehensive effect measures to evaluate such systems in HCI. We choose to study specifically two sensors - location, via GPS and movement, via
Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Osterhout, Lee; McLaughlin, Judy; Foucart, Alice
The present study examined the impact of the phonological realization of morphosyntactic agreement within the inflectional phrase (IP) in written French, as revealed by ERPs. In two independent experiments, we varied the presence vs. absence of phonological cues to morphological variation. Of interest was whether a graded ERP response to these different conditions could be found in native speakers (Experiment 1), and whether non-native learners would benefit from the presence of phonological cues (Experiment 2). The results for native French speakers showed that compared to grammatically correct instances, phonologically realized inflectional errors produced a significant P600 response, which was statistically larger than that produced by errors that were silent. German L1 French L2 learners showed similar benefits of the phonological realization of morphemes. Phonologically realized errors produced a robust P600 response whereas silent errors produced no robust effects. Implications of these results are discussed in reference to previous studies of L2 acquisition of morphosyntax. PMID:18255043
Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J
We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by concurrent articulation (CA; Experiment 1). We further assumed that the use of the phonological loop would be evidenced by greater serial recall for lists of phonologically dissimilar words relative to lists of phonologically similar words (Experiments 2A and 2B). We found that in both tasks, (a) CA reduced recall; (b) participants recalled short lists from the start of the list, leading to enhanced forward-ordered recall; (c) participants were increasingly likely to recall longer lists from the end of the list, leading to extended recency effects; (d) there were significant phonological similarity effects in ISR and IFR when both were analyzed using serial recall scoring; (e) these were reduced by free recall scoring and eliminated by CA; and (f) CA but not phonological similarity affected the tendency to initiate recall with the first list item. We conclude that similar mechanisms underpin ISR and IFR. Critically, the phonological loop is not strictly necessary for the forward-ordered recall of short lists on both tasks but may augment recall by increasing the accessibility of the list items (relative to CA), and in so doing, the order of later items is preserved better in phonologically dissimilar than in phonologically similar lists. PMID:24564540
Grunseit, Anne C.; O’Hara, Blythe J.; Chau, Josephine Y.; Briggs, Megan; Bauman, Adrian E.
Background Obesity campaign evaluations have used campaign awareness to assess impact, yet have not compared unprompted campaign recallers, with prompted recallers and those with no campaign recall. Using data from an Australian mass-media obesity prevention campaign linking waist circumference and chronic disease we examined whether those with different degrees of campaign recall are distinct groups demographically and for subsequent campaign effects. Methods A national cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected adults aged 18 to 65 years was conducted post- campaign (n = 2812) covering campaign recall, self-reported diet and physical activity (PA) and waist-measuring knowledge, behaviours and intentions to make lifestyle changes. Respondents were divided into three groups indicating campaign recall: Unprompted Recallers (n=1154); Prompted Recallers (n=1284); and No Recallers (n=374) and compared on demographic, knowledge, and behavioural risk factors for obesity/chronic disease. Results Unprompted Recallers were more likely to speak English at home (p<.001), be in the primary campaign target group (25-45 years with children) (p<0.001) than the other two groups and to be university educated and female than the Prompted Recall group only (p=0.001). Unprompted Recallers had better knowledge about recommended waist circumference (p<.001), fruit (p=0.004), vegetable (p<0.001) and PA guidelines (p<0.001) than both the other groups. The No Recall group was less likely than the other two to be overweight/obese (46% vs 55%, p=0.020 and 54%, p=0.037), comparable on meeting fruit consumption and PA guidelines but more likely to meet vegetable intake recommendations (than Unprompted Recallers only). Conclusions Unprompted recallers were more knowledgeable about campaign messages; behaviour change and intentions to change were stronger for the two recall groups compared with the No Recall group but not different between them. The current analysis revealed subtle differences in campaign exposure and/or attendance by different demographic subgroups that would not be apparent in a simple aware/unaware dichotomy. PMID:25844811