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1

Phonological awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine the literature linking phoneme awareness and reading acquisition and to examine the nature of this relationship in terms of learner and task. The paper begins with a definition of phoneme awareness and a description of the development of phoneme awareness. Findings from correlational and phoneme awareness training studies are summarized and the

Eileen W. Ball

1993-01-01

2

Contrast Responsivity in MT+ Correlates with Phonological Awareness and Reading Measures in Children  

PubMed Central

There are several independent sets of findings concerning the neural basis of reading. One set demonstrates a powerful relationship between phonological processing and reading skills. Another set reveals a relationship between visual responses in the motion pathways and reading skills. It is widely assumed that these two findings are unrelated. We tested the hypothesis that phonological awareness is related to motion responsivity in children’s MT+. We measured BOLD signals to drifting gratings as a function of contrast. Subjects were 35 children ages 7–12y with a wide range of reading skills. Contrast responsivity in MT+, but not V1, was correlated with phonological awareness and to a lesser extent with two other measures of reading. No correlation was found between MT+ signals and rapid naming, age or general IQ measures. These results establish an important link between visual and phonological processing in children and suggest that MT+ responsivity is a marker for healthy reading development.

Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

2007-01-01

3

Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

2010-01-01

4

Phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of phonological awareness has mainly focused on the nature of the relationship between reading ability and awareness of phonemes. However, a recent study of phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome questioned the existence of any neces- sary relationship (Cossu, Rossini & Marshall, 1993). This paper describes a study of phonological awareness in children with Down

Helen Fletcher; Sue Buckley

2002-01-01

5

Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

Tibi, Sana

2010-01-01

6

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

7

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

8

Phonological Awareness in Young Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…

Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2008-01-01

9

Preschool Phonological Awareness and Subsequent Literacy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an unresolved debate in the developmental literature regarding whether phonemic awareness is acquired naturally as part of phonological awareness, or whether it is instead an artefact of reading tuition. This ambiguity affects the interpretation of studies which show that pre?literate phonemic awareness is a powerful predictor of literacy attainment in school. There is also evidence to suggest that

Clare Wood; Colin Terrell

1998-01-01

10

The Role of Speed of Processing, Rapid Naming, and Phonological Awareness in Reading Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement. Measures of response time in motor, visual, lexical, grammatical, and phonological tasks were administered to 279 children in third grade. Measures of rapid object naming, phonological awareness, and reading achievement were given in second and fourth grades. Reading group com- parisons indicated that

Hugh W. Catts; Matthew Gillispie; Laurence B. Leonard; Robert V. Kail; Carol A. Miller

2002-01-01

11

Persistence of Dyslexics' Phonological Awareness Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the phonological awareness skills of dyslexic children, adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia, and good readers at various age levels. Comparisons of the dyslexics to good readers of the same age or the same reading level indicated that dyslexics do not acquire appropriate levels of phoneme awareness, regardless of their age or reading levels, although they eventually

Maggie Bruck

1992-01-01

12

Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

2006-01-01

13

Phonological Awareness Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty middle school students with learning disabilities identified as having phonological awareness deficits were provided with phonological awareness instruction to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction on phonological awareness and word recognition skills. Results indicated that following instruction, students improved on word…

Bhat, Preetha; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.

2003-01-01

14

Promoting phonological awareness skills of Egyptian kindergarteners through dialogic reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5–6), assigned to an experimental group (n?=?35) or a control group (n?=?32). Kindergarten Inventory of Phonological Awareness was

Randa Abdelaleem Elmonayer

2012-01-01

15

Phonological Awareness Predicts Activation Patterns for Print and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for…

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

16

Phonological Awareness Predicts Activation Patterns for Print and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for…

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

17

The Nature of Phonological Awareness throughout the Elementary Grades: An Item Response Theory Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, the nature of Dutch children's phonological awareness was examined throughout the elementary school grades. Phonological awareness was assessed using five different sets of items that measured rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, and phoneme deletion. A sample of 1405 children from…

Vloedgraven, Judith; Verhoeven, Ludo

2009-01-01

18

The Role of Speed of Processing, Rapid Naming, and Phonological Awareness in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement of 279 third-graders. Poor readers were proportionally slower than good readers across response time measures and on the rapid object-naming task. Processing speed, IQ, and phonological awareness explained variance in reading…

Catts, Hugh W.; Gillispie, Matthew; Leonard, Laurence B.; Kail, Robert V.; Miller, Carol A.

2002-01-01

19

Phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge and word recognition in Greek deaf children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study presented in this paper was to investigate the relation between phonological awareness and orthographic knowledge in deaf children who read in the transparent Greek orthography. Preschool and school-aged deaf children (N = 24) and two comparison groups of hearing children (N = 30) were administered measures of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge and word recognition at

Evi Kyritsi; Deborah James; Susan Edwards

20

Screening of Phonological Awareness in the Early Elementary Grades: An IRT Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory…

Vloedgraven, Judith M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

21

Relation of Phonological Awareness to Reading Disability in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that for young children, success at learning to read is related to the extent to which they are aware of the phonological structure of spoken language. We determined that this relation is also evident in older children (third graders) and in adults who have had considerable reading instruction. Differences in phonological awareness, measured on three tasks, accounted

Anne C. Pratt; Susan Brady

1988-01-01

22

Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2008-01-01

23

Young Readers' Use of Phonological Information: Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored the relationship between beginning readers' phonological awareness and other aspects of phonological processing, specifically as manifested in short-term memory and comprehension tasks. The theoretical questions underlying the study were (a) what roles phonological processes play in children's beginning reading, from…

Gray, Audra; McCutchen, Deborah

2006-01-01

24

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

25

Phonological awareness: one key to the reading proficiency of deaf children.  

PubMed

A case is made for the importance of children's development of phonological awareness--whether they are hearing or deaf--if they are to reach their potential as readers. Relevant terms are defined (i.e., phonological awareness, phonological processes, and phonics) to assist the reader with the research review, which covers (a) the typical stages in the acquisition of phonological awareness and (b) phonological awareness and deafness. Suggestions for phonological awareness assessment are offered, along with the recommendation that the use of recently developed formal and informal measures of phonological awareness might facilitate the setting of goals and objectives when deaf educators or speech-language pathologists are evaluating the skills of deaf students and planning instruction for these students. Such tools yield information about skills that have been shown to correlate with literacy attainment and that are not commonly addressed by deaf educators or speech-language pathologists serving deaf students. Finally, research concerning the facilitation of phonological awareness and its application is explained. PMID:12448128

Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

2002-07-01

26

The Structure of Phonological Awareness Among Kindergarten Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical difficulties. The present study clarified this situation by factor analyzing 23 preliteracy tests among a sample of 161

Timothy J. Runge; Marley W. Watkins

2006-01-01

27

Assessment of phonological awareness in low-progress readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school entry, where children first come to grips with alphabetic instruction; the first

Roslyn Neilson

2009-01-01

28

Training phonological awareness skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction based on a phonological awareness philosophy with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Previous research demonstrates that a phonological awareness based reading programme delivers excellent results in terms of literacy acquisition and improvements in speech production for children with speech and language delays. Unfortunately, little research exists to support the effectiveness

Esther J Kennedy; Mark C Flynn

2003-01-01

29

Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

30

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

31

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

32

Predicting bilingual Spanish-English children's phonological awareness abilities from their preschool English and Spanish oral language  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish–English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children’s 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children’s kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children’s English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills.

Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

2012-01-01

33

Screening of phonological awareness in the early elementary grades: an IRT approach.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory factor analysis and analyses conducted within the framework of item response theory showed one latent ability to underlie the different sets of items, which nevertheless differed in difficulty. Analyses in terms of the children's ability further showed the phonological awareness measures to be sensitive to growth. The amount of information supplied by the different sets of items depended on the children's level of ability. The conclusion that it is possible to accurately monitor the development of children's phonological awareness in the early elementary grades appears to be justified, and this possibility opens up new perspectives for the early screening for reading problems and dyslexia. PMID:17849215

Vloedgraven, Judith M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-05-22

34

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

35

Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4?year?old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound knowledge, and print concepts pre?intervention and post?intervention, was compared with that of a randomly selected

Anne K. van Bysterveldt; Gail T. Gillon; Catherine Moran

2006-01-01

36

Learning Novel Phonological Representations in Developmental Dyslexia: Associations with Basic Auditory Processing of Rise Time and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological

Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha

2010-01-01

37

Predicting Curriculum and Test Performance at Age 7 Years from Pupil Background, Baseline Skills and Phonological Awareness at Age 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Phonological awareness tests are known to be amongst the best predictors of literacy; however their predictive validity alongside current school screening practice (baseline assessment, pupil background data) and to National Curricular outcome measures is unknown. Aim: We explored the validity of phonological awareness and orthographic…

Savage, R.; Carless, S.

2004-01-01

38

Comparing the contribution of two tests of working memory to reading in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and Sentence Question, tests of phonological awareness, rapid

George K. Georgiou; J. P. Das; Denyse V. Hayward

2008-01-01

39

Sounds Like Fun: Activities for Developing Phonological Awareness, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kids love jokes--and teachers and SLPs love fast and easy ways to improve students' phonological awareness. That's why every elementary and middle-school SLP and educator needs this playful, effective activity book, packed with jokes and riddles that increase students' awareness of the phonemes that make up words. The perfect way to avoid "drill…

Spector, Cecile Cyrul

2009-01-01

40

Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech  

PubMed Central

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from six to ten years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for print relative to speech tokens in superior temporal and occipito-temporal regions. Differences between print-elicited activation levels in superior temporal and inferior frontal sites were also correlated with PA measures with the direction of the correlation depending on stimulus type: positive for pronounceable pseudowords and negative for consonant strings. These results support and extend the many indications in the behavioral and neurocognitive literature that PA is a major component of skill in beginning readers and point to a developmental trajectory by which written language engages areas originally shaped by speech for learners on the path toward successful literacy acquisition.

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

41

The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.  

PubMed

The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10?min on a daily basis over a period of 20?weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age. PMID:21734895

Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-06-20

42

Improving Teacher Candidates' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness: A Multimedia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…

Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.

2013-01-01

43

Researching and Promoting Phonological Awareness in the Nursery Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines (in a pilot study and the first two phases of a longitudinal study) preventing the emergence of written language difficulties by addressing the ability of preschoolers to make phonological judgments. Notes that children identified as having poor rhyme awareness were given one-to-one training, and that students were given training in…

Layton, Lyn; And Others

1996-01-01

44

Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

Bolduc, Jonathan

2009-01-01

45

Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

46

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Substantial research has detailed the reading deficits experienced by children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although phonological awareness (PA) is vital in reading development, little is known about PA in the DMD population. This pilot study describes the PA abilities of a group of five young children with DMD, comparing the results…

Waring, Phoebe; Woodyatt, Gail

2011-01-01

47

The interaction between phonological processing, syntactic awareness, and naming speed in the reading and spelling performance of first-grade children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of 267 first-grade children was examined on tasks assessing phonological processing, syntactic awareness, and naming speed. The children were also given several measures of word and pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, and pseudoword and dictation spelling. A series of hierarchical analyses indicated that three variables (phonological awareness, syntactic awareness, and naming speed) were still predictors of reading and spelling

Monique Plaza; Henri Cohen

2003-01-01

48

Importance of Speech Production for Phonological Awareness and Word Decoding: The Case of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

2009-01-01

49

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

50

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

51

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

52

A comparison between word and nonword reading in Down syndrome: The role of phonological awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine whether any observed relationship between phonological awareness and reading ability in Down syndrome reflects the typical use of a phonologically based approach to reading, 12 children and young adults with Down syndrome were assessed for reading and phonological awareness skills. They were compared to a control group of 14 typically developing 6- and 7-year-olds of comparable

Maja Roch; Christopher Jarrold

2008-01-01

53

A Comparison between Word and Nonword Reading in Down Syndrome: The Role of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to examine whether any observed relationship between phonological awareness and reading ability in Down syndrome reflects the typical use of a phonologically based approach to reading, 12 children and young adults with Down syndrome were assessed for reading and phonological awareness skills. They were compared to a control group of 14…

Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

2008-01-01

54

Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Multilevel Construct Validation Among Spanish-Speaking Kindergarteners in Transitional Bilingual Education Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct validity of English and Spanish phonological awareness (PA) tasks was examined with a sample of 812 kindergarten children from 71 transitional bilingual education program classrooms located in 3 different types of geographic regions in California and Texas. Tasks of PA, including blending nonwords, segmenting words, and phoneme elision, were measured in Spanish and in English and analyzed via

Lee Branum-Martin; Paras D. Mehta; Jack M. Fletcher; Coleen D. Carlson; Alba Ortiz; Maria Carlo; David J. Francis

2006-01-01

55

Working Memory and Phonological Awareness as Predictors of Progress towards Early Learning Goals at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates whether working memory skills of children are related to teacher ratings of their progress towards learning goals at the time of school entry, at 4 or 5 years of age. A sample of 194 children was tested on measures of working memory, phonological awareness, and non-verbal ability, in addition to the school-based baseline…

Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Adams, Anne-Marie; Willis, Catherine; Eaglen, Rachel; Lamont, Emily

2005-01-01

56

Phonological Awareness and Reading Acquisition in English and Punjabi-Speaking Canadian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the same component processes are involved in reading acquisition for native and nonnative speakers of English in the 1st grade. The performance of 88 children was examined on tasks assessing reading skill, phonological processing, and syntactic awareness. Fifty children were native English speakers (L1), and 38 children were from Punjabi-speaking families (ESL). Although measures of word

Penny Chiappe; Linda S. Siegel

1999-01-01

57

Defining Phonological Awareness and Its Relationship to Reading Skills in Low-Literacy Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the relative importance of complexity of syllable structure and task differences in measuring phonological awareness in low-literacy adults. This study is a replication of a study with children conducted by S. A. Stahl and B. A. Murray (1994). Results indicated that the complexity of…

Jimenez, Juan E.; Venegas, Enrique

2004-01-01

58

Phonological awareness in kindergarten: a field study in Luxembourgish schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific\\u000a context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with\\u000a minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in the study. One hundred\\u000a and fifty children from 20

Sylvie Bodé

2011-01-01

59

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

60

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically-developing children, ages 61–78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., “chair-chain-ship”) that varied orthogonally by a phonological characteristic, sound-contrast similarity (similar vs. dissimilar), and a lexical characteristic, neighborhood density (dense vs. sparse). In a subsample of the participants – those with the highest vocabularies – results were in line with a predicted interactive effect of phonological and lexical characteristics on phoneme awareness performance: word sets contrasting similar sounds were less likely to yield correct responses in words from sparse neighborhoods than words from dense neighborhoods. Word sets contrasting dissimilar sounds were most likely to yield correct responses regardless of the words’ neighborhood density. Based on these findings, theories of early phoneme awareness development should consider both word-level (e.g., phonological and lexical characteristics) and child-level (e.g., vocabulary knowledge) influences on phoneme awareness performance. Attention to these word-level item influences is predicted to result in more sensitive and specific measures of reading risk.

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

61

The Development of Phonological Awareness by Braille Users: A Review of the Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…

Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.

2008-01-01

62

Sensitivity to Linguistic Stress, Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Ability in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has found that sensitivity to linguistic stress is related to phonological awareness and reading development. This study investigated the roles of two types of linguistic stress sensitivity (lexical and metrical stress) in the phonological awareness and reading development of young children. Forty-five kindergarten children were…

Goodman, Ilana; Libenson, Amanda; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2010-01-01

63

Sensitivity to Linguistic Stress, Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Ability in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has found that sensitivity to linguistic stress is related to phonological awareness and reading development. This study investigated the roles of two types of linguistic stress sensitivity (lexical and metrical stress) in the phonological awareness and reading development of young children. Forty-five kindergarten children were…

Goodman, Ilana; Libenson, Amanda; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2010-01-01

64

Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Are Associated with Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples…

Callu, D.; Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Jacquier-Roux, M.; Dellatolas, G.

2005-01-01

65

Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. Challenges in Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…

Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

66

Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Development in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…

McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.

2009-01-01

67

Meta-Analysis of Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Language, Age, and Psycholinguistic Grain Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in the role of phonological awareness across languages. However, the role of phonological awareness in various languages may differ by features of the languages as well as by features of the speakers. The current meta-analysis catalogs these relations and examines factors that may have influenced how closely related…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Tao, Sha; Garnaat, Sarah; Bunta, Ferenc; Francis, David J.

2012-01-01

68

Phonological Awareness: Explicit Instruction for Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme…

Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

2013-01-01

69

Computer Administered Instruction in Phonological Awareness: Evaluation of the DaisyQuest Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|DaisyQuest is a computer program that teaches and provides practice in synthetic and analytic phonological skills. Researchers found young children trained on DaisyQuest had significantly greater phonological awareness gains than children without training. Children trained on a more developed version significantly outperformed a matched group on…

Foster, Kelli C.; And Others

1994-01-01

70

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

71

The Role of Phonological Awareness Development in Young Chinese EFL Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a psycholinguistic study of the development of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese children acquiring their first language and learning a foreign language at the same time. The language situation of these children in relation to PA is of particular interest because Chinese and English have not only different phonological systems, but also different writing

Ching-ning Chien; Li-hua Kao; Li Wei

2008-01-01

72

The Importance of Letter Knowledge in the Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous correlational and experimental research has found a positive association between phonological awareness and reading skills. This paper provides an overview of studies in this area and shows that many studies have neglected to control for extraneous variables such as ability, phonological memory, pre-existing reading skills and letter…

Blaiklock, Ken E.

2004-01-01

73

The development of phonological awareness: effects of spoken language experience and orthography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness, the ability to analyze spoken language into small sound units, has been shown to be affected by the individual's early orthographic experience (alphabetic vs. non-alphabetic). Past studies, however, have not differentiated the effect of script alphabeticity from that of spoken language experience, which covaries strongly with the phonological properties of the language. The present study compares younger, pre-reading

Him Cheung; Hsuan-Chih Chen; Chun Yip Lai; On Chi Wong; Melanie Hills

2001-01-01

74

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

75

Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

2008-01-01

76

Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

2008-01-01

77

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36 to 60 months, participated. Children’s print knowledge, phonological awareness, language, speech production, and speech perception abilities were assessed. Results For phonological awareness, the CI group’s mean score fell within 1 standard deviation of the TOPEL’s normative sample mean but was more than 1 standard deviation below our NH group mean. The CI group’s performance did not differ significantly from that of the NH group for print knowledge. For the CI group, phonological awareness and print knowledge were significantly correlated with language, speech production, and speech perception. Together, these predictor variables accounted for 34% of variance in the CI group’s phonological awareness but no significant variance in their print knowledge. Conclusions Children with CIs have the potential to develop age-appropriate early literacy skills by preschool-age but are likely to lag behind their NH peers in phonological awareness. Intervention programs serving these children should target these skills with instruction and by facilitating speech and language development.

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

78

Bilingualism and Phonological Awareness: The Case of Bilingual (French-Occitan) Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the development of linguistic awareness in children exposed to the early learning of a second language in Grades 3-5 of primary school, i.e. between the ages of 8 and 10. The aim was to determine whether this bilingual experience enhanced the development of phonological awareness in beginning readers in a bilingual…

Laurent, Angelique; Martinot, Clara

2010-01-01

79

A Comparison of Phonological Awareness Skills in Early French Immersion and English Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2-year study examined the effects of early second language exposure on phonological awareness skills. Syllable, onset-rime and phoneme awareness skills of 72 anglophone children attending English or French immersion programs in primary and grade 1 were investigated. Three-way mixed ANOVAS revealed the following effects and interactions. In…

Tingley, Patricia A.; Dore, Katherine A.; Lopez, Anita; Parsons, Heather; Campbell, Elizabeth; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia

2004-01-01

80

Growth in Phonological, Orthographic, and Morphological Awareness in Grades 1 to 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one--derivation--continues to show substantial growth after fourth…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Nagy, William; Carlisle, Joanne

2010-01-01

81

Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

2012-01-01

82

Contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, toward decoding ability in students with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual disability who commonly suffer from reading decoding problems. This study is aimed at determining the contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, as three well known phonological processing skills, to decoding ability among 60 participants with mild intellectual disability of unspecified origin ranging from 15 to 23 years old. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that all three aspects of phonological processing are significantly correlated with decoding ability. Furthermore, a series of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after controlling the effect of IQ, phonological awareness, and rapid automated naming are two distinct sources of decoding ability, but phonological short-term memory significantly contributes to decoding ability under the realm of phonological awareness. PMID:23314249

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-09

83

The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

84

Phonological awareness: explicit instruction for young deaf and hard-of-hearing children.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness. PMID:23303378

Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

2013-01-09

85

Beyond Cross-Language Transfer: Reconceptualizing the Impact of Early Bilingualism on Phonological Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates effects of early bilingualism on phonological awareness that are abstract and beyond cross-language transfer. It extends the scope of previous research by systematically examining hypotheses derived from structural sensitivity theory. The theory postulates that having access to two languages renders structural similarities and differences between languages more salient, thus allowing bilingual children to form representations of language

Li-Jen Kuo; Richard C. Anderson

2010-01-01

86

The Role of Phonological Awareness Development in Young Chinese EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports the findings of a psycholinguistic study of the development of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese children acquiring their first language and learning a foreign language at the same time. The language situation of these children in relation to PA is of particular interest because Chinese and English have not only different…

Chien, Ching-ning; Kao, Li-hua; Wei, Li

2008-01-01

87

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

88

A Construct Validation Study of Phonological Awareness for Children Entering Prekindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…

Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho

2004-01-01

89

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

2010-01-01

90

Effects of Targeted Reading Instruction on Phonological Awareness and Phonic Decoding in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…

Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley

2011-01-01

91

Improving Phonological Awareness and Decoding Skills of High School Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High school students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds frequently struggle with the literacy demands of middle and high school curricula. Many students with severe impairments do not have basic phonological awareness and decoding skills. To improve the reading achievement of these students and promote their success in…

Algozzine, Bob, Ed.; McQuiston, Kathleen; O'Shea, Doris; McCollin, Michelle

2008-01-01

92

PA-EFL: A Phonological Awareness Program For Indigenous EFL Students with Hearing Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia's indigenous populations have endemic levels of otitis media with conductive hearing loss. PA-EFL is a phonological awareness program designed for indigenous Australians who are at high risk for hearing disabilities and who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Hearing support services were provided; remarkable literacy gains…

Yonovitz, L.; Yonovitz, A.; Palmer, Juan C.

2000-01-01

93

Effectiveness of Explicit Phonological-Awareness Instruction for At-Risk English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the effects of intensive phonological-awareness (PA) instruction for kindergarten English learners. One intact kindergarten class was provided 300 minutes of intensive instruction in PA. Results indicate that students who received intervention made significant growth in word reading when compared to a cohort of kindergarten…

Leafstedt, Jill M.; Richards, Catherine R.; Gerber, Michael M.

2004-01-01

94

Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

2010-01-01

95

Reading and Phonological Awareness Skills in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether children exposed to domestic violence perform worse on tests of reading and phonological awareness than children from nonviolent homes. Forty children, ages 6 to 9 years, were divided into control or domestic violence groups based on their mothers' responses on the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). The groups were matched on age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and

Judith F. Blackburn

2008-01-01

96

Phonological Awareness and Types of Sound Errors in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…

Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise

2010-01-01

97

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

98

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

99

Metrical Stress Sensitivity in Young Children and Its Relationship to Phonological Awareness and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports two studies of young English-speaking children's ability to cope with changes to the metrical stress pattern of spoken words and the relationship between this ability, phonological awareness and early reading development. Initially, 39 children aged 4 and 5 years were assessed on their ability to identify mispronounced words,…

Wood, Clare

2006-01-01

100

Spanish Phonological Awareness: Dimensionality and Sequence of Development during the Preschool and Kindergarten Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the dimensionality and continuum of Spanish phonological awareness (PA) skills in 3- to 6-year-old children. A 3 x 4 factorial design crossed word structure of test items (word, syllable, phoneme) with task (blending multiple-choice, blending free-response, elision multiple-choice, elision free-response) to assess 12 PA…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Duran, Lillian K.; Gillam, Sandra Laing; Liang, Lan; Aghara, Rachel; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Mike A.; Landry, Susan H.

2011-01-01

101

Classroom Phonological Awareness Instruction and Literacy Outcomes in the First Year of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…

Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.

2013-01-01

102

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness Among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom practices, on the other hand, was significantly noticeable, an indication that

Emad M. Alghazo; Yasser A. Al-Hilawani

2010-01-01

103

Effects of Targeted Reading Instruction on Phonological Awareness and Phonic Decoding in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…

Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley

2011-01-01

104

A Comparison of Phonological Awareness Skills in Early French Immersion and English Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 2-year study examined the effects of early second language exposure on phonological awareness skills. Syllable, onset-rime and phoneme awareness skills of 72 anglophone children attending English or French immersion programs in primary and grade 1 were investigated. Three-way mixed ANOVAS revealed the following effects and interactions. In terms of grade effect, grade 1 students performed significantly better than primary

Patricia A. Tingley; Katherine A. Dore; Anita Lopez; Heather Parsons; Elizabeth Campbell; Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird; Patricia Cleave

2004-01-01

105

Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language. PMID:23626405

Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

2013-05-01

106

Effect of phonological and morphological awareness on reading comprehension in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities\\u000a (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh\\u000a graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and\\u000a 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological

Rachel Schiff; Sarit Schwartz-Nahshon; Revital Nagar

2011-01-01

107

Effect of Phonological and Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension in Hebrew-Speaking Adolescents with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for…

Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

2011-01-01

108

Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2010-01-01

109

Speech prosody and developmental dyslexia: Reduced phonological awareness in the context of intact phonological representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that awareness of the rhythmic patterns present in spoken language (i.e., prosody) may be an important and relatively overlooked predictor of reading ability. Two studies investigated the prosodic processing abilities of skilled adult readers and adults with developmental dyslexia. Participants with dyslexia showed reduced awareness of lexical and metrical stress and these skills were found to be

Ian R. Mundy; Julia M. Carroll

2012-01-01

110

Contribution of Temporal Processing Skills to Reading Comprehension in 8-Year-Olds: Evidence for a Mediation Effect of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…

Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

2012-01-01

111

Contribution of Temporal Processing Skills to Reading Comprehension in 8-Year-Olds: Evidence for a Mediation Effect of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…

Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

2012-01-01

112

Development of phonological awareness during the preschool year: the influence of gender and socio-economic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading\\u000a instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool\\u000a year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level path model was applied. More\\u000a frequent training sessions were connected

Ingvar Lundberg; Pernilla Larsman; Anna Strid

113

The relationships between quantity-number competencies, working memory, and phonological awareness in 5- and 6-year-olds.  

PubMed

In this study, the interdependencies among phonological awareness, verbal working memory components, and early numerical skills in children 1 year before school entry are addressed. Early numerical skills were conceptualized as quantity-number competencies (QNC) at both basic (QNC Level 1) and advanced (QNC Level 2) levels. In a sample of 1,343 children aged 5 and 6, structural equation modelling provided support for the isolated number words hypothesis (Krajewski & Schneider, 2009, J. Exp. Child Psychol., 103, 516-531). This hypothesis claims that phonological awareness contributes to the acquisition of QNC Level 1, such as learning the number word sequence, but not of QNC Level 2, which requires the linkage of number words to quantities. In addition, phonological awareness relied on verbal working memory, especially with regard to the phonological loop, central executive, and episodic buffer. The results were congruent with the idea that phonological awareness mediates the impact of verbal working memory on QNCs. The relationships between verbal working memory, phonological awareness, and QNCs were comparable in monolingual and bilingual children. PMID:24128172

Michalczyk, Kurt; Krajewski, Kristin; Pre?ler, Anna-Lena; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2013-06-20

114

Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study  

PubMed Central

The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child’s current level of PA such as blending and elision, and the dynamic test included instruction in phoneme identity to assess the child’s ability to respond to this instruction. Both forms were influenced by genes and by shared and nonshared environment. The static and dynamic versions were influenced by the same genes, and part of the total genetic influence was shared with LK. They were subject to both overlapping and independent shared environment influences, with the component in common also affecting LK. Nonshared environment influences were mostly independent. Scores from dynamic assessment added only minimally to variance explained in kindergarten reading after LK and static assessment had been factored in. Although one of the genetic factors that influenced both forms of PA also affected kindergarten reading, it was only the one shared with LK. We conclude that dynamic assessment of PA in preschool offers little advantage over the more commonly-used static forms, especially if LK scores are available, although we acknowledge its potential in cases of preschool educational disadvantage.

Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

2010-01-01

115

Reading Achievement in Relation to Phonological Coding and Awareness in Deaf Readers: A Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found statistically significant evidence for PCA skills and half did not. A subset of 25 studies also tested reading proficiency and showed a wide range of effect sizes. Overall PCA skills predicted 11% of the variance in reading proficiency in the deaf participants. Other possible modulating factors, such as task type and reading grade level, did not explain the remaining variance. In 7 studies where it was measured, language ability predicted 35% of the variance in reading proficiency. These meta-analytic results indicate that PCA skills are a low to moderate predictor of reading achievement in deaf individuals and that other factors, most notably language ability, have a greater influence on reading development, as has been found to be the case in the hearing population.

Mayberry, Rachel I.; del Giudice, Alex A.; Lieberman, Amy M.

2011-01-01

116

Phonological awareness and decoding in deaf/hard-of-hearing students who use visual phonics.  

PubMed

Visual phonics, a system of 45 hand and symbol cues that represent the phonemes of spoken English, has been used as a tool in literacy instruction with deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) students for over 20 years. Despite years of anecdotal support, there is relatively little published evidence of its impact on reading achievement. This study was designed to examine the relationship between performance on a phonological awareness task, performance on a decoding task, reading ability, and length of time in literacy instruction with visual phonics for 10 DHH kindergarten through Grade 3 students receiving academic instruction with sign-supported English and American Sign Language. Findings indicate that these students were able to use phonological information to make rhyme judgments and to decode; however, no relationship between performance on reading ability and length of time in literacy instruction with visual phonics was found. PMID:18209021

Narr, Rachel F

2008-01-21

117

A Comparison of Phonological Awareness, Lexical Compounding, and Homophone Training for Chinese Word Reading in Hong Kong Kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: In this study, 88 kindergartners received special training in lexical compounding, homophone awareness, or phonological awareness or were assigned to a control condition over a period of approximately 2 months, with 20-min lessons administered twice per week. Chinese word reading improved significantly more in the lexical compounding group as compared to the other groups. Vocabulary knowledge also showed

Yan-Ling Zhou; Catherine McBride-Chang; Cathy Y.-C. Fong; Terry T.-Y. Wong; Sum Kwing Cheung

2012-01-01

118

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

119

The Importance of Phonological Awareness for the Development of Early English Reading Skills among Bilingual Singaporean Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2010-01-01

120

Phonological Awareness of Children with Down Syndrome: Its Role in Learning to Read and the Effectiveness of Related Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in our language. It is key to learning to read for typically developing children. Some have suggested that this is not true for children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this review was to provide a better understanding of the role PA plays for…

Lemons, Christopher J.; Fuchs, Douglas

2010-01-01

121

Phonological awareness of children with Down syndrome: Its role in learning to read and the effectiveness of related interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in our language. It is key to learning to read for typically developing children. Some have suggested that this is not true for children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this review was to provide a better understanding of the role PA plays for

Christopher J. Lemons; Douglas Fuchs

2010-01-01

122

The Impact of Phonological-Awareness and Rapid-Reading Training on the Reading Skills of Adolescent and Adult Neoliterates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the reading performance of adolescent and adult neoliterates in Burkina Faso who participated in one of three experimental educational programs with the reading performance of neoliterates who took part in a standard (control) educational program. The experimental programs involved training in phonological awareness, training…

Royer, James M.; Abadzi, Helen; Kinda, Jules

2004-01-01

123

MOTOR CONTROL AND READING FLUENCY: CONTRIBUTIONS BEYOND PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH READING DISABILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple domains of deficit have been proposed to account for the apparent reading failure of children with a reading disability. Deficits in both phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming are consistently linked with the development of a reading disability in young school age children. Less research, however, has sought to connect these two reading related processes to global theories of

Christopher Blake Wolfe

124

The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

2012-01-01

125

Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

2013-01-01

126

Predictors of Reading Delay in Deaf Adolescents: The Relative Contributions of Rapid Automatized Naming Speed and Phonological Awareness and Decoding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study involving 49 students with deafness (MA=13) whose reading age (RA) was around age 7 found that although phonological awareness and decoding performance was poor compared with RA-matched controls, it nevertheless correlated with their RA. Rapid automatized naming of visual material was much faster in subjects than controls. (Contains…

Dyer, Annabella; MacSweeney, Mairead; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Green, Louise; Campbell, Ruth

2003-01-01

127

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

128

English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

2012-01-01

129

Developing phonological awareness and word recognition skills: A two-year intervention with low-income, inner-city children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-income, inner-city children were involved in a two-year intervention delivered in the regular classroom by regular classroom teachers to develop phonological awareness and word recognition skills. For the treatment children, an 11-week phoneme awareness program in kindergarten was followed by a first grade reading program (extended to grade 2 for some children) that emphasized explicit, systematic instruction in the alphabetic

Benita A. Blachman; Darlene M. Tangel; Eileen Wynne Ball; Rochella Black; Collen K. McGraw

1999-01-01

130

The Role of Phonological and Syntactic Awareness in Second-Language Reading: The Case of Spanish-Speaking Learners of French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the role of phonological and syntactic awareness of 9- to 11-year-old Spanish-speaking learners of French in four components of second-language reading. Finds (1) phonological tasks in L2 better explain decoding; (2) word recognition through the visual route is best explained by corresponding ability in L1; (3) sentence comprehension is…

Lefrancois, Pascale; Armand, Francoise

2003-01-01

131

The relationships among verbal short-term memory, phonological awareness, and new word learning: Evidence from typical development and Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing phonological information in memory. Results showed

Christopher Jarrold; Annabel S. C. Thorn; Emma Stephens

2009-01-01

132

The Effectiveness of Explicit Individualized Phonemic Awareness Instruction by a Speech-Language Pathologist to Preschool Children with Phonological Speech Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy…

Nullman, Susan L.

2009-01-01

133

The Impact of Phonological-Awareness and Rapid-Reading Training on the Reading Skills of Adolescent and Adult Neoliterates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the reading performance of adolescent and adult neoliterates in Burkina Faso who participated in one of\\u000a three experimental educational programs with the reading performance of neoliterates who took part in a standard (control)\\u000a educational program. The experimental programs involved training in phonological awareness, training in the rapid identification\\u000a of reading material and an approach that involved both

James M. Royer; Helen Abadzi; Jules Kinda

2004-01-01

134

Promoting vocabulary, phonological awareness and concept about print among children at risk for learning disability: can e-books help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged

Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah

135

The importance of phonological awareness for the development of early English reading skills among bilingual Singaporean kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are all bilingual or early second-language (L2) learners of English and learn English reading

L. Quentin Dixon

2010-01-01

136

Immediate Memory for Pseudowords and Phonological Awareness Are Associated in Adults and Pre-Reading Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated phonological components of reading skill at two ages, using a novel pseudoword repetition task for assessing phonological memory (PM). Pseudowords were designed to incorporate control over segmental, prosodic and lexical features. In Experiment 1, the materials were administered to 3- and 4-year-old children together with…

Clark, Nathaniel B.; McRoberts, Gerald W.; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Braze, David

2012-01-01

137

Imaging phonology without print: assessing the neural correlates of phonemic awareness using fMRI.  

PubMed

Acquisition of phonological processing skills, such as the ability to segment words into corresponding speech sounds, is critical to the development of efficient reading. Prior neuroimaging studies of phonological processing have often relied on auditory stimuli or print-mediated tasks that may be problematic for various theoretical and empirical reasons. For the current study, we developed a task to evaluate phonological processing that used visual stimuli but did not require interpretation of orthographic forms. This task requires the subject to retrieve the names of objects and to compare their first sounds; then, the subject must indicate if the initial sounds of the names of the pictures are the same. The phonological analysis task was compared to both a baseline matching task and a more complex control condition in which the participants evaluated two different pictures and indicated whether they represented the same object. The complex picture-matching condition controls for the visual complexity of the stimuli but does not require phonological analysis of the names of the objects. While both frontal and ventral posterior areas were activated in response to phonological analysis of the names of pictures, only inferior and superior frontal gyrus exhibited differential sensitivity to the phonological comparison task as compared to the complex picture-matching control task. These findings suggest that phonological processing that is not mediated by print relies primarily on frontal language processing areas among skilled readers. PMID:15901490

Katzir, Tami; Misra, Maya; Poldrack, Russell A

2005-08-01

138

Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Word Reading in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants: Does Age of Implantation Explain Individual Variability in Performance Outcomes and Growth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2008-01-01

139

Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

2009-01-01

140

The role of phonological and syntactic awareness in second-language reading: The case of Spanish-speaking learners of French  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spanish-speaking learners of French, aged 9 to 11 years old, were tested after approximately 7months of French instruction to explore the contribution of phonological and syntactic awareness in L2 in 4 components of L2 reading, taking oral competence in L2 andreading in L1 into account. Phonological tasksin L2 better explain decoding. Word recognitionthrough the visual route is best explained bythe

Pascale Lefrançois; Françoise Armand

2003-01-01

141

Phonological processes as predictors of specific reading skills in children at risk for reading failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children at risk for reading disability were evaluated as kindergartners and again as first graders to determine (1) intercorrelations among phonological processing tasks and (2) the relationship of such tasks to word identification and word attack. With IQ controlled, there were no intercorrelations among measures of phonological awareness, phonetic recoding in working memory, and phonological recoding in lexical access. Thus,

Rebecca H. Felton; Idalyn S. Brown

1990-01-01

142

Paraprofessional-Led Phonological Awareness Training with Youngsters at Risk for Reading and Behavioral Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of a paraprofessional-led supplemental early intervention for first-grade students with poor early literacy skills and behavioral concerns. The goal was to determine if (a) the relatively brief intervention was effective in improving phonological skills, and (b) improvements in academic skills would be accompanied…

Lane, Kathleen L.; Fletcher, Todd; Carter, Erik W.; Dejud, Carlos; DeLorenzo, Jennifer

2007-01-01

143

Relations between Children's Invented Spelling and the Development of Phonological Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the effect of a training program on phonological skills that intended to lead preschool Portuguese children (n=30) to move from prephonetic spellings to early phonemic spellings. Reports that for the experimental group, the intervention was effective in moving the children to early phonemic spellings. Includes references. (CMK)|

Silva, C.; Martins, M. Alves

2003-01-01

144

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting its Development in Children With and Without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to the age of 6.5 years. Of these children, about

Minna Torppa; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Marja-Leena Laakso; Asko Tolvanen; Esko Leskinen; Paavo H. T. Leppanen; Anne Puolakanaho; Heikki Lyytinen

2007-01-01

145

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

146

The Interaction of Vocabulary and Short-Term Memory in Predicting Phonological Awareness: A Comparison of Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal comparative study of children at risk of dyslexia (Snowling, Gallagher & Frith, 2003), this paper reports some replication of work by Gibbs (2004). It was found that the development of phonological awareness might, for children between the ages of 6 and 8 years of age and not considered to be at risk of dyslexia, be…

Gibbs, Simon

2005-01-01

147

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

148

Phonological awareness of children with Down syndrome: its role in learning to read and the effectiveness of related interventions.  

PubMed

Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in our language. It is key to learning to read for typically developing children. Some have suggested that this is not true for children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this review was to provide a better understanding of the role PA plays for children with DS as they learn to read and to provide guidance on whether phonics-based reading instruction is likely to benefit these students. Results from a review of 20 studies indicate that children with DS rely on PA skills in learning to read and suggest that phonics-based reading instruction may be beneficial for at least some of these children. PMID:19945821

Lemons, Christopher J; Fuchs, Douglas

2009-11-30

149

The Effects of an Adapted Interactive Writing Intervention on Kindergarten Children's Phonological Awareness, Spelling, and Early Reading Development: A Contextualized Approach to Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a pretest–posttest comparison-group design, this 16-week study investigated the effects of 2 instructional approaches on the phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and early reading of kindergarten children. The primary goal was to compare a form of contextualized instruction based on an adapted interactive writing program with a field-tested program of metalinguistic games. For instructional purposes, the children in each treatment

Sharon A. Craig

2006-01-01

150

The Entry Knowledge of Australian Preservice Teachers in the Area of Phonological Awareness and Phonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between research and practice has never been more significant as global awareness about literacy pushes us to question the success of programs in schools. National reports on literacy were challenged during the conference. Grounded evidence was given of literacy programs that work to make a difference for groups with diverse needs. The collection of ideas in the conference

Barbara J Fisher; Merle E Bruce; Cedric Greive

2007-01-01

151

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

152

Contributions of Phonological Processing Skills to Reading Skills in Arabic Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures

Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.

2011-01-01

153

The Relationship of Spelling Recognition, RAN, and Phonological Awareness to Reading Skills in Older Poor Readers and Younger Reading-Matched Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of spelling recognition was examined in word reading skills and reading comprehension for dyslexic and nondyslexic children. Dyslexic and nondyslexic children were matched on their raw word reading proficiency. Relationships between spelling recognition and the following were examined for both groups of children: verbal ability, working memory, phonological measures, rapid naming, word reading, and reading comprehension. Children’s performance

Tami Katzir; YoungSuk Kim; Maryanne Wolf; Becky Kennedy; Maureen Lovett; Robin Morris

2006-01-01

154

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

155

A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Contiguous, Graphemic and Phonological Interventions on Measures of Reading and Spelling Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has established that phonological awareness is a predictor of future reading skill, the effects of variant vs. contiguous presentations of grapheme-phoneme correspondences as part of a teaching program have not been examined. A variant presentation is one in which there is a mismatch between the letter and sound or sound and letter correspondences and a contiguous representation is

Roger J Bourne; Paul R Whiting

156

Dynamic Assessment of Phonological Awareness for Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study was designed to examine the relationships between performance on a nonverbal phoneme deletion task administered in a dynamic assessment format with performance on measures of phoneme deletion, word-level reading, and speech sound production that required verbal responses for school-age children with speech sound disorders…

Gillam, Sandra Laing; Ford, Mikenzi Bentley

2012-01-01

157

Bilingualism and Learning: The Effect of Language Pair on Phonological Awareness Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children first exposed to English as a second language when they start school are at risk for poor academic outcome. They perform less well than their monolingual peers, matched for socio-economic background, at the end of primary school on measures of language and literacy, despite immersion in English at school. Previous research suggests,…

Dodd, Barbara J.; So, Lydia K. H.; Lam, Kobe K. C.

2008-01-01

158

Bilingualism and learning: The effect of language pair on phonological awareness abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children first exposed to English as a second language when they start school are at risk for poor academic outcome. They perform less well than their monolingual peers, matched for socio-economic background, at the end of primary school on measures of language and literacy, despite immersion in English at school. Previous research suggests, however, that some bilingual children do better

Barbara J. Dodd; Lydia K. H. So; Kobe K. C. Lam

2008-01-01

159

Measuring Cultural Awareness in Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multicultural awareness scale completed by 72 nursing students obtained a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of .91. An expert panel analyzed content validity and the revised scale was completed by 118 students. Factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Cookston, Jeff; Khosropour, Shirin; Martinez, Stephanie

2003-01-01

160

Measuring cultural awareness in nursing students.  

PubMed

Recognizing the need for a valid and reliable way to measure outcomes of a program to promote multicultural awareness among nursing faculty and students, the authors developed a cultural awareness scale. In the first phase of the study, a scale consisting of 37 items was generated from a literature review on cultural awareness, sensitivity, and competence in nursing. A Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of .91 was obtained from a sample of 72 student nurses. In the second phase, the items were presented to a panel of experts in nursing and culture to determine content validity. A content validity index of .88 was calculated, and the total number of items on the scale was reduced to 36. The scale then was administered to 118 nursing students. Data from the two samples then were combined, and factor analysis was conducted to support construct validity. Cronbach's alpha for the combined samples was .82. PMID:12814215

Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Cookston, Jeff; Khosropour, Shirin; Martinez, Stephanie

2003-06-01

161

Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Korean: An Examination of the Unique Role of Body-Coda Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines a salient intrasyllabic phonological unit in Korean, the body-coda unit, its role in literacy skills in Korean, and a possible source of the salience of body-coda units in the spoken language. Data were collected from Korean-speaking, monolingual beginning readers (41 kindergarteners, 40 first graders). The results indicate…

Kim, Young-Suk

2007-01-01

162

Early language development and kindergarten phonological awareness as predictors of reading problems: from 3 to 11 years of age.  

PubMed

At the end of Grade 4, 481 children on the Danish island of Bornholm were screened using group tests for sentence reading. For 205 of these children, language and speech data from the speech therapist's screening at age 3 were available, as well as language comprehension and linguistic awareness data from the kindergarten year (age 6) and word decoding measures in Grades 2 and 3. A path analysis revealed significant paths from early language abilities at age 3 through expressive and receptive language in kindergarten via language awareness in kindergarten and word decoding in Grade 2 to sentence reading in Grades 3 and 4. The subgroup of children with parents who had reported a history of reading problems at school entry scored significantly below average on sentence reading in Grade 4. The subgroup of children that were reported to show a very low interest in books and story reading before age 5 also scored low on sentence reading in Grade 4. Statistically significant but weak relationships were also found between parents' educational background, parents' library visits, and number of books at home and the child's reading ability in Grade 4. PMID:15510436

Olofsson, A; Niedersøe, J

163

Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

2003-01-01

164

Phonological Skills and Their Role in Learning to Read: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a systematic meta-analytic review of the relationships among 3 of the most widely studied measures of children's phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory) and children's word reading skills. The review included both extreme group studies and correlational studies with unselected samples (235 studies were included, and 995 effect sizes were calculated). Results from

Monica Melby-Lervåg; Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster; Charles Hulme

2012-01-01

165

Effects of instruction on the decoding skills of children with phonological-processing problems.  

PubMed

This article reviews research carried out by the Bowman Gray Learning Disabilities Project concerning the role of instruction in the acquisition of word-identification (decoding) skills in children at risk for reading disabilities. A group of 81 kindergarten children were identified as at risk for reading disabilities based on teacher assessment and weak or deficient phonological-processing skills. These children were classified as to type of phonological-processing problem (i.e., phonological awareness or retrieval of phonological information) and were randomly assigned to either a Code or Context instructional method for first and second grades. Children who received Code instruction scored higher than children receiving context instruction on a variety of reading and spelling measures at the end of first and second grades. The elements of the Code instructional program considered critical to the success of a beginning reading instruction program for children with phonological processing problems are discussed. PMID:8283124

Felton, R H

1993-11-01

166

Phoneme Awareness Is a Better Predictor of Early Reading Skill Than Onset-Rime Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a short-term longitudinal study. Children in the early stages of learning to read (5 and 6 year olds) were administered three different tasks (deletion, oddity, and detection) tapping awareness of four phonological units (initial phoneme, final phoneme, onset, and rime). Measures of phoneme awareness were the best concurrent and longitudinal predictors of reading skill with

Charles Hulme; Peter J. Hatcher; Kate Nation; Angela Brown; John Adams; George Stuart

2002-01-01

167

Metalinguistic awareness and reading performance: a cross language comparison.  

PubMed

The study examined two questions: (1) do the greater phonological awareness skills of billinguals affect reading performance; (2) to what extent do the orthographic characteristics of a language influence reading performance and how does this interact with the effects of phonological awareness. We estimated phonological metalinguistic abilities and reading measures in three groups of first graders: monolingual Hebrew speakers, bilingual Russian-Hebrew speakers, and Arabic-speaking children. We found that language experience affects phonological awareness, as both Russian-Hebrew bilinguals and the Arabic speakers achieved higher scores on metalinguistic tests than Hebrew speakers. Orthography affected reading measures and their correlation with phonological abilitites. Children reading Hebrew showed better text reading ability and significant correlations between phonological awareness and reading scores. Children reading Arabic showed a slight advantage in single word and nonword reading over the two Hebrew reading groups, and very weak relationships between phonological abilities and reading performance. We conclude that native Arabic speakers have more difficulty in processing Arabic orthography than Hebrew monolinguals and bilinguals have in processing Hebrew orthography, and suggest that this is due to the additional visual complexity of Arabic orthography. PMID:17318435

Ibrahim, Raphiq; Eviatar, Zohar; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

2007-07-01

168

FMRI of two measures of phonological processing in visual word recognition: Ecological validity matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the simple overt naming tasks, which more closely map onto normal reading behavior.

William J. Owen; Ron Borowsky; Gordon E. Sarty

2004-01-01

169

Sounds, Letters and Meanings: The Independent Influences of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Skills on Early Word Reading Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to examine the independent contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic processing and morphological awareness on early word reading. English-speaking children in Grades 1 and 3 completed measures of these three constructs, as well as standardised measures of real and pseudoword reading and of vocabulary. Each of…

Deacon, S. Helene

2012-01-01

170

Concurrent measurement of awareness and electrodermal classical conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented a discrimination GSR classical conditioning paradigm embedded within a masking task to 56 college students. The probability that Ss would become aware of the relation between the CS and the UCS was experimentally manipulated using verbal instructions. In addition, technique was devised which permitted the measurement of awareness concurrent with the measurement of conditioning. The CS-UCS interval was divided

Michael E. Dawson; Michael A. Biferno

1973-01-01

171

Measures of Situation Awareness: Review and Future Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measures of situation awareness (SA), or what operators know about their immediate situation, are reviewed. Three major approaches to SA assessment are considered: explicit, implicit, and subjective rating. Explicit measures require operators to self-repo...

M. L. Fracker

1991-01-01

172

The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive english to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate english.  

PubMed

This study was planned with the knowledge that the tasks of reading require the same acquisition of skills, whether a child is hearing or deaf, monolingual, or bilingual. Reading and language research literature was reviewed. Subjects were 31 deaf students (7.9-17.9 years of age) who attended one of three U.S. programs. Performance on 15 language and literacy measures was analyzed. Results were that students who scored highest on a passage-comprehension measure also were more able (a) to provide synonyms, antonyms, and analogies of read words and phrases, (b) to read more listed words, and (c) to substitute one phoneme more correctly for another to create new words than were readers with lower scores. Two groups of students also were compared: a Longer Exposure to English Group (n = 22) who used Signing Exact English (SEE) for 5 years or more and a Shorter Exposure Group (n = 8) exposed to SEE for less than 2 years. A correlational analysis revealed that there were no significant relationships among 14 background variables with the exception of "age of identification of hearing loss," a variable then covaried in subsequent analysis of covariance. Students in the Longer Exposure Group scored higher on all measures. Significant differences were found between groups for short-term memory, receptive and expressive English, and five phonological subtests. Mini-case studies and the performance of eight students in the Longer Exposure Group who scored lowest on the comprehension measure also are discussed. PMID:15448076

Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran

2003-01-01

173

The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

2012-01-01

174

The perception of visual emotion: comparing different measures of awareness.  

PubMed

Here, we explore the sensitivity of different awareness scales in revealing conscious reports on visual emotion perception. Participants were exposed to a backward masking task involving fearful faces and asked to rate their conscious awareness in perceiving emotion in facial expression using three different subjective measures: confidence ratings (CRs), with the conventional taxonomy of certainty, the perceptual awareness scale (PAS), through which participants categorize "raw" visual experience, and post-decision wagering (PDW), which involves economic categorization. Our results show that the CR measure was the most exhaustive and the most graded. In contrast, the PAS and PDW measures suggested instead that consciousness of emotional stimuli is dichotomous. Possible explanations of the inconsistency were discussed. Finally, our results also indicate that PDW biases awareness ratings by enhancing first-order accuracy of emotion perception. This effect was possibly a result of higher motivation induced by monetary incentives. PMID:23337441

Szczepanowski, Remigiusz; Traczyk, Jakub; Wierzcho?, Micha?; Cleeremans, Axel

2013-01-20

175

Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;

Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García

2009-01-01

176

The Role of Phonological Representation in Decoding Skills of Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological awareness reflects the strength of a child's ability to represent linguistic information cognitively at the phonological level. Although the role of phonological awareness in early reading decoding has been well documented, its relationship to other factors affecting reading decoding has yet to be fully examined. In this study, the…

Hester, E.; Hodson, B. W.

2004-01-01

177

The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

178

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)|

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

179

Children with Down syndrome use phonological knowledge in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the findings of Cossu, Rossini &Marshall [(1993a), Cognition 46: 129–138], the present experiment showed a clear link between phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Although metaphonologicalperformance was lower in children with Downsyndrome than in normal controls of the samereading level, phonological awareness andreading were significantly correlated in bothgroups. However, children with Down syndromeremained deficient

Jean-Emile Gombert

2002-01-01

180

Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures  

PubMed Central

Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding of the multi-dimensional construct and suggest next steps for further research.

Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita

2009-01-01

181

Measuring team situation awareness in decentralized command and control environments.  

PubMed

Decentralized command and control settings like those found in the military are rife with complexity and change. These settings typically involve dozens, if not hundreds to thousands, of heterogeneous players coordinating in a distributed fashion in a dynamically networked battlefield laden with sensor data, intelligence reports, communications, and plans emanating from many different perspectives. Consider the concept of team situation awareness in this setting. What does it mean for a team to be aware of a situation or, more importantly, of a critical change in a situation? Is it sufficient or necessary for all individuals on the team to be independently aware? Or is there some more holistic awareness that emerges as team members interact? We re-examine the concept of team situation awareness in decentralized systems beyond an individual-oriented knowledge-based construct by considering it as a team interaction-based phenomenon. A theoretical framework for a process-based measure called 'coordinated awareness of situations by teams' is outlined. PMID:17008258

Gorman, Jamie C; Cooke, Nancy J; Winner, Jennifer L

182

The relationship between phonological processing skills and word and nonword identification performance in children with mild intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word and nonword identification were included for analyses. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for chronological age and vocabulary knowledge, phonological processing accounted for a large and significant amount of unique variance of both word and nonword identification. In addition, the pattern of results found in this study is similar to that obtained with typically developing learners. As with typically developing children, measures of phonological awareness were significantly correlated with measures of both reading achievement and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:20846821

Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

2010-09-16

183

The Racialistic Incidents Inventory: Measuring Awareness of Racialism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Racialistic Incidents Inventory (RII) was developed to measure individual awareness of eight types of racialistic incidents. Racialistic incidents were defined as situations in which behaviors or attitudes are directed toward a particular racial/ethnic group; these may reflect racist or nonracist attitudes. The typology of incidents was…

Allen-Claiborne, Joyce G.; Taylor, Jerome

184

Measuring and Predicting Shared Situation Awareness in Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve our understanding of situation awareness (SA) in teams performing in technologically advanced command, control, and communications (C3) operations, researchers need to develop valid approaches to assess both individual and shared SA. We investigated SA in an interdisciplinary military rescue operation training exercise. For this study, we developed procedures to measure the degree of shared SA between

Lelyn D. Saner; Cheryl A. Bolstad; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Haydee M. Cuevas

2009-01-01

185

The Role of Phonological Memory, Word Recognition, and Comprehension Skills in Reading Development: From Preschool to Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the relationships among phonological awareness, phonological memory, and development of reading skills in a longitudinal study, by following 222 Finnish preschoolers through grade 2. Focuses on the role of phonological memory in word recognition and comprehension. Underlines the stability of development of phonological memory,…

Dufva, Mia; Niemi, Pekka; Voeten, Marinus J. M.

2001-01-01

186

Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment  

PubMed Central

One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented.

Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

2004-01-01

187

FMRI of two measures of phonological processing in visual word recognition: ecological validity matters.  

PubMed

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the simple overt naming tasks, which more closely map onto normal reading behavior. Our research aim for this study was to examine the advantages of overt naming tasks for fMRI studies of word recognition processes. Process models are presented to highlight the similarities and differences between two cognitive tasks that are used in the word recognition literature, pseudohomophone naming (e.g., pronounce BRANE) and rhyming decision (e.g., do LEAT and JEAT rhyme?). An fMRI study identified several differences in cortical activation associated with the differences observed in the process models. Specifically, the results show that the overt naming task involved the insular cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, whereas the rhyming decision task engaged the temporal-parietal regions. It is argued that future fMRI research examining the neuroanatomical components of basic visual word recognition utilize overt naming tasks. PMID:15172523

Owen, William J; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

188

Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present 9-month longitudinal study investigated relations between Chinese native language phonological processing skills and early Chinese and English reading abilities among 227 kindergarteners in Hong Kong. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and short-term verbal memory differed in their relations to concurrent and subsequent Chinese and English word recognition. The significant bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and Chinese reading ability

Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Catherine McBride-Chang; Stephen Burgess

2005-01-01

189

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

190

Prosodic Sensitivity and Morphological Awareness in Children's Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationships among prosodic sensitivity, morphological awareness, and reading ability in a sample of 104 8- to 13-year-olds. Using a task adapted from Carlisle ("Applied Psycholinguistics," 9 (1988) 247-266), we measured children's ability to produce morphological derivations with differing levels of phonological

Clin, Ellie; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Heggie, Lindsay

2009-01-01

191

Measuring Dimensions of Body Connection: Body Awareness and Bodily Dissociation  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to test the preliminary psychometric properties of the Scale of Body Connection (SBC), a 20-item self-report measure, designed to assess body awareness and bodily dissociation in mind–body intervention research. Methods The SBC items were based on common expressions of awareness in body therapy. Content validity was established by a panel of experts. The validity and reliability of the scale was examined with an undergraduate sample. To assess the scale’s discriminant validity, the respondents were asked to indicate exposure to specific traumas. Results Confirmatory factor analysis, used to examine the scale’s construct validity, indicated acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, and revealed uncorrelated subscales, reflecting independent dimensions. Cronbach’s alpha revealed equal internal consistency reliability for each subscale for both men and women. Body awareness scores did not differ between individuals with and without reported trauma exposure. Bodily dissociation scores differed between individuals with and without past experience with physical trauma, suggesting the applicability of this subscale for use with populations with trauma histories. Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the SBC.

PRICE, CYNTHIA J.; THOMPSON, ELAINE ADAMS

2011-01-01

192

Visual versus Phonological Abilities in Spanish Dyslexic Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…

Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel

2009-01-01

193

Aberrant N400 responses to phonological overlap during rhyme judgements in children at risk for dyslexia.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity. PMID:24060646

Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

2013-09-21

194

Phonological Representations in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a…

Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

2012-01-01

195

Measuring and testing awareness of emotional face expressions.  

PubMed

Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings (CR) predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) and post-decision wagering (PDW) when using stimuli with emotional content (fearful vs. neutral faces). Although we find the study interesting, we disagree with the conclusion that CR is superior to PAS because of two methodological issues. First, the conclusion is not based on a formal test. We performed this test and found no evidence that CR predicted accuracy better than PAS (p=.4). Second, Szczepanowski et al. used the present version of PAS in a manner somewhat different from how it was originally intended, and the participants may not have been adequately instructed. We end our commentary with a set of recommendations for future studies using PAS. PMID:23728457

Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Overgaard, Morten

2013-05-30

196

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

197

Phonological Feature Representations in Auditory Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although phonemes are the smallest linguistic units that speakers are usually aware of, a good deal of linguistic evidence indicates that sub-phonemic features are the smallest building blocks of language. We present evidence from biomagnetic studies that indicate that representations of discrete phonological feature categories are available to left-hemisphere auditory cortex. Sequences of voiced (\\/bæ, dæ, gæ\\/) and voiceless (\\/pæ,

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy

2000-01-01

198

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

199

Morphological Awareness in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to…

Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

2004-01-01

200

Developmental dyslexia: exploring how much phonological and visual attention span disorders are linked to simultaneous auditory processing deficits.  

PubMed

The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were assessed in the dyslexic children. We presented the dyslexic children with a phonological short-term memory task and a phonemic awareness task to quantify their phonological skills. Visual attention spans correlated positively with individual scores obtained on the dichotic listening task while phonological skills did not correlate with either dichotic scores or visual attention span measures. Moreover, all the dyslexic children with a dichotic listening deficit showed a simultaneous visual processing deficit, and a substantial number of dyslexic children exhibited phonological processing deficits whether or not they exhibited low dichotic listening scores. These findings suggest that processing simultaneous auditory stimuli may be impaired in dyslexic children regardless of phonological processing difficulties and be linked to similar problems in the visual modality. PMID:22829423

Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

2012-07-25

201

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

202

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

203

Body Conscious? Interoceptive Awareness, Measured by Heartbeat Perception, Is Negatively Correlated with Self-Objectification  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Self-objectification’ is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. Conclusions/Significance We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

204

Situation awareness as judgment I: Statistical modeling and quantitative measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situation awareness (SA) is a commonly used term to describe the challenges faced by human operators when interacting with controlled systems or work environments through technological interfaces. In this paper we conceptualize SA as judgment under uncertainty. As such, SA is conceived as the degree of correspondence between a set of human judgments and the distribution of true system or

Alex Kirlik; Richard Strauss

2006-01-01

205

Measuring Metacognitive Strategies Using the Reading Awareness Scale ESCOLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Current cognitive approaches highlight the importance of metacognition. "Learning how to learn" facilities awareness of one's own learning process, how they work, how to optimize their functioning, control of reading process, and so on. Acquisition of these skills is one of the new educational requirements for students, as is…

Jimenez, Virginia; Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesus M.; Arrebillaga, Lorena

2009-01-01

206

Repeated Measures of Students' Marine and Great Lakes Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statewide test of fifth and ninth graders' knowledge about and attitudes toward the oceans and Great Lakes was administered in 1979, 1983, and 1987, offering a longitudinal study of awareness change currently unparalleled in environmental education research. Over the years of the study, knowledge scores increased slightly except for humanities items. Earth science topics, however, showed the greatest deficiencies

Rosanne W. Fortner; Victor J. Mayer

1991-01-01

207

Recursive Patterns in Phonological Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview

Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers

208

Degree of Illiteracy and Phonological and Metaphonological Skills in Unschooled Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to…

Loureiro, Clara de Santos; Willadino Braga, Lucia; Souza, Ligia do Nascimento; Filho, Gilberto Nunes; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Dellatolas, Georges

2004-01-01

209

Degree of Illiteracy and Phonological and Metaphonological Skills in Unschooled Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to…

Loureiro, Clara de Santos; Willadino Braga, Lucia; Souza, Ligia do Nascimento; Filho, Gilberto Nunes; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Dellatolas, Georges

2004-01-01

210

Phonological basis in reading disability: A review and analysis of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor readers are known to do consistently worsethan their normal reading peers on tasks ofphonological processing. They are characterizedby their difficulties in printed wordrecognition, phonological awareness andphonological decoding. An increasing body ofevidence points to deficits in speechperception as a source of subtle but ramifyingeffects in reading impaired children andadults. These deficits may be traced to poorlycoded phonological representations. Thisarticle will

Maria Mody

2003-01-01

211

Phonological oddballs in the focus of attention elicit a normal P3b in dyslexic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in phonological processing have been proposed to be the core symptom of developmental dyslexia. Phoneme awareness tasks have been shown to both index and predict individual reading ability. In a previous experiment, we observed that dyslexic adults fail to display a P3a modulation for phonological deviants within an alliterated word stream when concentrating primarily on a lexical decision task

Timothy Fosker; Guillaume Thierry

2005-01-01

212

AwareCare: Development and validation of an observational measure of awareness in people with severe dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signs of sensory and perceptual awareness can be observed in people with very severe dementia, and may be influenced by the extent to which the environment offers appropriate stimulation. We developed an observational tool, AwareCare, which care staff can use to identify signs of awareness in residents with very severe dementia, based on the concept of the Wessex Head Injury

Linda Clare; Rhiannon Whitaker; Catherine Quinn; Hannah Jelley; Zoe Hoare; Bob Woods; Murna Downs; Barbara Wilson

2012-01-01

213

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

214

Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-01-01

215

Development of a situation awareness measure to evaluate advanced alarm systems in nuclear power plant control rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process controller is required to remain updated regarding developments in the dynamically changing process state, this being referred to as the maintenance of situation awareness. Alarm systems play an important role within this task, and therefore a measure of how effective the system is for enhancing the operator's situation awareness is desirable. One proposed measure is the Situation Awareness

DAVID N. HOGG; KNUT FOLLESø; FRODE STRAND-VOLDEN; BELÉN TORRALBA

1995-01-01

216

Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy. PMID:15765006

Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

2004-06-01

217

Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using structural equation modeling the authors evaluated the contribution of morphological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological decoding to reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, spelling, and accuracy and rate of decoding morphologically complex words for 182 4th- and 5th-grade students, 218 6th- and 7th-grade students, and 207 8th- and 9th-grade students in a suburban school district. Morphological awareness made a significant unique

William Nagy; Virginia W. Berninger; Robert D. Abbott

2006-01-01

218

Reading with partial phonology: Developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psycholinguistic investigations have advanced our understanding of the acquired dyslexias. Developmental analogues have been described to some of these disorders. A new case of developmental phonological dyslexia is described here. A.H. is an intelligent 10-year-old boy with no neurological abnormality. Reading and spelling are below age level. A.H. is poorer at reading words than nonwords. The majority of his

Christine M. Temple

1985-01-01

219

Phonological recovery in Spanish developmental dyslexics through the tip-of-the-tongue paradigm.  

PubMed

Background: Developmental dyslexics have difficulties accessing and retrieving the phonological form of words, in the absence of a deficit at the semantic level. The aim of this work was to study, through the Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) paradigm, the problems of lexical access in Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics and the relationship with their phonological awareness. Method: A group of developmental dyslexics (14) and other children without reading difficulties (14), aged 7 to 12, performed a picture naming task of medium and low frequency and a task of phonological awareness. Results: The results indicated that dyslexic children generally show a greater number of TOT phenomena than the control group. Despite being able to provide semantic information of the drawing, they had difficulties retrieving partial phonological information. Conclusions: These results indicate that developmental dyslexic children have particular difficulty in accessing the phonological form of words, which may be interesting for the development of intervention programs for these children. PMID:24124780

Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Collazo Alonso, Aida; González-Nosti, María

2013-11-01

220

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

221

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al.…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

222

Effect of Nonlinguistic Auditory Training on Phonological and Reading Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the effect of nonverbal auditory training on reading and phonological awareness tasks in children with dyslexia and the effect of age in relation to post-training learning considering the ages from 7 to 14. Methods: In experiment 1, one group with dyslexia (total = 12) was trained and compared with a group of untrained dyslexic subjects (total =

C. F. B. Murphy; E. Schochat

2011-01-01

223

Measurement Invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale across Adult Attachment Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examine the measurement invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) across adult attachment style. A 1-factor model and measurement invariance was supported across groups. As predicted, latent mean differences showed that securely attached individuals reported significantly more mindfulness than did…

Cordon, Shari L.; Finney, Sara J.

2008-01-01

224

Measurement Invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale across Adult Attachment Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors examine the measurement invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) across adult attachment style. A 1-factor model and measurement invariance was supported across groups. As predicted, latent mean differences showed that securely attached individuals reported significantly more mindfulness than did…

Cordon, Shari L.; Finney, Sara J.

2008-01-01

225

Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

Killian, Kyle D.

2012-01-01

226

Degree of illiteracy and phonological and metaphonological skills in unschooled adults.  

PubMed

Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to letter knowledge. Rhyme identification was relatively preserved in illiterates and semiliterates, and unrelated to letter and word reading level. Phonetic discrimination (minimal pairs) was fairly good and marginally related to reading ability. These results suggest that phonological sensitivity, phonological memory, rhyme identification, and phonemic awareness are distinctive cognitive processes, and that only phonemic awareness is clearly and strongly dependent on the alphabetical acquisition. PMID:15120540

Loureiro, Clara de Santos; Braga, Lucia Willadino; Souza, Ligia do Nascimento; Nunes Filho, Gilberto; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Dellatolas, Georges

2004-06-01

227

An international measure of awareness and beliefs about cancer: development and testing of the ABC  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop an internationally validated measure of cancer awareness and beliefs; the awareness and beliefs about cancer (ABC) measure. Design and setting Items modified from existing measures were assessed by a working group in six countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK). Validation studies were completed in the UK, and cross-sectional surveys of the general population were carried out in the six participating countries. Participants Testing in UK English included cognitive interviewing for face validity (N=10), calculation of content validity indexes (six assessors), and assessment of test–retest reliability (N=97). Conceptual and cultural equivalence of modified (Canadian and Australian) and translated (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Canadian French) ABC versions were tested quantitatively for equivalence of meaning (?4 assessors per country) and in bilingual cognitive interviews (three interviews per translation). Response patterns were assessed in surveys of adults aged 50+ years (N?2000) in each country. Main outcomes Psychometric properties were evaluated through tests of validity and reliability, conceptual and cultural equivalence and systematic item analysis. Test–retest reliability used weighted-? and intraclass correlations. Construction and validation of aggregate scores was by factor analysis for (1) beliefs about cancer outcomes, (2) beliefs about barriers to symptomatic presentation, and item summation for (3) awareness of cancer symptoms and (4) awareness of cancer risk factors. Results The English ABC had acceptable test–retest reliability and content validity. International assessments of equivalence identified a small number of items where wording needed adjustment. Survey response patterns showed that items performed well in terms of difficulty and discrimination across countries except for awareness of cancer outcomes in Australia. Aggregate scores had consistent factor structures across countries. Conclusions The ABC is a reliable and valid international measure of cancer awareness and beliefs. The methods used to validate and harmonise the ABC may serve as a methodological guide in international survey research.

Simon, Alice E; Forbes, Lindsay J L; Boniface, David; Warburton, Fiona; Brain, Kate E; Dessaix, Anita; Donnelly, Michael; Haynes, Kerry; Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Petermann, Lisa; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter; Vigmostad, Maria Nyre; Wardle, Jane; Ramirez, Amanda J

2012-01-01

228

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

2006-03-01

229

The Connection between Reaction Time and Variation in Reading Ability: Unravelling Covariance Relationships with Cognitive Ability and Phonological Sensitivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds a significant correlation between Reaction Time (RT) and reading ability; however, the zero-order correlation between RT and word recognition ability was largely due to variance shared with phonological awareness and general cognitive ability. Concludes RT explained almost no unique variance after phonological sensitivity and general…

Stringer, Ron; Stanovich, Keith E.

2000-01-01

230

Impairment in processing meaningless verbal material in several modalities: The relationship between short-term memory and phonological skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological processing abilities were studied in a patient who, following focal brain damage, showed selective impairment in non-word reading, writing, and repetition and also a severe short-term memory (STM) deficit specific for auditorily presented verbal material. The patient could execute tasks involving phonemic manipulation and awareness perfectly. Our data, in contrast with earlier observations in a case of developmental phonological

Patrizia S. Bisiacchi; Lisa Cipolotti; Gianfranco Denes

1989-01-01

231

Phonological processing is uniquely associated with neuro-metabolic concentration.  

PubMed

Reading is a complex process involving recruitment and coordination of a distributed network of brain regions. The present study sought to establish a methodologically sound evidentiary base relating specific reading and phonological skills to neuro-metabolic concentration. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to measure metabolite concentration in a left hemisphere region around the angular gyrus for 31 young adults with a range of reading and phonological abilities. Correlation data demonstrated a significant negative association between phonological decoding and normalized choline concentration and as well as a trend toward a significant negative association between sight word reading and normalized choline concentration, indicating that lower scores on these measures are associated with higher concentrations of choline. Regression analyses indicated that choline concentration accounted for a unique proportion of variance in the phonological decoding measure after accounting for age, cognitive ability and sight word reading skill. This pattern of results suggests some specificity for the negative relationship between choline concentration and phonological decoding. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that choline concentration in the angular region may be related to phonological skills independently of other reading skills, general cognitive ability, and age. These results may have important implications for the study and treatment of reading disability, a disorder which has been related to deficits in phonological decoding and abnormalities in the angular gyrus. PMID:23147236

Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Manis, Franklin R

2012-11-10

232

A Phonological Rules System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phonological rules system has been implemented as a language extension of SDC INFIX LISP. The system can be used in two modes: as an interactive rule tester, and as a library of functions with other LISP programs. The key language capabilities are: defi...

J. A. Barnett

1975-01-01

233

Situation awareness measurement: A review of applicability for C4i environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of situation awareness (SA) has become a core theme within the human factors (HF) research community. Consequently, there have been numerous attempts to develop reliable and valid measures of SA but there is a lack of techniques developed specifically for the assessment of SA in command, control, communication, computers and intelligence (C4i) environments. During the design, development and

Paul Salmon; Neville Stanton; Guy Walker; Damian Green

2006-01-01

234

Measuring the Diversity Awareness of Social Work Students: The Dual Perspective Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dual Perspective Inventory was implemented to measure the diversity awareness of first?year MSW students at a university in the western U.S. Data were collected at the beginning of the first semester from students who enrolled in a course on diversity, and again at the end of the semester when the students were about to complete the course. The mean

Wandarah Anderson; Reiko Hayashi; Caren J. Frost

2009-01-01

235

Phonemes matter: The role of phoneme-level awareness in emergent Chinese readers  

PubMed Central

The importance of phonological awareness for learning to read may depend on the linguistic properties of a language. This study provides a careful examination of this language-specific theory by exploring the role of phoneme-level awareness in Mandarin Chinese, a language with an orthography that, at its surface, appears to require little phoneme-level insight. A sample of 71 monolingual Mandarin-speaking children completed a phonological elision task and a measure of single-character reading. In this sample, 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers were unable to complete phoneme-level deletions, whereas 6- to 8-year-old first graders were able to complete initial, final, and medial phoneme-level deletions. In this older group, performance on phoneme deletions was significantly related to reading ability even after controlling for syllable- and onset/rime-level awareness, vocabulary, and Pinyin knowledge. We believe that these results reopen the question of the role of phonological awareness in reading in Chinese and, more generally, the nature of the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

Newman, Ellen Hamilton; Tardif, Twila; Huang, Jingyuan; Shu, Hua

2010-01-01

236

Effect size in clinical phonology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and evaluation of generalization learning, both of which are key to experimental studies in clinical phonology.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

237

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

238

Stroke Awareness in the Saudi Community Living in Riyadh: Prompt Public Health Measures Must be Implemented.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Stroke is very prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, approaching 43.8 per 100,000 people. Stroke outcome is known to be affected by the level of stroke awareness in the community. We conducted this study to assess the level of stroke awareness in the Saudi population. METHODS: A validated survey of 11 questions was used to assess the level of stroke awareness among the Saudi population. The survey was distributed in a 1-month period to every adult Saudi citizen visiting 10 shopping centers, 10 large supermarkets, 4 hospitals, and 2 universities. RESULTS: Two thousand eight hundred sixty-two people completed the questionnaire (a 78% response rate). One thousand eight hundred forty-four people (64%) were able to define stroke correctly. One thousand four hundred twenty-eight people (49.9%) named mass media as the source of their knowledge. One thousand three hundred one (45.9%) believe stroke and brain death share the same pathologic mechanism and outcome, particularly those <40 years of age (P < .05). Six hundred twenty-two (21.7%) of the respondents correctly chose ?5 risk factors and made ?1 error. Five hundred twenty-seven (18.4%) of the participants in this study were able to correctly identify ?3 symptoms of the list and make ?1 error. CONCLUSIONS: There is an alarming deficit in the level of stroke awareness in the Saudi population. Urgent public health measures to correct this deficiency are promptly needed. PMID:23680680

Alaqeel, Ahmed; Alammari, Albatool; Alsyefi, Nourah; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Mohammad, Yousef

2013-05-13

239

Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of thimi municipality, Nepal.  

PubMed

Background Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high riskgroups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. Objective The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. Methods It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Results Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 +/= 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. Conclusion The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large scale mass education, there should be specific health education program for the specific group of population. PMID:23774413

Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

240

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

241

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

242

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

243

Measuring cultural awareness of nursing students: a first step toward cultural competency.  

PubMed

This pilot study was designed to measure nursing students' level of cultural awareness. It replicated phase II of Rew, Becker, Cookston, Khosropour, & Martinez's (2003) methodological study that developed and tested a Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS). Using a cross-sectional design, the CAS was distributed to nursing students in three nursing programs' (bachelor's, master's, doctoral) beginning and end courses. Cronbach's alpha for the CAS Total instrument was 0.869, with subscale scores ranging from 0.687 to 0.902, comparable to the findings of Rew et al. Given the limitations of this study, results must be viewed with a degree of caution. Recommendations include further educational research in the form of psychometric testing of the CAS among nursing students, including refinement of both the CAS instrument and the demographic tool. The authors also recommend that studies be conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the CAS with nurses in the health care arena. PMID:18445761

Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Yost, Jennifer M; Norman, Robert G; Auerhahn, Carolyn; Dobal, May; Rosedale, Mary; Lowry, Melissa; Moffa, Christine

2008-04-29

244

Changing Relations Between Phonological Processing Abilities and Word-Level Reading as Children Develop From Beginning to Skilled Readers: A 5Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading skills were examined in a longitudinal correlational study of 216 children. Phonological processing abilities, word-level reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through 4th grade, as the children developed from beginning to skilled readers. Individual differences in phonological awareness were related to subsequent individual differences in word-level reading for every

Richard K. Wagner; Joseph K. Torgesen; Carol A. Rashotte; Steve A. Hecht; Theodore A. Barker; Stephen R. Burgess; John Donahue; Tamara Garon

1997-01-01

245

Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: A 5-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading skills were examined in a longitudinal correlational study of 216 children. Phonological processing abilities, word-level reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through 4th grade, as the children developed from beginning to skilled readers. Individual differences in phonological aware- ness were related to subsequent individual differences in word-level reading for

Richard K. Wagner; Joseph K. Torgesen; Carol A. Rashotte; Steve A. Hecht

1997-01-01

246

Phonological Accuracy and Intelligibility in Connected Speech of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose We compared the phonological accuracy and speech intelligibility of boys with fragile X syndrome with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD), fragile X syndrome only (FXS-O), Down Syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method Participants were 32 boys with FXS-O (3 to 14 years), 31 with FXS-ASD (5 to 15 years), 34 with DS (4 to16 years), and 45 TD boys of similar nonverbal mental age. We used connected speech samples to compute measures of phonological accuracy, phonological process occurrence, and intelligibility. Results The boys with FXS, regardless of autism status, did not differ from TD boys on phonological accuracy and phonological process occurrence but produced fewer intelligible words than TD boys. The boys with DS scored lower on measures of phonological accuracy and occurrence of phonological processes than all other groups and used fewer intelligible words than TD boys. The boys with FXS and the boys with DS did not differ on measures of intelligibility. Conclusion Boys with FXS, regardless of autism status, exhibit phonological characteristics similar to those of younger TD children but are less intelligible in connected speech. The boys with DS show greater delays in all phonological measures than the boys with FXS and TD boys.

Barnes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Martin, Gary E.; Berni, Mary C.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Sideris, John

2008-01-01

247

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

248

Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work  

SciTech Connect

Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

2011-04-11

249

Investigating the psychometric properties of three French language early reading measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few empirical studies have examined the development of French reading skills in French immersion programs. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of three French early reading measures of phonological awareness and the alphabetic principle. The measures: Facilité à segmenter les phonemes (FSP), Facilité à lire des non?mots (FNM), and Facilité en lecture orale (FLO) are modeled after DIBELS (Dynamic

Roland H. Good III

2009-01-01

250

Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects.

Gierut, Judith A.

2008-01-01

251

Phonological typicality and sentence processing.  

PubMed

In studies of language, it is widely accepted that the form of a word is independent of its meaning and syntactic category. Thus, the relationship between phonological form and grammatical class would not be expected to affect reading time. However, Farmer et al. have now shown that the phonological typicality of a noun or verb influences how rapidly it is read. This finding has implications for both sentence processing and the interpretation of fixation patterns in reading. PMID:17207653

Tanenhaus, Michael K; Hare, Mary

2007-01-04

252

Rapid Naming and Phonological Processing as Predictors of Reading and Spelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships between the cognitive processes of rapid naming and phonological processing and various literacy skills. Variables measured and used in this analysis were phonological processing, rapid naming, reading comprehension, isolated and nonsense word reading, and spelling. Data were collected from 65 second-to-fifth…

Christo, Catherine; Davis, Jack

2008-01-01

253

The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

2013-01-01

254

Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

2012-01-01

255

Phonological Typicality Does Not Influence Fixation Durations in Normal Reading  

PubMed Central

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, Farmer, Christiansen, and Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive to subtle relationships between sound and syntactic function, and that they make rapid use of this information in comprehension. The present article reports attempts to replicate this result using both eyetracking during normal reading (Experiment 1) and word-by-word self-paced reading (Experiment 2). No hint of a phonological typicality effect emerged on any reading time measure in Experiment 1, nor did Experiment 2 replicate Farmer et al.’s finding from self-paced reading. Indeed, the differences between condition means were not consistently in the predicted direction, as phonologically atypical verbs were read more quickly than phonologically typical verbs, on most measures. Implications for research on visual word recognition are discussed.

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith

2010-01-01

256

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

257

Standardized measurement of self-awareness deficits in FTD and AD  

PubMed Central

Background Diminished ability to perceive one’s own impairments, whether cognitive or social, is common in dementia, in particular frontotemporal dementia (FTD), where “lack of insight” is listed as a core diagnostic feature. Yet, there is no currently accepted method for measuring insight in dementia. The most commonly used methods, which involve comparing patients’ opinions of their level of impairment with the opinions of caregivers or close family members, are subjective and require the participation of a knowledgeable informant. Here, we introduce a new method that allows objective quantification of an individual’s awareness of their cognitive abilities and relies upon objective bedside testing. Methods We administered several tests of everyday, real-world functions to patients with FTD (n=10), Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=10) and to control subjects (n=10). Prior to the tasks, participants were asked to predict their performance using a percentile-based rating system. They were also asked to estimate their performance after task completion. Differences between their self-rated and actual performances were calculated. Results Whereas the control group showed very little discrepancy between pre-test predictions, post-task estimates and actual performance (mean difference of 3.9 percentile points for prediction /3.0 percentile points for post-task estimate), both patient groups over-predicted and overestimated their performance, with a significantly greater discrepancy for FTD (49.0/54.3 percentile points) than AD (27.2/28.3 percentile points). Discussion Failures of insight and self-awareness of cognitive dysfunction can be objectively measured in dementia without the assistance of an informant, which will facilitate further study of this key component of higher cognitive functioning.

Williamson, Craig; Alcantar, Oscar; Rothlind, Johannes; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

2009-01-01

258

Processing abilities associated with phonologic and orthographic skills in adult learning disability.  

PubMed

Measures of orthographic and phonologic skills were related to co-normed Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) cognitive measures in 138 college age, learning problem adults. Only orthographic deficits were associated with a processing disorder (p<.001). Selective processing abilities were associated with phonologic (p<.001, Delta adj R(2)=.053) and orthographic (p<.001, Delta adj R(2)=.047) skills after removal of variance associated with general intelligence. Analyses found common processing abilities across both phonologic and orthographic skills for WJ-R visual processing (-Gv) and short-term memory processing factors (Gsm) (p<.001). Cluster analysis established a phonologic deficit and a double deficit (phonologic and orthographic) group. Discussion relates results to the differences between adult and child reading decoding deficits, the lack of a selective orthographically impaired subtype of dyslexia, and the evidence of visual processing compensation for reading problems. PMID:16019631

Osmon, David C; Braun, Michelle M; Plambeck, Elizabeth A

2005-07-01

259

Formal and Substantive Approaches to Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supplements Hans Basboll's state-of-the-art report on generative phonology (EJ 227 659), focusing on "abstract" v "concrete" approaches to surface data. Includes a summary of a discussion on phonology. (RL)|

Hooper, Joan Bybee

1980-01-01

260

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)|

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

261

The Studies about Phonological Deficit Theory in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Developmental Dyslexia (DD) or Reading Disability (RD) that was part of a larger heterogeneous group of learning di sorders and characterized by unexpected problems in academic performance, despite average intelligence. Approach: Current opinions on the biological basis of dyslexia pointed to problems with phonolog ical processing deficits with resulting poor phonemic awareness. Though there was much support for

Emrah Caylak

2010-01-01

262

Amplitude Envelope Perception, Phonology and Prosodic Sensitivity in Children with Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Here we explore relations between auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, prosodic sensitivity, and phonological awareness in a sample of 56 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We examine whether rise time sensitivity is linked to prosodic sensitivity, and whether prosodic sensitivity is linked to…

Goswami, Usha; Gerson, Danielle; Astruc, Luisa

2010-01-01

263

Very Early Phonological and Language Skills: Estimating Individual Risk of Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Analyses from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia project show that the key childhood predictors (phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, expressive vocabulary, pseudoword repetition, and letter naming) of dyslexia differentiate the group with reading disability (n = 46) and the group without reading problems…

Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

2007-01-01

264

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Phonologically Based Reading Intervention for Struggling Readers with Varying Language Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates Reading Intervention--a 10-week supplementary reading programme emphasising the link between phonological awareness and reading--when delivered in a realistic educational setting. Twenty-nine 6-year-olds with reading difficulties participated in Reading Intervention and their progress and attainments were compared with those…

Duff, Fiona J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles

2012-01-01

265

Approaches to the Design and Measurement of Social and Information Awareness in Augmented Reality Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper characterizes the problem of managing focal and peripheral awareness of people, objects, and procedures in augmented reality (AR) systems. We suggest interface design strategies that map the problem to properties of human spatial cognition and briefly introduce how the problem is addressed in three collaborative AR projects. 1 Awareness of augmented reality systems To perform tasks, navigate, and

Frank A. Biocca; Jannick Rolland; Geraud Plantegenest; Chandan Reddy; Chad Harms; Charles B. Owen; Weimin Mou; Arthur Tang

266

They Read, but How Well Do They Understand?: An Empirical Look at the Nuances of Measuring Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much of the literature on reading development focuses on measures of early literacy skills (e.g., phonological awareness, phonics, fluency). Elementary educators interested in improving students' skills in these areas can draw on a wealth of research studies. However, many studies of early literacy skills have not addressed comprehension,…

Alonzo, Julie; Basaraba, Deni; Tindal, Gerald; Carriveau, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

267

Development and validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: a measure of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed. PMID:22804468

Killian, Kyle D

2011-05-09

268

Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers - A validation study  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies.

2013-01-01

269

Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial int...

L. S. Gillikin P. L. Derks

1997-01-01

270

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

2011-01-01

271

Black English Phonology: The Question of Reading Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was conducted to test the assumption that Black English (BE) dialect interferes with reading. Data from 45 lower standard English (SE) speakers were collected and analyzed to measure racial group differences on auditory discrimination, oral reading, BE phonology usage, and silent reading comprehension. Dialect differences analyzed…

Melmed, Paul Jay

272

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

273

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

274

Effects of lexical intervention on the phonology of late talkers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a focused stimulation intervention focusing on lexical training has indirect, secondary effects on children's phonological abilities. Twenty-five toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays and their mothers were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The children were between 23 and 33 months of age at entry into the study and were at the single-word stage of language development. Parents of late talkers in the experimental group were trained to employ frequent, highly concentrated presentations of target words without requiring responses. Two measures of phonological diversity (i.e., syllable structure level and consonant inventory) and one measure of accuracy of production (i.e., percent consonants correct) were measured prior to and following intervention within the context of mother-child interactions. The toddlers who received intervention made treatment gains in two areas of phonological ability. They used a greater variety of complex syllable shapes and expanded their speech sound inventories to include more consonant sounds in both initial and final position. In contrast, there were no effects of language treatment on the accuracy of correct production when compared to the adult phonological system. PMID:9130202

Girolametto, L; Pearce, P S; Weitzman, E

1997-04-01

275

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-03-06

276

Processing Abilities Associated with Phonologic and Orthographic Skills in Adult Learning Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of orthographic and phonologic skills were related to co-normed Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) cognitive measures in 138 college age, learning problem adults. Only orthographic deficits were associated with a processing disorder (p<.001). Selective processing abilities were associated with phonologic (p<.001, ?adj R=.053) and orthographic (p<.001, ?adj R=.047) skills after removal of variance associated with general intelligence. Analyses found common processing

David C. Osmon; Michelle M. Braun; Elizabeth A. Plambeck

2005-01-01

277

Decoding ability makes waves in reading: deficient interactions between attention and phonological analysis in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to examine the interplay of orthographic-phonological integration and attentional engagement. Targets were animal words (10% occurrence). Amongst nontarget stimuli were two critical conditions: pseudohomophones of targets (10%) and control pseudohomophones (of fillers; 10%). Pseudohomophones of targets (but not control pseudohomophones) elicited a large P3 wave in normal readers only, revealing a lack of attentional engagement with these phonologically salient stimuli in dyslexic participants. Critically, both groups showed similar early phonological discrimination as indexed by posterior P2 modulations. Furthermore, phonological engagement, as indexed by P3a differences between pseudohomophone conditions, correlated with several measures of reading. Meanwhile, an analogous experiment using coloured shapes instead of orthographic stimuli failed to show group differences between experimental modulations in the P2 or P3 ranges. Overall, our results show that, whilst automatic aspects of phonological processing appear intact in developmental dyslexia, the breakdown in pseudoword reading occurs at a later stage, when attention is oriented to orthographic-phonological information. PMID:22426204

Savill, Nicola J; Thierry, Guillaume

2012-03-15

278

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

279

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

280

Phonological Recoding in the Second Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A phonological priming task was conducted in order to determine the presence of second language phonological recoding. Eighteen\\u000a Koreans who had acquired English after a critical language learning period participated in the experiment. Compared with controls,\\u000a the phonological condition (e.g., TOWED -> toad) was more advantageous in processing the target in the priming task than the\\u000a orthographic condition (e.g., TOLD

Chang H. Lee; Kyungill Kim; HeuiSeok Lim

2010-01-01

281

The measures of e-commerce awareness in Thailand industries: survey and analysis perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the potential of e-commerce in Thailand by reviewing the awareness and readiness of the companies in the selected industry sectors. This study also identifies the enabling factors, the bottlenecks and, forecasts the future growth of electronic commerce in Thailand. 500 companies were selected from different industries, 146 out of 500 responded with usable answers. The response rate

K. D. Gunawardana; V. Avatchanakorn

2000-01-01

282

The Relation of Hazard Awareness to Adoption of Approved Mitigation Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between an individual's or community's awareness of natural hazards and subsequent behavior change is examined in this review of research. The document is presented in seven sections. Following Section I, the introduction, Section II discusses the role of experience in behavior change. Section III examines the role of education…

Saarinen, Thomas F.

283

The Relation of Hazard Awareness to Adoption of Approved Mitigation Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between an individual's or community's awareness of natural hazards and subsequent behavior change is examined in this review of research. The document is presented in seven sections. Following Section I, the introduction, Section II discusses the role of experience in behavior change. Section III examines the role of education…

Saarinen, Thomas F.

284

Phonological Awareness, Executive Functioning, and Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language plays a critical role in theory of mind (ToM) development, particularly the understanding of false beliefs (FB). Further, there is some evidence that the development of FB is important for metalinguistic development, such as the understanding of homonyms and synonyms. However, there is debate regarding the nature of this relationship.…

Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Ashwell, Sylvia

2012-01-01

285

Phonological Awareness and Reading: A Chicken and Egg Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The causal relationship between metaphonological skills (sound blending and segmentation) and reading/spelling was investigated in two studies of first graders. One tested causal models using data from a longitudinal study of 46 dyslexics and 44 control children. The other studied the effects of metaphonological training versus general language…

Torneus, Margit

1984-01-01

286

Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

2010-01-01

287

Characterizing the morphosyntactic processing deficit and its relationship to phonology in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

This study explores the morphosyntactic processing deficit in developmental dyslexia, addressing the on-going debate on the linguistic nature of the disorder, and directly testing the hypothesis that the deficit is based on underlying processing difficulties, such as acoustic and/or phonological impairments. Short German sentences consisting of a pronoun and a verb, either correct or containing a morphosyntactic violation, were auditorily presented to 17 German-speaking adults with dyslexia, and 17 matched control participants, while an EEG was recorded. In order to investigate the interaction between low-level phonological processing and morphosyntactic processing, the verbal inflections were manipulated to consist of different levels of acoustic salience. The event-related potential (ERP) results confirm altered morphosyntactic processing in participants with dyslexia, especially when morphosyntactic violations are expressed by both lexical and inflectional changes. Moreover, ERP data on phoneme discrimination and behavioural data on phonemic awareness and verbal short-term memory reveal phonological deficits in dyslexic participants. However, a causal relationship between phonological and morphosyntactic processing was not conclusive, because anomalous morphosyntactic processing in dyslexia is not directly mediated by acoustic salience, rather it correlates with high-level phonological skills and is mediated by lexical cues. PMID:23628368

Cantiani, Chiara; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Sabisch, Beate; Männel, Claudia

2013-04-27

288

Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

289

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact.

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

290

Assessing awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms: Measure development and results from a population survey in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the development of a Cancer Awareness Measure for colorectal (CRC) cancer (Bowel/Colorectal CAMa) (study 1) and presents key results from a population-representative survey using the measure (study 2). Methods Study 1 Items were taken from the literature and reviewed by expert groups. A series of three validation studies assessed reliability and validity of the measure. To establish test-retest reliability, 49 people over 50 years of age completed the Bowel/Colorectal CAM on two occasions (range 9-14 days, mean 13.5 days). Construct validity was assessed by comparing responses from bowel cancer experts (n = 16) and the lay public (n = 35). Lastly, a brief intervention study tested sensitivity to change with participants (n = 70) randomly allocated to be given a control leaflet or an intervention leaflet and their responses were compared. Study 2 1520 respondents completed the Bowel/Colorectal CAM in a population survey carried out by TNS-British Market Research Bureau International (TNS-BMRB) in March 2010. Results Study 1 Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84) was high. Test-retest reliability was over r = 0.7 for warning signs, risk factors and age people are first invited for screening, but lower (between 0.6 and 0.7) for other items (lifetime risk, awareness of bowel cancer screening, age at risk). Bowel cancer experts achieved higher scores than equally educated controls (54.7 [4.3] vs. 42.9 [5.7]; P < 0.001) demonstrating the measure has construct validity and intervention participants showed higher knowledge than controls (51.4 [5.9] vs. 42.9 [5.7]; P < 0.001) suggesting the measure is sensitive to change. Study 2 Respondents recalled on average, one CRC sign and one risk factor. There was particularly low prompted awareness of the signs 'lump in the abdomen' (64%) and 'tiredness' (50%) and several lifestyle risk factors for CRC, e.g. exercise (37%). Respondents from more affluent groups had consistently higher knowledge of signs and risk factors compared to those from more deprived groups. Conclusions The Bowel/Colorectal CAM meets accepted psychometric criteria for reliability and construct validity and should therefore provide a useful tool for assessment of CRC awareness. The population survey revealed low awareness of several CRC signs and risk factors and emphasises the importance of continuing public education, particularly about the link between lifestyle behaviours and CRC.

2011-01-01

291

Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

2009-01-01

292

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

293

Outstanding Questions about Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that developmental dyslexia results from some sort of phonological deficit. Yet, it can be argued that phonological representations and their processing have been insufficiently tested in dyslexia research. Firstly, claims about how tasks tap into certain kinds of representations or processes are best appreciated in the light of an explicit information-processing model. Here, a cognitive model

Franck Ramusn

294

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

295

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

296

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

297

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

298

Assessing the Phonological Skills of Bilingual Children from Preschool through Kindergarten: Developmental Progression and Cross-Language Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…

Lopez, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

299

Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…

Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

2011-01-01

300

The role of compound awareness in Chinese children’s vocabulary acquisition and character reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined compound awareness in relation to Chinese children's vocabulary acquisition and character reading. Two\\u000a aspects of compound awareness were investigated: the ability to identify the head of a compound noun and the ability to construct\\u000a a new compound word from familiar morphemes. The compound awareness tasks, along with rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological\\u000a awareness tasks, were administered

Xi Chen; Meiling Hao; Esther Geva; Jin Zhu; Hua Shu

2009-01-01

301

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit.

Bergmann, Jurgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

302

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum's heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum's language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C

2012-03-15

303

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

304

Down syndrome phonology: Developmental patterns and intervention strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes phonological development in children with Down syndrome paying particular attention to underlying defi cits and intervention strategies. The fi rst section provides an overview of factors believed to infl uence phonological development in this population. The second section describes four aspects of Down syndrome phonology: (1) the prelinguistic stage; (2) the transition to speech; (3) the phonology

Carol Stoel-Gammon

2001-01-01

305

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

306

Early Awareness Strategies and Their Measurement: Use of Hierarchical Loglinear Analysis To Assess the Effects of Michigan's Project Awareness on Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews and critiques empirical evidence concerning knowledge gaps and misconceptions among secondary school students, parents/guardians, and educators about postsecondary education and student financial assistance opportunities and prerequisites, in particular, how Michigan's middle school based Project Awareness may affect student…

Flores, Antonio

307

Phonological Coding in Prereaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine changes in phonetic coding two age groups of 40 preschoolers were shown rhyming and nonrhyming letter sets. Recall was measured by oral free recall (testing item memory) and serial reconstruction (testing order memory). A large phonetic similarity effect was present in both groups with no developmental changes in the effect magnitude.…

Lean, Debra S.; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

1984-01-01

308

A deficit in rime awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports 3 studies comparing thereading and phonological skills of childrenwith Down syndrome (DS) and younger normallydeveloping children of similar reading level.In Study 1, the two groups did not differ insight word or nonword reading, but the childrenwith DS did marginally less well on syllablesegmentation, rhyme and phoneme detectiontasks. Group differences in syllable andphoneme awareness appeared attributable todifferences in

Margaret J. Snowling; Charles Hulme; Robin C. Mercer

2002-01-01

309

Phonemes Matter: The Role of Phoneme-Level Awareness in Emergent Chinese Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of phonological awareness for learning to read may depend on the linguistic properties of a language. This study provides a careful examination of this language-specific theory by exploring the role of phoneme-level awareness in Mandarin Chinese, a language with an orthography that, at its surface, appears to require little…

Newman, Ellen Hamilton; Tardif, Twila; Huang, Jingyuan; Shu, Hua

2011-01-01

310

Common and Script-Specific Awareness in Relation to Word Recognition in English and Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of the script, in the process of learning to read words, readers develop awareness of the structural and functional properties of words with increased exposure to the script. However, as sub-word units that are critical for phonological or morphological processing or both are not uniform, the types of the awareness may vary from script…

Toyoda, Etsuko; Scrimgeour, Andrew

2009-01-01

311

Density, frequency and the expressive phonology of children with phonological delay*  

PubMed Central

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were taught using stimulus words that varied orthogonally in neighborhood density and word frequency as the independent variables. Generalization was the dependent variable, defined as production accuracy of treated and untreated (erred) sounds. Blocked comparisons showed that dense neighborhoods triggered greater generalization, but frequency did not have a clear differential effect. Orthogonal comparisons revealed graded effects, with frequent words from dense neighborhoods being optimal for generalization. The results contrast with prior literature, which has reported a sparse neighborhood advantage for children with phonological delay. There is a suggestion that children with phonological delay require greater than usual cue redundancy and convergence to prompt expressive phonological learning.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; MORRISETTE, MICHELE L.

2012-01-01

312

Grammatical and Phonological Influences on Word Order  

PubMed Central

During the grammatical encoding of spoken multiword utterances, various kinds of information must be used to determine the order of words. For example, whereas in adjective-noun utterances like “red car”, word order can be determined on the basis of the word's grammatical class information, in noun-noun utterances like “…by car, bus, or…”, word order cannot be determined on the basis of a word's grammatical class information. We investigated whether a word's phonological properties play a role in grammatical encoding. In four experiments participants produced multiword utterances in which the words' onset phonology was manipulated. Phonological-onset relatedness yielded inhibitory effects in noun-noun utterances, no effects in noun-adjective utterances, and facilitatory effects in adjective-noun, noun-verb, and adjective-adjective-noun utterances. These results cannot be explained by differences in the stimulus displays used to elicit the utterances and suggest that grammatical encoding is sensitive to the phonological properties of words.

Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso

2009-01-01

313

Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2001-01-01

314

Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)|

Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2001-01-01

315

Phonological priming in children's picture naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words (IWs) were presented over headphones. In terms of their relation to target pictures, IWs were either phonologically related, unrelated, neutral (the word go), or identical. Ninety children (30 aged 4;11 to 5;11,

PATRICIA J. BROOKS; BRIAN MACWHINNEY

2000-01-01

316

Early otitis media and phonological development at age 2 years.  

PubMed

The effect of early otitis media on phonology and articulation in the presence of expressive language delay was investigated in 16 2-year-olds followed prospectively from birth. Eight of the children were designated otitis-positive and 8 were considered otitis-negative as determined by bilateral pneumatic otoscopy outcomes during year 1 of life. The groups differed significantly on measures of expressive, not receptive, language development. All members of the otitis-positive group were expressive language delayed. Phonological analyses were completed on spoken language samples elicited from each child at age 24 months. Results showed similar developmental tendencies in speech sound acquisition between the groups, but the otitis-positive group had established significantly fewer initial consonant phones and produced them less accurately than the otitis-negative subject group. The otitis-positive group acquired significantly fewer consonants with back place of articulation. Similar phonological error patterns of deletion and phoneme class deficiency were used by the groups, but the otitis-positive group used the error patterns more frequently. Findings here lend support to the otitis media effect as one of interaction among risk factors. PMID:8656958

Abraham, S S; Wallace, I F; Gravel, J S

1996-06-01

317

The influence of phonological priming on variability in articulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research [Sevald and Dell, Cognition 53, 91-127 (1994)] has found that reiterant sequences of CVC words are produced more quickly when the prime word and target word share VC sequences (i.e., sequences like sit sick) than when they are identical (sequences like sick sick). Even slower production rates are found when primes and targets share a CV sequence (sequences like kick sick). These data have been used to support a model of speech production in which lexical items and their constituent phonemes are activated sequentially. The current experiment investigated whether phonological priming also influences variability in the acoustic characteristics of words. Specifically, we examined whether greater variability in the acoustic characteristics of target words was noted in the CV-related prime context than in the identical-prime context, and whether less variability was noted in the VC-related context. Thirty adult subjects with typical speech, language, and hearing ability produced reiterant two-word sequences that varied in their phonological similarity. The duration, first, and second formant frequencies of the target-words' vowels were measured. Preliminary analyses indicate that phonological priming does not have a systematic effect on variability in these acoustic parameters.

Babel, Molly E.; Munson, Benjamin

2001-05-01

318

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

319

Mental Health Professionals' Disability Competence: Measuring Self-Awareness, Perceived Knowledge, and Perceived Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe mental health professionals' self-reported competence when working with clients with disabilities. Study Design: Survey administered with a measure of social desirability. Participants and Setting: One hundred eight professionals in counseling offices, disability services offices, and doctoral counseling programs. Main Outcome Measure: Competence as self-reported on the Counseling Clients With Disabilities Survey (CCDS). Results: CCDS scores paralleled participants'

Diane L. Strike; Thomas M. Skovholt; Thomas J. Hummel

2004-01-01

320

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

321

GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

2011-12-01

322

Dissociating Stimulus-Driven Semantic and Phonological Effect During Reading and Naming  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., “ROBIN-nest”), phonologically related (e.g., “BELL-belt”), unrelated (e.g., “KITE-lobster”), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., “FRIDGE-fridge”). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J

2007-01-01

323

Approaches for processing spectral measurements of reflected sunlight for space situational awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of small, lightweight, 'micro-' and 'nanosatellite' (largest dimension < 1m ) has presented new challenges to the space surveillance community. The small size of these satellites makes them unresolvable by ground-based imaging systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface,

Marie-Astrid A. Cauquy; Michael C. Roggemann; Timothy J. Schulz

2004-01-01

324

Kindergarten literacy assessment of English Only and English language learner students: An examination of the predictive validity of three phonemic awareness measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined phoneme segmentation task (CPST), students' beginning of kindergarten scores were used to

Danielle L. Linklater; Rollanda E. O'Connor; Gregory J. Palardy

2009-01-01

325

Kindergarten Literacy Assessment of English Only and English Language Learner Students: An Examination of the Predictive Validity of Three Phonemic Awareness Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined…

Linklater, Danielle L.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Palardy, Gregory J.

2009-01-01

326

Working memory and phonological processing as predictors of children’s mathematical problem solving at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the contribution of working memory (WM) to mathematical problem solving in younger (8-year-old) and older\\u000a (11-year-old) children. The results showed that (1) significant agerelated differences in WM performance were maintained when\\u000a measures of phonological processing (i.e., digit naming speed, short-term memory, phonological deletion) were partialed from\\u000a the analysis; (2) WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independently

H. Lee Swanson

2004-01-01

327

Approaches for processing spectral measurements of reflected sunlight for space situational awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of small, lightweight, 'micro-' and 'nanosatellite' (largest dimension < 1m ) has presented new challenges to the space surveillance community. The small size of these satellites makes them unresolvable by ground-based imaging systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface, the reflected light contains information about the surface materials of the satellite. This approach of using NIM for satellite evaluation is relatively new. In this paper, we discuss the accuracy of using these spectral measurements to match an unknown spectrum to a database containing known spectra. Several approaches have been developed and are presented in this paper. The first method is an artificial neural network designed to process central moments of real measured spectra. This spectrum database is the Spica database provided by the Maui Surveillance Site (MSSS), Hawaii USA and consists in spectra from more than 100 different satellites. The average rate of correct identification is 84%. The second approach is based on the ability of spectral signal processing to estimate relative abundances of materials from the measurement of a single spectrum; this method is called spectral unmixing. Material spectra were provided by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to create synthetic spectra. An approach based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to estimate relative abundances and presence of materials in a synthetic spectrum. The results for material identification and abundance estimation are presented as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. For the EM method, the overall correct estimation rate is 95.1% and the average error on the fractional composition estimation is 19.7%.

Cauquy, Marie-Astrid A.; Roggemann, Michael C.; Schulz, Timothy J.

2004-08-01

328

The Role of Explicit Instruction and Instructional Design in Promoting Phonemic Awareness Development and Transfer From Spanish to English  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence of cross-language transfer in metalinguistic processes related to reading acquisition and development. In particular, phonological awareness is a requisite process that shares similarities across Spanish and English. Through explicit instruction and instructional design analyses, we propose principles to facilitate phonemic awareness development and transfer from Spanish to English for children at risk for early reading difficulties.

Sharolyn D. Pollard-Durodola; Deborah C. Simmons

2009-01-01

329

Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

Trevino, Andrea Carolina; Quatieri, Thomas Francis; Malyska, Nicolas

2011-12-01

330

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

331

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

332

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

333

Focusing on Phonology To Teach Morphological Form in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for the importance of phonological form in the second language (L2) classroom, proposing that a thorough grounding in L2 phonological patterns is essential for language learners. Suggests the importance of phonological information for the auditory detection of morphological form in French. (Author/VWL)

Arteaga, Deborah; Herschensohn, Julia; Gess, Randall

2003-01-01

334

Differential Effects of Phonological Priming on Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds phonological priming effects on compound targets (characters containing separate radical components); no evidence of phonological priming on integrated targets (those not containing separate radicals); semantic priming effects on both compound and integrated target recognition, suggesting that phonological and semantic activation are…

Weekes, B. S.; Chen, M. J.; Lin, Y-B.

1998-01-01

335

Predicting Reading Performance From Neuroimaging Profiles: The Cerebral Basis of Phonological Effects in Printed Word Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study linked 2 experimental paradigms for the analytic study of reading that heretofore have been used separately. Measures on a lexical decision task designed to isolate phonological effects in the identification of printed words were examined in young adults. The results were related to previously obtained measures of brain activation patterns for these participants derived from functional magnetic resonance

Kenneth R. Pugh; Bennett A. Shaywitz; Sally E. Shaywitz; Donald P. Shankweiler; Leonard Katz; Jack M. Fletcher; Pawel Skudlarski; Robert K. Fulbright; R. Todd Constable; Richard A. Bronen; Cheryl Lacadie; John C. Gore

1997-01-01

336

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

337

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

338

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

339

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

340

Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

2005-01-01

341

Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

2010-01-01

342

Literacy Ability and Phonological Processing Skills amongst Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Speakers of Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the relationship between phonological processing and reading ability amongst grade 4 and grade 5 Arabic speaking children in Egypt. In addition to measuring reading level, the study assessed the children's ability to identify rhymes, delete individual phonemes from words, retain and manipulate sequences of digit names and…

Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John

2007-01-01

343

Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

2010-01-01

344

Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

2012-01-01

345

The Structure and Nature of Phonological Neighbourhoods in Children's Early Lexicons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines phonological neighbourhoods in the lexicons of children acquiring English. Analyses of neighbourhood densities were done on children's earliest words and on a corpus of spontaneous speech, used to measure neighbours in the target language. Neighbourhood densities were analyzed for words created by changing segments in…

Zamuner, Tania S.

2009-01-01

346

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language.

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

347

How Abstract Is English Vowel Phonology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the high degree of abstractness in Chomsky's and Halle's analysis of English vowels is justified. Secondarily, two related topics are discussed: (1) limitations on the tongue-height features [+low] and [+high] and (2) the role of rule features in phonological rules. Numerous examples of a more…

Krohn, Robert

348

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

2012-01-01

349

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

350

Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings in the first part of a research project on Hong Kong English (HKE) phonology, including the underlying phonemic system of HKE speakers. Subjects were 15 undergraduates at Hong Kong Baptist University. Using spectrographic analysis, it was found that the typical HKE speaker operates with a considerably smaller set of vowel and…

Hung, Tony T. N.

2000-01-01

351

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

2012-01-01

352

Activation of phonological competitors in visual search.  

PubMed

Recently, Meyer, Belke, Telling and Humphreys (2007) reported that competitor objects with homophonous names (e.g., boy) interfere with identifying a target object (e.g., buoy) in a visual search task, suggesting that an object name's phonology becomes automatically activated even in situations in which participants do not have the intention to speak. The present study explored the generality of this finding by testing a different phonological relation (rhyming object names, e.g., cat-hat) and by varying details of the experimental procedure. Experiment 1 followed the procedure by Meyer et al. Participants were familiarized with target and competitor objects and their names at the beginning of the experiment and the picture of the target object was presented prior to the search display on each trial. In Experiment 2, the picture of the target object presented prior to the search display was replaced by its name. In Experiment 3, participants were not familiarized with target and competitor objects and their names at the beginning of the experiment. A small interference effect from phonologically related competitors was obtained in Experiments 1 and 2 but not in Experiment 3, suggesting that the way the relevant objects are introduced to participants affects the chances of observing an effect from phonologically related competitors. Implications for the information flow in the conceptual-lexical system are discussed. PMID:23584102

Görges, Frauke; Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Schriefers, Herbert

2013-04-10

353

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

354

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

355

Phonological Networks and New Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet

2006-01-01

356

Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with…

Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

2011-01-01

357

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

358

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

359

A Phonological Model of French Intonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

French and in the degree of abstractness in the tonal representation, which isdue to the conceptual differences linked to the application of the model: the focus is either on acoustic,representation of models,relevant for speech synthesis and recognition, or on abstract representation for phonological description, or on both levels. Inthis paper, we propose a development of our previous model (Jun &

SUN-AH JUN; CÉCILE FOUGERON

2000-01-01

360

Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

Meskhi, Anna

361

Phonological Networks and New Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet

2006-01-01

362

A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians…

Yumitani, Yukihiro

363

Phonological Difficulties in High-Functioning Dyslexics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses some phonological tasks of well compensated, high-functioning dyslexics, aged 18, whose reading ability had improved to within one standard deviation of the normal population. Compares them with matched controls. Finds they performed well on word recognition tests but worse on nonword reading and spelling, and worse (in terms of speed) on…

Gallagher, A. M.; And Others

1996-01-01

364

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

365

Wildfire Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)|

Wallace, Glenda

2002-01-01

366

Phonemic Awareness in Hyperlexic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that children with hyperlexia who learn to read spontaneously before age five are impaired in reading and listening comprehension but have word recognition skills well above their measured cognitive and linguistic abilities. Administers phonemic awareness measures to three early readers. Finds that all three children's phonemic awareness

Sparks, Richard L.

1995-01-01

367

Can individuals with Down syndrome acquire alphabetic literacy skills in the absence of phoneme awareness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigating the relationship betweenphoneme awareness and word reading ability in Downsyndrome (DS) are reported. The first study included33 Brazilian individuals with DS (mean age = 23years). They all had begun to read and all showedclear signs of phonological recoding skills. Thirty-three normal children (mean age = 7 years),matched with the individuals with DS for readingability, participated as controls.

Cláudia Cardoso-Martins; Uta Frith

2001-01-01

368

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

369

Avalanche Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide on avalanche awareness and safety discusses the anatomy of an avalanche (starting zone, track, and runout zone), avalanche factors and conditions, determining if the snowpack is safe (using snowpits and shear tests), when and where avalanches happen, the typical victims, tips for survival, an avalanche danger scale, and a list of avalanche quick checks. Avalanche conditions discussed include weather, snowfall, temperature and wind direction, snowpack, slope angle, slope orientation, terrain, and vegetation.

Cheshire, Laura

370

Current Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled monthly by the Education Information Center of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction in association with The Landmark Project, Current Awareness is a bibliographic database of the most recent literature on issues related to education and technology. Garnered from an extensive journal collection, the citations in the database are indexed into more than 200 topic areas. Educators may browse the database by topic or conduct keyword searches on topic or title. Queries yield brief citations in a tabular format.

371

Urban Special Education Teachers' Perception of African American Students as Measured by the Cultural Awareness Beliefs Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the perceptions of special education teachers and the eight factors (Teacher Beliefs, School climate, Culturally responsive Classroom Management, Home and Community Support, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum and Instruction, Cultural Sensitivity and Teacher…

Jackson, Dianna Dale

2010-01-01

372

User perceived codec and duplex aware playout algorithms and LMOS-DMOS measurement for real time streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the network devices for real time streaming, e.g. VoIP phone, video phone and online game, the playout algorithm controls the playout delay to eliminate the jitter and to minimize the overflow packet loss. Conventional algorithms did this based on network delay only; they did not consider the user perceived quality, and aware the codec and communication duplex mode. Therefore,

Kuo-Kun Tseng; Ying-Dar Lin

2003-01-01

373

Kindergarten teachers develop phoneme awareness in low-income, inner-city classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that training in phoneme awareness has a positive impact on beginning reading and spelling. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction in phonological awareness provided in low-income, inner-city kindergarten classrooms by kindergarten teachers and their teaching assistants. Prior to the intervention, the 84 treatment children and 75 control children, who attended inner-city

B. A. Blachman; E. W. Ball; R. S. Black; D. M. Tangel

1994-01-01

374

Promoting Awareness of Sounds in Speech: An Initial Report of an Early Intervention Program for Children with Speech and Language Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Demonstrates the efficacy of the rhyming portion of the Promoting Awareness Sounds in Speech (PASS) program, a comprehensive and explicit phonological awareness intervention curriculum that was designed specifically for preschool children with speech and language impairments. A single-subject research design was used to examine treatment effects…

Roth, Froma P.; Troia, Gary A.; Worthington, Colleen K.; Dow, Kathy Ayala

2002-01-01

375

A preliminary assessment of asbestos awareness and control measures in brake and clutch repair services in Knoxville and Knox County, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The pending OSHA standard revision proposed in 1990 to lower the asbestos Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and to mandate effective asbestos control measures (ACM) in brake and clutch assembly work may have a profound effect on industries involved in such operations. Health protection of workers will be improved and costs of improved control methods and training will increase. Considering these facts, this preliminary study was designed to assess the level of worker and management awareness of asbestos hazards associated with brake and clutch repair and to determine what ACM had been implemented by businesses in Knoxville and Knox County, Tennessee. The study, in a metropolitan area of approximately 336,000 people, revealed eight different categories of businesses conducting brake and clutch repair work with an estimated 363 potentially exposed employees. Results of the study suggest that managers and employees of the 80 businesses studied were in need of asbestos hazard awareness training and more adequate asbestos control measures.

Phillips, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hamilton, C.B.

1994-04-01

376

Variability of fMRI activation during a phonological and semantic language task in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Assessing inter-individual variability of functional activations is of practical importance in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a clinical context. In this fMRI study we addressed this issue in 30 right-handed, healthy subjects using rhyme detection (phonologic) and semantic categorization tasks. Significant activations, found mainly in the left hemisphere, concerned the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior/middle temporal gyri, the prefrontal cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, the superior parietal lobule/superior occipital gyrus, the pre-central gyrus, and the supplementary motor area. Intensity/spatial analysis comparing activations in both tasks revealed an increased involvement of frontal regions in the semantic task and of temporo-parietal regions in the phonologic task. The frequency of activation analyzed in nine regional subdivisions revealed a high inter-subject variability but showed that the most frequently activated regions were the inferior frontal gyrus and the prefrontal cortex. Laterality indices, strongly lateralizing in both tasks, were slightly higher in the semantic (0.76 +/- 0.19) than the phonologic task (0.66 +/- 0.27). Frontal dominance indices (a measure of frontal vs. posterior left hemisphere dominance) indicated more robust frontal activations in the semantic than the phonologic task. Our study allowed the characterization of the most frequently involved foci in two language tasks and showed that the combination of these tasks constitutes a suitable tool for determining language lateralization and for mapping major language areas. PMID:15449358

Seghier, Mohamed L; Lazeyras, François; Pegna, Alan J; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Zimine, Ivan; Mayer, Eugène; Michel, Christoph M; Khateb, Asaid

2004-11-01

377

Early phonological development: creating an assessment test.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills (PEEPS), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation ) differs from currently available assessments in that age of acquisition, based on lexical norms from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories, served as the primary criterion for creating a word list. Phonetic and semantic properties of the words were also considered in selecting items for the test. Productions of words using the PEEPS protocol have been gathered from a group of children with typical development and another group with cleft lip and/or palate. By 24 months of age, the children with typical development produced more than 90% of the target words and the children with atypical development produced 73% of the words. Regarding administration, the time needed for administering the protocol decreased with age. PMID:23489340

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A Lynn

2013-04-01

378

Qualifying Situation Awareness in Janus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed a measure of the theoretical increase in situation awareness of a tactical commander as a result of receiving data from reconnaissance, scouting and intelligence activities. We intend the measure, called information gain (IG), be used as...

E. T. Sherrill P. West M. J. Johnson D. R. Barr

1998-01-01

379

Phonology in the bilingual Stroop effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a bilingual Stroop task, we examined between-language interference among proficient Japanese— English bilingual speakers.\\u000a Participants named ink colors either in Japanese or in English. The Japanese color terms were either phonologically similar\\u000a to (i.e., loan words) or dissimilar from (i.e., traditional color terms) English color terms. For both response languages,\\u000a a significant between-language Stroop effect was found despite the

Hiromi Sumiya; Alice F. Healy

2004-01-01

380

Assessing Metacognitive Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 52-item inventory was constructed to measure the metacognitive awareness of adults. Items were classified into eight subcomponents under categories of knowledge and regulation of cognition. Two experiments with 307 undergraduates support a 2-factor structure. Implications for assessment are discussed. (SLD)

Schraw, Gregory; Dennison, Rayne Sperling

1994-01-01

381

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

PubMed

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

382

Predictors of phonological change following intervention.  

PubMed

To date, predictor variables strongly associated with phonological change as a result of intervention have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to determine the best predictor or combination of predictors of change in percentage of consonants correct (PCC; L. D. Shriberg and J. Kwiatkowski, 1982) as a result of speech-language intervention for a group of 20 participants and to replicate this procedure with a second group of 20. Participants were preschool children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 5;11, with impairments in phonology and morphosyntax who received intervention focused on both phonology and morphosyntax in different goal attack configurations. The relationship of predictor variables chronological age, inventory size, error consistency, and expressive language to the criterion variable, change in PCC, was investigated. In both the initial study and the replication, the mean change in PCC following a 24-week intervention period was 13.1%. In the initial study, error consistency and a finite morpheme composite (FMC; L. M. Bedore and L. B. Leonard, 1998) accounted for 52% of the variance for the criterion variable. Error consistency at the first step in the regression accounted for 31.6% of the variance. In the replication, error consistency was the only variable related to PCC change, again accounting for 31% of the variance. Further research examining overall error consistency is warranted. PMID:12971818

Tyler, Ann A; Lewis, Kerry E; Welch, Carissa M

2003-08-01

383

Gender Awareness Inventory-VA: A Measure of Ideology, Sensitivity, and Knowledge Related to Women Veterans' Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Veterans Health Administration, it has become increasingly important to assess health-care workers' attitudes toward and beliefs about female patients, sensitivity to the unique needs of female patients, and knowledge about women veterans and the programs and services available to them. The current study describes the development of the Gender Awareness Inventory-VA, an instrument that assesses 3 components: gender-role

Dawn M. Salgado; Dawne S. Vogt; Lynda A. King; Daniel W. King

2002-01-01

384

Awareness During Anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Summary Awareness is the postoperative recall of sensory perception during general anaesthesia. The incidence is quoted at 1-2 per every 1000 patients. This rare but serious adverse event can be extremely distressing for both the patient as well as the anaesthesiologist. Awareness during anaesthesia may occur despite apparently sound anaesthetic management and is usually not associated with pain. However, a few cases may experience excruciating pain and have long term neuropsychiatric sequelae like post-traumatic stress disorder. This adverse event can also have serious medicolegal implications. This article addresses the various contributory factors that may predispose to intra-operative awareness. Preventive measures in the preinduction period as well as intraoperatively are discussed, including the use of depth of anaesthesia monitors. Remedial steps to be taken when such an event occurs are also discussed.

Sandhu, K; Dash, HH

2009-01-01

385

Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two

Sahib S. Khalsa; David Rudrauf; Antonio R. Damasio; Richard J. Davidson; Antoine Lutz; Daniel Tranel

2008-01-01

386

Developmental changes in activation and effective connectivity in phonological processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined developmental changes in activation and effective connectivity among brain regions during a phonological processing task, using fMRI. Participants, ages 9–15, were scanned while performing rhyming judgments on pairs of visually presented words. The orthographic and phonological similarity between words in the pair was independently manipulated, so that rhyming judgment could not be based on orthographic similarity.

Tali Bitan; Jimmy Cheon; Dong Lu; Douglas D. Burman; Darren R. Gitelman; M-Marsel Mesulam; James R. Booth

2007-01-01

387

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

388

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production

Marc Ettlinger; Jennifer Zapf

2011-01-01

389

Auditory Cortex Accesses Phonological Categories: An MEG Mismatch Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented here use an adapted oddball paradigm to show evidence that representations of discrete phonological categories are available to the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was recorded using a 37-channel biomagnetometer while eight subjects listened passively to synthetic speech sounds. In the phonological condition, which contrasted stimuli from an acoustic \\/dæ\\/-\\/tæ\\/ continuum, a magnetic mismatch field (MMF) was

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy; Alec Marantz; Elron Yellin; Kenneth Wexler; David Poeppel; Martha McGinnis; Timothy Roberts

2000-01-01

390

Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words…

Halderman, Laura K.

2011-01-01

391

Language Intelligibility as a Constraint on Phonological Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Languages Change all the time. But communication across living generations does not break down. On-going phonological changes in Chinese dialects were examined. The highest number of changes involved only six types. Moreover, in terms of phonology the maximal loss of mutual intelligibility index across living generations in about 100 years was 0.08. As an exercise of the predictive power of

Chin-Chuan Cheng

392

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

393

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

394

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

395

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

396

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

397

Frenchville French: A case study in phonological attrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the phonetic and phonological properties of a contracting variety of French spoken in Frenchville, PA, a linguistic enclave community. Specifically, we analyze a pattern of convergence versus preservation that cannot be convincingly explained or understood given current proposals of the process of phonological convergence and attrition in a bilingual contact situation. We demonstrate that our speakers preserve

Barbara E. Bullock; Chip Gerfen

2004-01-01

398

Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri  

PubMed Central

Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J.; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R.

2010-01-01

399

Phonological Neighbors Influence Word Naming through the Least Supported Phoneme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has shown that phonological neighborhood density facilitates naming latencies. In an attempt to extend this work, the authors evaluated the effect of phonological neighborhood distribution by comparing responding to words that consisted of 3 phonemes but differed in the number of phoneme positions that could be changed to form a…

Yates, Mark; Friend, John; Ploetz, Danielle M.

2008-01-01

400

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

401

Mixed-list phonological similarity effects in delayed serial recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 838–849.]. Two explanations have been offered for this effect: an encoding explanation, in

Simon Farrell

2006-01-01

402

Phonological Development in Lexically Precocious 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine interactions between young children's vocabulary size and their phonological abilities, spontaneous language samples were collected from 24-month-olds with precocious lexicons, their age mates (24-month-olds with average-sized lexicons), and their vocabulary mates (30-month-olds with average-sized lexicons). Phonological ability was…

Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.; Demille, Darcie

2006-01-01

403

Contribution of Phonological and Broader Language Skills to Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent models of reading ability propose that both phonological and broader language skills are important for the development of literacy. Whilst there are numerous studies that consider the role of phonological skills in literacy, fewer studies have considered the role of broader language skills and reading proficiency. Aims: To…

Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2008-01-01

404

Stress and Syllable Structure in English: Approaches to Phonological Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is phonological variation? We use phonological variation to refer to alternative forms that can be used for more or less similar purposes. For example, in English a word made of CVCVCV can have stress on the first syllable, as in Canada, or on the second syllable, as in banana. There is no reason why the stress pattern could not

San Duanmu; Hyo-Young Kim; Nathan Stiennon

405

Phonological and semantic priming: evidence for task-independent effects.  

PubMed

The questions asked in the present experiments concern the generality of semantic and phonological priming effects: Do these effects arise automatically regardless of target task, or are these effects restricted to target tasks that specifically require the retrieval of the primed information? In Experiment 1, subjects produced faster color matching times on targets preceded by a masked rhyming prime than on targets preceded by an orthographic control or an unrelated prime. This result suggests that automatic priming effects on the basis of phonological similarity can be obtained even when the target task does not make use of phonological information. This claim was reinforced in Experiment 2 in which a rhyme priming effect and a semantic priming effect were found in a semantic categorization task. In Experiment 3, the target task was phonological (rhyme detection), and, again, both phonological and semantic priming effects were observed. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, in a replication and an extension of Experiment 1, phonological and semantic priming effects were found in a color matching task, a task involving neither phonological nor semantic processing. These results are most straightforwardly interpreted by assuming that both semantic and phonological priming effects are, at least in part, due to automatic activation of memorial representations. PMID:10355233

Rouibah, A; Tiberghien, G; Lupker, S J

1999-05-01

406

The Emerging Phonological System of an Autistic Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case report provides a phonological investigation of the speech of an eight-year-old autistic boy. Speech was elicited using delayed imitation, object naming, and a connected speech sample. The subject's use of phonological processes resulted in extensive homonymy which contributed to severely reduced intelligibility. Both typical and unusual…

Wolk, Lesley; Edwards, Mary Louise

1993-01-01

407

Phonological Processing Skills of Adolescents with Residual Speech Sound Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research has shown that young children with speech sound disorders may have weaknesses in phonological processing. However, such skills have not been thoroughly examined in adolescents with residual speech sound errors. Therefore, this study compared the phonological processing abilities of adolescents with residual speech sound errors to…

Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise

2007-01-01

408

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

409

Recovery from OME-related phonologic delay following tube placement.  

PubMed

Subjects with documented histories of frequent or persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) who were judged to be below age level phonologically prior to placement of pressure equalization (PE) tubes were reassessed at 4-month intervals. Group A (n = 22) subjects caught up with their peers by the age of 4 years; Group B (n = 14) subjects' progress was delayed and phonologic intervention was advised. At initial testing the two groups were found to differ significantly in scores on postvocalic singleton obstruent omission, velar deviation, and stridency deletion. Elapsed time between initial diagnosis of OME and beginning of the first remission of 6 months or more also differed significantly, as did scores on the first phonologic reassessment. Subject scores on initial phonologic adequacy, retest adequacy, and elapsed time from diagnosis to remission appropriately classified all but 2 subjects by group. A formula is provided that appears to make early prediction of eventual need for phonologic intervention a practical possibility. PMID:2915531

Paden, E P; Matthies, M L; Novak, M A

1989-02-01

410

Bidirectional Relations of Phonological Sensitivity and Prereading Abilities: Evidence from a Preschool Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's phonological sensitivity is a strong predictor of the development of reading skills. Recent evidence indicates that phonological sensitivity and reading are reciprocally related. That is, phonological sensitivity facilitates the development of early reading and early reading facilitates the development of phonological sensitivity. Whereas evidence for this reciprocal relation has come from studies with school-age children, this study examined the

Stephen R. Burgess; Christopher J. Lonigan

1998-01-01

411

The early phonological development of a Farsi-English bilingual child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of whether bilingual children begin phonological acquisition with one phonological system or two. Five hypotheses are suggested for the possible structure of the bilingual child's phonological system. Analyses of data from a longitudinal study of a Farsi-English bilingual infant, Arsham, supported the hypothesis that the child had acquired two separate phonologies with mutual influence; that

Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz; David Ingram

2002-01-01

412

EEG brain mapping of phonological and semantic tasks in Italian and German languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Event-related potential correlates of phonological encoding – as compared with lexical access and semantic categorization – were measured in two studies involving two groups of 14 German and 14 Italian subjects.Methods: A two stimulus reaction time paradigm was used. Stimulus pairs presented one-by-one with 2 s inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) had to be matched with respect to lexical identity (word-picture)

Alessandro Angrilli; Christian Dobel; Brigitte Rockstroh; Luciano Stegagno; Thomas Elbert

2000-01-01

413

Fine-tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First to Second-language Zooming In  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained GermanEnglish homograph primes (gift = German poison) in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of English (L2). Both reaction times and event-related brain potentials were measured on

Kerrie E. Elston-güttler; Thomas C. Gunter

2009-01-01

414

Some Problems of American Students in Mastering Persian Phonology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adult learning to speak a foreign language normally retains an "accent" which may affect the intelligibility of certain sounds, but more often simply conveys the fact that the speaker is a non-native speaker. Various scholars have experimented and discussed the elements involved in a foreign accent. However, in Iran very few researchers have attempted to verify scientifically what are the phonetic and phonological aspects of an "accent." This author tried to determine whether or not a selected group of words, emphasizing stop voicing, produced by native speakers of Persian had significant phonetic and phonemic differences from those achieved by the American students. Subjects for the experiments were three groups of students, one Iranian, two American. A contrastive analysis of the Persian and the English stop consonants was made. An identical measurement test for all three groups was administered. Utilized was a Kay Sona-graph for acoustic analysis, and all spoken data from the Iranian group were compared with those of the American groups. An examination of acoustic correlates of Tehran stops produced by American students shows that the phonetically different but similar feature of /voice/ found in Tehran, Persian and English stops is intuitive to the Americans, and that the language learner cannot readily disassociate a phonological feature from habits of articulation. The results of this research support using the phonetic method for adult learners who want to improve their pronunciation ability. Further research and experimentation is necessary on the effect of the suprasegmental elements on a foreign accent and the most effective teaching materials and methods and to explore other possible techniques in the teaching process.

Ghadessy, Esmael

1988-12-01

415

First Graders Receive Instruction in Homonym Detection and Meaning Articulation: The Effect of Explicit Metalinguistic Awareness Practice on Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experiment examined whether beginning readers can successfully learn to detect and define homonyms, and whether this ability correlates with vocabulary and/or phonological awareness. First graders received ambiguity instruction involving homonyms in isolation, in riddles, and in text. A control group received reading lessons without a…

Zipke, Marcy

2011-01-01

416

The Role of Explicit Instruction and Instructional Design in Promoting Phonemic Awareness Development and Transfer from Spanish to English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is growing evidence of cross-language transfer in metalinguistic processes related to reading acquisition and development. In particular, phonological awareness is a requisite process that shares similarities across Spanish and English. Through explicit instruction and instructional design analyses, we propose principles to facilitate…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Simmons, Deborah C.

2009-01-01

417

Linked control of syllable sequence and phonology in birdsong  

PubMed Central

The control of sequenced behaviors, including human speech, requires that the brain coordinate the production of discrete motor elements with their concatenation into complex patterns. In birdsong, another sequential vocal behavior, the acoustic structure (phonology) of individual song elements, or “syllables,” must be coordinated with the sequencing of syllables into a song. However, it is unknown whether syllable phonology is independent of the sequence in which a syllable is produced. We quantified interactions between phonology and sequence in Bengalese finch song by examining both convergent syllables, which can be preceded by at least two different syllables and divergent syllables, which can be followed by at least two different syllables. Phonology differed significantly based on the identity of the preceding syllable for 97% of convergent syllables and differed significantly with the identity of the upcoming syllable for 92% of divergent syllables. Furthermore, sequence-dependent phonological differences extended at least two syllables away from the convergent or divergent syllable. To determine whether these phenomena reflect differences in central control, we analyzed premotor neural activity in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). Activity associated with a syllable varied significantly depending on the sequence in which the syllable was produced, suggesting that sequence-dependent variations in premotor activity contribute to sequence-dependent differences in phonology. Moreover, these data indicate that RA activity could contribute to the sequencing of syllables. Together, these results suggest that rather than being controlled independently, the sequence and phonology of birdsong are intimately related, as is the case for human speech.

Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Sober, Samuel J.; Brainard, Michael S.

2010-01-01

418

Phonology is fundamental in skilled reading: evidence from ERPs.  

PubMed

Research consistently indicates the importance of phonological processing in early reading development, yet the role of phonology in skilled reading is still not well understood. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments investigated the nature and time course of phonological processing during skilled visual word recognition using a masked priming paradigm. Phonological syllable priming was examined by presenting prime-target pairs either with the same first syllable, or with one letter more or fewer. In this visually matched design, items like po## -PONY and pon### -PONDER appeared in the congruent condition. Conversely, pon# -PONY and po#### -PONDER appeared in the incongruent condition. In both experiments, the magnitude of the first negative peak (N1) was reduced in the phonologically congruent condition as compared to the incongruent condition. This syllable congruency effect is the first neurophysiological evidence for phonological syllable activation in the initial moments of visual word recognition. The early time course of this activation indicates that suprasegmental phonological processing is fundamental to skilled reading. PMID:20081167

Ashby, Jane

2010-02-01

419

Dyslexia impairs speech recognition but can spare phonological competence.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M

2012-09-19

420

Task Effects in the Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison of Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic Processing of Chinese Characters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The left mid-fusiform gyrus is repeatedly reported to be involved in visual word processing. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether this area responds to orthographic processing of reading. To examine this idea, neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the present study while subjects performed phonological,…

Guo, Yi; Burgund, E. Darcy

2010-01-01

421

Task Effects in the Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison of Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic Processing of Chinese Characters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The left mid-fusiform gyrus is repeatedly reported to be involved in visual word processing. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether this area responds to orthographic processing of reading. To examine this idea, neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the present study while subjects performed phonological,…

Guo, Yi; Burgund, E. Darcy

2010-01-01

422

Phonological recoding, rapid automatized naming, and orthographic knowledge.  

PubMed

Phonological recoding, orthographic knowledge, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are three major contributors to word identification. However, the interrelations between these components remain somewhat unclear. The current analyses focus on how phonological recoding and alphanumeric versus non-alphanumeric RAN contribute to different components of orthographic knowledge (word specific vs. general). Results indicate that alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric RAN contribute to orthographic knowledge components differently. Alphanumeric RAN relates more to word-specific orthographic knowledge, whereas non-alphanumeric RAN relates more to general orthographic knowledge. Furthermore, phonological recoding is more closely related to word-specific orthographic knowledge than to general orthographic knowledge. PMID:23827643

Loveall, Susan J; Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances A

2013-07-01

423

The reality of phonological forms: a reply to Port  

PubMed Central

I suggest four grounds on which an argument can be made that phonological language forms are not merely emergent properties of the public language use of members of a language community. They are: 1) the existence of spontaneous errors of speech production in which whole consonants or vowels misorder or are replaced; 2) the necessary existence of language “particles” used by individual language users in order for words to be able to be coined; 3) the remarkable effectiveness of alphabetic writing systems and the tight coupling among skilled readers of orthographic and phonological language forms; 4) the finding that, by late infancy, children have discovered phonological constancies despite phonetic variation.

Fowler, Carol A.

2009-01-01

424

Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access II. Infant data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds

Ariel Gout; Anne Christophe; James L. Morgan

2004-01-01

425

Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

2000-01-01

426

Spanish complex onsets and the phonetics-phonology interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes cross-dialectal phonetic variation in Spanish complex onsets in light of recent work on the phonetics-phonology interface. Two basic patterns of obstruent-rhotic cluster realization, vowel intrusion and coarticulation-in - duced rhotic assibilation, receive a phonetically-motivated explanation in terms of the temporal coordination of consonantal gestures, within the framework of Articulatory Phonology (Browman and Goldstein 1989, 1990, 1991, et

Travis G. Bradley

427

Cortical Dynamics of Acoustic and Phonological Processing in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

In speech perception, a functional hierarchy has been proposed by recent functional neuroimaging studies: Core auditory areas on the dorsal plane of superior temporal gyrus (STG) are sensitive to basic acoustic characteristics, whereas downstream regions, specifically the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) ventral to Heschl's gyrus (HG) are responsive to abstract phonological features. What is unclear so far is the relationship between the dorsal and ventral processes, especially with regard to whether low-level acoustic processing is modulated by high-level phonological processing. To address the issue, we assessed sensitivity of core auditory and downstream regions to acoustic and phonological variations by using within- and across-category lexical tonal continua with equal physical intervals. We found that relative to within-category variation, across-category variation elicited stronger activation in the left middle MTG (mMTG), apparently reflecting the abstract phonological representations. At the same time, activation in the core auditory region decreased, resulting from the top-down influences of phonological processing. These results support a hierarchical organization of the ventral acoustic-phonological processing stream, which originates in the right HG/STG and projects to the left mMTG. Furthermore, our study provides direct evidence that low-level acoustic analysis is modulated by high-level phonological representations, revealing the cortical dynamics of acoustic and phonological processing in speech perception. Our findings confirm the existence of reciprocal progression projections in the auditory pathways and the roles of both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms in speech perception.

Xu, Guoqing; Shu, Hua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Ping

2011-01-01

428

Phonological decoding or direct access? Regularity effects in lexical decisions of Grade 3 and 4 children.  

PubMed

Learning to read fluently involves moving from an effortful phonological decoding strategy to automatic recognition of familiar words. However, little is known about the timing of this transition, or the extent to which children continue to be influenced by phonological factors when recognizing words even as they progress in reading. We explored this question by examining regularity effects in a lexical decision task, as opposed to the more traditionally used reading-aloud task. Children in Grades 3 and 4 made go/no-go lexical decisions on high- and low-frequency regular and irregular words that had been matched for consistency. The children showed regularity effects in their accuracy for low-frequency words, indicating that they were using phonological decoding strategies to recognize unfamiliar words. The size of this effect was correlated with measures of reading ability. However, we found no regularity effects on accuracy for high-frequency words or on response times for either word type, suggesting that even 8-year-old children are already relying predominantly on a direct lexical strategy in their silent reading of familiar words. PMID:22905801

Schmalz, Xenia; Marinus, Eva; Castles, Anne

2012-08-21

429

Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2001-05-01

430

Indices of impaired self-awareness in traumatic brain injury patients with focal frontal lesions and executive deficits: implications for outcome measurement.  

PubMed

In patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), impairments of self-awareness are frequently found and associated with worse functional outcome and poor compliance with rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether indications of impaired self-awareness could be found in TBI patients with frontal lesions and executive function deficits. Twenty-two TBI patients with focal frontal injuries were compared to 29 TBI patients without focal frontal injuries visible on neuroimaging. No differences were found on several outcome measures, including the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), the Differential Outcome Scale (DOS), and return to work (RTW), although the frontal injury patients were more severely injured as indicated by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and had impaired performance on a neuropsychological test of executive functioning. Even more so, the frontal injury group had a significantly lower score on the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), indicating that they had fewer complaints than the patients without frontal injury, and scored significantly higher on the percentage of recovery (PoR) score, which expresses the extent of recovery as a percentage of their previous level of functioning. In contrast to the non-frontal-injury group, their PoR scores were not related to RTW, reflecting an erroneous perception of their actual working status. The positive results on these different outcome measures, which are partly or entirely self-reported, were seen as an indication of an impaired self-evaluative ability in the frontal injury patients. To determine outcome in a patient with frontal injuries and executive dysfunction, the judgment of several relevant other persons in the patient's life (e.g., partners, therapists, and employers) of the patient's daily life functioning should be sought. PMID:20380551

Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje

2010-07-01

431

Linked control of syllable sequence and phonology in birdsong.  

PubMed

The control of sequenced behaviors, including human speech, requires that the brain coordinate the production of discrete motor elements with their concatenation into complex patterns. In birdsong, another sequential vocal behavior, the acoustic structure (phonology) of individual song elements, or "syllables," must be coordinated with the sequencing of syllables into a song. However, it is unknown whether syllable phonology is independent of the sequence in which a syllable is produced. We quantified interactions between phonology and sequence in Bengalese finch song by examining both convergent syllables, which can be preceded by at least two different syllables and divergent syllables, which can be followed by at least two different syllables. Phonology differed significantly based on the identity of the preceding syllable for 97% of convergent syllables and differed significantly with the identity of the upcoming syllable for 92% of divergent syllables. Furthermore, sequence-dependent phonological differences extended at least two syllables away from the convergent or divergent syllable. To determine whether these phenomena reflect differences in central control, we analyzed premotor neural activity in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). Activity associated with a syllable varied significantly depending on the sequence in which the syllable was produced, suggesting that sequence-dependent variations in premotor activity contribute to sequence-dependent differences in phonology. Moreover, these data indicate that RA activity could contribute to the sequencing of syllables. Together, these results suggest that, rather than being controlled independently, the sequence and phonology of birdsong are intimately related, as is the case for human speech. PMID:20881112

Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Sober, Samuel J; Brainard, Michael S

2010-09-29

432

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40?ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200?ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120?ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100?ms, indicates that phonological processing initiates early and is sustained over time. These findings are consistent with accounts of visual word recognition that posit parallel activation of orthographic, phonological, and semantic information that interact over time to settle into a distributed, but stable, representation of a word.

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

433

Phonological Sensitivity: A Quasi-Parallel Progression of Word Structure Units and Cognitive Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the order of acquisition of phonological sensitivity skills among preschool and kindergarten children. Supports a developmental conceptualization of phonological sensitivity. Discusses findings in relation to their implications for improving assessment, early literacy instruction, and prevention of reading difficulties. (SG)

Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Driscoll, Kimberly; Phillips, Beth M.; Burgess, Stephen R.

2003-01-01

434

Phonological Sensitivity: A Quasi-Parallel Progression of Word Structure Units and Cognitive Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the order of acquisition of phonological sensitivity skills among preschool and kindergarten children. Supports a developmental conceptualization of phonological sensitivity. Discusses findings in relation to their implications for improving assessment, early literacy instruction, and prevention of reading difficulties. (SG)|

Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Driscoll, Kimberly; Phillips, Beth M.; Burgess, Stephen R.

2003-01-01

435

Phonological abstraction without phonemes in speech perception.  

PubMed

Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. Dutch listeners were exposed to a Dutch speaker producing ambiguous phones between the Dutch syllable-final allophones approximant [r] and dark [l]. These ambiguous phones replaced either final /r/ or final /l/ in words in a lexical-decision task. This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. This effect was not found for test stimuli on continua using other allophones of /r/ and /l/. These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. They also show that context-sensitive allophones can play a role in this process, and hence that context-insensitive phonemes are not necessary. We suggest there may be no one unit of perception. PMID:23973464

Mitterer, Holger; Scharenborg, Odette; McQueen, James M

2013-08-24

436

Brain potentials in a phonological matching task using Chinese characters.  

PubMed

In readers of English, involved in a rhyme judgement task, mismatch trials are associated with an enhanced N450 component of the Event Related Potentials (ERPs). It has been suggested that N450 is related to orthographic or phonological priming. In this paper ERPs were recorded during a phonological matching task, using pairs of logographically dissimilar Chinese characters. A pair was considered to match if they sounded alike with identical phoneme sequences. The subjects (native Chinese speakers) were instructed to ignore vowel-inflections, which in Chinese have lexical status. Since sublexical assembly of phonology is not used in reading Chinese characters, and the members of each pair were logographically dissimilar, match and mismatch trials did not suffer in the amount of orthographic or sublexical phonological priming. An enhanced negative component (latency near 400 msec), was observed in ERPs elicited by the second character in non-matching pairs. The negativity could be similar to N450. If this were so, then N450 could not be associated with orthographic priming, nor with sublexical phonology, but would probably be associated with postlexical processing. Also, in both readers of Chinese and English, the negativity enhanced in non-match trials is larger over the right side of the scalp, suggesting a similar brain lateralization of the underlying processes. PMID:8413905

Valdes-Sosa, M; Gonzalez, A; Xiang, L; Xiao-Lei, Z; Yi, H; Bobes, M A

1993-08-01

437

Phonological overlap affects lexical selection during sentence production.  

PubMed

Theories of lexical production differ in whether they allow phonological processes to affect lexical selection directly. Whereas some accounts, such as interactive activation accounts, predict (weak) early effects of phonological processes during lexical selection via feedback connections, strictly serial architectures do not make this prediction. We present evidence from lexical selection during unscripted sentence production that lexical selection is affected by the phonological form of recently produced words. In a video description experiment, participants described scenes that were compatible with several near-meaning-equivalent verbs. We found that speakers were less likely than expected by chance to select a verb form that would result in phonological onset overlap with the subject of the sentence. Additional evidence from the distribution of disfluencies immediately preceding the verb argues that this effect is due to early effects on lexical selection, rather than later corrective processes, such as self-monitoring. Taken together, these findings support accounts that allow early feedback from phonological processes to word-level nodes, even during lexical selection. PMID:22468803

Jaeger, T Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-04-02

438

Complexity and Hemispheric Abilities: Evidence for a Differential Impact on Semantics and Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main goal of this study was to determine whether the phonological and semantic processing of words are similarly influenced by an increase in processing complexity. Thirty-six French-speaking young adults performed both semantic and phonological word judgment tasks, using a divided visual field procedure. The phonological complexity of words…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2009-01-01

439

The Acquisition of Sign Language: The Impact of Phonetic Complexity on Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the effect of phonetic complexity on phonological acquisition has a long history in spoken languages. This paper considers the effect of phonetics on phonological development in a signed language. We report on an experiment in which nonword-repetition methodology was adapted so as to examine in a systematic way how phonetic complexity in two phonological parameters of signed languages

Wolfgang Mann; Chloe R. Marshall; Kathryn Mason; Gary Morgan

2010-01-01

440

Single?word semantic judgements in semantic dementia: Do phonology and grammatical class count?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Listeners make active use of phonological regularities such as word length to facilitate higher?level syntactic and semantic processing. For example, nouns are longer than verbs, and abstract words are longer than concrete words. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) experience conceptual loss with preserved syntax and phonology. The extent to which patients with SD exploit phonological regularities to support language

Jamie Reilly; Katy Cross; Vanessa Troiani; Murray Grossman

2007-01-01

441

The interaction between orthographic and phonological information in children: An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the neural representations of orthographic and phonological processing in chil- dren, while manipulating the consistency between orthographic and phonological information. Partici- pants, aged 9-15, were scanned while performing rhyming and spelling judgments on pairs of visually presented words. The orthographic and phonological similarity between words in the pair was inde- pendently manipulated, resulting in four conditions. In the

Tali Bitan; Douglas D. Burman; Tai-Li Chou; Dong Lu; Nadia E. Cone; Fan Cao; Jordan D. Bigio; James R. Booth

2007-01-01

442

Bidirectional Relations of Phonological Sensitivity and Prereading Abilities: Evidence from a Preschool Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the relationship between phonological sensitivity and letter knowledge in 4- and 5-year-olds in a one-year longitudinal study. Found that phonological sensitivity predicted letter knowledge growth, and letter knowledge predicted phonological sensitivity growth, when controlling for age and oral language abilities. Also found that the…

Burgess, Stephen R.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

1998-01-01

443

A Longitudinal Study of the Phonological Development of Two Cantonese-English Bilingual Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents longitudinal case studies of the successive phonological acquisition of two Cantonese-English bilingual children, aged 2;3 to 3;1 years and 2;9 to 3; and 5 years. Children were assessed at four-week intervals. Phoneme-acquisition data and phonological process data revealed that both children had separate phonological systems for the two…

Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

1999-01-01

444

Efficacy of Intervention for a Bilingual Child Making Articulation and Phonological Errors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This treatment case study presents a 5-year-old bilingual Cantonese/English speaking boy with articulation and phonological errors. It reports two treatment phases: (1) articulation therapy; and (2) phonological therapy. Data have implications for the separateness of bilingual children's two phonological systems, and the differences between…

Holm, Alison; Ozanne, Anne; Dodd, Barbara

1997-01-01

445

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

446

Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological

Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

2009-01-01

447

Cross?linguistic meta?analysis of phonological fluency: Normal performance across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Verbal Fluency test is used extensively in clinical neuropsychological assessment as well as in research protocols. The phonological fluency task can be administered to individuals of various ages and different levels of education. Diverse investigations suggest that phonological fluency can be influenced by age and education. Up to now, cross?cultural studies comparing phonological verbal fluency in different languages are

Gunilla Oberg; Maura Ramírez

2006-01-01

448

Computational modelling of phonological dyslexia: How does the DRC model fare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the patterns of reading impairment in phonological dyslexia using computational modelling with the dual-route cascaded model of reading (DRC, Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001). Systematic lesioning of nonlexical and phonological processes in DRC demonstrates that different lesions and severity of those lesions can reproduce features of phonological dyslexia including impaired reading of nonwords, relatively spared

Lyndsey Nickels; Britta Biedermann; Max Coltheart; Steve Saunders; Jeremy J. Tree

2008-01-01

449

Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

Taft, Marcus

2006-01-01

450

What eye fixations tell us about phonological recoding during reading.  

PubMed

Evidence for phonological recoding during reading has depended on paradigms requiring readers to make some response in addition to reading (e.g., proofreading, concurrent speaking). Our subjects simply read text for comprehension, and their eye movements were monitored for spontaneous disruptions when encountering homophonic errors (e.g., He wore blew jeans.) versus nonhomophonic errors (e.g., He wore blow jeans.). Eye fixation behaviour revealed that readers initially experienced as much difficulty when encountering a homophonic error as a nonhomophonic one; however homophony facilitated the recovery process, at least for homophones that shared the same length as their context correct mates (e.g., blew/blue but not war/wore). The results support a theory of lexical access in which phonological sources of activation and influence are delayed relative to orthographic sources, rather than a theory in which phonological codes predominate. PMID:8364528

Daneman, M; Reingold, E

1993-06-01

451

Phonological Awareness and Decoding in Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Students Who Use Visual Phonics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual phonics, a system of 45 hand and symbol cues that represent the phonemes of spoken English, has been used as a tool in literacy instruction with deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) students for over 20 years. Despite years of anecdotal support, there is relatively little published evidence of its impact on reading achievement. This study was…

Narr, Rachel F.

2008-01-01

452

Promoting phonological awareness in nursery?aged children through a Sure Start Early Listening programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing recognition of the importance of pre?literacy skills among pre?school children. Evidence that children from relatively deprived backgrounds face poorer outcomes in speech and language development and educational achievement has led to an assertive attempt to lessen social inequalities at the earliest opportunity. The UK government?funded Sure Start initiative aims to provide services to promote play and

Tom Morris; Gerard Leavey

2006-01-01

453

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

454

Integrated Speech and Phonological Awareness Intervention for Pre-School Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Children with Down syndrome experience difficulty with both spoken and written language acquisition, however controlled intervention studies to improve these difficulties are rare and have typically focused on improving one language domain. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated intervention approach on the speech,…

van Bysterveldt, Anne Katherine; Gillon, Gail; Foster-Cohen, Susan

2010-01-01

455

Genetic and Environmental Effects of Serial Naming and Phonological Awareness on Early Reading Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study involved 281 early-school-age twin pairs (118 monozygotic, 163 same-sex dizygotic) participating in the ongoing Western Reserve Reading Project (S. A. Petrill, K. Deater-Deckard, L. A. Thompson, & C. Schatschneider, 2006). Twins were tested in their homes by separate examiners on a battery of reading-related skills including…

Petrill, Stephen, A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; DeThorne, Laura S.; Schatschneider, Christopher

2006-01-01

456

Effectiveness of Decoding and Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many children with intellectual disability, including children with Down syndrome, have teachers who are unsure what type of reading instruction is likely to increase outcomes for their students. Effectiveness of two commercially available, evidence-based reading interventions was evaluated through 3 multiple baseline across participants,…

Lemons, Christopher J.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Paterra, Matthew F.

2012-01-01

457

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

458

Promoting Phonological Awareness in Nursery-Aged Children through a Sure Start Early Listening Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing recognition of the importance of pre-literacy skills among pre-school children. Evidence that children from relatively deprived backgrounds face poorer outcomes in speech and language development and educational achievement has led to an assertive attempt to lessen social inequalities at the earliest opportunity. The UK…

Morris, Tom; Leavey, Gerard

2006-01-01

459

Phonological Awareness and Decoding in Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Students Who Use Visual Phonics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual phonics, a system of 45 hand and symbol cues that represent the phonemes of spoken English, has been used as a tool in literacy instruction with deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) students for over 20 years. Despite years of anecdotal support, there is relatively little published evidence of its impact on reading achievement. This study was…

Narr, Rachel F.

2008-01-01

460

The relationship between speech impairment, phonological awareness and early literacy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that spoon is pronounced as ‘poon’). A smaller group make disordered speech errors that are atypical

Judy Harris; Nicola Botting; Lucy Myers; Barbara Dodd

2010-01-01

461

The relationship between speech impairment, phonological awareness and early literacy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that spoon is pronounced as ‘poon’). A smaller group make disordered speech errors that are atypical

Judy Harris; Nicola Botting; Lucy Myers; Barbara Dodd

2011-01-01

462

Environmental Awareness; An Action Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the changing world of today, man has created alarming imbalances of nature which threaten all living creatures of the earth. The public is becoming aware that severe measures must be taken to correct these imbalances. Indian people are closely attuned to their lands and resources--it is part of their traditional culture to have close ties with…

Wight, Edgar L.; And Others

463

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

464

The relation between phonological memory skills and reading ability in greek-speaking children: Can training of phonological memory contribute to reading development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine whether there is a relationship between phonological memory and reading ability in Greek-speaking\\u000a children aged between 6 and 9 years. An additional aim of the study was to investigate whether training of phonological memory\\u000a during preschool years enhances reading achievement during early school years. In Experiment I, the phonological memory ability\\u000a of 136 first

Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki

2002-01-01

465

Descartes discarded? Introspective self-awareness and the problems of transparency and compositionality.  

PubMed

What has the self to be like such that introspective awareness of it is possible? The paper asks if Descartes's idea of an inner self can be upheld and discusses this issue by invoking two principles: the phenomenal transparency of experience and the semantic compositionality of conceptual content. It is assumed that self-awareness is a second-order state either in the domain of experience or in the domain of thought. In the former case self-awareness turns out empty if experience is transparent. In the latter, it can best be conceived of as a form of mental quotation. Various proposed analyses of direct and indirect quotation are discussed and tested regarding their applicability to thought. It is concluded that, on the assumption of compositionality, the inner self is only insofar accessible to awareness as it has an accessible phonological (or otherwise subsymbolic) structure, as apparently only inner speech does. PMID:20719544

Werning, Markus

2010-08-16

466

Mobile location-based awareness and connectedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile social awareness systems open up new social opportunities by enabling the automatic disclosure of awareness cues. We are trying to understand which cues work best to achieve feelings of connectedness between users and identify valid and comprehensive effect measures to evaluate such systems in HCI. We choose to study specifically two sensors - location, via GPS and movement, via

Michael Voong

2008-01-01

467

Awareness as observational heterarchy.  

PubMed

Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2013-10-01

468

Awareness as observational heterarchy  

PubMed Central

Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction).

Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2013-01-01

469

Testing Privacy Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

Bergmann, Mike

470

Mathematical Problem Solving and Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Both Executive and Phonological Processes Are Important  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between working memory (WM) and mathematical problem solving in children with learning disabilities (LD). Children with LD (age 11.5 years) were compared to chronologically age-matched (CA-M) and younger comprehension\\/computation achievement-matched children (age 8.9 years) on measures of verbal and visual-spatial WM, phonological processing, components of problem solving, and word-problem solving

H. Lee Swanson; Carole Sachse-Lee

2001-01-01

471

On the relationship between interoceptive awareness and alexithymia: is interoceptive awareness related to emotional awareness?  

PubMed

Interoceptive awareness (IA) is associated with emotional experience, the processing of emotional stimuli, and activation of brain structures that monitor the internal visceral and emotional state of the organism. Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing one's emotions and externally oriented thinking (EOT) and reflects impairments in emotional awareness and the regulation of emotions. This study examined the relationship between alexithymia and IA in a healthy population of N=155 persons. A well-validated heartbeat perception task to measure interoceptive awareness, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and a depression questionnaire (BDI-2) were administered to 88 women and 67 men. IA was inversely associated with all features of alexithymia in the whole sample. When considering sex differences, IA turned out to be a relevant negative predictor for the EOT subscale only in men. This large sample investigation in a nonclinical population indicates that IA represents a relevant negative predictor for alexithymia. PMID:21241306

Herbert, Beate M; Herbert, Cornelia; Pollatos, Olga

2011-10-01

472

Personalizing situation awareness  

SciTech Connect

Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

2009-01-01

473

Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly

2008-01-01

474

Syllable Frequency Effects on Phonological Short-Term Memory Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that phonological short-term memory (STM) tasks are influenced by both lexical and sublexical factors inherent in the selection and construction of the stimuli to be recalled. Examined whether long-term memory influences STM at a sublexical level by investigating whether the frequency with which one-syllable nonwords occur in…

Nimmo, Lisa M.; Roodenrys, Steven

2002-01-01

475

The Role of Vocal Practice in Constructing Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors looked for effects of vocal practice on phonological working memory. Method: A longitudinal design was used, combining both naturalistic observations and a nonword repetition test. Fifteen 26-month-olds (12 of whom were followed from age 11 months) were administered a nonword test including real words,…

Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn M.; DePaolis, Rory A.; Whitaker, Chris J.; Williams, Nicola M.

2010-01-01

476

Papers in Phonology. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 48.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers in various aspects of phonological research and theory include: "One-Step Raising in Gbanu" (Mary Bradshaw); "ATR Harmony in Konni" (Mike Cahill); "Prosodic Structure in SiSwati" (Rebecca Herman); "The Deletion of /w/ in Seoul Korean and Its Implications" (Hyeon-Seok Kang); "Tense, Aspect, and Bukusu Verb Tones" (Nasiombe Mutonyi);…

Dowty, David, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

477

Peaks beyond Phonology: Adolescence, Incrementation, and Language Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the mechanism by which a linguistic change advances across successive generations of speakers? We explore this question by using the model of incrementation provided in Labov 2001 and analyzing six current changes in English. Extending Labov's focus on recent and vigorous phonological changes, we target ongoing morphosyntactic(-semantic)…

Tagliamonte, Sali A.; D'Arcy, Alexandra

2009-01-01

478

Collaborating To Obtain Phonological Acquisition Data for Local Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve school-based speech-language practitioners enlisted the assistance of a university clinical phonologist to implement a research project investigating phonological acquisition. The speech samples of 520 children (ages 2-8) were transcribed. The 3-year-olds had acquired all major phoneme classes except liquids, /l/ was acquired between 4- 5,…

Porter, Judith Halvorsen; Hodson, Barbara Williams

2001-01-01

479

Planning at the Phonological Level during Sentence Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two picture-word interference experiments we examined whether phrase boundaries affected how far in advance speakers plan the sounds of words during sentence production. Participants produced sentences of varying lengths (short determiner + noun + verb or long determiner + adjective + noun + verb) while ignoring phonologically related and…

Schnur, Tatiana T.; Costa, Albert; Caramazza, Alfonso

2006-01-01

480

Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

2008-01-01

481

Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

2013-01-01

482

Phonological Memory and Implications for the Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…

Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.

2010-01-01

483

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

484

Lexical and Phonological Effects in Early Word Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examines the influence of word frequency, phonological neighborhood density (PND), age of acquisition (AoA), and phonotactic probability on production variability and accuracy of known words by toddlers with no history of speech, hearing, or language disorders. Method: Fifteen toddlers between 2;0 (years;months) and 2;5…

Sosa, Anna V.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2012-01-01

485

Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access I. Adult dataq  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambi- guity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambi- guity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., (un chat grincheux), containing the potential competitor word chagrin, was processed more slowly

Anne Christophe; Sharon Peperkamp; Christophe Pallier; Eliza Block; Jacques Mehler

486

Early Phonological and Lexical Markers of Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological and lexical characteristics of 30-month-old children's spontaneous language samples were examined as indicators of later reading outcome. Participants were 27 children, 10 children with reading disability and 17 children without reading disability. Of the non-disabled readers, 7 were at high familial risk for reading disability, and…

Smith, Susan Lambrecht

2009-01-01

487

Specialization of phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the neurocognitive network for processing visual word forms in native Chinese speakers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In order to compare the processing of phonological and semantic representations, we developed parallel rhyming and meaning association judgment tasks that required explicit access and manipulation of these representations. Subjects showed activation in left

James R. Booth; Dong Lu; Douglas D. Burman; Tai-Li Chou; Zhen Jin; Dan-Ling Peng; Lei Zhang; Guo-Sheng Ding; Yuan Deng; Li Liu

2006-01-01

488

Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2012-01-01

489

Planning at the Phonological Level during Sentence Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two picture–word interference experiments we examined whether phrase boundaries affected how far in advance speakers plan the sounds of words during sentence production. Participants produced sentences of varying lengths (short determiner + noun + verb or long determiner + adjective + noun + verb) while ignoring phonologically related and unrelated words to the verb of the sentence. Response times

Tatiana T. Schnur; Albert Costa; Alfonso Caramazza

2006-01-01

490

The SUMMIT speech recognition system: phonological modelling and lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological modeling and lexical access components of the SUMMIT speech recognition system are described in detail. SUMMIT makes explicit use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge, embedded in a segmental framework that can be trained automatically. Performance results for the complete system on the DARPA 1000-word Naval Resource Management task are presented

Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Michael Phillips; Stephanie Seneff

1990-01-01

491

Time pressure and phonological advance planning in spoken production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current accounts of spoken production debate the extent to which speakers plan ahead. Here, we investigated whether the scope of phonological planning is influenced by changes in time pressure constraints. The first experiment used a picture–word interference task and showed that picture naming latencies were shorter when word distractors shared the final segments with the picture name. Experiment 2 used

Markus F. Damian; Nicolas Dumay

2007-01-01

492

Phonological and Semantic Components of Words in Beginning Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words were used as the stimulus factors to test the two-stage reading process. The first stage is a decoding stage in which the words are perceived and translated into an acoustic code, and the second stage is a semantic matching stage in which words were categorized into three phonological factors (word length, vowel complexity, and regularity)…

Lucas, Jana M.

493

Phonological and semantic strategies in immediate serial recall.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that certain theoretically important anomalous results in the area of verbal short-term memory could be attributable to differences in strategy. However there are relatively few studies that investigate strategy directly. We describe four experiments, each involving the immediate serial recall of word sequences under baseline control conditions, or preceded by instruction to use a phonological or semantic strategy. Two experiments varied phonological similarity at a presentation rate of one item every 1 or 2 seconds. Both the control and the phonologically instructed group showed clear effects of similarity at both presentation rates, whereas these were largely absent under semantic encoding conditions. Two further experiments manipulated word length at the same two rates. The phonologically instructed groups showed clear effects at both rates, the control group showed a clear effect at the rapid rate which diminished with the slower presentation, while the semantically instructed group showed a relatively weak effect at the rate of one item per second, and a significant reverse effect with slower presentation. The latter finding is interpreted in terms of fortuitous differences in inter-item rated associability between the two otherwise matched word pools, reinforcing our conclusion that the semantically instructed group were indeed encoding semantically. Implications for controlling strategy by instruction are discussed. PMID:18432478

Campoy, Guillermo; Baddeley, Alan

2008-05-01

494

Abstract Phonological Structure in Language Production: Evidence From Spanish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 4 experiments were carried out to investigate if segmental and structural information are represented separately in phonological encoding in speech production. In Experiments 1 and 2, a picture–word interference paradigm was used. Participants had to name a picture while a word was auditorily presented 150 ms after the onset of the target. In Experiments 3 and 4,

Albert Costa; Nuria Sebastian-Gallés

1998-01-01

495

Sex Differences in Phonological Coding: Alphabet Transformation Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A previous explanation of the sex difference on so-called perceptual speed tests was in terms of a female advantage in accessing and using phonological name codes in making item comparisons. That explanation was extended to a task involving alphabetical transformations without the requirement for comparison of perceptually available items. A…

Majeres, Raymond L.

2007-01-01

496

Dialect Boundaries and Phonological Change in Upstate New York  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The eastern half of New York State is a dialectologically diverse region around which several dialect regions converge--the Inland North, New York City, Western New England, and Canada. These regions differ with respect to major parameters of North American English phonological variation; and therefore the interface between them is of interest…

Dinkin, Aaron Joshua

2009-01-01

497

The Perception of Stop-Liquid Clusters in Phonological Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research is reported which examined the effect of various factors on the frequency of phonological responses. Phonemic order and location of clusters within a syllable affected fusion. Initial stop-liquid clusters fused readily; final liquid-stop clusters rarely fused. Some subjects fused on most or all trials; others fused less frequently.…

Cutting, James E.; Day, Ruth S.

1975-01-01

498

Phonological Abilities and Writing among Portuguese Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to identify causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in writing in preschool children. The participants were 44 children, with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, and whose writing was syllabic with phonetization. The children were divided into three groups. They were…

Martins, Margarida Alves; Silva, Cristina

2006-01-01

499

A Critical Review of PET Studies of Phonological Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of positron emission tomography to identify sensory and motor systems in humans in vivo has been very successful. In contrast, studies of cognitive processes have not always generated results that can be reliably interpreted. A meta-analysis of five positron emission tomography studies designed to engage phonological processing (Petersen, Fox, Posner, Mintun, & Raichle, 1989; Zatorre, Evans, Meyer, &

David Poeppel

1996-01-01

500

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01