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1

Phonological Awareness in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined phonological awareness in 17 children with Down syndrome (ages 9-14). Children demonstrated measurable levels of phonological awareness. Significant positive correlations were found among phonological awareness and reading and spelling competence, and ability to spell non-words and non-verbal measures. (Contains references.)…

Fletcher, Helen; Buckley, Sue

2002-01-01

2

Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

2010-01-01

3

Phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of phonological awareness has mainly focused on the nature of the relationship between reading ability and awareness of phonemes. However, a recent study of phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome questioned the existence of any neces- sary relationship (Cossu, Rossini & Marshall, 1993). This paper describes a study of phonological awareness in children with Down

Helen Fletcher; Sue Buckley

2002-01-01

4

Measuring Phonological Awareness in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA. Method: One hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with…

Webb, Mi-young L.; Lederberg, Amy R.

2014-01-01

5

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

6

Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech  

E-print Network

of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positivelyPhonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech Stephen J. Frost & Nicole fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure

7

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

8

Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

2006-01-01

9

Longitudinal Predictors of Implicit Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal predictive relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness skills in preschool-age children with speech-sound disorders. Method: Forty-seven children with speech-sound disorders were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year and again…

Rvachew, Susan

2006-01-01

10

Promoting phonological awareness skills of Egyptian kindergarteners through dialogic reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5–6), assigned to an experimental group (n?=?35) or a control group (n?=?32). Kindergarten Inventory of Phonological Awareness was

Randa Abdelaleem Elmonayer

2012-01-01

11

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

12

Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

Chipere, Ngoni

2014-01-01

13

Phonological awareness, verbal working memory and the acquisition of literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a 2-year longitudinal study of 76 initially prereading children. The study examined the relationships between phonological awareness (measured by tests of onset and rime, phonemic segmentation and phoneme deletion), verbal working memory and the development of reading and spelling. Factor analyses showed that the verbal working memory tests which were administered loaded on two distinct but highly

Mary Rohl; Chris Pratt

1995-01-01

14

Relation of Phonological Awareness to Reading Disability in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that for young children, success at learning to read is related to the extent to which they are aware of the phonological structure of spoken language. We determined that this relation is also evident in older children (third graders) and in adults who have had considerable reading instruction. Differences in phonological awareness, measured on three tasks, accounted

Anne C. Pratt; Susan Brady

1988-01-01

15

Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4-year-old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound…

van Bysterveldt, Anne K.; Gillon, Gail T.; Moran, Catherine

2006-01-01

16

Screening of Phonological Awareness in the Early Elementary Grades: An IRT Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory…

Vloedgraven, Judith M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

17

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

18

Phonological Working Memory, Phonological Awareness and Language in Literacy Difficulties in Brazilian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most usual flaws that lead to literacy disability regards cognitive difficulties and alterations some children present in the literacy process. Many studies have found alterations in phonological processing, more specifically in phonological working memory (PWM) and phonological awareness (PA). Therefore, our aim was to identify…

Barbosa, Thais; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Santos, Ruth F.; Bueno, Orlando Francisco A.

2009-01-01

19

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

20

Phonological awareness: one key to the reading proficiency of deaf children.  

PubMed

A case is made for the importance of children's development of phonological awareness--whether they are hearing or deaf--if they are to reach their potential as readers. Relevant terms are defined (i.e., phonological awareness, phonological processes, and phonics) to assist the reader with the research review, which covers (a) the typical stages in the acquisition of phonological awareness and (b) phonological awareness and deafness. Suggestions for phonological awareness assessment are offered, along with the recommendation that the use of recently developed formal and informal measures of phonological awareness might facilitate the setting of goals and objectives when deaf educators or speech-language pathologists are evaluating the skills of deaf students and planning instruction for these students. Such tools yield information about skills that have been shown to correlate with literacy attainment and that are not commonly addressed by deaf educators or speech-language pathologists serving deaf students. Finally, research concerning the facilitation of phonological awareness and its application is explained. PMID:12448128

Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

2002-07-01

21

Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Low-Progress Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school…

Neilson, Roslyn

2009-01-01

22

Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

2014-01-01

23

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

2014-01-01

24

Training Phonological Awareness Skills in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of a phonological awareness intervention program with three children with Down syndrome (ages 7-8). The intervention focused on key skills of alliteration detection, phoneme isolation, spelling of orthographically regular words, and rhyme detection. Results indicate participants improved the phonological awareness skills…

Kennedy, Esther J.; Flynn, Mark C.

2003-01-01

25

Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

26

Influence of Oral Language and Phonological Awareness on Children's Bilingual Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the roles of oral language and phonological awareness on reading performance in grade 3 bilingual students. Several hierarchical models assessed the best predictors of third grade English and Spanish word attack, word identification and reading comprehension. Predictor variables were measures of phonological

Lee Swanson, H.; Rosston, K.; Gerber, M.; Solari, E.

2008-01-01

27

The Effects of Embedded Phonological Awareness Training on the Reading and Spelling Skills of Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…

Robinson, Sarah

2010-01-01

28

Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4?year?old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound knowledge, and print concepts pre?intervention and post?intervention, was compared with that of a randomly selected

Anne K. van Bysterveldt; Gail T. Gillon; Catherine Moran

2006-01-01

29

Relationship between the Phonological Awareness Skills and Writing Skills of the First Year Students at Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the first year students at primary school. In the study, the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the students were measured at the beginning of the term. Students' writing skills were measured in the middle of…

Erdogan, Ozge

2011-01-01

30

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

31

Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?  

E-print Network

casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2007-01-01

32

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

E-print Network

minimum of 18 months (CI group) and 26 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Children's phonological awareness, speech perception, speech production, general language, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge abilities were assessed...

Ambrose, Sophie Eva

2009-12-04

33

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia.  

PubMed

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E; Hogan, Tiffany P

2014-01-01

34

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

2014-01-01

35

Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

36

Extracting phonological patterns for l2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.  

PubMed

An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2014-10-01

37

Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…

Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling

2008-01-01

38

Sounds Like Fun: Activities for Developing Phonological Awareness, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kids love jokes--and teachers and SLPs love fast and easy ways to improve students' phonological awareness. That's why every elementary and middle-school SLP and educator needs this playful, effective activity book, packed with jokes and riddles that increase students' awareness of the phonemes that make up words. The perfect way to avoid "drill…

Spector, Cecile Cyrul

2009-01-01

39

Training phonological awareness: A study with inner-city kindergarten children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale, longitudinal, phonological awareness training study with inner-city kindergarten children was conducted in\\u000a four classrooms. The central goals of the study were the creation and evaluation of a phonological awareness training program\\u000a and a preliminary look at the consequence of that training on basic phonological processes.\\u000a \\u000a Assessment of phonological awareness and basic phonological processes was carried out in the

Susan Brady; Anne Fowler; Brenda Stone; Nancy Winbury

1994-01-01

40

Importance of Speech Production for Phonological Awareness and Word Decoding: The Case of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

2009-01-01

41

Correlates of Phonological Awareness in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness (PA) skills in preschool-aged children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: Ninety-five 4- and 5-year-old children with SSD were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year. Linear structural…

Rvachew, Susan; Grawburg, Meghann

2006-01-01

42

Early Mathematics and Phonological Awareness in Two Child Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum development during early childhood is informed through an understanding of the cognitive skills that develop concurrently in the earliest years. Extending previous work, this study examined the relationship between early mathematics and phonological awareness (PA) skills for 37 children (14 girls; overall mean age?=?47.6 months,…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Lokteff, Maegan

2013-01-01

43

Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

44

Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to investigate possible benefits of cochlear implant (CI) use on the development of phonological awareness in deaf children. Nineteen CI users were tested on 2 occasions. Two groups of deaf children using hearing aids were tested once: 11 profoundly deaf and 10 severely deaf children. A battery of…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brown, Tracey; Sirimanna, Tony; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2005-01-01

45

Speech Development Patterns and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants. Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn…

Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

2007-01-01

46

Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

Bolduc, Jonathan

2009-01-01

47

Awareness of Phonological Segments and Reading Ability in  

E-print Network

compared the segmentation abilities of Italian children with those of English-speaking (American) childrenAwareness of Phonological Segments and Reading Ability in Italian Children* Giuseppe Cossu, though the Italian children manifested a higher level of performance overall, their pattern

48

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

49

Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

50

Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

51

The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological

Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

2013-01-01

52

Enhancing vocabulary, print awareness and phonological awareness through shared storybook reading with low-income preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological awareness, a skill for which there is less evidence of

Pascal Lefebvre; Natacha Trudeau; Ann Sutton

2011-01-01

53

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real words (WID) and phonetic decoding of

Cheryl Smith Gabig

2010-01-01

54

Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological

Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

2011-01-01

55

Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. Challenges in Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…

Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

56

Phonological Awareness Skills of Children with Articulation Disorders in Kindergarten to Third Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen children (grade K-3) with articulation disorders were compared to 14 children with normal articulation on three tests of phonological awareness (rhyming, phoneme blending, and phoneme counting). Results of the study indicate that the subjects with articulation disorders made significantly more errors on the three phonological awareness

Cowan, Wendy E.; Moran, Michael J.

1996-01-01

57

Phonological Awareness Skills of Children With Articulation Disorders in Kindergarten to Third Grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between phonological awareness and articulation performance has not as yet been defined clearly. In the present study 14 children in grades K to 3 with articulation disorders were compared to 14 age matched subjects with normal articulation on three tests of phonological awareness (rhyming, phoneme blending and phoneme counting). Additionally, the performance of subjects with

Wendy E. Cowan; Michael J. Moran

1997-01-01

58

A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Turkish and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared speech of kindergartners and first-graders from Turkey and America to investigate how characteristics of their spoken languages affect development of phonological awareness and how the relationship between spoken language and orthography affect phonological awareness and word recognition. Results suggest that characteristics of a spoken…

Oktay, Ayla; Aktan, Ebru

2002-01-01

59

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

60

Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Development in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…

McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.

2009-01-01

61

Animated Multimedia "Talking Books" Can Promote Phonological Awareness in Children Beginning To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used software in the form of talking books to promote phonological awareness in children beginning to read. The 15 children, aged 3 to 6, who received the intervention showed higher increases in phonological awareness than the 15 comparisons, but there were no significant benefits observed for word reading. (SLD)

Chera, Pav; Wood, Clare

2002-01-01

62

Sensitivity to Linguistic Stress, Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Ability in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has found that sensitivity to linguistic stress is related to phonological awareness and reading development. This study investigated the roles of two types of linguistic stress sensitivity (lexical and metrical stress) in the phonological awareness and reading development of young children. Forty-five kindergarten children were…

Goodman, Ilana; Libenson, Amanda; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2010-01-01

63

Effectiveness of an Integrated Phonological Awareness Approach for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Change in speech, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, word decoding, and spelling skills were examined. A controlled multiple single-subject design was employed. Twelve children aged 4-7 years with…

McNeill, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

64

Phonological Awareness Development as a Discrete Process: Evidence for an Integrative Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theoretical and practical implications of examining young children's acquisitions of phonological awareness skills with specific and differentiated processing tasks are explored in this study. The study presents data from 269 kindergarten children completing a phonological awareness protocol that provided information on 14 discrete…

Cassady, Jerrell C.; Smith, Lawrence L.; Putman, S. Michael

2008-01-01

65

Successful Phonological Awareness Instruction with Preschool Children: Lessons from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is one of several key precursor skills to conventional literacy that develop during the preschool period. Significant amounts of research support the causal and predictive relation between phonological awareness and children's ease of learning to decode and spell. However, many preschool curricula and early childhood…

Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2008-01-01

66

Meta-Analysis of Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Language, Age, and Psycholinguistic Grain Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in the role of phonological awareness across languages. However, the role of phonological awareness in various languages may differ by features of the languages as well as by features of the speakers. The current meta-analysis catalogs these relations and examines factors that may have influenced how closely related…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Tao, Sha; Garnaat, Sarah; Bunta, Ferenc; Francis, David J.

2012-01-01

67

An Analysis of Phonological Awareness Instruction in Four Kindergarten Basal Reading Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the kindergarten level of four commercial basal reading programs published in 1991 and 1993 to determine the adequacy of phonological awareness instruction for learners at risk for reading disabilities and delays. Finds that the phonological awareness instructional procedures in the four basal reading programs failed to integrate critical…

Smith, Sylvia B.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Gleason, Mary M.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Sprick, Marilyn; Gunn, Barbara; Thomas, Carrie L.; Chard, David J.; Plasencia-Peinado, Judith; Peinado, Richardo

2001-01-01

68

Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.  

PubMed

One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

2014-10-01

69

Spelling and Word Recognition in Grades 1 and 2: Relations to Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in Dutch Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influences of early phonological awareness and naming speed on Dutch children's later word spelling were investigated in a longitudinal study. Phonological awareness and naming speed predicted spelling in early Grade 1, later Grade 1, and later Grade 2. Phonological awareness, however, predominated over naming speed for the prediction of early…

Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J

2010-01-01

70

The Use of a Dynamic Screening of Phonological Awareness to Predict Risk for Reading Disabilities in Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the usefulness and predictive validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness in two samples of kindergarten children. In one sample (n = 90), the predictive validity of the dynamic assessment was compared to a static version of the same screening measure. In the second sample (n = 96), the dynamic screening measure

Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Catts, Hugh W.

2011-01-01

71

The Role of Phonological Awareness Development in Young Chinese EFL Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a psycholinguistic study of the development of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese children acquiring their first language and learning a foreign language at the same time. The language situation of these children in relation to PA is of particular interest because Chinese and English have not only different phonological systems, but also different writing

Ching-ning Chien; Li-hua Kao; Li Wei

2008-01-01

72

Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…

Williams, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

73

Phonological Awareness and Mathematical Difficulty: A Longitudinal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present longitudinal study sought to investigate the impact of poor phonology on children's mathematical status. From a screening sample of 256 five-year-olds, 82 children were identified as either typically achieving (TA; N = 31), having comorbid poor phonology and mathematical difficulties (PDMD; N = 31), or having only poor phonology

Jordan, Julie-Ann; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

2010-01-01

74

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

75

Study of Phonological Awareness of Preschool and School Aged Children with Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. Subjects and Methods 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Results Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Conclusions Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area.

Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

2014-01-01

76

Accuracy-Based Phonological Awareness Tasks: Are They Reliable, Efficient, and Sensitive to Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-experiment study examined the efficiency and sensitivity of five accuracy-based phonological awareness tasks (i.e., Rhyme-Providing, Sound-Providing, Blending, Segmentation, and Deletion) for monitoring the development of these skills in kindergarten and Grade 1 students. The first experiment examined responses to different numbers and types of items included in each phonological awareness task for their correspondence to responses obtained from a

Sandra M. Chafouleas; Brian K. Martens

2002-01-01

77

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36 to 60 months, participated. Children’s print knowledge, phonological awareness, language, speech production, and speech perception abilities were assessed. Results For phonological awareness, the CI group’s mean score fell within 1 standard deviation of the TOPEL’s normative sample mean but was more than 1 standard deviation below our NH group mean. The CI group’s performance did not differ significantly from that of the NH group for print knowledge. For the CI group, phonological awareness and print knowledge were significantly correlated with language, speech production, and speech perception. Together, these predictor variables accounted for 34% of variance in the CI group’s phonological awareness but no significant variance in their print knowledge. Conclusions Children with CIs have the potential to develop age-appropriate early literacy skills by preschool-age but are likely to lag behind their NH peers in phonological awareness. Intervention programs serving these children should target these skills with instruction and by facilitating speech and language development. PMID:22223887

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

78

Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158 children from 40 classrooms. Path analyses of the child-level covariance matrices tested the extent

Jason L. Anthony; Emily J. Solari; Jeffrey M. Williams; Kimberly D. Schoger; Zhou Zhang; Lee Branum-Martin; David J. Francis

2009-01-01

79

Development of Phonological Representations and Phonological Awareness in Children with Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with speech impairment are more likely to have difficulty learning to read compared with children with typical speech development. Researchers have hypothesized that a difficulty in accessing good-quality phonological representations of words stored in the memory may constrain these children's performance on phonological

Sutherland, Dean; Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

80

Orthographic Influences, Vocabulary Development, and Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2009-01-01

81

Phonological awareness and reading speed deficits in reading disabled Greek?speaking children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that phonological awareness skills secure decoding ability and that phonological deficits underlie failure to acquire adequate word recognition. Slow word?reading rate may be an additional defining characteristic of reading disability. The present study aimed to investigate whether: (1) reading disabled (RD) Greek?speaking children showed reading accuracy and reading speed deficits relative to chronological age?matched controls (CAC) and

Maria Constantinidou; Rhona Stainthorp

2009-01-01

82

The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

2012-01-01

83

Effects of an Embedded Phonological Awareness Intervention during Repeated Book Reading on Preschool Children with Language Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…

Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard

2008-01-01

84

Contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, toward decoding ability in students with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual disability who commonly suffer from reading decoding problems. This study is aimed at determining the contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, as three well known phonological processing skills, to decoding ability among 60 participants with mild intellectual disability of unspecified origin ranging from 15 to 23 years old. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that all three aspects of phonological processing are significantly correlated with decoding ability. Furthermore, a series of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after controlling the effect of IQ, phonological awareness, and rapid automated naming are two distinct sources of decoding ability, but phonological short-term memory significantly contributes to decoding ability under the realm of phonological awareness. PMID:23314249

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-03-01

85

Does Meaning Matter For Reading Achievement? Untangling the Role of Phonological Recoding and Morphological Awareness in Predicting Word Decoding, Reading Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Achievement for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the unique contributions of morphological awareness and phonological recoding to word decoding, reading comprehension, and reading vocabulary for 197 Spanish-speaking English language learners enrolled in the fifth grade. The study also explored the contribution of phonological recoding, measured by accuracy on a pseudo-word decoding task, to the prediction of the same components of reading achievement. Specifically the

Amanda P. Goodwin

2010-01-01

86

Promoting Phonological Awareness in Pre-Primary Education: Possibilities of the "Awakening to Languages" Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at evaluating and understanding the effects of an awakening to languages (AtL) programme, carried out with a group of 21 Portuguese children aged three to six, in the development of phonological awareness (PA). Using mixed-methods research, data was gathered from video recordings of seven AtL sessions and PA tests for an…

Lourenço, Mónica; Andrade, Ana Isabel

2014-01-01

87

Effects of Targeted Reading Instruction on Phonological Awareness and Phonic Decoding in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…

Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley

2011-01-01

88

Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Phonological Awareness in United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…

Tibi, Sana

2005-01-01

89

Reading and Phonological Awareness Skills in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether children exposed to domestic violence perform worse on tests of reading and phonological awareness than children from nonviolent homes. Forty children, ages 6 to 9 years, were divided into control or domestic violence groups based on their mothers' responses on the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). The groups were matched on age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and

Judith F. Blackburn

2008-01-01

90

Teaching Phonological Awareness to Students at Risk for Reading Failure: An Analysis of Four Instructional Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The content of four phonological awareness training programs was analyzed according to six principles of effective instructional design related to teaching students at risk for reading failure. Analysis revealed that no program effectively included all six principles, implying that teachers need to adapt programs to improve their effectiveness.…

Wanzek, Jeanne; Dickson, Shirley; Bursuck, William D.; White, Jennifer M.

2000-01-01

91

Phonological Awareness in Swedish-Speaking Children with Complex Communication Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with complex communication needs (CCN) often experience problems achieving literacy. The aim of this project was to study phonological awareness, a central predictor for literacy achievement, in children with CCN, and to compare their performance to a group of children with natural speech. Method: One group of 15 Swedish…

Larsson, Maria; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

2008-01-01

92

Reading Achievement in Relation to Phonological Coding and Awareness in Deaf Readers: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; del Giudice, Alex A.; Lieberman, Amy M.

2011-01-01

93

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

94

Investigating the Relationship between Social Behaviors and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal effects of social behaviors in predicting phonological awareness outcomes in 4-year-old children. Method: One hundred two children (52 boys, 50 girls) were recruited from 11 schools serving low-income neighborhoods in a large metropolitan city and were assessed at the beginning and end of the preschool…

Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi

2013-01-01

95

Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

2010-01-01

96

Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2011-01-01

97

A Construct Validation Study of Phonological Awareness for Children Entering Prekindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…

Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho

2004-01-01

98

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

99

Effects of a Tier 3 Phonological Awareness Intervention on Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention.…

Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard

2014-01-01

100

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

101

Phonological Awareness and Oral Reading Skill in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-two children (ages 6-10) with Down syndrome were tested for receptive language, cognitive function, oral reading, and phonological awareness. Re-assessment 9 months later found better oral reading was associated with superior phoneme segmentation skills. Also, early segmentation ability appeared to predict later nonword reading, but not the…

Cupples, Linda; Iacono, Teresa

2000-01-01

102

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

103

Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

2008-01-01

104

Performance on Phonological and Grammatical Awareness Metalinguistic Tasks by Children Who Stutter and Their Fluent Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to examine the performance of 23 children who stutter (CWS) and 23 children who do not stutter (CWNS) on three metalinguistic tasks. These included two phonological awareness assessment procedures (The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC) and a Phoneme Reversal Task) and one modified Grammar Judgments Task…

Bajaj, Amit; Hodson, Barbara; Schommer-Aikins, Marlene

2004-01-01

105

"Reading First" Kindergarten Classroom Instruction and Students' Growth in Phonological Awareness and Letter Naming-Decoding Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of the amount, content, and implementation of reading instruction provided by 17 kindergarten teachers in eight "Reading First" elementary schools as it related to students' progress (n = 286 students) on early reading assessments of phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency. Children's phonological

Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol; Lane, Holly; Kosanovich, Marcia L.; Schatschneider, Chris; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Miller, Melissa S.; Wright, Tyran L.

2008-01-01

106

Reading Acquisition Reorganizes the Phonological Awareness Network Only in Alphabetic Writing Systems  

PubMed Central

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8–12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R.

2012-01-01

107

Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.  

PubMed

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2013-12-01

108

The role of phonological awareness, speech perception, and auditory temporal processing for dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is strong evidence that auditory processing plays a major role in the etiology of dyslexia. Auditory temporal processing\\u000a of non-speech stimuli, speech perception, and phonological awareness have been shown to be influential in reading and spelling\\u000a development. However, the relationship between these variables remains unclear. In order to analyze the influence of these\\u000a three auditory processing levels on spelling,

G. Schulte-Körne; W. Deimel; J. Bartling; H. Remschmidt

1999-01-01

109

Head Start Teachers’ Views of Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income\\u000a children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current\\u000a study examined Head Start teachers’ views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve children’s sound and word\\u000a skills. Teachers’ descriptions of their instructional strategies emphasized more planning

Patrick M. O’Leary; Mary K. Cockburn; Douglas R. Powell; Karen E. Diamond

2010-01-01

110

The relationships between quantity-number competencies, working memory, and phonological awareness in 5- and 6-year-olds.  

PubMed

In this study, the interdependencies among phonological awareness, verbal working memory components, and early numerical skills in children 1 year before school entry are addressed. Early numerical skills were conceptualized as quantity-number competencies (QNC) at both basic (QNC Level 1) and advanced (QNC Level 2) levels. In a sample of 1,343 children aged 5 and 6, structural equation modelling provided support for the isolated number words hypothesis (Krajewski & Schneider, 2009, J. Exp. Child Psychol., 103, 516-531). This hypothesis claims that phonological awareness contributes to the acquisition of QNC Level 1, such as learning the number word sequence, but not of QNC Level 2, which requires the linkage of number words to quantities. In addition, phonological awareness relied on verbal working memory, especially with regard to the phonological loop, central executive, and episodic buffer. The results were congruent with the idea that phonological awareness mediates the impact of verbal working memory on QNCs. The relationships between verbal working memory, phonological awareness, and QNCs were comparable in monolingual and bilingual children. PMID:24128172

Michalczyk, Kurt; Krajewski, Kristin; Pre?ler, Anna-Lena; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2013-11-01

111

A common haplotype of KIAA0319 contributes to the phonological awareness skill in Chinese children  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. Method and results A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (p nominal ?=?6.85 10 -5 and p corrected ?=?0.0029). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill. PMID:25015435

2014-01-01

112

Same or Different? Insights into the Etiology of Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming  

PubMed Central

This work’s objective was to offer additional insights into the psychological and genetic bases of reading ability and disability, and to evaluate the plausibility of a variety of psychological models of reading involving phonological awareness (PA) and rapid naming (RN), both hypothesized to be principal components in such models. In Study 1, 488 unselected families were assessed with measures of PA and RN to investigate familial aggregation and to obtain estimates of both the number and effect-magnitude of genetic loci involved in these traits’ transmission. The results of the analyses from Study 1 indicated the presence of genetic effects in the etiology of individual differences for PA and RN and pointed to both the shared and unique sources of this genetic variance, which appeared to be exerted by multiple (3–6 for PA and 3–5 for RN) genes. These results were used in Study 2 to parameterize a simulation of 3,000 families with quantitatively distributed PA and RN, so that the robustness and generalizability of the Study 1 findings could be evaluated. The findings of both studies were interpreted according to established theories of reading and our own understanding of the etiology of complex developmental disorders. PMID:19007845

Naples, Adam J.; Chang, Joseph T.; Katz, Leonard; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2009-01-01

113

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

114

Development of Phonological Awareness in English-Mandarin Bilinguals: A Comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…

Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2012-01-01

115

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

116

Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment.  

PubMed

In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452

Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori

2013-10-01

117

A phonologically congruent sound boosts a visual target into perceptual awareness  

PubMed Central

Capacity limitations of attentional resources allow only a fraction of sensory inputs to enter our awareness. Most prominently, in the attentional blink the observer often fails to detect the second of two rapidly successive targets that are presented in a sequence of distractor items. To investigate how auditory inputs enable a visual target to escape the attentional blink, this study presented the visual letter targets T1 and T2 together with phonologically congruent or incongruent spoken letter names. First, a congruent relative to an incongruent sound at T2 rendered visual T2 more visible. Second, this T2 congruency effect was amplified when the sound was congruent at T1 as indicated by a T1 congruency × T2 congruency interaction. Critically, these effects were observed both when the sounds were presented in synchrony with and prior to the visual target letters suggesting that the sounds may increase visual target identification via multiple mechanisms such as audiovisual priming or decisional interactions. Our results demonstrate that a sound around the time of T2 increases subjects' awareness of the visual target as a function of T1 and T2 congruency. Consistent with Bayesian causal inference, the brain may thus combine (1) prior congruency expectations based on T1 congruency and (2) phonological congruency cues provided by the audiovisual inputs at T2 to infer whether auditory and visual signals emanate from a common source and should hence be integrated for perceptual decisions. PMID:25309357

Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta

2014-01-01

118

Emerging Phonological Awareness Differentiates Children with and without Familial Risk for Dyslexia after Controlling for General Language Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emerging phonological awareness was compared in two groups of 3.5-year-old children belonging to the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD): children with familial risk of dyslexia (at-risk group n = 98) and children without such risk (control group n = 91). Four computer animated tasks were used: Word-level and Syllable-level Segment…

Puolakanaho, Anne; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki

2004-01-01

119

Short and Long-Term Effects of Training Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten: Evidence from Two German Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two training studies replicated and extended a Scandinavian study by Lundberg, Frost, and Petersen (1988). In Study 1, a 6-month metalinguistic training program was given to kindergartners (mean age: 5 years 7 months) who were later compared to a control group in the regular kindergarten program. Tests of phonological awareness and other metalinguistic and cognitive variables were given before and

Wolfgang Schneider; Petra Küspert; Ellen Roth; Mechtild Visé; Harald Marx

1997-01-01

120

Using a Bifactor Model to Assess the Factor Structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Grades 1 through 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Grades 1 through 3 (PALS 1-3), a widely used early literacy screener in the Commonwealth of Virginia, was investigated using a large sample of public-school second-grade students (n = 14,993). Three alternative factor models (i.e., a one-factor, two-correlated factors, and a…

Huang, Francis L.

2014-01-01

121

Foundations of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Impact of Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and accompanying disabilities are prone to reading difficulties. The aim of the present study was to examine the foundations of phonological awareness in pre-school children with CP in comparison with a normally developing control group. Rhyme perception was regarded as an early indicator of…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, L.; van Balkom, H.; de Moor, J.

2008-01-01

122

Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

2009-01-01

123

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

124

The Importance of Phonological Awareness for the Development of Early English Reading Skills among Bilingual Singaporean Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2010-01-01

125

Cross-linguistic Analysis of Developmental Dyslexia? Does Phonology Matter in Learning to Read Chinese?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological processing deficit has been ascertained to be the core cognitive deficit of developmental dyslexia—in alphabetic languages at least. Measures of phonological processing typically include three components: phonemic awareness, phonological working memory, and rapid automatic naming. Among the three tasks, phonemic awareness was the most powerful predictor of reading abilities. Because the Chinese language has no explicit rules for mapping

Jun Ren Lee; Daisy L. Hung; Ovid J. L. Tzeng

126

Teachers' perceptions of promoting sign language phonological awareness in an ASL/English bilingual program.  

PubMed

The National Reading Panel emphasizes that spoken language phonological awareness (PA) developed at home and school can lead to improvements in reading performance in young children. However, research indicates that many deaf children are good readers even though they have limited spoken language PA. Is it possible that some deaf students benefit from teachers who promote sign language PA instead? The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine teachers' beliefs and instructional practices related to sign language PA. A thematic analysis is conducted on 10 participant interviews at an ASL/English bilingual school for the deaf to understand their views and instructional practices. The findings reveal that the participants had strong beliefs in developing students' structural knowledge of signs and used a variety of instructional strategies to build students' knowledge of sign structures in order to promote their language and literacy skills. PMID:23676530

Crume, Peter K

2013-10-01

127

Effects of English Cued Speech on Speech Perception, Phonological Awareness and Literacy: A Case Study of a 9-Year-Old Deaf Boy Using a Cochlear Implant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have shown that French Cued Speech (CS) can enhance lipreading and the development of phonological awareness and literacy in deaf children but, as yet, there is little evidence that these findings can be generalized to English CS. This study investigated the possible effects of English CS on the speech perception, phonological

Rees, Rachel; Bladel, Judith

2013-01-01

128

Sublexical frequency measures for orthographic and phonological units in German  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recent studies have demonstrated the influence of sublexical frequency measures on language processing, or called for\\u000a controlling sublexical measures when selecting stimulus material for psycholinguistic studies (Aichert & Ziegler, 2005). The\\u000a present study discusses which measures should be controlled for in what kind of study, and presents orthographic and phonological\\u000a syllable, dual unit (bigram and biphoneme) and single unit

Markus J. Hofmann; Prisca Stenneken; Markus Conrad; Arthur M. Jacobs

2007-01-01

129

Promoting vocabulary, phonological awareness and concept about print among children at risk for learning disability: can e-books help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged

Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah

130

Tracking the roots of reading ability: white matter volume and integrity correlate with phonological awareness in prereading and early-reading kindergarten children.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Saygin, Zeynep M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Osher, David E; Beach, Sara D; Cyr, Abigail B; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E

2013-08-14

131

Predicting reading outcomes in the classroom using a computer-based phonological awareness screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA).  

PubMed

Abstract The screening and monitoring of phonological awareness (PA) in the classroom is of great importance to the early identification and prevention of reading disorder. This study investigated whether a time-efficient computer-based PA screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA) could accurately predict end-of-year reading outcomes for 5-year-old children in the first year of schooling. A longitudinal design was employed where the Com-PASMA was used to measure the PA ability of 95 5-year-old children at the start, middle, and end of the first year of school. Of this group, 21 children presented with spoken language impairment. Reading outcomes were formally measured after 1 year of schooling. School-entry measures of PA using the Com-PASMA (p < .001), in conjunction with language ability (p = .004), accounted for 68.9% of the variance in end-of-year word decoding ability. Sensitivity and specificity calculations demonstrated that the Com-PASMA was 92% accurate at school-entry, and 94% accurate by the middle of the school year in predicting reading outcomes at 6-years of age. Results suggest that a time-efficient computer-based method of screening and monitoring PA can support the early identification of reading difficulties in the first year of schooling. PMID:24236912

Carson, Karyn; Boustead, Therese; Gillon, Gail

2014-12-01

132

Gender, and Socioeconomic Status on Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening Scores of Kindergarten Students Sandra Harmon Witcher  

E-print Network

Practitioners are obligated to identify cost-effective, worthwhile practices for improving student learning. With the current climate of pressure to quickly improve student performance on the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments, the use of Brain instructional strategy. The value in conducting this research was to attempt to objectively analyze whether the use of this specific activity-based intervention in an educational setting affects children's skill acquisition. Intact kindergarten classes from two relatively matched schools within the same southeastern Virginia school division were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. A total of 126 kindergarten students in eight classes were involved. All of the classes were administered the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening test in October as part of the system-wide pre-assessment of kindergarten students. In addition to regular instruction, the treatment group then followed a prescribed set of six Brain exercises for 8-10 minutes twice each school day until the PALS posttest was given in late spring. The classroom teachers received in-service training from the researcher to enable them to lead the treatment group in the daily performance of the exercises. The treatment began after the completion of PALS pre-testing. The control group received regular instruction and did not participate in any Brain Gym exercises. Following a t-test for differences in previous performance, a four-way analysis of variance was performed on the total PALS scores. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and a predetermined alpha level of .05, the four-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect for previous performance and non-significant main effects for effect was found only among Brai...

Virginia Polytechnic Institute; David J. Parks; Christina M. Dawson; Travis Twiford; Patricia P. Kelly; Jeanne Edwards; Sandra Harmon Witcher; Sandra Harmon Witcher

133

Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

2010-01-01

134

A Longitudinal Study of Phonological Processing Skills in Children Learning to Read in a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

English-speaking children (N = 122) in French immersion classes participated in a 1-year longitudinal study of the relation between phonological awareness and reading achievement in both languages. Participants were administered measures of word decoding and of phonological awareness in French and in English as well as measures of cognitive ability, speeded naming, and pseudoword repetition in English only. The relation

Liane Comeau; Pierre Cormier; Éric Grandmaison; Diane Lacroix

1999-01-01

135

Improving Phonological Awareness and Word Reading in a Later Learned Alphabetic Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of phonological-skill training on consonantal-phoneme deletion and word-reading performance in early and middle adolescent Chinese readers who were literate in English. Found significant improvements in both activities for younger but not older participants, with follow-up analyses suggesting that language-proficiency…

Cheung, Him

1999-01-01

136

Relations Between Children's Invented Spelling and the Development of Phonological Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the impact on phonological skills of a training program that was intended to lead preschool children to move from prephonetic spellings to early phonemic spellings. The participants were 30 preschool children who were divided into two groups (experimental and control groups) that were equivalent in terms of the children's intelligence, the number

C. SILVA; M. ALVES MARTINS

2003-01-01

137

A comparison of phonemic and phonological awareness in educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.  

PubMed

The researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both respondent groups demonstrated gaps in PA knowledge and skills; however, SLPs performed significantly better, on average, than TODs. The educators expressed feelings of moderate confidence in their skills related to teaching children with hearing loss and assessing their PA. Correlations between educator demographics or levels of confidence and educator performance on PA measures did not yield significant findings. The results underscore the need for improved personnel preparation and PA continuing education for educators supporting literacy education of children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:24745107

Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood

2014-01-01

138

Intelligibility as a Clinical Outcome Measure Following Intervention with Children with Phonologically Based Speech-Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The effectiveness of two treatment approaches (phonological therapy and articulation therapy) for treatment of 14 children, aged 4;0-6;7 years, with phonologically based speech-sound disorder (SSD) has been previously analysed with severity outcome measures (percentage of consonants correct score, percentage occurrence of phonological

Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V.

2014-01-01

139

First Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness and Code Concepts: Examining Gains from an Intensive Form of Professional Development and Corresponding Teacher Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and…

Brady, Susan; Gillis, Margie; Smith, Tara; Lavalette, MaryEllen; Liss-Bronstein, Linda; Lowe, Evelyn; North, Wendy; Russo, Evelyn; Wilder, T. Diane

2009-01-01

140

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting its Development in Children With and Without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to the age of 6.5 years. Of these children, about

Minna Torppa; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Marja-Leena Laakso; Asko Tolvanen; Esko Leskinen; Paavo H. T. Leppanen; Anne Puolakanaho; Heikki Lyytinen

2007-01-01

141

Long-Term Outcome of Oral Language and Phonological Awareness Intervention with Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: The Impact on Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention aims to prevent poor literacy outcomes associated with social disadvantage. This study examined whether the short-term positive effect of a preschool classroom-based oral language and phonological awareness (PA) programme was maintained and transferred to literacy 2 years later. The vocabulary knowledge, grammatical skill,…

Henning, Caroline; McIntosh, Beth; Arnott, Wendy; Dodd, Barbara

2010-01-01

142

Children's Expressive Language Skills and Their Impact on the Relation between First-and Second-Language Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…

Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.

2014-01-01

143

Effects of a Pre-Recorded Parent-Child Shared Reading Intervention on At-Risk Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of an embedded parent-child shared reading intervention on children's phonological awareness skills. Seven children considered at-risk for reading difficulty listened to 6 pre-recorded children's books with embedded early literacy activities three times each with a parent. Children's…

Noe, Sean

2012-01-01

144

Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

2010-01-01

145

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

146

Cat in the Hat or Cat in the Cap? An Investigation of the Developmental Trajectories of Phonological Awareness for Korean Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated trajectories of Korean children's growth in the awareness of four phonological units--"syllable," "body," "rime" and "phoneme"--over time, by following a sample of 215 children over a period of 15 months, beginning at their first year of preschool and collecting four waves of data. Much of the existing research suggests…

Kim, Young-Suk

2008-01-01

147

Desempenho em consciência fonológica, memória operacional, leitura e escrita na dislexia familial****** Phonological awareness, working memory, reading and writing performances in familial dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: familial dyslexia. Aim: to characterize and compare the phonological awareness, working memory, reading and writing abilities of individuals whose family members are also affected. Method: in this study 10 familial nuclei of natural family relationship of individuals with dyslexia were analyzed. Families of natural individuals living in the west region of the state of São Paulo were selected. Inclusion

Simone Aparecida Capellini

148

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting Its Development in Children with and without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to…

Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Leskinen, Esko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Puolakanaho, Anne; Lyytinen, Heikki

2007-01-01

149

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

150

Preschool speech error patterns predict articulation and phonological awareness outcomes in children with histories of speech sound disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost four years later. Method Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 and followed up at 8;3. The frequency of occurrence of preschool distortion errors, typical substitution and syllable structure errors, and atypical substitution and syllable structure errors were used to predict later speech sound production, PA, and literacy outcomes. Results Group averages revealed below-average school-age articulation scores and low-average PA, but age-appropriate reading and spelling. Preschool speech error patterns were related to school-age outcomes. Children for whom more than 10% of their speech sound errors were atypical had lower PA and literacy scores at school-age than children who produced fewer than 10% atypical errors. Preschoolers who produced more distortion errors were likely to have lower school-age articulation scores. Conclusions Different preschool speech error patterns predict different school-age clinical outcomes. Many atypical speech sound errors in preschool may be indicative of weak phonological representations, leading to long-term PA weaknesses. Preschool distortions may be resistant to change over time, leading to persisting speech sound production problems. PMID:23184137

Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

2012-01-01

151

Cross-modal integration in the brain is related to phonological awareness only in typical readers, not in those with reading difficulty  

PubMed Central

Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD) readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD), suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD) children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). For typically developing children, correlations between elision and neural activation were found for the cross-modal but not unimodal task, whereas in children with RD, no correlation was found. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty. PMID:23888137

McNorgan, Chris; Randazzo-Wagner, Melissa; Booth, James R.

2013-01-01

152

First grade teachers’ knowledge of phonological awareness and code concepts: Examining gains from an intensive form of professional development and corresponding teacher attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade\\u000a teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable\\u000a mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and monthly workshops. Pre- and post-assessment\\u000a of participants on a

Susan Brady; Margie Gillis; Tara Smith; MaryEllen Lavalette; Linda Liss-Bronstein; Evelyn Lowe; Wendy North; Evelyn Russo; T. Diane Wilder

2009-01-01

153

Clinical appraisal of spelling ability and its relationship to phonemic awareness (blending, segmenting, elision, and reversal), phonological memory, and reading in reading disabled, ADHD, and normal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-eight 8-to-12-year-old children (34 ReadingDisabled; 31 Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disordered; and 13diagnosed normal controls) were given a battery oftests including cognitive, linguistic, academic,phonemic awareness, and memory tests. As part of theacademic battery an 8-point spelling rating scale wasdeveloped (Rating Scale) that resulted in threedifferent scores which reliably discriminated amongthe three groups. Relationships between phonemicawareness, phonological memory, reading and spellingwere explored. Zero-order and second-ordercorrelations

Judith M. Kroese; George W. Hynd; Deborah F. Knight; Jennifer R. Hiemenz; Josh Hall

2000-01-01

154

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

155

Wots that Werd? Pseudowords (Non-Words) May Be a Misleading Measure of Phonological Skills in Young Learner Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and…

Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

2006-01-01

156

MEASURING SPEECH MOTOR SKILLS IN NORMALLY DEVELOPING AND PHONOLOGICALLY DISORDERED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normally developing and phonologically disordered 3 and 4- year-old children (groups N and P) were compared on measures of articulation rate in imitated and spontaneous connected sp eech and in diadochokinetic (DDK) tasks. The P group exhibited significantly slower mean articulation rates than the N group in the connected speech samples. There was no significant difference between the group means

Wendy M M Cohen; Daphne Waters

157

Test-Retest Reliability of Independent Measures of Phonology in the Assessment of Toddlers' Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal stability of 5 independent measures of phonological skill: phonetic inventory (initial, final), word shape, syllable structure level, and the index of phonetic complexity. Method: Ten toddlers with typical development participated in two 20-min play sessions within a 1-week period.…

Morris, Sherrill R.

2009-01-01

158

A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Contiguous, Graphemic and Phonological Interventions on Measures of Reading and Spelling Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has established that phonological awareness is a predictor of future reading skill, the effects of variant vs. contiguous presentations of grapheme-phoneme correspondences as part of a teaching program have not been examined. A variant presentation is one in which there is a mismatch between the letter and sound or sound and letter correspondences and a contiguous representation is

Roger J Bourne; Paul R Whiting

159

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

160

Bilingualism and learning: The effect of language pair on phonological awareness abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children first exposed to English as a second language when they start school are at risk for poor academic outcome. They perform less well than their monolingual peers, matched for socio-economic background, at the end of primary school on measures of language and literacy, despite immersion in English at school. Previous research suggests, however, that some bilingual children do better

Barbara J. Dodd; Lydia K. H. So; Kobe K. C. Lam

2008-01-01

161

An exploratory study of phonological awareness and working memory differences and literacy performance of people that use AAC.  

PubMed

Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:20977006

Gómez Taibo, María Luisa; Vieiro Iglesias, Pilar; González Raposo, María del Salvador; Sotillo Méndez, María

2010-11-01

162

Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Korean: An Examination of the Unique Role of Body-Coda Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines a salient intrasyllabic phonological unit in Korean, the body-coda unit, its role in literacy skills in Korean, and a possible source of the salience of body-coda units in the spoken language. Data were collected from Korean-speaking, monolingual beginning readers (41 kindergarteners, 40 first graders). The results indicate…

Kim, Young-Suk

2007-01-01

163

Name writing but not environmental print recognition is related to letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness in pre-readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4–5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name, identified correct names and EP words amongst foils and detected foil letters within EP and names. Results

Rebecca Blair; Robert Savage

2006-01-01

164

Phonological Process and Accuracy Measures in Typically Developing Punjabi Speaking Children between 3-5 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…

Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.

2013-01-01

165

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

166

Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness  

SciTech Connect

Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

2013-03-01

167

Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other

Sima H. Anvari; Laurel J. Trainor; Jennifer Woodside; Betty Ann Levy

2002-01-01

168

The Self-Aware Matching Measure for Stereo Philippos Mordohai  

E-print Network

the behavior of this transformation, which we call Self-Aware Matching Measure (SAMM), on a diverse set of experiments on data with ground truth. Our results show that the SAMM improves the performance of dense

Mordohai, Philippos

169

Phonological Working Memory in Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to establish whether phonological working memory skills could be assessed in children below 4 years of age. A group of 2- and 3-year-old children were tested on 3 phonological memory measures (digit span, nonword repetition, and word repetition) and were also given tasks that tapped other cognitive skills. Scores on the 3 phonological memory tasks were

Susan E. Gathercole; Anne-Marie Adams

1993-01-01

170

Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;

Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García

2009-01-01

171

Visual rapid naming and phonological abilities: different subtypes in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

One implication of the double-deficit hypothesis for dyslexia is that there should be subtypes of dyslexic readers that exhibit rapid naming deficits with or without concomitant phonological processing problems. In the current study, we investigated the validity of this hypothesis for Portuguese orthography, which is more consistent than English orthography, by exploring different cognitive profiles in a sample of dyslexic children. In particular, we were interested in identifying readers characterized by a pure rapid automatized naming deficit. We also examined whether rapid naming and phonological awareness independently account for individual differences in reading performance. We characterized the performance of dyslexic readers and a control group of normal readers matched for age on reading, visual rapid naming and phonological processing tasks. Our results suggest that there is a subgroup of dyslexic readers with intact phonological processing capacity (in terms of both accuracy and speed measures) but poor rapid naming skills. We also provide evidence for an independent association between rapid naming and reading competence in the dyslexic sample, when the effect of phonological skills was controlled. Altogether, the results are more consistent with the view that rapid naming problems in dyslexia represent a second core deficit rather than an exclusive phonological explanation for the rapid naming deficits. Furthermore, additional non-phonological processes, which subserve rapid naming performance, contribute independently to reading development. PMID:22044084

Araújo, Susana; Pacheco, Andreia; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

2010-12-01

172

The Role of Phonological Representation in Decoding Skills of Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness reflects the strength of a child's ability to represent linguistic information cognitively at the phonological level. Although the role of phonological awareness in early reading decoding has been well documented, its relationship to other factors affecting reading decoding has yet to be fully examined. In this study, the…

Hester, E.; Hodson, B. W.

2004-01-01

173

Delivering Phonological and Phonics Training within Whole-Class Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early, intensive phonological awareness and phonics training is widely held to be beneficial for children with poor phonological awareness. However, most studies have delivered this training separately from children's normal whole-class reading lessons. Aims: We examined whether integrating this training into whole class, mixed-ability…

Shapiro, Laura R.; Solity, Jonathan

2008-01-01

174

Investigating the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of Phonological Abilities in a Sufficiently Transparent Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory-driven conceptualizations of phonological abilities in a sufficiently transparent language (Greek) were examined in children ages 5 years 8 months to 7 years 7 months, by comparing a set of a priori models. Specifically, the fit of 9 different models was evaluated, as defined by the Number of Factors (1 to 3; represented by rhymes,…

Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Spanoudis, George

2012-01-01

175

REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC  

E-print Network

/s: Home Phone: Work Phone: Mobile Phone: Email: Preferred method of contact during the day: (Between 9am and 5pm, Monday to Friday) Email Home Phone Work Phone Mobile Phone Any previous SLT involvement Disorders Phone: 03-364-2408 Speech and Hearing Clinic Fax: 03-364-2760 University of Canterbury Private Bag

Hickman, Mark

176

Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment  

PubMed Central

One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented. PMID:15465958

Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

2004-01-01

177

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

between nonword reading deficits and phonological impairment. Following focal brain lesions, not only may routes to derive the sound of written words (see Figure 1). Following the initial processing of the visual characteristics of a word, along one route a word's sound is retrieved from the lexicon by first

178

Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

2010-01-01

179

Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present 9-month longitudinal study investigated relations between Chinese native language phonological processing skills and early Chinese and English reading abilities among 227 kindergarteners in Hong Kong. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and short-term verbal memory differed in their relations to concurrent and subsequent Chinese and English word recognition. The significant bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and Chinese reading ability

Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Catherine McBride-Chang; Stephen Burgess

2005-01-01

180

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

181

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

182

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing.  

PubMed

WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M

2014-01-01

183

Failing to Succeed the First School: Exploring Phonological Factors and Letter Reading Ability in Grade 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The context of this paper is studies worldwide on influence of phonological factors in language development of children. Such studies reveal the significance of Phonological Awareness in development language skills: including, predictive value of phonological short-term memory for reading skills in Grade 1. This paper throws light on factors in…

Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Remia, K. R.

2013-01-01

184

Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill  

PubMed Central

This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

185

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

186

Visual versus Phonological Abilities in Spanish Dyslexic Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…

Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel

2009-01-01

187

Beginning To Read in Turkish: A Phonologically Transparent Orthography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates early literacy acquisition in Turkish with its phonologically transparent orthography and regular letter-sound correspondences. Findings reveal that such orthography fosters the early development of word recognition skills and that phonological awareness contributes to word recognition in the early stages of reading acquisition. (33…

Oney, Banu; Durgunoglu, Aydin Yucesan

1997-01-01

188

Phonology, Reading Development, and Dyslexia: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a theoretical overview at the cognitive level of the role of phonological awareness in reading development and developmental dyslexia across languages. It is argued that the primary deficit in developmental dyslexia in all languages lies in representing speech sounds: a deficit in phonological representation. (Contains…

Goswami, Usha

2002-01-01

189

Aberrant N400 responses to phonological overlap during rhyme judgements in children at risk for dyslexia.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity. PMID:24060646

Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

2013-11-01

190

Phonological processing and emergent literacy in Spanish-speaking preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play\\u000a important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological\\u000a processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was Spanish. Confirmatory factor\\u000a analysis (CFA) supported the validity of each PPA as separate

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Renee McDonald; Deborah Corbitt-Shindler; Coleen D. Carlson; David J. Francis

2006-01-01

191

Phonological Encoding in Aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

E-print Network

Working memory and phonological awareness as predictors of progress towards early learningWorking Memory: The Digit Digit-Span. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,working memory (WM), is considered a key marker of early word learning (

Dukhovny, Elena

2011-01-01

192

Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?†  

PubMed Central

Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956

White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

2013-01-01

193

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

194

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

195

On Government in Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monik Charette's "Condition on Phonological Government" is reviewed. It is the first book-length study written in the framework of Government Phonology (GP), a theory that makes a dramatic break with the classical generative approaches to phonology. (Contains 10 references.) (LB)

Gussmann, Edmund

1992-01-01

196

Developmental dyslexia: exploring how much phonological and visual attention span disorders are linked to simultaneous auditory processing deficits.  

PubMed

The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were assessed in the dyslexic children. We presented the dyslexic children with a phonological short-term memory task and a phonemic awareness task to quantify their phonological skills. Visual attention spans correlated positively with individual scores obtained on the dichotic listening task while phonological skills did not correlate with either dichotic scores or visual attention span measures. Moreover, all the dyslexic children with a dichotic listening deficit showed a simultaneous visual processing deficit, and a substantial number of dyslexic children exhibited phonological processing deficits whether or not they exhibited low dichotic listening scores. These findings suggest that processing simultaneous auditory stimuli may be impaired in dyslexic children regardless of phonological processing difficulties and be linked to similar problems in the visual modality. PMID:22829423

Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

2013-07-01

197

Body Conscious? Interoceptive Awareness, Measured by Heartbeat Perception, Is Negatively Correlated with Self-Objectification  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Self-objectification’ is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. Conclusions/Significance We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders. PMID:23405173

Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

198

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

199

The Role of Phonological Opacity in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation among phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and reading achievement in 69 children (ages 10- 12) with and without language-learning disabilities. Children with language-learning disabilities were outperformed in two morphological tasks that assessed skill in identifying the bases and suffices of…

Windsor, Jennifer

2000-01-01

200

The phonological deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological deficit hypothesis in developmental dyslexia wasexamined with readers in Chinese, a nonalphabetic script. Fifty-sixChinese children with dyslexia (23 of whom had reading and writingdifficulties and 33 had reading problems only) were compared withaverage readers of the same age (CA controls) and average readers of thesame reading-level (RL controls) in phonological awareness andphonological memory skills. The results showed that

Connie Suk-Han Ho; Teresa Pui-Sze Law; Penny Man Ng

2000-01-01

201

A model of phonological processing, language, and reading for students with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting the fact that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

Barker, R Michael; Sevcik, Rose A; Morris, Robin D; Romski, Maryann

2013-09-01

202

Tracking the Roots of Reading Ability: White Matter Volume and Integrity Correlate with Phonological Awareness in Prereading and Early-Reading Kindergarten Children  

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these ...

Saygin, Zeynep M.

203

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

204

Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding.  

PubMed

Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744

Lopes-Silva, Júlia B; Moura, Ricardo; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G; Wood, Guilherme

2014-01-01

205

Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding  

PubMed Central

Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744

Lopes-Silva, Julia B.; Moura, Ricardo; Julio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G.; Wood, Guilherme

2014-01-01

206

Phonological oddballs in the focus of attention elicit a normal P3b in dyslexic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in phonological processing have been proposed to be the core symptom of developmental dyslexia. Phoneme awareness tasks have been shown to both index and predict individual reading ability. In a previous experiment, we observed that dyslexic adults fail to display a P3a modulation for phonological deviants within an alliterated word stream when concentrating primarily on a lexical decision task

Timothy Fosker; Guillaume Thierry

2005-01-01

207

A principled approach to the measurement of situation awareness in commercial aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of how to support situation awareness among crews of modern commercial aircraft is becoming especially important with the introduction of automation in the form of sophisticated flight management computers and expert systems designed to assist the crew. In this paper, cognitive theories are discussed that have relevance for the definition and measurement of situation awareness. These theories suggest that comprehension of the flow of events is an active process that is limited by the modularity of attention and memory constraints, but can be enhanced by expert knowledge and strategies. Three implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situation awareness are considered: (1) Scenario variations are proposed that tax awareness by placing demands on attention; (2) Experimental tasks and probes are described for assessing the cognitive processes that underlie situation awareness; and (3) The use of computer-based human performance models to augment the measures of situation awareness derived from performance data is explored. Finally, two potential example applications of the proposed assessment techniques are described, one concerning spatial awareness using wide field of view displays and the other emphasizing fault management in aircraft systems.

Tenney, Yvette J.; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Pew, Richard W.; Huggins, A. W. F.; Rogers, William H.

1992-01-01

208

Development of a situation awareness measure to evaluate advanced alarm systems in nuclear power plant control rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process controller is required to remain updated regarding developments in the dynamically changing process state, this being referred to as the maintenance of situation awareness. Alarm systems play an important role within this task, and therefore a measure of how effective the system is for enhancing the operator's situation awareness is desirable. One proposed measure is the Situation Awareness

DAVID N. HOGG; KNUT FOLLESø; FRODE STRAND-VOLDEN; BELÉN TORRALBA

1995-01-01

209

The relationship between phonological and auditory processing and brain organization in beginning readers  

PubMed Central

We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of skill-correlated regions, including left hemisphere temporoparietal and occipitotemporal sites, as well as inferior frontal, visual, visual attention, and subcortical components. For speech-related activation, shared variance among reading skill measures was most prominently correlated with activation in left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Implications for brain-based models of literacy acquisition are discussed. PMID:22572517

PUGH, Kenneth R.; LANDI, Nicole; PRESTON, Jonathan L.; MENCL, W. Einar; AUSTIN, Alison C.; SIBLEY, Daragh; FULBRIGHT, Robert K.; SEIDENBERG, Mark S.; GRIGORENKO, Elena L.; CONSTABLE, R. Todd; MOLFESE, Peter; FROST, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

210

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.  

PubMed

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-12-01

211

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children  

PubMed Central

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-01-01

212

Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-01-01

213

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

214

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

215

Early Training in Oral Comprehension and Phonological Skills: Results of a Three-Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 1,273 4-year-old children were followed for 3 years. The children participated in 1 of 2 comprehension training programs, or in a phonological awareness training program. The comprehension programs explored the possibility of improving young children's oral comprehension in an educational setting. The first focused on the component skills of comprehension; the second involved storybook reading. Phonological awareness

Maryse Bianco; Pascal Bressoux; Anne-Lise Doyen; Eric Lambert; Laurent Lima; Catherine Pellenq; Michel Zorman

2010-01-01

216

Teaching Tough Stuff: An Awareness Program for Tests and Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a library instruction program designed to familiarize students with educational and psychological measurement and evaluation tools, including print and online/CD-ROM sources. Resources in the following areas are listed: introductory and general works, specialized sources for information on measurement instruments, indexes and abstracts,…

Nolan, Anne Cerstvik; Whitmore, Marilyn P.

1992-01-01

217

Practice and awareness of physicians regarding casual-clinic blood pressure measurement in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal procedure for casual-clinic blood pressure (CBP) measurement is outlined in the 2004 Japanese guidelines. We investigated the status of physicians’ practices and their awareness of CBP measurement immediately and 4 years after the publication of the guidelines using a questionnaire regarding CBP. This survey was conducted among physicians who attended educational seminars on hypertension in 2004–2005 and in

Mitsuru Kobayashi; Taku Obara; Takayoshi Ohkubo; Hidefumi Fukunaga; Michihiro Satoh; Hirohito Metoki; Kei Asayama; Ryusuke Inoue; Masahiro Kikuya; Nariyasu Mano; Masaaki Miyakawa; Yutaka Imai

2010-01-01

218

Measurement Invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale across Adult Attachment Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examine the measurement invariance of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) across adult attachment style. A 1-factor model and measurement invariance was supported across groups. As predicted, latent mean differences showed that securely attached individuals reported significantly more mindfulness than did…

Cordon, Shari L.; Finney, Sara J.

2008-01-01

219

MEASURING INFORMATION SECURITY AWARENESS: A WEST AFRICA GOLD MINING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

AngloGold Ashanti is an international gold mining company that has recently implemented an information security awareness program worldwide at all of their operations. Following the implementation, there was a normal business need to evaluate and measure the success and effectiveness of the program. A measuring tool that can be applied globally and that addressed AngloGold Ashanti's unique requirements was developed

HA Kruger; WD Kearney

220

Structure-Aware Distance Measures for Comparing Clusterings in Graphs  

E-print Network

clustering and to track evolving (graph) clusters across time. To date, most comparison measures have focused ones that are. One of Corresponding author. V.S. Tseng et al. (Eds.): PAKDD 2014, Part I, LNAI 8443, pp. Example of an online Q&A forum. Each vertex corresponds to a forum user, and each edge represents replying

Pei, Jian

221

Phonological Reading Skills Acquisition by Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty children with mental retardation (MR), age 7-12, completed a phonological reading skills program over approximately 10 weeks. As a result of the instruction, they were better able to sound out learned and transfer words compared to a control group matched on age, IQ, nonword reading, language comprehension, and phonemic awareness. Final…

Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Sligh, Allison C.; Atwell, Julie A.; Kiser, Tanya

2006-01-01

222

Measuring Network-Aware Worm Spreading Ability Zesheng Chen and Chuanyi Ji  

E-print Network

}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract-- In this work, we first study five data sets and observe consistent non-uniform, i.e, clusteredMeasuring Network-Aware Worm Spreading Ability Zesheng Chen and Chuanyi Ji School of Electrical, vulnerable-host distributions. We then present a new metric, referred to as the non-uniformity factor, which

Ji, Chuanyi

223

Measuring Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness: Preliminary Reliability of a Caregiver Attitudes and Beliefs Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent estimates of Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness suggest that approximately half of all American adults have not heard of the often devastating risks of shaking an infant. Using a sample of 288 undergraduate students, we developed a measure of attitudes around infant care practices. A total of 264 community participants completed a revised…

Russell, Beth S.; Britner, Preston A.

2006-01-01

224

User Acceptability of Physiological and Other Measures of Hazardous States of Awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two studies explored user acceptance of devices that measure hazardous states of awareness. In the first study, critical incident data were collected in two workshops from 11 operators working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. These critical incident data were used to develop a survey of the acceptability of awareness measures. In the second study, the survey was administered to 100 people also working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. Results show that operators are open to the inclusion of technology to measure HSAs even if that technology is somewhat invasive as long as feedback about the HSAs is considered to be useful and helpful. Nonetheless, a major concern is the legal complications associated with being recorded, particularly for older and more experienced operators. Air traffic controllers emphasized the importance of sharing technology information with supervisors in order to receive backup or assistance under conditions of task overload, whereas pilots emphasized the influence of work schedules on problems with awareness. Recommendations are offered concerning the implementation of devices to measure hazardous states of awareness.

Dickinson, Terry L.; Milkulka, Peter J.; Kwan, Doris; Fitzgibbons, Amy A.; Jinadu, Florence R.; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Pope, A. T. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

225

Measuring the Diversity Awareness of Social Work Students: The Dual Perspective Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dual Perspective Inventory was implemented to measure the diversity awareness of first-year MSW students at a university in the western U.S. Data were collected at the beginning of the first semester from students who enrolled in a course on diversity, and again at the end of the semester when the students were about to complete the course.…

Anderson, Wandarah; Hayashi, Reiko; Frost, Caren J.

2009-01-01

226

Measuring Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness: preliminary reliability of a caregiver attitudes and beliefs survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent estimates of Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness suggest that approximately half of all American adults have not heard of the often devastating risks of shaking an infant. Using a sample of 288 undergraduate students, we developed a measure of attitudes around infant care practices. A total of 264 community participants completed a revised survey. Between-group comparisons, exploratory factor analyses, and

Beth S. Russell; Preston A. Britner

2006-01-01

227

What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation?  

PubMed Central

Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were: 1) word recognition; 2) discrimination of spectral glides; and 3) phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for non-speech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251

Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

2012-01-01

228

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

2006-02-01

229

Phonemes matter: the role of phoneme-level awareness in emergent Chinese readers.  

PubMed

The importance of phonological awareness for learning to read may depend on the linguistic properties of a language. This study provides a careful examination of this language-specific theory by exploring the role of phoneme-level awareness in Mandarin Chinese, a language with an orthography that, at its surface, appears to require little phoneme-level insight. A sample of 71 monolingual Mandarin-speaking children completed a phonological elision task and a measure of single-character reading. In this sample, 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers were unable to complete phoneme-level deletions, whereas 6- to 8-year-old first graders were able to complete initial, final, and medial phoneme-level deletions. In this older group, performance on phoneme deletions was significantly related to reading ability even after controlling for syllable- and onset/rime-level awareness, vocabulary, and Pinyin knowledge. We believe that these results reopen the question of the role of phonological awareness in reading in Chinese and, more generally, the nature of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:20980019

Newman, Ellen Hamilton; Tardif, Twila; Huang, Jingyuan; Shu, Hua

2011-02-01

230

Phonological and Articulation Treatment Approaches in Portuguese Children with Speech and Language Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…

Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.

2013-01-01

231

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P; Manser, Marta B; Townsend, Simon W

2014-08-01

232

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

233

The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.  

PubMed

These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills. PMID:23635337

Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

2013-05-01

234

Phonemic Awareness: A Crucial Bridge to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers strategies for preparing children for literacy in the early Montessori classroom through emphasis on phonemic awareness. Specifically addresses activities to develop phonological and phonemic awareness including song, the alphabet, rhyming activities, "I spy" games, word games, and word segmentation. Presents a case study in support of…

Woods, Carol S.

2003-01-01

235

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

236

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

237

The notion of 'phonology' in dyslexia research: cognitivism--and beyond.  

PubMed

Phonology has been a central concept in the scientific study of dyslexia over the past decades. Despite its central position, however, it is a concept with no precise definition or status. The present article investigates the notion of 'phonology' in the tradition of cognitive psychology. An attempt is made to characterize the basic assumptions of the phonological approach to dyslexia and to evaluate these assumptions on the basis of commonly accepted standards of empirical science. First, the core assumptions of phonological awareness are outlined and discussed. Second, the position of Paula Tallal is presented and discussed in order to shed light on an attempt to stretch the cognitive-psychological notion of 'phonology' towards auditory and perceptual aspects. Both the core assumptions and Tallal's position are rejected as unfortunate, albeit for different reasons. Third, the outcome of this discussion is a search for what is referred to as a 'vulnerable theory' within this field. The present article claims that phonological descriptions must be based on observable linguistic behaviour, so that hypotheses can be falsified by data. Consequently, definitions of 'dyslexia' must be based on symptoms; causal aspects should not be included. In fact, we claim that causal aspects, such as 'phonological deficit', both exclude other causal hypotheses and lead to circular reasoning. If we are to use terms such as 'phonology' and 'phoneme' in dyslexia research, we must have more precise operationalizations of them. PMID:17624910

Uppstad, Per Henning; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

2007-08-01

238

Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

2012-09-01

239

Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work  

SciTech Connect

Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

2011-04-11

240

Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850

Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2014-01-01

241

Awareness and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students in a South Indian state.  

PubMed

The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs. PMID:23622464

Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

2013-05-01

242

Global Rules and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is asserted that the treatment of intonation within the framework of generative grammar has not shown whether surface syntactic structure is sufficient for formulation of phonological rules. An attempt is made to demonstrate that within English phonology reference to deep structure is necessary. (Available from: See FL 508 214). (RM)

Gussmann, Edmund

1973-01-01

243

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

244

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

245

Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.  

PubMed

Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-08-15

246

Incongruity, incongruity resolution, and mental states: The measure and modification of situational awareness and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.

Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

1993-01-01

247

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning. PMID:20100042

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

248

Distinct neural signatures of cognitive subtypes of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits?  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia can be distinguished as different cognitive subtypes with and without phonological deficits. However, despite some general agreement on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia, the neurofunctional mechanisms underlying these cognitive subtypes remain to be identified. The present BOLD fMRI study thus aimed at investigating by which distinct and/or shared neural activation patterns dyslexia subtypes are characterized. German dyslexic fourth graders with and without deficits in phonological awareness and age-matched normal readers performed a phonological decision task: does the auditory word contain the phoneme/a/? Both dyslexic subtypes showed increased activation in the right cerebellum (Lobule IV) compared to controls. Subtype-specific increased activation was systematically found for the phonological dyslexics as compared to those without this deficit and controls in the left inferior frontal gyrus (area 44: phonological segmentation), the left SMA (area 6), the left precentral gyrus (area 6) and the right insula. Non-phonological dyslexics revealed subtype-specific increased activation in the left supramarginal gyrus (area PFcm; phonological storage) and angular gyrus (area PGp). The study thus provides the first direct evidence for the neurobiological grounding of dyslexia subtypes. Moreover, the data contribute to a better understanding of the frequently encountered heterogeneous neuroimaging results in the field of dyslexia. PMID:24936406

van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; Sass, Katharina; Heim, Stefan

2013-01-01

249

Biased learning of phonological alternations  

E-print Network

What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

Do, Young Ah

2013-01-01

250

Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects. PMID:17329671

Gierut, Judith A.

2008-01-01

251

Ojitlan Chinantec Phonology and Morphology  

E-print Network

This paper provides a preliminary sketch of Ojitlan Chinantec phonology and parts of its verbal morphology. Most Chinantec monomorphemic words are monosyllabic, and inflected words are often monosyllabic as well. There are numerous potential...

Macaulay, Monica

1999-01-01

252

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

253

A Phonologically Based Analysis of Misspellings by Third Graders with Disordered-Phonology Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misspellings evidenced by 69 3rd graders in a battery containing 25 words and 20 nonsense syllable items were analyzed phonologically. Children with histories of disordered phonologies (n=29) showed more phonologically based deviations in their misspellings, relied more on less productive spelling strategies, and showed poorer phonological

Clarke-Klein, Susan; Hodson, Barbara Williams

1995-01-01

254

Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…

Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

2008-01-01

255

Questions people ask about the role of phonological processes in learning to read  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing reliance on research to guidedecisions about reading instruction hasresulted in a swing toward approaches thatemphasize phoneme awareness and the relationsbetween speech and alphabetic writing. Becausethis is a time of innovation andexperimentation in the schools, and because thenew emphasis has not won universal acceptance,there is a need to address recurring questionsabout the role of phonology in readingacquisition. These questions

Donald Shankweiler; Anne E. Fowler

2004-01-01

256

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Phonologically Based Reading Intervention for Struggling Readers with Varying Language Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates Reading Intervention--a 10-week supplementary reading programme emphasising the link between phonological awareness and reading--when delivered in a realistic educational setting. Twenty-nine 6-year-olds with reading difficulties participated in Reading Intervention and their progress and attainments were compared with those…

Duff, Fiona J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles

2012-01-01

257

The Studies about Phonological Deficit Theory in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Developmental Dyslexia (DD) or Reading Disability (RD) that was part of a larger heterogeneous group of learning di sorders and characterized by unexpected problems in academic performance, despite average intelligence. Approach: Current opinions on the biological basis of dyslexia pointed to problems with phonolog ical processing deficits with resulting poor phonemic awareness. Though there was much support for

Emrah Caylak

2010-01-01

258

Development and validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: a measure of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed. PMID:22804468

Killian, Kyle D

2012-07-01

259

A noise-aware combination of dual-frequency measurements from GPS radio occultation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of the fundamental difficulties that arise when using GPS Radio Occultation (RO) data in exploiting the stratosphere is that the air becomes rarefied with increasing height and accentuates the ionospheric effect and noise contained in the measurement. Customarily, the conventional linear combination (CLC) is used to extract neutral atmospheric components from dual-frequency (L1 and L2) RO data. The CLC combines and magnifies measurement noises, and thus works well only for those measurements of low noise. Although the L1 data are of considerably higher quality than the L2 data, the CLC does not take this into account and treats both equally; this makes the CLC-produced data less attractive. The authors propose a new approach, named Noise-Aware Combination (NAC), which is a generalized combination that factors in the presence of measurement noise. In this NAC method, the L1 and L2 data are each regarded independently, with each contributing to the combination according to its dynamically assessed accuracy. The performance of both the CLC and NAC are tested with two sets of data: one of synthetic data and the other of real data. The tests confirm that the NAC yields significant error reductions when compared to the CLC. While the noise in the CLC-produced data stands out in high altitudes and compels the data to be blended with the a priori, the NAC relies far less on this blending. The clear advantage of the NAC over the CLC would greatly enhance the value of RO for climate research.

Wee, Tae-Kwon; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

2013-12-01

260

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

261

On Phonological Representations, Rules, and Opacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental concept of generative phonology stating that related morphemes have unique phonological representations is criticized. It is argued that more morphologization of phonological rules is needed to explain morphophonemic changes. (Available from North-Holland Publishing Co., P. O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.) (CHK)

Barkai, Malachi

1975-01-01

262

Ninth Grade Teachers‘ Perceptions of Cultural Awareness and Teacher Beliefs as Measured by the Cultural Awareness and Beliefs Inventory: Relationship with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading Scores  

E-print Network

This descriptive, correlational study investigated small learning community campuses‘ teachers‘ perceptions and traditional high school campuses‘ teachers‘ perceptions of eight factors as measured by the Cultural Awareness and Beliefs Inventory...

Yandell, Shanah Lea

2011-02-22

263

Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers - A validation study  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies. PMID:23289791

2013-01-01

264

Persistence of Phonological Processing Deficits in College Students with Dyslexia Who Have Age-Appropriate Reading Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated phonological processing skills of 28 undergraduates with dyslexia. When compared to 31 controls, subjects performed significantly less well on standardized measures of reading and spelling but in the average range. Controls, however, performed significantly better on all phonological processing measures, particularly those…

Wilson, Alexander M.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2001-01-01

265

Marketing Quality Energy Awareness  

E-print Network

MARKETING QUALITY ENERGY AWARENESS LONITA J. FORTIER Engineering Technologist 3M Company Saint Paul, Minnesota ABSTRACT Marketing and quality concepts were utilized in developing an employee awareness plan to facilitate long term... and what functional value an awareness plan has for employees (customers). Quality concepts, including performance management, augmented marketing strategies by determining customer requirements, measurements and feedback. The agreed upon critical...

Fortier, L. J.

266

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A

Carolyn McGettigan; Jane E. Warren; Frank Eisner; Chloe R. Marshall; Pradheep Shanmugalingam; Sophie K. Scott

2010-01-01

267

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A

Carolyn McGettigan; Jane E. Warren; Frank Eisner; Chloe R. Marshall; Pradheep Shanmugalingam; Sophie K. Scott

2011-01-01

268

Phonological Perception of Early Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study consisting of two experiments attempted to further adapt the visual preference procedure for determining children's meaningful phonological perception. In the first experiment, 1-year-olds were presented with auditory stimuli (words) and screens containing paired color photographs of the object described by each word and of an unusual…

Pollock, Karen E.; Schwartz, Richard G.

269

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-05-01

270

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

271

Modality-Dependent and -Independent Factors in the Organisation of the Signed Language Lexicon: Insights From Semantic and Phonological Fluency Tasks in BSL.  

PubMed

We used fluency tasks to investigate lexical organisation in Deaf adults who use British sign language (BSL). The number of responses produced to semantic categories did not differ from reports in spoken languages. However, there was considerable variability in the number of responses across phonological categories, and some signers had difficulty retrieving items. Responses were richly clustered according to semantic and/or phonological properties. With respect to phonology, there was significantly more clustering around the parameters "handshape" and "location" compared to "movement". We conclude that the BSL lexicon is organised in similar ways to the lexicons of spoken languages, but that lexical retrieval is characterised by strong links between semantics and phonology; movement is less readily retrieved than handshape and location; and phonological fluency is difficult for signers because they have little metaphonological awareness in BSL and because signs do not display the onset salience that characterises spoken words. PMID:24043510

Marshall, Chloë; Rowley, Katherine; Atkinson, Joanna

2014-10-01

272

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

273

Body Conscious? Interoceptive Awareness, Measured by Heartbeat Perception, Is Negatively Correlated with Self-  

E-print Network

this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self- objectification. Interoceptive the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution

Royal Holloway, University of London

274

Exploring the link between stuttering and phonology: a review and implications for treatment.  

PubMed

Three lines of research have been pursued in the literature to study the link between phonology and stuttering: (1) effects of phonological complexity on the location (loci) of stutter events; (2) outcomes of standardized test measures in children who do and do not stutter; and (3) studies of phonological encoding in children and adults who stutter. This review synthesizes findings from these three lines of research to address the purported link between phonology and stuttering and its potential implications for stuttering treatment. Results from the loci studies offer some support for the role of phonological complexity in the occurrence of stuttering. Studies of performance in standardized tests of phonology have not identified differences between children who do and do not stutter. Studies of phonological encoding have been equivocal in reporting differences between children and adults who stutter and those who do not stutter. Several cautions are raised in interpreting the findings from the discussed studies, and despite the mixed findings, some implications for treatments are considered. PMID:24782273

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

2014-05-01

275

Clinical Phonology: The Explanation and Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers problems in the conceptualization of children's speech sound disorders and terminology changes related to use of "articulation" and "phonology." He suggests that clinical phonology must use scientific methods to explain phonological disorders. (CL)

Locke, John L.

1983-01-01

276

The articulatory basis of positional asymmetries in phonological acquisition  

E-print Network

Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...

McAllister, Tara Kathleen

2009-01-01

277

The effects of a multilinguistic morphological awareness approach for improving language and literacy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness emphasis, or one with an additional morphological awareness focus. The morphological intervention group performed better on standardized measures of reading comprehension, and spelling, and on a nonstandardized spelling test of morphological patterns. Both groups improved and no between-group differences were found on a standardized measure of word identification and word attack, as well as on a nonstandardized spelling test of orthographic patterns. PMID:24306460

Wolter, Julie A; Dilworth, Valisa

2014-01-01

278

The Relationship Between Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Incidental Word Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the\\u000a role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing.\\u000a Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological memory), rhyming and phoneme\\u000a alliteration tasks (to investigate phonological sensitivity), and an incidental word

Vijayachandra Ramachandra; Lynne E. Hewitt; Tim Brackenbury

2011-01-01

279

Phonological processing among good and poor readers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researchers believe that a connection exists between phonological processing skills and reading ability, and phonological deficits have often been cited as possible explanation for reading disability among both children and adults. This study will present research findings on phonological processing of various speech sounds among school-aged children who were classified as good and poor readers by standardized tests. These subjects will be administered speech discrimination tests using a variety of speech stimuli. Results of their performance on these tasks will be presented and a relationship between their reading and phonological processing abilities will be discussed.

Wayland, Ratree

2001-05-01

280

Levels of phonological awareness and learning to read  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports studies of segmentation performance by a Nursery group of children, who had not yet started to learn to read, and by Primary 1 and 2 groups, who were in the early stages of learning by a standard method of whole word acquisition combined with letter-sound learning. Rhyme and alliteration production tasks were applied, together with segmentation tasks

Philip H. K. Seymour; Henryka M. Evans

1994-01-01

281

Links between Early Rhythm Skills, Musical Training, and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A small number of studies show that music training is associated with improvements in reading or in its component skills. A central question underlying this present research is whether musical activity can enhance the acquisition of reading skill, potentially before formal reading instruction begins. We explored two dimensions of this question: an…

Moritz, Catherine; Yampolsky, Sasha; Papadelis, Georgios; Thomson, Jennifer; Wolf, Maryanne

2013-01-01

282

Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

283

Assessing the Phonological Skills of Bilingual Children from Preschool through Kindergarten: Developmental Progression and Cross-Language Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…

Lopez, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

284

Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…

Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

2011-01-01

285

Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

286

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact. PMID:23162515

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

287

On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.  

PubMed

The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

2014-01-01

288

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: An fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum’s heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum’s language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C.

2014-01-01

289

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum's heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum's language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C

2013-06-01

290

Phonemes Matter: The Role of Phoneme-Level Awareness in Emergent Chinese Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of phonological awareness for learning to read may depend on the linguistic properties of a language. This study provides a careful examination of this language-specific theory by exploring the role of phoneme-level awareness in Mandarin Chinese, a language with an orthography that, at its surface, appears to require little…

Newman, Ellen Hamilton; Tardif, Twila; Huang, Jingyuan; Shu, Hua

2011-01-01

291

Morphological Awareness, Orthographic Knowledge, and Spelling Errors: Keys to Understanding Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically…

Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M-Y.

2009-01-01

292

Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological

Tijms, Jurgen

2004-01-01

293

PROGRAMMED INTRODUCTION TO ARABIC SCRIPT AND PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PRESENT PROGRESS REPORT DESCRIBES INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF ARABIC WRITING AND PHONOLOGY, BASED ON THE RESULTS OF (1) A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHONOLOGIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND MODERN LITERARY ARABIC, (2) AN ANALYSIS OF MODERN LITERARY ARABIC WRITING, AND (3) A WORD STUDY OF 11 ELEMENTARY ARABIC TEXTBOOKS. (FOR A…

MCCARUS, ERNEST; RAMMUNY, RAJI

294

Chile Language Aphasia and Phonological Universals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…

Jakobson, Roman

295

Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

Key, Michael Parrish

2012-01-01

296

Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform to a neighboring articulation. Disyllabic words were responded to

Yang Lee; Miguel A. Moreno; Claudia Carello; Michael T. Turvey

2006-01-01

297

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

298

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

299

A patient with phonologic alexia can learn to read "much" from "mud pies"  

PubMed Central

People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al (2002) reported a successful treatment for phonologic alexia that paired problematic functors and verbs with easily read relays that were homophonous nouns (e.g. "be" paired with "bee"). The current study evaluates the efficacy of pairing problematic grammatical words with relays that share initial phonemes, but vary in the relationship of their final phonemes. Results showed that reading of target grammatical words improved to criterion level (90% accuracy over two consecutive probes) in all experimental conditions with shared phonology, but remained far below criterion level in control conditions. There was a significant correlation between degree of phonologic relatedness and error rate. Maintenance of the treatment effect was poor as assessed by traditional measurement, however a dramatic savings during relearning was demonstrated during a subsequent treatment phase. The finding that reading can be re-organized by pairing target words not only with homophones, but with other phonologically related relays, suggests that this approach could be applied to a wide corpus of words and, therefore, potentially be of great use clinically. We suggest, within a connectionist account, that the treatment effect results from relays priming the initial phonologic units of the targets. PMID:18513760

Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

2008-01-01

300

Phonologically driven variability: The case of determiners.  

PubMed

Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g., in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey'). Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding how these words are processed. Determiners either are thought to have different representations for each of their surface forms, or they are thought to have only 1 representation while other forms are generated online after selection through a rule-based process. We tested the predictions derived from these 2 views in 3 picture naming experiments. Participants named pictures using determiner-adjective-noun phrases (e.g., la nouvelle table 'the new table'). Phonologically consistent or inconsistent conditions were contrasted, based on the phonological onsets of the adjective and the noun. Results revealed shorter naming latencies for consistent than for inconsistent sequences (i.e., a phonological consistency effect) for all the determiner types tested. Our interpretation of these findings converges on the assumption that determiners with varying surface forms are represented in memory with multiple phonological-lexical representations. This conclusion is discussed in relation to models of determiner processing and models of lexical variability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24797443

Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-09-01

301

Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

Hartl, Wilfried

2014-05-01

302

GRAMMATICAL)CONSTRAINTS)ON)PHONOLOGICAL)ENCODING) )))1) Grammatical)constraints)on)phonological)encoding)in)speech)production)  

E-print Network

,)Mitchum,)Haendiges,)&)Sandson,)1997).)In)nonQerrorful)speech,)phonological) similarity)between)words)in)sentences)can)affect)word)choice)Rd) Evanston,)IL)60208) jordana@u.northwestern.edu,)mattQgoldrick@northwestern.edu) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Word)influence)of)grammatical)encoding)on)the)retrieval)and)encoding) of)phonological)wordQform)information)during)speech)production,)we)examine)how) grammatical)class)constraints)influence)the)activation)of)phonological)neighbors)(words

Bustamante, Fabián E.

303

Development of reading and phonological skills of children at family risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal analysis from kindergarten to sixth grade.  

PubMed

The main focus of this article is to develop a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of literacy and phonological skills within Dutch-speaking children. Children at high and low risk for dyslexia were followed and compared at four different moments: kindergarten and first, third and sixth grades. Three groups were then compared: (1) dyslexic readers; (2) normal readers at high risk for dyslexia; and (3) normal readers at low risk for dyslexia. Children diagnosed with dyslexia scored lower than high-risk normal readers on phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory and literacy skills. Normal readers at high risk scored between both groups, confirming that dyslexia is to be considered as a continuum rather than an all-or-none condition. Growth analyses showed that the three groups evolved similarly on all measures except for phoneme deletion and literacy measures. Finally, solely PA and RAN explained a significant amount of variance in the evolution of reading skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25257672

Dandache, Sophie; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

2014-11-01

304

Fertility Awareness  

MedlinePLUS

... avoided during the fertile period. Continue Protection Against STDs Fertility awareness does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Couples having sex must always use condoms ...

305

GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

2011-12-01

306

Subgrouping children with familial phonologic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial aggregation of speech and language disorders was examined as a basis of subgrouping children with phonologic disorders. Fifty-nine children with phonologic disorders were subgrouped according to whether or not other nuclear family members reported a history of speech\\/language disorders. Thirty-four subjects (58%) reported at least one other nuclear family member affected and 25 subjects (42%) reported no other nuclear

Barbara A Lewis; Lisa Freebairn

1997-01-01

307

Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

Schiller, Niels O

2007-06-01

308

Measuring affective benefits and costs of awareness systems supporting intimate social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings are social beings. We have a fundamental need to communicate - to form, maintain and enhance social relationships. Members of intimate social networks (e.g. family members, close friends) that live apart, stay in touch with each other through a range of synchronous and asynchronous communication media. This paper describes research focused at developing and testing a questionnaire measure

Joy van Baren; Wijnand IJsselsteijn; Panos Markopoulos; NA Romero Herrera; Boris de Ruyter

2004-01-01

309

What models of verbal working memory can learn from phonological theory: Decomposing the phonological similarity effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying types and levels of similarity in their onset

Judith Schweppe; Martine Grice; Ralf Rummer

2011-01-01

310

Effects of Phonological Complexity on Error Production and Pseudoword Training in Acquired Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…

Riley, Ellyn Anne

2011-01-01

311

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

312

Working memory and phonological processing as predictors of children’s mathematical problem solving at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the contribution of working memory (WM) to mathematical problem solving in younger (8-year-old) and older\\u000a (11-year-old) children. The results showed that (1) significant agerelated differences in WM performance were maintained when\\u000a measures of phonological processing (i.e., digit naming speed, short-term memory, phonological deletion) were partialed from\\u000a the analysis; (2) WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independently

H. Lee Swanson

2004-01-01

313

Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four basic approaches that have been used to demonstrate perception without awareness are described. Each approach reflects one of two types of experimental logic and one of two possible methods for controlling awareness. The experimental logic has been either to demonstrate a dissociation between a measure of perception with awareness and a measure that is sensitive to perception without awareness

Philip M. Merikle; Daniel Smilek; John D. Eastwood

2001-01-01

314

Differential effects of orthographic and phonological consistency in cortex for children with and without reading impairment  

PubMed Central

One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers during a rhyming task in the visual modality. In line with our previous study, for Normal Readers, lower phonological and orthographic consistency were associated with greater activation in several regions including bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex as well as left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers activated only bilateral anterior cingulate cortex in response to decreasing consistency. Group comparisons revealed that, relative to Impaired Readers, Normal Readers exhibited a larger response in this network for lower phonological consistency whereas orthographic consistency differences were limited. Lastly, brain-behavior correlations revealed a significant relationship between skill (i.e. Phonological Awareness and non-word decoding) and cortical consistency effects for Impaired Readers in left inferior/middle frontal gyri and left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers with higher skill showed greater activation for higher consistency. This relationship was reliably different from that of Normal Readers in which higher skill was associated with greater activation for lower consistency. According to single-route or connectionist models, these results suggest that Impaired Readers with higher skill devote neural resources to representing the mapping between orthography and phonology for higher consistency words, and therefore do not robustly activate this network for lower consistency words. PMID:18725239

Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2009-01-01

315

Dyslexia: a deficit in visuo-spatial attention, not in phonological processing.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia affects up to 10 per cent of the population and it is important to understand its causes. It is widely assumed that phonological deficits, that is, deficits in how words are sounded out, cause the reading difficulties in dyslexia. However, there is emerging evidence that phonological problems and the reading impairment both arise from poor visual (i.e., orthographic) coding. We argue that attentional mechanisms controlled by the dorsal visual stream help in serial scanning of letters and any deficits in this process will cause a cascade of effects, including impairments in visual processing of graphemes, their translation into phonemes and the development of phonemic awareness. This view of dyslexia localizes the core deficit within the visual system and paves the way for new strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20080053

Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Pammer, Kristen

2010-02-01

316

Developmental implications of nonlinear phonological theory.  

PubMed

For the past 20 years the field of linguistics has provided a basis for assessment and treatment methods for speech and language disorders. Since Goldsmiths (1976) dissertation showing tone as an independently functioning autosegment, new and robust phonological frameworks have become available, i.e. nonlinear phonological frameworks. This paper outlines major aspects of nonlinear phonology and its developmental implications. Based in generative phonology, nonlinear frameworks adhere to many of the tenets of the generative grammar tradition, such as markedness and autonomy of linguistic components. The major difference between classical and nonlinear generative phonology is the latters emphasis on representation rather than on rules or processes. This enriched representation is hierarchical and multitiered, rather than being strictly sequential as in classical generative phonology, and includes syllabic structure and segmental information. Phonological rules or processes result from, and are constrained by, principles of association between the various autonomous levels. If a child comes to the language-learning situation with a representional framework, a set of universal 'templates' are then available to utilize for decoding and encoding. The incorporation of both syllabic (prosodic level) and segmental information in representation suggests that the child will come to the language-learning process primed with expected syllable structure bases as well as with an expected segmental 'feature inventory'. The concept of autonomy implies possible independent learning for information on the various tiers, e.g. between the prosodic and segmental levels. The concept of hierarchy suggests that prominent system units in tree structure may have developmental precedence over deeply embedded units. These and other concepts are developed in the following pages. PMID:20670203

Bernhardt, B

1992-01-01

317

Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness  

E-print Network

morphographic nature of Chinese. In light of the inapplicability of the DRC model to Chinese reading, Yin and Weekes (2003), based on several cases of Chinese dyslexia, proposed a “triangle model” to describe how Chinese characters can be read. This “triangle... representation is supported by the cases of deep and surface dyslexia in Chinese (Law & Or, 2001; Law, Wong, & Chiu, 2005; Yin & Butterworth, 1992). For example, deep dyslexia, which is characteristic of semantic errors in reading, is caused by the impairment...

Chan, Yi-Chih

2013-12-31

318

Predicting Reading Performance From Neuroimaging Profiles: The Cerebral Basis of Phonological Effects in Printed Word Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study linked 2 experimental paradigms for the analytic study of reading that heretofore have been used separately. Measures on a lexical decision task designed to isolate phonological effects in the identification of printed words were examined in young adults. The results were related to previously obtained measures of brain activation patterns for these participants derived from functional magnetic resonance

Kenneth R. Pugh; Bennett A. Shaywitz; Sally E. Shaywitz; Donald P. Shankweiler; Leonard Katz; Jack M. Fletcher; Pawel Skudlarski; Robert K. Fulbright; R. Todd Constable; Richard A. Bronen; Cheryl Lacadie; John C. Gore

1997-01-01

319

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

320

Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Representation in Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now well-established that there is a causal connection between children's phonological skills and their acquisition of reading and spelling. Here we study low-level auditory processes that may underpin the development of phonological representations in children. Dyslexic and control children were given a battery of phonological tasks,…

Richardson, Ulla; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Scott, Sophie K.; Goswami, Usha

2004-01-01

321

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

322

Phonological and Articulation Therapy in Portuguese Children with Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

words) This study evaluates the effectiveness of two interventions (articulatory and phonological) for treatment of developmental phonological disorders in 14 pre-school Portuguese children with Language Impairment (LI) over 25 sessions. Results explored phonological ability pre- and post-intervention at single word and spontaneous speech level. The percentage consonant correct (PCC), the level of intelligibility of speech and percentage occurrence of several

Marisa Lousada; Luis M. T. Jesus; Victoria Joffe; Sylvie Capelas; Cláudia Margaça; David Simões

323

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding*  

E-print Network

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding* Brian Butterworth Department. Disorders of phonological encoding. Cognition, 42: 261-286. Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic vary from 1.6 errors per 1000words (Shallice & Butterworth, 1977) down to 62 (segment errors

Butterworth, Brian

324

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological

Rvachew, Susan

2007-01-01

325

Phonological decoding involves left posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Aloud reading of novel words is achieved by phonological decoding, a process in which grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules are applied to "sound out" a word's spoken representation. Numerous brain imaging studies have examined the neural bases of phonological decoding by contrasting pseudoword (pronounceable nonwords) to real word reading. However, only a few investigations have examined pseudoword reading under both aloud and silent conditions, task parameters that are likely to significantly alter the functional anatomy of phonological decoding. Subjects participated in an fMRI study of aloud pseudoword, aloud real word, silent pseudoword, and silent real word reading. Using this two-by-two design, we examined effects of word-type (real words vs. pseudowords) and response-modality (silent vs. aloud) and their interactions. We found 1) four regions to be invariantly active across the four reading conditions: the anterior aspect of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's Area (BA) 6), and three areas within the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex; 2) a main effect of word-type (pseudowords > words) in left inferior frontal gyrus and left intraparietal sulcus; 3) a main effect of response-modality (aloud > silent) that included bilateral motor, auditory, and extrastriate cortex; and 4) a single left hemisphere extrastriate region showing a word-type by response-modality interaction effect. This region, within the posterior fusiform cortex at BA 19, was uniquely modulated by varying phonological processing demands. This result suggests that when reading, word forms are subject to phonological analysis at the point they are first recognized as alphabetic stimuli and BA 19 is involved in processing the phonological properties of words. PMID:15934062

Dietz, Nicole A E; Jones, Karen M; Gareau, Lynn; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Eden, Guinevere F

2005-10-01

326

Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.  

PubMed

In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311

Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

2014-10-01

327

Towards a Further Characterization of Phonological and Literacy Problems in Dutch-Speaking Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the development of phonology and literacy in Dutch-speaking children at family risk of dyslexia and in matched controls. Measures were administered in kindergarten (before the start of formal reading instruction), in first and in third grade. Children, diagnosed with dyslexia in third grade, showed impaired…

Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Cleuren, Leen; Vandewalle, Ellen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

2010-01-01

328

Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

2005-01-01

329

A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

2014-01-01

330

The Structure and Nature of Phonological Neighbourhoods in Children's Early Lexicons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines phonological neighbourhoods in the lexicons of children acquiring English. Analyses of neighbourhood densities were done on children's earliest words and on a corpus of spontaneous speech, used to measure neighbours in the target language. Neighbourhood densities were analyzed for words created by changing segments in…

Zamuner, Tania S.

2009-01-01

331

Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

2010-01-01

332

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

333

Early Experience of Sex Hormones as a Predictor of Reading, Phonology, and Auditory Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has indicated possible reciprocal connections between phonology and reading, and also connections between aspects of auditory perception and reading. The present study investigates these associations further by examining the potential influence of prenatal androgens using measures of digit ratio (the ratio of the lengths of the…

Beech, John R.; Beauvois, Michael W.

2006-01-01

334

Phonemic Awareness in Hyperlexic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that children with hyperlexia who learn to read spontaneously before age five are impaired in reading and listening comprehension but have word recognition skills well above their measured cognitive and linguistic abilities. Administers phonemic awareness measures to three early readers. Finds that all three children's phonemic awareness

Sparks, Richard L.

1995-01-01

335

Minding Morphology: How Morphological Awareness Relates to Reading for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored subprocesses of reading for 157 fifth grade Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) by examining whether morphological awareness made a unique contribution to reading comprehension beyond a strong covariate-phonological decoding. The role of word reading and reading vocabulary as mediators of this relationship was…

Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria S.; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

2013-01-01

336

The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Literacy Outcomes of Elementary Students: A Meta-Analysis Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001 requires the US educational systems to provide effective instruction for all students to be successful in reading. It is generally accepted that there are five essential components for effective reading instruction: phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, vocabulary, fluency, and reading…

Lee, Sangeun

2011-01-01

337

African American English Dialect and Performance on Nonword Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…

Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.

2007-01-01

338

The Effects of a Multilinguistic Morphological Awareness Approach for Improving Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness

Wolter, Julie A.; Dilworth, Valisa

2014-01-01

339

Phonological and visual processing deficits can dissociate  

E-print Network

disorder. Many data showing a strong link between phonological processing ability and learning to read manuscript, published in "Reading and Writing 16 (2003) 541-572" #12;2 To appear in Reading and Writing hal with developmental reading and writing impairments whose performance was compared to that of chronological age

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

341

Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

2000-01-01

342

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

... of words, such as "nana" for "banana." The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age. ... processes see Phonological Processes . How are speech sound ... and may use a formal articulation test to record sound errors. An oral mechanism ...

343

Phonological Assimilation in Urban Jordanian Arabic  

E-print Network

This study reports patterns of phonological assimilation in consonant clusters in Urban Jordanian Arabic (UJA). We examine all possible C1C2 combinations across a word boundary as well as the concatenations of consonant-final prefixes //in/ and //il...

Zuraiq, Wael; Zhang, Jie

2006-01-01

344

On Some Theoretical Implications of Winnebago Phonology  

E-print Network

This paper is essentially a commentary on Steriade 1990, which deals i.a. with certain aspects of Winnebago phonology. The issues cluster around a much-discussed process known as Dorsey's Law (see Miner 1992 and references given there) which...

Miner, Kenneth L.

1993-01-01

345

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

346

Notes on the Development of Phonological Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the parallels between N. Chomsky and M. Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English" and A. N. Whitehead and B. Russell's "Principia Mathematica." Uses these parallels to distinguish "formalist" v "substance-based" generative phonology. Suggests that a modification of the "formalist" program is ultimately more satisfactory than the…

Anderson, Stephen R.

1980-01-01

347

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

348

St. Lawrence Island Eskimo Phonology and Orthography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo is the language both of the natives of St. Lawrence Island and of the facing Siberian mainland, with few minor variations. A history of the language is given as it evolved in both countries, as well as a phonological analysis and orthographic developments on both sides. (SCC)

Krauss, Michael E.

1975-01-01

349

Kindergarten teachers develop phoneme awareness in low-income, inner-city classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that training in phoneme awareness has a positive impact on beginning reading and spelling. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction in phonological awareness provided in low-income, inner-city kindergarten classrooms by kindergarten teachers and their teaching assistants. Prior to the intervention, the 84 treatment children and 75 control children, who attended inner-city

B. A. Blachman; E. W. Ball; R. S. Black; D. M. Tangel

1994-01-01

350

Phonemic Awareness is Not Necessary to Become a Skilled Deaf Reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of research investigating prelingually deaf individuals’ word reading skills, phonemic awareness, and reading comprehension\\u000a challenges the widely held conclusion that the impoverished readings skills of such individuals are the result of poor phonological\\u000a processing abilities. Compelling findings show that—notwithstanding often remarkably poor phonemic awareness of the prelingually\\u000a deaf—such readers succeed in developing word-reading strategies that sustain written word

Paul Miller; M. Diane Clark

351

Urban Special Education Teachers' Perception of African American Students as Measured by the Cultural Awareness Beliefs Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the perceptions of special education teachers and the eight factors (Teacher Beliefs, School climate, Culturally responsive Classroom Management, Home and Community Support, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum and Instruction, Cultural Sensitivity and Teacher…

Jackson, Dianna Dale

2010-01-01

352

Evolutionary awareness.  

PubMed

In this article, we advance the concept of "evolutionary awareness," a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities-which we refer to as "intergenerational extended phenotypes"-by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment. PMID:25300054

Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K

2014-01-01

353

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

354

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

2011-01-01

355

Awareness During Anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Summary Awareness is the postoperative recall of sensory perception during general anaesthesia. The incidence is quoted at 1-2 per every 1000 patients. This rare but serious adverse event can be extremely distressing for both the patient as well as the anaesthesiologist. Awareness during anaesthesia may occur despite apparently sound anaesthetic management and is usually not associated with pain. However, a few cases may experience excruciating pain and have long term neuropsychiatric sequelae like post-traumatic stress disorder. This adverse event can also have serious medicolegal implications. This article addresses the various contributory factors that may predispose to intra-operative awareness. Preventive measures in the preinduction period as well as intraoperatively are discussed, including the use of depth of anaesthesia monitors. Remedial steps to be taken when such an event occurs are also discussed. PMID:20640115

Sandhu, K; Dash, HH

2009-01-01

356

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

357

Awareness campaign.  

PubMed

LifeBridge Health developed and implemented an awareness campaign to generate buzz about the breast cancer services at the Alvin & Lois Lapidus Cancer Institute of LifeBridge Health and the Herman & Walter Samuelson Breast Cancer Care Center at Northwest Hospital Center. With the help of talented local breast cancer survivors, celebrities, fashion designers, and artists, LifeBridge Health created a campaign, including an interactive Web site, public relations outreach, and a unique event in October 2006 that featured a collection of hand-made decorated bras. PMID:17450952

2007-01-01

358

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review  

PubMed Central

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons.

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

359

Phonological storage and executive function deficits in children with mathematics difficulties.  

PubMed

Children with mathematics difficulties suffer from working memory deficits. This study investigated the deficit profile of phonological storage and executive functions in working memory among children with mathematics difficulties. Based on multiple instruments and two assessment points, 68 children were screened out of 805 fifth graders. Of these 68 children, 18 were classified as children with only mathematics difficulties (MD), 20 were classified as children with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD), and 30 were typically developing (TD) peers matched on age and general ability. Measures for phonological storage, dual-task performance, inhibition, and updating of verbal and numerical materials were administered individually. Results showed that compared with the TD group, children with MD exhibited storage and inhibition deficits specific to numerical information and dual-task deficits of both verbal and numerical information, whereas children with MDRD showed extensive deficits on phonological storage and executive functions on both verbal and numerical tasks. Moreover, executive function deficits were not confined to phonological storage deficits. Implications of the findings for the working memory deficit profile and working memory training among children with mathematics difficulties were discussed. PMID:22633135

Peng, Peng; Congying, Sun; Beilei, Li; Sha, Tao

2012-08-01

360

The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade students participating in Response to Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281

Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

2013-01-01

361

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children With Speech Sound Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergar- ten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological processing skills (SSD-high PP), and 35 children with

Susan Rvachew

2007-01-01

362

Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection.  

PubMed

Speakers produce words to convey meaning, but does meaning alone determine which words they say? We report three experiments that show independent semantic and phonological influences converging to determine word selection. Speakers named pictures (e.g., of a priest) following visually presented cloze sentences that primed either semantic competitors of the target object name ("The woman went to the convent to become a..."), homophones of the competitors ("I thought that there would still be some cookies left, but there were..."), or matched unrelated control object names. Primed semantic competitors (nun) were produced instead of picture names more often than primed unrelated control object names, showing the well-documented influence of semantic similarity on lexical selection. Surprisingly, primed homophone competitors (none) also substituted for picture names more often than control object names even though they only sounded like competitors. Thus, independent semantic and phonological influences can converge to affect word selection. PMID:12564760

Ferreira, Victor S; Griffin, Zenzi M

2003-01-01

363

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

364

A case study of developmental phonological dyslexia: Is the attentional deficit in the perception of rapid stimuli sequences amodal?  

PubMed

The attentional blink (AB) refers to a decrease in accuracy that occurs when participants are required to detect the second of two rapidly sequential targets displayed randomly in a stream of distracters. Dyslexic individuals have been shown to exhibit a prolonged AB in the visual modality, interpreted as evidence of sluggish attentional shifting (SAS). However, the amodal SAS theory predicts that the disorder should further extend to the auditory modality, then resulting in a phonological disorder as typically found in developmental dyslexia. Otherwise, it has been demonstrated that a visual attention (VA) span deficit contributes to the poor reading outcome of dyslexic individuals, independently of their phonological skills. The present study assesses the amodality assumption of the SAS theory together with questioning its relation with the VA span deficit. For this purpose, visual and auditory ABs were explored in a well compensated young adult, LL, who exhibits a pure phonological dyslexia characterised by poor pseudo-word processing and poor phonological skills but preserved VA span. The investigation revealed two different kinds of deficits in LL. Her AB was prolonged and marginally deeper in the visual modality whereas a primarily deeper in amplitude and a subtle prolonged AB was found in the auditory modality. The atypical performance patterns of LL in both modalities suggest that her perceptual attention disorder is amodal as predicted by the SAS theory. This amodal disorder was here reported in a dyslexic participant with a phonological disorder, well in accordance with the hypothesis that sluggish auditory attention shifting contributes to difficulties in phoneme awareness and literacy acquisition. Furthermore, prolonged VA blink was observed in the absence of VA span disorder, thus suggesting that visual attentional shifting and VA span might be distinct mechanisms, contributing independently to reading acquisition and developmental dyslexia. PMID:19446803

Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Berger, Carole; Valdois, Sylviane

2010-02-01

365

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

PubMed

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

366

Longitudinal assessment of awareness in early-stage Alzheimer's disease using comparable questionnaire-based and performance-based measures: a prospective one-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Few studies of awareness in dementia have taken a longitudinal perspective, yet exploring the ways in which awareness changes over time may offer important information about the processes involved and the relationship between awareness and other variables. The present study explored in detail the patterns of change in awareness scores over time for a group of 12 participants with early-stage Alzheimer's disease using a multi-dimensional measure giving comparable participant-carer and post diction-performance discrepancy scores. There were small, non-significant increases in mean discrepancy scores for each of these components of the assessment, with similar patterns for questionnaire-based and performance-based ratings. The small changes that were observed reflected both participant and informant factors. The majority of participants showed only very minor changes; others showed changes in the direction of either reduced or increased awareness. There was no significant association between change in mean discrepancy score and change in MMSE score over time, although there was a significant decline in MMSE scores at follow-up. The observation of different longitudinal trajectories for awareness scores, reflecting increased or decreased awareness or no change, may indicate the operation of different processes affecting the expression of explicit awareness that can be understood within a biopsychosocial formulation of this complex construct. PMID:16517491

Clare, L; Wilson, B A

2006-03-01

367

Phonological Underspecification and Mapping Mechanisms in the Speech Recognition Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of recognizing phonological variations in the speech input has triggered numerous treatments in speech processing models. Two areas of current controversy are the possibility of phonological underspecification in the mental lexicon and the nature of the mapping mechanism from the speech signal to the abstract lexical entry. We present…

Wheeldon, Linda; Waksler, Rachelle

2004-01-01

368

Phonological Skills and Disfluency Levels in Preschool Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between stuttering and aspects of language, including phonology, has been investigated for many years. Whereas past literature reported that the incidence of phonological difficulties is higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, the suggestion of association between the two disorders also drew several…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2007-01-01

369

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

370

DISFLUENCY PATTERNS AND PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS NEAR STUTTERING ONSET  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are relationships between phonological skills and the initial characteristics of stuttering. That is, close to the onset of stuttering, are there differences in specific stuttering patterns between children who exhibit minimal and moderate phonological deviations in terms of frequency of stuttering and length of stuttering events? Twenty-nine preschool children near the onset of stuttering, ranging in age from 29 to 49 months, with a mean of 39.17 months, were divided into two groups based on the level of phonological ability: minimal phonological deviations and moderate phonological deviations. The children’s level of stuttering-like disfluencies was examined. Results revealed no statistically significant differences in the stuttering characteristics of the two groups near onset, calling into the question the nature of the stuttering-phonology link. PMID:22939524

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

371

On the Nature of Phonological Assembly: Evidence from Backward Masking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used backward masking paradigm to investigate nature and time course of phonological assembly. Two experiments examined to what extent phonological assembly is a serial process. One showed recognition rates in a backward masking task varied as a function of the serial position of phonemes that were shared between backward masks and target words;…

Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C.

2002-01-01

372

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

373

Working Memory Compensates for Hearing Related Phonological Processing Deficit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch, reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study investigated…

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

374

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

375

Evidence-Based Practice: A Matrix for Predicting Phonological Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…

Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

376

Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With  

E-print Network

of articulation (e.g., /da/ or /8a/). Signif- icantly fewer children than adults experience this illusionRole of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss Purpose: This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss

O'Toole, Alice J.

377

ENHANCEMENT OF LEARNING FOR CHILDREN WITH PHONOLOGICAL DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with functional phonological disorders warrant clinical treatment to accelerate their acquisition of the sound system. In this paper, I focus on the linguistic factors that converge to enhance phonological learning in treatment, with specific reference to segmental, featural and syllabic levels of structure. The primary finding to emerge is that treatment of more complex linguistic structures yields the greatest

Judith A. Gierut

2004-01-01

378

Feature Analysis of Segmental Errors in Children with Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the retention patterns obtained for children diagnosed with phonological disorders, 10 with developmental apraxia of speech and 10 with phonologically based speech areas. In both groups, in cases of sound substitutions, voicing was retained most frequently and place of articulation least frequently. An inverse relationship…

Forrest, Karen; Morrisette, Michele L.

1999-01-01

379

Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three sets of instructional materials for the teaching of Arabic phonology and script have been prepared on the basis of studies of (1) the phonologies of American English and Modern Literary Arabic (MLA), (2) the MLA writing system, and (3) the vocabularies of 11 Arabic textbooks used in the United States. The effectiveness of these materials was…

McCarus, Ernest; Rammuny, Raji

380

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

381

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

382

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence From Phonotactic Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms has elapsed

Pierre A. Hallé; Alberto Dominguez; Fernando Cuetos; Juan Segui

2008-01-01

383

Otitis Media and Disordered Phonologies: Some Concerns and Cautions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews problems faced by researchers in the association between otitis media with effusion and phonological impairment and then summarizes currently established findings concerning otitis media and its effects on phonological acquisition. Professionals are cautioned to neither ignore nor exaggerate the possible influence of otitis…

Paden, Elaine Pagel

1994-01-01

384

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

2008-01-01

385

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

386

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

387

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

388

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

389

Phonological but not auditory discrimination is impaired in dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient phonological skills are considered to be a core problem in developmental dyslexia. Children with dyslexia often demonstrate poorer performance than non-impaired readers when categorizing speech-sounds. Using the automatic mismatch response, we show that in contrast to this deficit at the behavioural level, neurophysiological responding in dyslexic children indicates their ability to automatically discriminate syllables. Therefore, the phonological deficit is

Isabella Paul; Christof Bott; Sabine Heim; Christian Wienbruch; Thomas R. Elbert

2006-01-01

390

Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

2006-01-01

391

Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of dyslexia and normally developing controls on phonological processing, phonological learning, phonological

Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling

2004-01-01

392

Unlocking the Nature of the Phonological-Deep Dyslexia Continuum: The Keys to Reading Aloud Are in Phonology and Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mech- anisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this

Jenni Crisp; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2006-01-01

393

Type-specific proactive interference in patients with semantic and phonological STM deficits.  

PubMed

Prior neuropsychological evidence suggests that semantic and phonological components of short-term memory (STM) are functionally and neurologically distinct. The current paper examines proactive interference (PI) from semantic and phonological information in two STM-impaired patients, DS (semantic STM deficit) and AK (phonological STM deficit). In Experiment 1 probe recognition tasks with open and closed sets of stimuli were used. Phonological PI was assessed using nonword items, and semantic and phonological PI was assessed using words. In Experiment 2 phonological and semantic PI was elicited by an item recognition probe test with stimuli that bore phonological and semantic relations to the probes. The data suggested heightened phonological PI for the semantic STM patient, and exaggerated effects of semantic PI in the phonological STM case. The findings are consistent with an account of extremely rapid decay of activated type-specific representations in cases of severely impaired phonological and semantic STM. PMID:24295224

Harris, Lara; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn

2014-11-01

394

Fine-tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First to Second-language Zooming In  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German–English homograph primes (gift = German ‘‘poison’’) in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of English (L2). Both reaction times and event-related brain potentials were measured on

Thomas C. Gunter

2008-01-01

395

Some Problems of American Students in Mastering Persian Phonology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adult learning to speak a foreign language normally retains an "accent" which may affect the intelligibility of certain sounds, but more often simply conveys the fact that the speaker is a non-native speaker. Various scholars have experimented and discussed the elements involved in a foreign accent. However, in Iran very few researchers have attempted to verify scientifically what are the phonetic and phonological aspects of an "accent." This author tried to determine whether or not a selected group of words, emphasizing stop voicing, produced by native speakers of Persian had significant phonetic and phonemic differences from those achieved by the American students. Subjects for the experiments were three groups of students, one Iranian, two American. A contrastive analysis of the Persian and the English stop consonants was made. An identical measurement test for all three groups was administered. Utilized was a Kay Sona-graph for acoustic analysis, and all spoken data from the Iranian group were compared with those of the American groups. An examination of acoustic correlates of Tehran stops produced by American students shows that the phonetically different but similar feature of /voice/ found in Tehran, Persian and English stops is intuitive to the Americans, and that the language learner cannot readily disassociate a phonological feature from habits of articulation. The results of this research support using the phonetic method for adult learners who want to improve their pronunciation ability. Further research and experimentation is necessary on the effect of the suprasegmental elements on a foreign accent and the most effective teaching materials and methods and to explore other possible techniques in the teaching process.

Ghadessy, Esmael

1988-12-01

396

The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

2012-01-01

397

The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

Pearce, Mary Dorothy

398

Phonological and orthographic demands in the production of handwriting.  

PubMed

In an experimental handwriting task, with two parts, we varied the phonological and orthographic complexity of visually presented nonwords. Twelve adult subjects had to write these nonwords in shorthand as well as in Latin script. Phonological complexity was varied by presenting a nonword which included two identical vowel characters. These were either phonologically similar (simple condition) or phonologically different (complex condition). Orthographic complexity was varied by using nonwords which either have a graphemic format for shorthand that corresponds with the graphemic format that is applied for Latin script (simple condition) or a graphemic format for shorthand which is discrepant from the Latin script format (complex condition). It appeared that a higher degree of phonological and orthographic complexity led to a slower and less fluent performance in graphemes that preceded the actual locus of complexity of the nonword. Furthermore, complexity effects were by far the strongest under the production of shorthand. The results are interpreted from the point of view of a psychomotor theory of handwriting, which assumes that the spelling process of visually presented nonwords may follow a phonological or an orthographic (sublexical) route. The finding that orthographic complexity interferes with the production of a phonologically oriented task such as shorthand is interpreted as evidence in favour of an interactive transmission of information between these two processing routes. PMID:8475769

Portier, S J; van Galen, G P; Thomassen, A J

1993-03-01

399

Cerebellar-parietal connections underpin phonological storage.  

PubMed

Previous research has accumulated convincing evidence to show that the human cerebellum contributes to the short-term storage of verbal information, but its specific role in brain networks involved in phonological storage remains uncertain. In a randomized, crossover and sham-controlled design, we here combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the right cerebellum, with fMRI to investigate systematically the contribution of the human cerebellum to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of verbal information. After anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS, we found a reduced item recognition capacity together with an attenuated neural signal from the right cerebellar lobule VIIb, specifically during the late encoding phase. Within this phase, tDCS furthermore affected task-associated functional connections between right cerebellar lobule VIIb and the posterior parietal cortex. These findings suggest that the right cerebellar lobule VIIb interacts with the posterior parietal cortex, specifically during the late stages of verbal encoding, when verbal information enters phonological storage. PMID:24695720

Macher, Katja; Böhringer, Andreas; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2014-04-01

400

The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language  

PubMed Central

The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

2011-01-01

401

Phonological changes after the application of therapy approach based on distinctive features in the treatment of phonological disorder.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the phonological changes due to the application of a speech therapy approach based on distinctive features, using two types of target sounds (the ones which emphasize the contrast, and others which reinforce the distinctive features) in the treatment of phonological disorder. The sample was constituted by seven children with phonological disorder (four boys and three girls), with ages between 3 years and 10 months and 6 years and 9 months. The children were classified according to the severity of the phonological disorder and then underwent treatment based on the Modified Maximal Oppositions Model. Two subjects were grouped for each degree; one subject was treated by "contrast" and the other one by "reinforcement" of the distinctive features in which they showed difficulties. The moderate-severe degree was the only one to include only one subject. After 20 therapy sessions, the phonological changes before and after the treatment were analyzed, considering the type of stimulus presented ("contrast" or "reinforcement"). All subjects, either treated by "contrast" or "reinforcement", showed an increase in their Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC), in the number of acquired sounds and of generalizations in their phonological inventories. It was verified that both groups presented changes in their phonological inventories. On the comparative analysis between the groups, it was observed that both groups, treated by "contrast" and by "reinforcement", demonstrated differences regarding the types of generalizations studied. PMID:23128178

Bagetti, Tatiana; Ceron, Marizete Ilha; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia

2012-01-01

402

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY*  

E-print Network

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY* Susan Bradyt Abstract. Verbal short-term, 1973; Vellutino, Pruzek, Steger, & Meshoulam, 1973). The repeated finding that short-term memory in verbal short-term memory. We have sup

403

Phonological Development in Hearing Children of Deaf Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological development in hearing children of deaf parents Dr. Diane Lillo-Martin 5\\/9\\/2010 The researcher wishes to determine the significance of a unique linguistic environment on the effects of phonological development. The research examines whether 3 hearing children of deaf parents, hereafter referred to as CODAs, have inconsistencies, as compared to children in a typical linguistic environment, in their syllable structure,

Erin N. Toohey

2010-01-01

404

Morphological processing with deficient phonological short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the processing of Hebrew derivational morphology in an individual (S.E.) with deficient phonological short-term memory. In comparison to 10 age- and education-matched men, S.E. was impaired on digit span tasks and demonstrated no recency effect in word list recall. S.E. had low word retention span, but he exhibited phonological similarity and word length effects. His ability to

Gitit Kavé; Hagit Bar Zeev; Anita Lev

2007-01-01

405

Developmental changes in the role of different metalinguistic awareness skills in Chinese reading acquisition from preschool to third grade.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed. PMID:24809477

Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N

2014-01-01

406

Developmental Changes in the Role of Different Metalinguistic Awareness Skills in Chinese Reading Acquisition from Preschool to Third Grade  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed. PMID:24809477

Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N.

2014-01-01

407

Second language phonology influences first language word naming.  

PubMed

The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

2014-06-01

408

Emotional Awareness Deficits in Inpatients of a Psychosomatic Ward: A Comparison of Two Different Measures of Alexithymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OHLE ,P ROF .D R.M ED. Objective: The TAS 20 has demonstrated strong psychometric properties in a broad variety of studies in healthy populations. Much less work has been done in clinical contexts exploring the validity of the TAS 20 as a measure of the cognitive processing of emotions. The TAS 20, a self-report scale, tends to correlate with self-reported

CLAUDIA SUBIC-WRANA; SUSANNE BRUDER; WALTHER THOMAS; D R. P HIL

2005-01-01

409

Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach  

PubMed Central

Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyze magnetoencephalography data, we localized the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14–30?Hz) and gamma (30–50?Hz) frequency bands were analyzed in pre-selected time windows of 350–550 and 500–700?ms In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350–550?ms), but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14–20?Hz) for the phonological task and high beta (20–30?Hz) for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10), both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30–50?Hz), but in different time windows, 500–700?ms for the phonological task and 350–550?ms for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40), both tasks elicited changes in the 20–30?Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350–550?ms for the phonological task and 500–700?ms for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains. PMID:22908001

McNab, Fiona; Hillebrand, Arjan; Swithenby, Stephen J.; Rippon, Gina

2012-01-01

410

The phonetics of metrical prominence and its consequences on segmental phonology  

E-print Network

Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...

Giavazzi, Maria

2010-01-01

411

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40?ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200?ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120?ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100?ms, indicates that phonological processing initiates early and is sustained over time. These findings are consistent with accounts of visual word recognition that posit parallel activation of orthographic, phonological, and semantic information that interact over time to settle into a distributed, but stable, representation of a word. PMID:22654779

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

412

Linked control of syllable sequence and phonology in birdsong  

PubMed Central

The control of sequenced behaviors, including human speech, requires that the brain coordinate the production of discrete motor elements with their concatenation into complex patterns. In birdsong, another sequential vocal behavior, the acoustic structure (phonology) of individual song elements, or “syllables,” must be coordinated with the sequencing of syllables into a song. However, it is unknown whether syllable phonology is independent of the sequence in which a syllable is produced. We quantified interactions between phonology and sequence in Bengalese finch song by examining both convergent syllables, which can be preceded by at least two different syllables and divergent syllables, which can be followed by at least two different syllables. Phonology differed significantly based on the identity of the preceding syllable for 97% of convergent syllables and differed significantly with the identity of the upcoming syllable for 92% of divergent syllables. Furthermore, sequence-dependent phonological differences extended at least two syllables away from the convergent or divergent syllable. To determine whether these phenomena reflect differences in central control, we analyzed premotor neural activity in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). Activity associated with a syllable varied significantly depending on the sequence in which the syllable was produced, suggesting that sequence-dependent variations in premotor activity contribute to sequence-dependent differences in phonology. Moreover, these data indicate that RA activity could contribute to the sequencing of syllables. Together, these results suggest that rather than being controlled independently, the sequence and phonology of birdsong are intimately related, as is the case for human speech. PMID:20881112

Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Sober, Samuel J.; Brainard, Michael S.

2010-01-01

413

Which Phonological Model does Electromyographic Analysis Support: The Phoneme the Feature or the Articulatory Gesture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analysis and interpretation of the results of two electromyographic proce- dures in experimental phonology. The results of electromyographic experiments have been interpreted and analyzed using concepts and theory from linguistics, applied linguistics, and phonology, specifically articu- latory phonology. The first electromyographic procedure on one native speaker of English obtained data on the consonant sounds of English.

Charles Jannuzi; Masatada Yoshizawa; Fawaz Annaz

414

The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

Yao, Yao

2011-01-01

415

Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological

Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

2009-01-01

416

Expressive Phonology as Evaluative Comment in Personal Oral Narrative: The Play Frame and Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study of phonological types of internal evaluation in the personal oral narrative of one non-native speaker of English. The purpose was twofold: (1) to study whether laughter and exhaled breath can serve the functions of expressive phonology; i.e., phonological features which provide commentary and point of view for…

Mischler, James J., III

2008-01-01

417

Exploring dyslexics' phonological deficit I: lexical vs sub-lexical and input vs output processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting nonword repetition vs auditory nonword discrimination suggests that dyslexics are specifically impaired in input

Gayaneh Szenkovits; Franck Ramus

2005-01-01

418

Phonetic Inventories and Phonological Patterns of African American Two-Year-Olds: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated phonological skills of 8 African American English (AAE)-speaking 2-year-olds. They acquired and used the same phonemes and phonological processes as described in the literature for both AAE-speaking toddlers and toddlers speaking Standard American English. Results could not distinguish typical phonological development from…

Bland-Stewart, Linda M.

2003-01-01

419

Response Inhibition and its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third?graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a phonological short?term deficit in children with dyslexia but

Johanna M. Schmid; Andju S. Labuhn; Marcus Hasselhorn

2011-01-01

420

Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological

Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

2008-01-01

421

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

422

Diagnostic and treatment characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: descriptive measurements of patient perception and awareness from 657 confidential self-reports  

E-print Network

Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods ...

Sills, E. Scott

423

Environmental Awareness; An Action Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the changing world of today, man has created alarming imbalances of nature which threaten all living creatures of the earth. The public is becoming aware that severe measures must be taken to correct these imbalances. Indian people are closely attuned to their lands and resources--it is part of their traditional culture to have close ties with…

Wight, Edgar L.; And Others

424

Awareness as observational heterarchy  

PubMed Central

Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2013-01-01

425

Testing Privacy Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

Bergmann, Mike

426

Phonetic explanation in phonology: the feature fortis/lenis.  

PubMed

This paper examines the wide spectrum of phonetic properties associated with the phonological distinctions between consonant classes such as /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ in a great variety of languages (including languages with multivalued contrasts) and evaluates their relationship to the features [+/- voiced], [+/- aspirated], [+/- fortis]. The discussion separates word-initial, word-medial and word-final positions according to their different production and signalling constraints. A power feature, realized in articulatory timing and/or phonatory power/tension, is set up as the essential differentiator, thus providing a phonetic basis for the fortis/lenis dichotomy. The incorporation of the time dimension into phonology is regarded as a necessary prerequisite to the solution of phonological problems in general and to an adequate treatment of the [+/- voiced] feature in particular, voice onset time being only one temporal aspect. PMID:6396658

Kohler, K J

1984-01-01

427

Phonological awareness and early reading skills in children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes findings from a population study on outcomes of children with hearing loss in Australia, the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment ( http://www.outcomes.nal.gov.au ) study. Children were evaluated at several intervals using standardized tests, and the relationship between a range of predictors and the outcomes was examined. This paper reports the performance of children with cochlear implants at 5 years of age together with factors predicting word reading ability. Earlier age at cochlear implantation was significantly associated with better word reading ability, after controlling for the effects of language, receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and device configuration. PMID:24869436

Ching, Teresa Y C; Day, Julia; Cupples, Linda

2014-05-01

428

The Relationship between Speech Impairment, Phonological Awareness and Early Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…

Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara

2011-01-01

429

Crosslinguistic Influence on Phonological Awareness for Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (1) the potential influence of oral language characteristics of two languages that bilingual children acquire on their PA and (2) the relationship of PA in L1 with PA and literacy skills in L2, using data from Korean-English bilingual children. Thirty three Korean-English bilingual children, composed of two subsamples from two…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

430

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

431

Crosslinguistic influence on phonological awareness for Korean–English bilingual children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined (1) the potential influence of oral language characteristics of two languages that bilingual children\\u000a acquire on their PA and (2) the relationship of PA in L1 with PA and literacy skills in L2, using data from Korean–English\\u000a bilingual children. Thirty three Korean–English bilingual children, composed of two subsamples from two different locations\\/bilingual\\u000a programs, participated in the study.

Young-Suk Kim

2009-01-01

432

Effectiveness of Decoding and Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with intellectual disability, including children with Down syndrome, have teachers who are unsure what type of reading instruction is likely to increase outcomes for their students. Effectiveness of two commercially available, evidence-based reading interventions was evaluated through 3 multiple baseline across participants,…

Lemons, Christopher J.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Paterra, Matthew F.

2012-01-01

433

Promoting Phonological Awareness in Nursery-Aged Children through a Sure Start Early Listening Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing recognition of the importance of pre-literacy skills among pre-school children. Evidence that children from relatively deprived backgrounds face poorer outcomes in speech and language development and educational achievement has led to an assertive attempt to lessen social inequalities at the earliest opportunity. The UK…

Morris, Tom; Leavey, Gerard

2006-01-01

434

The Use of a Dynamic Screening of Phonological Awareness to Predict Reading Risk for Kindergarten Students  

E-print Network

Response to intervention has been proposed as a framework for early identification and intervention. In such a framework, all students receive periodic screening (i.e., universal screening) for risk for reading disabilities; ...

Bridges, Melinda Sittner

2009-07-30

435

Personalizing situation awareness  

SciTech Connect

Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

2009-01-01

436

Phonological Profile of Spanish-Catalan Children with Specific Language Impairment at Age 4: Are There Any Changes over Time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children

Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla; Miquel Serra-Raventós

2006-01-01

437

Reading Comprehension and Working Memory in Learning-Disabled Readers: Is the Phonological Loop More Important Than the Executive System?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation explores the contribution of two working memory systems (the articulatory loop and the central executive) to the performance differences between learning-disabled (LD) and skilled readers. Performances of LD, chronological age (CA) matched, and reading level-matched children were compared on measures of phonological processing accuracy and speed (articulatory system), long-term memory (LTM) accuracy and speed, and executive processing. The

H. Lee Swanson

1999-01-01

438

A tale of two studies on auditory training in children: A response to the claim that 'discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children' by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005).  

PubMed

In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. PMID:24470350

Halliday, Lorna F

2014-05-01

439

Orthographic and phonological neighborhood effects within a priming context  

E-print Network

(FM), a group of adults with dyslexia, and a group of normal readers in a divided visual field paradigm. FM had been diagnosed with developmental dyslexia at age 8. This type of dyslexia is marked by a deficient usage of phonological encoding... by the group with dyslexia--even though the effect was not as strong. No effect of orthography was found with the controls. Lavidor et al. argue that FM and the dyslexic individuals are more sensitive to orthographic cues because the phonological system...

Fugett-Fuller, April

2008-01-01

440

Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly

2008-01-01

441

AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB  

E-print Network

AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB Social Gardening John Kestner, Information Ecology observable responses to slow stimuli. #12;AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB Social gardening, then proscribes actions · Rewards interactions that translate to better relationships #12;AWARENESS MIT MEDIA LAB

442

Nontraditional Career Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains materials for a three-day nontraditional career awareness unit which have been tested and evaluated by over 10,000 students and numerous counselors and other educators. Its purpose is to make students more aware of the full range of career opportunities open to male and female students. A cover page for each day lists…

Forbes Road East Area Vocational Technical School, Monroeville, PA.

443

awareness and pollution prevention  

E-print Network

..............................................5 Storm Water Pollution Prevention.....................5 Sanitary Sewer System ManagementHazard awareness and pollution prevention for contractors and visitors at UCSD #12;Hazard Awareness and Pollution Prevention For Contractors and Visitors at UC San Diego This booklet was developed by UC San Diego

Tsien, Roger Y.

444

Toolkits for multimedia awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal communication and awareness of coworkers is an important factor in the effectiveness of work in office envi- ronments. This dissertation focuses on an architecture for the creation of prototype tools which allow distributed work- groups to collaborate more effectively by communicating informally. This architecture supports the investigation of the area of informal communication and awareness by allow- ing researchers

Ian E. Smith

1996-01-01

445

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

446

Toward the Development of a Technique to Measure the Racial Awareness-Attitudes of Three- to Five-Year-Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comprehensive review of research literature in the area of interracial awareness development in preschool children and highlights key issues for future research. An historical look at the study of racial attitudes reveals three major research techniques. The first type utilizes pictures, line drawings, or actual photos. The…

Scanlan, Peter A.; Dokecki, Paul R.

447

On the Status of the Word in French Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French linguists generally agree that the word in French has no phonetic or phonological status. This article examines this position and studies several vowel-consonant sequences, mute-"e" deletion and post-consonantal deletion and suggests that the role of French word-boundaries is more important than is generally acknowledged. (CHK)

Rochet, Bernard

1977-01-01

448

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

449

Phonological Acquisition in Simultaneous Bilingual Mandarin-English Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Significant challenges face speech-language pathologists when children raised in bilingual environments are referred for speech-language evaluations. The situation is compounded for bilingual Mandarin-English children because no research-based data is available to date. This study is a preliminary examination of phonological acquisition…

Liu-Shea, May

2011-01-01

450

Dutch Dyslexic Adolescents: Phonological-Core Variable-Orthographic Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological-core variable-orthographic differences (PCVOD) model [van der Leij, & Morfidi (2006). "Journal of Learning Disabilities," 39, 74-90] has been proposed as an explanation for the heterogeneity among dyslexic readers in their profiles of reading-related subskills. The predictions of this model were investigated in a sample of 72…

Bekebrede, Judith; van der Leij, Aryan; Share, David L.

2009-01-01

451

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

452

Syllable Frequency Effects on Phonological Short-Term Memory Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that phonological short-term memory (STM) tasks are influenced by both lexical and sublexical factors inherent in the selection and construction of the stimuli to be recalled. Examined whether long-term memory influences STM at a sublexical level by investigating whether the frequency with which one-syllable nonwords occur in polysyllabic…

Nimmo, Lisa M.; Roodenrys, Steven

2002-01-01

453

Phonology: Its Role in the Second Dialect Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher working with second-dialect students requires knowledge of the phonology used by his students to deal, not primarily with their pronunciation problems, but, with their reading and writing problems. In language classrooms, priority should be given to the aspects of language used by children that identify them as nonstandard speakers.…

Hoffman, Melvin J.

454

Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributes to the understanding of several well-known problems relating to the learning of phonemic contrasts in second language phonology. Describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957) hypothesized to represent maximum difficulty in second language pronunciation, namely a phonemic split. (Author/VWL)

Eckman, Fred R.; Elreyes, Abdullah; Iverson, Gregory K.

2001-01-01

455

Phonological Memory and Implications for the Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…

Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.

2010-01-01

456

Lexical and Phonological Effects in Early Word Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examines the influence of word frequency, phonological neighborhood density (PND), age of acquisition (AoA), and phonotactic probability on production variability and accuracy of known words by toddlers with no history of speech, hearing, or language disorders. Method: Fifteen toddlers between 2;0 (years;months) and 2;5…

Sosa, Anna V.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2012-01-01

457

A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed to teach the non-Arabic speaker to read printed Arabic, to write Arabic with "a pleasing hand," to distinguish accurately the phonological contrasts of modern literary Arabic, and to pronounce it in a manner easily comprehensible to Arabs. Dialogs and proverbs are included for reading practice; grammatical structures are…

McCarus, Ernest; Rammuny, Raji

458

Individualized Instruction and the Teaching of Arabic Phonology and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, individualized instruction has been gaining popularity in foreign language teaching. The results obtained from experimentation with this new approach has offered new insights into methods of teaching and students' needs. This article is based on experimentation with "A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and…

Rammuny, Raji M.

459

A Phonological Existential Analysis to the Book of Job  

Microsoft Academic Search

This current article “A Phonological Existential Analysis to the Book of Job” explores the various ways that Job’s friends attempted to help him deal with his grief. Dr. Johnson is able to identify the various stages of grief that Job goes through and correlate each stage and the response from the friends in current psychological terms. It becomes clear that

Fred Johnson

2005-01-01

460

Progressive logopenic\\/phonological aphasia: erosion of the language network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are paradigmatic disorders of language network breakdown associated with focal degeneration of the left cerebral hemisphere. Here we addressed brain correlates of PPA in a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of the third canonical syndrome of PPA, logopenic\\/phonological aphasia (LPA), in relation to the more widely studied clinico-anatomical syndromes of semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia

Jonathan D. Rohrer; Gerard R. Ridgway; Sebastian J. Crutch; Julia Hailstone; Johanna C. Goll; Matthew J. Clarkson; Simon Mead; Jonathan Beck; Cath Mummery; Sebastien Ourselin; Elizabeth K. Warrington; Martin N. Rossor; Jason D. Warren

2010-01-01

461

Interaction in Bilingual Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from Phonetic Inventories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

462

Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

2010-01-01

463

Phonological Working Memory of Children in Two German Special Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, 10-year-olds from 2 German special schools as well as typically developing children of the same chronological age (CA controls) or the same mental age (MA controls) were compared on several aspects of working memory functions (i.e., size and input quality of the phonological store, speed and automatic activation of the subvocal…

Hasselhorn, Marcus; Mahler, Claudia

2007-01-01

464

Word learning, phonological short-term memory, phonotactic probability and  

E-print Network

LEARNING In considering the functional aspects of word learning, it is useful to begin with someWord learning, phonological short-term memory, phonotactic probability and long-term memory of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA Word learning is studied in a multitude of ways, and it is often

Gupta, Prahlad

465

Phonological Defici~ncies: Effective Predictors of Future  

E-print Network

structure, 2) retrieval and perception of phonological structure and 3) the use of phonetic representation actually presage the success with which a kindergarten child will learn to read in the first grade to the child's realization of what the alphabet is "all about" because phonemes are more~or-Iess what

466

The Glottal Stop in Siamese: Predictability in Phonological Description  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is asserted that the glottal stop in Thai must be present in underlying forms, even though it could be derived by phonological rule. It is argued that unless the glottal stop is present in the underlying form, certain linguistically significant generalizations are either obscured or lost altogether. (RM)

Gandour, Jack

1974-01-01

467

Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

2008-01-01

468

Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

2010-01-01

469

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

470

Effects of background music on phonological short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate memory for visually presented verbal material is disrupted by concurrent speech, even when the speech is unattended and in a foreign language. Unattended noise does not produce a reliable decrement. These results have been interpreted in terms of a phonological short-term store that excludes non-speechlike sounds. The characteristics of this exclusion process were explored by studying the effects of

Pierre Salamé; Alan Baddeley

1989-01-01

471

Phonology: An Emergent Consequence of Memory Constraints and Sensory Input.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…

Lacerda, Francisco

2003-01-01

472

Phonetic Explanation in Phonology: The Feature Fortis\\/Lenis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the wide spectrum of phonetic properties associated with the phonological distinctions between consonant classes such as \\/p, t, k\\/ and \\/b, d, g\\/ in a great variety of languages (including languages with multivalued contrasts) and evaluates their relationship to the features [ ± voiced], [ ± aspirated], [ ± fortis]. The discussion separates word-initial, word-medial and word-final

Klaus J. Kohler

1984-01-01

473

Sex Differences in Phonological Coding: Alphabet Transformation Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous explanation of the sex difference on so-called perceptual speed tests was in terms of a female advantage in accessing and using phonological name codes in making item comparisons. That explanation was extended to a task involving alphabetical transformations without the requirement for comparison of perceptually available items. A…

Majeres, Raymond L.

2007-01-01

474

Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

2012-01-01

475

Modern Generative Phonology: All Form and No Substance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Overview. In this paper I explore the issues facing researchers in the scientific study of the sound systems of the languages of the world. This study has been approached from many branches of science, including cognitive psychology, acoustic and phonetic science, generative linguistics (phonology), neuro- and psycholinguistics, and a host of other major and minor scientific disciplines. Each discipline

Peter M. Skaer

476

Generative phonology: its origins, its principles, and its successors  

E-print Network

sources lie in the works of John Locke 3 and David Hume 4; its fundamental claim is that all human 3 LockeGenerative phonology: its origins, its principles, and its successors John Goldsmith and Bernard in the Cambridge History of Linguistics, edited by Linda Waugh, John Joseph and Monique Monville- Burston. has been

Goldsmith, John A.

477

A lexical database tool for quantitative phonological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lexical database tool tailored for phonological res- earch is described. Database fields include transcrip- tions, glosses and hyperlinks to speech files. Database queries are expressed using HTML forms, and these permit regular expression search on any combination of fields. Regular expressions are passed directly to a Perl CGI program, enabling the full flexibility of Perl extended regular expressions. The

Steven Bird

1997-01-01

478

Learning to spell in Hebrew: Phonological and morphological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates children's developingknowledge of the Hebrew spelling system in view of theclaim that language-specific typology affects the rateand the pattern of development of orthographicspelling. Hebrew is a morphologically syntheticlanguage with a phonologically ``deep'' orthography, onthe one hand, and a consistent representation ofmorphology in the spelling system, on the other. Thispaper focuses on the difference between representingcontent words versus

Dorit Ravid

2001-01-01

479

Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

2014-01-01

480

Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

2013-01-01

481

A longitudinal case study of developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily

Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme

1989-01-01

482

Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

Au, Terry Kit-fong

2013-01-01

483

Phonology Shaped by Phonetics: The Case of Intervocalic Lenition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this dissertation is to explore the phonetic bases of intervocalic lenition--specifically, voicing and spirantization of intervocalic stops. A traditional understanding of phonological patterns like these is that they involve articulatory effort reduction, in that speakers substitute an easy sound for a hard one. Experiment 1 uses a…

Kaplan, Abby

2010-01-01

484

Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

2008-01-01

485

Imitation of Para-Phonological Detail Following Left Hemisphere Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imitation in speech refers to the unintentional transfer of phonologically irrelevant acoustic-phonetic information of auditory input into speech motor output. Evidence for such imitation effects has been explained within the framework of episodic theories. However, it is largely unclear, which neural structures mediate speech imitation and how…

Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Goldenberg, Georg; Ziegler, Wolfram

2010-01-01

486

ConcepttoSpeech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching  

E-print Network

gen­ eration problem in a concept­to­speech system. Off­line, a database of recorded speech generation waveform Speech Text­to­Speech Concept­to­Speech speech generation Database Query Figure 1. TextConcept­to­Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching BY P A TAYLOR Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

487

Concept-to-Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching  

E-print Network

gen- eration problem in a concept-to-speech system. Off-line, a database of recorded speech Speech Text-to-Speech Concept-to-Speech speech generation Database Query Figure 1. Text to speechConcept-to-Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching BY P A TAYLOR Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

488

Papers in Phonology. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 48.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers in various aspects of phonological research and theory include: "One-Step Raising in Gbanu" (Mary Bradshaw); "ATR Harmony in Konni" (Mike Cahill); "Prosodic Structure in SiSwati" (Rebecca Herman); "The Deletion of /w/ in Seoul Korean and Its Implications" (Hyeon-Seok Kang); "Tense, Aspect, and Bukusu Verb Tones" (Nasiombe Mutonyi);…

Dowty, David, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

489

The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.  

PubMed

The 'primary systems' view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud 'exception' words (those with atypical spelling-sound characteristics), should be a consistent feature of semantic dementia, a progressive disorder of conceptual knowledge, and just such a pattern has been observed in previous research. In a similar vein, one might expect the gradual deterioration of phonological processing seen in the nonfluent forms of progressive aphasia to be accompanied by phonological dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading of unfamiliar letter strings, i.e., nonwords. The present study, reporting a case-series consideration of reading-aloud data from 16 progressive nonfluent aphasic patients, revealed a pattern in which both low-frequency exception word and nonword reading were comparably compromised. The severity of the reading disorder was predicted by scores on the expressive language task of picture naming but not the receptive task of spoken word-to-picture matching. Our hypothesis that a phonological deficit underpins diminished performance for both naming and reading was supported by the finding that reading-aloud performance was predicted specifically by the rate of phonological errors in picture naming. Moreover, the strength of this relationship was similar for low-frequency exception words and nonwords, suggesting that reading deficits for these two types of items in this disorder shared a common cause: a progressive impairment of phonological processing. PMID:23000132

Woollams, Anna M; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-12-01

490

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

491

Vowel production, speech-motor control, and phonological encoding in people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay, and people who are not  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study (Pierrehumbert, Bent, Munson, and Bailey, submitted) found differences in vowel production between people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay (LBG) and people who are not. The specific differences (more fronted /u/ and /a/ in the non-LB women; an overall more-contracted vowel space in the non-gay men) were not amenable to an interpretation based on simple group differences in vocal-tract geometry. Rather, they suggested that differences were either due to group differences in some other skill, such as motor control or phonological encoding, or learned. This paper expands on this research by examining vowel production, speech-motor control (measured by diadochokinetic rates), and phonological encoding (measured by error rates in a tongue-twister task) in people who are LBG and people who are not. Analyses focus on whether the findings of Pierrehumbert et al. (submitted) are replicable, and whether group differences in vowel production are related to group differences in speech-motor control or phonological encoding. To date, 20 LB women, 20 non-LB women, 7 gay men, and 7 non-gay men have participated. Preliminary analyses suggest that there are no group differences in speech motor control or phonological encoding, suggesting that the earlier findings of Pierrehumbert et al. reflected learned behaviors.

Munson, Benjamin; Deboe, Nancy

2003-10-01

492

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

493

Learning a novel phonological contrast depends on interactions between individual differences and training paradigm design  

PubMed Central

Studies evaluating phonological contrast learning typically investigate either the predictiveness of specific pretraining aptitude measures or the efficacy of different instructional paradigms. However, little research considers how these factors interact—whether different students learn better from different types of instruction—and what the psychological basis for any interaction might be. The present study demonstrates that successfully learning a foreign-language phonological contrast for pitch depends on an interaction between individual differences in perceptual abilities and the design of the training paradigm. Training from stimuli with high acoustic-phonetic variability is generally thought to improve learning; however, we found high-variability training enhanced learning only for individuals with strong perceptual abilities. Learners with weaker perceptual abilities were actually impaired by high-variability training relative to a low-variability condition. A second experiment assessing variations on the high-variability training design determined that the property of this learning environment most detrimental to perceptually weak learners is the amount of trial-by-trial variability. Learners’ perceptual limitations can thus override the benefits of high-variability training where trial-by-trial variability in other irrelevant acoustic-phonetic features obfuscates access to the target feature. These results demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences in pretraining aptitudes when evaluating the efficacy of any speech training paradigm. PMID:21786912

Perrachione, Tyler K.; Lee, Jiyeon; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

2011-01-01

494

Child Care Aware  

MedlinePLUS

... learn about high-quality child care. Welcome to Child Care Aware® E-Mail Print Share Tweet Military Child ... 2246 Call TTY#: 1-866-278-9428 Free Child Care Search Please enter your zip code. Your local ...

495

Phonology as the source of syllable frequency effects in visual word recognition: Evidence from French  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether syllable frequency effects in visual word recognition can be attributed to phonologically\\u000a or orthographically defined syllables, we designed one experiment that allowed six critical comparisons. Whereas only a weak\\u000a effect was obtained when both orthographic and phonological syllable frequency were conjointly manipulated in Comparison 1,\\u000a robust effects for phonological and null effects for orthographic syllable

Markus Conrad; Jonathan Grainger; Arthur M. Jacobs

2007-01-01

496

Awareness Projected: Moving Awareness to a Public Space  

E-print Network

Awareness Projected: Moving Awareness to a Public Space Michael Rounding, Saul Greenberg awareness can only work when people inhabit a common space. Kraut, Egido and Galegher [10] correlated by projecting casual awareness information into a public space via a computer­controlled medium. We expect

Greenberg, Saul

497

Longitudinal assessment of awareness in early-stage Alzheimer's disease using comparable questionnaire-based and performance-based measures: A prospective one-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies of awareness in dementia have taken a longitudinal perspective, yet exploring the ways in which awareness changes over time may offer important information about the processes involved and the relationship between awareness and other variables. The present study explored in detail the patterns of change in awareness scores over time for a group of 12 participants with early-stage

L. Clare; B. A. Wilson

2006-01-01

498

The predictive power of optimality theory for phonological treatment*  

PubMed Central

The phonology and clinically induced learning patterns of a female child with a phonological delay (age 4;11) were examined from the analytical perspective of Optimality Theory. The analysis revealed that a Consonant Harmony error pattern affected alveolar stops from two different sources—from underlying lexical representations and from representations derived by an interacting error pattern of Deaffrication. The implications of that analysis for the selection of treatment targets were explored in a treatment study. It was found that treatment aimed at the derived source of Consonant Harmony resulted in the suppression of both Consonant Harmony and Deaffrication. The explanation for these results was attributed to a fixed ranking among certain constraints. PMID:20098628

Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Gierut, Judith A.

2009-01-01

499

PhonItalia: a phonological lexicon for Italian.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the first open-access lexical database that provides phonological representations for 120,000 Italian word forms. Each of these also includes syllable boundaries and stress markings and a comprehensive range of lexical statistics. Using data derived from this lexicon, we have also generated a set of derived databases and provided estimates of positional frequency use for Italian phonemes, syllables, syllable onsets and codas, and character and phoneme bigrams. These databases are freely available from phonitalia.org. This article describes the methods, content, and summarizing statistics for these databases. In a first application of this database, we also demonstrate how the distribution of phonological substitution errors made by Italian aphasic patients is related to phoneme frequency. PMID:24092524

Goslin, Jeremy; Galluzzi, Claudia; Romani, Cristina

2014-09-01

500

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.