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1

Phonological Awareness and Reading Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was proposed that the young child's awareness of the phonology of language would influence early reading success. Results revealed a strong relationship between the first grader's reading performance and two measures of his/her phonological awareness, invented spelling and phoneme segmentation abilities. (Author/RD)

Zifcak, Michael

1981-01-01

2

Phonological Awareness in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined phonological awareness in 17 children with Down syndrome (ages 9-14). Children demonstrated measurable levels of phonological awareness. Significant positive correlations were found among phonological awareness and reading and spelling competence, and ability to spell non-words and non-verbal measures. (Contains references.)…

Fletcher, Helen; Buckley, Sue

2002-01-01

3

The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading: Implications for the Assessment of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) use phonological awareness assessments in many ways. This study examines the usefulness of these assessments in kindergarten and 2nd grade. Method: Measures of phonological awareness and letter identification were administered in kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, phonetic decoding…

Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Little, Todd D.

2005-01-01

4

Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

2009-01-01

5

Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

2010-01-01

6

Phonological Awareness and Musical Aptitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between phonological awareness and musical aptitude in pre-school Turkish and American children. Finds that children in the high musical aptitude group did much better on all tasks than those in the low musical aptitude group, showing that success in manipulating linguistic sounds was related to awareness of distinct…

Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Durgunoglu, Aydyn Y.; Oney-Kusefoglu, Banu

2002-01-01

7

The Test of Phonological Awareness. Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) was developed to help identify children who are delayed in their development of phonological awareness. Research supports the theory that children with poor phonological awareness are at risk of later reading difficulties. Children who score in the bottom quartile of the TOPA are considered to be at risk…

Moore, Jenny

8

Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

Tibi, Sana

2010-01-01

9

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

10

Early Bilingualism, Language Transfer, and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between early bilingualism and phonological awareness in a sample of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual kindergarten children living in The Netherlands. In a longitudinal design, the children's first (L1) and second (L2) language abilities were measured at the beginning and end of…

Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

11

Phonological Awareness. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Topical Bibliography and Commentary examines recent studies on phonological awareness, finding the evidence conclusive that teaching phonological awareness to young children greatly facilitates the reading process. Researchers have studied problems children experience in reading for many years. The focus of research during the 1990s has been…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

12

Phonological Awareness and Phonological Hierarchy in Unintelligible Speech: What Does the Child Really "Know"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness has been claimed to play an important role in the development of language skills, and it is essential that the child's phonological skills be assessed accurately in order to predict and to take early measures to help those that may encounter problems. Although the mora has attracted much attention in the discussion of…

Miyakoda, Haruko; Imatomi, Setsuko

2009-01-01

13

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

14

Phonological Awareness Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty middle school students with learning disabilities identified as having phonological awareness deficits were provided with phonological awareness instruction to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction on phonological awareness and word recognition skills. Results indicated that following instruction, students improved on word…

Bhat, Preetha; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.

2003-01-01

15

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

16

Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2008-01-01

17

English­French bilingual children's phonological awareness and vocabulary skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children's vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological aware- ness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by

Yu Chiang; Susan Rvachew

18

Phonological Working Memory, Phonological Awareness and Language in Literacy Difficulties in Brazilian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most usual flaws that lead to literacy disability regards cognitive difficulties and alterations some children present in the literacy process. Many studies have found alterations in phonological processing, more specifically in phonological working memory (PWM) and phonological awareness (PA). Therefore, our aim was to identify…

Barbosa, Thais; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Santos, Ruth F.; Bueno, Orlando Francisco A.

2009-01-01

19

Training in Phonological Awareness Generalizes to Phonological Working Memory: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early reading achievement relies on phonological awareness (PA) and phonological working memory (WM). Children with language impairment (LI) have problems with both. Three studies were conducted to determine whether treating PA would also improve phonological WM in preschoolers with LI. Study 1 confirmed that children with specific LI perform more poorly than age-matched peers on both PA and WM tasks.

Anne van Kleeck; Ronald B. Gilla; LaVae M. Hoffman

2006-01-01

20

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

21

Phonological Awareness and Decoding Skills in Deaf Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness skills of a group of deaf adolescents and how these skills correlated with decoding skills (single word and non-word reading) and receptive vocabulary. Twenty, congenitally profoundly deaf adolescents with at least average nonverbal cognitive skills were tested on a range of phonological awareness

Gravenstede, L.

2009-01-01

22

Predicting bilingual Spanish-English children's phonological awareness abilities from their preschool English and Spanish oral language  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish–English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children’s 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children’s kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children’s English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills.

Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

2012-01-01

23

Does Strength of Phonological Representation Predict Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on aspects of spoken language skill that may contribute to the development of phonological awareness, as manifested in rhyme awareness and phoneme awareness. Examined rhyme awareness, articulation, speech perception, vocabulary, and letter and word knowledge in 40 preschool children. (Author/VWL)

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

2001-01-01

24

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

25

Home Literacy Environment and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children: Differential Effects for Rhyme and Phoneme Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature to date suggests that the best predictor of early reading ability, phonological awareness, appears to be associated with the acquisition of letter-sound and vocabulary knowledge and with the development of well-defined phonological representations. It further suggests that at least some aspects of phonological awareness critically depend upon literacy exposure. In this study of 4- to 6-year-olds, we examine

Judith G. Foy; Virginia A. Mann

2003-01-01

26

Predicting Curriculum and Test Performance at Age 7 Years from Pupil Background, Baseline Skills and Phonological Awareness at Age 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Phonological awareness tests are known to be amongst the best predictors of literacy; however their predictive validity alongside current school screening practice (baseline assessment, pupil background data) and to National Curricular outcome measures is unknown. Aim: We explored the validity of phonological awareness and orthographic…

Savage, R.; Carless, S.

2004-01-01

27

Sounds Like Fun: Activities for Developing Phonological Awareness, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kids love jokes--and teachers and SLPs love fast and easy ways to improve students' phonological awareness. That's why every elementary and middle-school SLP and educator needs this playful, effective activity book, packed with jokes and riddles that increase students' awareness of the phonemes that make up words. The perfect way to avoid "drill…

Spector, Cecile Cyrul

2009-01-01

28

Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…

Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling

2008-01-01

29

Phonological Awareness of Bilingual and Monolingual Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of bilingualism on the development of phonological awareness of Chinese children was investigated in 2 studies comparing bilingual speakers of both Cantonese and Mandarin with monolingual speakers of Mandarin. Cantonese-speaking children had developed more advanced onset and rime awareness by 2nd grade as they learned Mandarin in school…

Chen, Xi; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Hao, Meiling; Wu, Xinchun; Shu, Hua

2004-01-01

30

Improving Teacher Candidates' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness: A Multimedia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…

Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.

2013-01-01

31

Reading Skills and Phonological Awareness Acquisition in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although reading abilities play a fundamental role in the acquisition of personal autonomy, up until now studies investigating these abilities in Down syndrome (DS) are aimed at defining educational or rehability acquisition. However, studies describing the relationship between reading and phonological awareness in individuals with DS…

Verucci, L.; Menghini, D.; Vicari, S.

2006-01-01

32

Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

Bolduc, Jonathan

2009-01-01

33

Phonological Awareness in Mandarin of Chinese and Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to analyze spoken language into its component sounds and to manipulate these smaller units. Literature review related to PA shows that a variety of factor groups play a role in PA in Mandarin such as linguistic experience (spoken language, alphabetic literacy, and second language learning), item type,…

Hu, Min

2009-01-01

34

Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

35

Early Mathematics and Phonological Awareness in Two Child Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum development during early childhood is informed through an understanding of the cognitive skills that develop concurrently in the earliest years. Extending previous work, this study examined the relationship between early mathematics and phonological awareness (PA) skills for 37 children (14 girls; overall mean age?=?47.6 months,…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Lokteff, Maegan

2013-01-01

36

Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to investigate possible benefits of cochlear implant (CI) use on the development of phonological awareness in deaf children. Nineteen CI users were tested on 2 occasions. Two groups of deaf children using hearing aids were tested once: 11 profoundly deaf and 10 severely deaf children. A battery of…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brown, Tracey; Sirimanna, Tony; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2005-01-01

37

Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten: A Field Study in Luxembourgish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in…

Bode, Sylvie; Content, Alain

2011-01-01

38

Importance of Speech Production for Phonological Awareness and Word Decoding: The Case of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

2009-01-01

39

Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

40

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

41

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

42

Working Memory and Phonological Awareness as Predictors of Progress towards Early Learning Goals at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether working memory skills of children are related to teacher ratings of their progress towards learning goals at the time of school entry, at 4 or 5 years of age. A sample of 194 children was tested on measures of working memory, phonological awareness, and non-verbal ability, in addition to the school-based baseline…

Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Adams, Anne-Marie; Willis, Catherine; Eaglen, Rachel; Lamont, Emily

2005-01-01

43

Defining Phonological Awareness and Its Relationship to Reading Skills in Low-Literacy Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the relative importance of complexity of syllable structure and task differences in measuring phonological awareness in low-literacy adults. This study is a replication of a study with children conducted by S. A. Stahl and B. A. Murray (1994). Results indicated that the complexity of…

Jimenez, Juan E.; Venegas, Enrique

2004-01-01

44

Phonological awareness in kindergarten: a field study in Luxembourgish schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific\\u000a context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with\\u000a minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in the study. One hundred\\u000a and fifty children from 20

Sylvie Bodé

2011-01-01

45

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

46

The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Accuracy in Oriya and English: A Study of Oriya-Speaking Fifth-Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationships between phonological awareness and reading in Oriya and English. Oriya is the official language of Orissa, an eastern state of India. The writing system is an alphasyllabary. Ninety-nine fifth grade children (mean age 9 years 7 months) were assessed on measures of phonological awareness, word reading and…

Mishra, Ranjita; Stainthorp, Rhona

2007-01-01

47

Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Reading in English-Arabic Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reported an exploratory study that tested (a) the relationship between phonological and morphological awareness in English (L1)-Arabic (L2) bilingual children in Canada (N = 43), and (b) the relevance of these skills to word and pseudoword reading accuracy, and to complex word reading fluency. The results showed a significant correlation…

Saiegh-Haddad, E.; Geva, Esther

2008-01-01

48

Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children.  

PubMed

Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those with learning difficulties, and children enrolled in the school less than two years were excluded from the research. A total of nine bilingual and eight monolingual students was tested using the Phonological Awareness Profile test. Results: The results showed that 64.7% of the 17 students tested reached the performance expected for their age, and 35.3% performed above expectation, being 83.3% of the latter bilingual students. The bilingual children presented better performance in the sequential rhyme skill and in the total test score, and the male bilingual children presented better performance in the phoneme addition skill. There was no statistically significant difference when comparing the performance of bilingual and monolingual female students. Conclusion: Bilingual children had greater command of phonemic awareness skill. Male bilingual children showed better performance when compared to their monolingual peers than female bilingual students. PMID:24714860

Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite, Aline Gisele Conceição

2014-02-01

49

Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Development in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…

McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.

2009-01-01

50

Effects of Word Linguistic Properties on Phonological Awareness in Spanish Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether some word linguistic properties studied in English have the same influence on phonological awareness of preschoolers and kindergartners in the Spanish language was studied with 32 Spanish-speaking children. While some effects were similar, others differed. Implications for training for phonological awareness in Spanish are discussed. (SLD)

Jimenez Gonzalez, Juan E.; Garcia, Carmen R. Haro

1995-01-01

51

Phonological Awareness and Bilingual Preschoolers: Should We Teach It and, If So, How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly reviews recent research on teaching phonological awareness skills to preschoolers as well as the benefits of different types of bilingual education. A more in-depth analysis of research on cross-language transfer of phonological awareness/metalinguistic skills follows. The major recommendation resulting from this review is…

Stewart, Mark R.

2004-01-01

52

Successful Phonological Awareness Instruction with Preschool Children: Lessons from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is one of several key precursor skills to conventional literacy that develop during the preschool period. Significant amounts of research support the causal and predictive relation between phonological awareness and children's ease of learning to decode and spell. However, many preschool curricula and early childhood…

Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2008-01-01

53

Working Memory Span and Phonological Awareness Tasks as Predictors of Early Reading Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationships among complex memory span, simple memory span, and phonological awareness tasks and their predictive importance for reading accuracy, reading comprehension, and arithmetic ability. Eleven tests were administered in three sessions to seven-year olds. Results suggested that phonological awareness and complex span tasks…

Leather, Cathy V.; Henry, Lucy A.

1994-01-01

54

The Development of Phonological Awareness by Braille Users: A Review of the Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…

Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.

2008-01-01

55

Animated Multimedia "Talking Books" Can Promote Phonological Awareness in Children Beginning To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used software in the form of talking books to promote phonological awareness in children beginning to read. The 15 children, aged 3 to 6, who received the intervention showed higher increases in phonological awareness than the 15 comparisons, but there were no significant benefits observed for word reading. (SLD)

Chera, Pav; Wood, Clare

2002-01-01

56

Phonological Awareness: Explicit Instruction for Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation,…

Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

2013-01-01

57

Spelling and Word Recognition in Grades 1 and 2: Relations to Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in Dutch Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influences of early phonological awareness and naming speed on Dutch children's later word spelling were investigated in a longitudinal study. Phonological awareness and naming speed predicted spelling in early Grade 1, later Grade 1, and later Grade 2. Phonological awareness, however, predominated over naming speed for the prediction of early…

Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J

2010-01-01

58

Phonological Awareness in the Kindergarten Classroom: How Do Teachers Perceive This Essential Link From Oral Communication to Reading Skill Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive research study, combining survey and correlation methods, described the perceptions and behaviors of kindergarten teachers in relation to phonological awareness usage in their classroom experience. Current research related to early literacy development acknowledges the significance of phonological awareness in emergent reading programs. The benefits of explicit phonological awareness instruction are well documented in reference to implications for current

Margaret Catharine Dahmer

2010-01-01

59

Phonological Awareness and Reading Speed Deficits in Reading Disabled Greek-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that phonological awareness skills secure decoding ability and that phonological deficits underlie failure to acquire adequate word recognition. Slow word-reading rate may be an additional defining characteristic of reading disability. The present study aimed to investigate whether: (1) reading disabled (RD) Greek-speaking…

Constantinidou, Maria; Stainthorp, Rhona

2009-01-01

60

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

61

Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

2008-01-01

62

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

63

Levels of phonological awareness in preliterate and literate Spanish-speaking children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of phonological awareness levels usually comes from English-speaking children. The evidence in Spanish is scarce. The present study examined the phonological awareness of syllables, onsets–rimes, and phonemes, extending the Treiman and Zukowski (1991) results to preliterate and literate Spanish-speaking children. The sample comprised preschoolers, kindergarteners and first-graders. Children found syllables easier than onset–rime units, and onset–rime units easier than

Edurne Goikoetxea

2005-01-01

64

Exploring the Impact of Phonological Awareness, Visual-Spatial Working Memory, and Preschool Quantity--Number Competencies on Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School: Findings from a 3-year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at…

Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

65

Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…

Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.

2009-01-01

66

Changes in Letter Sound Knowledge Are Associated with Development of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letter sound knowledge, which, together with phonological awareness, is highly predictive of pre-school children's reading acquisition, derives from children's knowledge of their associated letter names and the phonological patterns of those names. In this study of 66 monolingual pre-school children we examined whether phonological patterns…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

2006-01-01

67

Role of Phonological and Morphological Awareness in L2 Oral Word Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 57 fifth-grade native Hebrew speakers performed orthographic-phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and oral word reading tasks in both Hebrew (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). The results of the language-specific task scores in the two languages reflect, with certain qualifications, participants'…

Schiff, Rachel; Calif, Sharon

2007-01-01

68

A Comparison of Phonological Awareness Skills in Early French Immersion and English Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2-year study examined the effects of early second language exposure on phonological awareness skills. Syllable, onset-rime and phoneme awareness skills of 72 anglophone children attending English or French immersion programs in primary and grade 1 were investigated. Three-way mixed ANOVAS revealed the following effects and interactions. In…

Tingley, Patricia A.; Dore, Katherine A.; Lopez, Anita; Parsons, Heather; Campbell, Elizabeth; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia

2004-01-01

69

Mimicking Accented Speech as L2 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated Spanish-speaking learners' awareness of a non-distinctive phonetic difference between Spanish and English through a delayed mimicry paradigm. We assessed learners' speech production accuracy through voice onset time (VOT) duration measures in word-initial pre-vocalic /p t k/ in Spanish and English words, and in…

Mora, Joan C.; Rochdi, Youssef; Kivistö-de Souza, Hanna

2014-01-01

70

Effects of targeted reading instruction on phonological awareness and phonic decoding in children with down syndrome.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language, cognition, phonological awareness, word and short-passage comprehension, and oral reading ability conducted on four occasions (initially, preintervention, postintervention and delayed postintervention) over approximately a 12-month period. The intervention was conducted over 10 weekly sessions and involved individual instruction. The postintervention assessment results provided evidence that phonic reading instruction was generally effective in improving reading skills and phonological awareness of children with Down syndrome. PMID:21381947

Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley

2011-03-01

71

An Examination of Phonological Awareness Treatment Outcomes for Seventh-Grade Poor Readers from a Bilingual Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine posttreatment outcomes following direct, systematic phonological awareness instruction for seventh-grade poor readers, most of whom had English as their second language. Method: The treatment group (n=35) participated in small-group instruction sessions that emphasized phonological awareness at the…

Swanson, Teri J.; Hodson, Barbara W.; Schommer-Aikins, Marlene

2005-01-01

72

The Role of Music Perception in Predicting Phonological Awareness in Five- and Six-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music perception in predicting phonological awareness in five- and six-year-old children. This study was based on the hypothesis that music perception and phonological awareness appear to have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms. Previous research investigating the relationship between these…

Lathroum, Linda M.

2011-01-01

73

Effects of an Embedded Phonological Awareness Intervention during Repeated Book Reading on Preschool Children with Language Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…

Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard

2008-01-01

74

Effects of a Phonological Awareness Program on English Reading and Spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction…

Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siegel, Linda S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

75

The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

76

Awareness-Raising in the TEFL Phonology Classroom: Student Voices and Sociocultural and Psychological Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on two phases of a study of a group of advanced TEFL (teachers-of-English-as-a-foreign-language) students. To raise their awareness of the importance of discourse intonation while they were receiving teacher training, this study focuses on examining their sociocultural and psychological inclinations in the choice of phonological

Zhang, Lawrence Jun

2004-01-01

77

Investigating the Relationship between Social Behaviors and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal effects of social behaviors in predicting phonological awareness outcomes in 4-year-old children. Method: One hundred two children (52 boys, 50 girls) were recruited from 11 schools serving low-income neighborhoods in a large metropolitan city and were assessed at the beginning and end of the preschool…

Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi

2013-01-01

78

The Fragile Nature of Phonological Awareness in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that children with specific language impairment (SLI) risk encountering subsequent literacy difficulties, due to difficulties in phonological awareness (PA). This longitudinal study provides evidence in support of this view based on a group of 20 French-speaking children with SLI examined at the start of learning to…

Zourou, Filio; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie; Sanchez, Monique

2010-01-01

79

Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Phonological Awareness in United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…

Tibi, Sana

2005-01-01

80

Classroom Phonological Awareness Instruction and Literacy Outcomes in the First Year of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…

Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.

2013-01-01

81

Relationships between Vocabulary Size, Working Memory, and Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…

Gorman, Brenda K.

2012-01-01

82

Cross-Language Correlates in Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed: Evidence from Deep and Shallow Orthographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) skills in relation to reading acquisition were examined using two languages, one with a deep orthography (English) and the other with a shallow orthography (Korean). Participants were 50 Korean American children who spoke English as a dominant language (DL) and were learning to read…

Pae, Hye Kyeong; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

2010-01-01

83

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

84

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

85

Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

2008-01-01

86

Reading Achievement in Relation to Phonological Coding and Awareness in Deaf Readers: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between reading ability and phonological coding and awareness (PCA) skills in individuals who are severely and profoundly deaf was investigated with a meta-analysis. From an initial set of 230 relevant publications, 57 studies were analyzed that experimentally tested PCA skills in 2,078 deaf participants. Half of the studies found…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; del Giudice, Alex A.; Lieberman, Amy M.

2011-01-01

87

Phonological Awareness in Swedish-Speaking Children with Complex Communication Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with complex communication needs (CCN) often experience problems achieving literacy. The aim of this project was to study phonological awareness, a central predictor for literacy achievement, in children with CCN, and to compare their performance to a group of children with natural speech. Method: One group of 15 Swedish…

Larsson, Maria; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

2008-01-01

88

Phonological Awareness and Listening Comprehension among Chinese English-Immersion Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…

Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.

2012-01-01

89

Effects of Targeted Reading Instruction on Phonological Awareness and Phonic Decoding in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated the effectiveness of reading instruction targeting oral reading and phonological awareness for children with Down syndrome (affecting chromosome 21). The participants were 7 children ranging in age from 2 years, 11 months to 10 years, 8 months. Each child acted as his/her own control, with assessments of language,…

Cologon, Kathy; Cupples, Linda; Wyver, Shirley

2011-01-01

90

Enhancing the Phonological Awareness and Language Skills of Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: An Interdisciplinary Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported investigated the efficacy of intervention, developed by a speech-language therapist and implemented by a teacher, for the language and phonological awareness (PA) abilities of pre-school, socially disadvantaged children. One study established that children from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds had poorer skills on both…

McIntosh, Beth; Crosbie, Sharon; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara; Thomas, Sian

2007-01-01

91

Effects of a Tier 3 Phonological Awareness Intervention on Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention.…

Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard

2014-01-01

92

Phonological Awareness and Types of Sound Errors in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…

Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise

2010-01-01

93

Phonological awareness: explicit instruction for young deaf and hard-of-hearing children.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness. PMID:23303378

Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

2013-04-01

94

Phonological Awareness in Hebrew (L1) and English (L2) in Normal and Disabled Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cross-linguistic relationships between phonological awareness in L1 (Hebrew) and L2 (English) among normal (N = 30) and reading disabled (N = 30) Hebrew native speaking college students. Further, it tested the effect of two factors: the lexical status of the stimulus word (real word vs. pseudoword) and the linguistic…

Russak, Susie; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

2011-01-01

95

Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language. PMID:23626405

Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

2013-05-01

96

A comparison of phonological awareness skills in early French immersion and English children.  

PubMed

This 2-year study examined the effects of early second language exposure on phonological awareness skills. Syllable, onset-rime and phoneme awareness skills of 72 anglophone children attending English or French immersion programs in primary and grade 1 were investigated. Three-way mixed ANOVAS revealed the following effects and interactions. In terms of grade effect, grade 1 students performed significantly better than primary students on phoneme and onset-rime tasks. A stimulus language effect was observed for the three levels of phonological awareness. All children performed better on English tasks than on French ones. Interaction effects of stimulus language by program were revealed for phoneme as well as syllable tasks. Posthoc analyses revealed that French students performed better on English phoneme and syllable tasks than on French, while English students performed better than French immersion students on French syllable tasks. Correlational analyses revealed significant relationships between reading and phoneme and onset-rime phonological awareness tasks regardless of program of instruction (English, French immersion) or language of reading test (English, French). Syllable awareness was only significantly correlated with the French non-word reading task for the French immersion students. PMID:15218622

Tingley, Patricia A; Dore, Katherine A; Lopez, Anita; Parsons, Heather; Campbell, Elizabeth; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Cleave, Patricia

2004-05-01

97

Private speech use in arithmetical calculation: contributory role of phonological awareness in children with and without mathematical difficulties.  

PubMed

The majority of recent studies conclude that children's private speech development (private speech internalization) is related to and important for mathematical development and disabilities. It is far from clear, however, whether private speech internalization itself plays any causal role in the development of mathematical competence. The main concerns of the present study were whether phonological awareness skills relate to private speech internalization, and whether the answer to this question changes with children's age and mathematical achievement levels. Comparisons were made between 67 children diagnosed with math difficulties and 67 children without math difficulties from Grade 2 to Grade 7 in primary schools. Two separate laboratory investigations were performed to explore children's developmental levels of private speech and phonological awareness, respectively. Analysis was based on private speech differences, phonological awareness differences, and differences in occurrence of private-speech/phonological-awareness category combinations. Children without math difficulties showed a grade-determined shift from less to more internalized private speech and from lower to higher levels of phonological awareness. In contrast, the development of children with math difficulties seemed almost to stop at the inaudible private speech/low level of phonological awareness combinations. Silence/high phonological level was the primary alternative for typical math achievers. Results are discussed in terms of directions for future research. PMID:22134964

Ostad, Snorre A

2013-01-01

98

Naming Speed, Phonological Awareness, and Orthographic Knowledge in Second Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study with 85 second graders found that naming speed accounted for a sizable amount of unique variance in reading with vocabulary and phonemic awareness partialled out. Marked difficulties on reading tasks were seen in students with both slow naming speed and low phonemic awareness, thus supporting the double deficit hypothesis of reading…

Manis, Franklin R.; Doi, Lisa Michelle; Bhadha, Bhaktawahr

2000-01-01

99

Effect of Phonological and Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension in Hebrew-Speaking Adolescents with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for…

Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

2011-01-01

100

Do Bilingual Children Possess Better Phonological Awareness? Investigation of Korean Monolingual and Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether there are bilingual advantages in terms of phonological awareness (PA) for children acquiring two phonologically and orthographically different alphabetic languages and investigated the emergent literacy factors that explain variances in their PA, in comparison to monolingual children. The study participants comprised…

Kang, Jennifer Yusun

2012-01-01

101

Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2010-01-01

102

"Reading First" Kindergarten Classroom Instruction and Students' Growth in Phonological Awareness and Letter Naming-Decoding Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of the amount, content, and implementation of reading instruction provided by 17 kindergarten teachers in eight "Reading First" elementary schools as it related to students' progress (n = 286 students) on early reading assessments of phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency. Children's phonological

Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol; Lane, Holly; Kosanovich, Marcia L.; Schatschneider, Chris; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Miller, Melissa S.; Wright, Tyran L.

2008-01-01

103

Contribution of Temporal Processing Skills to Reading Comprehension in 8-Year-Olds: Evidence for a Mediation Effect of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…

Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

2012-01-01

104

Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.  

PubMed

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2013-12-01

105

Head Start Teachers’ Views of Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income\\u000a children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current\\u000a study examined Head Start teachers’ views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve children’s sound and word\\u000a skills. Teachers’ descriptions of their instructional strategies emphasized more planning

Patrick M. O’Leary; Mary K. Cockburn; Douglas R. Powell; Karen E. Diamond

2010-01-01

106

Kernel Springy Discriminant Analysis and Its Application to a Phonological Awareness Teaching System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making use of the ubiquitous kernel notion, we present a new nonlinear supervised feature extraction technique called Kernel\\u000a Springy Discriminant Analysis. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently reduce the number of features and increase\\u000a classification performance. The improvements obtained admittedly arise from the nonlinear nature of the extraction technique\\u000a developed here. Since phonological awareness is a great importance in

András Kocsor; Kornél Kovács

2002-01-01

107

Letter names and phonological awareness help children to learn letter-sound relations.  

PubMed

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds occur either at the beginning (e.g., the letter /be/) or in the middle (e.g., the letter /'eli/) of the letter name. The control group was taught the shapes of the letters but not their names. Then both groups were taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed an advantage for the experimental group, but only for beginning-sound letters. Experiment 2 investigated whether training in phonological awareness could boost the learning of letter sounds, particularly middle-sound letters. In addition to learning the names of beginning- and middle-sound letters, children in the experimental group were taught to categorize words according to rhyme and alliteration, whereas controls were taught to categorize the same words semantically. All children were then taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed that children who were given phonological awareness training found it easier to learn letter sounds than controls. This was true for both types of letters, but especially for middle-sound letters. PMID:21316064

Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-05-01

108

Changing Models across Cultures: Associations of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Structure Awareness with Vocabulary and Word Recognition in Second Graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data provided by approximately 100 second graders each from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States, we investigated relations among phonological awareness, morphological structure awareness, vocabulary, and word recognition. Our results indicate that across languages, phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness are…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Liu, Hongyun; Wagner, Richard K.; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Cheuk, Cecilia S-M.; Muse, Andrea

2005-01-01

109

The relationships between quantity-number competencies, working memory, and phonological awareness in 5- and 6-year-olds.  

PubMed

In this study, the interdependencies among phonological awareness, verbal working memory components, and early numerical skills in children 1 year before school entry are addressed. Early numerical skills were conceptualized as quantity-number competencies (QNC) at both basic (QNC Level 1) and advanced (QNC Level 2) levels. In a sample of 1,343 children aged 5 and 6, structural equation modelling provided support for the isolated number words hypothesis (Krajewski & Schneider, 2009, J. Exp. Child Psychol., 103, 516-531). This hypothesis claims that phonological awareness contributes to the acquisition of QNC Level 1, such as learning the number word sequence, but not of QNC Level 2, which requires the linkage of number words to quantities. In addition, phonological awareness relied on verbal working memory, especially with regard to the phonological loop, central executive, and episodic buffer. The results were congruent with the idea that phonological awareness mediates the impact of verbal working memory on QNCs. The relationships between verbal working memory, phonological awareness, and QNCs were comparable in monolingual and bilingual children. PMID:24128172

Michalczyk, Kurt; Krajewski, Kristin; Pre?ler, Anna-Lena; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2013-11-01

110

A common haplotype of KIAA0319 contributes to the phonological awareness skill in Chinese children  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. Method and results A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (p nominal ?=?6.85 10 -5 and p corrected ?=?0.0029). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill.

2014-01-01

111

Same or Different? Insights into the Etiology of Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming  

PubMed Central

This work’s objective was to offer additional insights into the psychological and genetic bases of reading ability and disability, and to evaluate the plausibility of a variety of psychological models of reading involving phonological awareness (PA) and rapid naming (RN), both hypothesized to be principal components in such models. In Study 1, 488 unselected families were assessed with measures of PA and RN to investigate familial aggregation and to obtain estimates of both the number and effect-magnitude of genetic loci involved in these traits’ transmission. The results of the analyses from Study 1 indicated the presence of genetic effects in the etiology of individual differences for PA and RN and pointed to both the shared and unique sources of this genetic variance, which appeared to be exerted by multiple (3–6 for PA and 3–5 for RN) genes. These results were used in Study 2 to parameterize a simulation of 3,000 families with quantitatively distributed PA and RN, so that the robustness and generalizability of the Study 1 findings could be evaluated. The findings of both studies were interpreted according to established theories of reading and our own understanding of the etiology of complex developmental disorders.

Naples, Adam J.; Chang, Joseph T.; Katz, Leonard; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2009-01-01

112

Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Oral Language, Decoding, Phonological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis of the Correlational Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a meta-analysis of cross-linguistic transfer of oral language (vocabulary and listening comprehension), phonology (decoding and phonological awareness) and reading comprehension. Our findings show a small meta-correlation between first (L1) and second (L2) oral language and a moderate to large correlation between L1 and L2 phonological

Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

2011-01-01

113

Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

114

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

115

Development of Phonological Awareness in English-Mandarin Bilinguals: A Comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…

Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2012-01-01

116

Tracking the Roots of Reading Ability: White Matter Volume and Integrity Correlate with Phonological Awareness in Prereading and Early-Reading Kindergarten Children  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction.

Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.

2013-01-01

117

Do Children Selected for Reading Recovery[R] Exhibit Weaknesses in Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatic Naming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether children considered to be at high risk for developing reading difficulties due to weaknesses in either phonological awareness or rapid automatic naming (RAN)--two skills linked to reading difficulties in many studies--were being captured for early intervention with Reading Recovery using the…

Litt, Deborah

2010-01-01

118

A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

2011-01-01

119

The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

2012-01-01

120

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

121

Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

2011-01-01

122

Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

2009-01-01

123

Foundations of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Impact of Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and accompanying disabilities are prone to reading difficulties. The aim of the present study was to examine the foundations of phonological awareness in pre-school children with CP in comparison with a normally developing control group. Rhyme perception was regarded as an early indicator of…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, L.; van Balkom, H.; de Moor, J.

2008-01-01

124

Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

2013-01-01

125

English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

2012-01-01

126

The Nature of Phonological Awareness: Converging Evidence from Four Studies of Preschool and Early Grade School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant controversy exists about the nature of phonological awareness, a causal variable in reading acquisition. In 4 studies that included 202 5- to 6-year-old children studied longitudinally for 3 years, 123 2- to 5-year-old children, 38 4-year-old children studied longitudinally for 2 years, and 826 4- to 7-year-old children, the authors…

Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2004-01-01

127

Teachers' perceptions of promoting sign language phonological awareness in an ASL/English bilingual program.  

PubMed

The National Reading Panel emphasizes that spoken language phonological awareness (PA) developed at home and school can lead to improvements in reading performance in young children. However, research indicates that many deaf children are good readers even though they have limited spoken language PA. Is it possible that some deaf students benefit from teachers who promote sign language PA instead? The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine teachers' beliefs and instructional practices related to sign language PA. A thematic analysis is conducted on 10 participant interviews at an ASL/English bilingual school for the deaf to understand their views and instructional practices. The findings reveal that the participants had strong beliefs in developing students' structural knowledge of signs and used a variety of instructional strategies to build students' knowledge of sign structures in order to promote their language and literacy skills. PMID:23676530

Crume, Peter K

2013-10-01

128

The Effectiveness of Explicit Individualized Phonemic Awareness Instruction by a Speech-Language Pathologist to Preschool Children with Phonological Speech Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy…

Nullman, Susan L.

2009-01-01

129

Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

2009-01-01

130

Relations between Children's Invented Spelling and the Development of Phonological Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effect of a training program on phonological skills that intended to lead preschool Portuguese children (n=30) to move from prephonetic spellings to early phonemic spellings. Reports that for the experimental group, the intervention was effective in moving the children to early phonemic spellings. Includes references. (CMK)

Silva, C.; Martins, M. Alves

2003-01-01

131

The Role of Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming, and Orthographic Processing in Word Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of three subskills associated with word decoding. The skills utilized for this study were phonological, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. To do this, six separate models were utilized to define different ways that these three subskills (represented as factors)…

Holland, Jason; McIntosh, David; Huffman, Lisa

2004-01-01

132

A comparison of phonemic and phonological awareness in educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.  

PubMed

The researchers explored the phonological awareness (PA) competency and confidence of educators working with children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Performance comparisons were made between the two surveyed professional groups, teachers of the deaf (TODs; n = 58) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs; n = 51). It was found that both respondent groups demonstrated gaps in PA knowledge and skills; however, SLPs performed significantly better, on average, than TODs. The educators expressed feelings of moderate confidence in their skills related to teaching children with hearing loss and assessing their PA. Correlations between educator demographics or levels of confidence and educator performance on PA measures did not yield significant findings. The results underscore the need for improved personnel preparation and PA continuing education for educators supporting literacy education of children who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:24745107

Messier, Jane; Jackson, Carla Wood

2014-01-01

133

The Effects of Phonological Awareness of Zulu-Speaking Children Learning to Spell in English: A Study of Cross-Language Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…

De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica

2010-01-01

134

Cat in the Hat or Cat in the Cap? An Investigation of the Developmental Trajectories of Phonological Awareness for Korean Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated trajectories of Korean children's growth in the awareness of four phonological units--"syllable," "body," "rime" and "phoneme"--over time, by following a sample of 215 children over a period of 15 months, beginning at their first year of preschool and collecting four waves of data. Much of the existing research suggests…

Kim, Young-Suk

2008-01-01

135

Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

2010-01-01

136

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

137

Cross-modal integration in the brain is related to phonological awareness only in typical readers, not in those with reading difficulty.  

PubMed

Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD) readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD), suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD) children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). For typically developing children, correlations between elision and neural activation were found for the cross-modal but not unimodal task, whereas in children with RD, no correlation was found. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty. PMID:23888137

McNorgan, Chris; Randazzo-Wagner, Melissa; Booth, James R

2013-01-01

138

Cross-modal integration in the brain is related to phonological awareness only in typical readers, not in those with reading difficulty  

PubMed Central

Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD) readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD), suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD) children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). For typically developing children, correlations between elision and neural activation were found for the cross-modal but not unimodal task, whereas in children with RD, no correlation was found. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty.

McNorgan, Chris; Randazzo-Wagner, Melissa; Booth, James R.

2013-01-01

139

The Effect of Computer-Delivered Phonological Awareness Training on the Early Literacy Skills of Students Identified as At-Risk for Reading Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the effects of two computer-delivered phonological awareness training programs (Earobics Step 1 and Lexia Early Reading) on the early literacy skills of kindergarten and first grade students at risk for reading failure. The study utilized a multi-group pretest-treatment-posttest design. Student participants, who were identified for the study through a school-wide screening, were randomly assigned to one

Deanne Gale

2006-01-01

140

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

141

Contributions of Phonological Processing Skills to Reading Skills in Arabic Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures

Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.

2011-01-01

142

The Contributions of Phonology, Orthography, and Morphology in Chinese-English Biliteracy Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the concurrent contributions of phonology, orthography, and morphology to biliteracy acquisition in 78 Grade 1 Chinese-English bilingual children. Conceptually comparable measures in English and Chinese tapping phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness were administered. Word reading skill in English and…

Wang, Min; Yang, Chen; Cheng, Chenxi

2009-01-01

143

MEASURING SPEECH MOTOR SKILLS IN NORMALLY DEVELOPING AND PHONOLOGICALLY DISORDERED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normally developing and phonologically disordered 3 and 4- year-old children (groups N and P) were compared on measures of articulation rate in imitated and spontaneous connected sp eech and in diadochokinetic (DDK) tasks. The P group exhibited significantly slower mean articulation rates than the N group in the connected speech samples. There was no significant difference between the group means

Wendy M M Cohen; Daphne Waters

144

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

145

Dynamic Assessment of Phonological Awareness for Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to examine the relationships between performance on a nonverbal phoneme deletion task administered in a dynamic assessment format with performance on measures of phoneme deletion, word-level reading, and speech sound production that required verbal responses for school-age children with speech sound disorders (SSDs).…

Gillam, Sandra Laing; Ford, Mikenzi Bentley

2012-01-01

146

A Quantitative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Contiguous, Graphemic and Phonological Interventions on Measures of Reading and Spelling Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has established that phonological awareness is a predictor of future reading skill, the effects of variant vs. contiguous presentations of grapheme-phoneme correspondences as part of a teaching program have not been examined. A variant presentation is one in which there is a mismatch between the letter and sound or sound and letter correspondences and a contiguous representation is

Roger J Bourne; Paul R Whiting

147

What Is Morphological Awareness? Tapping Lexical Compounding Awareness in Chinese Third Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred twenty-one third-grade Chinese children were assessed with a new morphological awareness task involving open-ended lexical compounding, in addition to completing other measures. With children's age, nonverbal intelligence, phonological awareness, and previously established measures of morphological awareness statistically controlled,…

Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2010-01-01

148

Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

149

Phonological Skills and Their Role in Learning to Read: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a systematic meta-analytic review of the relationships among 3 of the most widely studied measures of children's phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory) and children's word reading skills. The review included both extreme group studies and correlational studies with unselected samples (235 studies were included, and 995 effect sizes were calculated). Results from

Monica Melby-Lervåg; Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster; Charles Hulme

2012-01-01

150

Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness  

SciTech Connect

Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

2013-03-01

151

Learning to Read Setswana and English: Cross-Language Transference of Letter Knowledge, Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.…

Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather

2008-01-01

152

Sensitivity Analysis of Situational Awareness Measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames Research Center, each pilot flew eight trials, four using SAGAT and four using performance measures. Each set of four trials differed by level of visibility as well. The flight paths were very similar in appearance and hazard number, allowing comparison between flight paths. The pilots were tasked with flying along a road at an assigned altitude and speed while avoiding any hazards that they happened upon. The attempt here was not to find a single best measure of SA, but rather to begin an investigation of the sensitivity of common measures of SA. Upon completion of this study, its results, in combination with future studies, should allow us to develop an empirically based taxonomy of SA measures and the contexts for their appropriate use.

Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

153

Relationships between Nonword Repetition Accuracy and Other Measures of Linguistic Development in Children with Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has documented effects of phonotactic probability on young children's nonword repetition. This study extends this research in 2 ways. First, it compares nonword repetitions by 40 young children with phonological disorders with those by 40 same-age peers with typical phonological development on a nonword repetition task…

Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2005-01-01

154

Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other

Sima H. Anvari; Laurel J. Trainor; Jennifer Woodside; Betty Ann Levy

2002-01-01

155

Bantoanon Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bantoanon language has borrowed from Spanish and English, as well as from Hiligaynon and Tagalog. Many of the borrowed words have been assimilated into the Bantoanon phonemic patterns. In this paper on Bantoanon phonology, discussion focuses on the phonology of native Bantoanon words and the added phonemic patterns and phonemes resulting from…

Kilgour, Heather; Hendrickson, Gail

1992-01-01

156

Confidence ratings and awareness measures in word recognition testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Word recognition tests primarily use percent correct to measure performance. Additional information may be gained by analyzing awareness of accurate perceptions (AA), awareness of errant perceptions (AE), composite awareness (AC), and awareness symmetry (AS). Awareness measures were derived from subjects' assignment of confidence ratings to a two-item multiple choice response test by designating ``YES'' or ``NO'' that their chosen response is accurate. Each response/confidence rating was categorized as a hit, miss, false alarm, or correct rejection. Awareness equations were: AA=hits/(hits+misses); AE=correct rejections/(correct rejections+false alarms); AC=SQRT (AA squared+AE squared); AS=0.707(AA-AE). Thus, AC is the vector to Cartesian coordinates AA, AE; AS is the distance of this point from a diagonal representing symmetrical awareness. Word recognition and awareness was investigated under two signal-to-noise ratios (3 and 6 dB). The Diagnostic Rhyme Test was presented at 50 dBHL to eight normal-hearing adults. Six replicates were obtained. Awareness measures provided additional performance information. Percent correct increased significantly as signal-to-noise ratio improved, but AE decreased and AS did not change significantly.

Goshorn, Edward L.; Goshorn, Jennifer D.

2003-04-01

157

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

158

The Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Emerging Individual Differences in Mathematical Computation Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Second to Fifth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between phonological processing and emerging individual differences in math computation skills. Found that phonological memory, access rate to phonological codes in memory, and phonological awareness were uniquely associated with growth in number of computation procedures mastered from 92.5 to 134.8 months. Phonological

Hecht, Steven A.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2001-01-01

159

The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

160

Awareness in dementia: A review of assessment methods and measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive range of literature on awareness in dementia published in peer-reviewed journals during the last 15 years was reviewed with the aim of extracting details of the methods and measurement instruments adopted for the purposes of assessing awareness. Assessment approaches fell into five categories: clinician rating methods, questionnaire-based methods, performance-based methods, phenomenological methods, and multidimensional or combined methods. Ranges

Linda Clare; IVANA MARKOVA ´; Frans Verhey; Geraldine Kenny

2005-01-01

161

Investigating the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of Phonological Abilities in a Sufficiently Transparent Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory-driven conceptualizations of phonological abilities in a sufficiently transparent language (Greek) were examined in children ages 5 years 8 months to 7 years 7 months, by comparing a set of a priori models. Specifically, the fit of 9 different models was evaluated, as defined by the Number of Factors (1 to 3; represented by rhymes,…

Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Spanoudis, George

2012-01-01

162

Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

Rantanen, E.M.

2009-01-01

163

Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures  

PubMed Central

Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding of the multi-dimensional construct and suggest next steps for further research.

Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita

2009-01-01

164

A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

Fracker, Martin L.

1988-01-01

165

Psychometric Evaluation of the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale with a Kindergarten Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…

Nelson, Jason M.

2008-01-01

166

The Racialistic Incidents Inventory: Measuring Awareness of Racialism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Racialistic Incidents Inventory (RII) was developed to measure individual awareness of eight types of racialistic incidents. Racialistic incidents were defined as situations in which behaviors or attitudes are directed toward a particular racial/ethnic group; these may reflect racist or nonracist attitudes. The typology of incidents was…

Allen-Claiborne, Joyce G.; Taylor, Jerome

167

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern.

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

168

Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment  

PubMed Central

One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented.

Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

2004-01-01

169

The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

2014-01-01

170

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

171

Four new speech and prosody-voice measures for genetics research and other studies in developmental phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Research in developmental phonological disorders, particularly emerging subgroup studies using behavioral and molecular genetics, requires qualitative and continuous measurement systems that meet a variety of substantive and psychometric assumptions. This paper reviews relevant issues underlying such needs and presents four measurement proposals developed expressly for causal-correlates research. The primary qualitative system is the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS), a 10-category nosology for dichotomous and hierarchical polychotomous classification of speech disorders from 2 years of age through adulthood. The three quantitative measures for segmental and suprasegmental analyses are (a) the Articulation Competence Index (ACI), an interval-level severity index that adjusts a subject's Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC) score for the relative percentage of distortion errors; (b) Speech Profiles, a series of graphic-numeric displays that profile a subject's or group's severity-adjusted consonant and vowel-diphthong mastery and error patterns; and (c) the Prosody-Voice Profile, a graphic-numeric display that profiles a subject's or group's status on six suprasegmental domains divided into 31 types of inappropriate prosody-voice codes. All data for the four measures are derived from one sample of conversational speech, which obviates the limitations of citation-form testing; enables speech assessment as a qualitative, semi-continuous, and continuous trait over the life span; and provides a context for univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of phonetic, phonologic, prosodic, and language variables in multiage, multidialectal, and multicultural populations. Rationale, procedures, validity data, and examples of uses for each measure are presented. PMID:8450654

Shriberg, L D

1993-02-01

172

Reading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments.  

PubMed

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) who show impaired phonological processing are at risk of developing reading disabilities, which raises the question of phonological impairment commonality between developmental dyslexia (DD) and SLI. In order to distinguish the failing phonological processes in SLI and DD, we investigated the different steps involved in speech processing going from perceptual discrimination through various aspects of phonological memory. Our results show that whereas the memory for sequence is likewise impaired in either disorder, children with SLI have to face additional impairment in phonological discrimination and short-term memory, which may account for even poorer phonological awareness than dyslexics'. PMID:19437205

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Poncelet, Martine; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle

2009-01-01

173

Phonological Representations in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal…

Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

2012-01-01

174

Phonological similarity effects in verbal complex span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological similarity effects were used to assess the role of acoustic coding in verbal complex span, a processing-plus-storage measure found to correlate significantly with aspects of complex cognition. Three experiments demonstrated consistent effects of phonological similarity on listening span. These effects appeared relatively insensitive to manipulations of task materials (Experiment 1) and differences in processing task demands (Experiments 2 and

Katy J. Lobley; Alan D. Baddeley; Susan E. Gathercole

2005-01-01

175

Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

2010-01-01

176

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

177

Phonological alexia: three dissociations.  

PubMed Central

Three dissociations were observed in a case of alexia: a disturbance of reading, without comparable disturbance of oral expression, oral comprehension, writing, or spelling aloud; a disturbance of the phonological reading process, without disturbance of the non-phonological reading process; a disturbance located at the level of the phonological stage, without disturbance of the perceptual and expressive stages. This pattern of results has been called phonological alexia.

Beauvois, M F; Derouesne, J

1979-01-01

178

Kindergarten Letter Knowledge, Phonological Skills, and Memory Processes: Relative Effects on Early Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergarten phonological awareness tasks are first compared as to their predictability of later literacy performance independent of letter knowledge for a group of German children. Results indicate that the phonological awareness tasks vary in their prediction of later literacy performance, which includes spelling and a variety of reading tasks in the first and second grades. A second concern was the

Jan Carol Näslund; Wolfgang Schneider

1996-01-01

179

Measuring and testing awareness of emotional face expressions.  

PubMed

Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings (CR) predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) and post-decision wagering (PDW) when using stimuli with emotional content (fearful vs. neutral faces). Although we find the study interesting, we disagree with the conclusion that CR is superior to PAS because of two methodological issues. First, the conclusion is not based on a formal test. We performed this test and found no evidence that CR predicted accuracy better than PAS (p=.4). Second, Szczepanowski et al. used the present version of PAS in a manner somewhat different from how it was originally intended, and the participants may not have been adequately instructed. We end our commentary with a set of recommendations for future studies using PAS. PMID:23728457

Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Overgaard, Morten

2013-09-01

180

Comparison of Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Adults on Decoding and Phonemic Awareness Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten college-aged dyslexic students performed significantly poorer than 10 controls on 2 measures of phonemic awareness: reading of nonsense words, and a phoneme reversal task. Results suggest that, although the dyslexic subjects had improved their reading skills, a deficit remained in their ability to process phonological information quickly and…

Kitz, William R.; Tarver, Sara G.

1989-01-01

181

Relationships among rapid digit naming, phonological processing, motor automaticity, and speech perception in poor, average, and good readers and spellers.  

PubMed

In this article, we explore the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and other cognitive processes among below-average, average, and above-average readers and spellers. Nonsense word reading, phonological awareness, RAN, automaticity of balance, speech perception, and verbal short-term and working memory were measured. Factor analysis revealed a 3-component structure. The first component included phonological processing tasks, RAN, and motor balance. The second component included verbal short-term and working memory tasks. Speech perception loaded strongly as a third component, associated negatively with RAN. The phonological processing tests correlated most strongly with reading ability and uniquely discriminated average from below- and above-average readers in terms of word reading, reading comprehension, and spelling. On word reading, comprehension, and spelling, RAN discriminated only the below-average group from the average performers. Verbal memory, as assessed by word list recall, additionally discriminated the below-average group from the average group on spelling performance. Motor balance and speech perception did not discriminate average from above- or below-average performers. In regression analyses, phonological processing measures predicted word reading and comprehension, and both phonological processing and RAN predicted spelling. PMID:15727326

Savage, Robert S; Frederickson, Norah; Goodwin, Roz; Patni, Ulla; Smith, Nicola; Tuersley, Louise

2005-01-01

182

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

183

Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother’s educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience.

Tomblin, J. Bruce

2009-01-01

184

From sound to syntax: phonological constraints on children's lexical categorization of new words.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality - an aggregate measure of the relationship between the phonology of a word and the phonology of words in the same lexical class. Experiment 1 showed that when monolingual English-speaking seven-year-olds could rely on learning by exclusion, phonological typicality only affected their initial inferences about the words. Consistent with recent computational analyses, phonological cues had stronger impact on the processing of verb-like than noun-like items. Experiment 2 revealed an impact of French on the performance of seven-year-olds in French immersion when tested in a French language environment. Thus, phonological knowledge may affect lexical categorization even in the absence of extensive experience. PMID:19105858

Fitneva, Stanka A; Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-11-01

185

The Acquisition of Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with methods and models appropriate to the systematic linguistic study of the child's acquisiton of phonology. Sections I through IV present a review of previous studies in the field, discuss the usefulness of the concept of "innateness," discriminate between phonetic and phonological ability, and discuss the concept of discrete…

Moskowitz, Arlene I.

186

Metrical Phonology and SLA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

Tice, Bradley S.

187

Anatomical Properties of the Arcuate Fasciculus Predict Phonological and Reading Skills in Children  

PubMed Central

For more than a century, neurologists have hypothesized that the arcuate fasciculus carries signals that are essential for language function; however, the relevance of the pathway for particular behaviors is highly controversial. The primary objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between individual variation in the microstructural properties of arcuate fibers and behavioral measures of language and reading skills. A second objective was to use novel fiber-tracking methods to reassess estimates of arcuate lateralization. In a sample of 55 children, we found that measurements of diffusivity in the left arcuate correlate with phonological awareness skills and arcuate volume lateralization correlates with phonological memory and reading skills. Contrary to previous investigations that report the absence of the right arcuate in some subjects, we demonstrate that new techniques can identify the pathway in every individual. Our results provide empirical support for the role of the arcuate fasciculus in the development of reading skills.

Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.; Ben-Shachar, Michal

2011-01-01

188

Measuring Metacognitive Strategies Using the Reading Awareness Scale ESCOLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Current cognitive approaches highlight the importance of metacognition. "Learning how to learn" facilities awareness of one's own learning process, how they work, how to optimize their functioning, control of reading process, and so on. Acquisition of these skills is one of the new educational requirements for students, as is…

Jimenez, Virginia; Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesus M.; Arrebillaga, Lorena

2009-01-01

189

Using Multiple Measures of Morphological Awareness to Assess Its Relation to Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Morphological awareness refers to the ability to consider and manipulate consciously the smallest units of meaning in language. In previous studies investigating students' morphological awareness, no consistent task has been used to measure this skill across grade levels and comparisons among studies have been based on tasks, which…

Apel, Kenn; Diehm, Emily; Apel, Lynda

2013-01-01

190

Development of a Cognate Awareness Measure for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development and validation of the Cognate Awareness Test (CAT), which measures cognate awareness in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in fourth and fifth grade. An investigation of differential performance on the two subtests of the CAT (cognates and noncognates) provides evidence that the instrument is…

Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Louguit, Mohammed

2008-01-01

191

Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling the authors evaluated the contribution of morphological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological decoding to reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, spelling, and accuracy and rate of decoding morphologically complex words for 182 4th- and 5th-grade students, 218 6th- and 7th-grade students, and 207…

Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2006-01-01

192

Phonological basis in reading disability: A review and analysis of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor readers are known to do consistently worsethan their normal reading peers on tasks ofphonological processing. They are characterizedby their difficulties in printed wordrecognition, phonological awareness andphonological decoding. An increasing body ofevidence points to deficits in speechperception as a source of subtle but ramifyingeffects in reading impaired children andadults. These deficits may be traced to poorlycoded phonological representations. Thisarticle will

Maria Mody

2003-01-01

193

Degree of Illiteracy and Phonological and Metaphonological Skills in Unschooled Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to…

Loureiro, Clara de Santos; Willadino Braga, Lucia; Souza, Ligia do Nascimento; Filho, Gilberto Nunes; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Dellatolas, Georges

2004-01-01

194

A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

2013-01-01

195

Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding  

PubMed Central

Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia.

Lopes-Silva, Julia B.; Moura, Ricardo; Julio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G.; Wood, Guilherme

2014-01-01

196

Phonemic awareness as a pathway to number transcoding.  

PubMed

Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744

Lopes-Silva, Júlia B; Moura, Ricardo; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G; Wood, Guilherme

2014-01-01

197

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

198

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

199

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates.  

PubMed

To examine the validity of different theoretical assumptions about the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written and spoken language performance in a large cohort of patients with focal damage to perisylvian cortical regions implicated in phonological processing. Despite considerable variation in accuracy for both words and non-words, the majority of participants demonstrated the increased lexicality effects in reading and spelling that are considered the hallmark features of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia. Increased lexicality effects were also documented in spoken language tasks such as oral repetition, and patients performed poorly on a battery of phonological tests that did not involve an orthographic component. Furthermore, a composite measure of general phonological ability was strongly predictive of both reading and spelling accuracy, and we obtained evidence that the continuum of severity that characterized the written language disorder of our patients was attributable to an underlying continuum of phonological impairment. Although patients demonstrated qualitatively similar deficits across measures of written and spoken language processing, there were quantitative differences in levels of performance reflecting task difficulty effects. Spelling was more severely affected than reading by the reduction in phonological capacity and this differential vulnerability accounted for occasional disparities between patterns of impairment on the two written language tasks. Our findings suggest that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in patients with perisylvian lesions are manifestations of a central or modality-independent phonological deficit rather than the result of damage to cognitive components dedicated to reading or spelling. Our results also provide empirical support for shared-components models of written language processing, according to which the same central cognitive systems support both reading and spelling. Lesion-deficit correlations indicated that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to a variety of perisylvian cortical regions, consistent with distributed network models of phonological processing. PMID:18625494

Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M; Henry, Maya L; Leyden, Anne; Kim, Esther; Rising, Kindle; Andersen, Sarah; Cho, Hyesuk

2009-05-01

200

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

201

Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

Tice, Bradley S.

202

MEASURING INFORMATION SECURITY AWARENESS: A WEST AFRICA GOLD MINING ENVIRONMENT CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

AngloGold Ashanti is an international gold mining company that has recently implemented an information security awareness program worldwide at all of their operations. Following the implementation, there was a normal business need to evaluate and measure the success and effectiveness of the program. A measuring tool that can be applied globally and that addressed AngloGold Ashanti's unique requirements was developed

HA Kruger; WD Kearney

203

Assessing alexithymia and emotional awareness: Relations between measures in a German non-clinical sample.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties and relations between two different methods of measuring alexithymia and one measure of emotional awareness in a German non-clinical sample. The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA), and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which is a performance-based measure of emotional awareness, were administered to 84 university students. Both internal reliability and inter-rater reliability for the TSIA were acceptable. Results from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) based on all measures supported a three factorial solution previously obtained in an American sample using multiple methods of alexithymia and emotional ability measurement. In our three factor model direct self (TAS-20), direct other (TSIA), and indirect self (LEAS) measures were differentiated. The convergent validity of the TSIA was supported by a significant correlation with the LEAS. Our findings suggest that future research on alexithymia and emotional awareness can benefit from the use of a multi-method approach and should include objective measures. PMID:24439560

Lichev, Vladimir; Rufer, Michael; Rosenberg, Nicole; Ihme, Klas; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Kugel, Harald; Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

2014-05-01

204

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

205

Aspects of Phonological Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)

Cutting, James E.

1975-01-01

206

Assessment of Phonological Discrimination in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature indicated that conventional tests are inadequate for accurate assessment of phonological discrimination ability in children. Higher error rates on discrimination tests than those which would be predicted from articulation measures seemed to implicate task variables. To reduce task difficulty, repeated contrast test…

Rudegeair, Robert E.; Kamil, Michael L.

207

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

208

Phonemic Awareness: A Crucial Bridge to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers strategies for preparing children for literacy in the early Montessori classroom through emphasis on phonemic awareness. Specifically addresses activities to develop phonological and phonemic awareness including song, the alphabet, rhyming activities, "I spy" games, word games, and word segmentation. Presents a case study in support of…

Woods, Carol S.

2003-01-01

209

Measuring the Diversity Awareness of Social Work Students: The Dual Perspective Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dual Perspective Inventory was implemented to measure the diversity awareness of first-year MSW students at a university in the western U.S. Data were collected at the beginning of the first semester from students who enrolled in a course on diversity, and again at the end of the semester when the students were about to complete the course.…

Anderson, Wandarah; Hayashi, Reiko; Frost, Caren J.

2009-01-01

210

User Acceptability of Physiological and Other Measures of Hazardous States of Awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two studies explored user acceptance of devices that measure hazardous states of awareness. In the first study, critical incident data were collected in two workshops from 11 operators working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. These critical incident data were used to develop a survey of the acceptability of awareness measures. In the second study, the survey was administered to 100 people also working as air traffic controllers or commercial pilots. Results show that operators are open to the inclusion of technology to measure HSAs even if that technology is somewhat invasive as long as feedback about the HSAs is considered to be useful and helpful. Nonetheless, a major concern is the legal complications associated with being recorded, particularly for older and more experienced operators. Air traffic controllers emphasized the importance of sharing technology information with supervisors in order to receive backup or assistance under conditions of task overload, whereas pilots emphasized the influence of work schedules on problems with awareness. Recommendations are offered concerning the implementation of devices to measure hazardous states of awareness.

Dickinson, Terry L.; Milkulka, Peter J.; Kwan, Doris; Fitzgibbons, Amy A.; Jinadu, Florence R.; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Pope, A. T. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

211

Measuring Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness: preliminary reliability of a caregiver attitudes and beliefs survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent estimates of Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness suggest that approximately half of all American adults have not heard of the often devastating risks of shaking an infant. Using a sample of 288 undergraduate students, we developed a measure of attitudes around infant care practices. A total of 264 community participants completed a revised survey. Between-group comparisons, exploratory factor analyses, and

Beth S. Russell; Preston A. Britner

2006-01-01

212

Derivation of respiration from ECG measured without subject's awareness using wavelet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a system to measure ECG without subject's awareness and derived respiration from the ECG using the wavelet transform. The bed sheet electrodes consisted of three pieces of conductive textiles. Respiratory signals (EDR) were derived by reconstructing the detail signal of the 9th decomposition from the wavelet transform. The respiration periods were calculated by detecting the zero-crossing of the

W. J. Yi; K. S. Park

2002-01-01

213

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

214

Self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: a comparison of measures and their relationship to executive functions.  

PubMed

Poor awareness of deficit is common after brain injury. Recent literature has examined various tools for measurement of this phenomenon; the most widely used being self-other rating scales. Although self-other scale measures have face validity, their criterion-related validity has not been adequately demonstrated, and there is little information as to whether and how they relate to other neuropsychological measures. The present study compared measurement of awareness by the Dysexecutive (DEX) Questionnaire self-other rating scale with the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview (SADI), a semistructured interview measure. Evaluation of awareness by these measures was compared to tests of executive functioning and IQ. Results indicated significant, albeit marginal relationships between the two measures, and better correlation of the SADI with measures of frontal lobe functioning. The SADI also predicted injury severity. PMID:12666769

Bogod, Nicholas M; Mateer, Catherine A; MacDonald, Stuart W S

2003-03-01

215

The Universality of Acquisitional Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the Aristotelian notion of "universal" as applied to phonological phenomena. It is claimed that speech production in children and adults, in normal and deviant speakers, and in a variety of languages, can all be described according to the same universal phonological rules which constitute the universal process of…

Salus, Peter H.

216

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

217

Ovarian and cervical cancer awareness: development of two validated measurement tools  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to develop and validate measures of awareness of symptoms and risk factors for ovarian and cervical cancer (Ovarian and Cervical Cancer Awareness Measures). Methods Potentially relevant items were extracted from the literature and generated by experts. Four validation studies were carried out to establish reliability and validity. Women aged 21–67 years (n=146) and ovarian and cervical cancer experts (n=32) were included in the studies. Internal reliability was assessed psychometrically. Test-retest reliability was assessed over a 1-week interval. To establish construct validity, Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) scores of cancer experts were compared with equally well-educated comparison groups. Sensitivity to change was tested by randomly assigning participants to read either a leaflet giving information about ovarian/cervical cancer or a leaflet with control information, and then completing the ovarian/cervical CAM. Results Internal reliability (Cronbach's ?=0.88 for the ovarian CAM and ?=0.84 for the cervical CAM) and test-retest reliability (r=0.84 and r=0.77 for the ovarian and cervical CAMs, respectively) were both high. Validity was demonstrated with cancer experts achieving higher scores than controls [ovarian CAM: t(36)= –5.6, p<0.001; cervical CAM: t(38)= –3.7, p=0.001], and volunteers who were randomised to read a cancer leaflet scored higher than those who received a control leaflet [ovarian CAM: t(49)=7.5, p<0.001; cervical CAM: t(48)= –5.5, p<0.001]. Conclusions This study demonstrates the psychometric properties of the ovarian and cervical CAMs and supports their utility in assessing ovarian and cervical cancer awareness in the general population.

Simon, Alice E; Wardle, Jane; Grimmett, Chloe; Power, Emily; Corker, Elizabeth; Menon, Usha; Matheson, Lauren; Waller, Jo

2012-01-01

218

Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.  

PubMed

Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-08-15

219

Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: a meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

The authors report a systematic meta-analytic review of the relationships among 3 of the most widely studied measures of children's phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory) and children's word reading skills. The review included both extreme group studies and correlational studies with unselected samples (235 studies were included, and 995 effect sizes were calculated). Results from extreme group comparisons indicated that children with dyslexia show a large deficit on phonemic awareness in relation to typically developing children of the same age (pooled effect size estimate: -1.37) and children matched on reading level (pooled effect size estimate: -0.57). There were significantly smaller group deficits on both rime awareness and verbal short-term memory (pooled effect size estimates: rime skills in relation to age-matched controls, -0.93, and reading-level controls, -0.37; verbal short-term memory skills in relation to age-matched controls, -0.71, and reading-level controls, -0.09). Analyses of studies of unselected samples showed that phonemic awareness was the strongest correlate of individual differences in word reading ability and that this effect remained reliable after controlling for variations in both verbal short-term memory and rime awareness. These findings support the pivotal role of phonemic awareness as a predictor of individual differences in reading development. We discuss whether such a relationship is a causal one and the implications of research in this area for current approaches to the teaching of reading and interventions for children with reading difficulties. PMID:22250824

Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

2012-03-01

220

Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it.

Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2014-01-01

221

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

222

Awareness and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students in a South Indian state.  

PubMed

The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs. PMID:23622464

Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

2013-05-01

223

Distinct neural signatures of cognitive subtypes of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits?  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia can be distinguished as different cognitive subtypes with and without phonological deficits. However, despite some general agreement on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia, the neurofunctional mechanisms underlying these cognitive subtypes remain to be identified. The present BOLD fMRI study thus aimed at investigating by which distinct and/or shared neural activation patterns dyslexia subtypes are characterized. German dyslexic fourth graders with and without deficits in phonological awareness and age-matched normal readers performed a phonological decision task: does the auditory word contain the phoneme/a/? Both dyslexic subtypes showed increased activation in the right cerebellum (Lobule IV) compared to controls. Subtype-specific increased activation was systematically found for the phonological dyslexics as compared to those without this deficit and controls in the left inferior frontal gyrus (area 44: phonological segmentation), the left SMA (area 6), the left precentral gyrus (area 6) and the right insula. Non-phonological dyslexics revealed subtype-specific increased activation in the left supramarginal gyrus (area PFcm; phonological storage) and angular gyrus (area PGp). The study thus provides the first direct evidence for the neurobiological grounding of dyslexia subtypes. Moreover, the data contribute to a better understanding of the frequently encountered heterogeneous neuroimaging results in the field of dyslexia.

van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; Sass, Katharina; Heim, Stefan

2013-01-01

224

Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

2012-01-01

225

The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

2013-01-01

226

Measuring consciousness: task accuracy and awareness as sigmoid functions of stimulus duration.  

PubMed

When consciousness is examined using subjective ratings, the extent to which processing is conscious or unconscious is often estimated by calculating task performance at the subjective threshold or by calculating the correlation between accuracy and awareness. However, both these methods have certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity (thus obtaining an accuracy and an awareness curve) as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff (2007). The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must increase for awareness to change proportionally as much as accuracy and the slopes of the curves are used to assess how fast accuracy and awareness increases and whether awareness is dichotomous. The method is successfully employed to assess consciousness characteristics on data from four different awareness scales. PMID:21959202

Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Timmermans, Bert; Cleeremans, Axel; Overgaard, Morten

2011-12-01

227

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

228

Genetic and environmental influences on orthographic and phonological skills in children with reading disabilities.  

PubMed

Data from identical and fraternal twins were analyzed to estimate the proportions of genetic and environmental influences on group deficits in accuracy and, when available, speed for printed word recognition and for related skills in phonological decoding (PD), orthographic coding (OC), and phoneme awareness (PA). In addition, bivariate genetic analyses were employed to estimate the degree of common genetic influence on group deficits across these different reading and language skills. About half of the group deficits in each of the skills were due to genetic influences, and the genetic origins were largely shared among the measures (r(g) = .53 - .99), except for those between OC and PA (r(g) = .28 - .39). Implications of the results are discussed for models of reading disability and remediation. PMID:11892949

Gayán, J; Olson, R K

2001-01-01

229

Inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring situation awareness.  

PubMed

Query- or probe-based situation awareness (SA) measures sometimes rely on process experts to evaluate operator actions and system states when used in representative settings. This introduces variability of human judgement into the measurements that require inter-rater reliability assessment. However, the literature neglects inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based SA measures. We recruited process experts to provide reference keys to SA queries in trials of a full-scope nuclear power plant simulator experiment to investigate the inter-rater reliability of a query-based SA measure. The query-based SA measure demonstrated only 'moderate' inter-rater reliability even though the queries were seemingly direct. The level of agreement was significantly different across pairs of experts who had different levels of exposure to the experiment. The results caution that inter-rater reliability of query/probe-based techniques for measuring SA cannot be assumed in representative settings. Knowledge about the experiment as well as the domain is critical to forming reliable expert judgements. PMID:24800794

Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

2014-07-01

230

Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Auditory perceptual learning has been proposed as effective for remediating impaired language and for enhancing normal language development. We examined the effect of phonemic contrast discrimination training on the discrimination of whole words and on phonological awareness in 8- to 10-year-old mainstream school children. Eleven phonemic contrast…

Moore, D.R.; Rosenberg, J.F.; Coleman, J.S.

2005-01-01

231

Rimes Are Not Necessarily Favored by Prereaders: Evidence from Meta- and Epilinguistic Phonological Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores young children's facility in phonological awareness tasks requiring either the detection or the articulation of head, coda, onset, and rime subsyllabic units shared in word pairs. Data are reported from 70 nonreading children and 21 precocious readers attending preschools. Prereading children were able to articulate shared…

Savage, Robert; Blair, Rebecca; Rvachew, Susan

2006-01-01

232

Processing Phonological Information in a Semi-Syllabic Script: Developmental Data from Telugu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were undertaken to examine second and fifth grade Telugu-speaking children's awareness of phonological and orthographic properties of familiar Telugu words. Experiment 1 focused on the strategies the children used in completing word fragments. Experiment 2 examined the children's ability to judge and generate rhyming words, and…

Vasanta, Duggirala

2004-01-01

233

Awareness, preparedness and adjustment measures of river-bank erosion-prone people: a case study.  

PubMed

People prone to the effects of river-bank erosion are well aware of the hazard they face, but see it as an unavoidable evil. Communities' lack of success in combating erosion can be attributed to their poverty and to their not knowing about any means to mitigate its effects. Households in safer areas have reduced their dependency on agriculture and developed more scope for non-farm activities, however, this is often difficult given the limited development of local enterprise. The major parameters that influence the adjustment measures after erosion are the education, skills, occupation and financial state of those affected. Those most vulnerable are households very much dependent on agriculture: for them resettlement to distant urban areas is not an option. PMID:8867512

Mamun, M Z

1996-03-01

234

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

235

Gamma phase locking modulated by phonological contrast during auditory comprehension in reading disability.  

PubMed

Children with specific reading impairment may have subtle deficits in speech perception related to difficulties in phonological processing. The aim of this study was to examine brain oscillatory activity related to phonological processing in the context of auditory sentence comprehension using magnetoencephalography to better understand these deficits. Good and poor readers, 16-18 years of age, were tested on speech perception of sentence-terminal incongruent words that were phonologically manipulated to be similar or dissimilar to corresponding congruent target words. Functional coupling between regions was measured using phase-locking values (PLVs). Gamma-band (30-45 Hz) PLV between auditory cortex and superior temporal sulcus in the right hemisphere was differentially modulated in the two groups by the degree of phonological contrast between the congruent and the incongruent target words in the latency range associated with semantic processing. Specifically, the PLV was larger in the phonologically similar than in the phonologically dissimilar condition in the good readers. This pattern was reversed in the poor readers, whose lower PLV in the phonologically similar condition may be indicative of the impaired phonological coding abilities of the group, and consequent vulnerability under perceptually demanding conditions. Overall, the results support the role of gamma oscillations in spoken language processing. PMID:22889887

Han, Jooman; Mody, Maria; Ahlfors, Seppo P

2012-10-01

236

Gamma phase-locking modulated by phonological contrast during auditory comprehension in reading disability  

PubMed Central

Children with specific reading impairment may have subtle deficits in speech perception related to difficulties in phonological processing. The aim of this study was to examine brain oscillatory activity related to phonological processing in the context of auditory sentence comprehension using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to better understand these deficits. Good and poor readers, 16-18 years of age, were tested on speech perception of sentence-terminal incongruent words that were phonologically manipulated to be similar or dissimilar to corresponding congruent target words. Functional coupling between regions was measured using phase-locking values (PLV). Gamma band (30-45 Hz) PLV between auditory cortex and superior temporal sulcus in the right hemisphere was differentially modulated in the two groups by the degree of phonological contrast between the congruent and incongruent target words in the latency range associated with semantic processing. Specifically, the PLV was larger in the phonologically similar than in the phonologically dissimilar condition in the good readers. This pattern was reversed in the poor readers, whose lower PLV in the phonologically similar condition may be indicative of the group's impaired phonological coding abilities, and consequent vulnerability under perceptually demanding conditions. Overall, the results support the role of gamma oscillations in spoken language processing.

Han, Jooman; Mody, Maria; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

2014-01-01

237

Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…

Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

2008-01-01

238

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

239

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

240

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing.

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

241

Modifying the Human-Machine Interface Based on Quantitative Measurements of the Level of Awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project got underway without funding approved during the summer of 1998. The initial project steps were to identify previously published work in the fields of error classification systems, physiological measurements of awareness, and related topics. This agenda was modified at the request of NASA Ames in August, 1998 to include supporting the new Cargo Air Association (CAA) evaluation of the Human Factors related to the ADS-B technology. Additional funding was promised to fully support both efforts. Work on library research ended in the late Fall, 1998 when the SJSU project directors were informed that NASA would not be adding to the initial funding of the research project as had been initially committed. However, NASA did provide additional funding for the CAA project activity. NASA elected to leave the research grant in place to provide a pathway for the CAA project funding to SJSU (San Jose State University) to support Dr. Freund's work on the CAA tasks. Dr. Knapp essentially terminated his involvement with the project at this time.

Freund, Louis E.; Knapp, Benjamin

1999-01-01

242

Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers - A validation study  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies.

2013-01-01

243

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

244

Phonological Short-Term Memory and New Word Learning in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-five 5-year old children participated in 4 experimental tasks of word learning that varied systematically in the amounts of phonological and nonphonological learning required. Measures of the children’s performances on 2 measures of phonological memory (digit span and nonword repetition), vocabulary knowledge, and nonverbal ability were also obtained. Learning of the sound structures of new words was significantly, and to

Susan E. Gathercole; Graham J. Hitch; Elisabet Service; Amanda J. Martin

1997-01-01

245

Effects of intensive phonomotor treatment on reading in eight individuals with aphasia and phonological alexia.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a multimodal treatment of phonology, phonomotor treatment, on the reading abilities of persons with aphasia (PWA) with phonological alexia. METHOD In a retrospective, single-group design, this study presents pre-, post-, and 3-months posttreatment data for 8 PWA with phonological alexia. Participants completed 60 hr of phonomotor treatment over 6 weeks. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and group effect sizes comparing pre-, immediately post-, and 3-months posttreatment performance on tests of phonological processing and reading were performed. RESULTS Group data showed phonological processing and oral reading of real words and nonwords improved significantly posttreatment; these gains were maintained 3 months later. No group improvement was found for reading comprehension; however, one individual did show improvement immediately post- and 3-months posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS This study provides support that phonomotor treatment is a viable approach to improve phonological processing and oral reading for PWA with phonological alexia. The lack of improvement with comprehension is inconsistent with prior work using similar treatments (Conway et al., 1998; Kendall et al., 2003). However, this difference can, in part, be accounted for by differences in variables, such as treatment intensity and frequency, outcome measures, and alexia severity. PMID:24686537

Brookshire, C Elizabeth; Conway, Tim; Pompon, Rebecca Hunting; Oelke, Megan; Kendall, Diane L

2014-05-01

246

Exploring the link between stuttering and phonology: a review and implications for treatment.  

PubMed

Three lines of research have been pursued in the literature to study the link between phonology and stuttering: (1) effects of phonological complexity on the location (loci) of stutter events; (2) outcomes of standardized test measures in children who do and do not stutter; and (3) studies of phonological encoding in children and adults who stutter. This review synthesizes findings from these three lines of research to address the purported link between phonology and stuttering and its potential implications for stuttering treatment. Results from the loci studies offer some support for the role of phonological complexity in the occurrence of stuttering. Studies of performance in standardized tests of phonology have not identified differences between children who do and do not stutter. Studies of phonological encoding have been equivocal in reporting differences between children and adults who stutter and those who do not stutter. Several cautions are raised in interpreting the findings from the discussed studies, and despite the mixed findings, some implications for treatments are considered. PMID:24782273

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

2014-05-01

247

The speakers' accent shapes the listeners' phonological predictions during speech perception.  

PubMed

This study investigates the specificity of predictive coding in spoken word comprehension using event-related potentials (ERPs). We measured word-evoked ERPs in Catalan speakers listening to semantically constraining sentences produced in their native regional accent (experiment 1) or in a non-native accent (experiment 2). Semantically anomalous words produced long-lasting negative shift (N400) starting as early as 250 ms, thus reflecting phonological as well as semantic mismatch. Semantically expected but phonologically unexpected (non-native forms embedded in a native context) produced only an early (?250 ms) negative difference. In contrast, this phonological expectancy effect failed for native albeit phonologically unexpected target words embedded in a non-native context. These results suggest phonologically precise expectations when operating over native input, whilst phonologically less specified expectations in a non-native context. Our findings shed light on contextual influence during word recognition, suggesting that word form prediction based on context is sensitive and adaptive to phonological variability. PMID:23454076

Brunellière, Angèle; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2013-04-01

248

Persistence of phonological awareness deficits in older children with dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of children with dyslexia, with mean age 8, 13 and 17 years, together with three groups of normally achieving children matched for age and IQ with the dyslexic groups, undertook tests of sound categorization and phoneme deletion. The design allowed comparison not only across chronological age but also across reading age. The children with dyslexia performed significantly worse

Angela J. Fawcett; Roderick I. Nicolson

1995-01-01

249

Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

2010-01-01

250

Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

251

Engaging in Diverse Classrooms: Using a Diversity Awareness Survey to Measure Preservice Teachers' Preparedness, Willingness, & Comfort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teacher education institutions share a concern about assessing their preservice teachers' knowledge, skills, and dispositions related to teaching diverse P-12 students. This case study describes the iterative and sometimes difficult process involved in the development of a diversity awareness survey at one institution. The survey discussed…

Fehr, Mary Cain; Agnello, Mary Frances

2012-01-01

252

Promoting Morphological Awareness in Children with Language Needs: Do the Common Core State Standards Pave the Way?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has acknowledged the importance of morphological awareness, beyond phonological awareness, to literacy achievement in both reading and writing for children, adolescents, and adults. Morphological awareness is the ability to recognize, reflect on, and manipulate the sublexical structure of words--the roots, prefixes, and suffixes.…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith; Zaretsky, Elena

2013-01-01

253

Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

254

Assessing the Phonological Skills of Bilingual Children from Preschool through Kindergarten: Developmental Progression and Cross-Language Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…

Lopez, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

255

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

256

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

257

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

258

Recent Advances in Phonological Theory and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a clinical forum that considers a variety of theoretical and analytical frameworks that have been applied to developing systems in phonological theory and treatment. It explains phonological theory, in which sound properties that are marked in language are those sounds that are most complex. (Contains references.)…

Barlow, Jessica A.

2001-01-01

259

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

260

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing

Lisa B. Wilson; Jason R. Tregellas; Erin Slason; Bryce E. Pasko; Donald C. Rojas

2011-01-01

261

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

262

Assessing awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms: Measure development and results from a population survey in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the development of a Cancer Awareness Measure for colorectal (CRC) cancer (Bowel/Colorectal CAMa) (study 1) and presents key results from a population-representative survey using the measure (study 2). Methods Study 1 Items were taken from the literature and reviewed by expert groups. A series of three validation studies assessed reliability and validity of the measure. To establish test-retest reliability, 49 people over 50 years of age completed the Bowel/Colorectal CAM on two occasions (range 9-14 days, mean 13.5 days). Construct validity was assessed by comparing responses from bowel cancer experts (n = 16) and the lay public (n = 35). Lastly, a brief intervention study tested sensitivity to change with participants (n = 70) randomly allocated to be given a control leaflet or an intervention leaflet and their responses were compared. Study 2 1520 respondents completed the Bowel/Colorectal CAM in a population survey carried out by TNS-British Market Research Bureau International (TNS-BMRB) in March 2010. Results Study 1 Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84) was high. Test-retest reliability was over r = 0.7 for warning signs, risk factors and age people are first invited for screening, but lower (between 0.6 and 0.7) for other items (lifetime risk, awareness of bowel cancer screening, age at risk). Bowel cancer experts achieved higher scores than equally educated controls (54.7 [4.3] vs. 42.9 [5.7]; P < 0.001) demonstrating the measure has construct validity and intervention participants showed higher knowledge than controls (51.4 [5.9] vs. 42.9 [5.7]; P < 0.001) suggesting the measure is sensitive to change. Study 2 Respondents recalled on average, one CRC sign and one risk factor. There was particularly low prompted awareness of the signs 'lump in the abdomen' (64%) and 'tiredness' (50%) and several lifestyle risk factors for CRC, e.g. exercise (37%). Respondents from more affluent groups had consistently higher knowledge of signs and risk factors compared to those from more deprived groups. Conclusions The Bowel/Colorectal CAM meets accepted psychometric criteria for reliability and construct validity and should therefore provide a useful tool for assessment of CRC awareness. The population survey revealed low awareness of several CRC signs and risk factors and emphasises the importance of continuing public education, particularly about the link between lifestyle behaviours and CRC.

2011-01-01

263

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit.

Bergmann, Jurgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

264

Reduced subjective awareness of bronchoconstriction provoked by methacholine in elderly asthmatic and normal subjects as measured on a simple awareness scale.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Asthma death rates are rising, with the greatest rise and highest death rates in old age. A reduced cardiovascular response in the elderly may lead to the underestimation by physicians of the severity of acute asthma attacks. This would be compounded if elderly patients had reduced awareness of bronchoconstriction. METHODS: Methacholine provoked bronchoconstriction was compared in 34 elderly (17 asthmatic, 17 normal; age 60-83, mean 68 years) and 33 young subjects (16 asthmatic, 17 normal; 20-46, mean 30 years). None were smokers. All underwent inhaled methacholine challenge by the Newcastle dosimeter method, monitored by maximal expiratory flow-volume loops (MEFVL). The endpoints were a 35% fall in forced expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity or cumulative inhalation of 6.4 mg methacholine. The one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was derived from MEFVL. After challenge and before bronchodilatation subjects graded awareness of respiratory discomfort from 1 (no symptoms) to 4 (pronounced symptoms needing immediate treatment). RESULTS: Despite a greater fall in FEV1 in elderly asthmatic patients (mean (SE) 27.4% (2.2%)) than in young asthmatic patients (21.5% (1.7%)) elderly patients were less aware of bronchoconstriction (awareness score 2.00 (SE 0.15) than young patients (3.06 (0.11)). Similar differences in awareness score were seen between elderly normal subjects (1.53 (0.17)) and young normal subjects (2.76 (0.22)), despite no difference in degree of bronchoconstriction. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced awareness of moderate acute bronchoconstriction in old age may delay self referral in acute asthma and contribute to higher asthma mortality in the elderly.

Connolly, M J; Crowley, J J; Charan, N B; Nielson, C P; Vestal, R E

1992-01-01

265

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum's heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum's language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C

2013-06-01

266

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

267

Genetic Covariation Underlying Reading, Language and Related Measures in a Sample Selected for Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Specific language impairment is a developmental language disorder characterized by failure to develop language normally in the absence of a specific cause. Previous twin studies have documented the heritability of reading and language measures as well as the genetic correlation between those measures. This paper presents results from an alternative to the classical twin designs by estimating heritability from extended pedigrees. These pedigrees were previously studied as part of series of molecular genetic studies of specific language impairment where the strongest genetic findings were with reading phenotypes rather than language despite selecting pedigrees based on language impairments. To explore the relationship between reading and language in these pedigrees, variance components estimates of heritability of reading and language measures were conducted showing general agreement with the twin literature, as were genetics correlations between reading and language. Phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness and auditory processing were evaluated as candidate mediators of the reading-language genetic correlations. Only phonological awareness showed significant genetic correlations with all reading measures and several language measures while phonological short-term memory and auditory processing did not.

Logan, Jessica; Petrill, Stephen A.; Flax, Judy; Justice, Laura M.; Hou, Liping; Bassett, Anne S.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M.

2011-01-01

268

Teaching Phoneme Awareness to Pre-Literate Children with Speech Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Awareness of individual phonemes in words is a late-acquired level of phonological awareness that usually develops in the early school years. It is generally agreed to have a close relationship with early literacy development, but its role in speech change is less well understood. Speech and language therapy for children with speech…

Hesketh, Anne; Dima, Evgenia; Nelson, Veronica

2007-01-01

269

One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

2013-01-01

270

Phonological Coding in Prereaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine changes in phonetic coding two age groups of 40 preschoolers were shown rhyming and nonrhyming letter sets. Recall was measured by oral free recall (testing item memory) and serial reconstruction (testing order memory). A large phonetic similarity effect was present in both groups with no developmental changes in the effect magnitude.…

Lean, Debra S.; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

1984-01-01

271

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

PubMed Central

Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development.

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2014-01-01

272

Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

1997-01-01

273

Ethnicity in Phonological Variation and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of ethnicity, or the family and community, in determining linguistic variants (specifically, phonological variants) among Italians, Jews, and Irish in Boston. Implications for phonetic change and language acquisition are also discussed. (Author/AM)

Laferriere, Martha

1979-01-01

274

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

275

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

276

Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

Schiller, Niels O

2007-06-01

277

In the Blink of an Eye: Investigating the Role of Awareness in Fear Responding by Measuring the Latency of Startle Potentiation  

PubMed Central

The latency of startle reflex potentiation may shed light on the aware and unaware processes underlying associative learning, especially associative fear learning. We review research suggesting that single-cue delay classical conditioning is independent of awareness of the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). Moreover, we discuss research that argues that conditioning independent of awareness has not been proven. Subsequently, three studies from our lab are presented that have investigated the role of awareness in classical conditioning, by measuring the minimum latency from CS onset to observed changes in reflexive behavior. In sum, research using this method shows that startle is potentiated 30 to 100 ms after CS onset following delay conditioning. Following trace fear conditioning, startle is potentiated 1500 ms after CS presentation. These results indicate that the process underlying delay conditioned responding is independent of awareness, and that trace fear conditioned responding is dependent on awareness. Finally, this method of investigating the role of awareness is discussed and future research possibilities are proposed.

Asli, Ole; Flaten, Magne A.

2012-01-01

278

Factors Related to English Reading Performance in Children with Chinese as a First Language: More Evidence of Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parallel measures of phonological, syntactic, and orthographic processing skill and reading were administered in English and Chinese to 65 children whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and whose 2nd language (L2) was English. This research adds to the evidence for cross-language transfer of phonological processing in L2 learning of…

Gottardo, Alexandra; Yan, Bernice; Siegel, Linda S.; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2001-01-01

279

Relationship between L1 and L2 Word-Level Reading and Phonological Processing in Adults Learning English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological

Harrison, Gina L.; Krol, Lisa

2007-01-01

280

The Phonological Store of Working Memory: Is It Phonological and Is It a Store?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was found to support the interaction predicted among irrelevant speech, modality,

Dylan M. Jones; William J. Macken; Alastair P. Nicholls

2004-01-01

281

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

282

Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

Hartl, Wilfried

2014-05-01

283

Who benefits from training in linguistic awareness in the first grade, and what components show training effects?  

PubMed

Who among first graders benefit from training in linguistic awareness, and what components of the linguistic awareness are most amenable to training effects? At the beginning of Grade 1 prospective at-risk readers (26 out of 117) were identified on the basis of very low phonological awareness. In the autumn term, they received practice in linguistic awareness. When compared to controls individually matched controls on phonological awareness, listening comprehension, and WISC-R scores, the intervention group showed a more rapid building-up of phonological awareness, especially phoneme-blending ability, as well as superiority in word recognition, spelling, and listening comprehension, which were sustained until the end of Grade 1. Reading comprehension could not be compared because 8 of the 26 controls did not read fluently enough to be tested. The half of the control group with cognitive delays, receiving normal special education instruction, performed consistently worse than their matched pairs in the intervention group. The latter group showed development of phonological awareness, decoding, and spelling equal to that of the cognitively nearly average intervention group and their matched pairs in the control group, who received no additional support. These three groups, originally defined as at-risk readers, performed at the level of other preschool nonreaders at the end of Grade 1. In sum, the children with cognitive delays benefitted from training in linguistic awareness. The results underscore the importance of phoneme synthesis skills in beginning reading and spelling, at least with regular languages. PMID:15510433

Poskiparta, E; Niemi, P; Vauras, M

1999-01-01

284

GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or searching for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In addition, a 2nd new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or an area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. The presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

2011-12-01

285

Working memory and phonological processing as predictors of children’s mathematical problem solving at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the contribution of working memory (WM) to mathematical problem solving in younger (8-year-old) and older\\u000a (11-year-old) children. The results showed that (1) significant agerelated differences in WM performance were maintained when\\u000a measures of phonological processing (i.e., digit naming speed, short-term memory, phonological deletion) were partialed from\\u000a the analysis; (2) WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independently

H. Lee Swanson

2004-01-01

286

Building Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

Meilach, Dona Z.

2001-01-01

287

Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four basic approaches that have been used to demonstrate perception without awareness are described. Each approach reflects one of two types of experimental logic and one of two possible methods for controlling awareness. The experimental logic has been either to demonstrate a dissociation between a measure of perception with awareness and a measure that is sensitive to perception without awareness

Philip M. Merikle; Daniel Smilek; John D. Eastwood

2001-01-01

288

Early Difficulties of Chinese Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Dyslexia: Deficits in Oral Language, Phonological Processing Skills, and Print-Related Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness),…

Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

2011-01-01

289

Kindergarten Literacy Assessment of English Only and English Language Learner Students: An Examination of the Predictive Validity of Three Phonemic Awareness Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined…

Linklater, Danielle L.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Palardy, Gregory J.

2009-01-01

290

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

291

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

292

Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

Trevino, Andrea Carolina; Quatieri, Thomas Francis; Malyska, Nicolas

2011-12-01

293

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

294

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

295

Wildfire Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)

Wallace, Glenda

2002-01-01

296

Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

Meskhi, Anna

297

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

298

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

299

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

300

Phonological Skills and Writing of Presyllabic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in knowledge about writing in 90 middle-class Portuguese preschool children. Discusses how two experimental intervention programs proved equivalent in terms of the conceptual evolution they triggered, to the extent that the children in both experimental…

Silva, Cristina; Alves-Martins, Margarida

2002-01-01

301

Phonological Development in Urdu Speaking Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that examined phonological features of a group of 10 Urdu speaking children (20 to 30 months) to determine if a general theory of language learning can be deduced on the basis of Jakobson's theory of language universals. Addresses the question of how far such a theory is applicable to Urdu speaking children acquiring their native…

Khan, Farhat

1984-01-01

302

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

303

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

304

Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

2001-01-01

305

Fragile X Speech in Finnish: Phonological Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the phonological patterns of two physically normal boys, aged 5 and 8 years, with fragile X syndrome, an X-chromosomal abnormality usually connected with severe to moderate mental retardation, found language features similar to those found in other studies of fragile X speech. Some of these language features are: repetition of initial…

Niemi, Jussi; And Others

306

Effects of phonological and semantic cuing on encoding and retrieval processes in adolescent psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cuing on encoding and retrieval processes in adolescent psychosis. Patients and controls were instructed to learn word lists under three conditions: no cue, phonological cue, and semantic cue. Memory performance was measured with free and cued recalls. In free recall, both groups showed higher performance with semantic than with

Marie-Claire Doré; Nicole Caza; Nathalie Gingras; Michel Maziade; Nancie Rouleau

2009-01-01

307

Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

2010-01-01

308

Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

2012-01-01

309

The Structure and Nature of Phonological Neighbourhoods in Children's Early Lexicons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines phonological neighbourhoods in the lexicons of children acquiring English. Analyses of neighbourhood densities were done on children's earliest words and on a corpus of spontaneous speech, used to measure neighbours in the target language. Neighbourhood densities were analyzed for words created by changing segments in…

Zamuner, Tania S.

2009-01-01

310

Early Experience of Sex Hormones as a Predictor of Reading, Phonology, and Auditory Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has indicated possible reciprocal connections between phonology and reading, and also connections between aspects of auditory perception and reading. The present study investigates these associations further by examining the potential influence of prenatal androgens using measures of digit ratio (the ratio of the lengths of the…

Beech, John R.; Beauvois, Michael W.

2006-01-01

311

Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

2013-01-01

312

Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

2005-01-01

313

Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

2013-01-01

314

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in the left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Rojas, Donald C

2011-03-15

315

Phonemic Awareness in Hyperlexic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that children with hyperlexia who learn to read spontaneously before age five are impaired in reading and listening comprehension but have word recognition skills well above their measured cognitive and linguistic abilities. Administers phonemic awareness measures to three early readers. Finds that all three children's phonemic awareness

Sparks, Richard L.

1995-01-01

316

African American English Dialect and Performance on Nonword Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…

Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.

2007-01-01

317

The Effects of a Multilinguistic Morphological Awareness Approach for Improving Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness

Wolter, Julie A.; Dilworth, Valisa

2014-01-01

318

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

319

La prise de conscience du systeme phonologique par de juenes enfants francophones en milieu scolaire (The Awareness of the Phonological System among Young French-Speaking Children in a School Environment). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report of a study conducted by a group of teachers to discover the extent to which students in the first three years of school were aware of the phonetic system of their native language (French) with emphasis on the means they used to analyze it. In the first year, the children discovered phonetic oppositions by touching their lips and…

Redard, Francoise

320

Promoting Awareness of Sounds in Speech: An Initial Report of an Early Intervention Program for Children with Speech and Language Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the efficacy of the rhyming portion of the Promoting Awareness Sounds in Speech (PASS) program, a comprehensive and explicit phonological awareness intervention curriculum that was designed specifically for preschool children with speech and language impairments. A single-subject research design was used to examine treatment effects…

Roth, Froma P.; Troia, Gary A.; Worthington, Colleen K.; Dow, Kathy Ayala

2002-01-01

321

Sensitivity to Phonological Similarity Within and Across Languages  

PubMed Central

The influence of phonological similarity on bilingual language processing was examined within and across languages in three experiments. Phonological similarity was manipulated within a language by varying neighborhood density, and across languages by varying extent of cross-linguistic overlap between native and non-native languages. In Experiment 1, speed and accuracy of bilinguals’ picture naming were susceptible to phonological neighborhood density in both the first and the second language. In Experiment 2, eye-movement patterns indicated that the time-course of language activation varied across phonological neighborhood densities and across native/non-native language status. In Experiment 3, speed and accuracy of bilingual performance in an auditory lexical decision task were influenced by degree of cross-linguistic phonological overlap. Together, the three experiments confirm that bilinguals are sensitive to phonological similarity within and across languages and suggest that this sensitivity is asymmetrical across native and non-native languages and varies along the timecourse of word processing.

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Boukrina, Olga V.

2009-01-01

322

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

323

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children With Speech Sound Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergar- ten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological processing skills (SSD-high PP), and 35 children with

Susan Rvachew

2007-01-01

324

Enhancement of phonological memory following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Phonologically similar items (mell, rell, gell) are more difficult to remember than dissimilar items (shen, floy, stap), likely because of mutual interference of the items in the phonological store. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic,stimulation (TMS), guided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to disrupt this phonological confusion by stimulation of the left inferior parietal (LIP) lobule. Subjects received TMS

Matthew P. Kirschen; Mathew S. Davis-ratner; Thomas E. Jerde; Pam Schraedley-desmond; John E. Desmond

2006-01-01

325

A preliminary assessment of asbestos awareness and control measures in brake and clutch repair services in Knoxville and Knox County, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The pending OSHA standard revision proposed in 1990 to lower the asbestos Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and to mandate effective asbestos control measures (ACM) in brake and clutch assembly work may have a profound effect on industries involved in such operations. Health protection of workers will be improved and costs of improved control methods and training will increase. Considering these facts, this preliminary study was designed to assess the level of worker and management awareness of asbestos hazards associated with brake and clutch repair and to determine what ACM had been implemented by businesses in Knoxville and Knox County, Tennessee. The study, in a metropolitan area of approximately 336,000 people, revealed eight different categories of businesses conducting brake and clutch repair work with an estimated 363 potentially exposed employees. Results of the study suggest that managers and employees of the 80 businesses studied were in need of asbestos hazard awareness training and more adequate asbestos control measures.

Phillips, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hamilton, C.B.

1994-04-01

326

Metacognitive Awareness Assessment in Self-Regulated Learning and Performance Measures in an Introductory Educational Psychology Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated Self-Regulated Learning of 90 college students in an introductory educational psychology course at a large eastern university. Relationships among metacognition, motivational orientation, strategy use, and performance were examined. The study expanded on findings about The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) (G. Schraw…

Hammann, Lynne A.; Stevens, Robert J.

327

Urban Special Education Teachers' Perception of African American Students as Measured by the Cultural Awareness Beliefs Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the perceptions of special education teachers and the eight factors (Teacher Beliefs, School climate, Culturally responsive Classroom Management, Home and Community Support, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum and Instruction, Cultural Sensitivity and Teacher…

Jackson, Dianna Dale

2010-01-01

328

Phonological similarity effects in simple and complex span tasks.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of phonological similarity in simple and complex memory span tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed either a simple or a complex span task, and the memoranda within lists were either phonologically similar or distinct. Phonologically similar lists consisted of words that rhymed.The simple span task was word span. There were two complex span tasks; one was the original reading span task, and the other was a variant of reading span in which all the sentences within a list were contextually related. The classic phonological similarity decrement was observed in word span. In contrast, phonological similarity facilitation was observed in both versions of reading span. This facilitation effect was further investigated in Experiment 2 using two new versions of reading span. In Experiment 2, the sentences in reading span were either short or long, and the memoranda were presented separately from, and were unrelated to, the sentences. Again, words within phonologically similar lists rhymed, and again, facilitation was observed. In Experiment 3, phonological similarity was operationalized in terms of feature overlap, rather than rhyme. The classic phonological similarity decrement was still observed in word span, but facilitation was not observed in complex span. The results suggest that phonological similarity, when operationalized using words that rhyme, serves as a list retrieval cue and that complex span tasks are more dependent on cue-driven memory retrieval mechanisms than are simple span tasks. PMID:21503805

Macnamara, Brooke N; Moore, Adam B; Conway, Andrew R A

2011-10-01

329

Phonological storage and executive function deficits in children with mathematics difficulties.  

PubMed

Children with mathematics difficulties suffer from working memory deficits. This study investigated the deficit profile of phonological storage and executive functions in working memory among children with mathematics difficulties. Based on multiple instruments and two assessment points, 68 children were screened out of 805 fifth graders. Of these 68 children, 18 were classified as children with only mathematics difficulties (MD), 20 were classified as children with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD), and 30 were typically developing (TD) peers matched on age and general ability. Measures for phonological storage, dual-task performance, inhibition, and updating of verbal and numerical materials were administered individually. Results showed that compared with the TD group, children with MD exhibited storage and inhibition deficits specific to numerical information and dual-task deficits of both verbal and numerical information, whereas children with MDRD showed extensive deficits on phonological storage and executive functions on both verbal and numerical tasks. Moreover, executive function deficits were not confined to phonological storage deficits. Implications of the findings for the working memory deficit profile and working memory training among children with mathematics difficulties were discussed. PMID:22633135

Peng, Peng; Congying, Sun; Beilei, Li; Sha, Tao

2012-08-01

330

Prominence, Augmentation, and Neutralization in Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain phonological phenomena, such as the lengthening of vowels in stressed sylla-bles or the attraction of stress to heavy syllables, are best accounted for by means of markedness constraints that make specific reference to strong positions (M\\/str con-straints). However, not just any markedness constraint can be relativized to strong positions. If an ordinary featural markedness constraint such as *MIDV ('output

JENNIFER L. SMITH

331

Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory. PMID:23419012

Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

2013-01-01

332

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

333

Information Security Awareness Campaign: An Alternate Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The destruction due to computer security incidents warns organizations to adopt security measures. In addition to technological\\u000a measures, individual’s information security awareness is also necessary. Different psychological theories have been proposed\\u000a to make an effective information security awareness campaign. These information security awareness campaigns are limited in\\u000a their ability in raising awareness of the participants of the campaign. Although much

Bilal Khan; Khaled S. Alghathbar; Muhammad Khurram Khan

334

Current awareness  

PubMed

In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 9 sections: 1 Books, Reviews ' Symposia; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Brain and Nerves; 5 Neuropathology; 6 Cancer; 7 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 8 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 9 Muscle and Orthopaedic. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. PMID:10960923

Hecke

2000-08-01

335

Contribution of Phonological and Broader Language Skills to Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent models of reading ability propose that both phonological and broader language skills are important for the development of literacy. Whilst there are numerous studies that consider the role of phonological skills in literacy, fewer studies have considered the role of broader language skills and reading proficiency. Aims: To…

Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2008-01-01

336

Age of Acquisition and the Completeness of Phonological Representations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the Phonological Completeness Hypothesis of Brown and Watson, which proposes that early acquired words are recognized and produced faster than late acquired words because they have less fragmented phonological representations. Indicates that the results of the segmentation task failed to provide any support for Brown and Watson's (1987)…

Monaghan, Josephine; Ellis, Andrew W.

2002-01-01

337

Phonological Specificity of Vowels and Consonants in Early Lexical Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants become selectively sensitive to phonological distinctions relevant to their native language at an early age. One might expect that infants bring some of this phonological knowledge to bear in encoding the words they subsequently acquire. In line with this expectation, studies have found that 14-month-olds are sensitive to mispronunciations…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2007-01-01

338

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

339

Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

2007-01-01

340

Interactive Influences on Phonological Behaviour: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An infant girl's unusual phonological behavior was evaluated in light of a maternal model which appeared to exaggerate features of normal conversational speech. Parental responses to immature speech patterns may account for selected case study behaviors which have been reported in both the child phonology and child fluency literatures. (KM)

Bernstein Ratner, Nan

1993-01-01

341

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

342

Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

Silbert, Noah H.

2009-01-01

343

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

344

Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci  

PubMed Central

Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions.

Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

345

Phonological Meanings in Literary Prose Texts and Their Translations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…

Ventola, Eija

346

Auditory Cortex Accesses Phonological Categories: An MEG Mismatch Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented here use an adapted oddball paradigm to show evidence that representations of discrete phonological categories are available to the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was recorded using a 37-channel biomagnetometer while eight subjects listened passively to synthetic speech sounds. In the phonological condition, which contrasted stimuli from an acoustic \\/dæ\\/-\\/tæ\\/ continuum, a magnetic mismatch field (MMF) was

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy; Alec Marantz; Elron Yellin; Kenneth Wexler; David Poeppel; Martha McGinnis; Timothy Roberts

2000-01-01

347

Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

Farrell, Simon

2006-01-01

348

Effects of Frequency and Vocabulary Type on Phonological Speech Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological speech errors only rarely occur in common function words. This paper explores whether this effect is due to these words' status as function (closed-class) morphemes, or simply their high frequency of usage. Experiments that elicit phonological speech errors revealed strong requency effects (the segments of frequent words tend not to be misordered) and no effect of vocabulary type-the segments

Gary S. Dell

1990-01-01

349

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

350

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

351

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

352

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production.

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

353

Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

2009-01-01

354

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

355

Phonological Interference in Proofreading: Evidence for the Primacy of Phonological Recoding in Lexical Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined proofreading errors to test whether reading is mediated by a phonological recoding stage. In the first experiment, 162 undergraduates circled the misspelled words in a text as the experimenter read the passage aloud. In the second experiment, 165 undergraduates corrected misspellings as they read the same passage silently,…

McCusker, Leo X.; And Others

356

Natural Phonology or Natural Memory? The Interaction between Phonological Processes and Recall Mechanisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study in which attempts by children to learn a number of new words revealed that their recall errors were similar to phonological deformations found in speech of young children in early stages of language development. Suggests role of memory needs to be taken into consideration. (Author/BK)

Aitchison, Jean; Chiat, Schulamuth

1981-01-01

357

Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

Julie A. Adams

358

Unlocking the Nature of the Phonological-Deep Dyslexia Continuum: The Keys to Reading Aloud Are in Phonology and Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mech- anisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this

Jenni Crisp; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2006-01-01

359

The rhaeadr effect in clinical phonology.  

PubMed

Abstract A distinction is drawn between Crystal's bucket theory of language processing and an overflow of effects between different linguistic levels in language production. Most of the examples are drawn from Welsh (a language of mutual interest to the author and the honoree of this issue). For that reason, it is proposed that this effect is termed the rhaeadr effect (from the Welsh for waterfall). The rhaeadr effect is illustrated with the initial consonant mutation systems of Welsh and Irish, and with data from both normal phonological (and morphophonological) development and disordered speech. PMID:25000371

Ball, Martin J

2014-07-01

360

The Role of Explicit Instruction and Instructional Design in Promoting Phonemic Awareness Development and Transfer from Spanish to English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence of cross-language transfer in metalinguistic processes related to reading acquisition and development. In particular, phonological awareness is a requisite process that shares similarities across Spanish and English. Through explicit instruction and instructional design analyses, we propose principles to facilitate…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Simmons, Deborah C.

2009-01-01

361

Phonological, visual and temporal processing in adults with and without reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this study was to comparethree theoretical accounts of readingdisability (RD) by simultaneously studyingphonological, visual, and temporal processingskills. Adults with and without RD werecompared on measures of phonological processingwith the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) and theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT-R) WordAttack subtest. Visual processing was assessedwith the Useful Field of View test (UFOV®)and the Frequency Doubling Technology

Jerri D. Edwards; Amanda C. Walley; Karlene K. Ball

2003-01-01

362

Fine-tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First to Second-language Zooming In  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained GermanEnglish homograph primes (gift = German poison) in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of English (L2). Both reaction times and event-related brain potentials were measured on

Kerrie E. Elston-güttler; Thomas C. Gunter

2009-01-01

363

Fine-tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First to Second-language Zooming In  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German–English homograph primes (gift = German ‘‘poison’’) in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of English (L2). Both reaction times and event-related brain potentials were measured on

Thomas C. Gunter

2008-01-01

364

Dyslexia impairs speech recognition but can spare phonological competence.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M

2012-01-01

365

The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language  

PubMed Central

The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time.

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

2011-01-01

366

Evidence-based practice: A matrix for predicting phonological generalization  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including the nature of error patterns, implicational universals, developmental norms, and stimulability. A case study of a child with a phonological disorder is presented to illustrate how the matrix may be utilized in evidence-based practice. The matrix serves as a demonstration of how the translation of research to practice may be accomplished.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; HULSE, LAUREN E.

2010-01-01

367

Reduced Phonological Similarity Effects in Patients with Damage to the Cerebellum  

PubMed Central

Ten cerebellar patients were compared to ten control subjects on a verbal working memory task in which the phonological similarity of the words to be remembered and their modality of presentation were manipulated. Cerebellar patients demonstrated a reduction of the phonological similarity effect relative to controls. Further, this reduction did not depend systematically upon the presentation modality. These results first document that qualitative differences in verbal working memory may be observed following cerebellar damage, indicating altered cognitive processing, even though behavioral output as measured by the digit span may be within normal limits. However, the results also present problems for the hypothesis that the cerebellar role is specifically associated with articulatory rehearsal as conceptualized in the Baddeley-Hitch model of working memory.

Justus, Timothy; Ravizza, Susan M.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ivry, Richard B.

2009-01-01

368

Left- and right-hemisphere forms of phonological alexia.  

PubMed

We studied the ability of patients with lesions arising from operation for an anterior or posterior (left or right) brain tumour to read a set of words and pronounceable nonwords. In line with previous works, we observed that damage to the left posterior or left anterior cortex can give rise to phonological alexia, where the reading performance of nonwords is affected more than that of words. More surprisingly, similar effects were found in the right posterior group. However, there were significant differences in the error types, for both complex and positional errors, between phonological alexic patients in the three location groups. The findings present difficulties for the position held by theorists of the triangle model that phonological alexia arises from impairments in the language production system or in a general-purpose orthographic-phonological translation system. They also pose new questions about the possible role of the right posterior cortex in letter sequence representation. PMID:23521052

Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

2012-01-01

369

Natural Constraints in Sign Language Phonology: Data from Anatomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three sets of data (signs from the "Dictionary of ASL," 1976; loan signs; and case histories of specific signs) that demonstrate the involvement of the "knuckle-wrist connection" with American Sign Language phonology. (AM)

Mandel, Mark A.

1979-01-01

370

When Words Collide: Orthographic and Phonological Interference during Word Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction between orthographic and phonological information was studied in two experiments by requiring subjects to match visually presented word pairs on the basics of their visual or rhyming similarty. Word pairs either rhymed and looked alike, rh...

J. Polich G. McCarthy W. S. Wang E. Donchin

1983-01-01

371

Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E

2014-07-01

372

Cortical Dynamics of Acoustic and Phonological Processing in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

In speech perception, a functional hierarchy has been proposed by recent functional neuroimaging studies: Core auditory areas on the dorsal plane of superior temporal gyrus (STG) are sensitive to basic acoustic characteristics, whereas downstream regions, specifically the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) ventral to Heschl's gyrus (HG) are responsive to abstract phonological features. What is unclear so far is the relationship between the dorsal and ventral processes, especially with regard to whether low-level acoustic processing is modulated by high-level phonological processing. To address the issue, we assessed sensitivity of core auditory and downstream regions to acoustic and phonological variations by using within- and across-category lexical tonal continua with equal physical intervals. We found that relative to within-category variation, across-category variation elicited stronger activation in the left middle MTG (mMTG), apparently reflecting the abstract phonological representations. At the same time, activation in the core auditory region decreased, resulting from the top-down influences of phonological processing. These results support a hierarchical organization of the ventral acoustic-phonological processing stream, which originates in the right HG/STG and projects to the left mMTG. Furthermore, our study provides direct evidence that low-level acoustic analysis is modulated by high-level phonological representations, revealing the cortical dynamics of acoustic and phonological processing in speech perception. Our findings confirm the existence of reciprocal progression projections in the auditory pathways and the roles of both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms in speech perception.

Xu, Guoqing; Shu, Hua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Ping

2011-01-01

373

Multisensory spatial attention deficits are predictive of phonological decoding skills in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical and computational studies suggest that spatial attention plays an important role in phonological decoding. The present behavioral study investigated exogenous spatial attention in dyslexic children and matched controls by measuring RTs to visual and auditory stimuli in cued-detection tasks. Dyslexics with poor nonword decoding accuracy showed a slower time course of visual and auditory (multisensory) spatial attention compared with both chronological age and reading level controls as well as compared with dyslexics with slow but accurate nonword decoding. Individual differences in the time course of multisensory spatial attention accounted for 31% of unique variance in the nonword reading performance of the entire dyslexic sample after controlling for age, IQ, and phonological skills. The present study suggests that multisensory "sluggish attention shifting"-related to a temporoparietal dysfunction-selectively impairs the sublexical mechanisms that are critical for reading development. These findings may offer a new approach for early identification and remediation of developmental dyslexia. PMID:19366290

Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

2010-05-01

374

Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2001-05-01

375

Phonological acquisition of a Korean child: An acoustic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.

Jun, Sun-Ah

2005-09-01

376

Second language phonology influences first language word naming.  

PubMed

The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

2014-06-01

377

A statistical method for quantifying songbird phonology and syntax.  

PubMed

Songbirds are the preeminent animal model for understanding how the brain encodes and produces learned vocalizations. Here, we report a new statistical method, the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) distance, for analyzing vocal change over time. First, we use a computerized recording system to capture all song syllables produced by birds each day. Sound Analysis Pro software [Tchernichovski O, Nottebohm F, Ho CE, Pesaran B, Mitra PP. A procedure for an automated measurement of song similarity. Anim Behav 2000;59:1167-76] is then used to measure the duration of each syllable as well as four spectral features: pitch, entropy, frequency modulation, and pitch goodness. Next, two-dimensional scatter plots of each day of singing are created where syllable duration is on the x-axis and each of the spectral features is represented separately on the y-axis. Each point in the scatter plots represents one syllable and we regard these plots as random samples from a probability distribution. We then apply the standard information-theoretic quantity K-L distance to measure dissimilarity in phonology across days of singing. A variant of this procedure can also be used to analyze differences in syllable syntax. PMID:18674560

Wu, Wei; Thompson, John A; Bertram, Richard; Johnson, Frank

2008-09-15

378

Developmental Changes in the Role of Different Metalinguistic Awareness Skills in Chinese Reading Acquisition from Preschool to Third Grade  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.

Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N.

2014-01-01

379

Developmental changes in the role of different metalinguistic awareness skills in chinese reading acquisition from preschool to third grade.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed. PMID:24809477

Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N

2014-01-01

380

Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach.  

PubMed

Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyze magnetoencephalography data, we localized the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14-30?Hz) and gamma (30-50?Hz) frequency bands were analyzed in pre-selected time windows of 350-550 and 500-700?ms In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350-550?ms), but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14-20?Hz) for the phonological task and high beta (20-30?Hz) for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10), both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30-50?Hz), but in different time windows, 500-700?ms for the phonological task and 350-550?ms for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40), both tasks elicited changes in the 20-30?Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350-550?ms for the phonological task and 500-700?ms for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains. PMID:22908001

McNab, Fiona; Hillebrand, Arjan; Swithenby, Stephen J; Rippon, Gina

2012-01-01

381

Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach  

PubMed Central

Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyze magnetoencephalography data, we localized the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14–30?Hz) and gamma (30–50?Hz) frequency bands were analyzed in pre-selected time windows of 350–550 and 500–700?ms In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350–550?ms), but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14–20?Hz) for the phonological task and high beta (20–30?Hz) for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10), both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30–50?Hz), but in different time windows, 500–700?ms for the phonological task and 350–550?ms for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40), both tasks elicited changes in the 20–30?Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350–550?ms for the phonological task and 500–700?ms for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains.

McNab, Fiona; Hillebrand, Arjan; Swithenby, Stephen J.; Rippon, Gina

2012-01-01

382

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40?ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200?ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120?ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100?ms, indicates that phonological processing initiates early and is sustained over time. These findings are consistent with accounts of visual word recognition that posit parallel activation of orthographic, phonological, and semantic information that interact over time to settle into a distributed, but stable, representation of a word.

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

383

Context-Aware Browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the Context-Aware Browser, a new approach to context-aware Web content perusal by means of mobile devices. The Context-Aware Browser exploits artificial intelligence techniques and mixes several ingredients: it is a Web browser running on one's own mobile device and capable of automatically and proactively downloading and executing context-aware Web contents, selected by querying a search engine on the

Paolo Coppola; Vincenzo Della Mea; Luca Di Gaspero; Danny Mischis; Stefano Mizzaro; Elena Nazzi; Ivan Scagnetto; Luca Vassena

2009-01-01

384

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

385

Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological

Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

2009-01-01

386

The Acquisition of Sign Language: The Impact of Phonetic Complexity on Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the effect of phonetic complexity on phonological acquisition has a long history in spoken languages. This paper considers the effect of phonetics on phonological development in a signed language. We report on an experiment in which nonword-repetition methodology was adapted so as to examine in a systematic way how phonetic complexity in two phonological parameters of signed languages

Wolfgang Mann; Chloe R. Marshall; Kathryn Mason; Gary Morgan

2010-01-01

387

The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

Yao, Yao

2011-01-01

388

Phonological Mediation and Semantic and Orthographic Factors in Silent Reading in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses 48 French children's phonological skills from kindergarten to the end of grade two. Finds that the French-speaking children used phonological mediation in silent-reading tasks and that phonological processing contributes to the construction of the orthographic lexicon. (RS)

Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Siegel, Linda S.; Bechennec, Danielle

1998-01-01

389

Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

Taft, Marcus

2006-01-01

390

Cognitive Abilities and Print Exposure in Surface and Phonological Types of Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies subgroups of children with reading disabilities using the regression method--children who were poor in phonological, compared to orthographic, word decoding were identified as phonological-type participants, and children who were poor in orthographic, compared to phonological, decoding were identified as surface-type participants.…

Gustafson, Stefan

2001-01-01

391

Phonological Activation during Visual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Phonological activation during visual word recognition was studied in deaf and hearing children under two circumstances: (a) when the use of phonology was not required for task performance and might even hinder it and (b) when the use of phonology was critical for task performance. Method: Deaf children mastering written Dutch and Sign…

Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Hendriks, Angelique; Verhoeven, Ludo

2010-01-01

392

Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit I: Lexical vs Sub-Lexical and Input vs Output Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting…

Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Ramus, Franck

2005-01-01

393

Morphological Analysis, Phonological Analysis and Learning To Read French: A Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a longitudinal study that examines the relationship between morphological analysis, phonological analysis, and learning to read French. Finds very strong links between morphological and phonological analyses and between morphological analysis and reading. Contributes to the evidence of a link between both phonological and morphological…

Casalis, Severine; Louis-Alexandre, Marie-France

2000-01-01

394

Role of left posterior superior temporal gyrus in phonological processing for speech perception and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of both speech perception and speech production typically postulate a processing level that involves some form of phonological processing. There is disagreement, however, on the question of whether there are separate phonological systems for speech input versus speech output. We review a range of neuroscientific data that indicate that input and output phonological systems partially overlap. An important anatomical

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Gregory Hickok; Colin Humphries

2001-01-01

395

Cerebral functional asymmetry and phonological performance in dyslexic adults.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia is a frequent language-based learning disorder characterized by difficulty in reading. The predominant etiologic view postulates that reading impairment is related to phonological and orthographic dysfunction. The aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate the neural bases of phonological processing impairment in remediated dyslexic adults (DD). We used a rhyming words judgment task contrasted with an unreadable fonts font-matching judgment task to compare patterns of activation and functional asymmetry in DD and normal-reading young adults. We found evidence of a link between asymmetry in inferior frontal gyrus and performance during the phonological processing. We also observed that DD recruit a network including regions involved in articulatory control in order to achieve rhyme judgment suggesting that, due to a lack of hemispheric specialization, DD recruit the latter network to achieve rhyme judgment. PMID:24117474

Hernandez, N; Andersson, F; Edjlali, M; Hommet, C; Cottier, J P; Destrieux, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F

2013-12-01

396

Genetic and Environmental Effects of Serial Naming and Phonological Awareness on Early Reading Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study involved 281 early-school-age twin pairs (118 monozygotic, 163 same-sex dizygotic) participating in the ongoing Western Reserve Reading Project (S. A. Petrill, K. Deater-Deckard, L. A. Thompson, & C. Schatschneider, 2006). Twins were tested in their homes by separate examiners on a battery of reading-related skills including…

Petrill, Stephen, A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; DeThorne, Laura S.; Schatschneider, Christopher

2006-01-01

397

The Relationship between Speech Impairment, Phonological Awareness and Early Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…

Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara

2011-01-01

398

Promoting phonological awareness in nursery?aged children through a Sure Start Early Listening programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing recognition of the importance of pre?literacy skills among pre?school children. Evidence that children from relatively deprived backgrounds face poorer outcomes in speech and language development and educational achievement has led to an assertive attempt to lessen social inequalities at the earliest opportunity. The UK government?funded Sure Start initiative aims to provide services to promote play and

Tom Morris; Gerard Leavey

2006-01-01

399

Effectiveness of Decoding and Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with intellectual disability, including children with Down syndrome, have teachers who are unsure what type of reading instruction is likely to increase outcomes for their students. Effectiveness of two commercially available, evidence-based reading interventions was evaluated through 3 multiple baseline across participants,…

Lemons, Christopher J.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Paterra, Matthew F.

2012-01-01

400

Awareness of Hospital Environment and Organizational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined possible differences between physicians and nurses in their commitment to their hospital and the relationship of their organizational commitment to their awareness of both the internal and the external environments of the organization. Data came from a public hospital in India. Questionnaires were developed for the measurement of the two predictor variables (awareness of the organization's internal

Debdulal Dutta Roy; Malati Ghose

1997-01-01

401

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

402

49 CFR 1552.23 - Security awareness training programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information in the TSA Information Publication âSecurity Guidelines for...Recurrent security awareness training program...a recurrent security awareness training program must contain information regardingâ (i) Any new security measures...

2013-10-01

403

49 CFR 1552.23 - Security awareness training programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information in the TSA Information Publication âSecurity Guidelines for...Recurrent security awareness training program...a recurrent security awareness training program must contain information regardingâ (i) Any new security measures...

2010-10-01

404

49 CFR 1552.23 - Security awareness training programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information in the TSA Information Publication âSecurity Guidelines for...Recurrent security awareness training program...a recurrent security awareness training program must contain information regardingâ (i) Any new security measures...

2009-10-01

405

Malaria awareness month launched.  

PubMed

On April 29, 1997, in Suhum, Ghana, at the beginning of Malaria Awareness Month, Minister of Health Dr. Eunice Brookman-Amissah announced a 6-month accelerated malaria control program in 30 districts where the disease is most endemic; the program, which is sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), will continue until September 1997. The program is being launched because of the low impact of control efforts over the previous 4 years. Under the new program, health personnel, including 250 physicians in private and government employment, will be retrained regarding the proper management and treatment of malaria. In order to curtail the improper treatment of the disease, some chemical sellers and day care assistants will also be trained in the management and control of malaria. The next stage of the program will include measures to protect people from mosquito bites and to clear areas of mosquito breeding places. PMID:12294206

406

Testing Privacy Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

Bergmann, Mike

407

Awareness of implicit attitudes.  

PubMed

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of implicit attitudes toward 5 social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across 4 studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2-4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants' predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. Altogether, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M; Hirsh, Holen K; Blair, Irene V

2014-06-01

408

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes.

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

409

CMIP and ATP2C2 modulate phonological short-term memory in language impairment.  

PubMed

Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the absence of any obvious explanatory factors. We performed a high-density screen of SLI1, a region of chromosome 16q that shows highly significant and consistent linkage to nonword repetition, a measure of phonological short-term memory that is commonly impaired in SLI. Using two independent language-impaired samples, one family-based (211 families) and another selected from a population cohort on the basis of extreme language measures (490 cases), we detected association to two genes in the SLI1 region: that encoding c-maf-inducing protein (CMIP, minP = 5.5 x 10(-7) at rs6564903) and that encoding calcium-transporting ATPase, type2C, member2 (ATP2C2, minP = 2.0 x 10(-5) at rs11860694). Regression modeling indicated that each of these loci exerts an independent effect upon nonword repetition ability. Despite the consistent findings in language-impaired samples, investigation in a large unselected cohort (n = 3612) did not detect association. We therefore propose that variants in CMIP and ATP2C2 act to modulate phonological short-term memory primarily in the context of language impairment. As such, this investigation supports the hypothesis that some causes of language impairment are distinct from factors that influence normal language variation. This work therefore implicates CMIP and ATP2C2 in the etiology of SLI and provides molecular evidence for the importance of phonological short-term memory in language acquisition. PMID:19646677

Newbury, Dianne F; Winchester, Laura; Addis, Laura; Paracchini, Silvia; Buckingham, Lyn-Louise; Clark, Ann; Cohen, Wendy; Cowie, Hilary; Dworzynski, Katharina; Everitt, Andrea; Goodyer, Ian M; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Kindley, A David; Miller, Laura L; Nasir, Jamal; O'Hare, Anne; Shaw, Duncan; Simkin, Zoe; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky; Watson, Jocelynne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Fisher, Simon E; Seckl, Jonathon R; Helms, Peter J; Bolton, Patrick F; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Baird, Gillian; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Monaco, Anthony P

2009-08-01

410

Rapid Extraction of Lexical Tone Phonology in Chinese Characters: A Visual Mismatch Negativity Study  

PubMed Central

Background In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

2013-01-01

411

Quantized visual awareness  

PubMed Central

The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

Escobar, W. A.

2013-01-01

412

Phonological Acquisition in Simultaneous Bilingual Mandarin-English Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Significant challenges face speech-language pathologists when children raised in bilingual environments are referred for speech-language evaluations. The situation is compounded for bilingual Mandarin-English children because no research-based data is available to date. This study is a preliminary examination of phonological acquisition…

Liu-Shea, May

2011-01-01

413

Planning at the Phonological Level during Sentence Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two picture-word interference experiments we examined whether phrase boundaries affected how far in advance speakers plan the sounds of words during sentence production. Participants produced sentences of varying lengths (short determiner + noun + verb or long determiner + adjective + noun + verb) while ignoring phonologically related and…

Schnur, Tatiana T.; Costa, Albert; Caramazza, Alfonso

2006-01-01

414

Neuroimaging sheds new light on the phonological deficit in dyslexia.  

PubMed

A new study reports that activations of superior temporal regions for speech are normal in dyslexia, although being less well connected to downstream frontal regions. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in the access to phonological representations rather than in the representations themselves. PMID:24568928

Ramus, Franck

2014-06-01

415

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

416

Phonological Working Memory of Children in Two German Special Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, 10-year-olds from 2 German special schools as well as typically developing children of the same chronological age (CA controls) or the same mental age (MA controls) were compared on several aspects of working memory functions (i.e., size and input quality of the phonological store, speed and automatic activation of the subvocal…

Hasselhorn, Marcus; Mahler, Claudia

2007-01-01

417

When Phonology Fails: Orthographic Neighbourhood Effects in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both cerebral hemispheres contain phonological, orthographic and semantic representations of words, however there are between-hemisphere differences in the relative engagement and specialization of the different representations. Taking orthographic processing for example, previous studies suggest that orthographic neighbourhood size (N) has…

Lavidor, Michal; Johnston, Rhona; Snowling, Margaret J.

2006-01-01

418

Phonological Memory and Implications for the Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…

Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.

2010-01-01

419

Imaging phonological similarity effects on verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of verbal working memory (VWM) report that performance declines as the phonemic similarity of stimuli increases. To determine how phonological similarity affects brain function during VWM, “standard” and “similarity” versions of the 2-Back task were presented to 34 healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Letter consonants presented during similarity blocks rhymed, while consonants did not rhyme during

Lawrence H. Sweet; James F. Paskavitz; Andreana P. Haley; John J. Gunstad; Richard C. Mulligan; Prashanth K. Nyalakanti; Ronald A. Cohen

2008-01-01

420

Papers in Phonology. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six working papers on phonology, primarily concerning less commonly taught languages, are presented are in this volume. Titles include: "Non-Uniqueness Condition and the Segmentation of the Chinese Syllable" (Benjamin Ao); "Theoretical Consequences of Metathesis in Maltese" (Elizabeth Hume); "Cs and Vs or Moras: The Case of Bukusu Prosodic…

Hume, Elizabeth, Ed.

421

Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

Au, Terry Kit-fong

2013-01-01

422

Phonology Acquired through the Eyes and Spelling in Deaf Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared spelling performance of hearing and deaf 6- to 14- year-olds on high- and low-frequency words. Found that most spelling productions of hearing children and deaf children with early intensive home cued speech (CS) exposure were phonologically accurate for both types of words. Deaf children with later CS exposure at school had lower…

Leybaert, Jacqueline

2000-01-01

423

Do Null Phonemic Masking Effects Reflect Strategic Control of Phonology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two studies using Verstaen et al.'s method that occasionally replicates null phonemic masking effects, but challenges their interpretation. Reflects an inherent instability in the perception of homophones. Demonstrates that this instability is directly due to reliance on phonology, rather than to its control. (SG)

Berent, Iris; Van Orden, Guy C.

2003-01-01

424

The Nature of Phonological Encoding During Spoken Word Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether phonological selection occurs sequentially or in parallel. College students named picture primes and targets, with varied response stimulus intervals between primes and targets. Results were consistent with Dell's (1988) two-stage sequential model of encoding, which shows an initial parallel activation within a lexical network…

Sullivan, Michael P.; Riffel, Brian

1999-01-01

425

Phonological Abilities and Writing among Portuguese Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to identify causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in writing in preschool children. The participants were 44 children, with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, and whose writing was syllabic with phonetization. The children were divided into three groups. They were…

Martins, Margarida Alves; Silva, Cristina

2006-01-01

426

Understanding the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesion studies have demonstrated impairments of specific types of phonological processes. However, results from neuropsychological studies of speech sound processing have been inconclusive as to the role of specific brain regions because of a lack of a one-to-one correspondence between behavioural patterns and lesion location. Functional…

Burton, Martha W.

2009-01-01

427

Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2012-01-01

428

Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2004-01-01

429

Interferenze Fonologiche e Identificazione Culturale (Phonological Interferences and Cultural Identity).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief summary of the literature on interference and code switching, research with adult Sardinians living in Rome is discussed to determine the relationship between dialectal phonological interference and the degree of identification with the new culture. (26 references) (CFM)

Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Frassu, Pinuccia

1991-01-01

430

Interaction in Bilingual Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from Phonetic Inventories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

431

Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

2008-01-01

432

Some Aspects of Child Phonology in Imitative and Spontaneous Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of phonological characteristics of children's imitative utterances to the characteristics of spontaneous utterances in early stage I. The findings indicated that, while these imitative utterances were subject to the same production constraints, they were not subject to the same selection and avoidance rules operative in…

Leonard, Laurence, B.; And Others

1978-01-01

433

Children's Acquisition of Phonology: The Learning of Acoustic Stimuli?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes issue with the position that children's phoneme acquisition schedule is dictated primarily by auditory perceptual factors and suggests the alternative position that ease of production accounts for age of acquisition. It is felt that perceptual theory cannot adequately explain phonological development, e.g. three-year-olds produce…

Locke, John L.

434

Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

2008-01-01

435

Phonological Asymmetry in Second-Language Learning and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study contrasted the performance of adult second language learners on phonological perception tasks with their performance in articulatory production. Native speakers of French (N=12) and second language learners of French at two levels of French proficiency were tested on three perception and four production tasks to identify the…

Neufeld, Gerald G.

1988-01-01

436

Sex Differences in Phonological Coding: Alphabet Transformation Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A previous explanation of the sex difference on so-called perceptual speed tests was in terms of a female advantage in accessing and using phonological name codes in making item comparisons. That explanation was extended to a task involving alphabetical transformations without the requirement for comparison of perceptually available items. A…

Majeres, Raymond L.

2007-01-01

437

Is Phonological Encoding in Naming Influenced by Literacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined phonological priming in illiterate adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Participants named pictures while hearing distractor words at different Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOAs). Ex-illiterates and university students were also tested. We specifically assessed the ability of the three populations to use…

Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Querido, Jose-Luis; Fernandes, Sandra; Morais, Jose

2007-01-01

438

Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

Bose, Arpita

2013-01-01

439

Phonological Patterns Observed in Young Children with Cleft Palate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…

Broen, Patricia A.; And Others

440

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

441

The Role of Phonological Recoding for Deaf Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, presented at the symposium "Deaf Readers: Clues to the Role of Sound in Reading," addresses the nature of phonological recoding--use of the inner voice in silent reading--for deaf readers. Studies are reported on the forms in which deaf readers recode the printed text. Findings noted include that deaf readers--specifically, second…

Treiman, Rebecca; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

442

Promoting general metacognitive awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe two aspects of metacognition, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition, and how they are related to domain-specific knowledge and cognitive abilities. I argue that metacognitive knowledge is multidimensional, domain-general in nature, and teach- able. Four instructional strategies are described for promoting the construction and acquisition of metacognitive awareness. These include promoting general awareness, improving self- knowledge and

GREGORY SCHRAW

1998-01-01

443

Knowledge Construction Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about Knowledge Construction Awareness (KCA) and the design of a software tool that allows users to capture information about group work and evaluate how this kind of awareness affects the collaborative work process in computer-mediated interactions. Discusses exploratory study of 10 groups who used software. Contains 29…

Collazos, Cesar A.; Guerrero, Luis A.; Pino, Jose A.

2003-01-01

444

Multisensory constraints on awareness.  

PubMed

Given that multiple senses are often stimulated at the same time, perceptual awareness is most likely to take place in multisensory situations. However, theories of awareness are based on studies and models established for a single sense (mostly vision). Here, we consider the methodological and theoretical challenges raised by taking a multisensory perspective on perceptual awareness. First, we consider how well tasks designed to study unisensory awareness perform when used in multisensory settings, stressing that studies using binocular rivalry, bistable figure perception, continuous flash suppression, the attentional blink, repetition blindness and backward masking can demonstrate multisensory influences on unisensory awareness, but fall short of tackling multisensory awareness directly. Studies interested in the latter phenomenon rely on a method of subjective contrast and can, at best, delineate conditions under which individuals report experiencing a multisensory object or two unisensory objects. As there is not a perfect match between these conditions and those in which multisensory integration and binding occur, the link between awareness and binding advocated for visual information processing needs to be revised for multisensory cases. These challenges point at the need to question the very idea of multisensory awareness. PMID:24639579

Deroy, Ophelia; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

2014-05-01

445

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

446

[Awareness - clinical relevance].  

PubMed

Awareness is a rare but typical complication during general anesthesia, with a reported incidence of 0.1- 0.2% to 1% (high risk patients) in adults and probably much higher in children with 0.2 -1.2%. Awareness is defined as consciousness during general anesthesia with explicit (conscious) recall of memories.Wakefulness during anesthesia can meet DSM-IV criteria of trauma. Significant long-term psychological sequelae (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) may occur.Recommendations of the German Society of Anesthesiologists have been developed according to the ASA Task Force for intraoperative awareness and brain function monitoring.The article focuses on risk factors and sequelae of awareness, explains the options for detection of intraoperative wakefulness and postoperative memories and makes recommendations for prevention and handling of awareness. PMID:23364826

Pilge, Stefanie; Schneider, Gerhard

2013-01-01

447

The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.  

PubMed

The 'primary systems' view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud 'exception' words (those with atypical spelling-sound characteristics), should be a consistent feature of semantic dementia, a progressive disorder of conceptual knowledge, and just such a pattern has been observed in previous research. In a similar vein, one might expect the gradual deterioration of phonological processing seen in the nonfluent forms of progressive aphasia to be accompanied by phonological dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading of unfamiliar letter strings, i.e., nonwords. The present study, reporting a case-series consideration of reading-aloud data from 16 progressive nonfluent aphasic patients, revealed a pattern in which both low-frequency exception word and nonword reading were comparably compromised. The severity of the reading disorder was predicted by scores on the expressive language task of picture naming but not the receptive task of spoken word-to-picture matching. Our hypothesis that a phonological deficit underpins diminished performance for both naming and reading was supported by the finding that reading-aloud performance was predicted specifically by the rate of phonological errors in picture naming. Moreover, the strength of this relationship was similar for low-frequency exception words and nonwords, suggesting that reading deficits for these two types of items in this disorder shared a common cause: a progressive impairment of phonological processing. PMID:23000132

Woollams, Anna M; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-12-01

448

Transit Employee Security and Safety Awareness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to increase the security and safety awareness of mass transportation employees who work in isolated situation. The video emphasizes action and measures that can prevent confrontations from occurring or escalating and suggest...

1994-01-01

449

Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

2010-01-01

450

Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders: an electrophysiological study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 ? 9%). Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group) and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group). The age range of the children was from 7?11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V) and speech stimuli (waves V and A) when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech?evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click?evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.

Goncalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Wertzner, Haydee Fiszbein; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

2011-01-01

451

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA).  

PubMed

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n = 7), participants with PPA-L (n = 7), and unimpaired controls (n = 17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA = 0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA = 0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K

2013-01-01

452

Whole Word Measures in Bilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological acquisition traditionally has been measured using constructs that focus on segments rather than the whole words. Findings from recent research have suggested whole-word productions be evaluated using measures such as phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) and the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP). These measures have been…

Burrows, Lauren; Goldstein, Brian A.

2010-01-01

453

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

454

Lexical and Phonological Development in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not the focus of her article, phonological development in young children with speech sound disorders of various types is highly germane to Stoel-Gammon's discussion (this issue) for at least two primary reasons. Most obvious is that typical processes and milestones of phonological development are the standards and benchmarks against which…

Velleman, Shelley L.

2011-01-01

455

Interactions between Lexical and Phonological Development: Cross-Linguistic and Contextual Considerations--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoel-Gammon (this issue) provides a welcome addition to the phonological acquisition literature, bringing together insights from long-standing and more recent research to address the relationship between the developing phonological system and the developing lexicon. A growing literature on children's early use of words across languages and…

Demuth, Katherine

2011-01-01

456

Examining the relationship between immediate serial recall and immediate free recall: Common effects of phonological loop variables but only limited evidence for the phonological loop.  

PubMed

We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by concurrent articulation (CA; Experiment 1). We further assumed that the use of the phonological loop would be evidenced by greater serial recall for lists of phonologically dissimilar words relative to lists of phonologically similar words (Experiments 2A and 2B). We found that in both tasks, (a) CA reduced recall; (b) participants recalled short lists from the start of the list, leading to enhanced forward-ordered recall; (c) participants were increasingly likely to recall longer lists from the end of the list, leading to extended recency effects; (d) there were significant phonological similarity effects in ISR and IFR when both were analyzed using serial recall scoring; (e) these were reduced by free recall scoring and eliminated by CA; and (f) CA but not phonological similarity affected the tendency to initiate recall with the first list item. We conclude that similar mechanisms underpin ISR and IFR. Critically, the phonological loop is not strictly necessary for the forward-ordered recall of short lists on both tasks but may augment recall by increasing the accessibility of the list items (relative to CA), and in so doing, the order of later items is preserved better in phonologically dissimilar than in phonologically similar lists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24564540

Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J

2014-07-01

457

Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /?/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information.

Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

2011-01-01

458

Increasing phonological complexity reveals heightened instability in inter-articulatory coordination in adults who stutter  

PubMed Central

The potential role of phonological complexity in destabilizing the speech motor systems of adults who stutter was explored by assessing the performance of 17 adults who stutter and 17 matched control participants on a nonword repetition task. The nonwords varied in length and phonological complexity. Behavioral results revealed no differences between the stuttering and normally fluent groups on accuracy of nonword repetition. In contrast, dramatic differences between groups were observed in the kinematic data. Indices of the consistency of inter-articulator coordination revealed that adults who stutter were much less consistent in their coordinative patterns over repeated productions. With increasing length and complexity of the nonwords, between-group differences in coordinative consistency were more pronounced. Coordination consistency measures revealed that adults who stutter (but not normally fluent adults) showed within-session practice effects; their coordinative consistency improved in five later compared to five earlier productions. Adults who stutter produced the nonwords at a slower rate, but both groups showed increased rates of production on the later trials, indicating a practice effect for duration for both groups. We conclude that, though the adults who stutter performed behaviorally with the same accuracy as normally fluent adults, the nonword repetition task reveals remarkable differences in the speech motor dynamics underlying fluent speech production in adults who stutter compared to their normally fluent peers. These results support a multifactorial, dynamic model of stuttering in which linguistic complexity and utterance length are factors that contribute to the probability of breakdown of the speech motor system.

Smith, Anne; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Walsh, Bridget; Weber-Fox, Christine

2010-01-01

459

Community Eldercare Awareness Campaigns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alzheimer's Association tested innovative strategies for building eldercare coalitions through community awareness activities. The project educated leaders of non-aging organizations and community opinion leaders about the impact of unmet home and com...

1994-01-01

460

Population Education. Awareness Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

Brouse, Deborah E.

1990-01-01

461

Child Care Aware  

MedlinePLUS

... learn about high-quality child care. Welcome to Child Care Aware® E-Mail Print Share Tweet Military Child ... 2246 Call TTY#: 1-866-278-9428 Free Child Care Search Please enter your zip code. Your local ...

462

Awareness and confabulation.  

PubMed

Objective: A single case study with control and normative data of a 74-year-old retired businessman with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, who had spontaneous confabulations concerning fantastic exploits and magical powers as well as déjà vécu experiences. Methods and Results: His neuropsychological profile showed episodic memory impairment including deficits of recent episodic autobiographical memories and of recognition, but performance was within normal limits on tests assessing source memory for words, the ability to suppress irrelevant items on a continuous recognition memory task, and the detection of stimulus frequency. There were discrete impairments in an ad hoc test measuring his ability to detect and discriminate the source of a range of material including information derived from personal and public events, invented material, and episodes culled from his personal reading. Although his source memory for autobiographical information was normal, he attributed 20% of the invented material and personal readings and 15% of the public events either to his own experience or to that of someone he knew personally or to someone else. Conclusions: This evidence suggests that none of the current theoretical accounts of spontaneous confabulations is sufficiently explanatory. Instead, an argument is developed that both fantastic confabulation and déjà vécu arose from a more fundamental disorder of awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188119

Shanks, Michael F; McGeown, William J; Guerrini, Chiara; Venneri, Annalena

2014-05-01

463

Detecting mutual awareness events.  

PubMed

It is quite common that multiple human observers attend to a single static interest point. This is known as a mutual awareness event (MAWE). A preferred way to monitor these situations is with a camera that captures the human observers while using existing face detection and head pose estimation algorithms. The current work studies the underlying geometric constraints of MAWEs and reformulates them in terms of image measurements. The constraints are then used in a method that 1) detects whether such an interest point does exist, 2) determines where it is located, 3) identifies who was attending to it, and 4) reports where and when each observer was while attending to it. The method is also applied on another interesting event when a single moving human observer fixates on a single static interest point. The method can deal with the general case of an uncalibrated camera in a general environment. This is in contrast to other work on similar problems that inherently assumes a known environment or a calibrated camera. The method was tested on about 75 images from various scenes and robustly detects MAWEs and estimates their related attributes. Most of the images were found by searching the Internet. PMID:22331857

Cohen, Meir; Shimshoni, Ilan; Rivlin, Ehud; Adam, Amit

2012-12-01

464

Perception without awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to re-examine the phenomenon of subliminal perception, c.q. perception without awareness. Subliminal perception, c.q. perception without awareness, was defined in terms of the subjects' ability to respond differentially to the content of stimuli like words or digits, without having consciously identified their meaning.\\u000a\\u000aIn the first experiment, subliminal visual perception was examined in

K. M. Bánréti-Fuchs

1967-01-01

465

Memory systems: The case of phonological short-term memory. A festschrift for Cognitive Neuropsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in the understanding of the neurological and functional architectures of phonological short-term memory that took place in the 1984–2004 time period are reviewed. Phonological short-term memory is discussed as a case that illustrates a number of issues shared by other research domains in cognitive neuropsychology, with particular reference to memory systems. Modularity: Phonological short-term memory includes two main components,

Giuseppe Vallar

2006-01-01

466

Efficacy of Intervention for a Bilingual Child Making Articulation and Phonological Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This treatment case study presents a five-year-old bilingual Cantonese\\/English speaking boy with articulation and phonological errors. It reports two treatment phases: articulation therapy and phonological therapy. The articulation therapy was given in English and targeted the distorted production of \\/s\\/. The result was a perceptually acceptable pronunciation of /s/ in both English and Cantonese. The phonological therapy, also given in

Alison Holm; Barbara Dodd; Anne Ozanne

1997-01-01

467

Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators  

PubMed Central

Attention to internal body sensations is practiced inmost meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators, however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

KHALSA, SAHIB S.; RUDRAUF, DAVID; DAMASIO, ANTONIO R.; DAVIDSON, RICHARD J.; LUTZ, ANTOINE; TRANEL, DANIEL

2009-01-01

468

PhonItalia: a phonological lexicon for Italian.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the first open-access lexical database that provides phonological representations for 120,000 Italian word forms. Each of these also includes syllable boundaries and stress markings and a comprehensive range of lexical statistics. Using data derived from this lexicon, we have also generated a set of derived databases and provided estimates of positional frequency use for Italian phonemes, syllables, syllable onsets and codas, and character and phoneme bigrams. These databases are freely available from phonitalia.org. This article describes the methods, content, and summarizing statistics for these databases. In a first application of this database, we also demonstrate how the distribution of phonological substitution errors made by Italian aphasic patients is related to phoneme frequency. PMID:24092524

Goslin, Jeremy; Galluzzi, Claudia; Romani, Cristina

2014-09-01

469

Neural correlates of orthographic and phonological consistency effects in children.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the neural correlates of phonological inconsistency (relationship of spelling to sound) and orthographic inconsistency (relationship of sound to spelling) in visual word processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Children (9- to 15-year-old) performed a rhyming and spelling task in which two words were presented sequentially in the visual modality. Consistent with previous studies in adults, higher phonological inconsistency was associated with greater activation in several regions including left inferior frontal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex. We additionally demonstrated an effect of orthographic inconsistency in these same areas, suggesting that these regions are involved in the integration of orthographic and phonological information and, with respect to the medial frontal/anterior cingulate, greater demands on executive function. Higher phonological and orthographic consistency was associated with greater activation in precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, the putative steady state system active during resting, suggesting lower demands on cognitive resources for consistent items. Both consistency effects were larger for the rhyming compared with the spelling task suggesting greater demands of integrating spelling and sound in the former task. Finally, accuracy on the rhyming task was negatively correlated with the consistency effect in left fusiform gyrus. In particular, this region showed insensitivity to consistency in low performers, sensitivity to inconsistency (higher activity) in moderate performers, and sensitivity to inconsistency (high activation) and to consistency (deactivation). In general, these results show that the influence of spelling-sound (and sound-spelling) correspondences on processing in fusiform gyrus develops as a function of skill. PMID:17957704

Bolger, Donald J; Hornickel, Jane; Cone, Nadia E; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

2008-12-01

470

Lexical and nonlexical phonological priming in reading aloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five homophone priming experiments are reported in which the lexicality ofprimes and targets were varied, so that primes and targets were either nonwordhomophones (keff\\/keph), word homophones (brake\\/break), pseudohomophones(brayk\\/braik), or of mixed lexicality (brake\\/brayk and brayk\\/break). Results showedthat naming of targets was facilitated by a phonologically identical prime only when aword was in the prime-target pairing. No priming occurred in nonword

Kathleen Rastle; Max Coltheart

1999-01-01

471

Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.  

PubMed

Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

2013-09-25

472

Neural Dynamics of Phonological Processing in the Dorsal Auditory Stream  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80–100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors.

Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A.; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

2013-01-01

473

Phonological processes and the perception of phonotactically illegal consonant clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of consonant clusters that are phonotactically illegal word initially in English (e.g., \\/tl\\/, \\/sr\\/) was investigated\\u000a to determine whether listeners’ phonological knowledge of the language influences speech processing. Experiment 1 examined\\u000a whether the phonotactic context effect (Massaro & Cohen, 1983), a bias toward hearing illegal sequences (e.g., \\/tl\\/) as legal\\u000a (e.g., \\/tr\\/), is more likely due to knowledge

Mark A. Pitt

1998-01-01

474

Science Sampler: Water-use awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National rainfall maps show large areas of the United States experiencing major droughts. Government agencies are intervening with water awareness programs, and in extreme cases, rationing. Because students are both water consumers and tomorrow's civic leaders, they must be made aware of this issue and motivated to become involved in creating solutions. Focusing on units of measurement and conversions, this lesson asks students to calculate whether more water is used in a bath or shower in their home.

Hall, Randy

2008-03-01

475

Electropalatography in the treatment of articulation/phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Treatment using electropalatography (EPG) is described. Speech learners wear a custom-made appliance called a pseudopalate in order to view their tongue-to-palate (lingual palatal) contacts on a computer monitor. The results from studies with children who have either articulation or phonology-based problems are discussed. Assessments of contact patterns used by articulation-impaired children suggests that they may produce more atypical articulatory contacts than are noted perceptually. Remediation, using electropalatography, showed that the children benefited from learning new articulatory gestures rather than learning to correct isolated errors. Studies with phonologically-impaired children have shown that perceptually neutralized (or non-contrasted) sounds may actually be produced with consistent articulatory contrasts. This knowledge could assist in identifying sounds that might soon emerge and be more responsive to therapy. Training studies with phonologically-impaired children have shown that a motor approach using sound contrasts to teach a phonetic inventory is an effective way to assist these children. Considerations for candidacy for EPG training are also discussed. PMID:8576412

Dagenais, P A

1995-12-01

476

Picture naming deficits in developmental dyslexia: the phonological representations hypothesis.  

PubMed

The picture and word naming performance of developmental dyslexics was compared to the picture and word naming performance of non-dyslexic ("garden variety") poor readers, reading age, and chronological age-matched controls. The stimulus list used for both tasks was systematically manipulated for word length and word frequency. In order to examine picture naming errors in more depth, an object name recognition test assessed each subject's vocabulary knowledge of those names which they were unable to spontaneously label in the picture naming task. Findings indicated that the dyslexic and the garden variety poor readers exhibited a picture naming deficit relative to both chronological and reading age-matched controls. Findings also indicated that both groups of impaired readers obtained superior scores in the word naming task than in the picture naming task, while both groups of controls showed no difference in performance across tasks. The dyslexics' picture naming errors, but not those of the garden variety poor readers, were particularly marked on polysyllabic and/or low frequency words, indicating a possible phonological basis to the picture naming deficit of the dyslexic children. These children also recognized significantly more unnamed target words than all comparison groups, suggesting a particular difficulty in retrieving the phonological codes of known picture names rather than a vocabulary deficit. Results are discussed in terms of dyslexics' difficulty in encoding full segmental phonological representations of names in long-term memory and/or in processing these representations in order to generate required names on demand. PMID:9070416

Swan, D; Goswami, U

1997-02-15

477

Aligning the timelines of phonological acquisition and change  

PubMed Central

This paper examines whether data from a large cross-linguistic corpus of adult and child productions can be used to support an assumed corollary of the Neogrammarian distinction between two types of phonological change. The first type is regular sound change, which is assumed to be incremental and so should show continuity between phonological development and the age-related variation observed in the speech community undergoing the change. The second type is dialect borrowing, which could show an abrupt discontinuity between developmental patterns before and after the socio-historical circumstances that instigate it. We examine the acquisition of two contrasts: the Seoul Korean contrast between lax and aspirated stops which is undergoing regular sound change, and the standard Mandarin contrast between retroflex and dental sibilants which has been borrowed recently into the S?ngyuán dialect. Acquisition of the different contrasts patterns as predicted from the assumed differences between continuous regular sound change and potentially abrupt dialect borrowing. However, there are substantial gaps in our understanding both of the extent of cross-cultural variability in language socialization and of how this might affect the mechanisms of phonological change that must be addressed before we can fully understand the relationship between the time courses of the two.

Beckman, Mary E.; Li, Fangfang; Kong, Eun Jong; Edwards, Jan

2014-01-01

478

Teaching Personal Awareness  

PubMed Central

Educators rarely consider the attitudes that determine whether a learner will use the clinical skills we teach. Nevertheless, many learners and practitioners exhibit negative attitudes that can impede the use of patient-centered skills, leading to an isolated focus upon disease and impairing the provider-patient relationship. The problem is compounded because these attitudes often are incompletely recognized by learners and therefore are difficult to change without help. We present a research-based method for teaching personal awareness of unrecognized and often harmful attitudes. We propose that primary care clinicians without mental health training can follow this method to teach students, residents, faculty, and practitioners. Such teachers/mentors need to possess an abiding interest in the personal dimension, patience with a slowly evolving process of awareness, and the ability to establish strong, ongoing relationships with learners. Personal awareness teaching may occur during instruction in basic interviewing skills but works best if systematically incorporated throughout training.

Smith, Robert C; Dwamena, Francesca C; Fortin, Auguste H

2005-01-01

479

Speech and phonology in Swedish-speaking 3-year-olds with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate following different methods for primary palatal surgery.  

PubMed

Objective : To describe and compare speech and phonology at age 3 years in children born with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate treated with three different methods for primary palatal surgery. Design : Prospective study. Setting : Primary care university hospitals. Participants : Twenty-eight Swedish-speaking children born with nonsyndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Interventions : Three methods for primary palatal surgery: two-stage closure with soft palate closure between 3.4 and 6.4 months and hard palate closure at mean age 12.3 months (n = 9) or 36.2 months (n = 9) or one-stage closure at mean age 13.6 months (n = 10). Main Outcome Measures : Based on independent judgments performed by two speech-language pathologists from standardized video recordings: percent correct consonants adjusted for age, percent active cleft speech characteristics, total number of phonological processes, number of different phonological processes, hypernasality, and audible nasal air leakage. The hard palate was unrepaired in nine of the children treated with two-stage closure. Results : The group treated with one-stage closure showed significantly better results than the group with an unoperated hard palate regarding percent active cleft speech characteristics and total number of phonological processes. Conclusions : Early primary palatal surgery in one or two stages did not result in any significant differences in speech production at age 3 years. However, children with an unoperated hard palate had significantly poorer speech and phonology than peers who had been treated with one-stage palatal closure at about 13 months of age. PMID:24024955

Klintö, Kristina; Svensson, Henry; Elander, Anna; Lohmander, Anette

2014-05-01

480

Urban Rivers Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia) hosts this page on Urban Rivers Awareness. Offering information both general (e.g., the importance of water and watersheds) and specific (e.g., Manatwany Creek dam study), the site introduces viewers to urban river issues via an ecological study on the removal of a dam in Pennsylvania. Site content is directed towards raising awareness of urban rivers and is educational in flavor. Also at the site is a series of links to other Academy projects, external resources, and related articles.

2001-01-01

481

Phonological Short-Term Memory, Language and Literacy: Developmental Relationships in Early Adolescence in Young People with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research has consistently documented a relationship between phonological short-term memory skills (STM) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study reports on the development of phonological STM abilities over 3 years in 80 young adolescents with a history of SLI, investigating the nature of the relationship between phonological

Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

2007-01-01

482

Speech, Language and Literacy Skills 3 Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Early Phonological and Metaphonological Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Three years before the present study, 19 preschool children participated in a phonological and metaphonological intervention programme. The phonological intervention programme was based on non-linear phonological analyses. The metaphonological intervention programme included both rhyming and alliteration tasks and was directly targeted…

Bernhardt, Barbara; Major, Eva

2005-01-01

483

Perceptual organization masquerading as phonological storage: Further support for a perceptual-gestural view of short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined whether the survival of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) under articulatory suppression for auditory but not visual to-be-serially recalled lists is a perceptual effect rather than an effect arising from the action of a bespoke phonological store. Using a list of 5 auditory items, a list length at which the expression of phonological storage should, ostensibly, be

Dylan M. Jones; Robert W. Hughes; William J. Macken

2006-01-01

484

Convergent Validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills with the Test of Phonological Awareness in Spanish and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino English Language Learners represent the largest group of language minority students attending public school in the United States. Research is needed to address the early literacy problems which impede this population from acquiring literacy in the English language with efficacy and to determine the most effective assessment and intervention…

Gunne, Allison J.

2010-01-01

485

The phonological-distributional coherence hypothesis: Cross-linguistic evidence in language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several phonological and prosodic properties of words have been shown to relate to diVer- ences between grammatical categories. Distributional information about grammatical categories is also a rich source in the child's language environment. In this paper we hypothesise that such cues operate in tandem for developing the child's knowledge about grammatical categories. We term this the Phonological-Distributional Coherence Hypothesis (PDCH).

Padraic Monaghan; Morten H. Christiansen; Nick Chater

486

Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages IX: Word Accent in Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, the ninth in the series "Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages," aims to analyze the phonological properties of the accentual system of Standard Colloquial Japanese on the basis of acoustic-phonetic data, especially data obtained through use of the sound spectrograph and pitch extractor. Chapters deal with functional distinctions…

Weitzman, Raymond S.

487

Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2011-01-01