Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen
Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…
Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina
The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…
Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…
Schuele, C. Melanie; Boudreau, Donna
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to advance practitioners' knowledge base of best practices in phonological awareness intervention to facilitate the implementation of evidence- or research-based practices in everyday clinical practice. Although most speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have a basic knowledge of phonological awareness, this…
This study examined the phonological awareness skills of dyslexic children, adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia, and good readers at various age levels. Comparisons of the dyslexics to good readers of the same age or the same reading level indicated that dyslexics do not acquire appropriate levels of phoneme awareness, regardless of their age or reading levels, although they eventually
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Bialystok, Ellen; Chong, Karen K. Y.; Li, Yanping
This study focused on syllable phoneme onset levels of phonological awareness in relation to reading of Chinese and English in kindergarten and first-grade children from Xian (China), Hong Kong, and Toronto, cultures that differ substantially in approaches to reading instruction. English syllable awareness among native Chinese speakers was as good…
Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan
This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.
Turan, Figen; Gul, Gozde
Phonological awareness skills begin to develop at preschool ages and support reading skills during school ages. Studies on phonological awareness show great relationship with reading skills development. Since literacy talents such as phonological awareness and vocabulary represent future success in reading, assisting literacy skills during…
Randa Abdelaleem Elmonayer
The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5–6), assigned to an experimental group (n?=?35) or a control group (n?=?32). Kindergarten Inventory of Phonological Awareness was
Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.
Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological…
Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan
This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…
A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…
McDowell, Kimberly D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goldstein, Howard
Purpose: This study simultaneously examined predictors of phonological awareness within the framework of 2 theories: the phonological distinctness hypothesis and the lexical restructuring model. Additionally, age as a moderator of the relations between predictor variables and phonological awareness was examined. Method: This cross-sectional…
van Bysterveldt, Anne K.; Gillon, Gail T.; Moran, Catherine
This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4-year-old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound…
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
This study investigated the phonological awareness skills of a group of deaf adolescents and how these skills correlated with decoding skills (single word and non-word reading) and receptive vocabulary. Twenty, congenitally profoundly deaf adolescents with at least average nonverbal cognitive skills were tested on a range of phonological awareness…
Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha
We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…
Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem
The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the first year students at primary school. In the study, the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the students were measured at the beginning of the term. Students' writing skills were measured in the middle of…
Judith M. T. Vloedgraven; Ludo Verhoeven
The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibilities for the assessment of growth in phonological awareness of\\u000a children in kindergarten and first grade. Phonological awareness was measured using four sets of items involving rhyming,\\u000a phoneme identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation. The results of an exploratory factor analysis and analyses\\u000a conducted within the framework of item response
Teresa Quiroga; Zenia Lemos-Britton; Elizabeth Mostafapour; Robert D. Abbott; Virginia W. Berninger
In the first study, 30 Spanish-speaking English-as-a-second language (ESL) first graders whose families were Latino immigrants and who received all their school instruction in English completed an assessment battery with both Spanish and English measures of phonological awareness, Verbal IQ (VIQ), oral language proficiency, and single-word reading (real words and pseudowords); they also named English alphabet letters. Phonological awareness in
de Jong, Peter F.
The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…
Savage, R.; Carless, S.
Background: Phonological awareness tests are known to be amongst the best predictors of literacy; however their predictive validity alongside current school screening practice (baseline assessment, pupil background data) and to National Curricular outcome measures is unknown. Aim: We explored the validity of phonological awareness and orthographic…
Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha
Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological…
Ambrose, Sophie Eva
Purpose: 1) To assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant (CI) enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. 2...
Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...
Sun, Kim Kyoung; Kemp, Coral
A review of research into the acquisition of phonological awareness skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities, the relationship between phonological awareness and reading in these individuals and the effect of phonological awareness training on the development of their phonological skills is presented. Research indicates that children…
Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.
Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161
Kilpatrick, David A.
Based upon extensive evidence, researchers have almost universally accepted that phonological awareness (also called phonological sensitivity) is strongly associated with the development of word-level reading skills, with rare voices that either deny or downplay its significance. Phonological awareness is a construct that includes the ability to…
An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509
Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…
Jennifer M. Thomson; Usha Goswami
Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here,\\u000a we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude\\u000a envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological representations are related\\u000a to individual differences in both rise time categorization and rise time discrimination when non-verbal IQ
Gabig, Cheryl Smith
This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…
Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.
Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…
Kilpatrick, David A.
Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…
van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo
How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…
Dixon, L. Quentin
This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…
Bode, Sylvie; Content, Alain
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in…
Ambrose, Sophie E.
Purpose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether preschoolage…
Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.
Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…
Waring, Phoebe; Woodyatt, Gail
Substantial research has detailed the reading deficits experienced by children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although phonological awareness (PA) is vital in reading development, little is known about PA in the DMD population. This pilot study describes the PA abilities of a group of five young children with DMD, comparing the results…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.
This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…
Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan
The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…
Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong
Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological…
Mishra, Ranjita; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study investigated the relationships between phonological awareness and reading in Oriya and English. Oriya is the official language of Orissa, an eastern state of India. The writing system is an alphasyllabary. Ninety-nine fifth grade children (mean age 9 years 7 months) were assessed on measures of phonological awareness, word reading and…
Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John
This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…
Nancollis, Alex; Lawrie, Barbara-Anne; Dodd, Barbara
Purpose: This study examined the effect of phonological awareness intervention that focused on syllable and rhyme awareness on the acquisition of literacy and the development of phonological awareness skills 2 years post intervention. The longitudinal study compared two groups of children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds in the United…
C. Melanie Schuele; Laura M. Justice; Sonia Q. Cabell; Kathy Knighton; Beverly Kingery; Marvin W. Lee
Research Findings: This study reports on the outcomes of a multisite, two-tiered, response-to-intervention instructional model for delivering phonological awareness instruction and intervention to kindergartners. Fifty-seven kindergartners from 3 classrooms participated in a supplemental phonological awareness program, and 56 kindergartners from 3 classrooms received the prevailing school-adopted literacy curriculum. All children in the supplemental condition received supplemental classroom-based phonological awareness instruction
Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Catts, Hugh W.
This study examined the usefulness and predictive validity of a dynamic screening of phonological awareness in two samples of kindergarten children. In one sample (n = 90), the predictive validity of the dynamic assessment was compared to a static version of the same screening measure. In the second sample (n = 96), the dynamic screening measure was compared to a commonly used screening tool, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Initial Sound Fluency. Results showed that the dynamic screening measure uniquely predicted end-of-year reading achievement and outcomes in both samples. These results provide preliminary support for the usefulness of a dynamic screening measure of phonological awareness for kindergarten students. PMID:21571700
Saiegh-Haddad, E.; Geva, Esther
The paper reported an exploratory study that tested (a) the relationship between phonological and morphological awareness in English (L1)-Arabic (L2) bilingual children in Canada (N = 43), and (b) the relevance of these skills to word and pseudoword reading accuracy, and to complex word reading fluency. The results showed a significant correlation…
Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann
The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological…
Callu, D.; Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Jacquier-Roux, M.; Dellatolas, G.
Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…
McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.
Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…
Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.
This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…
Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.
The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation,…
Cassady, Jerrell C.; Smith, Lawrence L.; Putman, S. Michael
The theoretical and practical implications of examining young children's acquisitions of phonological awareness skills with specific and differentiated processing tasks are explored in this study. The study presents data from 269 kindergarten children completing a phonological awareness protocol that provided information on 14 discrete…
Amaral, M I R; Casali, R L; Boscariol, M; Lunardi, L L; Guerreiro, M M; Colella-Santos, M F
The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample. PMID:25685775
Kjeldsen, Ann-Christina; Kärnä, Antti; Niemi, Pekka; Olofsson, Åke; Witting, Katarina
The effects of a kindergarten training program in phonological awareness with 209 Swedish-speaking children were followed up until the end of Grade 9. Initial levels of letter knowledge and phonological awareness were positively associated with the level of decoding skill in Grade 3 but not with its growth afterward. The intervention group…
Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.
Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…
Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas
One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573
Schuele, C. Melanie; Justice, Laura M.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Knighton, Kathy; Kingery, Beverly; Lee, Marvin W.
Research Findings: This study reports on the outcomes of a multisite, two-tiered, response-to-intervention instructional model for delivering phonological awareness instruction and intervention to kindergartners. Fifty-seven kindergartners from 3 classrooms participated in a supplemental phonological awareness program, and 56 kindergartners from 3…
Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J
The influences of early phonological awareness and naming speed on Dutch children's later word spelling were investigated in a longitudinal study. Phonological awareness and naming speed predicted spelling in early Grade 1, later Grade 1, and later Grade 2. Phonological awareness, however, predominated over naming speed for the prediction of early…
Pape-Neumann, Julia; Ermingen-Marbach, Muna van; Grande, Marion; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan
The present study investigated whether phonological awareness training is an effective intervention to significantly improve reading in German dyslexic third and fourth graders with a phonological awareness deficit, and whether these children can equally benefit from a phonology-based reading training or a visually-based reading training. German speaking dyslexic elementary school children (n=30; M=9.8 years) were matched by forming triplets based on IQ, reading quotient and phonological awareness and then randomly assigned to one out of three interventions (n=10): a phonological awareness training, a phonology-based reading training (phonics instruction), and a visually-based reading training (repeated reading of sight words). A total of 20 training sessions (30 minutes each) were distributed over four weeks. Typical readers (n=10; M=9.5 years) were assigned to the control group. Phonological awareness training directly improves reading comprehension in German dyslexic children with a phonological awareness deficit. However, these children can equally benefit from a visually-based reading training. In contrast, the phonology-based reading training has a direct selective effect on decoding but not on reading comprehension. Despite divergent short-term patterns, long-term improvement of reading comprehension and decoding is similar across all training groups, irrespective of the training method. Phonological awareness may but does not need to be part of reading remediation in dyslexic children with a phonological deficit when learning to read a consistent orthography. Rather, a visually-based reading strategy might compensate for the phonological deficit in dyslexic children after the initial stage of reading acquisition. PMID:25856525
Hogan, Tiffany P
In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological characteristic, sound contrast similarity (similar vs. dissimilar), and a lexical characteristic, neighborhood density (dense vs. sparse). In a subsample of the participants-those with the highest vocabularies-results were in line with a predicted interactive effect of phonological and lexical characteristics on phoneme awareness performance: word sets contrasting similar sounds were less likely to yield correct responses in words from sparse neighborhoods than words from dense neighborhoods. Word sets contrasting dissimilar sounds were most likely to yield correct responses regardless of the words' neighborhood density. Based on these findings, theories of early phoneme awareness should consider both word-level and child-level influences on performance. Attention to these influences is predicted to result in more sensitive and specific measures of reading risk. PMID:20574064
Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May
A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on phonological awareness tests was compared with that of Mandarin monolingual children and English monolingual children. The Mandarin-English bilinguals performed better than English monolinguals on the Elision and Blending sub-tests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Similarly, Mandarin-English bilinguals also performed better than their Mandarin monolingual counterparts on most of the experimental Mandarin phonological awareness tasks. The results from the study are discussed in terms of the effects of bilingualism on phonological awareness in both languages of bilingual children. Further clinical and educational implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:20345266
Hogan, Tiffany P.
In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological…
Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline
The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological…
Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G
Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and real word reading are so strongly correlated (r=0.94) in the first 4 years of school as to be representative of the same construct. Two of the subskills of phonological processing, phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming also predict almost identical amounts of variance in pseudoword and real word reading. A divergence in the correlations between word and pseudoword reading and phonological awareness and rapid naming only emerges in the fourth year, while a significant correlation between phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming is evident only in the first year of schooling. Thus these results suggest that, at least in young children learning to read, care should be taken when using pseudoword reading to measure either phonological processing ability or phonological awareness as this may misinform the choice of therapy for a child showing symptoms of dyslexia. PMID:17152344
Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.
Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…
Laurent, Angelique; Martinot, Clara
The present study investigated the development of linguistic awareness in children exposed to the early learning of a second language in Grades 3-5 of primary school, i.e. between the ages of 8 and 10. The aim was to determine whether this bilingual experience enhanced the development of phonological awareness in beginning readers in a bilingual…
Mora, Joan C.; Rochdi, Youssef; Kivistö-de Souza, Hanna
This study investigated Spanish-speaking learners' awareness of a non-distinctive phonetic difference between Spanish and English through a delayed mimicry paradigm. We assessed learners' speech production accuracy through voice onset time (VOT) duration measures in word-initial pre-vocalic /p t k/ in Spanish and English words, and in…
Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siegel, Linda S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction…
Lathroum, Linda M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music perception in predicting phonological awareness in five- and six-year-old children. This study was based on the hypothesis that music perception and phonological awareness appear to have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms. Previous research investigating the relationship between these…
Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine
The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…
Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna
Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…
This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…
Hansen, Blake D; Wadsworth, Jamie P; Roberts, Mallory R; Poole, Tawni N
This study evaluated the effects of an intervention for teaching phonological awareness skills to kindergarten-age children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The intervention employed a combined multiple treatment and multiple baseline design, embedded in playtime and implemented under naturally occurring conditions. Six children in a special education kindergarten class were taught syllable segmentation, first sound identification, and phoneme segmenting. Results indicated that all children made gains on each skill. Results are discussed in light of current research on phonological awareness intervention for young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:25086428
Chien, Ching-ning; Kao, Li-hua; Wei, Li
This paper reports the findings of a psycholinguistic study of the development of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese children acquiring their first language and learning a foreign language at the same time. The language situation of these children in relation to PA is of particular interest because Chinese and English have not only different…
Schaefer, Blanca; Fricke, Silke; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Fox-Boyer, Annette V.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill
The development of phonological awareness (PA), the ability to reflect on the sound structure of words independent of their meaning, has been extensively explored in English-speaking children. However, this is not the case for other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive PA test battery for German-speaking preschool…
Bajaj, Amit; Hodson, Barbara; Schommer-Aikins, Marlene
This study was undertaken to examine the performance of 23 children who stutter (CWS) and 23 children who do not stutter (CWNS) on three metalinguistic tasks. These included two phonological awareness assessment procedures (The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC) and a Phoneme Reversal Task) and one modified Grammar Judgments Task…
Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho
The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…
Russak, Susie; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor
The present study examined cross-linguistic relationships between phonological awareness in L1 (Hebrew) and L2 (English) among normal (N = 30) and reading disabled (N = 30) Hebrew native speaking college students. Further, it tested the effect of two factors: the lexical status of the stimulus word (real word vs. pseudoword) and the linguistic…
Laing, Sandra P.; Espeland, Wendy
Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of…
Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi
Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal effects of social behaviors in predicting phonological awareness outcomes in 4-year-old children. Method: One hundred two children (52 boys, 50 girls) were recruited from 11 schools serving low-income neighborhoods in a large metropolitan city and were assessed at the beginning and end of the preschool…
Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.
This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…
Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.
Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…
Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha
Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…
Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…
Winskel, Heather; Widjaja, Vivilia
The aim of the present study was to investigate the grain size predominantly used by children learning to read and spell in Indonesian. Indonesian is an orthographically transparent language, and the syllable is a salient unit. Tasks assessing various levels of phonological awareness as well as letter knowledge, reading familiar words and…
Littleton, K.; Wood, C.; Chera, P.
Framed by current concerns about boys' attainment in literacy, this paper investigates the potential of talking books software to support the literacy development of male beginning readers. The study primarily considered whether typically developing boys who showed lower levels of attainment in phonological awareness would show a greater degree of…
Jeung-Ryeul Cho; Catherine McBride-Chang
The present study examined associations of levels of phonological awareness to word recognition in Korean and English in a 1-year longitudinal study of 91 children from Masan, Korea. With performances on tasks of speeded naming, vocabulary, and Korean Hangul in 2nd grade statistically controlled, only Korean syllable deletion predicted unique variance in 3rd-grade Korean Hangul reading; phoneme-level awareness did not
Rachel Schiff; Sarit Schwartz-Nahshon; Revital Nagar
This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities\\u000a (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh\\u000a graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and\\u000a 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological
George Manolitsis; Eufimia Tafa
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their\\u000a relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did\\u000a not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58–69 months were assessed on letter-sound and letter-name knowledge,\\u000a as well as on
Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…
Pokorni, Judith L.; Worthington, Colleen K.; Jamison, Patricia J.
Researchers have found that training in phonemic awareness (PA), a fundamental element for reading acquisition, is effective in varying degrees, depending on characteristics of the audience. In this study, the authors explored the relative effectiveness of 3 programs--Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS. The authors randomly assigned 60 students with…
Background Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. Method and results A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (p nominal ?=?6.85 10 -5 and p corrected ?=?0.0029). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill. PMID:25015435
Naples, Adam J.; Chang, Joseph T.; Katz, Leonard; Grigorenko, Elena L.
This work’s objective was to offer additional insights into the psychological and genetic bases of reading ability and disability, and to evaluate the plausibility of a variety of psychological models of reading involving phonological awareness (PA) and rapid naming (RN), both hypothesized to be principal components in such models. In Study 1, 488 unselected families were assessed with measures of PA and RN to investigate familial aggregation and to obtain estimates of both the number and effect-magnitude of genetic loci involved in these traits’ transmission. The results of the analyses from Study 1 indicated the presence of genetic effects in the etiology of individual differences for PA and RN and pointed to both the shared and unique sources of this genetic variance, which appeared to be exerted by multiple (3–6 for PA and 3–5 for RN) genes. These results were used in Study 2 to parameterize a simulation of 3,000 families with quantitatively distributed PA and RN, so that the robustness and generalizability of the Study 1 findings could be evaluated. The findings of both studies were interpreted according to established theories of reading and our own understanding of the etiology of complex developmental disorders. PMID:19007845
Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…
Zhou, Yan-Ling; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Fong, Cathy Y.-C.; Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Cheung, Sum Kwing
Research Findings: In this study, 88 kindergartners received special training in lexical compounding, homophone awareness, or phonological awareness or were assigned to a control condition over a period of approximately 2 months, with 20-min lessons administered twice per week. Chinese word reading improved significantly more in the lexical…
Yeh, Li-Li; Wells, Bill; Stackhouse, Joy; Szczerbinski, Marcin
Two competing approaches to the analysis of the phonological structure of Mandarin syllables have been put forward. The first and more traditional approach is that a syllable can be segmented into initial consonant, medial glide, nucleus plus coda and tone. The second approach does not distinguish the non-compulsory medial glide as an independent element. To compare and evaluate these two different approaches, the development of phoneme-level awareness was investigated in 67 Mandarin-speaking children in Year 1 of school (mean age: 6;9) and Year 5 (mean age: 10;1). Results showed that at school entry some children were sensitive to glides and to a lesser extent to codas; their number increased by Year 5. This suggests that spoken language experience is enough for some children to acquire the representation of glides and codas; this is consistent with the traditional model of the Mandarin syllable, with both glides and codas as independent elements. However, the children's task performance was generally rather poor, even in Year 5, suggesting that development of phonemic sensitivity in Mandarin speaking children is not substantially improved by increased literacy experience. PMID:25651196
Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu
In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…
Royer, James M.; Abadzi, Helen; Kinda, Jules
This study compares the reading performance of adolescent and adult neoliterates in Burkina Faso who participated in one of three experimental educational programs with the reading performance of neoliterates who took part in a standard (control) educational program. The experimental programs involved training in phonological awareness, training in the rapid identification of reading material and an approach that involved both phonological-awareness and rapid-reading training. Results show that students enrolled in the experimental programs made greater gains in reading skills than did students enrolled in the standard educational programs.
Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen
The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…
Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…
Huang, Francis L.
The factor structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Grades 1 through 3 (PALS 1-3), a widely used early literacy screener in the Commonwealth of Virginia, was investigated using a large sample of public-school second-grade students (n = 14,993). Three alternative factor models (i.e., a one-factor, two-correlated factors, and a…
Cassano, Christina Marie
The present study used individual growth modeling to examine the role of specific forms (i.e., receptive, expressive, and definitional vocabulary and grammatical skill) and levels of oral vocabulary skill (i.e., 25th, 50th, or 75th percentile) in phonological awareness growth during the preschool and kindergarten years. Sixty-one,…
Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.
This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…
Dixon, L. Quentin
To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…
Annabella Dyer; Mairéad MacSweeney; Marçin Szczerbinski; Louise Green; Ruth Campbell
Deaf readers often fail to achieve age-appropriate reading lev- els. In hearing children, two cognitive factors correlated with reading delay are phonological awareness and decoding (PAD) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) of visual material. In this study we explored the contribution of these factors to reading and reading delay in a sample of deaf students (N = 49, mean age
Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method Preschoolers with SSD (n=43) participated in PA and speech sound production assessment. Errors from a 125-item picture naming task were coded in two ways: (1) considering all consonant errors equally (Percent Consonants Correct, PCC), and (2) using a three-category system that captures component features of sound errors: typical sound changes, atypical sound changes, and distortions. PA tasks included rhyme matching, onset matching, onset segmentation and matching, and blending. Results Variance in a PA composite score could be predicted partly by vocabulary and age (33%). Atypical sound changes accounted for an additional 6% of variance in PA, but distortions and typical errors did not account for significant variance. When the same consonant errors were analyzed using PCC, speech errors did not predict significant variance in PA. Conclusions Poorer PA is associated with lower receptive vocabularies and more atypical sound errors. Results are interpreted in the context of the accuracy of phonological representations. PMID:19717651
Crume, Peter K
The National Reading Panel emphasizes that spoken language phonological awareness (PA) developed at home and school can lead to improvements in reading performance in young children. However, research indicates that many deaf children are good readers even though they have limited spoken language PA. Is it possible that some deaf students benefit from teachers who promote sign language PA instead? The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine teachers' beliefs and instructional practices related to sign language PA. A thematic analysis is conducted on 10 participant interviews at an ASL/English bilingual school for the deaf to understand their views and instructional practices. The findings reveal that the participants had strong beliefs in developing students' structural knowledge of signs and used a variety of instructional strategies to build students' knowledge of sign structures in order to promote their language and literacy skills. PMID:23676530
Lefrancois, Pascale; Armand, Francoise
Explores the role of phonological and syntactic awareness of 9- to 11-year-old Spanish-speaking learners of French in four components of second-language reading. Finds (1) phonological tasks in L2 better explain decoding; (2) word recognition through the visual route is best explained by corresponding ability in L1; (3) sentence comprehension is…
Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.
Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384
Rebecca H. Felton; Idalyn S. Brown
Children at risk for reading disability were evaluated as kindergartners and again as first graders to determine (1) intercorrelations among phonological processing tasks and (2) the relationship of such tasks to word identification and word attack. With IQ controlled, there were no intercorrelations among measures of phonological awareness, phonetic recoding in working memory, and phonological recoding in lexical access. Thus,
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…
Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan
In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098
Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.
This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…
Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V.
Background: The effectiveness of two treatment approaches (phonological therapy and articulation therapy) for treatment of 14 children, aged 4;0-6;7 years, with phonologically based speech-sound disorder (SSD) has been previously analysed with severity outcome measures (percentage of consonants correct score, percentage occurrence of phonological…
This study investigated trajectories of Korean children's growth in the awareness of four phonological units--"syllable," "body," "rime" and "phoneme"--over time, by following a sample of 215 children over a period of 15 months, beginning at their first year of preschool and collecting four waves of data. Much of the existing research suggests…
Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi
Purpose: The current study investigated the effects of coaching as part of an emergent literacy professional development program to increase early childhood educators' use of verbal references to print and phonological awareness during interactions with children. Method: Thirty-one educators and 4 children from each of their classrooms (N = 121)…
Yang, Hui Chen
The problem. The Taiwanese educational system incorporated English classes into the third grade curriculum beginning in 2005, making English language education more and more important in Taiwan. The goals for implementing this English educational policy in elementary schools are for students to be able to comprehend letters, phonology, and…
Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost four years later. Method Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 and followed up at 8;3. The frequency of occurrence of preschool distortion errors, typical substitution and syllable structure errors, and atypical substitution and syllable structure errors were used to predict later speech sound production, PA, and literacy outcomes. Results Group averages revealed below-average school-age articulation scores and low-average PA, but age-appropriate reading and spelling. Preschool speech error patterns were related to school-age outcomes. Children for whom more than 10% of their speech sound errors were atypical had lower PA and literacy scores at school-age than children who produced fewer than 10% atypical errors. Preschoolers who produced more distortion errors were likely to have lower school-age articulation scores. Conclusions Different preschool speech error patterns predict different school-age clinical outcomes. Many atypical speech sound errors in preschool may be indicative of weak phonological representations, leading to long-term PA weaknesses. Preschool distortions may be resistant to change over time, leading to persisting speech sound production problems. PMID:23184137
Measuring Team Situation Awareness in Training of En Route Air Traffic Control METHOD & DATA;Measuring Team Situation Awareness in En Route Air Traffic Control. Appendix. Due to practical............................................................................................. 74 2 #12;Measuring Team Situation Awareness in En Route Air Traffic Control. Appendix. 1 Data
McNorgan, Chris; Randazzo-Wagner, Melissa; Booth, James R.
Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD) readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD), suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD) children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). For typically developing children, correlations between elision and neural activation were found for the cross-modal but not unimodal task, whereas in children with RD, no correlation was found. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty. PMID:23888137
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Phil D; Wong, Terry; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua
What are the longitudinal cognitive profiles of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific reading difficulties in Chinese only, in English only, or both? A total of 16 poor readers each of Chinese (PC) and English (PE) and 8 poor readers of both orthographies (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 16 children; all were drawn from a statistically representative sample of 154 Hong Kong Chinese children tested at ages 5 to 9 years. PE and PB children's mothers had lower education levels than did the other groups. With children's ages and mothers' education levels statistically controlled, the PE, PC, and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phonological awareness. The PB and PE groups also scored significantly lower than the others on English vocabulary across years, whereas the PC and PB groups were significantly poorer than the C and PE groups on morphological awareness across years. Finally, the PB group was significantly slower than the other groups on speed naming at every age tested, underscoring the potential importance of automaticity in reading across orthographies. Findings highlight the need to consider the issue of how to identify reading difficulties in a second language. PMID:21421936
Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.
Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and…
Morris, Sherrill R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal stability of 5 independent measures of phonological skill: phonetic inventory (initial, final), word shape, syllable structure level, and the index of phonetic complexity. Method: Ten toddlers with typical development participated in two 20-min play sessions within a 1-week period.…
Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah
Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul
Awareness is one of the most frequently measured construct by masters' students in education for their dissertation work. The author has observed that within the jurisdiction of his home university frequency of dissertations in education using "Awareness of" some social scientific or educational topic will be anywhere between 10 to…
Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert
This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…
This study examines a salient intrasyllabic phonological unit in Korean, the body-coda unit, its role in literacy skills in Korean, and a possible source of the salience of body-coda units in the spoken language. Data were collected from Korean-speaking, monolingual beginning readers (41 kindergarteners, 40 first graders). The results indicate…
Rebecca Blair; Robert Savage
This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4–5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name, identified correct names and EP words amongst foils and detected foil letters within EP and names. Results
Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.
Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…
George P. Tadda
Enabling situation awareness necessitates working with processes capable of identifying domain specific activities. This paper addresses metrics developed to assess research level systems and to measure their performance in providing those processes. The metrics fall into four dimensions; confidence, purity, cost utility, and timeliness. The bulk of the discussion will provide an overview of each of these dimensions, the anticipated
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.
Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…
Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze
Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…
Murphy, Cristina F B; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O; Wertzner, Haydée F; Schochat, Eliane
This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997
Ibrahim, Raphiq; Eviatar, Zohar; Aharon-Peretz, Judith
The study examined two questions: (1) do the greater phonological awareness skills of billinguals affect reading performance; (2) to what extent do the orthographic characteristics of a language influence reading performance and how does this interact with the effects of phonological awareness. We estimated phonological metalinguistic abilities and reading measures in three groups of first graders: monolingual Hebrew speakers, bilingual Russian-Hebrew speakers, and Arabic-speaking children. We found that language experience affects phonological awareness, as both Russian-Hebrew bilinguals and the Arabic speakers achieved higher scores on metalinguistic tests than Hebrew speakers. Orthography affected reading measures and their correlation with phonological abilitites. Children reading Hebrew showed better text reading ability and significant correlations between phonological awareness and reading scores. Children reading Arabic showed a slight advantage in single word and nonword reading over the two Hebrew reading groups, and very weak relationships between phonological abilities and reading performance. We conclude that native Arabic speakers have more difficulty in processing Arabic orthography than Hebrew monolinguals and bilinguals have in processing Hebrew orthography, and suggest that this is due to the additional visual complexity of Arabic orthography. PMID:17318435
Phonology, as it is practiced, is deeply computational. Phonological analysis\\u000ais data-intensive and the resulting models are nothing other than specialized\\u000adata structures and algorithms. In the past, phonological computation -\\u000amanaging data and developing analyses - was done manually with pencil and\\u000apaper. Increasingly, with the proliferation of affordable computers, IPA fonts\\u000aand drawing software, phonologists are seeking to
a battery of phonological tests and a test of reading ability each year between kindergarten and first grade. The test battery was concentrated on three areas of phonological skill: V awareness of phonological in working memory, and it paired tests of these abilities with non-linguistic tests that c
Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)
A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames Research Center, each pilot flew eight trials, four using SAGAT and four using performance measures. Each set of four trials differed by level of visibility as well. The flight paths were very similar in appearance and hazard number, allowing comparison between flight paths. The pilots were tasked with flying along a road at an assigned altitude and speed while avoiding any hazards that they happened upon. The attempt here was not to find a single best measure of SA, but rather to begin an investigation of the sensitivity of common measures of SA. Upon completion of this study, its results, in combination with future studies, should allow us to develop an empirically based taxonomy of SA measures and the contexts for their appropriate use.
Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel
We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…
Rebuschat, Patrick; Hamrick, Phillip; Riestenberg, Kate; Sachs, Rebecca; Ziegler, Nicole
Williams's (2005) study on "learning without awareness" and three subsequent extensions (Faretta-Stutenberg & Morgan-Short, 2011; Hama & Leow, 2010; Rebuschat, Hamrick, Sachs, Riestenberg, & Ziegler, 2013) have reported conflicting results, perhaps in part due to differences in how awareness has been measured. The present…
Carolyn Prince; Erica Ellis; Michael T. Brannick; Eduardo Salas
Two measurement methods for situation awareness were tested on 2-person aircrews and compared for the information they yielded on team situation awareness. Forty-one crews of low experience level military aviators flew 2 different scenarios, 1 in a full-mission simulator, a 1 in a low-fidelity trainer. Team situation awareness was measured by instructor and observers in the high-fidelity simulator scenario and
Araújo, Susana; Pacheco, Andreia; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra
One implication of the double-deficit hypothesis for dyslexia is that there should be subtypes of dyslexic readers that exhibit rapid naming deficits with or without concomitant phonological processing problems. In the current study, we investigated the validity of this hypothesis for Portuguese orthography, which is more consistent than English orthography, by exploring different cognitive profiles in a sample of dyslexic children. In particular, we were interested in identifying readers characterized by a pure rapid automatized naming deficit. We also examined whether rapid naming and phonological awareness independently account for individual differences in reading performance. We characterized the performance of dyslexic readers and a control group of normal readers matched for age on reading, visual rapid naming and phonological processing tasks. Our results suggest that there is a subgroup of dyslexic readers with intact phonological processing capacity (in terms of both accuracy and speed measures) but poor rapid naming skills. We also provide evidence for an independent association between rapid naming and reading competence in the dyslexic sample, when the effect of phonological skills was controlled. Altogether, the results are more consistent with the view that rapid naming problems in dyslexia represent a second core deficit rather than an exclusive phonological explanation for the rapid naming deficits. Furthermore, additional non-phonological processes, which subserve rapid naming performance, contribute independently to reading development. PMID:22044084
Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol
In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal IQ, school environment, and parental educational level. Psychophysical thresholds were estimated for gap-detection, frequency modulation detection, and tone-in-noise detection using a three-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase paradigm embedded within a computer game. Phonological skills were measured by tasks assessing phonological awareness, rapid serial naming, and verbal short-term memory. Significant group differences were found for phonological awareness and letter knowledge. In contrast, none of the auditory tasks differentiated significantly between both groups. However, both frequency modulation and tone-in-noise detection were significantly related to phonological awareness. This relation with phonological skills was not present for gap-detection. PMID:16112723
Metalinguistic awareness skills (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness) contribute to children’s spelling as well as reading. Although the multidimensional nature of these metalinguistic awareness skills has...
Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers; Hugo Quené
This paper investigates phonological recursion by means of early accent placement (stress shift), which marks the initial boundary of a phonological phrase. The question is whether or not this early pitch accent placement can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. This was investigated in a map task experiment, with various Dutch phonological phrases
Savage, Robert S.; Frederickson, Norah; Goodwin, Roz; Patni, Ulla; Smith, Nicola; Tuersley, Louise
In this article, we explore the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and other cognitive processes among below-average, average, and above-average readers and spellers. Nonsense word reading, phonological awareness, RAN, automaticity of balance, speech perception, and verbal short-term and working memory were measured. Factor…
Wolf E. Mehling; Viranjini Gopisetty; Jennifer Daubenmier; Cynthia J. Price; Frederick M. Hecht; Anita Stewart; Antonio Verdejo García
ObjectivesHeightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.Data sourcesPubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Review methodsAbstracts were screened;
Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.
Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.
The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062
Chris Berka; Daniel J. Levendowski; Gene Davis; Melissa Whitmoyer; Kelly Hale; Sven Fuchs
A key aspect within net-centric warfare is situational awareness (SA), where operators consolidate data into an understanding of 'the big picture' that dynamically updates as the situation changes. While many measures of SA exist, including explicit, implicit, and subjective measures, none of these metrics support the dynamic, real-time assessment of cognitive processes associated with SA. Instead, they rely on behavioral
Fracker, Martin L.
Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.
Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.
This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739
Mikulec, Dominique Miro
A survey designed to measure student awareness of library-based career information sources was conducted in general studies classes at Cuyahoga Community College (Ohio). The student population represented traditional freshmen and adult students looking for personal or career development. The response rate (94.7%) was excellent, with 31 classes…
White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina
Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956
Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia
Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…
Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze
It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal…
Mary Claessen; Suze Leitão
It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal response. This article describes the performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n
Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B
Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919
The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…
Sela, Itamar; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Onaral, Banu
Data indicated that dyslexic individuals exhibited difficulties on tasks involving Working Memory (WM). Previous studies have suggested that these deficits stem from impaired processing in the Phonological Loop (PL). The PL impairment was connected to poor phonological processing. However, recent data has pointed to the Central Executive (CE) system as another source of WM deficit in dyslexic readers. This opened a debate whether the WM deficit stems solely from PL or can also be seen as an outcome of poor CE processing. In an attempt to verify this question, the current study compared adult skilled and compensated dyslexic readers with no impairment of phonological skills. The participants’ PL and CE processing were tested by using the fNIR device attached to the frontal lobe and measured the changes in brain oxygen values when performing N-back task. As it was previously suggested, the N?=?0 represented PL and N?=?1 to 3 represent CE processing. It was hypothesized that dyslexic readers who show non-impaired phonological skills will exhibit deficits mainly in the CE subsystem and to a lesser extent in the PL. Results indicated that the two reading level groups did not differ in their accuracy and reaction times in any of the N-Back conditions. However, the dyslexic readers demonstrated significant lower maximum oxyHb values in the upper left frontal lobe, mainly caused due to a significant lower activity under the N?=?1 condition. Significant task effects were found in the medial left hemisphere, and the high medial right hemisphere. In addition, significant correlations between fNIR-features, reading performance and speed of processing were found. The higher oxyHb values, the better reading and speed of processing performance obtained. The results of the current study support the hypothesis that at least for the group of dyslexics with non-impaired PL, WM deficit stems from poor CE activity. PMID:23152750
Myers, Suzanne; K Robertson, Erin
The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N [Formula: see text] 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225
Kitz, William R.; Tarver, Sara G.
Ten college-aged dyslexic students performed significantly poorer than 10 controls on 2 measures of phonemic awareness: reading of nonsense words, and a phoneme reversal task. Results suggest that, although the dyslexic subjects had improved their reading skills, a deficit remained in their ability to process phonological information quickly and…
Helmstetter, Fred J.
Using eye movement and pupil dilation measures to examine the role of awareness in fear-Milwaukee, WI, USA Medical College of Wisconsin, WI, USA Abstract The role of explicit contingency awareness is independent of awareness (Balderston et al., 2010; Knight et al., 2009; Schultz et al., 2010). However, other
Helmstetter, Fred J.
Using eye movement and pupil dilation measures to examine the role of awareness in fear Background The role of explicit contingency awareness in fear conditioning is a topic of considerable debate. Several experiments suggest that CR expression is independent of awareness (Balderston et al., 2010
Galluzzi, Claudia; Bureca, Ivana; Guariglia, Cecilia; Romani, Cristina
Research on aphasia has struggled to identify apraxia of speech (AoS) as an independent deficit affecting a processing level separate from phonological assembly and motor implementation. This is because AoS is characterized by both phonological and phonetic errors and, therefore, can be interpreted as a combination of deficits at the phonological and the motoric level rather than as an independent impairment. We apply novel psycholinguistic analyses to the perceptually phonological errors made by 24 Italian aphasic patients. We show that only patients with relative high rate (>10%) of phonetic errors make sound errors which simplify the phonology of the target. Moreover, simplifications are strongly associated with other variables indicative of articulatory difficulties - such as a predominance of errors on consonants rather than vowels - but not with other measures - such as rate of words reproduced correctly or rates of lexical errors. These results indicate that sound errors cannot arise at a single phonological level because they are different in different patients. Instead, different patterns: (1) provide evidence for separate impairments and the existence of a level of articulatory planning/programming intermediate between phonological selection and motor implementation; (2) validate AoS as an independent impairment at this level, characterized by phonetic errors and phonological simplifications; (3) support the claim that linguistic principles of complexity have an articulatory basis since they only apply in patients with associated articulatory difficulties. PMID:25772602
Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn
Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios
Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…
De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel
While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present hypothesis that there exists a highly specific association between phonological awareness and single-digit arithmetic with relatively small problem sizes. The present study examined this association in 37 typically developing fourth and fifth grade children. Regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was specifically and uniquely related to arithmetic problems with a small but not large problem size. Further analysis indicated that problems with a high probability of being solved by retrieval, but not those typically associated with procedural problem-solving strategies, are correlated with phonological awareness. The specific association between phonological awareness and arithmetic problems with a small problem size and those for which a retrieval strategy is most common was maintained even after controlling for general reading ability and phonological short-term memory. The present findings indicate that the quality of children's long-term phonological representations mediates individual differences in single-digit arithmetic, suggesting that more distinct long-term phonological representations are related to more efficient arithmetic fact retrieval. PMID:20443971
Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.
This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…
Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K.
The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ("Elision") and pSTM ("Nonword Repetition") from the…
Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers
In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview
Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos
Background ‘Self-objectification’ is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. Conclusions/Significance We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders. PMID:23405173
Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi
Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613
Colin, S.; Magnan, A.; Ecalle, J.; Leybaert, J.
Background: The aim of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine whether phonological skills measured in deaf prereaders predict their later phonological and reading skills after one year of reading instruction as is the case for hearing children; 2) to examine whether the age of exposure to a fully specified phonological input such as Cued…
Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moura, Ricardo; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Haase, Vitor G.; Wood, Guilherme
Although verbal and numerical abilities have a well-established interaction, the impact of phonological processing on numeric abilities remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of phonemic awareness in number processing and to explore its association with other functions such as working memory and magnitude processing. One hundred seventy-two children in 2nd grade to 4th grade were evaluated in terms of their intelligence, number transcoding, phonemic awareness, verbal and visuospatial working memory and number sense (non-symbolic magnitude comparison) performance. All of the children had normal intelligence. Among these measurements of magnitude processing, working memory and phonemic awareness, only the last was retained in regression and path models predicting transcoding ability. Phonemic awareness mediated the influence of verbal working memory on number transcoding. The evidence suggests that phonemic awareness significantly affects number transcoding. Such an association is robust and should be considered in cognitive models of both dyslexia and dyscalculia. PMID:24478744
Mahon, Bradford Z.
performance on prime awareness measures for Experiment 1. Here we present the individual percent correct performance scores obtained for the prime awareness tasks, for Experiment 1a and 1b. In Experiment 1a, we the experiment proper and the prime awareness task. Percent correct performance on the prime awareness task
Feehan, Angela; Francis, Charmaine; Bernhardt, B. May; Colozzo, Paola
Two 6-year-old male fraternal twins each received 8 weeks of morphosyntactic and phonological intervention in counterbalanced order. Progress occurred for most targets and measures, with each child making greater progress for either phonology or morphosyntax during the corresponding unitary-domain block. Gains were maintained during the subsequent…
Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol
Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological…
Saygin, Zeynep M.
Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these ...
Apel, Kenn; Diehm, Emily; Apel, Lynda
Purpose: Morphological awareness refers to the ability to consider and manipulate consciously the smallest units of meaning in language. In previous studies investigating students' morphological awareness, no consistent task has been used to measure this skill across grade levels and comparisons among studies have been based on tasks, which…
The measurement of "consumer awareness" in health promotion campaigns is discussed. Seven effectiveness evaluations are reviewed. Problem areas, including interpretation of differently phrased awareness questions and response bias, are discussed. Recommendations for overcoming common problems are made, and an open discussion based on practical…
Analysis of the phonological influence of English on Yoruba found such influences as violation of phonotactic constraints, assimilation of English sounds with those of Yoruba sounds, irregular phoneme correspondences, and resistance to new syllable types. (19 references) (Author/CB)
Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Sligh, Allison C.; Atwell, Julie A.; Kiser, Tanya
Twenty children with mental retardation (MR), age 7-12, completed a phonological reading skills program over approximately 10 weeks. As a result of the instruction, they were better able to sound out learned and transfer words compared to a control group matched on age, IQ, nonword reading, language comprehension, and phonemic awareness. Final…
Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604
Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604
Winget, Cheryl McCowan
When considering the most discernible indicator of dyslexia, most researchers have agreed that phonological awareness is perhaps the most pertinent sign (Gillon, 2004; Hallahan & Kauffman, 2006; Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2003). However, is this true in languages other than English? How does orthography affect phonological…
Tenney, Yvette J.; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Pew, Richard W.; Huggins, A. W. F.; Rogers, William H.
The issue of how to support situation awareness among crews of modern commercial aircraft is becoming especially important with the introduction of automation in the form of sophisticated flight management computers and expert systems designed to assist the crew. In this paper, cognitive theories are discussed that have relevance for the definition and measurement of situation awareness. These theories suggest that comprehension of the flow of events is an active process that is limited by the modularity of attention and memory constraints, but can be enhanced by expert knowledge and strategies. Three implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situation awareness are considered: (1) Scenario variations are proposed that tax awareness by placing demands on attention; (2) Experimental tasks and probes are described for assessing the cognitive processes that underlie situation awareness; and (3) The use of computer-based human performance models to augment the measures of situation awareness derived from performance data is explored. Finally, two potential example applications of the proposed assessment techniques are described, one concerning spatial awareness using wide field of view displays and the other emphasizing fault management in aircraft systems.
Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.
Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364
Majerus, S.; Van der Linden, M.; Collette, F.; Laureys, S.; Poncelet, M.; Degueldre, C.; Delfiore, G.; Luxen, A.; Salmon, E.
We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased…
Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris
This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…
Cutting, James E.
Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)
Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.
There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument was conceptualized. This paper is a progress report of the instrument development process. Version 1 of the instrument was administered to 335 first-year students majoring in food and agriculture fields in a pre-post fashion relative to a brief exposure to nanotechnology in the classroom. Following item analysis of Version 1 responses, a revision of the instrument was completed. Version 2 was administered to 1,426 first-year engineering students for the purpose of conducting item and factor analyses. Results indicate that the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument shows potential to provide valid information about student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. The instrument is not a valid measure of nano-knowledge and this subscale was dropped from the final version of the instrument. Implications include the use of the instrument to evaluate programs, interventions, or courses that attempt to increase student awareness of nanotechnology. Further study is necessary to determine how the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument functions as a pre-post measure.
Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong
Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…
Walker, Joanne; Hauerwas, Laura Boynton
This study was designed to simultaneously investigate the influence of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness skills on the ability to spell inflected verbs in structured spelling tasks. Children in grades 1, 2, and 3 (n = 103) spelled inflected past and progressive tense verbs and completed awareness tasks. Developmental changes…
Jennifer M. Riley; David B. Kaber; John V. Draper
This study assessed the utility of measures of situation awareness (SA) and attention allocation for quantifying telepresence, the sense of being present at a remote site, in a teleoperation task sce- nario. Attention and SA have been identified as cognitive constructs potentially underlying tele- presence. The motivation for this research was to establish an objective measure of telepresence and investigate
Simon, Alice E; Forbes, Lindsay J L; Boniface, David; Warburton, Fiona; Brain, Kate E; Dessaix, Anita; Donnelly, Michael; Haynes, Kerry; Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Petermann, Lisa; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter; Vigmostad, Maria Nyre; Wardle, Jane; Ramirez, Amanda J
Objectives To develop an internationally validated measure of cancer awareness and beliefs; the awareness and beliefs about cancer (ABC) measure. Design and setting Items modified from existing measures were assessed by a working group in six countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK). Validation studies were completed in the UK, and cross-sectional surveys of the general population were carried out in the six participating countries. Participants Testing in UK English included cognitive interviewing for face validity (N=10), calculation of content validity indexes (six assessors), and assessment of test–retest reliability (N=97). Conceptual and cultural equivalence of modified (Canadian and Australian) and translated (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Canadian French) ABC versions were tested quantitatively for equivalence of meaning (?4 assessors per country) and in bilingual cognitive interviews (three interviews per translation). Response patterns were assessed in surveys of adults aged 50+ years (N?2000) in each country. Main outcomes Psychometric properties were evaluated through tests of validity and reliability, conceptual and cultural equivalence and systematic item analysis. Test–retest reliability used weighted-? and intraclass correlations. Construction and validation of aggregate scores was by factor analysis for (1) beliefs about cancer outcomes, (2) beliefs about barriers to symptomatic presentation, and item summation for (3) awareness of cancer symptoms and (4) awareness of cancer risk factors. Results The English ABC had acceptable test–retest reliability and content validity. International assessments of equivalence identified a small number of items where wording needed adjustment. Survey response patterns showed that items performed well in terms of difficulty and discrimination across countries except for awareness of cancer outcomes in Australia. Aggregate scores had consistent factor structures across countries. Conclusions The ABC is a reliable and valid international measure of cancer awareness and beliefs. The methods used to validate and harmonise the ABC may serve as a methodological guide in international survey research. PMID:23253874
Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Nieplocha, Jarek; Nguyen, Tony B.
Lack of situational awareness has been identified as one of root causes for the August 14, 2003 Northeast Blackout in North America. To improve situational awareness, the Department of Energy (DOE) launched several projects to deploy Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) in different interconnections. Compared to the tens of thousands of buses, the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) is quite limited and not enough to achieve the observability for the whole interconnections. To utilize the limited number of PMU measurements to improve situational awareness, this paper proposes to combine PMU measurement data and power flow equations to form a hybrid power flow model. Technically, a model which combines the concept of observable islands and modeling of power flow conditions, is proposed. The model is called a Hybrid Power Flow Model as it has both PMU measurements and simulation assumptions, which describes prior knowledge available about whole power systems. By solving the hybrid power flow equations, the proposed method can be used to derive power system states to improve the situational awareness of a power grid.
Woods, Carol S.
Offers strategies for preparing children for literacy in the early Montessori classroom through emphasis on phonemic awareness. Specifically addresses activities to develop phonological and phonemic awareness including song, the alphabet, rhyming activities, "I spy" games, word games, and word segmentation. Presents a case study in support of…
Vallino, Joseph J.
DETERMINING SULFIDE CONCENTRATIONS In measuring the sulfide concentrations in our Winogradsky columns, be aware that hydrogen sulfide is quite volatile and readily oxidized. The zinc acetate, to which the sample is added, is reduced to zinc sulfide by H2S, which is more stable in the presence of oxygen. We
M. Roggemann; D. Douglas; E. Therkildsen; D. Archambeault; R. Maeda; D. Schultz; B. Wheeler
An operational technology for imaging satellites during the daytime hours would vastly increase the ability of optical space situational awareness (SSA) systems to gather information about satellites. During the day the atmospheric seeing is generally worse than in terminator, and the contribution of sky background noise to the image measurement is significant. We have developed a straightforward model for estimating
Anderson, Wandarah; Hayashi, Reiko; Frost, Caren J.
The Dual Perspective Inventory was implemented to measure the diversity awareness of first-year MSW students at a university in the western U.S. Data were collected at the beginning of the first semester from students who enrolled in a course on diversity, and again at the end of the semester when the students were about to complete the course.…
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
THIS STUDY OF THE CANTONESE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM IS A CASE STUDY OF THE PHONOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF A GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. ATTEMPTS ARE MADE IN CHAPTER III TO SOLVE SOME OLD PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH THE ANALYSIS OF CANTONESE WITHIN THIS NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. MOST OF THE PROBLEMS ARE PSEUDO-PROBLEMS, IN THE SENSE THAT THEY POSE DIFFICULTIES ONLY…
Roon, Kevin D.
This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…
The paper focuses on an unexplored area of metalinguistic awareness in the acquisition of third language (L3) phonology, hereafter referred to as metaphonological awareness. It addresses the role of attention and noticing in input processing. The contribution constitutes a part of a larger scale project on metaphonological awareness in various…
Blackmore, A. M.; Pratt, Chris
Used a one-year longitudinal study to examine the extent to which grammatical awareness in preschool predicted reading independently of preschool general verbal skills, phonological awareness, and word recognition. Found that, independently of other skills, grammatical awareness predicted word recognition and pseudoword recoding, but not reading…
Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D
Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955
Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao
In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657
Petersen, Douglas B.
This study investigated the validity of measures that were hypothesized to account for significant variance in English reading ability. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Hispanic children completed letter identification, English and Spanish phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition static assessment tasks. They also…
Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.
These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…
Goldstein, Brian; Iglesias, Aquiles
The Assessment of Phonological Disabilities measure was administered to 39 normally developing children and 10 speech-delayed children who were Spanish speaking, of Puerto Rican descent, and ranging in age from 3 to 4. Data were analyzed by comparing phonological processes against the "standard referent" and the "Puerto Rican referent." The…
Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca
Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…
80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar
Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar
Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850
Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda
Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…
Boada, Richard; Pennington, Bruce F.
This study tested the segmentation hypothesis of dyslexia by measuring implicit phonological representations in reading-disabled 11- to 13-year-olds. Implicit measures included lexical gating, priming, and syllable similarity tasks designed to reduce metalinguistic demands. Children with dyslexia performed consistently worse than CA and RA…
Three experiments were undertaken to examine second and fifth grade Telugu-speaking children's awareness of phonological and orthographic properties of familiar Telugu words. Experiment 1 focused on the strategies the children used in completing word fragments. Experiment 2 examined the children's ability to judge and generate rhyming words, and…
Goswami, Usha; Gerson, Danielle; Astruc, Luisa
Here we explore relations between auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, prosodic sensitivity, and phonological awareness in a sample of 56 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We examine whether rise time sensitivity is linked to prosodic sensitivity, and whether prosodic sensitivity is linked to…
Savage, Robert; Blair, Rebecca; Rvachew, Susan
This article explores young children's facility in phonological awareness tasks requiring either the detection or the articulation of head, coda, onset, and rime subsyllabic units shared in word pairs. Data are reported from 70 nonreading children and 21 precocious readers attending preschools. Prereading children were able to articulate shared…
Robert Savage; Rebecca Blair; Susan Rvachew
This article explores young children’s facility in phonological awareness tasks requiring either the detection or the articulation of head, coda, onset, and rime subsyllabic units shared in word pairs. Data are reported from 70 nonreading children and 21 precocious readers attending preschools. Prereading children were able to articulate shared heads, codas, and onsets, although rimes rarely were articulated. Precocious readers
Problem statement: Developmental Dyslexia (DD) or Reading Disability (RD) that was part of a larger heterogeneous group of learning di sorders and characterized by unexpected problems in academic performance, despite average intelligence. Approach: Current opinions on the biological basis of dyslexia pointed to problems with phonolog ical processing deficits with resulting poor phonemic awareness. Though there was much support for
Hooper, Joan Bybee
Supplements Hans Basboll's state-of-the-art report on generative phonology (EJ 227 659), focusing on "abstract" v "concrete" approaches to surface data. Includes a summary of a discussion on phonology. (RL)
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors
Bach, Silvia; Brandeis, Daniel; Hofstetter, Christoph; Martin, Ernst; Richardson, Ulla; Brem, Silvia
Phonological awareness refers to the ability to perceive and manipulate the sound structure of language and is especially important when children learn to read. Poor phonological awareness is considered the major cause for the emergence of reading difficulties. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the brain correlates of phonological processing in young beginning readers (aged 8.3+/-0.4 y, 2nd grade) with poor (<25th percentile) or normal, age-appropriate reading skills (>40th percentile) using a covert reading and mental letter substitution task. Letter substitution in words and nonwords induced pronounced activity in a left frontal language network related to phonological processing, with maxima in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the insula. The activation within this frontal network increased with better reading skills and differentiated between normal and poor reading young children. Lateralization indices of overall frontal activity for normal and poor readers pointed to stronger left hemispheric involvement in normal readers as compared to the more bilateral activation pattern in poor readers. To summarize, young children with age-appropriate reading skills display a left hemispheric dominance characteristic for language processing already by grade two. The more bilateral activation pattern in poor readers points to an increased effort and the emergence of compensatory strategies for reading and phonological processing just 1.5 years after the start of formal reading instruction. PMID:20600985
Zhu, Xuebing; Damian, Markus F; Zhang, Qingfang
How is information transmitted across semantic and phonological levels in spoken word production? Recent evidence from speakers of Western languages such as English and Dutch suggests non-discrete transmission, but it is not clear whether this view can be generalized to other languages such as Mandarin, given potential differences in phonological encoding across languages. The present study used Mandarin speakers and combined a behavioral picture-word interference task with event-related potentials. The design factorially crossed semantic and phonological relatedness. Results showed semantic and phonological effects both in behavioral and electrophysiological measurements, with statistical additivity in latencies, and discrete time signatures (250-450ms and 450-600ms after picture onset for the semantic and phonological condition, respectively). Overall, results suggest that in Mandarin spoken production, information is transmitted from semantic to phonological levels in a sequential fashion. Hence, temporal signatures associated with spoken word production might differ depending on target language. PMID:25880902
Defior, Sylvia; Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Cano-Marin, Maria Jose
There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and…
Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.
The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.
Ball, Martin J
It is noted that much previous work in phonology has attempted to provide economical theories of sound systems without explicitly attempting to provide theories that have psycholinguistic validity. The work of Bybee on a cognitive approach to phonology is described, and its possible application to disordered speech is considered. It is discussed that cognitive phonology, coupled with gestural phonology, provides descriptive as well as explanatory accounts of disordered speech, and has specific implications for approaches to therapy. The article concludes with a case study of child with severely unintelligible speech, where it seems that the insights of cognitive phonology provide both an explanation for and a description of her speech behaviors. PMID:14582829
McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.
This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…
Pufpaff, Lisa A.
Children with little or no functional speech are at risk for literacy acquisition. Assessment of early literacy skills is particularly challenging among this population due to the need for children to provide a spoken response to tasks. This study explored the effects of adapted response modes on measures of phonological sensitivity. Assessment…
80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages
Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya
Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…
Marshall, Chloë; Rowley, Katherine; Atkinson, Joanna
We used fluency tasks to investigate lexical organisation in Deaf adults who use British sign language (BSL). The number of responses produced to semantic categories did not differ from reports in spoken languages. However, there was considerable variability in the number of responses across phonological categories, and some signers had difficulty retrieving items. Responses were richly clustered according to semantic and/or phonological properties. With respect to phonology, there was significantly more clustering around the parameters "handshape" and "location" compared to "movement". We conclude that the BSL lexicon is organised in similar ways to the lexicons of spoken languages, but that lexical retrieval is characterised by strong links between semantics and phonology; movement is less readily retrieved than handshape and location; and phonological fluency is difficult for signers because they have little metaphonological awareness in BSL and because signs do not display the onset salience that characterises spoken words. PMID:24043510
Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda
Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641
Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse
The present study is the first part of a longitudinal research project investigating whether children become more aware of phonemes or rhyming when they learn letters or letter sounds or even begin to read, and if so how. For the present paper, the phonological awareness of young children aged 2-6 years was analyzed, particularly their auditory…
Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C
Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dId?/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dId?/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PMID:23647379
McAllister, Tara Kathleen
Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...
Logan, Jessica; Petrill, Stephen A.; Flax, Judy; Justice, Laura M.; Hou, Liping; Bassett, Anne S.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M.
Specific language impairment is a developmental language disorder characterized by failure to develop language normally in the absence of a specific cause. Previous twin studies have documented the heritability of reading and language measures as well as the genetic correlation between those measures. This paper presents results from an alternative to the classical twin designs by estimating heritability from extended pedigrees. These pedigrees were previously studied as part of series of molecular genetic studies of specific language impairment where the strongest genetic findings were with reading phenotypes rather than language despite selecting pedigrees based on language impairments. To explore the relationship between reading and language in these pedigrees, variance components estimates of heritability of reading and language measures were conducted showing general agreement with the twin literature, as were genetics correlations between reading and language. Phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness and auditory processing were evaluated as candidate mediators of the reading-language genetic correlations. Only phonological awareness showed significant genetic correlations with all reading measures and several language measures while phonological short-term memory and auditory processing did not. PMID:21193955
Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Hewitt, Lynne E.; Brackenbury, Tim
This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing. Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological…
Pascale G. Quester
In a study of the Adelaide Formula One Grand Prix, a number of hypotheses relating to corporate objectives and management practices as well as consumers' perceptions of sponsors were tested. The results from a corporate survey and a three-wave consumer survey showed that, as expected, sponsors rated awareness objectives highly but that they often failed to measure performance on this
Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.
There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…
Many researchers believe that a connection exists between phonological processing skills and reading ability, and phonological deficits have often been cited as possible explanation for reading disability among both children and adults. This study will present research findings on phonological processing of various speech sounds among school-aged children who were classified as good and poor readers by standardized tests. These subjects will be administered speech discrimination tests using a variety of speech stimuli. Results of their performance on these tasks will be presented and a relationship between their reading and phonological processing abilities will be discussed.
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121
Lane, Richard D; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Locke, Dona E C; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Stonnington, Cynthia M
The goal of this study was to determine whether alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty in recognizing and describing emotions, is associated with impairments in the ability to mentally represent emotional states. We studied 89 outpatients including 29 conversion disorder patients, 30 functional somatic syndrome [e.g. fibromyalgia] patients and 30 medical controls. Groups did not differ on affective or cognitive Theory of Mind (ToM) measures, the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) or the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) after adjusting for Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) variables. Across all patients, LEAS but not TAS-20 correlated positively with affective and cognitive ToM measures after adjusting for PANAS scores. Impairments in ToM functioning influence LEAS performance but not TAS-20 scores. These findings support the distinction between a milder "anomia" form of alexithymia associated with impaired emotion naming and a more severe "agnosia" form associated with impaired mental representation of emotion. PMID:25766906
Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…
Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret; Caravolas, Marketa; Carroll, Julia
Castles and Coltheart (2004) argued that the causal link between children's underlying phonological awareness and success in learning to read remains unproven. We argue that the balance of evidence does favor such a causal link. We also argue, however, that learning to read depends on broader language skills and that, like other aspects of…
Lopez, Lisa M.
The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…
Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz
Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138
Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies. PMID:23289791
Freund, Louis E.; Knapp, Benjamin
This project got underway without funding approved during the summer of 1998. The initial project steps were to identify previously published work in the fields of error classification systems, physiological measurements of awareness, and related topics. This agenda was modified at the request of NASA Ames in August, 1998 to include supporting the new Cargo Air Association (CAA) evaluation of the Human Factors related to the ADS-B technology. Additional funding was promised to fully support both efforts. Work on library research ended in the late Fall, 1998 when the SJSU project directors were informed that NASA would not be adding to the initial funding of the research project as had been initially committed. However, NASA did provide additional funding for the CAA project activity. NASA elected to leave the research grant in place to provide a pathway for the CAA project funding to SJSU (San Jose State University) to support Dr. Freund's work on the CAA tasks. Dr. Knapp essentially terminated his involvement with the project at this time.
Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.
The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological…
Key, Michael Parrish
This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…
Schachter, Paul; Fromkin, Victoria
In this preliminary report the authors compare a part of the phonological systems of Akuapem, Asante, and Fante--the major dialects of Akan. The comparison reveals the features common to all three dialects as well as the features which distinguish the dialects from one another. The description of the phonological systems of these dialects is…
This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…
Analyzes three recent models of phonological representation (underspecification theory, autosegmental spreading of features, and feature hierarchy), focusing on such diachronic and synchronic issues of Spanish phonology as the rule of voicing of voiceless obstruents, vowel raising cum desyllabification, homorganic nasal/lateral assimilation, and…
Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn
This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…
Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin
In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…
Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz
The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…
Tina Schäffler; Juliane Sonntag; Klaus Hartnegg; Burkhart Fischer
Phonological awareness is believe dt o play am ajor role in the auditory contribution to spelling skills. The previous paper reports low-level auditory deficits in five different subdomains in 33-70% of the dyslexics. The first study of this paper reports the results of an attempt to improve low-level auditory skills by systematic daily practice of those tasks that had not
Hall, Kathleen Currie
This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…
Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.
People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al (2002) reported a successful treatment for phonologic alexia that paired problematic functors and verbs with easily read relays that were homophonous nouns (e.g. "be" paired with "bee"). The current study evaluates the efficacy of pairing problematic grammatical words with relays that share initial phonemes, but vary in the relationship of their final phonemes. Results showed that reading of target grammatical words improved to criterion level (90% accuracy over two consecutive probes) in all experimental conditions with shared phonology, but remained far below criterion level in control conditions. There was a significant correlation between degree of phonologic relatedness and error rate. Maintenance of the treatment effect was poor as assessed by traditional measurement, however a dramatic savings during relearning was demonstrated during a subsequent treatment phase. The finding that reading can be re-organized by pairing target words not only with homophones, but with other phonologically related relays, suggests that this approach could be applied to a wide corpus of words and, therefore, potentially be of great use clinically. We suggest, within a connectionist account, that the treatment effect results from relays priming the initial phonologic units of the targets. PMID:18513760
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie
Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709
Dandache, Sophie; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol
The main focus of this article is to develop a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of literacy and phonological skills within Dutch-speaking children. Children at high and low risk for dyslexia were followed and compared at four different moments: kindergarten and first, third and sixth grades. Three groups were then compared: (1) dyslexic readers; (2) normal readers at high risk for dyslexia; and (3) normal readers at low risk for dyslexia. Children diagnosed with dyslexia scored lower than high-risk normal readers on phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory and literacy skills. Normal readers at high risk scored between both groups, confirming that dyslexia is to be considered as a continuum rather than an all-or-none condition. Growth analyses showed that the three groups evolved similarly on all measures except for phoneme deletion and literacy measures. Finally, solely PA and RAN explained a significant amount of variance in the evolution of reading skills. PMID:25257672
Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Hewitt, Lynne E; Brackenbury, Tim
This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing. Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological memory), rhyming and phoneme alliteration tasks (to investigate phonological sensitivity), and an incidental word learning task (via a computer-based presentation of a cartoon story). A multiple regression analysis revealed that nonword repetition scores did not contribute significantly to incidental word learning. Phonological sensitivity scores were significant predictors of incidental word learning. These findings provide support for a model of lexical acquisition in which phonological knowledge plays an important role. PMID:20872250
Moritz, Catherine; Yampolsky, Sasha; Papadelis, Georgios; Thomson, Jennifer; Wolf, Maryanne
A small number of studies show that music training is associated with improvements in reading or in its component skills. A central question underlying this present research is whether musical activity can enhance the acquisition of reading skill, potentially before formal reading instruction begins. We explored two dimensions of this question: an…
Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson
This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…
Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M-Y.
This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically…
Wolter, Julie A.; Green, Laura
This article highlights the clinical application of morphological awareness intervention to facilitate phonological, vocabulary, reading, and spelling success in children with language and literacy deficits. First, the research-based benefits of morphological awareness instruction are reviewed and current theoretical and research-based…
Anesthesia Awareness Very rarely – in only one or two out of every 10,000 medical procedures involving anesthesia – a patient may become aware or conscious. The condition – called anesthesia awareness – means the patient can recall the surroundings ...
Jeon, Eun Hee
This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…
Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W
This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...
Albro, Daniel M.
This report describes a computational system with which phonologists may describe a natural language in terms of autosegmental phonology, currently the most advanced theory pertaining to the sound systems of human ...
Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound ... with individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as ...
Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)
Siew, Cynthia S. Q.
Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735
Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J
The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., “ROBIN-nest”), phonologically related (e.g., “BELL-belt”), unrelated (e.g., “KITE-lobster”), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., “FRIDGE-fridge”). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16767767
King, Simon; Taylor, Paul
We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experimentson three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern ...
of Thok Reel phonetics, phonology and morphophonology. The description follows the topics on word and syllable structure, consonants, vowels, and tone. Each section accounts for the phonological distinctions and provides the phonetic description...
effects of priming and of SOA. There was also a significant three-way interaction between orthographic and phonological neighborhood size and relatedness, whereby, in the related condition, words from both a small orthographic and a small phonological...
Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith
Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045
In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously in the definition of the set of features used to describe phonological processes. The Jakobsonian statement of distinctive feature theory in the 1952 caused a paradigm shift in the relations between phonetics and phonology. Changes
The author investigated the role of phonological neighborhood on visual word recognition. Using a lexical decision task, the author showed in Experiment 1 that words with large phonological neighborhoods were processed more rapidly than those with smaller phonological neighborhoods. This facilitative effect was obtained even when the nonword…
Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim
Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…
Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological…
Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun
The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…
States that the combination of analogous problem-solving ability and phonological awareness, in the absence of extensive reading experience, may be necessary for successfully using orthographic analogies. Seventy children of limited reading experience and ability were assessed on phonemic awareness and the ability to make visual and orthographic…
Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.
Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon
The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…
Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Cleuren, Leen; Vandewalle, Ellen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol
This longitudinal study examined the development of phonology and literacy in Dutch-speaking children at family risk of dyslexia and in matched controls. Measures were administered in kindergarten (before the start of formal reading instruction), in first and in third grade. Children, diagnosed with dyslexia in third grade, showed impaired…
Zamuner, Tania S.
This research examines phonological neighbourhoods in the lexicons of children acquiring English. Analyses of neighbourhood densities were done on children's earliest words and on a corpus of spontaneous speech, used to measure neighbours in the target language. Neighbourhood densities were analyzed for words created by changing segments in…
Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura
Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…
McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne
The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Thomson, Jennifer; Wagner, Richard; Swanson, H. Lee; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Raskind, Wendy
Recent theoretical advances in working memory guided analyses of cognitive measures in 122 children with dyslexia and their 200 affected biological parents in families with a multigenerational history of dyslexia. Both children and adults were most severely impaired, on average, in three working memory components- phonological word-form storage,…
Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W
In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311
Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Rönnberg, Jerker
In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special instruction and normal readers, were also included in the study. Results showed strong average training effects on text reading and general word decoding for both phonological and orthographic training, but not significantly higher improvements than for the comparison groups. The main research finding was a double dissociation: children with pronounced phonological problems improved their general word decoding skill more from phonological than from orthographic training, whereas the opposite was observed for children with pronounced orthographic problems. Thus, in this population of children, training should focus on children's relative weakness rather than their relative strength in word decoding. PMID:17624906
In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…
I will argue that loanword phonology in Cantonese does not exist as a separate component of the grammar and that the differences between English language source forms and their Cantonese equivalents can be understood as the result of subjecting non-native inputs to the constraints that define well-formed Cantonese words. I adopt Silverman's proposal that Cantonese speakers do not perceive all
Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.
Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…
Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…
LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley
The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…
This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the high degree of abstractness in Chomsky's and Halle's analysis of English vowels is justified. Secondarily, two related topics are discussed: (1) limitations on the tongue-height features [+low] and [+high] and (2) the role of rule features in phonological rules. Numerous examples of a more…
Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth
This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…
Folarin, Antonia Y.
A detailed analysis of nouns derived from Noun + Noun structures in the African language Yoruba is presented. These nouns are categorized into two types: compound and phrasal nouns. Assuming some of the basic principles of lexical phonology, it is argued that compound nouns should be derived in the lexicon, while phrasal nouns are derived in the…
Erazmus, Edward T.
The failure of the phonological approach in establishing native-like speech in the learner is examined in connection with new knowledge derived from articulatory setting theory. This theory is based on the work of Honikman (1964) who demonstrated that there is an intimate relationship between the tongue and teeth in speech production.…
Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France firstname.lastname@example.org August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi
This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…
Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Tarar, Jessica M.
The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-Second Edition (CTOPP-2; Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, & Pearson, 2013) is a norm-referenced test that measures phonological processing skills related to reading for individuals aged 4 to 24. According to its authors, the CTOPP-2 may be used to identify individuals who are markedly below their…
Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.
In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…
Marie-Astrid A. Cauquy; Michael C. Roggemann; Timothy J. Schulz
The proliferation of small, lightweight, 'micro-' and 'nanosatellite' (largest dimension < 1m ) has presented new challenges to the space surveillance community. The small size of these satellites makes them unresolvable by ground-based imaging systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface,
Collet, G; Colin, C; Serniclaes, W; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Deltenre, P; Leybaert, J
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen twenty-minute training sessions with feedback, and a control group of nine children with SLI did not receive any training. Identification, discrimination and categorical perception were evaluated before, during and after training as well as one month following the final session. Phonological awareness and vocabulary were also assessed for both groups. The results showed that children with SLI experienced strong difficulties in the identification, discrimination and categorical perception of the voicing continuum prior to training. However, as early as after the first nine training sessions, their performance in the identification and discrimination tasks increased significantly. Moreover, phonological awareness scores improved during training, whereas vocabulary scores remained stable across sessions. PMID:22699254
Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki
The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and language processing [EPLP]) behind key dyslexia predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, vocabulary, and pseudoword repetition) could already be identified at 3.5 years. EPLP was significantly associated with reading and spelling accuracy and by age with letter knowledge. However, EPLP had only a minor link with reading fluency, which was additionally explained by early letter knowledge. The results show that reading accuracy is well predicted by early phonological and language skills. Variation in fluent reading skills is not well explained by early skills, suggesting factors other than phonological core skills. Future research is suggested to explore the factors behind the development of fast and accurate decoding skills. PMID:18560022
Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.
Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…
Wolter, Julie A.; Dilworth, Valisa
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness…
Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria S.; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita
This study explored subprocesses of reading for 157 fifth grade Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) by examining whether morphological awareness made a unique contribution to reading comprehension beyond a strong covariate-phonological decoding. The role of word reading and reading vocabulary as mediators of this relationship was…
Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane
Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158
Birch, Stacy L
The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary. PMID:25297383
Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve generalization to untrained phonologically related words in acquired phonological dyslexia. These findings also provide preliminary support for using phonological complexity theory as a tool for designing more effective and efficient reading treatments for acquired dyslexia.
No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…
Halderman, Laura K.
The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words and…
Gordon D. A. Brown
Tests of the “phonological deficit” account of developmental dyslexia have produced apparently inconsistent results. We show how a connectionist approach to dyslexic reading development can resolve the paradox. A “dyslexic” model of reading was created by reducing the quality of the phonological representations available to the model during learning. The model behaved similarly to dyslexic children in that it had
De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart
The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…
Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel
Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…
Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan
In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…
Urges that the teaching of English phonology should go beyond the mere mastery of sounds as emphasized in the audiolingual method to the mastery of the total phonological system as presented in Chomsky and Halle's The Sound Pattern of English." (FB)
Steinberg, Danny D.
Challenges three of Chomsky and Halle's basic phonological assumptions that their vowel shift rule is valid, that the underlying phonological representations are the only sound representation to be listed in the lexicon, and that derived words do not appear as wholes in the lexicon. Reprint requests should be addressed to Danny D. Steinberg,…
Proctor, Michael Ian
Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…
This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…
Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara
Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic
Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory
Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions. PMID:19651222
Mahadin, Radwan S.
Examines doublets in Arabic, discussing the alterations between the determinants in the doublets, and shows that the alterations are the result of phonological changes. It is concluded that the phonological changes are in agreement with changes that have occurred in other Semitic languages and in modern Arabic dialects. (30 references) (Author/VWL)
Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C.
Used backward masking paradigm to investigate nature and time course of phonological assembly. Two experiments examined to what extent phonological assembly is a serial process. One showed recognition rates in a backward masking task varied as a function of the serial position of phonemes that were shared between backward masks and target words;…
McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno
The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÓNIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan
The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…
1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously
Metathesis, usually described in descriptive or historical linguistics as sporadic change, is investigated as a systematic phonological change using data from Gascon, an Occitan dialect. In the first chapter, the controversy over metathesis as a phonological change is presented and discussed from the standpoint of historical development. In…
Holmes, Virginia M.; Quinn, Lisa
This study investigated the phonological skills of university students who were unexpectedly poor spellers relative to their word reading accuracy. Compared with good spellers, unexpectedly poor spellers showed no deficits in phonological memory, selection of appropriate graphemes for phonemes in word misspellings and nonword spellings, and…
Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.
The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…
Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum
The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would
I-Ping Wan; Jeri J. Jaeger
One of the fundamental goals of every phonological theory is to account for the nature of the basic units of speech sounds, and the relationships between these units and their contextual variants. This relationship is equally crucial to phonological theory whether it is called `phonemes and allophones', `underlying and surface forms', or `input and output'. However, purely structural analyses of
McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K
This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A left-dominant network of temporal and motor cortex showed increased activity for longer items, with motor cortex only showing greater activity concomitant with adding consonant clusters. An individual-differences analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between activity in the angular gyrus and the hippocampus, and accuracy on pseudoword repetition. As models of pWM stipulate that its neural correlates should be activated during both perception and production/rehearsal [Buchsbaum, B. R., & D'Esposito, M. The search for the phonological store: From loop to convolution. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 762-778, 2008; Jacquemot, C., & Scott, S. K. What is the relationship between phonological short-term memory and speech processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 480-486, 2006; Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). New York: Academic Press, 1974], we further assessed the effects of the two factors in a separate passive listening experiment (Experiment 2). In this experiment, the effect of the number of syllables was concentrated in posterior-medial regions of the supratemporal plane bilaterally, although there was no evidence of a significant response to added clusters. Taken together, the results identify the planum temporale as a key region in pWM; within this region, representations are likely to take the form of auditory or audiomotor "templates" or "chunks" at the level of the syllable [Papoutsi, M., de Zwart, J. A., Jansma, J. M., Pickering, M. J., Bednar, J. A., & Horwitz, B. From phonemes to articulatory codes: an fMRI study of the role of Broca's area in speech production. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2156-2165, 2009; Warren, J. E., Wise, R. J. S., & Warren, J. D. Sounds do-able: auditory-motor transformations and the posterior temporal plane. Trends in Neurosciences, 28, 636-643, 2005; Griffiths, T. D., & Warren, J. D. The planum temporale as a computational hub. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 348-353, 2002], whereas more lateral structures on the STG may deal with phonetic analysis of the auditory input [Hickok, G. The functional neuroanatomy of language. Physics of Life Reviews, 6, 121-143, 2009]. PMID:20350182
Blythe, Hazel I; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan
In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl), or a spelling control (e.g., garl). Both children and adults showed a benefit from the valid phonology of the pseudohomophone, compared to the spelling control during reading. This indicates that children as young as seven years old exhibit relatively skilled phonological processing during reading, despite having moved past the use of overt phonological decoding strategies. In addition, in comparison to adults, children's lexical processing was more disrupted by the presence of spelling errors, suggesting a developmental change in the relative dependence upon phonological and orthographic processing in lexical identification during silent sentence reading. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25528096
Alessandro Angrilli; Christian Dobelsupas; Brigitte Rockstroh; Luciano Stegagno; Thomas Elbert
Abstract Objectives: Event-related potential correlates of phonological encoding ? as compared,with lexical access and semantic categorization ? were measured,in two studies involving two groups of 14 German and 14 Italian subjects. Methods: A two stimulus reaction time paradigm,was used. Stimulus pairs presented one-by-one with 2 s inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) had to be matched with respect to lexical identity (word-picture) in
Alessandro Angrilli; Christian Dobel; Brigitte Rockstroh; Luciano Stegagno; Thomas Elbert
Objectives: Event-related potential correlates of phonological encoding – as compared with lexical access and semantic categorization – were measured in two studies involving two groups of 14 German and 14 Italian subjects.Methods: A two stimulus reaction time paradigm was used. Stimulus pairs presented one-by-one with 2 s inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) had to be matched with respect to lexical identity (word-picture)
Jerri D. Edwards; Amanda C. Walley; Karlene K. Ball
The primary goal of this study was to comparethree theoretical accounts of readingdisability (RD) by simultaneously studyingphonological, visual, and temporal processingskills. Adults with and without RD werecompared on measures of phonological processingwith the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) and theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT-R) WordAttack subtest. Visual processing was assessedwith the Useful Field of View test (UFOV®)and the Frequency Doubling Technology
Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno
We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…
Tanya E. Sherman; Lisa J. Rapport; Kelly A. Ryan
The present study examined awareness of deficits among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 74 pairs of persons with MS and their significant others participated. Awareness of cognitive deficit was measured by discrepancy scores between patient reports of their cognitive abilities and objective test results. Awareness of functional deficit was measured by the discrepancy between the patient and
spelling of Turkish 6th, 7th, and 8th grade pupils (N= 367). Measures tapping phonological, morphological, and orthographic skills in English (L2) and a background questionnaire were administered to Turkish 6th to 8th grade EFL children recruited...
Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles
Background Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method Children with dyslexia-only (n = 17), AS-only (n = 17), comorbid dyslexia+AS (n = 25), and typically developing controls (n = 42), matched for age and non-verbal ability, were assessed on measures of phonological skills, executive function and time perception (duration discrimination and time reproduction). Results Children with dyslexia were impaired on measures of phonological skill and duration discrimination compared to children without dyslexia (though problems on duration discrimination appeared to be attributable to mild symptoms of inattention in this group). In contrast, children with AS exhibited impairments on measures of both time perception and executive function compared to children without AS. Children with dyslexia+AS showed an additive combination of the deficits associated with dyslexia-only and AS-only. Conclusions Dyslexia and AS appear to be associated with distinct patterns of cognitive deficit, which are present in combination in children with dyslexia+AS. PMID:20860755
An adult learning to speak a foreign language normally retains an "accent" which may affect the intelligibility of certain sounds, but more often simply conveys the fact that the speaker is a non-native speaker. Various scholars have experimented and discussed the elements involved in a foreign accent. However, in Iran very few researchers have attempted to verify scientifically what are the phonetic and phonological aspects of an "accent." This author tried to determine whether or not a selected group of words, emphasizing stop voicing, produced by native speakers of Persian had significant phonetic and phonemic differences from those achieved by the American students. Subjects for the experiments were three groups of students, one Iranian, two American. A contrastive analysis of the Persian and the English stop consonants was made. An identical measurement test for all three groups was administered. Utilized was a Kay Sona-graph for acoustic analysis, and all spoken data from the Iranian group were compared with those of the American groups. An examination of acoustic correlates of Tehran stops produced by American students shows that the phonetically different but similar feature of /voice/ found in Tehran, Persian and English stops is intuitive to the Americans, and that the language learner cannot readily disassociate a phonological feature from habits of articulation. The results of this research support using the phonetic method for adult learners who want to improve their pronunciation ability. Further research and experimentation is necessary on the effect of the suprasegmental elements on a foreign accent and the most effective teaching materials and methods and to explore other possible techniques in the teaching process.
Tadda, George P.; Salerno, John S.
Improving a decision maker’s1 situational awareness of the cyber domain isn’t greatly different than enabling situation awareness in more traditional domains2. Situation awareness necessitates working with processes capable of identifying domain specific activities as well as processes capable of identifying activities that cross domains. These processes depend on the context of the environment, the domains, and the goals and interests of the decision maker but they can be defined to support any domain. This chapter will define situation awareness in its broadest sense, describe our situation awareness reference and process models, describe some of the applicable processes, and identify a set of metrics usable for measuring the performance of a capability supporting situation awareness. These techniques are independent of domain but this chapter will also describe how they apply to the cyber domain.
Bilal Khan; Khaled S. Alghathbar; Muhammad Khurram Khan
\\u000a The destruction due to computer security incidents warns organizations to adopt security measures. In addition to technological\\u000a measures, individual’s information security awareness is also necessary. Different psychological theories have been proposed\\u000a to make an effective information security awareness campaign. These information security awareness campaigns are limited in\\u000a their ability in raising awareness of the participants of the campaign. Although much
Higgins, J. J.; Lawrie, A. M.; White, A. Goodith
Describes three pilot projects carried out with a special version of a computer-assisted language-learning activity, known as SEQUITUR, that seeks to develop awareness of cohesive devices and coherence features by displaying the start of a text and offering possible continuations. Usage logs of responses given by native and nonnative speakers of…
Giacobe, Nicklaus A.
Cyber-security involves the monitoring a complex network of inter-related computers to prevent, identify and remediate from undesired actions. This work is performed in organizations by human analysts. These analysts monitor cyber-security sensors to develop and maintain situation awareness (SA) of both normal and abnormal activities that occur on…
Hammann, Lynne A.; Stevens, Robert J.
This study investigated Self-Regulated Learning of 90 college students in an introductory educational psychology course at a large eastern university. Relationships among metacognition, motivational orientation, strategy use, and performance were examined. The study expanded on findings about The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) (G. Schraw…
Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M.
Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654
Henry E Heffner
This paper reviews seven lines of auditory research which bear upon the issue of awareness in animals. First, comparative studies of auditory sensitivity have found important differences in the hearing abilities of animals such that sounds easily audible to one species may be inaudible to others. Second, studies of auditory attention indicate that when an animal is presented with a
A review of current literature into children's use of orthographic analogies during reading results in an apparent contradiction: that normal readers’ ability to draw such analogies is not predicted by their prior phonological awareness (Muteret al., 1994), rather by their reading experience and proficiency (Bowey and Underwood, 1996), but that dyslexic children are less able to draw these analogies because
Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Simmons, Deborah C.
There is growing evidence of cross-language transfer in metalinguistic processes related to reading acquisition and development. In particular, phonological awareness is a requisite process that shares similarities across Spanish and English. Through explicit instruction and instructional design analyses, we propose principles to facilitate…
Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol
The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927
Sandhu, K; Dash, HH
Summary Awareness is the postoperative recall of sensory perception during general anaesthesia. The incidence is quoted at 1-2 per every 1000 patients. This rare but serious adverse event can be extremely distressing for both the patient as well as the anaesthesiologist. Awareness during anaesthesia may occur despite apparently sound anaesthetic management and is usually not associated with pain. However, a few cases may experience excruciating pain and have long term neuropsychiatric sequelae like post-traumatic stress disorder. This adverse event can also have serious medicolegal implications. This article addresses the various contributory factors that may predispose to intra-operative awareness. Preventive measures in the preinduction period as well as intraoperatively are discussed, including the use of depth of anaesthesia monitors. Remedial steps to be taken when such an event occurs are also discussed. PMID:20640115
Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the "phonological mean length of utterance", a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the…
Smith, Louis M.; Kleine, Paul F.
An experiment was conducted to test three hypotheses: (1) as teacher cognitive complexity increases then teacher awareness increases, (2) as teacher cognitive differentiation increases then teacher awareness increases, (3) as teacher awareness increases then pupil esteem for the teacher increases. Measurements were made in the late spring using 69…
Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology Philip M. Merikle*, Daniel been used to demonstrate perception without awareness are described. Each approach re¯ects one of two logic has been either to demon- strate a dissociation between a measure of perception with awareness
The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.
Compiled monthly by the Education Information Center of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction in association with The Landmark Project, Current Awareness is a bibliographic database of the most recent literature on issues related to education and technology. Garnered from an extensive journal collection, the citations in the database are indexed into more than 200 topic areas. Educators may browse the database by topic or conduct keyword searches on topic or title. Queries yield brief citations in a tabular format.
This guide on avalanche awareness and safety discusses the anatomy of an avalanche (starting zone, track, and runout zone), avalanche factors and conditions, determining if the snowpack is safe (using snowpits and shear tests), when and where avalanches happen, the typical victims, tips for survival, an avalanche danger scale, and a list of avalanche quick checks. Avalanche conditions discussed include weather, snowfall, temperature and wind direction, snowpack, slope angle, slope orientation, terrain, and vegetation.
Some of the earliest papers on Lexical Phonology claim that structure preservation applies throughout a Lexical derivation and may only he shut off by exiting the Lexicon. Work by Kellogg (1991) in Lakota attempts to uphold ...
Srinivasan, Narayanan; Pariyadath, Vani
Currently in humor research, there exists a dearth of computational models for humor perception. The existing theories are not quantifiable and efforts need to be made to quantify the models and incorporate neuropsychological findings in humor research. We propose a new computational model (GraPHIA) for perceiving phonological jokes or puns. GraPHIA consists of a semantic network and a phonological network where words are represented by nodes in both the networks. Novel features based on graph theoretical concepts are proposed and computed for the identification of homophonic jokes. The data set for evaluating the model consisted of homophonic puns, normal sentences, and ambiguous nonsense sentences. The classification results show that the feature values result in successful identification of phonological jokes and ambiguous nonsense sentences suggesting that the proposed model is a plausible model for humor perception. Further work is needed to extend the model for identification of other types of phonological jokes. PMID:18618159
Ariel Gout; Anne Christophe; James L. Morgan
The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds
Michael K. Tanenhaus; Helen P. Flanigan; Mark S. Seidenberg
A discrete-trials color naming (Stroop)’paradigm was used to examine activation along orthographic and phonological dimensions\\u000a in visual and auditory word recognition. Subjects were presented a prime word, either auditorily or visually, followed 200\\u000a msec later by a target word printed in a color. The orthographic and phonological similarity of prime-target pairs varied.\\u000a Color naming latencies were longer when the primes
Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E
This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372
Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O
The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994
Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.
Wu, Wei; Thompson, John A.; Bertram, Richard; Johnson, Frank
Songbirds are the preeminent animal model for understanding how the brain encodes and produces learned vocalizations. Here, we report a new statistical method, the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) distance, for analyzing vocal change over time. First, we use a computerized recording system to capture all song syllables produced by birds each day. Sound Analysis Pro software (Tchernichovski et al., 2000) is then used to measure the duration of each syllable as well as four spectral features: pitch, entropy, frequency modulation, and pitch goodness. Next, 2-dimensional scatter plots of each day of singing are created where syllable duration is on the x-axis and each of the spectral features is represented separately on the y-axis. Each point in the scatter plots represents one syllable and we regard these plots as random samples from a probability distribution. We then apply the standard information-theoretic quantity K-L distance to measure dissimilarity in phonology across days of singing. A variant of this procedure can also be used to analyze differences in syllable syntax. PMID:18674560
MacLeod, Andrea A N; Glaspey, Amy M
The acquisition of phonemes does not occur in an "all or nothing" manner; instead, children gradually acquire dimensions of phonological knowledge. This gradual acquisition of phonemes is explored in the present study by comparing three types of measures taken from speech samples of three preschool-aged girls with a Speech Sound Disorder. The process of acquisition of velar stops was measured during 16 weeks of Cycles based speech treatment. Three types of measures were used to study the gradual acquisition of velar stops: acoustic analyses using voice onset time (VOT) for initial consonants and vowel duration for final consonants, speech adaptability using the Glaspey Dynamic Assessment of Phonology, and phonetic accuracy based on phonetic transcription. The children were assessed prior-to, after 8, and after 16 sessions of treatment based on a modified Cycles approach. At the onset of the study, the children had begun the process of acquiring velar stops. Differences on acoustic measures and speech adaptability measures were observed for velars that were not reflected in the phonetic transcription. The acoustic analyses and the speech adaptability measures were more sensitive and incremental in showing change over time when compared to phonetic transcription, with fewer ceiling and floor effects across the children. Although the individual profiles of gradient change were not simple, the acoustic and adaptability measures provided additional information regarding gradient change, and support our argument that a necessary approach is one that describes multiple dimensions of a child's phonological knowledge. PMID:24588471
Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...
Julie A. Adams
This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation
Glaspey, Amy M; Macleod, Andrea A N
The purpose of the current study is to document phonological change from a multidimensional perspective for a 3-year-old boy with phonological disorder by comparing three measures: (1) accuracy of consonant productions, (2) dynamic assessment, and (3) acoustic analysis. The methods included collecting a sample of the targets /s, [symbol: see the text], t[symbol: see the text], and d[symbol: see the text]/ produced in single words and repeated over time. The samples were analysed using phonetic transcription and acoustic measures of duration, spectral mean, and spectral variance. A dynamic assessment was administered that showed change in response to cues and linguistic environments using a 15-point scale. The results from the three measures were compared for gradient change and evidence of covert contrasts. In conclusion, gradient change was illustrated across the three measures and contrasts were evident in the child's phonological system. Acoustic measures were most sensitive, followed by dynamic assessment; however, accuracy scores based on phonetic transcription showed little to no change for some targets. PMID:20345258
Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle
Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…
Martin, Frances; Claydon, Elizabeth; Morton, Adam; Binns, Sonia; Pratt, Chris
Examines the use of orthographic and phonological deletion strategies by children in the 6-16 year age range. Reveals that younger readers were more accurate when using phonological strategies than when using orthographic strategies, whereas older readers showed superior orthographic and phonological processing abilities. Supports the suggestion…
Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert
In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological…
Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Gregory Hickok; Colin Humphries
Models of both speech perception and speech production typically postulate a processing level that involves some form of phonological processing. There is disagreement, however, on the question of whether there are separate phonological systems for speech input versus speech output. We review a range of neuroscientific data that indicate that input and output phonological systems partially overlap. An important anatomical
Steven Bird; T. Mark Ellison
When phonological rules are regarded as declarative descriptions, it is possible to construct a model of phonology in which rules and representations are no longer distinguished and such procedural devices as rule-ordering are absent. In this paper we present a finite-state model of phonology in which automata are the descriptions and tapes (or strings) are the objects being described. This
Eduardo Navarrete; Albert Costa
Four experiments are reported exploring whether distractor pictures activate their phonological properties in the course of speech production. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with two pictures and were asked to name one while ignoring the other. Distractor pictures were phonologically related, semantically related or unrelated to the target picture. Naming latencies were faster in the phonologically related condition (the
Dynamics: the non-derivational alternative to modeling phonetics-phonology Adamantios I. Gafos. Introduction The derivational view of phonetics-phonology (Ladd, this volume) expresses an intuition that seems of phonetics-phonology. Incomplete neutralization (Ernestus and Baayen, this volume) and other phenomena like
Millar, Andrew J.
Edinburgh Research Explorer Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology Citation for published version: Iosad, P 2012, 'Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology' Journal: © Cambridge University Press 2012. Iosad, P. Nov 2012, "Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...
Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the ‘self.’ However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘other’ in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the ‘simulationist’ account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task’ for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the ‘Director Task’ but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715
Brown, G D
Tests of the "phonological deficit" account of developmental dyslexia have produced apparently inconsistent results. We show how a connectionist approach to dyslexic reading development can resolve the paradox. A "dyslexic" model of reading was created by reducing the quality of the phonological representations available to the model during learning. The model behaved similarly to dyslexic children in that it had a selectively reduced ability to process nonwords, but showed normal effects of words' spelling-to-sound regularity. An experimental test of the model's predictions confirmed that dyslexic children perform similarly, in that they are impaired on irregular words to the same extent as nondyslexic children. It is concluded that developmentally dyslexic reading can indeed be understood in terms of impaired phonological representations and that the adoption of a modeling approach resolves an apparent paradox in the experimental literature. PMID:9299065
Andin, Josefine; Fransson, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary
Arithmetic and language processing involve similar neural networks, but the relative engagement remains unclear. In the present study we used fMRI to compare activation for phonological, multiplication and subtraction tasks, keeping the stimulus material constant, within a predefined language-calculation network including left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus (AG) as well as superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Results revealed a generally left lateralized activation pattern within the language-calculation network for phonology and a bilateral activation pattern for arithmetic, and suggested regional differences between tasks. In particular, we found a more prominent role for phonology than arithmetic in pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus but domain generality in pars triangularis. Parietal activation patterns demonstrated greater engagement of the visual and quantity systems for calculation than language. This set of findings supports the notion of a common, but regionally differentiated, language-calculation network. PMID:25797099
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng
Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, one key region for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447
Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Thompson, G Brian
These are findings of theoretical interest from: (i) follow-up of a case study of a precocious reader; and (ii) normally developing readers who served as comparison groups. The precocious reader was first reported when 2-3 years of age (Cognition 74 (2000) 177). From 3 to 7 years of age her precocious reading development continued, her word reading accuracy increasing from the 8- to the 16-year-level, although her phonemic awareness skills remained underdeveloped relative to word reading. Nonword reading continued to develop rapidly. Her word reading, however, was more than phonological recoding. At 5 years of age, in comparison with reading-level matched normal 11-year-olds she exhibited strong effects of semantic characteristics of words and evidence of well-specified lexical orthographic representations. In common with normal comparison 11-year-olds, who had not received instruction in explicit phonics, her explicit letter-sound skills were underdeveloped but she possessed high speed and accuracy in nonword reading, a result most theories of the acquisition of reading fail to explain. Her responses to irregularly spelt nonwords indicated higher proficiency than the 11-year-olds in acquiring lexical orthographic representations not predictable from prior phonological recoding knowledge. It is considered that this proficiency contributes to an explanation of her precocious reading development. A mechanism of implicit lexicalized phonological recoding is involved which explains the dissociation of skills in both the precocious reader and normally developing readers. PMID:14667699
Inkelas, Sharon; Orgun, Cemil Orhan
Supports the theory of level ordering by demonstrating, on the basis of productive morphology and phonology, that Turkish has four lexical levels. The first is the principle of Level Economy, which accounts for systematic exceptionality. The second is Level Prespecification, which exempts a root entirely from early lexical levels. Both of these…
Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.
We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…
It is generally agreed among French linguists that the word has no phonetic or phonological status in French. This position reflects mostly pedagogical considerations and preoccupation with surface phonetic facts and demarcative signals. Investigation of processes of a more abstract nature reveals, however, that a certain number of rules…
French linguists generally agree that the word in French has no phonetic or phonological status. This article examines this position and studies several vowel-consonant sequences, mute-"e" deletion and post-consonantal deletion and suggests that the role of French word-boundaries is more important than is generally acknowledged. (CHK)
Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.
Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…
Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.
The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…
Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia
Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…
Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…
Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Querido, Jose-Luis; Fernandes, Sandra; Morais, Jose
We examined phonological priming in illiterate adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Participants named pictures while hearing distractor words at different Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOAs). Ex-illiterates and university students were also tested. We specifically assessed the ability of the three populations to use…
The goal of this dissertation is to explore the phonetic bases of intervocalic lenition--specifically, voicing and spirantization of intervocalic stops. A traditional understanding of phonological patterns like these is that they involve articulatory effort reduction, in that speakers substitute an easy sound for a hard one. Experiment 1 uses a…
Lorraine K. Tyler; Billi Randall; William D. Marslen-Wilson
The double dissociation between the regular and irregular past tense in English has been explained in terms of dual and single mechanism accounts. In previous research we have argued that problems with the regular past tense in patients with left inferior frontal damage arise from morpho-phonological parsing difficulties [Trends in Cognitive Science 2 (1998) 428]. This claim has recently been
Edinburgh, University of
varied, ranging from using hyper-articulated speech to very sloppy speech. This enormous variation). By using available knowledge about frequent phonological processes we managed to model part of the within that recognition performance can improve even further if we are able to model more of the variation
Our understanding of the relationships between lexical and phonological development has been enhanced in recent years by increased interest in this area from language scientists, psychologists and phonologists. This review article provides a summary of research, highlighting similarities and differences across studies. It is suggested that the…
Lavidor, Michal; Johnston, Rhona; Snowling, Margaret J.
Both cerebral hemispheres contain phonological, orthographic and semantic representations of words, however there are between-hemisphere differences in the relative engagement and specialization of the different representations. Taking orthographic processing for example, previous studies suggest that orthographic neighbourhood size (N) has…
network based system combination (CNC) is used to combine phone networks derived from phonologi- cal with the DIVINES FP6 project and has been supported under NSERC Program Number 307188- 2004 signal [7, 8]. Third) and confusion network combination (CNC) schemes for combining the results of ASR systems whose errors
Katz, R B; Lanzoni, S M
The performance of deep dyslexics in oral reading and other tasks suggests that they are poor at activating the phonology of words and non-words from printed stimuli. As the tasks ordinarily used to test deep dyslexics require controlled processing, it is possible that the phonology of printed words can be better activated on an automatic basis. This study investigated this possibility by testing a deep dyslexic patient on a lexical decision task with pairs of stimuli presented simultaneously. In Experiment 1, which used content words as stimuli, the deep dyslexic, like normal subjects, showed faster reaction times on trials with rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. bribe-tribe) than on control trials (consisting of non-rhyming, dissimilarly spelled words), but slower reaction times on trials with non-rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. couch-touch). When the experiment was repeated using function words as stimuli, the patient no longer showed a phonological effect. Therefore, the phonological activation of printed content words by deep dyslexics may be better than would be expected on the basis of their oral reading performance. PMID:1484974
Purpose: Significant challenges face speech-language pathologists when children raised in bilingual environments are referred for speech-language evaluations. The situation is compounded for bilingual Mandarin-English children because no research-based data is available to date. This study is a preliminary examination of phonological acquisition…
Padayodi, Cecile Mamalinani
This study suggests revisions to the segmental and tonal phonology of Kabiye following a reanalysis of consonants, vowels, and tones in the speech of 7 male native speakers. Acoustic investigations are also included to illustrate some phonetic aspects of segments and tone. Data were elicited through three speech styles--wordlists, short phrases,…
J. F. Démonet; J. A. Fiez; E. Paulesu; S. E. Petersen; R. J. Zatorre
Poeppel (1996) raises a number of criticisms about the methods and reported results for eight studies of phonological processing from six different neuroimaging laboratories. We would freely admit that valid criticisms of PET methodology can be made and that, like any method, it has limitations; in fact, we and others have engaged in such critical commentary (Steinmetz & Seitz, 1991;
Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.
Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…
Simon Farrell; Stephan Lewandowsky
In short-term serial recall, similar sounding items are remembered less well than items that do not sound alike. This phonological similarity effect has been observed with lists composed only of similar items, and also with lists that mix together similar and dissimilar items. An additional consistent finding has been what the authors call dissimilar immunity, the finding that ordered recall
Broen, Patricia A.; And Others
The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…
This paper investigates children's developingknowledge of the Hebrew spelling system in view of theclaim that language-specific typology affects the rateand the pattern of development of orthographicspelling. Hebrew is a morphologically syntheticlanguage with a phonologically ``deep'' orthography, onthe one hand, and a consistent representation ofmorphology in the spelling system, on the other. Thispaper focuses on the difference between representingcontent words versus
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.
Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…
Iris Berent; Evan Balaban; Tracy Lennertz; Vered Vaknin-Nusbaum
Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs identified as nonspeech. A subsequent comparison of English and Russian participants indicates that the
Phonology is bimodular: prosody (relational aspects) and melody (‘phonetic’ aspects) are to some extent autonomous in steady-state (adult) language. Therefore the acquisition of individual melodic and prosodic modules and their subsequent orientation with respect to one another must constitute three different developmental tasks. The acquisition of melodic primes may take place independently of any other process. If infant perception has
Bradford, A; Dodd, B
The motor planning abilities of three subgroups of speech-disordered children were compared to normally speaking age- and comprehension-matched controls. There were 10 phonologically delayed children who used sound-pattern errors typical of chronologically aged younger children (delayed group); 10 children whose phonological system was characterised by the consistent use of non-developmental phonological processes (deviant consistent group); and 10 children whose production of specific lexical items and phonological features was variable (inconsistent group). The groups were compared on tasks that assessed simple and complex motor planning for hand movements and expressive and receptive novel-word learning. The groups did not differ on a simple task of motor planning for hand movements. However, the inconsistent group performed more poorly than all the other groups on a more complex, timed motor-planning task. Although the groups performed equally well on a task assessing receptive novel-word learning, the inconsistent group performed more poorly than all the other groups on an expressive novel-word learning task. The results provide support for the hypothesis that speech-disordered children with different surface error patterns have different underlying deficits in the speech-processing chain. Specifically, inconsistent error patterns are associated with a deficit in some aspects of fine motor planning. PMID:7647386
Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.
There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…
A phonological analysis of medical terminology was developed as an answer to pleas from students in medical English courses in Austria. The analysis can serve as a model for other sciences in which a comparable predicament exists: Graeco-Latinate terms are readily understood when written, but not easily recognized when spoken. (JL)
Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.
Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…
Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…
Jonathan D. Rohrer; Gerard R. Ridgway; Sebastian J. Crutch; Julia Hailstone; Johanna C. Goll; Matthew J. Clarkson; Simon Mead; Jonathan Beck; Cath Mummery; Sebastien Ourselin; Elizabeth K. Warrington; Martin N. Rossor; Jason D. Warren
The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are paradigmatic disorders of language network breakdown associated with focal degeneration of the left cerebral hemisphere. Here we addressed brain correlates of PPA in a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of the third canonical syndrome of PPA, logopenic\\/phonological aphasia (LPA), in relation to the more widely studied clinico-anatomical syndromes of semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia
Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.
Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…
Ninth Grade Teachers‘ Perceptions of Cultural Awareness and Teacher Beliefs as Measured by the Cultural Awareness and Beliefs Inventory: Relationship with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading Scores
Yandell, Shanah Lea
Respondents on the CABI............... 95 xvi TABLE Page 4.10 Comparative Means of the Ninth Grade Respondents by Campus Groups on the CABI ........................................................................ 99 4.11 Non-parametric Tests... ......................................................... 106 4.13 Non-parametric Tests of Comparative Means of the CABI?s Ninth Grade Respondents by Campus Groups of Cultural Awareness ............ 111 4.14 Teacher Beliefs Comparative Means of the CABI?s Ninth Grade Respondents by Campus Groups...
Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.
We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by…
Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne
Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Vaissière, J., (1997), "Phonological use of the larynx: a tutorial", Larynx 97, Marseille, 115-126. PHONOLOGICAL USE OF THE LARYNX J. Vaissière UPRESA-CNRS 1027, Institut de Phonétique, Paris, France RÉSUMÉ Cette communication concerne le rôle du larynx dans l'acte de communication. Toutes les langues du monde
Mobile social awareness systems open up new social opportunities by enabling the automatic disclosure of awareness cues. We are trying to understand which cues work best to achieve feelings of connectedness between users and identify valid and comprehensive effect measures to evaluate such systems in HCI. We choose to study specifically two sensors - location, via GPS and movement, via
Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervé
Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /?/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information. PMID:19339701
Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara
Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…
van Bysterveldt, Anne Katherine; Gillon, Gail; Foster-Cohen, Susan
Background: Children with Down syndrome experience difficulty with both spoken and written language acquisition, however controlled intervention studies to improve these difficulties are rare and have typically focused on improving one language domain. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated intervention approach on the speech,…
This study examined (1) the potential influence of oral language characteristics of two languages that bilingual children acquire on their PA and (2) the relationship of PA in L1 with PA and literacy skills in L2, using data from Korean-English bilingual children. Thirty three Korean-English bilingual children, composed of two subsamples from two…
Lemons, Christopher J.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Paterra, Matthew F.
Many children with intellectual disability, including children with Down syndrome, have teachers who are unsure what type of reading instruction is likely to increase outcomes for their students. Effectiveness of two commercially available, evidence-based reading interventions was evaluated through 3 multiple baseline across participants,…
Wight, Edgar L.; And Others
In the changing world of today, man has created alarming imbalances of nature which threaten all living creatures of the earth. The public is becoming aware that severe measures must be taken to correct these imbalances. Indian people are closely attuned to their lands and resources--it is part of their traditional culture to have close ties with…
Paolo Coppola; Vincenzo Della Mea; Luca Di Gaspero; Danny Mischis; Stefano Mizzaro; Elena Nazzi; Ivan Scagnetto; Luca Vassena
We propose the Context-Aware Browser, a new approach to context-aware Web content perusal by means of mobile devices. The Context-Aware Browser exploits artificial intelligence techniques and mixes several ingredients: it is a Web browser running on one's own mobile device and capable of automatically and proactively downloading and executing context-aware Web contents, selected by querying a search engine on the
Sills, E. Scott
Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods ...
Cheng, Yahua; Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun
The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:25926807
Extends the notion of language awareness to include intercultural communicative awareness. The interconnectedness of language and cultural processes is illustrated through a discussion of metapragmatic awareness. The second half of the article looks at the potential of misunderstandings in intercultural communication and charts some of the…
Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad
Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468
Goslin, Jeremy; Galluzzi, Claudia; Romani, Cristina
In this article, we present the first open-access lexical database that provides phonological representations for 120,000 Italian word forms. Each of these also includes syllable boundaries and stress markings and a comprehensive range of lexical statistics. Using data derived from this lexicon, we have also generated a set of derived databases and provided estimates of positional frequency use for Italian phonemes, syllables, syllable onsets and codas, and character and phoneme bigrams. These databases are freely available from phonitalia.org. This article describes the methods, content, and summarizing statistics for these databases. In a first application of this database, we also demonstrate how the distribution of phonological substitution errors made by Italian aphasic patients is related to phoneme frequency. PMID:24092524
Strength of early visual adaptation depends on visual awareness Randolph Blake*, Duje Tadin, Kenith) We measured visual-adaptation strength under variations in visual awareness by manipulating of time that the adapting stimulus was removed from visual awareness. These findings indicate
aire ategory ethods in perator heory . #12;#12;"Raise awareness of custom-made ideals." #12;"Raise awareness of custom-made ideals." : measure zero sets : meager sets #12;"Raise awareness of custom-made ideals." : measure zero sets : meager sets + when these fail: #12;"Raise awareness of custom-made ideals
de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.
Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021
Ram Frost; Avital Deutsch; Orna Gilboa; Michal Tannenbaum; William Marslen-Wilson
Previous experiments based on a masked-priming paradigm revealed robust morphological priming effects induced by two derivational\\u000a morphemes in Hebrew: the root and the verbal pattern. However, considering the special characteristics of the masked-priming\\u000a paradigm, the possible contributions of phonological and\\/or semantic factors to these morphological effects could not be firmly\\u000a assessed. In the present study, the role of these factors
Beckman, Mary E.; Li, Fangfang; Kong, Eun Jong; Edwards, Jan
This paper examines whether data from a large cross-linguistic corpus of adult and child productions can be used to support an assumed corollary of the Neogrammarian distinction between two types of phonological change. The first type is regular sound change, which is assumed to be incremental and so should show continuity between phonological development and the age-related variation observed in the speech community undergoing the change. The second type is dialect borrowing, which could show an abrupt discontinuity between developmental patterns before and after the socio-historical circumstances that instigate it. We examine the acquisition of two contrasts: the Seoul Korean contrast between lax and aspirated stops which is undergoing regular sound change, and the standard Mandarin contrast between retroflex and dental sibilants which has been borrowed recently into the S?ngyuán dialect. Acquisition of the different contrasts patterns as predicted from the assumed differences between continuous regular sound change and potentially abrupt dialect borrowing. However, there are substantial gaps in our understanding both of the extent of cross-cultural variability in language socialization and of how this might affect the mechanisms of phonological change that must be addressed before we can fully understand the relationship between the time courses of the two. PMID:25009668
Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912
Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.
M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…
Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI
Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.
Borrowing and its implications for Turkish phonology is examined, focusing on words with initial and final consonant clusters. A brief summary of the relevant portions of Turkish phonology is presented. A formulation of the rules of lateral conditioning and velar conditioning is shown to successfully account for almost all the relevant borrowing…
A core area of phonology is the study of phonotactics, or how sounds are linearly combined. Recent cross-linguistic analyses have shown that the phonology determines not only phonotactics but also the articulatory coordination or timing of adjacent sounds. In this article, I explore how the relation between coordination and phonotactics affects…
There is an active debate within the field of phonology concerning the cognitive status of substantive phonetic factors such as ease of articulation and perceptual distinctiveness. A new framework is proposed in which substance acts as a bias, or prior, on phonological learning. Two experiments tested this framework with a method in which…
Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan
The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…
Mitchell S. Sommers; Lisa M. Huff
The authors conducted 3 experiments that examined the effects of age and dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) on phonological false memories. In addition, the study was designed to investigate the role of inhibitory control in mediating phonological false memories. In Experiment 1, both young-old and old-old participants exhibited increased susceptibility to false remembering, compared with young adults. In Experiment
Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella
The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language. PMID:18569688
Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Parker, Rhonda G.
In this descriptive, longitudinal study, phonological patterns (i.e., natural phonological processes) were examined in a set of conversational speech samples obtained from six young children fitted with cochlear implants. Both developmental and non-developmental patterns were observed. This is consistent with findings from previous studies of the…
Caney, Annaliese; Martin, Frances Heritage
Investigates the contributions of visual orthographic (analogy) and phonological processes in mediating nonword reading in children with dyslexia. Finds that children with dyslexia were the least likely to regularize nonword pronunciation and secondly, that all groups displayed an overall preference for words that were phonologically manipulated.…
Edwards, Mary Louise
The research reported here was carried out to help establish the normal course of fricative acquisition as a basis for comparisons with abnormal development. Three questions concerning phonological processes were investigated as part of a larger study of fricative acquisition: (1) the phonological processes that underlie children's fricative…
Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhang, Jie
We investigate the role of phonological alternation during speech production in Mandarin using implicit priming, a paradigm in which participants respond faster to words in sets that are phonologically homogeneous than in sets that are phonologically heterogeneous. We test whether priming is obtained when words in a set share the same tones at the underlying level but have different tones at the surface level-i.e., when the set includes a word that undergoes a phonological alternation which changes the tone. Sets that are heterogeneous at the surface level (in which the heterogeneity is due to a phonological operation) failed to elicit priming, as did sets that are heterogeneous at the underlying and surface levels (in which the heterogeneity is due to the lexical representations). This finding suggests that the phonological alternation was computed before the initiation of articulation, offering evidence that the progression from underlying phonological representations to articulatory execution may be mediated online by phonological input-to-output mapping. Furthermore, sets of words that are heterogeneous only at the surface level showed a different trend than sets of words that are heterogeneous at both levels, suggesting that both the surface and underlying levels of representation play a role during speech production. PMID:24967001
Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.
Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…
JOHN R. BEECH
The developing use of a dictionary has the potential to provide self-teaching opportunities to improve reading, spelling and general phonological skills. Children's dictionary use was examined in two studies to find out patterns of use, skill and frequency of use and the relationships between these and reading, spelling and phonological development. In the first study 39 poor readers were compared
Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee
Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…
Marsh, John E.; Vachon, Francois; Jones, Dylan M.
Typically, the phonological similarity between to-be-recalled items and TBI auditory stimuli has no impact if recall in serial order is required. However, in the present study, the authors have shown that the free recall, but not serial recall, of lists of phonologically related to-be-remembered items was disrupted by an irrelevant sound stream…
Steinberg, Danny D.
Chomsky and Halle claim that an orthography based on their system of phonological representations of lexical items would be optimal. Their analysis assumes that (1) a reader need read only for meaning and not for sound, (2) an orthography based on their underlying phonological representations would not be exceptionally difficult to learn, and (3)…
Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn
Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using…
Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to phonological sign features (i.e., hand shape, movement,…
The phonetics-phonology interface has long been debated; some linguists argue for a modular approach (Keating 1984, Pierrehumbert 1990, Zsiga 1997, Cohn 1998), while others argue that there is no interface, and that phonetics and phonology are one and the same (Browman & Goldstein 1989-1992, Ohala 1990). Recent proposals by Gafos (2002), and…
Ben-David, Avivit; Ezrati, Ruth; Stulman, Navah
This study examines the production and reduction patterns of initial /s/ clusters by Hebrew-speaking children with phonological disorders. Data were collected from 30 children with phonological disorders between the ages of 3;5-5;2. The data were elicited by means of a picture-naming task combined with a sentence completion task. Target words…
Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Philippe Bonnet
The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n= 57) were
Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.
During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences. PMID:16952338
Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.
The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…
Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.
Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…
Navarrete, Eduardo; Costa, Albert
Four experiments are reported exploring whether distractor pictures activate their phonological properties in the course of speech production. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with two pictures and were asked to name one while ignoring the other. Distractor pictures were phonologically related, semantically related or unrelated to the…
Dillon, Brian; Dunbar, Ewan; Idsardi, William
To acquire one's native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships has each in its own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations…
Using the lens of phonetic experience to resolve phonological forms Catherine T. Best a,b , Ann R with the phonetic details of the language(s) we have learned. Several of the papers presented here offer key our perception of phonetic details and phonological structure in spoken language. & 2011 Elsevier Ltd
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Émérillon stress: a phonetic and phonological study1 Matthew Gordon* and Françoise Rose Scientifique, email@example.com Abstract. This paper explores phonetic and phonological features of the stress of the principles governing the halshs-00453566,version1-5Feb2010 #12;3 location of stress and also from a phonetic
Bruce P. Hayes
Functionalist phonetic literature has shown how the phonologies of human languages are arranged to facilitate ease of articulation and perception. The explanatory force of phonological theory is greatly increased if it can directly access these research results. There are two formal mechanisms that together can facilitate the link-up of formal to functional work. As others have noted, Optimality Theory, with
As a subfield of linguistics, phonetics and phonology have as their main axis the concern of articulation of sounds; that is, how human beings produce speech. Although dated back over 2000 years ago, modern contributions of scientists and scholars regarding phonetics and phonology have involved various fields of science and schools of thought such…
Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Barlow, Jessica A.
Drawing on archival data on the sound systems of five children ages 3 to 4 with normal development and 47 children ages 3 to 6 with phonological delay, one chain shift (interaction of phonological substitution errors) was identified in the speech of six children. Different derivational and constraint-based accounts of the chain shift were…
Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.
Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…
Alario, F.-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C.
The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g.,…
Beech, John R.
The developing use of a dictionary has the potential to provide self-teaching opportunities to improve reading, spelling and general phonological skills. Children's dictionary use was examined in two studies to find out patterns of use, skill and frequency of use and the relationships between these and reading, spelling and phonological…
Tyler, Ann A.; Lewis, Kerry E.; Haskill, Allison; Tolbert, Leslie C.
Twenty preschoolers with impairments in both morphosyntax and phonology were assigned to an intervention of two 12-week blocks beginning with either a block of phonology first (n=10) or a block of morphosyntax first (n=10). Both interventions were effective. The morphosyntax first sequence led to slightly better overall morphosyntactic…
Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.
False memories created by the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure typically show a developmental reversal whereby levels of false recall increase with age. In contrast, false memories produced by phonological lists have been shown to decrease as age increases. In the current study we show that phonological false memories, like semantic false…
McDonald, Janet L.
This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…
Frost, Julie A.; Emery, Michael J.
This digest presents basic information for those providing educational services to children with dyslexia who have phonological core deficits. First it provides a brief overview, noting the incidence of dyslexia and the large number of these children with phonological deficits which result in far less academic progress than experienced by other…
Janda, Richard D.; Joseph, Brian D.
In this paper the morphological argument for the conditioning of Sanskrit aspiration and deaspiration is renewed in theoretically current terms, bringing forth new arguments and examining previously undiscussed major weaknesses in the purely phonological (autosegmental) argument. Relevant phonological, morphological, and lexical facts are…
between them. Fur- ther, a statistical learning based computational model can be shown to account memory is based on statistical learning; (2) phonological learning of word forms is based on implicit The hypothesis that phonological learning of word forms is based on implicit memory predicts that implicit mem
Yasushi Hino; Shinobu Miyamura; Stephen J. Lupker
It is generally assumed that orthographic–phonological (O-P) consistencies are higher for Japanese kana words than for kanji\\u000a words and that orthographic–semantic (O-S) consistencies are higher for kanji words than for kana words. In order to examine\\u000a the validity of these assumptions, we attempted to measure the O-P and O-S consistencies for 339 kana words and 775 kanji\\u000a words. Orthographic neighbors
Escobar, W. A.
The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:24319436