These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Measuring Phonological Awareness Through the Invented Spellings of Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children spontaneously invent spellings for words before they can read. Discusses two experiments which explore the possibility that the preconventional spelling skills of kindergarten children can serve as a measure of phonological awareness and thereby predict first-grade reading ability. (Author/NH)

Mann, Virginia A.; And Others

1987-01-01

2

Contrast Responsivity in MT+ Correlates with Phonological Awareness and Reading Measures in Children  

PubMed Central

There are several independent sets of findings concerning the neural basis of reading. One set demonstrates a powerful relationship between phonological processing and reading skills. Another set reveals a relationship between visual responses in the motion pathways and reading skills. It is widely assumed that these two findings are unrelated. We tested the hypothesis that phonological awareness is related to motion responsivity in children’s MT+. We measured BOLD signals to drifting gratings as a function of contrast. Subjects were 35 children ages 7–12y with a wide range of reading skills. Contrast responsivity in MT+, but not V1, was correlated with phonological awareness and to a lesser extent with two other measures of reading. No correlation was found between MT+ signals and rapid naming, age or general IQ measures. These results establish an important link between visual and phonological processing in children and suggest that MT+ responsivity is a marker for healthy reading development. PMID:17689981

Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

2007-01-01

3

Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

2010-01-01

4

Measuring Early Literacy Skills: A Latent Variable Investigation of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Preschool (PALS-PreK) instrument were investigated in a sample of 4,518 children. PALS-PreK figures prominently in state and federal early literacy programs as an assessment of emergent literacy skills in preschool-aged children. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory…

Townsend, Monika; Konold, Timothy R.

2010-01-01

5

Measuring Phonological Awareness in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA. Method: One hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with…

Webb, Mi-young L.; Lederberg, Amy R.

2014-01-01

6

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

7

Morphological awareness: Just “more phonological”? The roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the morphophonemic nature of the English orthography, surprisingly few studies have examined the roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading. This 4-year longitudinal study (Grades 2-5) compared these two factors in three aspects of reading development: pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, and single word reading. Morphological awareness contributed significantly to pseudoword reading and reading comprehension, after controlling prior measures

S. HÉLÈNE DEACON; JOHN R. KIRBY

2004-01-01

8

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

9

Measuring Early Spanish Literacy: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…

Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao

2013-01-01

10

Assessment and Instruction in Phonological Awareness. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help Florida teachers incorporate assessment and instruction of phonological awareness into their pre-reading and reading curriculum. The first section describes what phonological awareness is and how it is related to reading instruction. It summarizes research evidence on the role of phonological awareness in reading…

Torgesen, Joseph K.; Mathes, Patricia G.

11

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

12

Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-01-01

13

Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

Chipere, Ngoni

2014-01-01

14

Phonological Awareness, Peer Nominations, and Social Competence among Preschool Children at Risk for Developing Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationship between phonological awareness skills and social-emotional competence among 98 Israeli preschool children, 39 at risk for developing learning disabilities. Children at risk had lower phonological awareness measures, viewed themselves as more lonely, felt less confident, and were less accepted by peers. (Contains…

Most, Tova; Al-Yagon, Michal; Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Margalit, Malka

2000-01-01

15

Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2008-01-01

16

Phonological Distance Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum,likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against na¨?ve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users.

Nathan C. Sanders; Steven B. Chin

2009-01-01

17

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

18

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

19

Treating Children with Expressive Phonological Disorders: Does Phonological Awareness Therapy Work in the Clinic?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent research has shown that phonological awareness therapy can improve speech production in children with expressive phonological disorders. This approach may be appealing to clinicians as the therapy may also benefit the children's general phonological abilities and lead to gains in their literacy skills. Aims: To examine the…

Denne, M.; Langdown, N.; Pring, T.; Roy, P.

2005-01-01

20

Phonological Distance Measures.  

PubMed

Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning's (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

2009-02-01

21

Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Low-Progress Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school…

Neilson, Roslyn

2009-01-01

22

Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

2014-01-01

23

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

2014-01-01

24

Promoting Phonological Awareness Skills of Egyptian Kindergarteners through Dialogic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…

Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem

2013-01-01

25

The role of phonological awareness in mediating between reading and listening to speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that phonological awareness correlates with children's reading aloud and also adults' literacy experience. More recent research has further suggested that phonological awareness is associated with the processing of spoken language, which is a correlate of reading comprehension. In this paper, I argue that phonological awareness, reading, and spoken language are intercorrelated because phonological awareness mediates between

Him Cheung

2007-01-01

26

The Effects of Embedded Phonological Awareness Training on the Reading and Spelling Skills of Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…

Robinson, Sarah

2010-01-01

27

Relationship between the Phonological Awareness Skills and Writing Skills of the First Year Students at Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the first year students at primary school. In the study, the phonological awareness skills and writing skills of the students were measured at the beginning of the term. Students' writing skills were measured in the middle of…

Erdogan, Ozge

2011-01-01

28

Phonological awareness for american sign language.  

PubMed

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. PMID:25149961

Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-10-01

29

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

E-print Network

minimum of 18 months (CI group) and 26 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Children's phonological awareness, speech perception, speech production, general language, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge abilities were assessed...

Ambrose, Sophie Eva

2009-12-04

30

Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?  

E-print Network

casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2007-01-01

31

Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Predict Word Attack and Word Identification in Adults with Mild Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we asked whether measures of phonological awareness and rapid naming were correlated with single-word reading skills of 30 adults with mild mental retardation. We presented four tests of phonological awareness (for rime, first, middle, and end-sound categorization), two rapid-naming tests (pictures and letters), and the Woodcock…

Saunders, Kathryn J.; DeFulio, Anthony

2007-01-01

32

A Balanced Literacy Approach Incorporating Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquiring literacy is one of the most important elements in building a foundation for success in education and life. This study describes a program that was implemented from January through May, 2001, for improvement in phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness and reading readiness skills through explicit instruction of phonemic awareness with…

Hawley, Melissa A.

33

Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

34

Exploring Hypotheses about Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading-related skills were tested in adults with and without reading disabilities (RD) or with profound hearing impairment (PHI). Both RD and PHI groups demonstrated low levels of phonological awareness but the RD group also exhibited deficits in verbal short-term memory, morphological awareness, speeded written naming, reading comprehension, and…

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.

2002-01-01

35

Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…

Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling

2008-01-01

36

Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from\\u000a the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime\\u000a and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset awareness task in grade\\u000a one, but the difference disappeared in higher

Xi Chen; Yu-Min Ku; Emiko Koyama; Richard C. Anderson; Wenling Li

2008-01-01

37

Reading speed and phonological awareness deficits among arabic-speaking children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25515022

Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

2015-02-01

38

Importance of Speech Production for Phonological Awareness and Word Decoding: The Case of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…

Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

2009-01-01

39

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

40

Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

41

Early Mathematics and Phonological Awareness in Two Child Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum development during early childhood is informed through an understanding of the cognitive skills that develop concurrently in the earliest years. Extending previous work, this study examined the relationship between early mathematics and phonological awareness (PA) skills for 37 children (14 girls; overall mean age?=?47.6 months,…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Lokteff, Maegan

2013-01-01

42

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether preschoolage…

Ambrose, Sophie E.

2009-01-01

43

Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

2015-01-01

44

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

45

General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

2013-01-01

46

Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

2011-01-01

47

A Comparison between Word and Nonword Reading in Down Syndrome: The Role of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine whether any observed relationship between phonological awareness and reading ability in Down syndrome reflects the typical use of a phonologically based approach to reading, 12 children and young adults with Down syndrome were assessed for reading and phonological awareness skills. They were compared to a control group of 14…

Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

2008-01-01

48

The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological

Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

2013-01-01

49

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

50

Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological

Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

2011-01-01

51

The Relationship between Prosodic Perception, Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary in Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…

Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.

2014-01-01

52

Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.  

PubMed

One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

2014-10-01

53

Meta-Analysis of Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Language, Age, and Psycholinguistic Grain Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing interest in the role of phonological awareness across languages. However, the role of phonological awareness in various languages may differ by features of the languages as well as by features of the speakers. The current meta-analysis catalogs these relations and examines factors that may have influenced how closely related…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Tao, Sha; Garnaat, Sarah; Bunta, Ferenc; Francis, David J.

2012-01-01

54

Training Phonological Awareness: A Study with Inner-City Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inner-city kindergarten children (n=24) were given an 18-week phonological awareness training program, which incorporated auditory and articulatory techniques for fostering metaphonological development. Compared to controls, subjects had greater gains in phonological awareness at the end of kindergarten and had a trend toward better reading skills…

Brady, Susan; And Others

1994-01-01

55

Gains from Training in Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten Predict Reading Comprehension in Grade 9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a kindergarten training program in phonological awareness with 209 Swedish-speaking children were followed up until the end of Grade 9. Initial levels of letter knowledge and phonological awareness were positively associated with the level of decoding skill in Grade 3 but not with its growth afterward. The intervention group…

Kjeldsen, Ann-Christina; Kärnä, Antti; Niemi, Pekka; Olofsson, Åke; Witting, Katarina

2014-01-01

56

Temporal Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample.

Amaral, M. I. R.; Casali, R. L.; Boscariol, M.; Lunardi, L. L.; Guerreiro, M. M.; Colella-Santos, M. F.

2015-01-01

57

Effectiveness of an Integrated Phonological Awareness Approach for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Change in speech, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, word decoding, and spelling skills were examined. A controlled multiple single-subject design was employed. Twelve children aged 4-7 years with…

McNeill, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

58

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically developing children, ages 61 to 78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., "chair-chain-ship") that varied orthogonally by a phonological

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

59

The Importance of Letter Knowledge in the Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous correlational and experimental research has found a positive association between phonological awareness and reading skills. This paper provides an overview of studies in this area and shows that many studies have neglected to control for extraneous variables such as ability, phonological memory, pre-existing reading skills and letter…

Blaiklock, Ken E.

2004-01-01

60

Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…

Williams, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

61

Phonological Awareness and Reading Speed Deficits in Reading Disabled Greek-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that phonological awareness skills secure decoding ability and that phonological deficits underlie failure to acquire adequate word recognition. Slow word-reading rate may be an additional defining characteristic of reading disability. The present study aimed to investigate whether: (1) reading disabled (RD) Greek-speaking…

Constantinidou, Maria; Stainthorp, Rhona

2009-01-01

62

The Role of Phonological Awareness Development in Young Chinese EFL Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a psycholinguistic study of the development of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese children acquiring their first language and learning a foreign language at the same time. The language situation of these children in relation to PA is of particular interest because Chinese and English have not only different phonological systems, but also different writing

Ching-ning Chien; Li-hua Kao; Li Wei

2008-01-01

63

Phonological Awareness: Curricular and Instructional Implications for Diverse Learners. Technical Report No. 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review focuses on areas of converging evidence concerning the importance of phonological awareness and the corresponding curricular and instructional implications for diverse learners. Five areas of converging evidence are identified: (1) phonological processing ability explains significant differences between good and poor readers; (2)…

Smith, Sylvia Barrus; And Others

64

Changes in Letter Sound Knowledge Are Associated with Development of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letter sound knowledge, which, together with phonological awareness, is highly predictive of pre-school children's reading acquisition, derives from children's knowledge of their associated letter names and the phonological patterns of those names. In this study of 66 monolingual pre-school children we examined whether phonological patterns…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

2006-01-01

65

The development of phonological awareness: effects of spoken language experience and orthography.  

PubMed

Phonological awareness, the ability to analyze spoken language into small sound units, has been shown to be affected by the individual's early orthographic experience (alphabetic vs. non-alphabetic). Past studies, however, have not differentiated the effect of script alphabeticity from that of spoken language experience, which covaries strongly with the phonological properties of the language. The present study compares younger, pre-reading to older, literate children from different linguistic backgrounds on their phonological awareness. Hong Kong and Guangzhou subjects both spoke Cantonese. The latter subjects had early experience with Pinyin (alphabetic) in addition to their logographic Chinese reading; the former read only logographic Chinese. New Zealand subjects spoke English and read the Roman alphabet. Results showed that: (1) the Hong Kong and Guangzhou pre-readers performed very similarly at all levels of phonological awareness; (2) the New Zealand pre-readers outperformed their Hong Kong and Guangzhou counterparts on onset, rime, and coda analyses; (3) the Guangzhou reading children outperformed their Hong Kong counterparts on onset and coda analyses. Whereas finding (3) reflects an effect of alphabeticity in the first learned script, finding (2) in combination with finding (1) indicates an effect of early spoken language experience independent of orthography. The fact that orthographic and spoken language experience both impact on the development of phonological skills implies a mediating function of phonological awareness in integrating sound information derived from reading and perceiving speech. PMID:11483171

Cheung, H; Chen, H C; Lai, C Y; Wong, O C; Hills, M

2001-10-01

66

The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population.  

PubMed

The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

Fracasso, Lucille E; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S

2014-06-16

67

Mimicking Accented Speech as L2 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated Spanish-speaking learners' awareness of a non-distinctive phonetic difference between Spanish and English through a delayed mimicry paradigm. We assessed learners' speech production accuracy through voice onset time (VOT) duration measures in word-initial pre-vocalic /p t k/ in Spanish and English words, and in…

Mora, Joan C.; Rochdi, Youssef; Kivistö-de Souza, Hanna

2014-01-01

68

Effects of a Phonological Awareness Program on English Reading and Spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction…

Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siegel, Linda S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

69

Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

2012-01-01

70

The Role of Music Perception in Predicting Phonological Awareness in Five- and Six-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music perception in predicting phonological awareness in five- and six-year-old children. This study was based on the hypothesis that music perception and phonological awareness appear to have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms. Previous research investigating the relationship between these…

Lathroum, Linda M.

2011-01-01

71

Bilingual Phonological Awareness: Multilevel Construct Validation among Spanish-Speaking Kindergarteners in Transitional Bilingual Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct validity of English and Spanish phonological awareness (PA) tasks was examined with a sample of 812 kindergarten children from 71 transitional bilingual education program classrooms located in 3 different types of geographic regions in California and Texas. Tasks of PA, including blending nonwords, segmenting words, and phoneme…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Ortiz, Alba; Carlo, Maria; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

72

Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

2010-01-01

73

Comparing Two Forms of Dynamic Assessment and Traditional Assessment of Preschool Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the current study was to compare two forms of dynamic assessment and standard assessment of preschool children's phonological awareness. The first form of dynamic assessment was a form of scaffolding in which item formats were modified in response to an error so as to make the task easier or more explicit. The second form of dynamic…

Kantor, Patricia Thatcher; Wagner, Richard K.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2011-01-01

74

Phonological Awareness, Letter Knowledge, and Literacy Development in Indonesian Beginner Readers and Spellers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the grain size predominantly used by children learning to read and spell in Indonesian. Indonesian is an orthographically transparent language, and the syllable is a salient unit. Tasks assessing various levels of phonological awareness as well as letter knowledge, reading familiar words and…

Winskel, Heather; Widjaja, Vivilia

2007-01-01

75

Investigating the Relationship between Social Behaviors and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal effects of social behaviors in predicting phonological awareness outcomes in 4-year-old children. Method: One hundred two children (52 boys, 50 girls) were recruited from 11 schools serving low-income neighborhoods in a large metropolitan city and were assessed at the beginning and end of the preschool…

Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi

2013-01-01

76

The Phonological Awareness Scale of Early Childhood Period (PASECP) Development and Psychometric Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…

Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru

2013-01-01

77

Classroom Phonological Awareness Instruction and Literacy Outcomes in the First Year of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…

Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.

2013-01-01

78

Relationships between Reading Ability in Third Grade and Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify relationships that exist between reading ability in 3rd grade and phonological awareness in kindergarten. A second purpose was to identify specific prereading skills that best predict later reading success. This study used a quantitative research design to answer the research questions posed. The…

Pannell, Melissa

2012-01-01

79

Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

2010-01-01

80

Promoting Phonological Awareness in Pre-Primary Education: Possibilities of the "Awakening to Languages" Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at evaluating and understanding the effects of an awakening to languages (AtL) programme, carried out with a group of 21 Portuguese children aged three to six, in the development of phonological awareness (PA). Using mixed-methods research, data was gathered from video recordings of seven AtL sessions and PA tests for an…

Lourenço, Mónica; Andrade, Ana Isabel

2014-01-01

81

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

82

Phonological Awareness in Swedish-Speaking Children with Complex Communication Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with complex communication needs (CCN) often experience problems achieving literacy. The aim of this project was to study phonological awareness, a central predictor for literacy achievement, in children with CCN, and to compare their performance to a group of children with natural speech. Method: One group of 15 Swedish…

Larsson, Maria; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

2008-01-01

83

Cross-Language Correlates in Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed: Evidence from Deep and Shallow Orthographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) skills in relation to reading acquisition were examined using two languages, one with a deep orthography (English) and the other with a shallow orthography (Korean). Participants were 50 Korean American children who spoke English as a dominant language (DL) and were learning to read…

Pae, Hye Kyeong; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

2010-01-01

84

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

85

Spanish Phonological Awareness: Dimensionality and Sequence of Development during the Preschool and Kindergarten Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the dimensionality and continuum of Spanish phonological awareness (PA) skills in 3- to 6-year-old children. A 3 x 4 factorial design crossed word structure of test items (word, syllable, phoneme) with task (blending multiple-choice, blending free-response, elision multiple-choice, elision free-response) to assess 12 PA…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Duran, Lillian K.; Gillam, Sandra Laing; Liang, Lan; Aghara, Rachel; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Mike A.; Landry, Susan H.

2011-01-01

86

Phonological Awareness and Listening Comprehension among Chinese English-Immersion Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…

Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.

2012-01-01

87

Effect of phonological and morphological awareness on reading comprehension in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities\\u000a (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh\\u000a graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and\\u000a 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological

Rachel Schiff; Sarit Schwartz-Nahshon; Revital Nagar

2011-01-01

88

Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2010-01-01

89

Effect of Phonological and Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension in Hebrew-Speaking Adolescents with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for…

Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

2011-01-01

90

Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.  

PubMed

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2013-12-01

91

Changing Models across Cultures: Associations of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Structure Awareness with Vocabulary and Word Recognition in Second Graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data provided by approximately 100 second graders each from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States, we investigated relations among phonological awareness, morphological structure awareness, vocabulary, and word recognition. Our results indicate that across languages, phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness are…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Liu, Hongyun; Wagner, Richard K.; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Cheuk, Cecilia S-M.; Muse, Andrea

2005-01-01

92

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

93

A common haplotype of KIAA0319 contributes to the phonological awareness skill in Chinese children  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. Method and results A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (p nominal ?=?6.85 10 -5 and p corrected ?=?0.0029). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill. PMID:25015435

2014-01-01

94

Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

95

Effects of phonological awareness and naming speed on mathematics skills in children with mild intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Both phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed have been identified as two skills related to the development of mathematics skills for children with and without learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PA and colour naming speed for 265 elementary school students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Methods: Participants were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes and the KeyMath Revised Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. Results: Hierarchical regression analyses accounting for the effects of age indicated that children with MID rely on both PA and naming speed when solving mathematics problems, although PA was the more robust indicator of the two. Conclusion: As a whole, these results suggest that children with intellectual disabilities evidence the same types of reading and math relationships as shown for other populations of children. PMID:24564185

Foster, Matthew E; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

2014-02-24

96

Phonological awareness and decoding in deaf/hard-of-hearing students who use visual phonics.  

PubMed

Visual phonics, a system of 45 hand and symbol cues that represent the phonemes of spoken English, has been used as a tool in literacy instruction with deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) students for over 20 years. Despite years of anecdotal support, there is relatively little published evidence of its impact on reading achievement. This study was designed to examine the relationship between performance on a phonological awareness task, performance on a decoding task, reading ability, and length of time in literacy instruction with visual phonics for 10 DHH kindergarten through Grade 3 students receiving academic instruction with sign-supported English and American Sign Language. Findings indicate that these students were able to use phonological information to make rhyme judgments and to decode; however, no relationship between performance on reading ability and length of time in literacy instruction with visual phonics was found. PMID:18209021

Narr, Rachel F

2008-01-01

97

Development of Phonological Awareness in English-Mandarin Bilinguals: A Comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…

Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2012-01-01

98

The impact of Visual Phonics on the phonological awareness and speech production of a student who is deaf: a case study.  

PubMed

The researchers explored the effectiveness of Visual Phonics as a reading instructional tool when used in conjunction with a modified version of the Fountas and Pinnell Kindergarten Phonics Curriculum (Fountas & Pinnell, 2002) with a preschool student who was deaf. The study participant was a 4-year-old deaf child who had a cochlear implant. The goal of the study was to determine whether the student's phonological awareness and speech production improved over the course of a 6-week intervention. Identical pre- and postintervention tests were administered to measure the extent of any improvement. It was found that Visual Phonics used with a phonics-based curriculum significantly increased phonological awareness and speech production. PMID:20925283

Smith, Andrea; Wang, Ye

2010-01-01

99

A phonologically congruent sound boosts a visual target into perceptual awareness  

PubMed Central

Capacity limitations of attentional resources allow only a fraction of sensory inputs to enter our awareness. Most prominently, in the attentional blink the observer often fails to detect the second of two rapidly successive targets that are presented in a sequence of distractor items. To investigate how auditory inputs enable a visual target to escape the attentional blink, this study presented the visual letter targets T1 and T2 together with phonologically congruent or incongruent spoken letter names. First, a congruent relative to an incongruent sound at T2 rendered visual T2 more visible. Second, this T2 congruency effect was amplified when the sound was congruent at T1 as indicated by a T1 congruency × T2 congruency interaction. Critically, these effects were observed both when the sounds were presented in synchrony with and prior to the visual target letters suggesting that the sounds may increase visual target identification via multiple mechanisms such as audiovisual priming or decisional interactions. Our results demonstrate that a sound around the time of T2 increases subjects' awareness of the visual target as a function of T1 and T2 congruency. Consistent with Bayesian causal inference, the brain may thus combine (1) prior congruency expectations based on T1 congruency and (2) phonological congruency cues provided by the audiovisual inputs at T2 to infer whether auditory and visual signals emanate from a common source and should hence be integrated for perceptual decisions. PMID:25309357

Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta

2014-01-01

100

Phonological Awareness of Children with Down Syndrome: Its Role in Learning to Read and the Effectiveness of Related Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in our language. It is key to learning to read for typically developing children. Some have suggested that this is not true for children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this review was to provide a better understanding of the role PA plays for…

Lemons, Christopher J.; Fuchs, Douglas

2010-01-01

101

Using a Bifactor Model to Assess the Factor Structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Grades 1 through 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Grades 1 through 3 (PALS 1-3), a widely used early literacy screener in the Commonwealth of Virginia, was investigated using a large sample of public-school second-grade students (n = 14,993). Three alternative factor models (i.e., a one-factor, two-correlated factors, and a…

Huang, Francis L.

2014-01-01

102

A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

2011-01-01

103

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

104

Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

2011-01-01

105

The Effectiveness of Explicit Individualized Phonemic Awareness Instruction by a Speech-Language Pathologist to Preschool Children with Phonological Speech Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of an explicit individualized phonemic awareness intervention administered by a speech-language pathologist to 4 prekindergarten children with phonological speech sound disorders. Research has demonstrated that children with moderate-severe expressive phonological disorders are at-risk for poor literacy…

Nullman, Susan L.

2009-01-01

106

Tracking the Roots of Reading Ability: White Matter Volume and Integrity Correlate with Phonological Awareness in Prereading and Early-Reading Kindergarten Children  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.

2013-01-01

107

Tracking the roots of reading ability: white matter volume and integrity correlate with phonological awareness in prereading and early-reading kindergarten children.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Saygin, Zeynep M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Osher, David E; Beach, Sara D; Cyr, Abigail B; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E

2013-08-14

108

The importance of phonological awareness for the development of early English reading skills among bilingual Singaporean kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are all bilingual or early second-language (L2) learners of English and learn English reading

L. Quentin Dixon

2010-01-01

109

Predicting reading outcomes in the classroom using a computer-based phonological awareness screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA).  

PubMed

The screening and monitoring of phonological awareness (PA) in the classroom is of great importance to the early identification and prevention of reading disorder. This study investigated whether a time-efficient computer-based PA screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA) could accurately predict end-of-year reading outcomes for 5-year-old children in the first year of schooling. A longitudinal design was employed where the Com-PASMA was used to measure the PA ability of 95 5-year-old children at the start, middle, and end of the first year of school. Of this group, 21 children presented with spoken language impairment. Reading outcomes were formally measured after 1 year of schooling. School-entry measures of PA using the Com-PASMA (p < .001), in conjunction with language ability (p = .004), accounted for 68.9% of the variance in end-of-year word decoding ability. Sensitivity and specificity calculations demonstrated that the Com-PASMA was 92% accurate at school-entry, and 94% accurate by the middle of the school year in predicting reading outcomes at 6-years of age. Results suggest that a time-efficient computer-based method of screening and monitoring PA can support the early identification of reading difficulties in the first year of schooling. PMID:24236912

Carson, Karyn; Boustead, Therese; Gillon, Gail

2014-12-01

110

Immediate Memory for Pseudowords and Phonological Awareness Are Associated in Adults and Pre-Reading Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated phonological components of reading skill at two ages, using a novel pseudoword repetition task for assessing phonological memory (PM). Pseudowords were designed to incorporate control over segmental, prosodic and lexical features. In Experiment 1, the materials were administered to 3- and 4-year-old children together with a…

Clark, Nathaniel B.; McRoberts, Gerald W.; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Braze, David

2012-01-01

111

Immediate memory for pseudowords and phonological awareness are associated in adults and pre-reading children  

E-print Network

storage system, arguably a part of the human specialization for language, which is geared toward retention developing children and those with language-related impairments. Keywords: phonological memory, phonological-Shalom, 1990). As a short-term workspace, it provides for retention of a word's phonolo- gical representation

112

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

113

Improving Phonological Awareness and Reading through Rhyme Picture Books for EFL Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. The Taiwanese educational system incorporated English classes into the third grade curriculum beginning in 2005, making English language education more and more important in Taiwan. The goals for implementing this English educational policy in elementary schools are for students to be able to comprehend letters, phonology, and…

Yang, Hui Chen

2009-01-01

114

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

115

Children's Expressive Language Skills and Their Impact on the Relation between First-and Second-Language Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…

Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.

2014-01-01

116

The Effects of an Adapted Interactive Writing Intervention on Kindergarten Children's Phonological Awareness, Spelling, and Early Reading Development: A Contextualized Approach to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a pretest-posttest comparison-group design, this 16-week study investigated the effects of 2 instructional approaches on the phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and early reading of kindergarten children. The primary goal was to compare a form of contextualized instruction based on an adapted interactive writing program with a…

Craig, Sharon A.

2006-01-01

117

First Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness and Code Concepts: Examining Gains from an Intensive Form of Professional Development and Corresponding Teacher Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and…

Brady, Susan; Gillis, Margie; Smith, Tara; Lavalette, MaryEllen; Liss-Bronstein, Linda; Lowe, Evelyn; North, Wendy; Russo, Evelyn; Wilder, T. Diane

2009-01-01

118

Measuring Team Situation Awareness in Training of  

E-print Network

Measuring Team Situation Awareness in Training of En Route Air Traffic Control METHOD & DATA;Measuring Team Situation Awareness in En Route Air Traffic Control. Appendix. Due to practical............................................................................................. 74 2 #12;Measuring Team Situation Awareness in En Route Air Traffic Control. Appendix. 1 Data

119

Relationships among Consistency/Variability and Other Phonological Measures over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores selected phonological measures, their relationships to one another, and how groups differentiated by such measures change over time during intervention. Relationships among global quantitative measures of severity (percent consonants correct), measures of variability/consistency, and measures of whole-word complexity and…

Tyler, Ann A.; Lewis, Kerry E.

2005-01-01

120

Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European portuguese orthography.  

PubMed

This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N?=?24; aged 10-12?years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N?=?24; aged 10-12?years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N?=?24; aged 7-9?years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25530196

Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

2015-02-01

121

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

122

Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

2009-01-01

123

Test-Retest Reliability of Independent Measures of Phonology in the Assessment of Toddlers' Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal stability of 5 independent measures of phonological skill: phonetic inventory (initial, final), word shape, syllable structure level, and the index of phonetic complexity. Method: Ten toddlers with typical development participated in two 20-min play sessions within a 1-week period.…

Morris, Sherrill R.

2009-01-01

124

MEASURING SPEECH MOTOR SKILLS IN NORMALLY DEVELOPING AND PHONOLOGICALLY DISORDERED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normally developing and phonologically disordered 3 and 4- year-old children (groups N and P) were compared on measures of articulation rate in imitated and spontaneous connected sp eech and in diadochokinetic (DDK) tasks. The P group exhibited significantly slower mean articulation rates than the N group in the connected speech samples. There was no significant difference between the group means

Wendy M M Cohen; Daphne Waters

125

Measuring ESL Students' Awareness of Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument, which is intended to measure adolescent and adult ESL students' metacognitive awareness and perceived use of reading strategies while reading academic materials such as textbooks. Discusses the development of SORS and offers guidance for using it as a means of raising learner awareness

Mokharti, Kouider; Sheorey, Ravi

2002-01-01

126

What Is Morphological Awareness? Tapping Lexical Compounding Awareness in Chinese Third Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred twenty-one third-grade Chinese children were assessed with a new morphological awareness task involving open-ended lexical compounding, in addition to completing other measures. With children's age, nonverbal intelligence, phonological awareness, and previously established measures of morphological awareness statistically controlled,…

Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2010-01-01

127

Measuring Situation Awareness in complex systems: Comparison of measures study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing operator situation awareness is a key component of sociotechnical system design and evaluation. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare two different situation awareness measures (a freeze probe recall approach and a post trial subjective rating approach) when used to assess participant situation awareness during a military planning task. The results indicate that only

Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Guy H. Walker; Daniel Jenkins; Darshna Ladva; Laura Rafferty; Mark Young

2009-01-01

128

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

129

Bilingualism and learning: The effect of language pair on phonological awareness abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children first exposed to English as a second language when they start school are at risk for poor academic outcome. They perform less well than their monolingual peers, matched for socio-economic background, at the end of primary school on measures of language and literacy, despite immersion in English at school. Previous research suggests, however, that some bilingual children do better

Barbara J. Dodd; Lydia K. H. So; Kobe K. C. Lam

2008-01-01

130

Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

2003-01-01

131

Phonological Skills and Their Role in Learning to Read: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a systematic meta-analytic review of the relationships among 3 of the most widely studied measures of children's phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory) and children's word reading skills. The review included both extreme group studies and correlational studies with unselected samples (235 studies were included, and 995 effect sizes were calculated). Results from

Monica Melby-Lervåg; Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster; Charles Hulme

2012-01-01

132

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

133

Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

134

Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane

2015-01-01

135

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

136

The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Comprehension among Typical and Learning Disabled Native Arabic Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills,…

Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

2010-01-01

137

Relationships between Nonword Repetition Accuracy and Other Measures of Linguistic Development in Children with Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has documented effects of phonotactic probability on young children's nonword repetition. This study extends this research in 2 ways. First, it compares nonword repetitions by 40 young children with phonological disorders with those by 40 same-age peers with typical phonological development on a nonword repetition task…

Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2005-01-01

138

Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness  

SciTech Connect

Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

2013-03-01

139

Sensitivity Analysis of Situational Awareness Measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames Research Center, each pilot flew eight trials, four using SAGAT and four using performance measures. Each set of four trials differed by level of visibility as well. The flight paths were very similar in appearance and hazard number, allowing comparison between flight paths. The pilots were tasked with flying along a road at an assigned altitude and speed while avoiding any hazards that they happened upon. The attempt here was not to find a single best measure of SA, but rather to begin an investigation of the sensitivity of common measures of SA. Upon completion of this study, its results, in combination with future studies, should allow us to develop an empirically based taxonomy of SA measures and the contexts for their appropriate use.

Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

140

Measurement of Team Situation Awareness in Low Experience Level Aviators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two measurement methods for situation awareness were tested on 2-person aircrews and compared for the information they yielded on team situation awareness. Forty-one crews of low experience level military aviators flew 2 different scenarios, 1 in a full-mission simulator, a 1 in a low-fidelity trainer. Team situation awareness was measured by instructor and observers in the high-fidelity simulator scenario and

Carolyn Prince; Erica Ellis; Michael T. Brannick; Eduardo Salas

2007-01-01

141

The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

2012-01-01

142

Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Spanish-speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M., McDonald, Renee; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah , Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

143

Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Younger and Older Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; McDonald, Renee; Francis, David J.

2007-01-01

144

The Role of Phonological Representation in Decoding Skills of Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness reflects the strength of a child's ability to represent linguistic information cognitively at the phonological level. Although the role of phonological awareness in early reading decoding has been well documented, its relationship to other factors affecting reading decoding has yet to be fully examined. In this study, the…

Hester, E.; Hodson, B. W.

2004-01-01

145

The Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Emerging Individual Differences in Mathematical Computation Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Second to Fifth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between phonological processing and emerging individual differences in math computation skills. Found that phonological memory, access rate to phonological codes in memory, and phonological awareness were uniquely associated with growth in number of computation procedures mastered from 92.5 to 134.8 months. Phonological

Hecht, Steven A.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2001-01-01

146

Delivering Phonological and Phonics Training within Whole-Class Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early, intensive phonological awareness and phonics training is widely held to be beneficial for children with poor phonological awareness. However, most studies have delivered this training separately from children's normal whole-class reading lessons. Aims: We examined whether integrating this training into whole class, mixed-ability…

Shapiro, Laura R.; Solity, Jonathan

2008-01-01

147

Measuring unconscious cognition: Beyond the zero-awareness criterion  

PubMed Central

Visual masking can be employed to manipulate observers’ awareness of critical stimuli in studies of masked priming. This paper discusses two different lines of attack for establishing unconscious cognition in such experiments. Firstly, simple dissociations between direct measures (D) of visual awareness and indirect measures (I) of processing per se occur when I has some nonzero value while D is at chance level; the traditional requirement of zero awareness is necessary for this criterion only. In contrast, double dissociations occur when some experimental manipulation has opposite effects on I and D, for instance, increasing priming effects despite decreasing prime identification performance (Schmidt & Vorberg, 2006). Double dissociations require much weaker measurement assumptions than other criteria. An attractive alternative to this dissociation approach would be to use tasks that are known to violate necessary conditions of visual awareness altogether. In particular, it is argued here that priming effects in speeded pointing movements (Schmidt, Niehaus, & Nagel, 2006) occur in the absence of the recurrent processing that is often assumed to be a necessary condition for awareness (for instance, DiLollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000; Lamme & Roelfsema, 2000). Feedforward tasks such as this might thus be used to measure the time-course of unconscious processing directly, before intracortical feedback and awareness come into play. PMID:20517514

Schmidt, Thomas

2008-01-01

148

Psychometric Evaluation of the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale with a Kindergarten Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…

Nelson, Jason M.

2008-01-01

149

Ris-R-1343(EN) Measuring Team Situation Awareness in  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1343(EN) Measuring Team Situation Awareness in Training of En Route Air Traffic Control on interrupting tasks. The measures of TSA were based on Air Traffic Controller (ATC) students' visual and verbal Traffic Control Process Oriented Measures for Experimental Studies Ph.D. Thesis, Gunnar Hauland Risø

150

Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

Rantanen, E.M.

2009-01-01

151

Relationships among Rapid Digit Naming, Phonological Processing, Motor Automaticity, and Speech Perception in Poor, Average, and Good Readers and Spellers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we explore the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and other cognitive processes among below-average, average, and above-average readers and spellers. Nonsense word reading, phonological awareness, RAN, automaticity of balance, speech perception, and verbal short-term and working memory were measured. Factor…

Savage, Robert S.; Frederickson, Norah; Goodwin, Roz; Patni, Ulla; Smith, Nicola; Tuersley, Louise

2005-01-01

152

Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures  

PubMed Central

Objectives Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct. Data sources PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database. Review methods Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct. Results From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments. Conclusion Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding of the multi-dimensional construct and suggest next steps for further research. PMID:19440300

Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Stewart, Anita

2009-01-01

153

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

154

The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences. PMID:25071512

Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

2014-01-01

155

A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

Fracker, Martin L.

1988-01-01

156

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

157

Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment  

PubMed Central

One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented. PMID:15465958

Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

2004-01-01

158

Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Performance: A Cross Language Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined two questions: (1) do the greater phonological awareness skills of bilinguals affect reading performance; (2) to what extent do the orthographic characteristics of a language influence reading performance and how does this interact with the effects of phonological awareness. We estimated phonological metalinguistic abilities and…

Ibrahim, Raphiq; Eviatar, Zohar; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

2007-01-01

159

Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B

2014-12-01

160

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

161

Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

Wild, Mary

2009-01-01

162

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

163

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

164

A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N [Formula: see text] 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

Myers, Suzanne; K Robertson, Erin

2014-03-14

165

A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

2013-01-01

166

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

167

Gradient Weight in Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

168

Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

2015-01-01

169

Pushing the Positive: Encouraging Phonological Transfer from L2 to L3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to monolinguals, multilingual learners possess a larger repertoire of phonetic-phonological parameters, have a higher degree of language and meta-linguistic awareness, and have developed increased phonological knowledge. This, combined with the increased cognitive flexibility that accompanies experienced learners, supports their…

Marx, Nicole; Mehlhorn, Grit

2010-01-01

170

Body Conscious? Interoceptive Awareness, Measured by Heartbeat Perception, Is Negatively Correlated with Self-Objectification  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Self-objectification’ is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. Conclusions/Significance We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders. PMID:23405173

Ainley, Vivien; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

171

The relationship between phonological and auditory processing and brain organization in beginning readers  

PubMed Central

We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of skill-correlated regions, including left hemisphere temporoparietal and occipitotemporal sites, as well as inferior frontal, visual, visual attention, and subcortical components. For speech-related activation, shared variance among reading skill measures was most prominently correlated with activation in left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Implications for brain-based models of literacy acquisition are discussed. PMID:22572517

PUGH, Kenneth R.; LANDI, Nicole; PRESTON, Jonathan L.; MENCL, W. Einar; AUSTIN, Alison C.; SIBLEY, Daragh; FULBRIGHT, Robert K.; SEIDENBERG, Mark S.; GRIGORENKO, Elena L.; CONSTABLE, R. Todd; MOLFESE, Peter; FROST, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

172

Tracking the Roots of Reading Ability: White Matter Volume and Integrity Correlate with Phonological Awareness in Prereading and Early-Reading Kindergarten Children  

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these ...

Saygin, Zeynep M.

173

Using Multiple Measures of Morphological Awareness to Assess Its Relation to Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Morphological awareness refers to the ability to consider and manipulate consciously the smallest units of meaning in language. In previous studies investigating students' morphological awareness, no consistent task has been used to measure this skill across grade levels and comparisons among studies have been based on tasks, which…

Apel, Kenn; Diehm, Emily; Apel, Lynda

2013-01-01

174

Development of a Cognate Awareness Measure for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development and validation of the Cognate Awareness Test (CAT), which measures cognate awareness in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in fourth and fifth grade. An investigation of differential performance on the two subtests of the CAT (cognates and noncognates) provides evidence that the instrument is…

Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Louguit, Mohammed

2008-01-01

175

Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using structural equation modeling the authors evaluated the contribution of morphological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological decoding to reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, spelling, and accuracy and rate of decoding morphologically complex words for 182 4th- and 5th-grade students, 218 6th- and 7th-grade students, and 207 8th- and 9th-grade students in a suburban school district. Morphological awareness made a significant unique

William Nagy; Virginia W. Berninger; Robert D. Abbott

2006-01-01

176

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

177

Measuring Metacognitive Strategies Using the Reading Awareness Scale ESCOLA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Current cognitive approaches highlight the importance of metacognition. "Learning how to learn" facilities awareness of one's own learning process, how they work, how to optimize their functioning, control of reading process, and so on. Acquisition of these skills is one of the new educational requirements for students, as is…

Jimenez, Virginia; Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesus M.; Arrebillaga, Lorena

2009-01-01

178

Inferring Gender From Name Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

English male and female names have different phonological properties. This article examines 3 questions about this phenomenon: How informative is phonology about gender? Have English speakers learned this information? Does this knowledge affect name usage? Results from a connectionist model indicate that English phonology predicts name gender quite well. Experiments found that English speakers have learned these cues. For example,

Kimberly Wright Cassidy; Michael H. Kelly; Lee'at J. Sharoni

1999-01-01

179

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

180

What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation?  

PubMed Central

Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were: 1) word recognition; 2) discrimination of spectral glides; and 3) phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for non-speech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251

Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

2012-01-01

181

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

2006-02-01

182

Phonological and Articulation Treatment Approaches in Portuguese Children with Speech and Language Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…

Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.

2013-01-01

183

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

184

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

185

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

186

Prosodic awareness skills and literacy acquisition in Spanish.  

PubMed

There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and spelling. In written language tests, errors were classified as phonological (grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules) or stress-related (placement of the stress mark). Regression analyses showed that, once memory and phonological awareness were controlled, stress awareness partially explained reading and spelling performance as well as error type; however, differences were found between reading and spelling errors. These results show a relationship between prosodic skills--namely stress sensitivity--and the acquisition of reading and spelling skills that seems to be independent of phonological awareness skills. PMID:22101837

Defior, Sylvia; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Cano-Marín, María José

2012-08-01

187

Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

Killian, Kyle D.

2012-01-01

188

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

189

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive  

E-print Network

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written

190

An international measure of awareness and beliefs about cancer: development and testing of the ABC  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop an internationally validated measure of cancer awareness and beliefs; the awareness and beliefs about cancer (ABC) measure. Design and setting Items modified from existing measures were assessed by a working group in six countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK). Validation studies were completed in the UK, and cross-sectional surveys of the general population were carried out in the six participating countries. Participants Testing in UK English included cognitive interviewing for face validity (N=10), calculation of content validity indexes (six assessors), and assessment of test–retest reliability (N=97). Conceptual and cultural equivalence of modified (Canadian and Australian) and translated (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Canadian French) ABC versions were tested quantitatively for equivalence of meaning (?4 assessors per country) and in bilingual cognitive interviews (three interviews per translation). Response patterns were assessed in surveys of adults aged 50+ years (N?2000) in each country. Main outcomes Psychometric properties were evaluated through tests of validity and reliability, conceptual and cultural equivalence and systematic item analysis. Test–retest reliability used weighted-? and intraclass correlations. Construction and validation of aggregate scores was by factor analysis for (1) beliefs about cancer outcomes, (2) beliefs about barriers to symptomatic presentation, and item summation for (3) awareness of cancer symptoms and (4) awareness of cancer risk factors. Results The English ABC had acceptable test–retest reliability and content validity. International assessments of equivalence identified a small number of items where wording needed adjustment. Survey response patterns showed that items performed well in terms of difficulty and discrimination across countries except for awareness of cancer outcomes in Australia. Aggregate scores had consistent factor structures across countries. Conclusions The ABC is a reliable and valid international measure of cancer awareness and beliefs. The methods used to validate and harmonise the ABC may serve as a methodological guide in international survey research. PMID:23253874

Simon, Alice E; Forbes, Lindsay J L; Boniface, David; Warburton, Fiona; Brain, Kate E; Dessaix, Anita; Donnelly, Michael; Haynes, Kerry; Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Petermann, Lisa; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter; Vigmostad, Maria Nyre; Wardle, Jane; Ramirez, Amanda J

2012-01-01

191

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

192

Validity of a Non-Speech Dynamic Assessment of Phonemic Awareness via the Alphabetic Principle.  

PubMed

Most assessments of phonemic awareness require speech responses and cannot be used with individuals with severe speech impairments who may use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This study investigated the reliability and construct validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Phonemic Awareness via the Alphabetic Principle (DAPA-AP), which does not require speech. In all, 17 adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities completed the DAPA-AP, a letter-sound knowledge task, four measures of phonological awareness, and two reading assessments. Results indicated the DAPA-AP was both a reliable and valid assessment of phonemic awareness for this sample. Consequently, the DAPA-AP represents an important step in developing phonemic awareness assessments that have the potential to be suitable for use with a wide range of individuals, including those with SSI. PMID:24564701

Barker, R Michael; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Saunders, Kathryn J

2014-02-24

193

Impact of phonological processing skills on written language acquisition in illiterate adults.  

PubMed

Illiteracy remains a world-wide problem not only for children but also for adults. Phonological processing has been defined as a crucial factor for the acquisition of written language, which usually occurs in childhood. However, it is unclear to what extent phonological processing is necessary in order for adults to acquire written language skills. We tested 47 illiterate adults before and after a one-year alphabetization course in several cognitive domains relevant to phonological processing and compared their results to 41 matched controls who did not take part in the alphabetization course. Phonological awareness in the narrower sense (e.g., phoneme association) was a stronger predictor of alphabetization outcome than demographic variables such as years of education. In addition, despite improvement of illiterate individuals in phonological awareness, short-term memory, and visual attention from before to after the alphabetization course, they did not reach the phonological processing level of literate controls. Our results confirm that the alphabetization of adults requires and enhances phonological processes similar to those of children. Nevertheless, specific aspects, such as improvements in short-term memory or visual attention, need to be considered in order to improve and optimize alphabetization programs for adults. PMID:22682902

Landgraf, Steffen; Beyer, Reinhard; Hild, Isabella; Schneider, Nancy; Horn, Eleanor; Schaadt, Gesa; Foth, Manja; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

2012-02-15

194

Measuring the Diversity Awareness of Social Work Students: The Dual Perspective Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dual Perspective Inventory was implemented to measure the diversity awareness of first?year MSW students at a university in the western U.S. Data were collected at the beginning of the first semester from students who enrolled in a course on diversity, and again at the end of the semester when the students were about to complete the course. The mean

Wandarah Anderson; Reiko Hayashi; Caren J. Frost

2009-01-01

195

Daytime Image Measurement and Reconstruction for Space Situational Awareness Applications (Paper ID number 4231324)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An operational technology for imaging satellites during the daytime hours would vastly increase the ability of optical space situational awareness (SSA) systems to gather information about satellites. During the day the atmospheric seeing is generally worse than in terminator, and the contribution of sky background noise to the image measurement is significant. We have developed a straightforward model for estimating

M. Roggemann; D. Douglas; E. Therkildsen; D. Archambeault; R. Maeda; D. Schultz; B. Wheeler

2010-01-01

196

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

197

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

198

Changing Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Word-Level Reading as Children Develop from Beginning to Skilled Readers: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's phonological processing abilities, reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through grade four. Found that individual differences in phonological awareness were related to subsequent differences in word-level reading, and that individual differences in letter-name knowledge were related to subsequent…

Wagner, Richard K.; And Others

1997-01-01

199

Teachers' Perceptions of the Use of ASL Phonological Instruction to Develop ASL and English Literacy in an ASL/English Bilingual Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study seeks to understand how teachers who work in an ASL/English bilingual educational program for preschool children conceptualize and utilize phonological instruction of American Sign Language (ASL). While instruction that promotes phonological awareness of spoken English is thought to provide educational benefits to young…

Crume, Peter Kirk

2011-01-01

200

Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.  

PubMed

Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-08-15

201

FASA: Development and Validation of a Novel Measure to Assess the Effectiveness of Commercial Airline Pilot Situation Awareness Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study took a novel approach to the assessment of a commercial airline pilot Situation Awareness (SA) training programme. The Factors Affecting Situation Awareness (FASA) questionnaire was developed to provide a more diagnostic measure of aircrews' acquisition and maintenance of SA. Thirty-two aircrew participants took part in this study; half received standard Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and half received

Simon Banbury; Helen Dudfield; Hans-Juergen Hoermann; Henning Soll

2007-01-01

202

White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.  

PubMed

In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657

Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

2014-10-31

203

Using Static and Dynamic Measures to Estimate Reading Difficulty for Hispanic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the validity of measures that were hypothesized to account for significant variance in English reading ability. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Hispanic children completed letter identification, English and Spanish phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition static assessment tasks. They also…

Petersen, Douglas B.

2010-01-01

204

Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

2012-01-01

205

The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

2013-01-01

206

Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850

Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2014-01-01

207

Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar

Spirtes, Peter

208

Aspects of the Phonology-Syntax Interface in Akan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the phonology-syntax interface in Akan, a language spoken in Ghana and the Cote d'Ivoire, describing a medium of exchange between phonology and syntax. Studies in lexical phonology have distinguished two levels in phonology--lexical and post-lexical--based on how and where phonological rules apply, although some phonological

Marfo, Charles Ofosu

209

Situational Awareness as a Measure of Performance in Cyber Security Collaborative Work  

SciTech Connect

Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge in turn could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. We conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the Pacific-rim Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (PRCCDC) and analyzed it to study the behavior of cyber defenders. We propose that situational awareness predicts performance of cyber security professionals, and in this paper we focus on our collection and analysis of competition data to determine whether it supports our hypothesis. In addition to normal cyber data, we collected situational awareness and workload data and compared it against the performance of cyber defenders as indicated by their competition score. We conclude that there is a weak correlation between our measure of situational awareness and performance that we hope to exploit in further studies.

Malviya, Ashish; Fink, Glenn A.; Sego, Landon H.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

2011-04-11

210

Phonological typicality does not influence fixation durations in normal reading.  

PubMed

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive to subtle relationships between sound and syntactic function and that they make rapid use of this information in comprehension. The present article reports attempts to replicate this result using both eyetracking during normal reading (Experiment 1) and word-by-word self-paced reading (Experiment 2). No hint of a phonological typicality effect emerged on any reading-time measure in Experiment 1, nor did Experiment 2 replicate Farmer et al.'s finding from self-paced reading. Indeed, the differences between condition means were not consistently in the predicted direction, as phonologically atypical verbs were read more quickly than phonologically typical verbs, on most measures. Implications for research on visual word recognition are discussed. PMID:19379050

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith

2009-05-01

211

Semantic and Phonological Skills in Predicting Reading Development: From 3-16 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present longitudinal study investigated the relationship between pre-school semantic skills (vocabulary, comprehension and sentence construction), phonological awareness and later word decoding and reading comprehension skills. More than 200 Danish children were followed from a speech therapist screening at the age of three, through a…

Frost, Jorgen; Madsbjerg, Sigrid; Niedersoe, Jan; Olofsson, Ake; Sorensen, Peer Moller

2005-01-01

212

Amplitude Envelope Perception, Phonology and Prosodic Sensitivity in Children with Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here we explore relations between auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, prosodic sensitivity, and phonological awareness in a sample of 56 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We examine whether rise time sensitivity is linked to prosodic sensitivity, and whether prosodic sensitivity is linked to…

Goswami, Usha; Gerson, Danielle; Astruc, Luisa

2010-01-01

213

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological  

E-print Network

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Incongruity, incongruity resolution, and mental states: The measure and modification of situational awareness and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.

Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

1993-01-01

215

Development of Young Readers' Phonological Processing Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-sectional study of 95 kindergartners and 89 second graders, confirmatory factor analysis of a battery of phonological and control tasks was used to compare models of young readers' phonological processing abilities. Results suggest that phonological abilities are best conceptualized as relatively stable and coherent individual…

Wagner, Richard K.; And Others

1993-01-01

216

Integrated Morphological Awareness Intervention as a Tool for Improving Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of an intervention program aimed to improve reading and spelling ability through instruction in morphological awareness together with other forms of linguistic awareness, including knowledge of phonology, orthography, syntax, and semantics. Method: Sixteen children aged between 8;07 (years;months) and…

Kirk, Cecilia; Gillon, Gail T.

2009-01-01

217

Prosodic Awareness Skills and Literacy Acquisition in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and…

Defior, Sylvia; Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Cano-Marin, Maria Jose

2012-01-01

218

Measuring situational awareness and resolving inherent high-level fusion obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision Making (INFERD) is a tool that was developed to supplement current graph matching techniques in Information Fusion models. Based on sensory data and a priori models, INFERD dynamically generates, evolves, and evaluates hypothesis on the current state of the environment. The a priori models developed are hierarchical in nature lending them to a multi-level Information Fusion process whose primary output provides a situational awareness of the environment of interest in the context of the models running. In this paper we look at INFERD's multi-level fusion approach and provide insight on the inherent problems such as fragmentation in the approach and the research being undertaken to mitigate those deficiencies. Due to the large variance of data in disparate environments, the awareness of situations in those environments can be drastically different. To accommodate this, the INFERD framework provides support for plug-and-play fusion modules which can be developed specifically for domains of interest. However, because the models running in INFERD are graph based, some default measurements can be provided and will be discussed in the paper. Among these are a Depth measurement to determine how much danger is presented by the action taking place, a Breadth measurement to gain information regarding the scale of an attack that is currently happening, and finally a Reliability measure to tell the user the credibility of a particular hypothesis. All of these results will be demonstrated in the Cyber domain where recent research has shown to be an area that is welldefined and bounded, so that new models and algorithms can be developed and evaluated.

Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael; Tagliaferri, William; Canarelli, Kathie

2006-04-01

219

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

2011-01-01

220

Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor

Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg

1999-01-01

221

Phonetics and Phonology Course goals  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages

Spirtes, Peter

222

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

223

GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

224

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-05-01

225

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

226

Phonological Skills and Ability to Perceive Auditorily the Structure of a Word at the Level of a Single Phoneme at Ages 2-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is the first part of a longitudinal research project investigating whether children become more aware of phonemes or rhyming when they learn letters or letter sounds or even begin to read, and if so how. For the present paper, the phonological awareness of young children aged 2-6 years was analyzed, particularly their auditory…

Suortti, Outi; Lipponen, Lasse

2014-01-01

227

In D.J. Garland and M.R. Endsley (Eds.) Experimental Analysis and Measurement of Situation Awareness. Proceedings of the International Conference on Experimental Analysis and Measurement of Situation Awareness.  

E-print Network

of accident rates (Hills, 1980). Instead, what is predictive are measures of cognitive abilities related Although situation awareness (SA) has been studied most extensively in the context of aviation million vehicles were involved in accidents, causing 2.6 million personal injuries and 36,000 fatalities

Rensink, Ronald A.

228

The Relationships between Phonological Sensitivity, Syntactic Processing, and Verbal Working Memory in the Reading Performance of Third-Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of 112 third-grade children was examined on tasks assessing phonological sensitivity, working memory, and syntactic processing. The children were also administered several measures of word recognition, pseudoword reading, and reading comprehension. A series of hierarchical regression analyses and commonality analyses indicated that phonological sensitivity remained a strong predictor of reading performance after variance in working memory and syntactic

Alexandra Gottardo; Keith E. Stanovich; Linda S. Siegel

1996-01-01

229

Exploring the link between stuttering and phonology: a review and implications for treatment.  

PubMed

Three lines of research have been pursued in the literature to study the link between phonology and stuttering: (1) effects of phonological complexity on the location (loci) of stutter events; (2) outcomes of standardized test measures in children who do and do not stutter; and (3) studies of phonological encoding in children and adults who stutter. This review synthesizes findings from these three lines of research to address the purported link between phonology and stuttering and its potential implications for stuttering treatment. Results from the loci studies offer some support for the role of phonological complexity in the occurrence of stuttering. Studies of performance in standardized tests of phonology have not identified differences between children who do and do not stutter. Studies of phonological encoding have been equivocal in reporting differences between children and adults who stutter and those who do not stutter. Several cautions are raised in interpreting the findings from the discussed studies, and despite the mixed findings, some implications for treatments are considered. PMID:24782273

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

2014-05-01

230

English phonology and linguistic theory: an introduction to issues, and to ‘Issues in English Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the phonology of English has been crucial in the development of phonological and sociophonological theory throughout its recent past. If we had not had English to investigate, we claim, with both its unique and its widely-shared phonological phenomena, linguistic theory might have developed quite differently. In this article, we document some of the ways in which particular English

Philip Carr; Patrick Honeybone

2007-01-01

231

Conscious Presence and Self Control as a measure of situational awareness in soldiers – A validation study  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of `mindfulness´ was operationalized primarily for patients with chronic stressors, while it is rarely used in reference to soldiers. We intended to validate a modified instrument on the basis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to measure soldiers’ situational awareness (“mindfulness”) in stressful situations/missions. The instrument we will explore in this paper is termed the Conscious Presence and Self Control (CPSC) scale. Methods The CPSC and further instruments, i.e., Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), stressful military experiences (PCL-M), life satisfaction (BMLSS), Positive Life Construction (ePLC), and self-perceived health affections (VAS), were administered to 281 German soldiers. The soldiers were mainly exposed to explosive ordnance, military police, medical service, and patients with posttraumatic stress disorders. Results The 10-item CPSC scale exhibited a one-factorial structure and showed a good internal consistence (Cronbach´s alpha = .86); there were neither ceiling nor bottom effects. The CPSC scores correlated moderately with Positive Life Construction and life satisfaction, and negatively with perceived stress and health affections. Regression analyses indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (negative), and the development of effective strategies to deal with disturbing pictures and experiences (positive) were the best predictor of soldiers´ CPSC scores. Soldiers with health affections exhibiting impact upon their daily life had significantly lower CPSC scores than those without impairment (F=8.1; p < .0001). Conclusions As core conceptualizations of `mindfulness´ are not necessarily discussed in a military context, the FMI was adopted for military personnel populations, while its two factorial structure with the sub-constructs `acceptance´ and `presence´ was retained. The resulting 10-item CPSC scale had good internal consistence, sound associations with measures of health affections and life satisfaction, and thus can be used as a short and rapid measure in pre-post mission and interventional studies. PMID:23289791

2013-01-01

232

Assessing the Phonological Skills of Bilingual Children from Preschool through Kindergarten: Developmental Progression and Cross-Language Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental progression hypothesis for phonological awareness states that children perform better on lower level tasks and has been addressed mainly in the literature with children beginning at age 5. In addition, there has been a limited amount of research done regarding the performance of dual-language learners younger than age 5 on…

Lopez, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

233

Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…

Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

2011-01-01

234

Modifying the Human-Machine Interface Based on Quantitative Measurements of the Level of Awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project got underway without funding approved during the summer of 1998. The initial project steps were to identify previously published work in the fields of error classification systems, physiological measurements of awareness, and related topics. This agenda was modified at the request of NASA Ames in August, 1998 to include supporting the new Cargo Air Association (CAA) evaluation of the Human Factors related to the ADS-B technology. Additional funding was promised to fully support both efforts. Work on library research ended in the late Fall, 1998 when the SJSU project directors were informed that NASA would not be adding to the initial funding of the research project as had been initially committed. However, NASA did provide additional funding for the CAA project activity. NASA elected to leave the research grant in place to provide a pathway for the CAA project funding to SJSU (San Jose State University) to support Dr. Freund's work on the CAA tasks. Dr. Knapp essentially terminated his involvement with the project at this time.

Freund, Louis E.; Knapp, Benjamin

1999-01-01

235

The effects of a multilinguistic morphological awareness approach for improving language and literacy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness emphasis, or one with an additional morphological awareness focus. The morphological intervention group performed better on standardized measures of reading comprehension, and spelling, and on a nonstandardized spelling test of morphological patterns. Both groups improved and no between-group differences were found on a standardized measure of word identification and word attack, as well as on a nonstandardized spelling test of orthographic patterns. PMID:24306460

Wolter, Julie A; Dilworth, Valisa

2014-01-01

236

Promoting Morphological Awareness in Children with Language Needs: Do the Common Core State Standards Pave the Way?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has acknowledged the importance of morphological awareness, beyond phonological awareness, to literacy achievement in both reading and writing for children, adolescents, and adults. Morphological awareness is the ability to recognize, reflect on, and manipulate the sublexical structure of words--the roots, prefixes, and suffixes.…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith; Zaretsky, Elena

2013-01-01

237

On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.  

PubMed

The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

2014-01-01

238

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

239

Impaired stress awareness in Spanish children with developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

The role of segmental phonology in developmental dyslexia (DD) is well established (e.g., deficit in phonological awareness), but the role of suprasegmental phonology (prosody) has been less widely investigated. Stress is one of the main prosodic features and refers to the relative prominence of syllables (strong/weak) within a word. The aim of the present study is to examine stress awareness in children with dyslexia and the possible mediation of phonemic awareness on suprasegmental phonological skills. Thirty-one Spanish children with DD and 31 chronological age-control children participated. Two stress awareness tasks were administrated, one with words and another with pseudowords. Results show that the children with dyslexia performed more poorly on both tasks than control children. The pattern of results in accuracy and reaction time suggest that, while children without difficulties use different strategies depending on the type of item, the children with dyslexia employ the same strategy to resolve the two tasks without any benefit of lexical knowledge about stress. Even so, this strategy did not work so efficiently as it did in the control group, which led the group with dyslexia to make a greater number of mistakes. It was also found that, when phonemic awareness was entered as a covariate, accuracy differences disappeared, but only in the word stress task. However, when lexical knowledge was not necessary (as in the pseudoword stress task) differences still remained statistically significant. Implications on the importance of suprasegmental processing in reading acquisition disabilities are discussed. PMID:25463247

Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

2015-02-01

240

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

241

Phonological Skills in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

2014-01-01

242

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

243

Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

2009-01-01

244

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

245

Anesthesia Awareness  

MedlinePLUS

Anesthesia Awareness Very rarely – in only one or two out of every 10,000 medical procedures involving anesthesia – a patient may become aware or conscious. The condition – called anesthesia awareness – means the patient can recall the surroundings ...

246

Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

2014-01-01

247

Phonological Awareness, Executive Functioning, and Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language plays a critical role in theory of mind (ToM) development, particularly the understanding of false beliefs (FB). Further, there is some evidence that the development of FB is important for metalinguistic development, such as the understanding of homonyms and synonyms. However, there is debate regarding the nature of this relationship.…

Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Ashwell, Sylvia

2012-01-01

248

One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

2013-01-01

249

Morphological Awareness Intervention in School-Age Children with Language and Literacy Deficits: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights the clinical application of morphological awareness intervention to facilitate phonological, vocabulary, reading, and spelling success in children with language and literacy deficits. First, the research-based benefits of morphological awareness instruction are reviewed and current theoretical and research-based…

Wolter, Julie A.; Green, Laura

2013-01-01

250

Facilitating Phoneme Awareness Development in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children with Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the phonological awareness and early literacy development of 12 children who presented at 3 years of age with moderate or severe speech impairment. The children's response to early intervention that included specific activities to facilitate phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, in addition to improving speech…

Gillon, Gail T.

2005-01-01

251

Development of reading and phonological skills of children at family risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal analysis from kindergarten to sixth grade.  

PubMed

The main focus of this article is to develop a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of literacy and phonological skills within Dutch-speaking children. Children at high and low risk for dyslexia were followed and compared at four different moments: kindergarten and first, third and sixth grades. Three groups were then compared: (1) dyslexic readers; (2) normal readers at high risk for dyslexia; and (3) normal readers at low risk for dyslexia. Children diagnosed with dyslexia scored lower than high-risk normal readers on phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory and literacy skills. Normal readers at high risk scored between both groups, confirming that dyslexia is to be considered as a continuum rather than an all-or-none condition. Growth analyses showed that the three groups evolved similarly on all measures except for phoneme deletion and literacy measures. Finally, solely PA and RAN explained a significant amount of variance in the evolution of reading skills. PMID:25257672

Dandache, Sophie; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

2014-11-01

252

Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

Jeon, Eun Hee

2011-01-01

253

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

254

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

255

Pakistani English: Some Phonological and Phonetic Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the phonological and phonetic features of English as spoken in Pakistan and shows such distinctive patterns as anglicized, acrolectal, mesolectal, and basilectal varieties of Pakistani English. (45 references) (CB)

Rahman, Tariq

1991-01-01

256

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching.   

E-print Network

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

1999-01-01

257

Community structure in the phonological network.  

PubMed

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S Q

2013-01-01

258

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

259

tDCS to temporoparietal cortex during familiarisation enhances the subsequent phonological coherence of nonwords in immediate serial recall.  

PubMed

Research has shown that direct current stimulation (tDCS) over left temporoparietal cortex - a region implicated in phonological processing - aids new word learning. The locus of this effect remains unclear since (i) experiments have not empirically separated the acquisition of phonological forms from lexical-semantic links and (ii) outcome measures have focused on learnt associations with a referent rather than phonological stability. We tested the hypothesis that left temporoparietal tDCS would strengthen the acquisition of phonological forms, even in the absence of the opportunity to acquire lexical-semantic associations. Participants were familiarised with nonwords paired with (i) photographs of concrete referents or (ii) blurred images where no clear features were visible. Nonword familiarisation proceeded under conditions of anodal tDCS and sham stimulation in different sessions. We examined the impact of these manipulations on the stability of the phonological trace in an immediate serial recall (ISR) task the following day, ensuring that any effects were due to the influence of tDCS on long-term learning and not a direct consequence of short-term changes in neural excitability. We found that only a few exposures to the phonological forms of nonwords were sufficient to enhance nonword ISR overall compared to entirely novel items. Anodal tDCS during familiarisation further enhanced the acquisition of phonological forms, producing a specific reduction in the frequency of phoneme migrations when sequences of nonwords were maintained in verbal short-term memory. More of the phonemes that were recalled were bound together as a whole correct nonword following tDCS. These data show that tDCS to left temporoparietal cortex can facilitate word learning by strengthening the acquisition of long-term phonological forms, irrespective of the availability of a concrete referent, and that the consequences of this learning can be seen beyond the learning task as strengthened phonological coherence in verbal short-term memory. PMID:25282052

Savill, Nicola; Ashton, Jennifer; Gugliuzza, Jessica; Poole, Courtney; Sim, Zhihui; Ellis, Andrew W; Jefferies, Elizabeth

2015-02-01

260

Is Phonology Going Haywire in Dying Languages? Phonological Variations in Chipewyan and Sarcee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of phonological data from two Athapaskan languages demonstrated that underlying the apparent degeneration of their phonological systems was an orderly progression which could be viewed as a retarded process of language acquisition, indicating that dying languages mirror the successive stages of ontogenesis. (35 references) (Author/CB)

Cook, Eung-Do

1989-01-01

261

Fertility Awareness  

MedlinePLUS

... awareness is not a reliable way to prevent pregnancy for most teens. Over the course of 1 year, as many ... awareness is not a reliable way to prevent pregnancy for most teens. It is often very difficult to tell when ...

262

Tonguetwisting and dyslexia: Investigating the phonological deficit hypothesis   

E-print Network

There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...

Fraser, Catriona

2012-06-27

263

Phonological mediation in visual masked priming: Evidence from phonotactic repair  

E-print Network

). Another line of evidence for phonological code activation from presumably subliminal print is provided" the letter that matches best with the word's phonological code. Importantly, subliminal primes and/or targets

Boyer, Edmond

264

Detection of Phonological Features in Continuous Speech using Neural Networks   

E-print Network

We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experimentson three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern ...

King, Simon; Taylor, Paul

265

Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

Trevino, Andrea Carolina; Quatieri, Thomas Francis; Malyska, Nicolas

2011-12-01

266

Orthographic and Phonological Preview Benefits: Parafoveal Processing in Skilled and Less-skilled Deaf Readers  

PubMed Central

Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045

Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

267

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

268

Children's Phonological Neighborhoods: Half Empty of Half Full?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, phonological similarity neighborhood sizes were calculated for expressive lexicon derived from 2 vocabulary lists representative of children aged 1;3 to 3;0. Over 80% of the words in these early lexicons had at least one phonological neighbor; nearly 20% had six or more phonological neighbors. (Contains 29 references.)

Dollaghan, Christine A.

1994-01-01

269

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding*  

E-print Network

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding* Brian Butterworth Department. Disorders of phonological encoding. Cognition, 42: 261-286. Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic vary from 1.6 errors per 1000words (Shallice & Butterworth, 1977) down to 62 (segment errors

Butterworth, Brian

270

The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…

Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.

2008-01-01

271

Kindergarten Literacy Assessment of English Only and English Language Learner Students: An Examination of the Predictive Validity of Three Phonemic Awareness Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed the ability of English phonemic awareness measures to predict kindergarten reading performance and determine factors that contributed to growth trajectories on those measures for English Only (EO) and English language learner (ELL) students. Using initial sound fluency (ISF), phoneme segmentation fluency (PSF), and a combined…

Linklater, Danielle L.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Palardy, Gregory J.

2009-01-01

272

Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

Hartl, Wilfried

2014-05-01

273

Phonological, temporal and spectral processing in vowel length discrimination is impaired in German primary school children with developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

It is still unclear whether phonological processing deficits are the underlying cause of developmental dyslexia, or rather a consequence of basic auditory processing impairments. To avoid methodological confounds, in the current study the same task and stimuli of comparable complexity were used to investigate both phonological and basic auditory (temporal and spectral) processing in dyslexia. German dyslexic children (Grades 3 and 4) were compared to age- and grade-matched controls in a vowel length discrimination task with three experimental conditions: In a phonological condition, natural vowels were used, differing both with respect to temporal and spectral information (in German, vowel length is phonemic, and vowel length differences are characterized by both temporal and spectral information). In a temporal condition, spectral information differentiating between the two vowels of a pair was eliminated, whereas in a spectral condition, temporal differences were removed. As performance measure, the sensitivity index d' was computed. At the group level, dyslexic children's performance was inferior to that of controls for phonological as well as temporal and spectral vowel length discrimination. At an individual level, nearly half of the dyslexic sample was characterized by deficits in all three conditions, but there were also some children showing no deficits at all. These results reveal on the one hand that phonological processing deficits in dyslexia may stem from impairments in processing temporal and spectral information in the speech signal. On the other hand they indicate, however, that not all dyslexic children might be characterized by phonological or auditory processing deficits. PMID:25128788

Steinbrink, Claudia; Klatte, Maria; Lachmann, Thomas

2014-11-01

274

Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb  

PubMed Central

The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396

Schnur, Tatiana T.

2011-01-01

275

Grammatical constraints on phonological encoding in speech production.  

PubMed

To better understand the influence of grammatical encoding on the retrieval and encoding of phonological word-form information during speech production, we examine how grammatical class constraints influence the activation of phonological neighbors (words phonologically related to the target--e.g., MOON, TWO for target TUNE). Specifically, we compare how neighbors that share a target's grammatical category (here, nouns) influence its planning and retrieval, assessed by picture naming latencies, and phonetic encoding, assessed by word productions in picture names, when grammatical constraints are strong (in sentence contexts) versus weak (bare naming). Within-category (noun) neighbors influenced planning time and phonetic encoding more strongly in sentence contexts. This suggests that grammatical encoding constrains phonological processing; the influence of phonological neighbors is grammatically dependent. Moreover, effects on planning times could not fully account for phonetic effects, suggesting that phonological interaction affects articulation after speech onset. These results support production theories integrating grammatical, phonological, and phonetic processes. PMID:24687733

Heller, Jordana R; Goldrick, Matthew

2014-12-01

276

Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

2013-01-01

277

Modeling Phonological Core Deficits Within a Working Memory Architecture in Children and Adults With Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theoretical advances in working memory guided analyses of cognitive measures in 122 children with dyslexia and their 200 affected biological parents in families with a multigenerational history of dyslexia. Both children and adults were most severely impaired, on average, in three working memory components- phonological word-form storage,…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Thomson, Jennifer; Wagner, Richard; Swanson, H. Lee; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Raskind, Wendy

2006-01-01

278

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

279

Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

2013-01-01

280

Using Semantics, Grammar, Phonology, and Rapid Naming Tasks To Predict Word Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative importance of semantic, grammatical, phonological, and rapid naming abilities in predicting word identification skills in 200 children (grades 1-6) using correlation, factor analysis, multiple regression, and predictive outcome analysis techniques. Composite measures of these abilities correlated significantly…

Hammill, Donald D.; Mather, Nancy; Allen, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Rhia

2002-01-01

281

Early Experience of Sex Hormones as a Predictor of Reading, Phonology, and Auditory Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has indicated possible reciprocal connections between phonology and reading, and also connections between aspects of auditory perception and reading. The present study investigates these associations further by examining the potential influence of prenatal androgens using measures of digit ratio (the ratio of the lengths of the…

Beech, John R.; Beauvois, Michael W.

2006-01-01

282

Exploring the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia: are phonological representations impaired?   

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...

Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth

2009-07-03

283

Influence of Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Non-Verbal Ability on Reading Comprehension in Malayalam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…

Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.

2013-01-01

284

Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness  

E-print Network

morphographic nature of Chinese. In light of the inapplicability of the DRC model to Chinese reading, Yin and Weekes (2003), based on several cases of Chinese dyslexia, proposed a “triangle model” to describe how Chinese characters can be read. This “triangle... representation is supported by the cases of deep and surface dyslexia in Chinese (Law & Or, 2001; Law, Wong, & Chiu, 2005; Yin & Butterworth, 1992). For example, deep dyslexia, which is characteristic of semantic errors in reading, is caused by the impairment...

Chan, Yi-Chih

2013-12-31

285

Regular Models of Phonological Rule Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of mathematical and computational tools for manipulating and reasoning about regular languages and regular relations and argues that they provide a solid basis for computational phonology. It shows in detail how this framework applies to ordered sets of context-sensitive rewriting rules and also to grammars in Koskenniemi's two-level formalism. This analysis provides a common representation

Ronald M. Kaplan; Martin Kay

1994-01-01

286

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

287

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

288

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology  

E-print Network

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France laporte@univ-mlv.fr August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi

Boyer, Edmond

289

The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

Ramadoss, Deepti

2012-01-01

290

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

291

Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…

Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

2011-01-01

292

A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…

Yumitani, Yukihiro

293

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthe- sis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonolog- ical trees, and using a selection algorithm which finds the largest parts of trees in the database which match parts of the target tree. The technique avoids many of the errors made by

Paul Taylor; Alan W. Black

1999-01-01

294

Accuracy-aware Interference Modeling and Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

communication performance of WSNs. For instance, in the scenario of wireless elderly and patient monitoring, ECG modeling and measurement for WSNs. First, we propose a new regression- based PRR-SINR model infrastructure monitoring, and health care. These applica- tions pose stringent requirements on system

Zhang, Hongwei

295

Approaches for processing spectral measurements of reflected sunlight for space situational awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of small, lightweight, 'micro-' and 'nanosatellite' (largest dimension < 1m ) has presented new challenges to the space surveillance community. The small size of these satellites makes them unresolvable by ground-based imaging systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface,

Marie-Astrid A. Cauquy; Michael C. Roggemann; Timothy J. Schulz

2004-01-01

296

Approaches for processing spectral measurements of reflected sunlight for space situational awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of small, lightweight, 'micro-' and 'nanosatellite' (largest dimension < 1m ) has presented new challenges to the space surveillance community. The small size of these satellites makes them unresolvable by ground-based imaging systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface, the reflected light contains information about the surface materials of the satellite. This approach of using NIM for satellite evaluation is relatively new. In this paper, we discuss the accuracy of using these spectral measurements to match an unknown spectrum to a database containing known spectra. Several approaches have been developed and are presented in this paper. The first method is an artificial neural network designed to process central moments of real measured spectra. This spectrum database is the Spica database provided by the Maui Surveillance Site (MSSS), Hawaii USA and consists in spectra from more than 100 different satellites. The average rate of correct identification is 84%. The second approach is based on the ability of spectral signal processing to estimate relative abundances of materials from the measurement of a single spectrum; this method is called spectral unmixing. Material spectra were provided by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to create synthetic spectra. An approach based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm was used to estimate relative abundances and presence of materials in a synthetic spectrum. The results for material identification and abundance estimation are presented as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. For the EM method, the overall correct estimation rate is 95.1% and the average error on the fractional composition estimation is 19.7%.

Cauquy, Marie-Astrid A.; Roggemann, Michael C.; Schulz, Timothy J.

2004-08-01

297

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

298

Phonological development and prosodic units: evidence from metathesis errors.  

PubMed

There is general agreement in the literature that the ability to recognize that words are made up of "smaller phonological units" within the phonological hierarchy is a prerequisite for reading, however, there is still much debate as to which specific units are important. Many studies dealing with Japanese phonological development have been conducted, but most deal mainly with the mora unit, and few actually focus on other prosodic levels. In this paper, we will focus on the prosodic development of Japanese, with particular attention to the relationship of the different prosodic levels, namely, that of the foot, syllable and mora. The result of the reversal tasks seems to imply that the relationship between the foot and syllable units plays a role in the phonological processing of Japanese, implying the importance of focusing on phonological units other than the mora in order to correctly assess a child's phonological processing ability. PMID:24093159

Miyakoda, Haruko

2014-04-01

299

The Effects of a Multilinguistic Morphological Awareness Approach for Improving Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a multilinguistic intervention to improve reading and spelling in primary grade students who struggle with literacy. Twenty second-grade students with spelling deficits were randomly assigned to receive a multilinguistic intervention with a phonological and orthographic awareness

Wolter, Julie A.; Dilworth, Valisa

2014-01-01

300

Minding Morphology: How Morphological Awareness Relates to Reading for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored subprocesses of reading for 157 fifth grade Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) by examining whether morphological awareness made a unique contribution to reading comprehension beyond a strong covariate-phonological decoding. The role of word reading and reading vocabulary as mediators of this relationship was…

Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria S.; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

2013-01-01

301

African American English Dialect and Performance on Nonword Spelling and Phonemic Awareness Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate the role of dialect on phonemic awareness and nonword spelling tasks. These tasks were selected for their reliance on phonological and orthographic processing, which may be influenced by dialect use. Method: Eighty typically developing African American children in Grades 1 and 3 were first screened for dialect use and then…

Kohler, Candida T.; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bryant, Judith Becker; Apel, Kenn; Wilkinson, Louise C.

2007-01-01

302

Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.  

PubMed

Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25584733

Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

2015-02-01

303

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review  

PubMed Central

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

304

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review.  

PubMed

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one's native language, in one's second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O

2014-01-01

305

Phonological Defici~ncies: Effective Predictors of Future  

E-print Network

, rather than "phonologically deviant." In many different countries, certain spoken language skills. They have examined children's reading behavior (Mann, 1984: Shankweiler & Libennan, 1972) and spelling

306

Impaired phonological reading in primary degenerative dementia.  

PubMed

This case study reports the profile of preserved and impaired capacities in a left-handed patient suffering from primary degenerative dementia of unknown aetiology. She was remarkable because her relatively preserved object naming and semantic categorization abilities contrasted with severe deficits in speech fluency, oral reading, inability to execute spoken and written commands, and severely impaired auditory-verbal short-term memory. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. She showed effects of word imageability or concreteness (more than word frequency). She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. She had difficulty reading function words. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. In reading aloud she made visual and morphological errors, but no semantic errors. This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. PMID:1884170

Diesfeldt, H F

1991-08-01

307

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

308

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

309

Prevalence and Profile of Phonological and Surface Subgroups in College Students With a History of Reading Disability.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary. PMID:25297383

Birch, Stacy L

2014-10-01

310

Awareness of deficit in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined awareness of deficits among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 74 pairs of persons with MS and their significant others participated. Awareness of cognitive deficit was measured by discrepancy scores between patient reports of their cognitive abilities and objective test results. Awareness of functional deficit was measured by the discrepancy between the patient and

Tanya E. Sherman; Lisa J. Rapport; Kelly A. Ryan

2008-01-01

311

Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

2012-01-01

312

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

313

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

2008-01-01

314

Phonological Typicality Does Not Influence Fixation Durations in Normal Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive…

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Rayner, Keith

2009-01-01

315

Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

Silbert, Noah H.

2009-01-01

316

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

317

Learning Morphological and Phonological Spelling Rules: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We looked at the effects of teaching 7- and 8-year-old children morphological and phonological distinctions. Some of those given morphological training and some of those given phonological training were also taught how to represent these distinctions in writing. All 4 intervention groups did better than the control group in a standardized test of…

Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Olsson, Jenny

2003-01-01

318

The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing in Speech Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the naming performance of a patient (DM) with a fluent progressive aphasia who made phonological errors in all language production tasks. The pattern of errors in naming was strikingly clear: DM made very many phonological errors that resulted almost always in nonword responses. The complete absence of semantic errors and the very low ratio of formal errors relative

Alfonso Caramazza; Costanza Papagno; Wheeler Ruml

2000-01-01

319

Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

2006-01-01

320

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

321

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

322

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

323

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

324

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged  

E-print Network

1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously

Port, Robert

325

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*  

E-print Network

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

327

Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

Cheng, Hui-Wen

2012-01-01

328

On Rejecting Emotional Lures Created by Phonological Neighborhood Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.

2006-01-01

329

Phonological and Orthographic Cues in Reading Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Besides phonological information, printed words also contain visual, semantic, orthographic and often also syntactic cues. Skilled readers have acquired the command of this variety of cues incidentally, as a consequence of language development. Two naming task experiments assessed the effect of congruent versus incongruent phonological or…

Assink, Egbert; Kattenberg, Goran

330

The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…

Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2004-01-01

331

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

332

The relationship between motor control and phonology in dyslexic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the automaticity\\/cerebellar theory of dyslexia. We tested phonological skills and cerebellar function in a group of dyslexic 8-12 year old children and their matched controls. Tests administered included the Phonological Assessment Battery, postural stability, bead threading, finger to thumb and time estimation. Results: Dyslexic children were found to be significantly poorer

Franck Ramus; Elizabeth Pidgeon; Uta Frith

2003-01-01

333

Detection of phonological features in continuous speech using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experiments on three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern of English (SPE) system which uses binary features, 2) a multi valued (MV) feature system which uses tradi- tional phonetic categories such as manner, place etc,

Simon King; Paul Taylor

2000-01-01

334

Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

Major, Roy C.

1987-01-01

335

Wildfire Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)

Wallace, Glenda

2002-01-01

336

Urban Special Education Teachers' Perception of African American Students as Measured by the Cultural Awareness Beliefs Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, this study examined the relationship between the perceptions of special education teachers and the eight factors (Teacher Beliefs, School climate, Culturally responsive Classroom Management, Home and Community Support, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum and Instruction, Cultural Sensitivity and Teacher…

Jackson, Dianna Dale

2010-01-01

337

Measuring mindfulness: pilot studies with the Swedish versions of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills.  

PubMed

The present article describes data from pilot studies with the Swedish versions of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). The MAAS and two of the KIMS scales, Act with Awareness and Accept without Judgment, were found to correlate in the predicted direction with measures of well-being and emotional distress. The KIMS scales Observe and Describe showed more ambiguous results, possibly because these two scales measure a mixture of two opposite kinds of processes: healthy self-observation ("experiential self-focus") and unhealthy rumination ("analytical self-focus"). The KIMS was also used in an uncontrolled study with participants in an educational programme for close relatives of persons with borderline personality disorder, Family Connections (FC), which includes components of mindfulness training. The FC participants were found to (a) score lower than a comparison group on Act with Awareness and Accept without Judgment before treatment and (b) show significantly increased scores on Accept without Judgment after treatment. PMID:19125361

Hansen, Erling; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Homman, Anders; Wångby-Lundh, Margit

2009-01-01

338

Quality-aware images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the concept of quality-aware image, in which certain extracted features of the original (high-quality) image are embedded into the image data as invisible hidden messages. When a distorted version of such an image is received, users can decode the hidden messages and use them to provide an objective measure of the quality of the distorted image. To demonstrate

Zhou Wang; Guixing Wu; Hamid Rahim Sheikh; Eero P. Simoncelli; En-Hui Yang; Alan Conrad Bovik

2006-01-01

339

The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

2012-01-01

340

The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

Pearce, Mary Dorothy

341

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

342

Avalanche Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide on avalanche awareness and safety discusses the anatomy of an avalanche (starting zone, track, and runout zone), avalanche factors and conditions, determining if the snowpack is safe (using snowpits and shear tests), when and where avalanches happen, the typical victims, tips for survival, an avalanche danger scale, and a list of avalanche quick checks. Avalanche conditions discussed include weather, snowfall, temperature and wind direction, snowpack, slope angle, slope orientation, terrain, and vegetation.

Laura Cheshire

343

Phonological Codes as Early Sources of Constraint in Chinese Word Identification: A Review of Current Discoveries and Theoretical Accounts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers specific aspects of phonological and orthographic processing in Chinese that may differ from those in English. Emphasizes that early phonological processes and phonological mediation are two different questions in the identification-with-phonology hypothesis. Shows that "mediation" and "prelexical phonology," two very important concepts…

Perfetti, Charles A.; Tan, Li-Hai

1998-01-01

344

Cerebellar-parietal connections underpin phonological storage.  

PubMed

Previous research has accumulated convincing evidence to show that the human cerebellum contributes to the short-term storage of verbal information, but its specific role in brain networks involved in phonological storage remains uncertain. In a randomized, crossover and sham-controlled design, we here combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the right cerebellum, with fMRI to investigate systematically the contribution of the human cerebellum to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of verbal information. After anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS, we found a reduced item recognition capacity together with an attenuated neural signal from the right cerebellar lobule VIIb, specifically during the late encoding phase. Within this phase, tDCS furthermore affected task-associated functional connections between right cerebellar lobule VIIb and the posterior parietal cortex. These findings suggest that the right cerebellar lobule VIIb interacts with the posterior parietal cortex, specifically during the late stages of verbal encoding, when verbal information enters phonological storage. PMID:24695720

Macher, Katja; Böhringer, Andreas; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2014-04-01

345

Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology  

E-print Network

Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology Philip M. Merikle*, Daniel been used to demonstrate perception without awareness are described. Each approach re¯ects one of two logic has been either to demon- strate a dissociation between a measure of perception with awareness

Merikle, Phil

346

Phonological decoding or direct access? Regularity effects in lexical decisions of Grade 3 and 4 children.  

PubMed

Learning to read fluently involves moving from an effortful phonological decoding strategy to automatic recognition of familiar words. However, little is known about the timing of this transition, or the extent to which children continue to be influenced by phonological factors when recognizing words even as they progress in reading. We explored this question by examining regularity effects in a lexical decision task, as opposed to the more traditionally used reading-aloud task. Children in Grades 3 and 4 made go/no-go lexical decisions on high- and low-frequency regular and irregular words that had been matched for consistency. The children showed regularity effects in their accuracy for low-frequency words, indicating that they were using phonological decoding strategies to recognize unfamiliar words. The size of this effect was correlated with measures of reading ability. However, we found no regularity effects on accuracy for high-frequency words or on response times for either word type, suggesting that even 8-year-old children are already relying predominantly on a direct lexical strategy in their silent reading of familiar words. PMID:22905801

Schmalz, Xenia; Marinus, Eva; Castles, Anne

2013-01-01

347

Learning General Phonological Rules From Distributional Information: A Computational Model.  

PubMed

Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261

Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

2014-09-16

348

Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

2000-01-01

349

Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.  

PubMed

Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules. PMID:18489012

Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

2009-05-01

350

Second language phonology influences first language word naming.  

PubMed

The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

2014-06-01

351

Unmanned Vehicle Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept of unmanned vehicle situation awareness and provides a discussion of how unmanned vehicle situation awareness can be defined based upon human situation awareness. A broadly accepted human situation awareness definition is directly applied to the notion of unmanned vehicle situation awareness. The paper also discusses unique unmanned vehicle aspects that will influence unmanned vehicle situation

Julie A. Adams

352

A multidimensional view of gradient change in velar acquisition in three-year-olds receiving phonological treatment.  

PubMed

The acquisition of phonemes does not occur in an "all or nothing" manner; instead, children gradually acquire dimensions of phonological knowledge. This gradual acquisition of phonemes is explored in the present study by comparing three types of measures taken from speech samples of three preschool-aged girls with a Speech Sound Disorder. The process of acquisition of velar stops was measured during 16 weeks of Cycles based speech treatment. Three types of measures were used to study the gradual acquisition of velar stops: acoustic analyses using voice onset time (VOT) for initial consonants and vowel duration for final consonants, speech adaptability using the Glaspey Dynamic Assessment of Phonology, and phonetic accuracy based on phonetic transcription. The children were assessed prior-to, after 8, and after 16 sessions of treatment based on a modified Cycles approach. At the onset of the study, the children had begun the process of acquiring velar stops. Differences on acoustic measures and speech adaptability measures were observed for velars that were not reflected in the phonetic transcription. The acoustic analyses and the speech adaptability measures were more sensitive and incremental in showing change over time when compared to phonetic transcription, with fewer ceiling and floor effects across the children. Although the individual profiles of gradient change were not simple, the acoustic and adaptability measures provided additional information regarding gradient change, and support our argument that a necessary approach is one that describes multiple dimensions of a child's phonological knowledge. PMID:24588471

MacLeod, Andrea A N; Glaspey, Amy M

2014-09-01

353

The spread of the phonological neighborhood influences spoken word recognition  

PubMed Central

In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890

Vitevitch, Michael S.

2008-01-01

354

Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

Taft, Marcus

2006-01-01

355

Phonological and Morphological Consistency in the Acquisition of Vowel Duration Spelling in Dutch and German  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Dutch, vowel duration spelling is phonologically consistent but morphologically inconsistent (e.g., "paar--paren"). In German, it is phonologically inconsistent but morphologically consistent (e.g., "Paar--Paare"). Contrasting the two orthographies allowed us to examine the role of phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition…

Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

2005-01-01

356

Dynamics: the non-derivational alternative to modeling phonetics-phonology  

E-print Network

Dynamics: the non-derivational alternative to modeling phonetics-phonology Adamantios I. Gafos. Introduction The derivational view of phonetics-phonology (Ladd, this volume) expresses an intuition that seems of phonetics-phonology. Incomplete neutralization (Ernestus and Baayen, this volume) and other phenomena like

357

Edinburgh Research Explorer Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology Citation for published version: Iosad, P 2012, 'Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology' Journal: © Cambridge University Press 2012. Iosad, P. Nov 2012, "Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology

Millar, Andrew J.

358

Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological

Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

2009-01-01

359

The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

Yao, Yao

2011-01-01

360

The role of assembled phonology in reading comprehension.  

PubMed

The contribution of assembled phonology to phonological effects in reading comprehension was assessed. In Experiment 1, subjects judged the acceptability of sentences with regular, exception, and nonword homophone substitutions and orthographic controls. Significantly more errors occurred to sentences with regular-word homophones than to exception words, and error rates for nonword homophones were low and not significant. Experiment 2 showed that this was not due to differences in the sentence frames. In Experiment 3, the subjects judged as unacceptable those sentences containing an exception word that sounded correct when read according to spelling-to-sound rules. Significantly higher error rates occurred only for low-frequency exception words. Experiment 4 showed that task conditions affect semantic-categorization error rates for nonword homophones. These results indicate that both assembled and addressed phonology contribute to sentence and word comprehension, but the low error rate for nonwords suggests that an early lexical check may be applied. PMID:1895949

Coltheart, V; Avons, S E; Masterson, J; Laxon, V J

1991-07-01

361

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural.  

PubMed

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-09-01

362

A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)  

PubMed Central

In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350

Halliday, Lorna F

2014-01-01

363

A tale of two studies on auditory training in children: A response to the claim that 'discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children' by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005).  

PubMed

In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. PMID:24470350

Halliday, Lorna F

2014-05-01

364

BuscaPalabras: A program for deriving orthographic and phonological neighborhood statistics and other psycholinguistic indices in Spanish  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a Windows program that enables users to obtain a broad range of statistics concerning the properties\\u000a of word and nonword stimuli in Spanish, including word frequency, syllable frequency, bigram and biphone frequency, orthographic\\u000a similarity, orthographic and phonological structure, concreteness, familiarity, imageability, valence, arousal, and age-of-acquisition\\u000a measures. It is designed for use by researchers in psycholinguistics, particularly those

Colin J. Davis; Manuel Perea

2005-01-01

365

Orthographic and phonological neighborhood effects within a priming context  

E-print Network

(FM), a group of adults with dyslexia, and a group of normal readers in a divided visual field paradigm. FM had been diagnosed with developmental dyslexia at age 8. This type of dyslexia is marked by a deficient usage of phonological encoding... by the group with dyslexia--even though the effect was not as strong. No effect of orthography was found with the controls. Lavidor et al. argue that FM and the dyslexic individuals are more sensitive to orthographic cues because the phonological system...

Fugett-Fuller, April

2008-01-01

366

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

367

Situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-vehicle interface designs must be driven by the gaol of establishing and maintaining high pilot situation awareness. The situation-awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT), developed to assist in this process by providing an objective measure of pilot's situation awareness with any given aircraft design, is described. SAGAT is considered to represent a substantial improvement in the evaluation of pilot-vehicle interface designs,

Mica R. Endsley

1988-01-01

368

The development of phonological rules and visual strategies in average and poor spellers.  

PubMed

To investigate the development of phonological and visual skills used in spelling, 420 children between the ages of 6 and 16 completed the spelling dictation test of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised. The misspellings were scored for phonological as well as visual accuracy using a constrained (inclusion of position cues) and an unconstrained system. Poor spellers made fewer phonologically accurate and fewer visual matches than age-matched average spellers. Poor spellers produced significantly more misspellings that were close visual matches to the target word and fewer phonologically unconstrained misspellings than spelling grade-matched average spellers. The groups did not differ in their production of phonologically constrained misspellings. Average spellers used a phonological approach more frequently than a visual approach, while the reverse pattern was true for poor spellers. When phonological rules are less well developed, then individuals are more likely to use orthographic skills. PMID:8683185

Lennox, C; Siegel, L S

1996-06-01

369

Consumer Awareness Of Under Armour's Women's Fitness Apparel Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer awareness is the driving force behind sales and is crucial in the measurement of a products success. Consumer's attitude, buying behavior, and sense of brand equity are all determinates and products of their perceived awareness. In this study, we measure the level of awareness of Under Armour's women's product line and consumer attitude and purchase behavior of this target

Tiana Barnes

370

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

371

Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2004-01-01

372

Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

2010-01-01

373

Interaction in Bilingual Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from Phonetic Inventories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

374

The effect of phonological analysis training on naming performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children who are poor readers have difficulty naming pictured objects. Previous research has shown that while poor readers have the same amount of tacit phonological knowledge about words they cannot retrieve as good readers, they cannot use this initial phoneme and rhyme information to produce these words. In this study, thirdgrade good and poor readers participated in a training session

Hyla Rubin; Terry Rotella; Lisa Schwartz; Susan Bernstein

1991-01-01

375

Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

2015-01-01

376

Consequences of a phonological coding deficit on sentence processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sentence processing abilities of EA, a conduction aphasic with a documented phonological coding deficit, were investigated in tests of sentence comprehension, production, and repetition. EA showed a syntactic comprehension deficit, relying heavily on word order information to make grammatical role assignments. Production tests revealed a generally intact ability to generate a variety of sentence constructions, although there were frequent

Frances J. Friedrich; Randi Martin; Susan J. Kemper

1985-01-01

377

Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

2008-01-01

378

Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

2008-01-01

379

Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

380

The Role of Vocal Practice in Constructing Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors looked for effects of vocal practice on phonological working memory. Method: A longitudinal design was used, combining both naturalistic observations and a nonword repetition test. Fifteen 26-month-olds (12 of whom were followed from age 11 months) were administered a nonword test including real words,…

Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn M.; DePaolis, Rory A.; Whitaker, Chris J.; Williams, Nicola M.

2010-01-01

381

Concept-to-Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching  

E-print Network

gen- eration problem in a concept-to-speech system. Off-line, a database of recorded speech Speech Text-to-Speech Concept-to-Speech speech generation Database Query Figure 1. Text to speechConcept-to-Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching BY P A TAYLOR Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

382

ConcepttoSpeech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching  

E-print Network

gen­ eration problem in a concept­to­speech system. Off­line, a database of recorded speech generation waveform Speech Text­to­Speech Concept­to­Speech speech generation Database Query Figure 1. TextConcept­to­Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching BY P A TAYLOR Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

383

Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

2010-01-01

384

A longitudinal case study of developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily

Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme

1989-01-01

385

Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

2014-01-01

386

Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

2013-01-01

387

A Brief Critique of Chomsky's Challenge to Classical Phonemic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonemic phonology became important because it provided a descriptive account of dialects and languages that had never been transcribed before, and it derives its greatest strength from its practical orientation, which has proved beneficial to language teaching and learning. Noam Chomsky's criticisms of it are largely unjust because he has not…

Liu, Ngar-Fun

1994-01-01

388

Remediation of Common Phonological Processes: Four Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach incorporating conceptualization training, short sessions of "auditory bombardment," and a phonemic contrast method proved effective in reducing the frequency of targeted speech problems in four kindergarteners with moderate/severe phonological disorders. Generalization was noted in untrained words. (CL)

Monahan, Dana

1986-01-01

389

Neuroimaging sheds new light on the phonological deficit in dyslexia.  

PubMed

A new study reports that activations of superior temporal regions for speech are normal in dyslexia, although being less well connected to downstream frontal regions. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in the access to phonological representations rather than in the representations themselves. PMID:24568928

Ramus, Franck

2014-06-01

390

Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

Bose, Arpita

2013-01-01

391

Time Pressure and Phonological Advance Planning in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current accounts of spoken production debate the extent to which speakers plan ahead. Here, we investigated whether the scope of phonological planning is influenced by changes in time pressure constraints. The first experiment used a picture-word interference task and showed that picture naming latencies were shorter when word distractors shared…

Damian, Markus F.; Dumay, Nicolas

2007-01-01

392

Phonological Memory and Implications for the Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…

Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.

2010-01-01

393

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

2004-01-01

394

Phonological Knowledge in Typical and Atypical Speech-Sound Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses 4 types of phonological knowledge: knowledge of the acoustic and perceptual characteristics of speech sounds (perceptual knowledge), knowledge of the articulatory characteristics of speech sounds (articulatory knowledge), higher level knowledge of the ways that words can be divided into sounds and related phonotactic…

Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2005-01-01

395

Dialect Boundaries and Phonological Change in Upstate New York  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eastern half of New York State is a dialectologically diverse region around which several dialect regions converge--the Inland North, New York City, Western New England, and Canada. These regions differ with respect to major parameters of North American English phonological variation; and therefore the interface between them is of interest…

Dinkin, Aaron Joshua

2009-01-01

396

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

397

Phonological Universals Constrain the Processing of Nonspeech Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs…

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2010-01-01

398

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

399

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

400

Phonological Awareness and Decoding in Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Students Who Use Visual Phonics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual phonics, a system of 45 hand and symbol cues that represent the phonemes of spoken English, has been used as a tool in literacy instruction with deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) students for over 20 years. Despite years of anecdotal support, there is relatively little published evidence of its impact on reading achievement. This study was…

Narr, Rachel F.

2008-01-01

401

Effectiveness of Decoding and Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with intellectual disability, including children with Down syndrome, have teachers who are unsure what type of reading instruction is likely to increase outcomes for their students. Effectiveness of two commercially available, evidence-based reading interventions was evaluated through 3 multiple baseline across participants,…

Lemons, Christopher J.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Paterra, Matthew F.

2012-01-01

402

Integrated Speech and Phonological Awareness Intervention for Pre-School Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with Down syndrome experience difficulty with both spoken and written language acquisition, however controlled intervention studies to improve these difficulties are rare and have typically focused on improving one language domain. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated intervention approach on the speech,…

van Bysterveldt, Anne Katherine; Gillon, Gail; Foster-Cohen, Susan

2010-01-01

403

Crosslinguistic Influence on Phonological Awareness for Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (1) the potential influence of oral language characteristics of two languages that bilingual children acquire on their PA and (2) the relationship of PA in L1 with PA and literacy skills in L2, using data from Korean-English bilingual children. Thirty three Korean-English bilingual children, composed of two subsamples from two…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

404

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

405

Vowel production, speech-motor control, and phonological encoding in people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay, and people who are not  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study (Pierrehumbert, Bent, Munson, and Bailey, submitted) found differences in vowel production between people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay (LBG) and people who are not. The specific differences (more fronted /u/ and /a/ in the non-LB women; an overall more-contracted vowel space in the non-gay men) were not amenable to an interpretation based on simple group differences in vocal-tract geometry. Rather, they suggested that differences were either due to group differences in some other skill, such as motor control or phonological encoding, or learned. This paper expands on this research by examining vowel production, speech-motor control (measured by diadochokinetic rates), and phonological encoding (measured by error rates in a tongue-twister task) in people who are LBG and people who are not. Analyses focus on whether the findings of Pierrehumbert et al. (submitted) are replicable, and whether group differences in vowel production are related to group differences in speech-motor control or phonological encoding. To date, 20 LB women, 20 non-LB women, 7 gay men, and 7 non-gay men have participated. Preliminary analyses suggest that there are no group differences in speech motor control or phonological encoding, suggesting that the earlier findings of Pierrehumbert et al. reflected learned behaviors.

Munson, Benjamin; Deboe, Nancy

2003-10-01

406

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

407

Awareness of Implicit Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

2013-01-01

408

Awareness as observational heterarchy  

PubMed Central

Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

2013-01-01

409

Malaria awareness month launched.  

PubMed

On April 29, 1997, in Suhum, Ghana, at the beginning of Malaria Awareness Month, Minister of Health Dr. Eunice Brookman-Amissah announced a 6-month accelerated malaria control program in 30 districts where the disease is most endemic; the program, which is sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), will continue until September 1997. The program is being launched because of the low impact of control efforts over the previous 4 years. Under the new program, health personnel, including 250 physicians in private and government employment, will be retrained regarding the proper management and treatment of malaria. In order to curtail the improper treatment of the disease, some chemical sellers and day care assistants will also be trained in the management and control of malaria. The next stage of the program will include measures to protect people from mosquito bites and to clear areas of mosquito breeding places. PMID:12294206

410

Artificial Language Training Reveals the Neural Substrates Underlying Addressed and Assembled Phonologies  

PubMed Central

Although behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested two distinct routes of phonological access, their neural substrates have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we designed an artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) that can be read either through addressed (i.e., whole word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. Two matched groups of native English-speaking participants were trained in one of the two conditions, one hour per day for eight days. Behavioral results showed that both groups correctly named more than 90% of the trained words after training. At the neural level, we found a clear dissociation of the neural pathways for addressed and assembled phonologies: There was greater involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right orbital frontal cortex, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for addressed phonology, but stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for assembled phonology. Furthermore, we found evidence supporting the strategy-shift hypothesis, which postulates that, with practice, reading strategy shifts from assembled to addressed phonology. Specifically, compared to untrained words, trained words in the assembled phonology group showed stronger activation in the addressed phonology network and less activation in the assembled phonology network. Our results provide clear brain-imaging evidence for the dual-route models of reading. PMID:24676060

Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Wei, Miao; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

2014-01-01

411

Phonological and morphological analysis skills in young children.  

PubMed

Twenty-two normally developing five-year-olds were asked to judge, identify, repair and explain phonological and morphological errors. All of the errors involved the addition, substitution or omission of a single phoneme, which in the morphological task, was also an inflectional morpheme. Stimuli were controlled for type of error (omission, addition, substitution), location of the error (word final) and word status of the resulting error (word, non-word). Children performed significantly better on the phonological task than on the morphological task. It is proposed that the results are due to differences in the type and location of linguistic information to be analysed and to differences in memory demands in the tasks. PMID:8376478

Smith-Lock, K M; Rubin, H

1993-06-01

412

PhonItalia: a phonological lexicon for Italian.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the first open-access lexical database that provides phonological representations for 120,000 Italian word forms. Each of these also includes syllable boundaries and stress markings and a comprehensive range of lexical statistics. Using data derived from this lexicon, we have also generated a set of derived databases and provided estimates of positional frequency use for Italian phonemes, syllables, syllable onsets and codas, and character and phoneme bigrams. These databases are freely available from phonitalia.org. This article describes the methods, content, and summarizing statistics for these databases. In a first application of this database, we also demonstrate how the distribution of phonological substitution errors made by Italian aphasic patients is related to phoneme frequency. PMID:24092524

Goslin, Jeremy; Galluzzi, Claudia; Romani, Cristina

2014-09-01

413

Phonological and visual working memory in mental addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present research was to examine the role of working memory in mental arithmetic. Adults (n = 96) solved multidigit arithmetic problems (e.g., 52 + 3; 3 + 52) alone and in combination with either a phonological memory\\u000a load (i.e., nonwords, such asgup) or a visual memory load (i.e., random pattern of asterisks). The participants solved problems

Patricia L. Trbovich; Jo-Anne LeFevre

2003-01-01

414

Visual and phonological components of working memory in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that young children’s immediate memory for a short series of drawings of objects is mediated by\\u000a a visual component of working memory, whereas older children rely chiefly upon a phonological component. Three experiments\\u000a investigated the hypothesis that older children rely also, but to a lesser extent, on visual working memory. Experiment 1\\u000a confirmed previous evidence that

Graham J. Hitch; Michael E. Woodin; Sally Baker

1989-01-01

415

Phonological Encoding in the Silent Speech of Persons Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of phonological encoding in the silent speech of persons who stutter (PWS) and persons who do not stutter (PNS). Participants were 10 PWS (M=30.4 years, S.D.=7.8), matched in age, gender, and handedness with 11 PNS (M=30.1 years, S.D.=7.8). Each participant performed five tasks: a…

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; De Nil, Luc F.; Smyth, Ron; Johnson, Carla

2006-01-01

416

Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

2014-01-01

417

Personalizing situation awareness  

SciTech Connect

Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

2009-01-01

418

Aligning the timelines of phonological acquisition and change.  

PubMed

This paper examines whether data from a large cross-linguistic corpus of adult and child productions can be used to support an assumed corollary of the Neogrammarian distinction between two types of phonological change. The first type is regular sound change, which is assumed to be incremental and so should show continuity between phonological development and the age-related variation observed in the speech community undergoing the change. The second type is dialect borrowing, which could show an abrupt discontinuity between developmental patterns before and after the socio-historical circumstances that instigate it. We examine the acquisition of two contrasts: the Seoul Korean contrast between lax and aspirated stops which is undergoing regular sound change, and the standard Mandarin contrast between retroflex and dental sibilants which has been borrowed recently into the S?ngyuán dialect. Acquisition of the different contrasts patterns as predicted from the assumed differences between continuous regular sound change and potentially abrupt dialect borrowing. However, there are substantial gaps in our understanding both of the extent of cross-cultural variability in language socialization and of how this might affect the mechanisms of phonological change that must be addressed before we can fully understand the relationship between the time courses of the two. PMID:25009668

Beckman, Mary E; Li, Fangfang; Kong, Eun Jong; Edwards, Jan

2014-02-01

419

Aligning the timelines of phonological acquisition and change  

PubMed Central

This paper examines whether data from a large cross-linguistic corpus of adult and child productions can be used to support an assumed corollary of the Neogrammarian distinction between two types of phonological change. The first type is regular sound change, which is assumed to be incremental and so should show continuity between phonological development and the age-related variation observed in the speech community undergoing the change. The second type is dialect borrowing, which could show an abrupt discontinuity between developmental patterns before and after the socio-historical circumstances that instigate it. We examine the acquisition of two contrasts: the Seoul Korean contrast between lax and aspirated stops which is undergoing regular sound change, and the standard Mandarin contrast between retroflex and dental sibilants which has been borrowed recently into the S?ngyuán dialect. Acquisition of the different contrasts patterns as predicted from the assumed differences between continuous regular sound change and potentially abrupt dialect borrowing. However, there are substantial gaps in our understanding both of the extent of cross-cultural variability in language socialization and of how this might affect the mechanisms of phonological change that must be addressed before we can fully understand the relationship between the time courses of the two. PMID:25009668

Beckman, Mary E.; Li, Fangfang; Kong, Eun Jong; Edwards, Jan

2014-01-01

420

Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.  

PubMed

Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways. PMID:25480080

Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

2014-12-01

421

Project BICEP: K-6 Career Awareness Curriculum Model. Career Awareness, Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This K-6 Career Awareness Curriculum Model is composed of a variety of activities that mathematics teachers can use to infuse career awareness into their instructional units. The activities are divided into eight topical sections: (1) Economic Principles, (2) Numeration, (3) Measurement, (4) Decimals, (5) Graphs/Fractions, (6) Time, (7)…

Barnstable Public Schools, Hyannis, MA.

422

On the way from morphology to phonology: German linking elements and the role of the phonological word  

Microsoft Academic Search

German linking elements are sometimes classified as inflectional affixes, sometimes as derivational affixes, and in any case\\u000a as morphological units with at least seven realisations (e.g. -s-, -es-, -(e)n-, -e-). This article seeks to show that linking elements are hybrid elements situated between morphology and phonology. On the\\u000a one hand, they have a clear morphological status since they occur only

Damaris Nübling; Renata Szczepaniak

2008-01-01

423

ON-ROAD EVALUATION OF A REMOTE SENSOR: All on-road remote sensors or which we are aware carry out at least a measurement of the  

E-print Network

ON-ROAD EVALUATION OF A REMOTE SENSOR: All on-road remote sensors or which we are aware carry out can be done without going to the expense and complexity of an on-road audit using a vehicle of known the quality of the individual data points which are used to derive this slope. Several on-road remote sensors

Denver, University of

424

Density pervades: An analysis of phonological neighbourhood density effects in aphasic speakers with different types of naming impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of phonological neighbourhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighbourhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well-controlled

Erica L. Middleton; Myrna F. Schwartz

2010-01-01

425

Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

2009-01-01

426

Brain Awareness Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Awareness Week (BAW) is an inspirational global campaign that unites those who share an interest in elevating public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain and nervous system research. BAW focuses international attention on the field of neuroscience and offers opportunities for teachers and students to engage in fun educational activities.

Sf (Society for Neuroscience)

2005-05-01

427

Nontraditional Career Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains materials for a three-day nontraditional career awareness unit which have been tested and evaluated by over 10,000 students and numerous counselors and other educators. Its purpose is to make students more aware of the full range of career opportunities open to male and female students. A cover page for each day lists…

Forbes Road East Area Vocational Technical School, Monroeville, PA.

428

Partial Awareness Creates the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the lack of consensus regarding the existence of subliminal semantic processing arises from not taking into account the fact that linguistic stimuli are rep- resented across several processing levels (features, letters, word form) that can independently reach or not reach awareness. Using masked words, we constructed conditions in which par- ticipants were aware of some letters or

Sid Kouider; Emmanuel Dupoux

2004-01-01

429

Workspace awareness for groupware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared phy sical workspaces allow people to maintain up - to-the minute knowledge about others' interaction with the workspace. This knowledge is workspace awareness, part of the glue that allows groups to collaborate effectively. In this paper, we present the concept of workspace awareness as a key for groupware systems that wish to support the fluid interaction evident i n

Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg

1996-01-01

430

awareness and pollution prevention  

E-print Network

..............................................5 Storm Water Pollution Prevention.....................5 Sanitary Sewer System ManagementHazard awareness and pollution prevention for contractors and visitors at UCSD #12;Hazard Awareness and Pollution Prevention For Contractors and Visitors at UC San Diego This booklet was developed by UC San Diego

Tsien, Roger Y.

431

CRIME AWARENESS & CAMPUS SECURITY  

E-print Network

records, wanted persons, stolen property, and vehicle information. All crimes reported to the PoliceCRIME AWARENESS & CAMPUS SECURITY: A report from the UC Santa Cruz Police Department STUDENT,STAFF&FACULTY`RIGHT-TO-KNOW' Campus Security, Crime Awareness, and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Federal law requires that each

Wilmers, Chris

432

CRIME AWARENESS & CAMPUS SECURITY  

E-print Network

records, wanted per- sons, stolen property, and vehicle information. All crimes reported to the PoliceCRIME AWARENESS & CAMPUS SECURITY: A report from the UC Santa Cruz Police Department STUDENT,STAFF&FACULTY`RIGHT-TO-KNOW' Campus Security, Crime Awareness, and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Federal law requires that each

Wilmers, Chris

433

CRIME AWARENESS & CAMPUS SECURITY  

E-print Network

records, wanted per- sons, stolen property, and vehicle information. All crimes reported to the PoliceCRIME AWARENESS & CAMPUS SECURITY A report from the UC Santa Cruz Police Department STUDENT,STAFF&FACULTY`RIGHT-TO-KNOW' Campus Security, Crime Awareness, and Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Federal law requires that each

Wilmers, Chris

434

Automatic Activation of Phonology in Silent Reading Is Parallel: Evidence from Beginning and Skilled Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g.,…

Alario, F.-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C.

2007-01-01

435

Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

2010-01-01

436

Phonological Typicality Influences Sentence Processing in Predictive Contexts: Reply to Staub, Grant, Clifton, and Rayner (2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 separate self-paced reading experiments, Farmer, Christiansen, and Monaghan (2006) found that the degree to which a word's phonology is typical of other words in its lexical category influences online processing of nouns and verbs in predictive contexts. Staub, Grant, Clifton, and Rayner (2009) failed to find an effect of phonological

Farmer, Thomas A.; Monaghan, Padraic; Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

2011-01-01

437

Hermit Crabs: Formal Renewal of Morphology by Phonologically Mediated Affix Substitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammatical affix undergoing phonetic erosion is sometimes abruptly replaced by a conveniently-available lexical stem sharing one or more phonological segments. The new affix has phonological shape of the old independent stem, but acquires basic grammatical function of the old affix. Because the old affixal form is eliminated, the historical…

Heath, Jeffrey

1998-01-01

438

Learning orthographic and phonological representations in models of monosyllabic and bisyllabic naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current models of word naming are restricted to processing monosyllabic words and pseudowords. This limitation stems from difficulties in representing the orthographic and phonological codes for words varying substantially in length. Sibley, Kello, Plaut, and Elman (2008) described an extension of the simple recurrent network architecture, called the sequence encoder, that learned orthographic and phonological representations of variable-length words.

Daragh E. Sibley; Christopher T. Kello; Mark S. Seidenberg

2010-01-01

439

Spontaneous and Imitated Productions in Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research examining the relationship between spontaneous and imitated productions for phonological analysis has indicated that the inclusion of imitated productions may overestimate children's phonological abilities. Previous research in this area has included only English-speaking children. The purpose of this study was to determine what,…

Goldstein, Brian; Fabiano, Leah; Iglesias, Aquiles

2004-01-01

440

Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading: Cooperative Division of Labor Between Visual and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are words read visually (by means of a direct mapping from orthography to semantics) or phonologically (by mapping from orthography to phonology to semantics)? The authors addressed this long-standing debate by examining how a large-scale computational model based on connectionist principles would solve the problem and comparing the model's…

Harm, Michael W.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

2004-01-01

441

Impaired letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia: what visual-to-phonology code mapping disorder?  

PubMed

Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In particular, report of poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved symbol-string processing was viewed as evidence of poor visual-to-phonology code mapping, in line with the phonological theory of developmental dyslexia. We assessed here the visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder hypothesis. In Experiment 1, letter-string, digit-string and colour-string processing was assessed to disentangle a phonological versus visual familiarity account of the letter/digit versus symbol dissociation. Against a visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder but in support of a familiarity account, results showed poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved colour-string processing in dyslexic children. In Experiment 2, two tasks of letter-string report were used, one of which was performed simultaneously to a high-taxing phonological task. Results show that dyslexic children are similarly impaired in letter-string report whether a concurrent phonological task is simultaneously performed or not. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence against a phonological account of poor letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia. PMID:22434589

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-05-01

442

Phonotactics and Articulatory Coordination Interact in Phonology: Evidence from Nonnative Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A core area of phonology is the study of phonotactics, or how sounds are linearly combined. Recent cross-linguistic analyses have shown that the phonology determines not only phonotactics but also the articulatory coordination or timing of adjacent sounds. In this article, I explore how the relation between coordination and phonotactics affects…

Davidson, Lisa

2006-01-01

443

Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

2005-01-01

444

Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

2010-01-01

445

On Phonetics and Phonology: A Broad-Termed Comparison and Contrast between Broad and Narrow Transcription  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a subfield of linguistics, phonetics and phonology have as their main axis the concern of articulation of sounds; that is, how human beings produce speech. Although dated back over 2000 years ago, modern contributions of scientists and scholars regarding phonetics and phonology have involved various fields of science and schools of thought such…

Ebrahimi, Pouria

2010-01-01

446

Reading and Spelling Acquisition in French: The Role of Phonological Mediation and Orthographic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n= 57) were

Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Philippe Bonnet

1998-01-01

447

Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2011-01-01

448

Using the lens of phonetic experience to resolve phonological forms Catherine T. Best a,b  

E-print Network

Using the lens of phonetic experience to resolve phonological forms Catherine T. Best a,b , Ann R with the phonetic details of the language(s) we have learned. Several of the papers presented here offer key our perception of phonetic details and phonological structure in spoken language. & 2011 Elsevier Ltd

449

A Phonemic Implicational Feature Hierarchy of Phonological Contrasts for English-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrastive feature hierarchies have been developed and used for some time in depicting typical phonological development and in guiding therapy decisions. Previous descriptions of feature use have been based on independent analyses and usually phonetic inventories. However, recent trends in phonology include a relational analysis of phonemic…

Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas; Carson, Cecyle Perry; Carson, David

2005-01-01

450

A Single-Stage Approach to Learning Phonological Categories: Insights from Inuktitut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To acquire one's native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships has each in its own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations…

Dillon, Brian; Dunbar, Ewan; Idsardi, William

2013-01-01

451

Phonetically Driven Phonology: The Role of Optimality Theory and Inductive Grounding1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionalist phonetic literature has shown how the phonologies of human languages are arranged to facilitate ease of articulation and perception. The explanatory force of phonological theory is greatly increased if it can directly access these research results. There are two formal mechanisms that together can facilitate the link-up of formal to functional work. As others have noted, Optimality Theory, with

Bruce P. Hayes

1999-01-01

452

Two Case Studies in the Phonetics-Phonology Interface: Evidence from Turkish Voicing and Norwegian Coalescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonetics-phonology interface has long been debated; some linguists argue for a modular approach (Keating 1984, Pierrehumbert 1990, Zsiga 1997, Cohn 1998), while others argue that there is no interface, and that phonetics and phonology are one and the same (Browman & Goldstein 1989-1992, Ohala 1990). Recent proposals by Gafos (2002), and…

Feizollahi, Zhaleh

2010-01-01

453

Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

2012-01-01

454

Learning to predict the phonological structure of English loanwords in Japanese  

E-print Network

Learning to predict the phonological structure of English loanwords in Japanese Alan D. Blair a feedforward neural network can be trained to predict the phonology of loanwords bor- rowed from English@cse.unsw.edu.au John Ingram Department of English University of Queensland 4072, Australia jingram

Blair, Alan

455

The Recognition of Phonologically Assimilated Words Does Not Depend on Specific Language Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 5 experiments, we investigated whether the processing of phonologically assimilated utterances is influenced by language learning. Previous experiments had shown that phonological assimilations, such as /lean#bacon/ [right arrow] [leam bacon], are compensated for in perception. In this article, we investigated whether compensation…

Mitterer, Holger; Csepe, Valeria; Honbolygo, Ferenc; Blomert, Leo

2006-01-01

456

Phonological Patterns in the Conversational Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this descriptive, longitudinal study, phonological patterns (i.e., natural phonological processes) were examined in a set of conversational speech samples obtained from six young children fitted with cochlear implants. Both developmental and non-developmental patterns were observed. This is consistent with findings from previous studies of the…

Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Parker, Rhonda G.

2008-01-01

457

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

458

The role of phonological alternation in speech production: evidence from Mandarin tone sandhi  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of phonological alternation during speech production in Mandarin using implicit priming, a paradigm in which participants respond faster to words in sets that are phonologically homogeneous than in sets that are phonologically heterogeneous. We test whether priming is obtained when words in a set share the same tones at the underlying level but have different tones at the surface level-i.e., when the set includes a word that undergoes a phonological alternation which changes the tone. Sets that are heterogeneous at the surface level (in which the heterogeneity is due to a phonological operation) failed to elicit priming, as did sets that are heterogeneous at the underlying and surface levels (in which the heterogeneity is due to the lexical representations). This finding suggests that the phonological alternation was computed before the initiation of articulation, offering evidence that the progression from underlying phonological representations to articulatory execution may be mediated online by phonological input-to-output mapping. Furthermore, sets of words that are heterogeneous only at the surface level showed a different trend than sets of words that are heterogeneous at both levels, suggesting that both the surface and underlying levels of representation play a role during speech production. PMID:24967001

Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhang, Jie

2014-01-01

459

Another Travesty of Representation: Phonological Representation and Phonetic Interpretation of ATR Harmony in Kalenjin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kalenjin group of languages, spoken mainly in western Kenya, displays a harmony system involving the phonological feature Advanced Tongue Root ([ATR]). The study reported here addresses issues of the phonological representation of the [ATR] in Kalenjin and its phonetic interpretation. Specifically, it is shown that (1) the harmony system…

Local, John; Lodge, Ken

1996-01-01

460

The Tug of War between Phonological, Semantic and Shape Information in Language-Mediated Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…

Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.

2007-01-01

461

Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

2012-01-01

462

Evaluation of a Phonological Reading Programme for Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the evaluation of a 10-week phonologically-based literacy programme involving 10 children with Down syndrome (DS). At the outset, each child relied on a whole word method of reading with no apparent use of decoding strategies. The reading and phonological skills of the children were assessed twice prior to undertaking the…

Baylis, Pamela; Snowling, Margaret J.

2012-01-01

463

The Phonological Mean Length of Utterance: Methodological Challenges from a Crosslinguistic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study assesses the phonological development of 17 children acquiring Finnish at the developmental point of 25 words (ages 1;2-2;0). The analysis is made using the "PHONOLOGICAL MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE" (PMLU) method (Ingram & Ingram, 2001; Ingram, 2002), which focuses on the children's whole-word productions. Two separate analyses are…

Saaristo-Helin, Katri; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Kunnari, Sari

2006-01-01

464

Deficits in phonology and past-tense morphology: Whats the connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological dissociations between regular and irregular past tense verb processing have been explained in two ways: (a) separate mechanisms of a rule-governed process for regular verbs and a lexical-associative process for irregular verbs; (b) a single system drawing on phonological and semantic knowledge. The latter account invokes phonological impairment as the basis of poorer performance for regular than irregular past

Helen Bird; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph; Mark S. Seidenberg; James L. McClelland; Karalyn Pattersona

465

Atypical Neural Functions Underlying Phonological Processing and Silent Rehearsal in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological processing was examined in school-age children who stutter (CWS) by assessing their performance and recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a visual rhyming task. CWS had lower accuracy on rhyming judgments, but the cognitive processes that mediate the comparisons of the phonological representations of words, as indexed by…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spruill, John E.; Spencer, Rebecca; Smith, Anne

2008-01-01

466

Conceptualizing prognostic awareness in advanced cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review synthesizes the complex literature on prognostic awareness in cancer. A total of 37 studies examining cancer patients' understanding of their prognosis were included. Prognostic awareness definitions and assessment methods were inconsistent across studies. A surprisingly high percentage of patients (up to 75%) were unaware of their poor prognosis, and in several studies, even their cancer diagnosis (up to 96%), particularly in studies conducted outside of North America. This review highlights surprisingly low rates of prognostic awareness in patients with advanced cancer as well as discrepancies in prognostic awareness assessment, suggesting the need for empirically validated measures of prognostic awareness. PMID:24157936

Applebaum, Allison J; Kolva, Elissa A; Kulikowski, Julia R; Jacobs, Jordana D; DeRosa, Antonio; Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Olden, Megan E; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

2014-09-01

467

Phonological and visual distinctiveness effects in syllogistic reasoning: implications for mental models theory.  

PubMed

Two experiments are reported in which the representational distinctiveness of terms within categorical syllogisms was manipulated in order to examine the assumption of mental models theory that abstract, spatially based representations underpin deduction. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated conclusion validity for syllogisms containing either phonologically distinctive terms (e.g., harks, paps, and fids) or phonologically nondistinctive terms (e.g., fuds, fods, and feds). Logical performance was enhanced with the distinctive contents, suggesting that the phonological properties of syllogism terms can play an important role in deduction. In Experiment 2, participants received either the phonological materials from Experiment 1 or syllogisms involving distinctive or nondistinctive visual contents. Logical inference was again enhanced for the distinctive contents, whether phonological or visual in nature. Our findings suggest a broad involvement of multimodal information in syllogistic reasoning and question the assumed primacy of abstract, spatially organized representations in deduction, as is claimed by mental models theorists. PMID:19679856

Ball, Linden J; Quayle, Jeremy D

2009-09-01

468

Extracting salient sublexical units from written texts: “Emophon,” a corpus-based approach to phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

A growing body of literature in psychology, linguistics, and the neurosciences has paid increasing attention to the understanding of the relationships between phonological representations of words and their meaning: a phenomenon also known as phonological iconicity. In this article, we investigate how a text's intended emotional meaning, particularly in literature and poetry, may be reflected at the level of sublexical phonological salience and the use of foregrounded elements. To extract such elements from a given text, we developed a probabilistic model to predict the exceeding of a confidence interval for specific sublexical units concerning their frequency of occurrence within a given text contrasted with a reference linguistic corpus for the German language. Implementing this model in a computational application, we provide a text analysis tool which automatically delivers information about sublexical phonological salience allowing researchers, inter alia, to investigate effects of the sublexical emotional tone of texts based on current findings on phonological iconicity. PMID:24101907

Aryani, Arash; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Conrad, Markus

2013-01-01

469

Extracting salient sublexical units from written texts: "Emophon," a corpus-based approach to phonological iconicity.  

PubMed

A GROWING BODY OF LITERATURE IN PSYCHOLOGY, LINGUISTICS, AND THE NEUROSCIENCES HAS PAID INCREASING ATTENTION TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHONOLOGICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF WORDS AND THEIR MEANING: a phenomenon also known as phonological iconicity. In this article, we investigate how a text's intended emotional meaning, particularly in literature and poetry, may be reflected at the level of sublexical phonological salience and the use of foregrounded elements. To extract such elements from a given text, we developed a probabilistic model to predict the exceeding of a confidence interval for specific sublexical units concerning their frequency of occurrence within a given text contrasted with a reference linguistic corpus for the German language. Implementing this model in a computational application, we provide a text analysis tool which automatically delivers information about sublexical phonological salience allowing researchers, inter alia, to investigate effects of the sublexical emotional tone of texts based on current findings on phonological iconicity. PMID:24101907

Aryani, Arash; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

2013-01-01

470

Morphological awareness and learning to read Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the nature of morphological awareness and its relation to learning to read Chinese characters among\\u000a 46 Chinese-speaking preschool children. The children took a morphological awareness task, which varied in semantic transparency\\u000a and morpheme position. Children’s vocabulary knowledge and extant character reading ability were measured. Additionally, a\\u000a character learning task was administered. Results showed that children’s performances on

Wei-Lun Chung; Chieh-Fang Hu

2007-01-01

471

The nature of orthographic–phonological and orthographic–semantic relationships for Japanese kana and kanji words  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that orthographic–phonological (O-P) consistencies are higher for Japanese kana words than for kanji\\u000a words and that orthographic–semantic (O-S) consistencies are higher for kanji words than for kana words. In order to examine\\u000a the validity of these assumptions, we attempted to measure the O-P and O-S consistencies for 339 kana words and 775 kanji\\u000a words. Orthographic neighbors

Yasushi Hino; Shinobu Miyamura; Stephen J. Lupker

472

Phonological Units in Spoken Word Production: Insights from Cantonese  

PubMed Central

Evidence from previous psycholinguistic research suggests that phonological units such as phonemes have a privileged role during phonological planning in Dutch and English (aka the segment-retrieval hypothesis). However, the syllable-retrieval hypothesis previously proposed for Mandarin assumes that only the entire syllable unit (without the tone) can be prepared in advance in speech planning. Using Cantonese Chinese as a test case, the present study was conducted to investigate whether the syllable-retrieval hypothesis can be applied to other Chinese spoken languages. In four implicit priming (form-preparation) experiments, participants were asked to learn various sets of prompt-response di-syllabic word pairs and to utter the corresponding response word upon seeing each prompt. The response words in a block were either phonologically related (homogeneous) or unrelated (heterogeneous). Participants' naming responses were significantly faster in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous conditions when the response words shared the same word-initial syllable (without the tone) (Exps.1 and 4) or body (Exps.3 and 4), but not when they shared merely the same word-initial phoneme (Exp.2). Furthermore, the priming effect observed in the syllable-related condition was significantly larger than that in the body-related condition (Exp. 4). Although the observed syllable priming effects and the null effect of word-initial phoneme are consistent with the syllable-retrieval hypothesis, the body-related (sub-syllabic) priming effects obtained in this Cantonese study are not. These results suggest that the syllable-retrieval hypothesis is not generalizable to all Chinese spoken languages and that both syllable and sub-syllabic constituents are legitimate planning units in Cantonese speech production. PMID:23144965

Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Huang, Jian; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2012-01-01

473

Relationships Among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of linguistic performance. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships between measures of linguistic processing speed and two aspects of cognition: phonological working memory and attention. Participants were 9 CWS and 14 CWNS between the ages of 3;6 and 5;2. Children participated in a computerized picture naming task (an index of linguistic processing speed) and a nonword repetition task (an index of phonological working memory). Parents completed a temperament behavior questionnaire, from which information about the children’s attentional skills was collected. Findings revealed that the groups did not differ from each other on speed of picture naming or attention; however, the CWS performed significantly worse in nonword repetition. In addition, after partialling out the effects of age, (a) for CWS only, there was a significant negative relationship between picture naming speed and nonword repetition; (b) there were no significant relationships for either group between aspects of attention and picture naming speed; and (c) only the CWNS showed a significant relationship between nonword repetition and focused attentional skills. These results underscore the need to consider the underlying skills associated with lexically-related aspects of language production when examining the task performances of CWS and CWNS. PMID:20831969

Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

2010-01-01

474

Awareness Projected: Moving Awareness to a Public Space  

E-print Network

Awareness Projected: Moving Awareness to a Public Space Michael Rounding, Saul Greenberg awareness can only work when people inhabit a common space. Kraut, Egido and Galegher [10] correlated by projecting casual awareness information into a public space via a computer­controlled medium. We expect

Greenberg, Saul

475

Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

1998-01-01

476

Child Care Aware  

MedlinePLUS

... learn about high-quality child care. Welcome to Child Care Aware® E-Mail Print Share Tweet Military Child ... 2246 Call TTY#: 1-866-278-9428 Free Child Care Search Please enter your zip code. Your local ...

477

Health Fraud Awareness  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Health Fraud Awareness (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section ... flu virus. In this Consumer Update video, FDA health fraud expert Gary Coody demonstrates fraudulent products removed ...

478

Sleep and moral awareness.  

PubMed

The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. We test this prediction with three studies. A laboratory study with a manipulation of sleep across 90 participants judging a scenario for moral content indicates that a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. An archival study of Google Trends data across 6 years highlights a national dip in Web searches for moral topics (but not other topics) on the Monday after the Spring time change, which tends to deprive people of sleep. Finally, a diary study of 127 participants indicates that (within participants) nights with a lack of sleep are associated with low moral awareness the next day. Together, these three studies suggest that a lack of sleep leaves people less morally aware, with important implications for the recognition of morality in others. PMID:25159702

Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

2014-08-27

479

Interoceptive awareness enhances neural activity during empathy.  

PubMed

Empathy is a multicomponent function that includes sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive components. Although especially the affective component may implicate interoception and interoceptive awareness, the impact of interoception on empathy has never been evaluated behaviorally or neurophysiologically. Here, we tested how a preceding period of interoceptive awareness impacts and modulates neural activity during subsequent empathy. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and measured the sequential interaction between interoception and empathy using fMRI in 18 healthy subjects. We found that the preceding interoceptive awareness period significantly enhanced neural activity during empathy in bilateral anterior insula and various cortical midline regions. The enhancement of neural activity during empathy in both interoceptive and empathy networks by preceding interoceptive awareness suggests a close relationship between interoception and empathy; thereby, interoception seems to be implicated to yielding empathy. PMID:22359353

Ernst, Jutta; Northoff, Georg; Böker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Grimm, Simone

2013-07-01

480

Convergent Validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills with the Test of Phonological Awareness in Spanish and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino English Language Learners represent the largest group of language minority students attending public school in the United States. Research is needed to address the early literacy problems which impede this population from acquiring literacy in the English language with efficacy and to determine the most effective assessment and intervention…

Gunne, Allison J.

2010-01-01

481

Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.  

PubMed

It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. PMID:25089885

Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

2014-12-01

482

Phonological effects in handwriting production: evidence from the implicit priming paradigm.  

PubMed

In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial segments (constant homogeneous) or not (heterogeneous). Also, 2 variable homogeneous blocks were created by including a response word that did not share orthographic onset with the other response (odd-man-out). This odd-man-out could be phonologically related to the targets or not. Experiment 1 showed a preparation effect in the constant homogeneous condition, which disappeared (spoil effect) in the variable condition not phonologically related. However, no spoil effect was found when the odd-man-out shared the phonological initial segment with the targets. In Experiment 2, we obtained a spoil effect in the variable phonologically related condition, but it was significantly smaller than in the variable not phonologically related condition. The effects observed in Experiment 2 vanished in Experiment 3 under articulatory suppression, suggesting that they originated at a sublexical level. These findings suggest that phonological sublexical information is used during handwriting and provide evidence that the implicit priming paradigm (and the odd-man-out version of this) is a suitable tool for handwriting production research. PMID:21767055

Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J

2011-11-01

483

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.

484

Risk-aware control.  

PubMed

Human movement differs from robot control because of its flexibility in unknown environments, robustness to perturbation, and tolerance of unknown parameters and unpredictable variability. We propose a new theory, risk-aware control, in which movement is governed by estimates of risk based on uncertainty about the current state and knowledge of the cost of errors. We demonstrate the existence of a feedback control law that implements risk-aware control and show that this control law can be directly implemented by populations of spiking neurons. Simulated examples of risk-aware control for time-varying cost functions as well as learning of unknown dynamics in a stochastic risky environment are provided. PMID:25149696

Sanger, Terence D

2014-12-01

485

Processing voiceless vowels in Japanese: Effects of language-specific phonological knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been little research on processing allophonic variation in the field of psycholinguistics. This study focuses on processing the voiced/voiceless allophonic alternation of high vowels in Japanese. Three perception experiments were conducted to explore how listeners parse out vowels with the voicing alternation from other segments in the speech stream and how the different voicing statuses of the vowel affect listeners' word recognition process. The results from the three experiments show that listeners use phonological knowledge of their native language for phoneme processing and for word recognition. However, interactions of the phonological and acoustic effects are observed to be different in each process. The facilitatory phonological effect and the inhibitory acoustic effect cancel out one another in phoneme processing; while in word recognition, the facilitatory phonological effect overrides the inhibitory acoustic effect.

Ogasawara, Naomi

2005-04-01

486

Phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of vowel duration spelling in Dutch and German.  

PubMed

In Dutch, vowel duration spelling is phonologically consistent but morphologically inconsistent (e.g., paar-paren). In German, it is phonologically inconsistent but morphologically consistent (e.g., Paar-Paare). Contrasting the two orthographies allowed us to examine the role of phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of the same orthographic feature. Dutch and German children in Grades 2 to 4 spelled singular and plural word forms and in a second task identified the correct spelling of singular and plural forms of the same nonword. Dutch children were better in word spelling, but German children outperformed the Dutch children in nonword selection. Also, whereas German children performed on a similar level for singular and plural items, Dutch children showed a large discrepancy. The results indicate that children use phonological and morphological rules from an early age but that the developmental balance between the two sources of information is constrained by the specific orthography. PMID:15975590

Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

2005-12-01

487

An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents  

E-print Network

2009 /Accepted: 11 September 2009 # The International Dyslexia Association 2009 Abstract Using Dyslexia . fMRI . Performance . Phonology. Reading disability. Semantics Introduction The neurobiology of reading disability An increasing body of research suggests that the core deficit in developmental dyslexia

488

The phonetics and phonology of tone mapping in a constraint-based approach  

E-print Network

This dissertation concerns both phonetic and phonological aspects of tone mapping in various Chinese languages. The central issue addressed is the role of contrast and positional prominence and neutralization in the ...

Li, Zhiqiang, 1969-

2003-01-01

489

The effectiveness of phonological intervention in preschool children: a single-subject design study.  

PubMed

The purpose was to investigate an intervention model for treating preschool children with phonological processes. Six children, three girls and three boys, between 4y 1m and 5y 7m, with similar developmental phonological disorder (PD) received an individually adjusted intervention including articulatory, phonological, and meta-phonological approaches. A single-subject multiple-baseline design with /f/ and /s/ as target phonemes and velar plosives and /r/ as control phonemes was used. An improved production of the treated phonemes was found in five of the children, while one girl established /f/ but not /s/. The control phonemes remained unchanged for all children. Six to 18 therapy sessions were needed to reach the intervention goal. The study highlights the importance of considering heterogeneity in children with PD. PMID:23190080

Palle, Nanna; Berntsson, Agneta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Persson, Christina

2014-04-01

490

Phonological Feature Re-Assembly and the Importance of Phonetic Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that new phonological features can be acquired in second languages, but that both feature acquisition and feature re-assembly are affected by the robustness of phonetic cues in the input.

Archibald, John

2009-01-01

491

The Effect of Sonority on Word Segmentation: Evidence for the Use of a Phonological Universal  

E-print Network

It has been well documented how language-specific cues may be used for word segmentation. Here, we investigate what role a language-independent phonological universal, the sonority sequencing principle (SSP), may also play. ...

Ettlinger, Marc

492

The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a multidimensional self-report measure of interoceptive body awareness. The systematic mixed-methods process involved reviewing the current literature, specifying a multidimensional conceptual framework, evaluating prior instruments, developing items, and analyzing focus group responses to scale items by instructors and patients of body awareness-enhancing therapies. Following refinement by cognitive testing, items were field-tested in students and instructors of mind-body approaches. Final item selection was achieved by submitting the field test data to an iterative process using multiple validation methods, including exploratory cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, comparison between known groups, and correlations with established measures of related constructs. The resulting 32-item multidimensional instrument assesses eight concepts. The psychometric properties of these final scales suggest that the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) may serve as a starting point for research and further collaborative refinement. PMID:23133619

Mehling, Wolf E.; Price, Cynthia; Daubenmier, Jennifer J.; Acree, Mike; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Stewart, Anita

2012-01-01

493

Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding. PMID:21734903

Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

2011-01-01

494

Phonology, working memory, and foreign-language learning.  

PubMed

Three tasks were used to predict English learning by Finnish children over a three-year period. In the pseudoword repetition task the pupils had to repeat aloud tape-recorded pseudowords sounding like Finnish or English. In the pseudoword copying task the pupils saw strings of letters resembling Finnish or English words and copied them when they had disappeared from view. When comparing syntactic-semantic structures, the pupils had to find the syntactically matching pairs from two sets of Finnish sentences. Repetition and copying accuracy and the ability to compare syntactic-semantic structures predicted English learning. Intercorrelations between test scores and English and mathematics grades suggest that repetition and copying accuracy were specifically related to language learning. It is concluded that the ability to represent unfamiliar phonological material in working memory underlies the acquisition of new vocabulary items in foreign-language learning. PMID:1636010

Service, E

1992-07-01

495

"hotdog", not "hot" "dog": The phonological planning of compound words.  

PubMed

Do we say dog when we say hotdog? In five experiments using the implicit priming paradigm, we assessed whether nominal compounds composed of two free morphemes like sawdust or fishbowl are prepared for production at the segmental level in the same way that two-syllable monomorphemic words (e.g. bandit) are, or instead as sequences of separable words (e.g. full bowl or grey dust). The experiments demonstrated that nominal compounds are planned as a single sequence, not as two sequences. Specifically, the onset of the second component of the compound (e.g. /d/ in sawdust) did not act as a primeable starting point, although comparable onsets did when that component was an independent word (grey dust). We conclude that there may be a dog in hotdog at the morpheme level, but not when phonological segments are prepared for production. PMID:24910853

Jacobs, Cassandra L; Dell, Gary S

2014-01-01

496

Phonological universals constrain the processing of nonspeech stimuli.  

PubMed

Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs identified as nonspeech. A subsequent comparison of English and Russian participants indicates that the processing of nonspeech inputs is modulated by linguistic experience. Striking, qualitative differences between English and Russian participants suggest that they rely on linguistic principles, both universal and language-particular, rather than generic auditory processing strategies. Thus, the computation of idiosyncratic linguistic outputs is apparently not restricted to speech inputs. This conclusion presents various challenges to both domain-specific and domain-general accounts of cognition. PMID:20677893

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2010-08-01

497

The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production  

PubMed Central

Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these “lexical neighbors” have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. The present study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically-related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically-related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production. PMID:23647518

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2014-01-01

498

Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?  

PubMed Central

A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2009-01-01

499

The Proximate Phonological Unit of Chinese-English Bilinguals: Proficiency Matters  

PubMed Central

An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107

Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf

2013-01-01

500

Cross-language phonological activation: evidence from masked onset priming and ERPs.  

PubMed

The goal of the present research was to provide direct evidence for the cross-language interaction of phonologies at the sub-lexical level by using the masked onset priming paradigm. More specifically, we investigated whether there is a cross-language masked onset priming effect (MOPE) with L2 (English) primes and L1 (Russian) targets and whether it is modulated by the orthographic similarity of primes and targets. Primes and targets had onsets that overlapped either only phonologically, only orthographically, both phonologically and orthographically, or did not have any overlap. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, between primes and targets led to faster naming latencies. In contrast, the ERP data provided evidence for effects of both phonological and orthographic overlap. Finally, the time-course of phonological and orthographic processing for our bilinguals mirrored the time-course previously reported for monolinguals in the ERP data. These results provide evidence for shared representations at the sub-lexical level for a bilingual's two languages. PMID:24814580

Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J; Jared, Debra

2014-07-01