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Sample records for phosphate sewage sludges

  1. Microbial electrolysis cell accelerates phosphate remobilisation from iron phosphate contained in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Zufferey, Géraldine; Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate was remobilised from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge using a bio-electric cell. A significant acceleration above former results was caused by strongly basic catholytes. For these experiments a dual chambered microbial electrolysis cell with a small cathode (40 mL) and an 80 times larger anode (2.5 L) was equipped with a platinum sputtered reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. Various applied voltages (0.2-6.0 V) generated moderate to strongly basic catholytes using artificial waste water with pH close to neutral. Phosphate from iron phosphate contained in digested sewage sludge was remobilised most effectively at pH ∼13 with up to 95% yield. Beside minor electrochemical reduction, hydroxyl substitution was the dominating remobilisation mechanism. Particle-fluid kinetics using the "shrinking core" model allowed us to determine the reaction controlling step. Reaction rates changed with temperature (15-40 °C) and an activation energy of Ea = 55 kJ mol(-1) was found. These analyses indicated chemical and physical reaction control, which is of interest for future scale-up work. Phosphate remobilisation rates increased significantly, yields doubled and recovered PO4(3-) concentrations increased four times using a task specific bio-electric system. The result is a sustainable process for decentralized phosphate mining and a green chemical base generator useful also for many other sustainable processing needs. PMID:25407335

  2. Scale-up of phosphate remobilization from sewage sludge in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Happe, Manuel; Sugnaux, Marc; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Stauffer, Marc; Zufferey, Géraldine; Kahoun, Thomas; Salamin, Paul-André; Egli, Thomas; Comninellis, Christos; Grogg, Alain-François; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate remobilization from digested sewage sludge containing iron phosphate was scaled-up in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). A 3litre triple chambered MFC was constructed. This reactor was operated as a microbial fuel cell and later as a microbial electrolysis cell to accelerate cathodic phosphate remobilization. Applying an additional voltage and exceeding native MFC power accelerated chemical base formation and the related phosphate remobilization rate. The electrolysis approach was extended using a platinum-RVC cathode. The pH rose to 12.6 and phosphate was recovered by 67% in 26h. This was significantly faster than using microbial fuel cell conditions. Shrinking core modelling particle fluid kinetics showed that the reaction resistance has to move inside the sewage sludge particle for considerable rate enhancement. Remobilized phosphate was subsequently precipitated as struvite and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated low levels of cadmium, lead, and other metals as required by law for recycling fertilizers. PMID:26519694

  3. Determination of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; McNaughton, Don

    2013-09-01

    The chemical form of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash (SSA)-based fertilizers was determined by Raman microspectroscopy. Raman mapping with a lateral resolution of 5 × 5 μm(2) easily detected different compounds present in the fertilizers with the help of recorded reference spectra of pure substances. Quartz and aluminosilicates showed Raman bands in the range of 450-520 cm(-1). Phosphates with apatite structure and magnesium triphosphate were determined at around 960 and 980 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, calcium/magnesium pyrophosphates were detected in some samples. PMID:24067643

  4. Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. TRANSPORT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated with the overall objective of developing organized information pertaining to the costs of various sewage sludge transport systems. Transport of liquid and dewatered sludge by truck and rail and liquid sludge by barge and pipeline is included. The report...

  6. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  7. REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF METALS AND PHOSPHATES FROM MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work was to look at the technical and economical aspects of acid extracting heavy metals and phosphates from municipal chemical sludges and subsequently recovering them by lime neutralization. The results showed that such a process was technically feasible, bu...

  8. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE-SOIL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the chemical properties of municipal sewage sludges, to evaluate the fate of sludge components in soils, and to determine the distribution of trace metals in milling fractions of grains grown on sludge-treated soils.

  10. Partial oxidation of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, M.A.; Martin, M.C.; McKenzie, K.W.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described comprising: (1) splitting a stream of dewatered sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 17-40 wt.% into a first stream and a second stream; (2) drying the first stream of dewatered sewage sludge to produce a stream of dried sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 75-99 wt.%: (3) grinding the dried sewage sludge from (2) to a particle size so that 100 wt% passes through ASTM E11 Standard Sieve Designation 1.40 mm; (4) mixing about 2-8 parts by dry weight aqueous slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel having a solids content of about 50-70 wt. % with each part by weight of said second stream of dewatered sewage sludge from (1); (5) heating the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry from (4) to a temperature of about 140-212 F; and mixing together 3-9 parts by dry weight of the solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage sludge slurry from (4) with each part by weight of dried sewage sludge from (2) to produce a pumpable fuel slurry comprising sewage sludge and solid carbonaceous fuel and having a solids content in the range of about 45-70 wt. %; and (6) reacting the fuel slurry from (5) in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator at a temperature in the range of about 1800-3500 F and a pressure in the range of about 1-35 atmospheres, and in the presence of free-oxygen containing gas, thereby producing a hot raw effluent gas stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas; (7) cooling, cleaning and purifying said raw effluent gas stream to produce a stream of fuel gas; (8) burning the fuel gas from (7) with air in a combustor of a gas turbine, and passing the hot exhaust gas through an expansion turbine which drives an electric generator; and (9) passing the hot exhaust gas from (8) in indirect heat exchange with water to produce steam for use in drying said first stream of dewatered sewage sludge in (2) and/or for heating said solid carbonaceous fuel-sewage slurry is (5) by indirect heat exchange.

  11. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  12. 1988 NATIONAL SEWAGE SLUDGE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Originally developed to support Phase I regulation for use or disposal of biosolids (sewage sludge). Data collected were used to estimate risks, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation. This is currently the only statistically designed surv...

  13. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  14. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers. PMID:25265150

  15. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  16. Persistence of enteroviruses in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyan, T P

    1977-01-01

    Sewage from residential areas often contains viruses pathogenic for man and significant amounts are probably associated with solids in sewage sludge. Information on the survival of viruses in sewage sludge is necessary in order to develop guidelines for recycling programmes that involve spreading the sludge on land. In the present study, a number of enteroviruses were added to sewage sludge and the artificially contaminated sludges were tested for viruses at intervals over a 12-week period. Most of the viruses survived for many weeks at room temperature. It is clear that sewage sludge destined for land application should be adequately treated for virus inactivation. In interpreting these results, it should be borne in mind that the survival of hepatitis A virus might be similar. Recent reports about the reappearance of poliomyelitis in regions with immunization programmes should also be taken into consideration. PMID:202416

  17. Sewage sludge ash to phosphate fertilizer by chlorination and thermal treatment: residence time requirements for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Wegerer, Harald; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash can be performed by mixing the ash with environmentally compatible chlorides (e.g. CaCl2 or MgCl2) and water, pelletizing the mixture and treating the pellets in a rotary reactor at about 1000 degrees C. Thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy, muffle oven tests (500-1150 degrees C) and investigations in a laboratory-scale rotary reactor (950-1050 degrees C, residence time 1-25 min) were carried out. In the rotary reactor, up to 97% of Cu, 95% Pb and 95% Zn can be removed at 1050 degrees C. As Cl release starts from 400 degrees C (obtained from thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry experiments), heavy metals are already removed partially within the heating period. This heavy metal removal can be described as being similar to a first-order rate law. To meet the limit values specified in the Austrian and German fertilizer ordinances, residence times of the order of minutes are sufficient at 950 degrees C. PMID:23393980

  18. REGROWTH OF SALMONELLAE IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the regrowth of salmonellae in composted sewage sludge. Though composting effectively stabilizes and disinfects sewage sludges, the decrease in salmonellae may be only temporary, since this pathogen can survive and grow without a human or ani...

  19. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  20. The pyrolysis process of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, V. F.; Umnova, O. M.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The experimental investigations of pyrolysis process sewage sludge at different conditions are presented. As a result of executed investigations it was shown that syngas (mixrure of CO and H2) used in gas engine can be obtained in pyrolysis process.

  1. Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

    2002-09-12

    This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  2. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  3. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  4. COMPARISON OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested by using the Salmonella/microsome reverse mutation ...

  5. Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, A; Lövstedt, C; Jansen, J la Cour; Gruvberger, C; Aspegren, H

    2008-01-01

    Redirection of organic waste, from landfilling or incineration, to biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion is of current interest in the Malmö-Copenhagen region. One type of waste that is expected to be suitable for anaerobic digestion is sludge from grease traps. Separate anaerobic digestion of this waste type and co-digestion with sewage sludge were evaluated. The methane potential was measured in batch laboratory tests, and the methane yield was determined in continuous pilot-scale digestion. Co-digestion of sludge from grease traps and sewage sludge was successfully performed both in laboratory batch and continuous pilot-scale digestion tests. The addition of grease trap sludge to sewage sludge digesters was seen to increase the methane yield of 9-27% when 10-30% of sludge from grease traps (on VS-basis) was added. It was also seen that the grease trap sludge increases the methane yield without increasing the sludge production. Single-substrate digestion of grease trap sludge gave high methane potentials in batch tests, but could not reach stable methane production in continuous digestion. PMID:18561391

  6. Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-02-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively. PMID:21036608

  7. Sampling procedures and protocols for the National Sewage Sludge Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Telliard, W.A.

    1989-08-01

    The objective of the sampling project is to visit and collect samples of sewage sludge from a variety of Publicly Owned Treatment Works in an effort to identify the presence and level of toxic pollutants contained in municipal sewage sludge.

  8. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  9. Heavy metal speciation an uptake to durum wheat from sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H.; Frost, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    This project focused on detection of heavy metal accumulation in durum wheat from sewage sludge or commercial phosphate fertilizer application, using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Four parts of the durum wheat plants were separated and analyzed (i.e., root, stem, leaves, and grain). Studies compared the metal uptake resulting from sewage sludge application and from commercial fertilizer. Sludges and fertilizers were applied in one application, except for one study which considered the effect of the same sludge dosage, except in two applications. The main objective of this research is to improve the grain quality by minimizing the accumulation of toxic elements in durum wheat.

  10. SEWAGE SLUDGE PATHOGEN TRANSPORT MODEL PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewage sludge pathogen transport model predicts the number of Salmonella, Ascaris, and polioviruses which might be expected to occur at various points in the environment along 13 defined pathways. These pathways describe the use of dried or liquid, raw or anaerobically digest...

  11. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  12. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  13. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  14. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  15. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  16. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  17. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  18. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils. PMID:26643763

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  3. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  4. Hydrogen utilization by clostridia in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, K; Hungate, R E

    1977-06-01

    A sporeformer morphologically different but physiologically similar to Clostridium aceticum Wieringa was isolated from sewage sludge. It used large amounts of H2 and CO2, converting them chiefly to acetic acid. Growth occurs anaerobically on yeast extract alone, but after the nutrients in yeast extract are used, growth continues at a reduced rate, supported by the conversion of the gases to acetate. PMID:879782

  5. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  6. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  7. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2016-05-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)) was studied in sewage sludge samples. Sorption isotherms were obtained by varying initial concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS. The maximum values of the sorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,max) varied by almost two orders of magnitude among the target PFASs: 140-281 mL g(-1) for PFOS, 30-54 mL g(-1) for PFOA and 9-18 mL g(-1) for PFBS. Freundlich and linear fittings were appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of PFASs in the sludge samples, and the derived KF and Kd,linear parameters correlated well. The hydrophobicity of the PFASs was the key parameter that influenced their sorption in sewage sludge. Sorption parameters and log(KOW) were correlated, and for PFOS (the most hydrophobic compound), pH and Ca + Mg status of the sludge controlled the variation in the sorption parameter values. Sorption reversibility was also tested from desorption isotherms, which were also linear. Desorption parameters were systematically higher than the corresponding sorption parameters (up to sixfold higher), thus indicating a significant degree of irreversible sorption, which decreased in the sequence PFOS > PFOA > PFBS. PMID:26780052

  8. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  9. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  10. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land. PMID:19480649

  11. Sewage sludge composting maintains momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    The number of facilities composting municipal sludge is rising gradually in the U.S. after a dramatic surge between 1983 and 1985. Results of BioCycle's 1986 survey show a total of 178 municipalities and counties that are either operating or constructing plants, or that are in the bid, design, planning, or consideration stages. The total number in 1985 was 173, with four facilities shut down. In 1983, the first year a nationwide survey was conducted, there were 90. The aerated static pile method continues to lead the composting pack, with 53 operating facilities. Windrow composting comes in second, with 21 operating facilities. Five more in-vessel systems went into operation this year, bringing the total to eight. When it comes to facilities on the horizon, however, in-vessel is the category leader: there are 11 in-vessel projects under construction, 11 in the planning, design or bid stages, and 14 under consideration. Conversely, there are eight aerated static pile facilities under construction, 10 in the planning, design and bid stages, and 5.5 under consideration. Windrow composting operations comprise the third largest category, followed by aerated windrow composting.

  12. FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

  13. The effect of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition. PMID:26481636

  14. Radiofrequency-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Young, Chris; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2015-12-01

    A novel thermal-chemical treatment technology using radiofrequency heating and oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone and a combination of both) was used for the treatment of sewage sludge. This was to evaluate the process effectiveness on cell disintegration and nutrient release of sludge, physical property changes such as particle size distribution, dewaterability and settleability, and their inter-relationships. The effectiveness of treatment processes was in the following order, from the most to least: thermal-oxidation process, oxidation process and thermal process. The thermal-oxidation process greatly increased cell disintegration and nutrient release, improved settleability, and decreased particle sizes. The treatment scheme involving ozone addition followed by hydrogen peroxide and radiofrequency heating yielded the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids, ammonia and metals, while proffering the shortest capillary suction time and excellent settling properties. PMID:26233925

  15. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Trávníček, Petr; Junga, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  16. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  17. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  18. Alteration of a Salt Marsh Bacterial Community by Fertilization with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Nancy V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of long-term fertilization with sewage sludge on the aerobic, chemoheterotrophic portion of a salt marsh bacterial community were examined. The study site in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Cape Cod, Mass., consisted of experimental plots that were treated with different amounts of commercial sewage sludge fertilizer or with urea and phosphate. The number of CFUs, percentage of mercury- and cadmium-resistant bacteria, and percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were all increased in the sludge-fertilized plots. Preliminary taxonomic characterization showed that sludge fertilization markedly altered the taxonomic distribution and reduced diversity within both the total heterotrophic and the mercury-resistant communities. In control plots, the total heterotrophic community was fairly evenly distributed among taxa and the mercury-resistant community was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. In sludge-fertilized plots, both the total and mercury-resistant communities were dominated by a single Cytophaga sp. PMID:16347183

  19. Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

  20. Spectroscopic study of the humification process during sewage sludge treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajączkowska, J.; Sułkowska, A.; Sułkowski, W. W.; Jędrzejczyk, M.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the free radical transition of organic materials during the sewage treatment process. Investigations of sludge from biologic-mechanical sewage treatment plant in Sosnowiec Zagórze were carried out. The course of the humification processes during sewage treatment was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The concentration of free radicals at each process stage and the value g were determined. Sludge samples and extracted fractions of humic acids were examined. Humic acids were extracted from sludge by means of conventional methods elaborated by Stevenson. For study of humic acids structures, besides EPR, the UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy were used.

  1. Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-12-01

    Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

  2. Residual cadmium forms in acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, R.E.; Logan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus and lime additions after acid extraction on residual Cd solubility and chemical forms in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. High Cd content anaerobically digested sewage sludge was aerated and then acidified to pH 2 to solubilize Cd. After 18 h of acidification, the sludge was dewatered and the supernatant and solids separated. Seventy or more percent of the Cd was removed from the solids. Similar amounts of Ni, Mn and Zn were also removed, but Cu removal was only 26% and that of Pb was < 5%. Before liming the sludge was amended with rock phosphate (RP) or monocalcium phosphate (MCP). The RP was insoluble while MCP dissolved, providing a high level of phosphate ligand for Cd precipitation or coprecipitation. Estimated sludge solution solubility products for major Fe, Al and Ca phosphates showed that several of these minerals could have precipitated with P addition, especially with MCP, and Cd may have coprecipitated with these solid phases. Cadmium phosphate may also have been formed in the MCP sludge. Chemical fractionation indicated that 50% of the Cd in the aerated unextracted sludge existed as inorganic precipitates with another 40% Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ extractable. Acidification solubilized 98% of the inorganic Cd and 86% of the organically bound Cd. Seventy-nine percent of the Cd remaining in the dewatered acidified sludge was in the KNO/sub 3/ extractable (exchangeable) fraction. Liming redistributed the Cd with 13 to 19% as inorganic precipitates, 70 to 85% organically bound and < 3% in the exchangeable fraction. Phosphate addition had no significant effect on Cd fractionation.

  3. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  4. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  5. Application of sewage sludge compost on highway embankments.

    PubMed

    Pengcheng, Gao; Xinbao, Tang; Yanan, Tong; Yingxu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    More and more sewage sludge is being produced in China. Safe and economical methods for sewage sludge disposal should be found considering the increase in sewage treatment. In order to verify the feasibility of sludge disposal on newly built highway embankments, five treatments (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 tons ha(-1)) of sewage sludge compost (SSC) were added to a silty-clay embankment soil on the Xi-Huang highway. The results showed that amendment with SSC increased soil available N, available P, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and water content, and decreased soil bulk density. Application of SSC enhanced ryegrass growth and reduced runoff and soil erosion. Heavy metal losses from sediments in runoff remained constant or decreased relative to the control until a rate of 60 tons ha(-1) was exceeded, when heavy metal losses appeared to increase. PMID:17910912

  6. Depletion of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Vasskog, Terje; Bergersen, Ove; Anderssen, Trude; Jensen, Einar; Eggen, Trine

    2009-11-01

    Sewage and sewage sludge is known to contain pharmaceuticals, and since sewage sludge is often used as fertilizer within agriculture, the reduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Citalopram, Sertraline, Paroxetine, Fluvoxamine and Fluoxetine during composting has been investigated. Sewage sludge was spiked with the SSRIs before the composting experiment started, and the concentration of the SSRIs in the sludge during a 21 day composting period was measured by liquid phase microextraction (LPME) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the SSRIs had a significant decrease in concentration during the composting process. The highest reduction rates were measured for Fluoxetine and Paroxetine and the lowest for Citalopram. In addition three out of four known SSRI metabolites were found in all the samples, and two of them showed a significant increase in concentration during the composting period. PMID:19595585

  7. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  8. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  9. Indirect methods of dried sewage sludge contamination assessments.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz; Grübel, Klaudiusz

    2016-07-28

    Thermal conversion (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for sewage sludge management in the future. Nevertheless, safe and ecological usage of sewage sludge as a fuel requires information about their contamination. The aim of this paper is to present the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) as a good method for contamination assessments of dried sewage sludge. Two types of granular sewage sludge: Sewage sludge 1 (SS1) taken from Polish wastewater treatment plant operating in the mechanical-biological system and sewage sludge 2 (SS2) taken from mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment plant with phosphorus precipitation were analysed. The spectrophotometer FTIR Nicolet 6700 equipped with photoacoustic cell (Model 300, MTEC, USA) was used. The comparison with the most popular analytical methods (GC-MS) was also done. The results of PAS studies confirm the difference between the SS1 and SS2 which is in agreement with the GC-MS analysis. Higher absorbance was observed at each wavelength characteristics for the oscillator of chemical moieties for the SS1 with respect to the SS2. PMID:27149560

  10. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  11. Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

  12. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. PMID:25840737

  13. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds. PMID:20591568

  14. Biological Aspects of Metal Waste Reclamation With Sewage Sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smelter waste deposits pose an environmental threat worldwide. Sewage sludges are potentialy useful in reclamation of such sites. Biological aspects of revegetation of Zn and Pb smelter wastelands are discussed in a paper. The goal of the studies was to asses to what extent sludge treatment would...

  15. DIRECT THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal method for primary sewage sludge and industrial sludges which generates boiler fuel as a product and is energy self sufficient or energy-generating is described. The method involves direct liquefaction in a mild aqueous alkali above 250 degs. C and was demonstrated for...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE MUTAGENICITY OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of five municipal sewage sludges from Illinois cities have been subjected to a multiorganism testing program to determine the presence or absence of mutagenic activity. Chicago sludge has been the most extensively tested using the Salmonella/microsomal activation assay, t...

  17. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  18. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-04-01

    Sewage sludge may be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but the practice has been criticized because sludge may contain trace elements and pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of total and pseudototal extractants of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and to compare the results with the bioavailable concentrations of these elements to maize and sugarcane in a soil that was amended with sewage sludge for 13 consecutive years and in a separate soil that was amended a single time with sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge. The 13-year amendment experiment involved 3 rates of sludge (5, 10, and 20 t ha(-1)). The one-time amendment experiment involved treatments reflecting 50, 100, and 200 % of values stipulated by current legislation. The metal concentrations extracted by aqua regia (AR) were more similar to those obtained by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3052 than to those obtained by EPA3051, and the strongest correlation was observed between pseudo(total) concentrations extracted by AR and EPA3052 and bioavailable concentrations obtained by Mehlich III. An effect of sewage sludge amendment on the concentrations of heavy metals was only observed in samples from the 13-year experiment. PMID:22810380

  19. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  20. Effects of aeration on gamma irradiation of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Bo

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the effect of aeration on gamma irradiation of sewage sludge was investigated to examine the potential solubilization of solids in sewage sludge to ultimately reduce the solids volume for disposal. Results showed that aeration increased the effectiveness of gamma radiation. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the overall reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution.

  1. CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.

    PubMed

    Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

    2013-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly. PMID:23764598

  2. Sewage sludge ash--A promising secondary phosphorus source for fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Herzel, Hannes; Krüger, Oliver; Hermann, Ludwig; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Sewage sludge incineration is extensively practiced in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. A survey of German sewage sludge ash showed that the recovery potential is high, approx. 19,000 t of phosphorus per year. However, the survey also discovered that the bioavailability of phosphorus in the sewage sludge ash is poor and that more than half of the ashes cannot be used as fertilizers due to high heavy metal content. A new thermochemical process for sewage sludge ash treatment was developed that transforms the ash into marketable fertilizer products. Sewage sludge ash was thermochemically treated with sodium and potassium additives under reducing conditions, whereby the phosphate-bearing mineral phases were transformed into plant available phosphates. High P-bioavailability was achieved with a molar Na/P ratio >1.75 in the starting materials. Sodium sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide performed comparably as additives for this calcination process. Potassium carbonate and -hydroxide have to be added in a molar K/P ratio >2.5 to achieve comparable P-solubility. The findings of the laboratory scale investigations were confirmed by an industrial demonstration trial for an ash treatment with sodium sulfate. Simultaneously, the volatile transition metal arsenic (61% removal) as well as volatile heavy metals such as cadmium (80%), mercury (68%), lead (39%) and zinc (9%) were removed via the off-gas treatment system. The product of the demonstration trial is characterized by high bioavailability and a toxic trace element mass fraction below the limit values of the German fertilizer ordinance, thus fulfilling the quality parameters for a P-fertilizer. PMID:26321235

  3. RecoPhos: full-scale fertilizer production from sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Harald; Bertau, Martin; Hübner, Wilfried; Bohndick, Fred; Bruckert, Axel

    2013-03-01

    The substitution potential of sewage sludge for German primary phosphate imports has been estimated as 40%. Yet, a marketable option for the full scale recovery has been lacking. This study focuses on a full-scale process for the manufacture of a P-fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA) adapted from the production of Triple Superphosphate. Given (i) conformity of the input with phosphate ores mined from sedimentary deposits, (ii) comparability of the product with a commercially available P-fertilizer regarding contaminant levels, P-fractionation and yield effects, and (iii) compliance of the output with the German Fertilizer Ordinance the RecoPhos P 38 fertilizer was discharged from the waste legislation regime. The fertilizer is currently being produced at a rate of 1000 tonnes per month and sold at a competitive price. PMID:22878049

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment.... 503, App. A Appendix A to Part 503—Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  5. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production--Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  6. The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, John . E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik

    2005-07-01

    In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

  7. Enumeration of potentially pathogenic bacteria from sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, D J; Guentzel, M N; Ibarra, M J; Moore, B E; Sagik, B P

    1980-01-01

    To ascertain the health risks that may be posed by the land application of sewage sludges, a scheme was devised to determine the types and numbers of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria present in sludges. A processing treatment was adapted to sludge to give a homogenate which yielded the greatest numbers of viable bacteria. Conventional methods were successful in enumerating Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, gram-negative enteric bacteria, and commonly used indicator organisms. Modifications of conventional methods improved the enumeration of Salmonella, Mycobacterium sp., fluorescent Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium perfringens. However, Shigella methodology yielded only one isolate. Utilizing the proposed scheme, the population densities of these organisms were estimated in three domestic wastewater sludges. In light of these results, the potential impact of land application of sewage sludges is discussed. PMID:6243900

  8. [Bioconversion of sewage sludge to biopesticide by Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Zhou, Shun-gui; Lu, Na; Ni, Jin-ren

    2006-07-01

    Feasibility of bioconversion of sewage sludge to biopesticide by Bacillus thuringiensis was studied using sewage sludge as a raw material. The fermentation was also compared with conventional medium. Results showed that without any pretreatment, the nutrients contained in sewage sludge were almost sufficient for Bacillus thuringiensis growth, even with a rapid multiplicational rate. Higher viable cells and viable spores values were obtained earlier at 24 h, with 9.48 x 10(8) CFU x mL(-1) and 8.51 x 10(8) CFU x mL(-1) respectively, which was 12 hours earlier and nearly 20 percent higher than conventional medium. SEM of 36 h samples gave a clear phenomenon that the metabolizability in sludge was much faster with spores and crystals spreading around. The crystals in sludge seemed rather bigger and more regular. Also a better crystal protein yield of 2.80 mg x mL(-1) was observed in sludge medium compared to conventional medium at the end of fermentation. Sludge fermentation for Bacillus thuringiensis reduces the producing cost, and gives better fermentation capabilities. It's expected to be a new method for sludge disposal. PMID:16881328

  9. Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate triesters and diesters in sludge from sewage treatment plants of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-02-15

    The occurrence and distribution of 14 organophosphate (OP) triesters and 5 diesters were investigated in sludge from eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Beijing, China, during 2008-2014. Tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tri-m-cresyl phosphate (TCrP) were the predominant triesters with the average concentration of 233-137 μg/kg, respectively. Also, the polar and hydrophilic trimethyl phosphate (TMP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) were detected in 19% and 74% of sludge samples, respectively. Three of five diesters were detected in sludge samples, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHP) revealed the highest average concentration of 96.0 μg/kg, followed by diphenyl phosphate (DPhP, 18.0 μg/kg). The levels of OP triesters in sludge varied with the compositions of the sewage and treatment capacity of STPs, as well as the adjacent sources. In comparison with that in the former years, relatively higher concentration of total OP triesters in sludge was observed in 2014, which is consistent with the rapid growth in consumption of these chemicals in China. Finally, environmental risk assessment indicated potential harmful effects of OP triesters on soil microorganisms after sludge landfill or fertilization. PMID:26657359

  10. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M

    1981-01-01

    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none of the treatments examined consistently produced a sludge with undetectable virus levels, mesophilic digestion alone was found to be particularly unreliable in reducing the levels of infectious virus present in the raw sludge. PMID:6274258

  11. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart? This subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart? This subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart? This subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4780 What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart? This subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a new sewage sludge... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  19. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  3. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 gṡL-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  4. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates. PMID:16022414

  5. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy. PMID:22053457

  6. Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu

  7. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  8. Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G.

    1996-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Sewage sludge as a source of environmental selenium.

    PubMed

    Cappon, C J

    1991-03-01

    Information is presented on the impact of land application of municipal sewage sludge on the selenium content and speciation in soil, groundwater and edible vegetation. Sources and typical concentrations of selenium in sludge are documented. A discussion of selenium uptake by agricultural crops from sludge-amended soil includes results from greenhouse and field studies. A comparison is made with crop selenium uptake from fly ash application. The effect of sludge treatment on animal and human dietary selenium intake is quantitatively evaluated and selenium guidelines for sludge application are summarized. The conclusion is made that future widespread use of sludge on agricultural land will result in increased selenium uptake by food crops and human dietary intake. While this may not present an increased human health risk, long-term risks are identified and recommendations are made to minimize them. PMID:2063182

  10. Transformation of apatite phosphorus and non-apatite inorganic phosphorus during incineration of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Rundong; Zhang, Ziheng; Li, Yanlong; Teng, Wenchao; Wang, Weiyun; Yang, Tianhua

    2015-12-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash (SSA) is assumed to be economical. Transformation from non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) to apatite phosphorus (AP), which has a higher bioavailability and more extensive industrial applications, was studied at 750-950°C by sewage sludge incineration and model compound incineration with a calcium oxide (CaO) additive. Thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry analysis and X-ray diffraction measurements were used to analyze the reactions between NAIP with CaO and crystallized phases in SSA. High temperatures stimulated the volatilization of NAIP instead of AP. Sewage sludge incineration with CaO transformed NAIP into AP, and the percentage of AP from the total phosphorus reached 99% at 950°C. Aluminum phosphate reacted with CaO, forming Ca2P2O7 and Ca3(PO4)2 at 750-950°C. Reactions between iron phosphate and CaO occurred at lower temperatures, forming Ca(PO3)2 before reaching 850°C. PMID:26113414

  11. BY-PRODUCTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Robert Spurr

    1920-01-01

    Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal. PMID:18010306

  12. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency. PMID:20063762

  13. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON AGRICULTURAL AND DISTURBED LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of 8 field studies of long-term use of digested sewage on agricultural and disturbed lands are presented. The studies included: (1) response of corn grown on 3 soil types previously amended with annual sludge applications; (2) response of corn grown annually on Blount sil...

  14. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  15. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  17. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  18. HELMINTH AND HEAVY METALS TRANSMISSION FROM ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a study designed to determine the practical survival and transmission of the ova of the nematode worm Ascaris sp. through a modern sewage and sludge treatment process. Four large experiments and three smaller ones involving 178 specific pathogen free (SPF) p...

  19. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-06-17

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic. PMID:24938297

  20. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  1. SEWAGE SLUDGE ENTRENCHMENT SYSTEM FOR USE BY SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method of disposing of dewatered sewage sludge by entrenching it into soil was developed for small communities. Readily available and relatively inexpensive equipment was used. Included were a tractor equipped with a loader and backhoe, and dump truck or concrete mixer truck. A...

  2. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  3. BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

  4. Digested sewage sludge solidification by converter slag for landfill cover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Cho, Jin-Kyu; Yim, Soobin

    2005-04-01

    A new technology for solidification of digested sewage sludge referred to as converter slag solidification (CSS) has been developed using converter slag as the solidifying agent and quick lime as the solidifying aid. The CSS technology was investigated by analyzing the physicochemical properties of solidified sludge and determining its microstructural characteristics. The feasibility of using solidified sludge as a landfill cover material was considered in the context of the economical recycling of waste. Sludge solidified using the CSS technology exhibited geotechnical properties that are appropriate for replacing currently used cover soil. Microscopic analyses using XRD, SEM and EDS revealed that the main hydrated product of solidification was CSH (CaO . SiO2 . nH2O), which may play an important role in the effective setting process. Negligible leaching of heavy metals from the solidified sludge was observed. The solidification process of the hydrated sludge, slag and quicklime eliminated the coliform bacteria. Recycled sewage sludge solidified using CCS technology could be used as an effective landfill cover. PMID:15763091

  5. The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jośko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polyschlorinated dibenzofurans in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasinghe, N.C.A.; Gross, M.L.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, New York and a largely domestic sludge from Sodus, New York were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using combined gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). Concentrations in ppt of the following PCDDs were found in the Syracuse sludge: tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs), 150, hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HxCDDs), 2100, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (HCDDs), 6300, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (OCDDs), greater than 60,000. The following ppt concentrations were found in the Sodus sludge: TCDDs, 7200, HxCDDs, 300 HCDDs, 900, OCDDs 7500. The TCDD was a single but not the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-isomers. PCDFs were mostly nondetectable in the sludges. The toxicology and potential for environmental contamination by these compounds are discussed.

  7. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of <50 nm extending into the sub-nm range was revealed by electron microscopy analyses. The rapid formation of Ag(0)-NP from Ag2S during sewage sludge incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP. PMID:26840361

  8. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  10. Toxicity evaluation of sewage sludges in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W; Li, K; Fang, M; Su, D C

    2001-11-01

    Anaerobically digested sewage sludges collected from four wastewater treatment plants located in Sha Tin, Tai Po, Yuen Long, and Shek Wu Hui in Hong Kong were subjected to chemical characterization and toxicity testing to provide preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. All sewage sludges were slightly alkaline with pH range of 8.3-8.7. Electrical conductivity (EC; 0.69 dS m(-1)) and soluble NH4-N content (996 mg kg(-1)) of sewage sludge from Yuen Long were lower than that of other plants. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined as total, extractable, and water-soluble fraction using mixed acid digestion, DTPA (pH 7.3), and distilled water, respectively. Yuen Long sludge was most polluted with Zn and Cr higher than the pollutant concentration limits listed in Part 503 of USEPA, owing to the effluent coming from the tannery industry. High concentration of Ni was found in sludge from Sha Tin that originated mainly from the electroplating industry. DTPA-extractable Zn contents were high in sludges from Yuen Long (1247 mg kg(-1)) and Shek Wu Hui (892 mg kg(-1)), while 3.7 mg kg(-1) of DTPA-extractable Cr was found in Yuen Long sludge. Metal speciation of sludges showed that Pb was major in residual phase while Cu, Cr, and Ni in organic and residual phases, and Zn did not show any dominant chemical phase. The sludge extracts did not exert significant adverse effect on seed germination of Brassica chinensis (Chinese cabbage), but Yuen Long sludge caused a reduction in root growth. In view of its lower EC and soluble ammonia contents, the high concentration of Zn and Cr in Yuen Long sludge would likely be responsible for this adverse effect on root growth. Therefore, Yuen Long sludge would likely have a more serious impact on soil quality and plant growth as compared to other sludges. This would require further verification from greenhouse and field experiments. PMID:11757851

  11. Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

    2005-12-01

    The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal in certain proportions produces blends whose ashes have lower fusibility temperatures than those of coal and sludge. This is related to the differences in chemical composition and modes of elemental combination in both types of materials. The main differences are associated to the elements P, Fe, and Ca. As the sludge is much richer in Ca than the coals, the compositions of the blend ashes pass through low-temperature eutectic regions of the ternary phase diagrams SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, for the sludge-coal blend ashes series (one for each coal), the relationships between ash fusibility temperatures and the percentage of sludge ash in blend ashes fit to second-order polynomial functions. The minima of these functions, as well as some sludge-coal blend ashes, are located in the above-mentioned low fusion regions. Differing from coal ashes, in the sludge and 50 wt % blend ashes, the minerals calcium ferrite, larnite, and chloroapatite were found. 17 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Shane; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2013-11-01

    The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 milliontonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass-ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area. PMID:23820291

  13. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does this subpart apply to my sewage... of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? Yes, your SSI unit is...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does this subpart apply to my sewage... of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? Yes, your SSI unit is...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does this subpart apply to my sewage... of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? Yes, your SSI unit is...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4770 - Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does this subpart apply to my sewage... of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4770 Does this subpart apply to my sewage sludge incineration unit? Yes, your SSI unit is...

  17. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  18. Mechanisms and kinetics of granulated sewage sludge combustion.

    PubMed

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Środa, Katarzyna; Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Musiał, Tomasz; Wolski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates sewage sludge disposal methods with particular emphasis on combustion as the priority disposal method. Sewage sludge incineration is an attractive option because it minimizes odour, significantly reduces the volume of the starting material and thermally destroys organic and toxic components of the off pads. Additionally, it is possible that ashes could be used. Currently, as many as 11 plants use sewage sludge as fuel in Poland; thus, this technology must be further developed in Poland while considering the benefits of co-combustion with other fuels. This paper presents the results of experimental studies aimed at determining the mechanisms (defining the fuel combustion region by studying the effects of process parameters, including the size of the fuel sample, temperature in the combustion chamber and air velocity, on combustion) and kinetics (measurement of fuel temperature and mass changes) of fuel combustion in an air stream under different thermal conditions and flow rates. The combustion of the sludge samples during air flow between temperatures of 800 and 900°C is a kinetic-diffusion process. This process determines the sample size, temperature of its environment, and air velocity. The adopted process parameters, the time and ignition temperature of the fuel by volatiles, combustion time of the volatiles, time to reach the maximum temperature of the fuel surface, maximum temperature of the fuel surface, char combustion time, and the total process time, had significant impacts. PMID:26306758

  19. Disinfection of sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takehisa, Masaaki

    Disinfection of municipal sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation was reviewed. Total bacterial count in the sludge cake did not vary markedly throughout all four seasons in Japan, and it was in the range of 1.6 × 10 8/g to 4.1 × 10 9/g. Coliform count in aerobically activated sludge was form 1.8 × 10 7/g to 4.8 × 10 8/g, while in anaerobically digested sludge it was less than 8.3 × 10 7/g. The dose to reduce the coliforms to undetectable levels ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Mrad, depending on the season. In addition, it was observed that no coliforms reappeared in 0.5 Mrad irradiated sludge cake during storage at room temperature (6 - 16°C) and at 30°C. The adequate disinfection dose is therefore considered to be 0.5 Mrad. Pseudomonas cepacia was a predominant bacterium in non-irradiated sludge cake. In a range of 0.5 to 0.7 Mrad, the residual flora consisted of Bacillus species, and radioresistant Deinococcus proteolyticus, Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas radiora were isolated from sludge cake irradiated at dose levels of more than 1 Mrad. Bacterial regrowth and the growth of Escherichia coli K-12 seeded in irradiated sludge cake are discussed.

  20. Monometal and competitive adsorption of heavy metals by sewage sludge-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sewage sludge-amended soils may alter their ability to adsorb heavy metals over time, due to the decomposition of sludge-borne organic matter. Thus, we studied Cd, Ni, and Zn adsorption by a sewage sludge-amended soil (Typic Xerofluvent) before and after one-year incubation in both monometal and com...

  1. Evaluation of granular sludge for secondary treatment of saline municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Ben; Reid, Katherine; Middlemiss, Kyra; Krampe, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the impact of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the stability and performance of granular sludge treating high saline municipal sewage. Under high DO concentrations of 4.0-7.0 mg/L, and COD loading rates of 0.98 and 1.55 kg/m(3)/d, rapid settling granules were established within four weeks of start-up. Under the highest COD load, a reduction in DO lead to the rapid deterioration of the sludge volume index (SVI) and washout of granules due to prolific growth of the filament Thiothrix Type 021N. Conversely, when operated under a lower COD load, a reduction in DO concentration had no adverse impact on the stability of SVI and granules. A decrease in DO also improved nitrogen removal performance, where simultaneous removal of ammonium (98%), total nitrogen (86%) and BOD5 (98%) were achieved when median DO concentrations were between 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L. Phosphate removal was lower than expected, however the level of biological phosphate removal activity observed appeared sufficient to maintain granule stability, even under low DO concentrations. Nitrous oxide emissions were also characterised, which ranged between 2.3 and 6.8% of the total nitrogen load. Our results confirmed that granular sludge is a viable option for the treatment of saline sewage. PMID:25897508

  2. Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

  3. Treatment of sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Célia R G; Benatti, Cláudia T; Dias Filho, Benedito P

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a cylindrical anaerobic digester in treating secondary sewage sludge. A series of three independent batch experiments was performed for a total operation time of 60 d. The system of anaerobic digestion showed stability conditions, with no noticeable scum or foaming problems. The chemical oxygen demand reduction reached 29,21, and 45% in sludge and 95,85, and 82% in supernatant for the three experiments, respectively. Total coliform bacteria levels in the digester ranged from 10(4) to 10(5) in influent sludge and from 10(4) to 10(3) in effluent sludge, with an average reduction of 90%. Fecal coliforms of the order of 10(4) were enumerated in influent sludge and those of the order of 10(0) were enumerated in effluent sludge, with an average reduction of 99.9%. The studied system had satisfactory results, showing that both organic matter and indicator bacteria levels substantially decrease when the sludge is submitted to anaerobic digestion. PMID:12018315

  4. Quantification of viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Carolina Vieira da; Barés, Monica Eboly; Braga, Maria Cristina Borba

    2016-10-15

    For the application of sewage sludge as fertilizer, it is of fundamental importance the absence of pathogenic organisms, such as viable helminth eggs. Thus, the quantification of these organisms has to be carried out by means of the application of reliable and accurate methodologies. Nevertheless, until the present date, there is no consensus with regard to the adoption of a universal methodology for the detection and quantification of viable helminth eggs. It is therefore necessary to instigate a debate on the different protocols currently in use, as well as to assemble relevant information in order to assist in the development of a more comprehensive and accurate method to quantify viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge and its derivatives. PMID:27470467

  5. THERMAL TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal conditioning research program was conducted as part of an overall long-term sludge management study for the Los Angeles and Orange County metropolitan areas. The major goal of this portion of the study was to investigate the advantages of thermal conditioning of prima...

  6. Utilization of sewage sludge in the manufacture of lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Franus, Małgorzata; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the possibility of sewage sludge management in a sintered ceramic material such as a lightweight aggregate. Made from clay and sludge lightweight aggregates were sintered at two temperatures: 1100 °C (name of sample LWA1) and 1150 °C (name of sample LWA2). Physical and mechanical properties indicate that the resulting expanded clay aggregate containing sludge meets the basic requirements for lightweight aggregates. The presence of sludge supports the swelling of the raw material, thereby causing an increase in the porosity of aggregates. The LWA2 has a lower value of bulk particle density (0.414 g/cm(3)), apparent particle density (0.87 g/cm(3)), and dry particle density (2.59 g/cm(3)) than it is in the case of LWA1 where these parameters were as follows: bulk particle density 0.685 g/cm(3), apparent particle density 1.05 g/cm(3), and dry particle density 2.69 g/cm(3). Water absorption and porosity of LWA1 (WA = 14.4 %, P = 60 %) are lower than the LWA2 (WA = 16.2 % and P = 66 %). This is due to the higher heating temperature of granules which make the waste gases, liberating them from the decomposition of organic sewage sludge. The compressive strength of LWA2 aggregate is 4.64 MPa and for LWA1 is 0.79 MPa. Results of leaching tests of heavy metals from examined aggregates have shown that insoluble metal compounds are placed in silicate and aluminosilicate structure of the starting materials (clays and sludges), whereas soluble substances formed crystalline skeleton of the aggregates. The thermal synthesis of lightweight aggregates from clay and sludge mixture is a waste-free method of their development. PMID:26635022

  7. Experimental research of sewage sludge with coal and biomass co-combustion, in pellet form.

    PubMed

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Środa, Katarzyna; Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Musiał, Tomasz; Wolski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    Increased sewage sludge production and disposal, as well as the properties of sewage sludge, are currently affecting the environment, which has resulted in legislation changes in Poland. Based on the Economy Minister Regulation of 16 July 2015 (Regulation of the Economy Minister, 2015) regarding the criteria and procedures for releasing wastes for landfilling, the thermal disposal of sewage sludge is important due to its gross calorific value, which is greater than 6MJ/kg, and the problems that result from its use and application. Consequently, increasingly restrictive legislation that began on 1 January 2016 was introduced for sewage sludge storage in Poland. Sewage sludge thermal utilisation is an attractive option because it minimizes odours, significantly reduces the volume of starting material and thermally destroys the organic and toxic components of the off pads. Additionally, it is possible that the ash produced could be used in different ways. Currently, as many as 11 plants use sewage sludge as fuel in Poland; thus, this technology must be further developed in Poland while considering the benefits of co-combustion with other fuels. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the mechanisms and kinetics of sewage sludge, coal and biomass combustion and their co-combustion in spherical-pellet form. Compared with biomass, a higher temperature is required to ignite sewage sludge by flame. The properties of biomass and sewage sludge result in the intensification of the combustion process (by fast ignition of volatile matter). In contrast to coal, a combustion of sewage sludge is determined not only burning the char, but also the combustion of volatiles. The addition of sewage sludge to hard coal and lignite shortens combustion times compared with coal, and the addition of sewage sludge to willow Salix viminalis produces an increase in combustion time compared with willow alone. PMID:27161507

  8. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  9. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-07-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3(rd) week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P(+) AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  10. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun; Gao Ding; Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin; Du Wei

    2010-10-15

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

  11. Utilization and Conversion of Sewage Sludge as Metal Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xu Dong; Li, Loretta Y.

    2013-04-01

    Most biosolids are disposed on land. With improvements in wastewater treatment processes and upgrading of treatment plants across Canada, biosolids generation will increase dramatically. These biosolids will need to be dealt with because they contain various contaminants, including heavy metals and several classes of emerging contaminants. A number of researchers have recently focused on preparation of sewage sludge-based adsorbents by carbonation, physical activation and chemical activation for decontamination of air and wastewater. These previous studies have indicated that sludge-based activated carbon can have good adsorption performance for organic substances in dye wastewater. The overall results suggest that activated carbon from sewage sludge can produce a useful adsorbent, while also reducing the amount of sewage sludge to be disposed. However, sludge-derived activated carbon has not been extensively studied, especially for adsorption of heavy metal ions in wastewater and for its capacity to remove emerging contaminants, such as poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs). Previous research has indicated that commercial activated carbons adsorb organic compounds more efficiently than heavy metal ions. 45 Activated carbon can be modified to enhance its adsorption capacity for special heavy metal ions,46 e.g. by addition of inorganic and organic reagents. The modifications which are successful for commercial activated carbon should also be effective for sludge-derived activated carbon, but this needs to be confirmed. Our research focuses on (a) investigation of techniques for converting sewage sludge (SS) to activated carbon (AC) as sorbents; (b) exploration of possible modification of the activated carbon (MAC) to improve its sorption capacity; (c) examination of the chemical stability of the activated carbon and the leachability of contaminants from activated carbon,; (d) comparison of adsorptivity with that of other sorbents. Based on XRD and FT-IR, we successfully

  12. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring reports, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173. This report includes the results of those analyses. None of the analyzed constituents exceeded the Primary Drinking Water Standard or the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria at either the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site or the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site.

  13. Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Rui Neto Andre; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

    2007-09-15

    Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas produced had a greater hydrocarbon content. H{sub 2}S, HCl, and especially NH{sub 3} were also found to increase, due to higher contents of nitrogen in the sewage sludge compared with coal. The rise of both the temperature and the air flow rate resulted in the production of more gas and a lowering of hydrocarbon, char, and tar contents. A decrease in NH{sub 3} content was also observed, as the increase of these parameters promoted the destruction of this compound. The rise in the equivalent ratio also led to lower contents of H{sub 2}S and HCl, probably due to the partial oxidation of these compounds; however, the total amount of these elements released to the gas phase was not considerably affected. On the other hand, H{sub 2}S formation was favored by the rise in temperature up to 850{sup o}C, while the HCl concentration was not significantly affected. Heavy metals supplied with the fuel were mostly retained in solid residues, with Pb and Hg being the most volatile at 850{sup o}C. However, the leachability of these metals was found to be below the analytical detection levels, and only small quantities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} were released. 28 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

  15. Occurrence, distribution, and potential affecting factors of organophosphate flame retardants in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in Henan Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Long; Yuan, Yiting; He, Han; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Hongzhong; Zhao, Jihong

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of six OPEs were investigated in sewage sludge from 24 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 18 cities of Henan province, Central China. The results indicated that all target OPEs were detected in the sludge samples with the detection rate of 95.8%, except tris(dichloropropyl)phosphate (TDCP). The total concentration of the six OPEs ranged from 38.6 to 508 μg kg(-1). Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), and tris(2-chloroiso-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) were found to be predominant, with concentrations ranging from 2.50 to 203, 1.60 to 383, and 6.70-161 μg kg(-1), respectively. The potential factors affecting OPE levels in sewage sludge, such as wastewater source, sludge characteristics, operational conditions, treatment techniques, and total organic carbon (TOC) of sludge in WWTPs were investigated. The results indicated that the total concentration of OPEs in sewage sludge has no significant relationship with the individual parameters (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations were found between triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) level and treatment capacity (R = 0.484, p < 0.05), processing volume (R = 0.495, p < 0.05), and serving population (R = 0.591, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the relationship between treatment techniques and the total concentration of OPEs in sewage sludge was also investigated in this study, and the results illustrated that the levels of OPEs in sludge were independent of the solid retention time (SRT). PMID:26974479

  16. Usage of pumice as bulking agent in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuandong; Li, Weiguang; Wang, Ke; Li, Yunbei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the impacts of reused and sucrose-decorated pumice as bulking agents on the composting of sewage sludge were evaluated in the lab-scale reactor. The variations of temperature, pH, NH3 and CO2 emission rate, moisture content (MC), volatile solid, dissolved organic carbon, C/N and the water absorption characteristics of pumice were detected during the 25days composting. The MC of pumice achieved 65.23% of the 24h water absorptivity within the first 2h at the mass ratio of 0.6:1 (pumice:sewage sludge). Reused pumice increased 23.68% of CO2 production and reduced 21.25% of NH3 emission. The sucrose-decorated pumice reduced 43.37% of nitrogen loss. These results suggested that adding pumice and sucrose-decorated pumice in sludge composting matrix could not only adjust the MC of materials, but also improve the degradation of organic matters and reduce nitrogen loss. PMID:25913030

  17. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  18. Energy recovery from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge with supercritical water treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linghong; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Champagne, Pascale

    2010-04-01

    Secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge (SPP) and sewage sludges (primary, secondary, and digested sewage sludges) were treated in supercritical water at temperatures ranging between 400 degrees Celsius and 550 degrees Celsius over 20-120 min for energy recovery. Low temperature and short reaction time favored the formation of heavy oil (HO) products, which were mainly composed of a variety of phenol and phenolic compounds, as well as some nitrogen-containing compounds, long-chain alkenes and alcohols, etc., with high gross calorific values (>36 MJ/kg). By contrast, the formation of synthetic gases, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and other light hydrocarbons, were not significantly affected by reaction time but greatly enhanced with increasing temperature. The highest gas yield was obtained at 550 degrees Celsius, where 37.7 wt.% of the SPP (on dry basis) was converted into gases, with hydrogen yields as high as 14.5 mol H(2)/kg SPP (on a dry basis). In comparison to sewage sludges, SPP exhibited a greater capability for the production of HO and gases owing to its higher contents of volatiles and alkali metals, indicating a prospective utilization potential for SPP as a source of bio-energy. PMID:20044251

  19. Process for utilizing a pumpable fuel from highly dewatered sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1993-08-10

    A process is described for disposing of sewage sludge comprising: (1) dewatering an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content of at least about 3 wt. % to produce an aqueous slurry of sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 5 to 20 wt. %; (2) pressing and/or centrifuging the dewatered slurry of sewage sludge from (1) to produce amorphous sewage sludge having a solids content in the range of about 28 to 50 wt. %; (3) heating the amorphous sewage sludge from (2) in a closed pressure vessel at a temperature in the range of about 150 F to 510 F in the absence of air for a period in the range of about 3 seconds to 60 minutes and shearing the sewage sludge by a rotor/mixer operating at a speed in the range of about 15 to 100 rpm, thereby producing a pumpable slurry of sewage sludge having a viscosity in the range of about 400 to 1,500 centipoise when a measured at 200 F and a higher heating value in the range of about 5,000 to 9,500 Btu/lb, dry basis; and (4) burning said pumpable slurry from (3) in a partial oxidation gasifier, furnace, boiler, or incinerator to produce an effluent gas stream.

  20. NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

  1. A study on torrefaction of sewage sludge to enhance solid fuel qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Poudel, Jeeban; Ohm, Tae-In; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Oh, Sea Cheon

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The physio chemical variation of sewage sludge during torrefaction was studied. • Compounds with oxygen were emitted at a temperature lower than that for C{sub x}H{sub y}. • Sewage sludge torrefaction range was defined between 300 and 350 °C. - Abstract: Torrefaction is a treatment which serves to improve the properties of biomass in relation to thermochemical processing techniques for energy generation. In this study, the torrefaction of sewage sludge, which is a non-lignocellulosic waste was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor under nitrogen flow at temperature ranging from 150 to 400 °C, for torrefaction residence time varying from 0 to 50 min. The torrefaction kinetics of sewage sludge was studied to obtain the kinetic parameters. The torrefied sewage sludge products were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, energy yield, ash content and volatile fraction. The energy and mass yields decreased with an increase in the torrefaction temperature. From an elemental analysis, the weight percentage of carbon in the sewage sludge increased with an increase in the torrefaction temperature. On the other hand, the weight percentages of hydrogen and oxygen tended to decrease. The gaseous products from torrefaction of sewage sludge were also analyzed. From this work, it was found that the compounds with oxygen were emitted at a temperature lower than that for hydrocarbon gases and the temperatures of 300–350 °C were the optimum torrefaction temperatures for sewage sludge.

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Operating Parameters for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60... Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For these operating parameters You must establish these...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Operating Parameters for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60... Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For these operating parameters You must establish these...

  4. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  5. Overview of legislation on sewage sludge management in developed countries worldwide.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, A; Stamatelatou, K

    2016-01-01

    The need to apply innovative technologies for maximizing the efficiency and minimizing the carbon footprint of sewage treatment plants has upgraded sewage sludge management to a highly sophisticated research and development sector. Sewage sludge cannot be regarded solely as 'waste'; it is a renewable resource for energy and material recovery. From this perspective, legislation on sewage sludge management tends to incorporate issues related to environmental protection, public health, climate change impacts and socio-economic benefits. This paper reviews the existing legislative frameworks and policies on sewage sludge management in various countries, highlighting the common ground as well as the different priorities in all cases studied. More specifically, the key features of legislation regarding sludge management in developed countries such as the USA, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and the European Union (EU27) are discussed. PMID:26877026

  6. Thermal stabilization of chromium slag by sewage sludge: effects of sludge quantity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changlin; Zhang, Hua; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of detoxifying chromium slag by sewage sludge, synthetic chromium slag containing 3% of Cr(VI) was mixed with sewage sludge followed by thermal treatment in nitrogen gas for stabilizing chromium. The effects of slag to sludge ratio (0.5, 1 and 2) and temperature (200, 300, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C) on treatment efficiency were investigated. During the mixing process before thermal treatment, 59.8%-99.7% of Cr(VI) was reduced, but Cr could be easily leached from the reduction product. Increasing heating temperature and decreasing slag to sludge ratio strengthened the reduction and stabilization of Cr(VI). When the slag to sludge ratio was 0.5 and thermal treatment temperature was 300 degrees C, the total leached Cr and Cr(VI) declined to 0.55 mg/L and 0.17 mg/L respectively, and 45.5% of Cr in the thermally treated residue existed as residual fraction. A two-stage mechanism was proposed for the reduction and stabilization of Cr. PMID:21175004

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Meghanath S; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic matter improves digester operating characteristics and its performance. In the present work, food waste was collected from the institute cafeteria. Two types of sludge (before centrifuge and after centrifuge) were collected from the fluidised bed reactor of the institute treating sewage wastewater. Food waste and sludge were studied for their physico-chemical characteristics, such as pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, volatile solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, and total nitrogen. A biomethane potential assay was carried out to find out the optimum mixing ratio of food waste and sludge for anaerobic co-digestion. Results indicated that food waste mixed with sludge in the ratio of 1:2 produced the maximum biogas of 823 ml gVS(-1)(21 days) with an average methane content of 60%. Batch studies were conducted in 5 L lab-glass reactors at a mesophilic temperature. The effect of different substrate loading rates on biogas production was investigated. The mixing ratio of food waste and sludge was 1:2. A loading rate of 1 gVS L d(-1)gave the maximum biogas production of 742 ml g(-1)VS L d(-1)with a methane content of 50%, followed by 2 gVS L d(-1)with biogas of 539 ml g(-1)VS L d(-1) Microbial diversity of the reactor during fed batch studies was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. A pilot-scale co-digestion of food waste and sludge (before centrifuge) indicated the process stability of anaerobic digestion. PMID:26879909

  8. Potentially toxic element release by fenton oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J P; Asaadi, M; Clarke, B; Ouki, S

    2006-01-01

    The presence, in sewage sludge, of excess levels of the potentially toxic elements (PTE) copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel, lead and mercury, could impact on our ability to recycle these residues in the future. Far stricter limits on the levels of PTEs are likely in proposed legislation. A method involving the dosing of Fenton's reagent, a mixture of ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide, under acidic conditions was evaluated for its potential to reduce metal levels. The [Fe]:[H2O2] (w/w) ratio was found to give a good indication of the percentage copper and zinc elution obtainable. Sites with no iron dosing as part of wastewater treatment required extra iron to be added in order to initiate the Fenton's reaction. A significant reduction, in excess of 70%, of the copper and zinc was eluted from both raw primary and activated sludge solid fractions. Cadmium and nickel could be reduced to below detection limits but elution of mercury, lead and chromium was less than 40%. The iron catalyst concentration was found to be a crucial parameter. This process has the potential to reduce the heavy metal content of the sludge and allow the recycling of sludge to continue in a sustainable manner. PMID:17087386

  9. EU policy on sewage sludge utilization and perspectives on new approaches of sludge management.

    PubMed

    Mininni, G; Blanch, A R; Lucena, F; Berselli, S

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the current sewage sludge legislation in Europe and expected developments regarding the coming directives on the application of the "End-of-waste" criteria and on fertilizers. Discussion on sludge production and processing is also included. The Directive 86/278 has regulated the use in agriculture of residual sludge from domestic and urban wastewater. After 1986, this directive was transposed in the different member state legislation and currently the national limit values on heavy metals, some organic micropollutants and pathogens are placed in a rather wide range. This seems the inevitable consequence of different attitudes towards sludge management practices in the member states. The discussion by the European Joint Research Center (JRC) in Seville regarding application of end-of-waste criteria for compost and digestate has produced a final document (IPTS 2014) where sludge was excluded from the organic wastes admitted for producing an end-of-waste compost. Sludge processing in Europe seems addressed to different goals: sludge minimization, full stabilization and hygienization by thermal hydrolysis processes before anaerobic digestion, and on-site incineration by fluidized bed furnace. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion was applied with success on the Prague WWTP with a preliminary lysimeter centrifugation. Coming techniques, like wet oxidation and pyrolysis, are applied only on very few plants. PMID:24946701

  10. Analysis of Combustion Process of Sewage Sludge in Reference to Coals and Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Środa, Katarzyna; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Production of sewage sludge is an inseparable part of the treatment process. The chemical and sanitary composition of sewage sludge flowing into the treatment plant is a very important factor determining the further use of the final product obtained in these plants. The sewage sludge is characterized by heterogeneity and multi-components properties, because they have characteristics of the classical and fertilizer wastes and energetic fuels. The thermal utilization of sewage sludge is necessary due to the unfavorable sanitary characteristics and the addition of the industrial sewage. This method ensures use of sewage sludge energy and return of expenditure incurred for the treatment of these wastes and their disposal. Sewage sludge should be analyzed in relation to conventional fuels (coals and biomass). They must comply with the applicable requirements, for example by an appropriate degree of dehydration, which guarantee the stable and efficient combustion. This paper takes the issue of the combustion process of the different sewage sludge and their comparison of the coal and biomass fuels.

  11. Application of acidic thermal treatment for one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Takashima, M; Tanaka, Y

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic at 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), and incorporated the ATT as pre-treatment. The two-stage process consisted of a thermophilic digester at 5 days HRT and a mesophilic digester at 15 days HRT, and incorporated the ATT as interstage-treatment. On average, VSS reduction was 48.7% for the one-stage control, 65.8% for the one-stage ATT, 52.7% for the two-stage control and 67.6% for the two-stage ATT. Therefore, VSS reduction was increased by 15-17%, when the ATT was combined in both one- and two-stage processes. In addition, the dewaterability of digested sludge was remarkably improved, and phosphate release was enhanced. On the other hand, total methane production did not differ significantly, and color generation was noted in the digested sludge solutions with the ATT. In conclusion, the anaerobic digestion with ATT can be an attractive alternative for sludge reduction, handling, and phosphorus recovery. PMID:21099053

  12. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  13. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. PMID:24290971

  14. The application of sewage sludge as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate mass.

    PubMed

    Latosińska, J; Zygadło, M

    2011-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) mass. The addition of sewage sludge increases the total porosity and decreases the bulk density of a sinter. The addition of sewage sludge to a raw material used in the production of LECA enabled a decrease in the burning temperature for the maintained operational parameters of a lightweight aggregate. The optimum content of sewage sludge added to a raw material used in LECA production was 5% to 15% of dry mass. The addition of sewage sludge in an amount of 5% and 10% caused an increase in closed porosity. PMID:22329137

  15. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute primary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge is evaluated. The laboratory arrangement, solar simulator, and test results from three experiments conducted in the laboratory are described. Radiance and reflectance spectra are presented for primary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled reflectance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Well-defined upwelled reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations. The spectral-reflectance values appeared to be influenced by the type of base water, but this influence was small, especially for the mixtures with low concentrations of sewage sludge.

  16. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  17. Detection of Escherichia coli in sewage and sludge by polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yuli; Palmer, C.J.; Sangermano, L.R. )

    1993-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful tool in exploration of microbial activities and identities in environmental microbiology. High concentrations of humic acidlike substances in raw sewage and raw sludge have prevented the use of PCR with sewage and sludge samples. However, monitoring waste water and sludge by the PCR would lead to increased public health protection. In this study a rapid DNA extraction method and rapid purification procedure are combined with the PCR to detect Escherichia coli in sewage and sludge. The PCR is successfully used to amplify from both, a fragment of the E. coli uidAgene that codes for [beta]-D-glucuronidase. Because of their sensitivity and specificity, the PCR and nonradioactive gene probe techniques can be used to detect potentially pathogenic microorganisms in raw sewage and sludge, allowing for evaluation of the efficiency of treatments to remove pathogens.

  18. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. PMID:26841290

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  20. Reducing capacities and redox potentials of humic substances extracted from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Du, Mengchan; Jiang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox active organic materials that can be extracted from sewage sludge generated in wastewater treatment processes. Due to the poor understanding of reducing capacity, redox potentials and redox active functional groups of HS in sewage sludge, the potential contribution of sludge HS in transformation of wastewater contaminants is unclear. In the present study, the number of electrons donated or accepted by sewage sludge HS were quantified before and after reduction by iron compounds that possess different redox potentials and defined as the reducing capacity of the sewage sludge. In contrast to previous studies of soil and commercial humic acids (HA), reduced sludge HA showed a lower reducing capacity than that of native HA, which implies formation of semiquinone radicals since the semiquinone radical/hydroquinone pair has a much higher redox potential than the quinone/hydroquinone pair. It is novel that reducing capacities of sludge HA were determined in the redox potential range from -314 to 430 mV. The formation of semiquinone radicals formed during the reduction of quinone moieties in sludge HA is shown by three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopies information, increasing fluorescence intensities and blue-shifting of the excitation/emission peak of reduced sludge HA. Knowledge of sludge HS redox potentials and corresponding reducing capacities makes it possible to predict the transformation of redox active pollutants and facilitate manipulation and optimization of sludge loading wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26432531

  1. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  2. Modeling the Radiological Impact of Tritium in Sewage Sludge Being Used as Fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, A.; Smith, G

    2005-07-15

    A study was undertaken to assess the radiological impact on humans via the foodchain resulting from the presence of tritium and C-14 in sewage sludge being used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The key endpoint of the assessment was the annual individual dose to an average member of potential critical groups. As part of the assessment, a model was developed to simulate the distribution of tritium between sewage sludge and effluent in the sewage treatment plant, the release of tritium upon sludge decomposition and subsequent uptake by plants and animals. The modeling assumptions, as well as key parameters and parameter values will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Effects of composting process and fly ash amendment on phytotoxicity of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lau, S S; Fang, M; Wong, J W

    2001-02-01

    With the increasingly growing global production of sewage sludge, evaluation of its applicability in agriculture and land restoration is essential. This study assessed the potential effects of composting process and fly ash amendment on soil-ameliorating properties of sewage sludge. The metal availability and phytotoxicity of ash-amended sludge compost (AS, mature sewage sludge compost mixed with fresh lagoon ash) and sludge-ash co-compost (SA, co-composted mixture of sewage sludge and lagoon ash) were compared. The results of this work suggested that both composts favored the applicability of sewage sludge for land application by reducing Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn availability. The SA co-compost stimulated seed germination at ash amendment rates of < or = 10%, whereas various treatments of AS compost inhibited germination at an extract dilution of 50%. Amendment of lagoon ash before or after sludge composting increased electrical conductivity (EC) and volatilization of NH4-N, but lowered availability of PO4-P. Together with the results of phytotoxicity, an optimal ash amendment rate of 5% for AS and 10% for SA were most desirable. Alkaline amendment prior to sludge composting was recommended, because it could be more effective in reducing soluble and plant-available metal concentrations through the composting process. PMID:11243320

  4. Survivorship of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, from sewage sludge-treated fields

    SciTech Connect

    Maly, M.S.

    1984-06-01

    A long-term field study was begun in 1977 at Miami University to evaluate the effects of land application of sewage sludge on experimental old-field communities. The effects of sludge application on toxic metal concentrations in meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) organs during the first two years of the study have been reported. During the first two years of sludge application, no detrimental effects were observed in vole survivorship as a result of sludge treatment.

  5. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  6. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. PMID:21652141

  7. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    Micropowder (20–250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  8. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-08-01

    Micropowder (20-250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  9. Comparative performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion for high-solid sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Togari, Taketo; Uchida, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In local cities, many small sewage and waste treatment facilities are operated independently. To encourage processing by anaerobic digestion at a centralized sewage treatment plant (STP), high-solid sewage sludge is helpful because it reduces the energy and cost required for transporting the sludge from other STPs. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at total solids concentrations (TS) of 7.5% and 10% were evaluated using laboratory-scale continuous reactors. Under the mesophilic condition, sewage sludge of 10% TS was successfully treated. Under the thermophilic condition, sewage sludge of 7.5% TS was not successfully treated when the total ammonia concentration was over 2000 mg N/L. Batch experiments showed that it takes a few weeks for the methane fermentation activity to recover after being inhibited. The effectiveness of adding easily biodegradable organic matter was confirmed. These results show that high-solid sewage sludge is suitable for small facilities by controlling the operating conditions. PMID:24096284

  10. Effects of sewage sludges contaminated with chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments).

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel

    2002-06-22

    The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques--such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal--was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments). Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments. PMID:12806166

  11. A new approach for hydrogen generation from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwu; Kano, Junya

    2016-02-01

    A new process to produce hydrogen efficiently from sewage sludge (SWS) was developed with co-grinding operation of the dried SWS with calcium and nickel hydroxides (Ca(OH)2 and Ni(OH)2) and subsequent heating of the ground mixture at relatively low temperature below 600°C. A set of analytical methods were used to characterize the ground samples before heating and the gaseous and solid products after heating. Thermo-mass spectroscopic (TG-MS) analysis showed hydrogen occurrence around 450°C. Hydrogen yield over 70g per kg SWS with concentration of 93.6% was obtained with the hydroxide additions of Ca to C from SWS at 1:1 and Ni to C at 1:6, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solid residues after heating confirmed the existences of calcium carbonate and nickel metal. Based on the obtained results, possible reaction pathway was proposed. PMID:26642224

  12. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

  13. Metals removal from soil, fly ash and sewage sludge leachates by precipitation and dewatering properties of the generated sludge.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Zied; Bouda, Médard; Souissi, Med Aly; Ben Cheikh, Ridha; Mercier, Guy; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Blais, Jean-François

    2009-12-30

    This study concerns the treatment by precipitation of three acidic and metal-rich leachates by using various reagents. Two treatment modes (simple and combined precipitation) have been performed to evaluate the metals removal efficiency and the dewatering ability of the generated sludge. It appears that for the three leachates used, the Ca(OH)(2) addition gave better metals removal at pH 10.0 than the use of NaOH at the same pH. Moreover, the combination of NaOH and Na(2)S allows better removal for Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) ions than with NaOH/Na(2)CO(3) or NaOH/Na(2)HPO(4). The dewaterability (vacuum filtration) of precipitates produced during the treatment of soil leachate was established as follows on the basis of the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) values: sulphides (4.3 x 10(12)mkg(-1))<phosphates (6.4 x 10(12) m kg(-1))sludge volume index (SVI) ranged from 39 to 50 mL g(-1). The sludge generated during the treatment of sewage sludge filtrate using phosphate salt gave the best results regarding to SVI and SRF parameters (180 mL g(-1) and 7.6 x 10(12) m kg(-1), respectively). Experimental results show that whatever precipitating agent is used, vacuum filtration is more efficient in water elimination [total solids: 11-73% (ww(-1))] than in centrifugation [5-11% (ww(-1))] from sludge. PMID:19713039

  14. Agronomic value of sewage sludge and corn cob biochar in an infertile Oxisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenik, J. L.; Cooney, M. J.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of sewage sludge and other agricultural waste materials has become increasingly difficult in urban environments with limited land space. Carbonization of the hazardous waste produces biochar as a soil amendment with potential to improve soil quality and productivity. A series of greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to assess the agrnomic value of two biochars made from domestic wastewater sludge and corn cob waste. The ash component of the sewage sludge biochar was very high (65.5%) and high for the corn cob (11.4%) biochars. Both biochars contained low concentrations of heavy metals and met EPA land application criteria. The sewage sludge biochar was a better liming material and source of mineral nutrients than the corn cob biochar, but the corn cob biochar showed the greatest increase in soil carbon and total nitrogen. Both biochar materials increased soil pH compared with soils not receiving biochar, but the sewage sludge biochar was a more effective liming material maintaining elevated soil pH throughout the 3 planting cycles. The sewage sludge biochar also showed the greatest increase in extractable soil P and base cations. In the first planting cycle, both biochars in combination with conventional fertilizers produced significantly higher corn seedling growth than the fertilized control. However, the sewage sludge biochar maintained beneficial effects corn seedling growth through the third planting cycle showing 3-fold increases in biomass production compared with the control in the third planting. The high ash content and associated liming properties and mineral nutrient contributions in the sewage sludge biochar explain benefits to plant growth. Conversion of sewage sludge waste into biochar has the potential to effectively address several environmental issues: 1) convert a hazardous waste into a valuable soil amendment, 2) reduce land and water contamination, and 3) improve soil quality and productivity.

  15. Pharmaceutical load in sewage sludge and biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    vom Eyser, C; Palmu, K; Schmidt, T C; Tuerk, J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the removal of twelve pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), which has emerged as a technology for improving the quality of organic waste materials producing a valuable biochar material. In this study, the HTC converted sewage sludge samples to a biochar product within 4h at a temperature of 210 °C and a resulting pressure of about 15 bar. Initial pharmaceutical load of the sewage sludge was investigated as well as the residual concentrations in biochar produced from spiked and eight native sewage sludge samples from three waste water treatment plants. Additionally, the solid contents of source material and product were compared, which showed a considerable increase of the solid content after filtration by HTC. All pharmaceuticals except sulfamethoxazole, which remained below the limit of quantification, frequently occurred in the investigated sewage sludges in the μg/kg dry matter (DM) range. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected in all sludge samples with a maximum concentration of 800 μg/kgDM for metoprolol. HTC was investigated regarding its contaminant removal efficiency using spiked sewage sludge. Pharmaceutical concentrations were reduced for seven compounds by 39% (metoprolol) to≥97% (carbamazepine). In native biochar samples the four compounds phenazone, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected, which confirmed that the HTC process can reduce the load of micropollutants. In contrast to the other investigated compounds phenazone concentration increased, which was further addressed in thermal behaviour studies including three structurally similar potential precursors. PMID:26282751

  16. Factors influencing the extraction of pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge and soil: an experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Ferhi, Sabrina; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Houot, Sabine; Nélieu, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter the environment when organic waste products are recycled on agricultural soils. The extraction of pharmaceuticals is a challenging step in their analysis. The very different extraction conditions proposed in the literature make the choice of the right method for multi-residue analysis difficult. This study aimed at evaluating, with experimental design methodology, the influence of the nature, pH and composition of the extraction medium on the extraction recovery of 14 pharmaceuticals, including 8 antibiotics, from soil and sewage sludge. Preliminary experimental designs showed that acetonitrile and citrate-phosphate buffer were the best extractants. Then, a response surface design demonstrated that many cross-product and squared terms had significant effects, explaining the shapes of the response surfaces. It also allowed optimising the pharmaceutical recoveries in soil and sludge. The optimal conditions were interpreted considering the ionisation states of the compounds, their solubility in the extraction medium and their interactions with the solid matrix. To perform the analysis, a compromise was made for each matrix. After a QuEChERS purification, the samples were analysed by online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS. Both methods were simple and economical. They were validated with the accuracy profile methodology for soil and sludge and characterised for another type of soil, digested sludge and composted sludge. Trueness globally ranged between 80 and 120 % recovery, and inter- and intra-day precisions were globally below 20 % relative standard deviation. Various pharmaceuticals were present in environmental samples, with concentration levels ranging from a few micrograms per kilogramme up to thousands of micrograms per kilogramme. Graphical abstract Influence of the extraction medium on the extraction recovery of 14 pharmaceuticals. Influence of the ionisation state, the solubility and the interactions of pharmaceuticals with solid matrix. Analysis

  17. Comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Wu, D

    2015-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced from pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a horizontal tubular furnace under the anoxic or anaerobic conditions, by varying operating parameters and moisture content (MC) of the feedstock. Physicochemical properties of the obtained bio-oil (such as density, acid value, kinematical viscosity, high heating value and flash point) were analysed and compared with Chinese fuel standards. Tend, RT and β were found critical to control the yield and physico-chemical properties of bio-oil products. The relative importance of various parameters such as Tend, RT, β and MC was determined and the optimum values for the lowest kinematic viscosity and acid value and the highest yield of the bio-oil were achieved using the orthogonal matrix method. The parameters 550°C, 45 min, 5°C min(-1) and MC of 10% were found effective in producing the bio-oils with most of the desirable physico-chemical properties and yield. Benefit analysis was conducted to further optimize the operating parameters, considering pyrolysis treatment, comprehensive utilization of the pyrolysis products and final disposal of sewage sludge; the results showed the best economy of the pyrolysis parameters 450°C, 75 min, 3°C min(-1) and MC of 10%. The char obtained under this condition may serve as a microporous liquid adsorbent, while the bio-oil may serve as a low grade fuel oil after upgrading it with conventional fuel oil and deacidification. Pyrolysis products may become economically competitive in addition to being environment friendly. PMID:25609547

  18. A solid-phase extraction method for rapidly determining the adsorption coefficient of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Berthod, Laurence; Roberts, Gary; Whitley, David C.; Sharpe, Alan; Mills, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of pharmaceuticals in the environment can be assessed by measuring their adsorption coefficients (Kd) between aqueous and solid phases. Measuring this coefficient in sewage sludge gives an indication of their partitioning behaviour in a wastewater treatment plant and hence contributes to an understanding of their subsequent fate. The regulatory approved method for measuring Kd in sewage sludge is the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) guideline 835.1110, which is labour intensive and time consuming. We describe an alternative method for measuring the Kd of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique. SPE cartridges were packed at different sludge/PTFE ratios (0.4, 6.0, 24.0 and 40.0% w/w sludge) and eluted with phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The approach was tested initially using three pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, diclofenac and oxytetracycline) that covered a range of Kd values. Subsequently, the sorption behaviour of ten further pharmaceuticals with varying physico-chemical properties was evaluated. Results from the SPE method were comparable to those of the OPPTS test, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 between the two approaches. SPE cartridges packed with sludge and PTFE were stable for up to one year; use within one month reduced variability in measurements (to a maximum of 0.6 log units). The SPE method is low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurement of Kd values for a large number of chemicals. It can be used as an alternative to the more laborious full OPPTS test in environmental fate studies and risk assessments. PMID:25299795

  19. A solid-phase extraction method for rapidly determining the adsorption coefficient of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Berthod, Laurence; Roberts, Gary; Whitley, David C; Sharpe, Alan; Mills, Graham A

    2014-12-15

    The partitioning of pharmaceuticals in the environment can be assessed by measuring their adsorption coefficients (Kd) between aqueous and solid phases. Measuring this coefficient in sewage sludge gives an indication of their partitioning behaviour in a wastewater treatment plant and hence contributes to an understanding of their subsequent fate. The regulatory approved method for measuring Kd in sewage sludge is the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) guideline 835.1110, which is labour intensive and time consuming. We describe an alternative method for measuring the Kd of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique. SPE cartridges were packed at different sludge/PTFE ratios (0.4, 6.0, 24.0 and 40.0% w/w sludge) and eluted with phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The approach was tested initially using three pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, diclofenac and oxytetracycline) that covered a range of Kd values. Subsequently, the sorption behaviour of ten further pharmaceuticals with varying physico-chemical properties was evaluated. Results from the SPE method were comparable to those of the OPPTS test, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 between the two approaches. SPE cartridges packed with sludge and PTFE were stable for up to one year; use within one month reduced variability in measurements (to a maximum of 0.6 log units). The SPE method is low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurement of Kd values for a large number of chemicals. It can be used as an alternative to the more laborious full OPPTS test in environmental fate studies and risk assessments. PMID:25299795

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating Parameters for New Sewage... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60—Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating Parameters for New Sewage... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60—Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a For...

  2. F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

  3. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  4. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

  5. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  6. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED GROWTH SUPPRESSION AND DEATH OF SALMONELLA IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of compost microflora in the suppression of salmonella regrowth in composted sewage sludge was investigated. Microbial inhibition studies of salmonella growth were conducted on nutrient agar, in composts that had been subjected to different temperatures in compost piles,...

  7. COMPARISON OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM LABORATORY AND FULL-SCALE THERMAL DEGRADATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing under both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. he laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition prod...

  8. SUMMARY REPORT ON CORROSIVITY STUDIES IN COINCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion probe exposures were conducted in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Incinerator to determine the effects of burning low-chloride sewage sludge with municipal refuse. Probes having controlled temperature gradients were used to measure corrosion rates for exposure times up to ...

  9. Land application of sewage sludge: perceptions of New Jersey vegetable farmers.

    PubMed

    Krogmann, U; Gibson, V; Chess, C

    2001-04-01

    Understanding farmers' perceptions and choices regarding land application of sewage sludge is key to developing locally accepted strategies for managing its sewage sludge. Semi-structured interviews, with mostly open-ended questions were conducted with 50 fruit and vegetable farmers at the New Jersey Annual Vegetable Meeting in 1999. The in-depth interviews indicated that the application of sewage sludge to land is currently not a common agricultural practice for these growers. Perceived risks, including heavy metals in sewage sludge (soil-build up, crop-uptake), negative public perception, odour complaints, and increase of contaminants in the water supply outweigh economic incentives and soil improvement benefits. When naming benefits and drawbacks, farmers tend to think first of their crop and their land, and do not mention the environment. It is only when they are questioned directly about environmental benefits and risks that they discuss these aspects. Communication efforts should focus on practical information to which farmers can relate. PMID:11721995

  10. Effect of sewage sludge on trace element mobility in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritse, R.G.; Vriesema, R.; Dalenberg, J.W.; de Roos, H.P.

    1982-07-01

    Adsorption of Be, F, B, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Tc, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, and P was measured in a sandy soil and a sandy loam soil at concentration levels closely corresponding to those to be expected for field conditions. Mobilities of the elements in the soils were calculated from the adsorption data. Of the trace elements studied, F, B, and Tc were found to be very mobile in both the sandy and sandy loam sils. Manganese, Sr, and Sb were highly mobile only in the sandy soil, and Mo in the sandy loam soil. In general, sludge solutions appeared to increase the mobility of elements in a soil. This is due to a combination of complexation by dissolved organic compounds, high background concentrations, and high ionic strengths of the soil solutions. The relative effects of these factors vary strongly among elements. Equations were derived predicting the rates of accumulation in soils and accompanying increases in the soil solutions of trace elements added with sewage sludge. When adsorption was related to soil organic matter content, for many trace elements the strength of adsorption was found to depend only on pH, increasing with increasing pH.

  11. Thermodynamic Equilibrium Calculations on Cd Transformation during Sewage Sludge Incineration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-yong; Huang, Limao; Sun, Shuiyu; Ning, Xun'an; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to reveal the distribution of cadmium during the sewage sludge incineration process. During sludge incineration in the presence of major minerals, such as SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO, the strongest effect was exerted by SiO2 on the Cd transformation compared with the effect of others. The stable solid product of CdSiO3 was formed easily with the reaction between Cd and SiO2, which can restrain the emissions of gaseous Cd pollutants. CdCl2 was formed more easily in the presence of chloride during incineration, thus, the volatilization of Cd was advanced by increasing chlorine content. At low temperatures, the volatilization of Cd was restrained due to the formation of the refractory solid metal sulfate. At high temperatures, the speciation of Cd was not affected by the presence of sulfur, but sulfur could affect the formation temperature of gaseous metals. PMID:27225784

  12. The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. ); Carlton, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple. PMID:17433656

  14. Characterization of char from slow pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Wu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The effects of final pyrolysis temperature Tend from 300 ºC to 550 ºC, heating rates β of 2 ºC/min, 3 ºC/min and 5 ºC/min, retention time RT from 45 min to 90 min, and the moisture content MC from 0 to 70% on characteristics of the pyrolysis char from sewage sludge were investigated using a tube furnace in this study. The resulting chars were characterized by sorption of nitrogen (surface area and pore volume). Their adsorption characteristics were evaluated via iodine value and methylene blue value. Either the pore structures or adsorption characteristics depend on the pyrolysis processing and moisture content of the sludge precursors. In terms of iodine value and surface area of the char, Tend of 450 ºC, RT of 75 min and β of 3 ºC/min proved the optimum combination of pyrolysis parameters. The chars have an undeveloped mesopore and macropore structure and a developed micropore structure. The sodium phenoxide adsorption equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir model of adsorption, suggesting monolayer coverage of sodium phenoxide molecules at the surface of the char. Its adsorption mechanism is mainly physical in nature, enhanced by chemisorption. PMID:27191557

  15. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

  16. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge. PMID:26841773

  17. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Nicoleta A. Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha{sup −1} sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha{sup −1} triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg{sup −1} PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms.

  18. Influence of bulking agents and microbial activator on thermophilic aerobic transformation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Pasda, N; Limtong, P; Oliver, R; Montange, D; Panichsakpatana, S

    2005-10-01

    Bangkok, while improving the wastewater treatment in order to alleviate the river pollution, faces important amounts of sewage sludge. The sewage sludge contains organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus available for plant growth. However, it may contain pathogenic microorganisms. To be used for agricultural purposes, these pathogens should be destroyed, which can be achieved with the thermophilic phase of composting. As the sewage sludge is dense and unable to compost alone (low C/N ratio), it should be mixed with an organic by-product. Two by-products available in large quantities in Thailand (wood chips and rice husk) have been tested for mixture with sewage sludge. As these products are not easy to decompose (presence of silica in rice husk and lignin/tannins in wood chips), the addition of a microbial activator for composting has been tested in controlled conditions (small quantities of organic mixtures, 55 degrees C, moisture maintained at 60-70% of water holding capacity). The monitoring of the decomposition has been made by measuring the carbon dioxide respiration, pH, organic matter and nitrogen contents and the evolution of enzymatic activities. When mixed with sewage sludge, wood chips and rice husk do not show significant differences concerning decomposition after 63 days. The use of an activator within the experimental conditions does not improve the decomposition of organic matter contained in the mixture of sewage sludge and rice husk or wood chips. PMID:16342535

  19. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr's most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5tha(-1) sewage sludge annually than 15tha(-1) triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6mgkg(-)(1) PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms. PMID:25872863

  20. A study on torrefaction of sewage sludge to enhance solid fuel qualities.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Jeeban; Ohm, Tae-In; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Oh, Sea Cheon

    2015-06-01

    Torrefaction is a treatment which serves to improve the properties of biomass in relation to thermochemical processing techniques for energy generation. In this study, the torrefaction of sewage sludge, which is a non-lignocellulosic waste was investigated in a horizontal tubular reactor under nitrogen flow at temperature ranging from 150 to 400°C, for torrefaction residence time varying from 0 to 50 min. The torrefaction kinetics of sewage sludge was studied to obtain the kinetic parameters. The torrefied sewage sludge products were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, energy yield, ash content and volatile fraction. The energy and mass yields decreased with an increase in the torrefaction temperature. From an elemental analysis, the weight percentage of carbon in the sewage sludge increased with an increase in the torrefaction temperature. On the other hand, the weight percentages of hydrogen and oxygen tended to decrease. The gaseous products from torrefaction of sewage sludge were also analyzed. From this work, it was found that the compounds with oxygen were emitted at a temperature lower than that for hydrocarbon gases and the temperatures of 300-350°C were the optimum torrefaction temperatures for sewage sludge. PMID:25812807

  1. Utilization of municipal sewage sludge as additives for the production of eco-cement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiming; Zhou, Shaoqi; Li, Fuzhen; Lin, Yixiao

    2012-04-30

    The effects of using dried sewage sludge as additive on cement property in the process of clinker burning were investigated in this paper. The eco-cement samples were prepared by adding 0.50-15.0% of dried sewage sludge to unit raw meal, and then the mixtures were burned at 1450 °C for 2 h. The results indicated that the major components in the eco-cement clinkers were similar to those in ordinary Portland cement. Although the C(2)S phase formation increased with the increase of sewage sludge content, it was also found that the microstructure of the mixture containing 15.0% sewage sludge in raw meal was significantly different and that a larger amount of pores were distributed in the clinker. Moreover, all the eco-cement pastes had a longer initial setting time and final setting time than those of plain cement paste, which increased as the sewage sludge content in the raw meal increased. All the eco-cement pastes had lower early flexural strengths, which increased as the sewage sludge content increased, while the compressive strengths decreased slightly. However, this had no significant effect on all the strengths at later stages. Furthermore, the leaching concentrations of all the types of eco-cement clinkers met the standard of Chinese current regulatory thresholds. PMID:22386820

  2. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  3. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. ISCORS ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SEWAGE SLUDGE: MODELING TO ASSESS RADIATION DOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tran...

  6. Electrodialytic treatment for metal removal from sewage sludge ash from fluidized bed combustion.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M; Kirkelund, G M; Ottosen, L M

    2010-04-15

    Sewage sludge contains several potentially hazardous compounds such as heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, etc. However, elements with high agricultural value (P, K or Ca) are also present. During the last years, the fluidized bed sludge combustor (FBSC) is considered an effective and novel alternative to treat sewage sludge. By its use, the high amount of sludge is reduced to a small quantity of ash and thermal destruction of toxic organic constituents is obtained. Conversely, heavy metals are retained in the ash. In this work the possibility for electrodialytic metal removal for sewage sludge ash from FBSC was studied. A detailed characterization of the sewage sludge ash was done initially, determining that, with the exception of Cd, the other heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) were under the limiting levels of Danish legislation for the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. After 14 days of electrodialytic treatment, the Cd concentration was reduced to values below the limiting concentration. In all experiments the concentrations of other metals were under limiting values of the Danish legislation. It can be concluded that the electrodialytic treatment is an adequate alternative to reduce the Cd concentration in FBSC ash prior to use as fertilizer. PMID:20034740

  7. Crop and soil responses to sewage sludge applied to reclaimed prime farmland

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Qiang; Barnhisel, R.I.

    1996-12-31

    Improvements in reclamation of surface mined prime farmland may be obtained by adding sewage sludge to topsoil and subsoil. This prime farmland reclamation study was done in western Kentucky. The experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the sludge amendment to topsoil and subsoil on soil and crop responses. The experiment showed, in most cases at highest application rates, that the sludge addition significantly increased the soil organic matter, total N content, and available P levels. However, water holding capacity, CEC, and exchangeable cations were not significantly affected. Higher microbial populations and activates were also obtained. The wheat biomass, tiller number, tissue N, grain N, grain yield, and N removal in grain were well correlated with application rates of sewage sludge. Corn also responded positively to additions of sewage sludge. The corn ear-leaf N concentration, grain yield, and grain N removal increased with application rates of sewage sludge. Experiments indicated that topsoil and subsoil sewage sludge addition was beneficial practices in terms of increasing crop yield and improving some soil properties.

  8. Effects of using sewage sludge on agricultural and disturbed lands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinesly, T.D.; Hansen, L.G.

    1983-11-01

    The accumulative effects of annual use of sewage sludge on composition of soils, plants, water, and animals that consume the plants is presented. Plant yields were increased and no evidence of phototoxicity from trace elements was observed. Phosphorus toxicity in soybeans developed. No adverse health effects were observed in pheasants or swine that were fed grain from sludge-treated plots.

  9. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Sludge dewatering: Sewage and industrial wastes. (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sewage sludge dewatering techniques and equipment in industrial and municipal waste treatment systems. Topics include dewatering processes and control, activated sludge systems, fluidized bed systems, biological treatment, heavy metal recovery, and economic aspects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    SciTech Connect

    Kliopova, Irina Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  12. Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2013-04-01

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19days, 53±26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84±24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobic-digestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production. PMID:23294534

  13. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  14. Identification of viral pathogen diversity in sewage sludge by metagenome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-02-19

    The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the U.S., the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g., Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids. PMID:23346855

  15. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  16. Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-30

    The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

  17. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. PMID:25263217

  18. Analysis of the combustion and pyrolysis of dried sewage sludge by TGA and MS.

    PubMed

    Magdziarz, Aneta; Werle, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the combustion and pyrolysis processes of three sewage sludge were investigated. The sewage sludge came from three wastewater treatment plants. Proximate and ultimate analyses were performed. The thermal behaviour of studied sewage sludge was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). The samples were heated from ambient temperature to 800 °C at a constant rate 10 °C/min in air (combustion process) and argon flows (pyrolysis process). The thermal profiles presented in form of TG/DTG curves were comparable for studied sludges. All TG/DTG curves were divided into three stages. The main decomposition of sewage sludge during the combustion process took place in the range 180-580 °C with c.a. 70% mass loss. The pyrolysis process occurred in lower temperature but with less mass loss. The evolved gaseous products (H2, CH4, CO2, H2O) from the decomposition of sewage sludge were identified on-line. PMID:24238993

  19. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Perutka, Libor; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Kraus, Petra; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2011-06-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 ± 100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl(2). Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900°C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 ms(-1). Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl(2) from CaCl(2); diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl(2) out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit. PMID:21333519

  20. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Benedikt

    2011-06-15

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

  1. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.

    PubMed

    Cukjati, N; Zupančič, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V

    2012-09-15

    An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas. PMID:22562011

  3. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Samolada, M.C.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  4. Recovery of phosphorus as struvite from sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; He, Pinjing; Gu, Weimei; Wang, Guanzhao; Shao, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element vital for all living organisms, yet the world's reserves of phosphate rock are becoming depleted. This study investigated an effective P recovery method from sludge ash via struvite precipitation. Results showed that more than 95% of the total P content was extracted from sludge ash by applying 0.5 mol/L HCl at a liquid/solid ratio of 50 mL/g. Although heavy metal leaching also occurred during P extraction, cation exchange resin efficiently removed the heavy metals from the P-rich solution. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal parameters for P precipitation as struvite would be a Mg:N:P molar ratio of 1.6:1.6:1 at pH 10.0. X-ray diffraction analysis validated the formation of struvite. Further investigations revealed that the harvested precipitate had a high struvite content (97%), high P bioavailability (94%), and low heavy metal content, which could be considered a high quality fertilizer. PMID:23513698

  5. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity. PMID:27344252

  6. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  7. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  8. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    PubMed

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. PMID:25481696

  9. Modelling N mineralization from bovine manure and sewage sludge composts.

    PubMed

    Gil, M V; Carballo, M T; Calvo, L F

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization kinetics were compared in three different soils (pH values: 5.2, 7.1 and 8.6) when treated with bovine manure (BM) and sewage sludge (SS) composts. The soil-compost mixtures were kept at a controlled moisture content of 60% of their water holding capacity (WHC) and were incubated in the dark at 25 °C for 2 years. Five mathematical models were compared (simple exponential, double exponential, special model, hyperbolic and parabolic), using as experimental data the mineralized N accumulated during 360 and 720 days of incubation. The results showed that the best fit for describing the mineralization of organic N from the compost after 1 year of experimentation was obtained with the simple exponential model. However, the special model showed the best fit for data from 2 years of incubation and thus better reflected organic N mineralization over a longer time-span. This suggested that the organic N in the two composts was made up of two organic pools of different degrees of stability. PMID:20951032

  10. Sewage sludge composting: quality assessment for agricultural application.

    PubMed

    Nafez, Amir Hossein; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Kadkhodaie, Safora; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Moghim, Sharareh

    2015-11-01

    In order to use sewage sludge (SS) composts in agriculture, it is extremely important to estimate the quality of compost products. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of composted SS as a fertilizer and soil amendment especially in semi-arid areas. To determine the quality and agronomic value of the SS compost products, analyses on pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity, microbial load, and heavy metal content of composted anaerobically digested SS, with different proportions (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v) of green and dry plant waste, as bulking agents, were performed. The 1:2 and 1:3 mixtures of SS and green/dry plant waste were the most beneficial for composting, with final composts attaining high organic matter degradation and exhibiting low amounts of heavy metals, a relatively high germination index, and significant reduction of pathogens, suggesting the agricultural relevance of composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 (v/v) proportions. pH and electrical conductivity were also within the permissible limits. With respect to international standards, it appears that composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 proportions pose no threat to soil or plant quality if used in agriculture or land restoration. PMID:26508019