Science.gov

Sample records for phosphatidyl serine ps

  1. Alteration by phosphatidyl serine of tension responses and 45Ca distribution in aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Goodman, F R; Weiss, G B; Goth, A

    1976-07-01

    The effects of phosphatidyl serine (PS) on 45Ca distribution, 45Ca movements and contractions were examined in rabbit aortic smooth muscle. Contractile responses to submaximal concentrations of norepinephrine and histamine were potentiated by prior exposure to PS, but equivalent responses to potassium were unaffected. Addition of PS to the incubation solution decreased 45Ca uptake; exposure of aortic strips to PS during washout of either 45Ca or promethium (147Pm) resulted in maintained increases in efflux. These PS-induced alterations in net loss of 45Ca or 147Pm can be attributed to a decreased membrane reuptake and/or rebinding. However, the presence of PS during the washout significantly reduced the increases in 45Ca efflux rate elicited with either 0.05 mM concentrations of Ca++ or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Thus, in rabbit aortic smooth muscle, exogenous PS can alter the availability and/or exchangeability of a membrane-bound Ca++ fraction. By specifically increasing the affinity for Ca++ at relevant membrane sites or stores. PS may enhance the ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to stimulatory agents that mobilize Ca++ from these sites and, in this manner, potentiate contractile responses. PMID:933004

  2. The preservation of ultrastructure in saturated phosphatidyl cholines by tannic acid in model systems and type II pneumocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, M; Pease, DC

    1977-01-01

    The preservation for electron microscopy of saturated phospholipids in general, and phosphatidyl choline (PC)in particular, remains and unsolved problem since OsO(4) and glutaraldehyde are incapable of interacting with PC directly. However, by introducing tannic acid preceding osmication, we were able to demonstrate highly ordered, preserved lamellar structures in model experiments with saturated PC, and in vivo experiments type II pneumocytes of lung tissue. The secretory bodies of the latter are known to contain a high proportion of these saturated phospholipids. In both cases, the repeating periodicity approximated 45 A. It was determined that tannic acid interacts with the choline component of PC to form a "complex," which then could be stabilized by treatment with OsO(4). In the absence of osmication, the PC-tannic acid complex acid did not survive conventional dehydration techniques, but osmication permitted conventional Epon embedment. Sphingomyelin (SPH), which contains choline, behaved similarly in model experiments. But there was no evidence of a comparable reaction with tannic acid using phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEA), phosphatidyl serine (PS), or phosphstidy inositol (PI). Chemical studies indicted a high pH dependency for the formation of the PC- tannic acid complex. Also, experiments demonstrated its dissociation in various organic solvents. Sharp delineation and great contrast of the polar zones in the ordered lamellar structures was achieved by additional staining with lead citrate thus leading to the conclusion that tannic acid serves as a multivalent agent, capable of simultaneous interaction with saturated PC, OsO(4), and lead citrate stains. PMID:71301

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  4. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Methods Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Results Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Conclusion Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco. PMID:20426864

  5. Facile Synthesis of Phosphatidyl Saccharides for Preparation of Anionic Nanoliposomes with Enhanced Stability

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Falkeborg, Mia; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong; Jensen, Henrik Max; Bertelsen, Kresten; Thorsen, Michael; Tan, Tianwei; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Physical stability during storage and against processing such as dehyration/rehydration are the cornerstone in designing delivery vehicles. In this work, mono-, di- and tri-saccharides were enzymatically conjugated to phosphatidyl group through a facile approach namely phospholipase D (PLD) mediated transphosphatidylation in a biphasic reaction system. The purified products were structurally identified and the connectivities of carbohydrate to phosphatidyl moiety precisely mapped by 1H, 31P, 13C NMR pulse sequences and LC-ESI-FTMS. The synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides were employed as the sole biomimetic component for preparation of nanoliposomes. It was found that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of phosphatidyl saccharides increases as more bulky sugar moiety (mono- to tri-) is introduced. Phosphatidyl di-saccharide had the largest membrane curvature. In comparison to the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposome, all phosphatidyl saccharides liposomes are anionic and demonstrated significantly enhanced stability during storage. According to the confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) analyses, the nanoliposomes formed by the synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides also show excellent stability against dehydration/rehydration process in which most of the liposomal structures remained intact. The abundance hydroxyl groups in the saccharide moieties might provide sufficient H-bondings for stabilization. This work demonstrated the synthesized phosphatidyl saccharides are capable of functioning as enzymatically liable materials which can form stable nanoliposomes without addition of stabilizing excipients. PMID:24069243

  6. d-serine levels in Alzheimer's disease: implications for novel biomarker development

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, C; Lourenco, M V; Vargas-Lopes, C; Suemoto, C K; Brandão, C O; Reis, T; Leite, R E P; Laks, J; Jacob-Filho, W; Pasqualucci, C A; Grinberg, L T; Ferreira, S T; Panizzutti, R

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder still in search of effective methods of diagnosis. Altered levels of the NMDA receptor co-agonist, d-serine, have been associated with neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. However, whether d-serine levels are deregulated in AD remains elusive. Here, we first measured D-serine levels in post-mortem hippocampal and cortical samples from nondemented subjects (n=8) and AD patients (n=14). We next determined d-serine levels in experimental models of AD, including wild-type rats and mice that received intracerebroventricular injections of amyloid-? oligomers, and APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Finally, we assessed d-serine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD, as compared with patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (n=9), major depression (n=9) and healthy controls (n=10), and results were contrasted with CSF amyloid-?/tau AD biomarkers. d-serine levels were higher in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of AD patients than in control subjects. Levels of both d-serine and serine racemase, the enzyme responsible for d-serine production, were elevated in experimental models of AD. Significantly, d-serine levels were higher in the CSF of probable AD patients than in non-cognitively impaired subject groups. Combining d-serine levels to the amyloid/tau index remarkably increased the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of probable AD in our cohort. Our results show that increased brain and CSF d-serine levels are associated with AD. CSF d-serine levels discriminated between nondemented and AD patients in our cohort and might constitute a novel candidate biomarker for early AD diagnosis. PMID:25942042

  7. Serine Biosynthesis in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    PubMed Central

    Germano, Geno J.; Anderson, Kenneth E.

    1969-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans possess enzymes which catalyze the synthesis of serine from 3-phosphoglycerate via the intermediates phosphohydroxypyruvate and phosphoserine. PMID:5370284

  8. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  9. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Three Unique Helicobacter pylori ?-Cholesteryl phosphatidyl glucosides

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy Q.; Davis, Ryan A.; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Steryl glycosides produced by bacteria play important biological roles in the evasion and modulation of host immunity. Step economy syntheses of three cholesteryl-6-O-phosphatidyl-?-D-glucopyranosides (?CPG) unique to H. pylori have been achieved. The approach relies upon regioselective C-6 deprotection of per-O-trimethylsilyl-?-D-cholesterylglucoside followed by phosphoramidite coupling. Global TMS ether deprotection in the presence of oxygen and subsequent deprotection of the cyano ethyl phosphoester afforded the target compounds in 16-21% overall yield starting from D-glucose. The structures of these natural products were rigorously determined using a combination of 2D NMR methods and mass spectrometry. These robust synthesis and characterization protocols provide analogues to facilitate glycolipidomic profiling and biological studies. PMID:25195783

  10. Serine Biosynthesis and Regulation in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Lewis I.; Ponce-De-Leon, Manuel; Michalka, Jack

    1969-01-01

    Nutritional mutants of Haemophilus influenzae requiring l-serine for growth were shown to be deficient in their capacity to synthesize serine-phosphate from 3-phosphoglycerate. On the basis of the correlation between this block and the requirement for an exogenous supply of the amino acid, it was concluded that the “phosphorylated” pathway is the only pathway used by H. influenzae for serine biosynthesis. Serine inhibits serine-phosphate production, thereby regulating its own synthesis in a manner analagous to the Enterobacteriaceae. A mutant strain that required either serine or tryptophan for growth was normal in serine-phosphate synthesis and regulation. It was concluded that this strain probably has a tryptophan synthetase with an increased Michaelis constant for serine. PMID:5305003

  11. Serine biosynthesis and regulation in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Pizer, L I; Ponce-de-Leon, M; Michalka, J

    1969-03-01

    Nutritional mutants of Haemophilus influenzae requiring l-serine for growth were shown to be deficient in their capacity to synthesize serine-phosphate from 3-phosphoglycerate. On the basis of the correlation between this block and the requirement for an exogenous supply of the amino acid, it was concluded that the "phosphorylated" pathway is the only pathway used by H. influenzae for serine biosynthesis. Serine inhibits serine-phosphate production, thereby regulating its own synthesis in a manner analagous to the Enterobacteriaceae. A mutant strain that required either serine or tryptophan for growth was normal in serine-phosphate synthesis and regulation. It was concluded that this strain probably has a tryptophan synthetase with an increased Michaelis constant for serine. PMID:5305003

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION Chiral Enrichment of Serine

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Chiral Enrichment of Serine via Formation, Dissociation, and Soft University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA Chiral enrichment of serine is achieved in experiments that involve of chirally-enriched octameric cluster ions and their dissociation, viz. Ser1 3 Ser8 3 Ser1, allows serine

  13. CLASS PS PROBLEMS RAMBABU CHELIKANI

    E-print Network

    Dragan, Feodor F.

    Relationship of PS and NPS to previously defined classes To prove PS=NPS Savitch's Theorem #12;4/14/2015 2 nps. RELATIONSHIP OF PS AND NPS TO PREVIOUSLY DEFINED CLASSES: The relationships P PS and NP NPS no more than a polynomial number of cells. Once we prove PS=NPS, we can see the three classes form a chain

  14. Permissive Roles of Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-Kinase and Akt in Skeletal Myocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Tureckova, Jolana; Rotwein, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle differentiation, maturation, and regeneration are regulated by interactions between signaling pathways activated by hormones and growth factors, and intrinsic genetic programs controlled by myogenic transcription factors, including members of the MyoD and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play key roles in muscle development in the embryo, and in the maintenance and hypertrophy of mature muscle in the adult, but the precise signaling pathways responsible for these effects remain incompletely defined. To study mechanisms of IGF action in muscle, we have developed a mouse myoblast cell line termed C2BP5 that is dependent on activation of the IGF-I receptor and the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt pathway for initiation of differentiation. Here, we show that differentiation of C2BP5 myoblasts could be induced in the absence of IGF action by recombinant adenoviruses expressing MyoD or myogenin, but it was reversibly impaired by the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Similar results were observed using a dominant-negative version of Akt, a key downstream component of PI3-kinase signaling, and also were seen in C3H 10T1/2 fibroblasts. Inhibition of PI3-kinase did not prevent accumulation of muscle differentiation-specific proteins (myogenin, troponin T, or myosin heavy chain), did not block transcriptional activation of E-box containing muscle reporter genes by MyoD or myogenin, and did not inhibit the expression or function of endogenous MEF2C or MEF2D. An adenovirus encoding active Akt could partially restore terminal differentiation of MyoD-expressing and LY294002-treated myoblasts, but the resultant myofibers contained fewer nuclei and were smaller and thinner than normal, indicating that another PI3-kinase-stimulated pathway in addition to Akt is required for full myocyte maturation. Our results support the idea that an IGF-regulated PI3-kinase pathway functions downstream of or in parallel with MyoD, myogenin, and MEF2 in muscle development to govern the late steps of differentiation that lead to multinucleated myotubes. PMID:14595115

  15. CLASS PS PROBLEMS RAMBABU CHELIKANI

    E-print Network

    Dragan, Feodor F.

    Relationship of PS and NPS to previously defined classes To prove PS=NPS Savitch's Theorem #12;INTRODUCTION space bounded Turing machine. The language L(M) is said to be in class nps. #12;RELATIONSHIP OF PS AND NPS TO PREVIOUSLY DEFINED CLASSES: The relationships P PS and NP NPS are obvious. The reason

  16. Association of anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies and low complement levels in systemic sclerosis patients--results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    B?l?nescu, Paul; L?daru, Anca; B?l?nescu, Eugenia; B?icu?, Cristian; Dan, Gheorghe Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Some systemic sclerosis (Ssc) patients express antiphospholipid antibodies and their percentage varies within studies in the literature. The particular role of these antibodies in clinical manifestations of Ssc is still unknown. The aim of the study was to examine an extended panel of antiphospholipid antibodies in Ssc patients who did not have any clinical features of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A cross-sectional study was designed and 36 consecutive patients with Ssc were recruited. A relatively high proportion of patients (14 patients - 38.9%) had antiphospholipid antibody presence. Most Ssc patients (11 patients - 30.6%) had IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies. Serum IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies, IgM anti prothrombin and IgG anti ?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies were associated with low complement levels in Ssc patients. In multivariate analysis, only serum IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies concentration and serum IgG anti ?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies concentration were independently associated with hypocomplementemia after adjusting for age and gender. No other correlations with Ssc clinical characteristics were found. In conclusion, antiphospholipid antibodies are present in a large proportion of Ssc patients who do not have clinical features or a history of antiphospholipid antibodies. IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies seem to be more frequent and the dominant antiphospholipid antibody type in the group recruited from the Romanian Ssc population. PMID:26067612

  17. d-Serine in the aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Billard, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-10

    Experimental evidences now indicate that memory formation relies on the capacity of neuronal networks to manage long-term changes in synaptic communication. This property is driven by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), which requires the binding of glutamate but also the presence of the co-agonist d-serine at the glycine site. Defective memory function and impaired brain synaptic plasticity observed in aging are rescued by partial agonist acting at this site suggesting that this gating process is targeted to induce age-related cognitive defects. This review aims at compelling recent studies characterizing the role of d-serine in changes in functional plasticity that occur in the aging hippocampus since deficits are rescued by d-serine supplementation. The impaired efficacy of endogenous d-serine is not due to changes in the affinity to glycine-binding site but to a decrease in tissue levels of the amino acid resulting from a weaker expression of the producing enzyme serine racemase (SR). Interestingly, neither SR expression, d-serine levels, nor NMDAR activation is affected in aged LOU/C rats, a model of healthy aging in which memory deficits do not occur. These old animals do not develop oxidative stress suggesting that the d-serine-related pathway could be targeted by the age-related accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, senescent rats chronically treated with the reducing agent N-acetyl-cysteine to prevent oxidative damage, show intact NMDAR activation linked to preserved d-serine levels and SR expression. These results point to a significant role of d-serine in age-related functional alterations underlying hippocampus-dependent memory deficits, at least within the CA1 area since the amino acid does not appear as critical in changes affecting the dentate gyrus. PMID:25740810

  18. Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Roger

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  19. Enhanced Ps-Ps interactions due to quantum confinement.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D B; Mills, A P

    2011-11-18

    Slow positrons implanted into a porous silica film may efficiently form positronium (Ps) atoms that diffuse through a network of interconnected pores. At high Ps densities, the long lifetime of ortho-positronium atoms is reduced due to Ps-Ps spin dependent interactions at a rate that implies an effective free-space scattering cross section, ?(e) = (3.4 ± 0.5) × 10(-14) cm(-2), at least 25 times larger than the theoretical value. This enhanced interaction rate may be explained if the quantum confinement of Ps results in interpore tunneling rates that depend critically on the distribution of pore sizes, so that rather than uniformly sampling the porous matrix Ps diffusion is limited to a small subset of the pores. PMID:22181877

  20. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-08-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO/sub 2/ at twice the wild type rate when it was fed (/sup 14/C) glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO/sub 2/ concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme.

  1. Restricted immunoglobulin variable region gene usage by normal Ly-1 (CD5+) B cells that recognize phosphatidyl choline

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    5-15% of lymphocytes in the peritoneums of normal adult B10.H-2aH- 4bp/Wts (2a4b) mice are CD5+ (Ly-1) B cells that recognize phosphatidyl choline (PtC), a phospholipid component of all mammalian cells. We produced a set of IgM-secreting hybridomas from the peritoneal cells of normal, adult 2a4b mice. We found that this set of hybridomas shows a similarly high frequency of antibodies specific for PtC (21 of 86) that also react with bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes. Restriction fragment analysis of Ig gene rearrangements and analysis of expressed Ig idiotypes reveal that these cells use a restricted set of variable region genes to generate the PtC-specific antibodies. The Ig genes used by the PtC-specific hybridomas appear to be the same as those found in the PtC-specific Ly-1 B cell lymphomas, CH27 and CH34. PMID:2499651

  2. PEGylated d-serine dehydratase as a d-serine reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Takada, Hiroe; Isobe, Keiko; Suzuki, Masataka; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Hemmi, Hisashi; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Sasabe, Jumpei; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2015-12-10

    d-Serine is an endogenous coagonist for N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is involved in excitatory neurotransmission. Excessive receptor activation causes excitotoxicity, leading to various acute and chronic neurological disorders. Decrease in d-serine content may provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the neurological disorders in which overstimulation of NMDA receptors plays a pathological role. Saccharomyces cerevisiaed-serine dehydratase (Dsd1p), which acts dominantly on d-serine, may be a useful d-serine reducing agent. We conjugated a linear 5-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) to Dsd1p (PEG-Dsd1p) and examined the effects of PEG-conjugation on its biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. PEG-Dsd1p retained activity, specificity, and stability of the enzyme. The PEG modification extended the serum half-life of Dsd1p in mice 6-fold, from 3.8h to 22.4h. PEG-Dsd1p was much less immunogenic compared to the unmodified enzyme. Intraperitoneal administration of PEG-Dsd1p was effective in decreasing the d-serine content in the mouse hippocampus. These findings suggest that PEG-Dsd1p may be a novel tool for lowering d-serine levels in vivo. PMID:25617179

  3. Significance of the d-Serine-Deaminase and d-Serine Metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sakinc, Türkan; Kline, Kimberly; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott; Gatermann, Sören G.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species of Staphylococcus that is typically uropathogenic and possesses a gene coding for a d-serine-deaminase (DsdA). As d-serine is prevalent in urine and toxic or bacteriostatic to many bacteria, it is not surprising that the d-serine-deaminase gene is found in the genome of uropathogens. It has been suggested that d-serine-deaminase or the ability to respond to or to metabolize d-serine is important for virulence. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a high intracellular d-serine concentration affects expression of virulence factors. S. saprophyticus is able to grow in the presence of high d-serine concentrations; however, its d-serine metabolism has not been described. The activity of the d-serine-deaminase was verified by analyzing the formation of pyruvate from d-serine in different strains with and without d-serine-deaminase. Cocultivation experiments were performed to show that d-serine-deaminase confers a growth advantage to S. saprophyticus in the presence of d-serine. Furthermore, in vivo coinfection experiments showed a disadvantage for the ?dsdA mutant during urinary tract infection. Expression analysis of known virulence factors by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the surface-associated lipase Ssp is upregulated in the presence of d-serine. In addition, we show that S. saprophyticus is able to use d-serine as the sole carbon source, but interestingly, d-serine had a negative effect on growth when glucose was also present. Taken together, d-serine metabolism is associated with virulence in S. saprophyticus, as at least one known virulence factor is upregulated in the presence of d-serine and a ?dsdA mutant was attenuated in virulence murine model of urinary tract infection. PMID:24082071

  4. 21 CFR 582.5701 - Serine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serine. 582.5701 Section 582.5701 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5701 - Serine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serine. 582.5701 Section 582.5701 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  6. Revealing the multiple structures of serine

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Susana; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the conformational landscape of the proteinogenic amino acid serine [CH2OHCH(NH2)COOH] in the gas phase. Solid serine was vaporized by laser ablation, expanded in a supersonic jet, and characterized by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the isolation conditions of the jet there have been discovered up to seven different neutral (non-zwitterionic) structures of serine, which are conclusively identified by the comparison between the experimental values of the rotational and quadrupole coupling constants with those predicted by ab initio calculations. These seven forms can serve as a basis to represent the shape of serine in the gas phase. From the postexpansion abundances we derived the conformational stability trend, which is controlled by the subtle network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed between the polar groups in the amino acid backbone and the hydroxy side chain. It is proposed that conformational cooling perturbs the equilibrium conformational distribution; thus, some of the lower-energy forms are “missing” in the supersonic expansion. PMID:18077350

  7. Serine Biosynthesis and Its Regulation in Bacillus subtilis, 12

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-De-Leon, Manuel M.; Pizer, Lewis I.

    1972-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strains GSY and 168 convert 14C-phosphoglycerate to 14C-serine phosphate and 14C-serine. These reactions indicate a functional phosphorylated pathway for serine biosynthesis in these cells. The addition of serine to the incubation mixture inhibited the formation of both radioactive products. Extracts of mutant strains that require serine for growth lacked the capacity to synthesize serine phosphate, confirming that the phosphorylated pathway was the only functional pathway available for serine synthesis. Serine phosphate phosphatase and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity were demonstrated in cell extracts, and the phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase was shown to be inhibited specifically by l-serine. The extent of serine inhibition increased when the temperature was raised from 25 to 37 C, and the thermal stability of the enzyme was enhanced by the presence of the inhibitor serine or the coenzyme reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. At 37 C the curve representing the relationship between phosphoglycerate concentration and enzyme velocity was biphasic, and the serine inhibition which was competitive at low substrate concentrations became noncompetitive at higher concentrations. PMID:4337849

  8. Pharmacological Activities and Hydrolysis by Peptidases of [Phospho-Ser(6)]-Bradykinin (pS(6)-BK).

    PubMed

    Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Luiz; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Kouyoumdjian, Maria; Calixto, Joao B; Santos, Robson A S; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Gauthier, Francis; Moreau, Thierry; Blaber, Michael; Juliano, Maria A

    2015-09-15

    Phosphorylated kininogen and some of its fragments containing serine phosphorylated bradykinin ([pS(6)]-Bk) were identified in human serum and plasma by a phosphoproteomic approach. We report the kininogenase ability of human tissue and plasma kallikreins and tryptase to generate [pS(6)]-Bk or Lys-[pS(6)]-Bk having as substrate the synthetic human kininogen fluorescent fragment Abz-MISLMKRPPGF[pS(386)]PFRSSRI-NH2. The pharmacological assays of [pS(6)]-Bk showed it as a full B2 bradykinin receptor agonist in smooth muscle, it produces a portal liver hypertensive response in rat and mouse paw edema that lasts longer than Bk. The rat hypotensive response to infusions of Bk is greater than that of [pS(6)]Bk, both if injected through femoral vein or aorta. [pS(6)]-Bk was more resistant than Bk to kininase digestion performed with angiotensin converting enzyme, neprilysin, thimet oligopeptidase, aminopeptidase P and carboxypeptidase M. (1)H-NMR experiments indicated that [pS(6)]-Bk has lower flexibility, with the pS(6)-P(7) bond restricted to the trans conformation, and can explain [pS(6)]-Bk resistance to hydrolysis. In conclusion, [pS(6)]-Bk presenting lower activity than Bk, with longer lasting effects and being slowly released by kininogenases from synthetic Abz-MISLMKRPPGF[pS(386)]PFRSSRI-NH2, suggests that phosphorylation of the kininogens can be an efficient kallikrein-kinin system regulator. PMID:26235942

  9. Detection and Functional Analysis of Estrogen Receptor ? Phosphorylated at Serine 216 in Mouse Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Sawako; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Serine 216 constitutes a protein kinase C phosphorylation motif located within the DNA binding domain of estrogen receptor ? (ER?). In this chapter we present experimental procedures confirming that mouse ER? is phosphorylated at serine 216 in peripheral blood neutrophils and in neutrophils that infiltrate the uterus, as well as the role of phosphoserine 216 in neutrophil migration. A phospho-peptide antibody (?P-S216) was utilized in Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and double immunofluorescence staining to detect this phosphorylation of an endogenous ER?. Both immunohistochemistry (with ?P-S216 or neutrophil marker Ly6G antibody) and double immunofluorescence staining of mouse uterine sections prepared from C3H/HeNCrIBR females revealed that phosphorylated ER? was expressed in all infiltrating neutrophils during hormonal cycles but not in any other of the other uterine cells. Neutrophils infiltrate the uterus from the blood stream. White blood cells (WBC) were prepared from peripheral blood of C3H/HeNCrIBR females or males and double immunostained. Blood neutrophils also expressed phosphorylated ER? but in only about 20 % of cells in both sexes. Only the neutrophils expressing phosphorylated ER? spontaneously migrated in in vitro Transwell migration assays and infiltrated the uterus in mice. PMID:26585153

  10. In Vivo d-Serine Hetero-Exchange through Alanine-Serine-Cysteine (ASC) Transporters Detected by Microelectrode Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    d-Serine, a co-agonist of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebral ischemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, or schizophrenia. d-Serine signaling represents an important pharmacological target for treating these diseases; however, the biochemical mechanisms controlling extracellular d-serine levels in vivo are still unclear. d-Serine heteroexchange through small neutral amino acid transporters has been shown in cell cultures and brain slices and could provide a biochemical mechanism for the control of d-serine extracellular concentration in vivo. Alternatively, exocytotic d-serine release has also been proposed. In this study, the dynamics of d-serine release and clearance were explored in vivo on a second-by-second time scale using microelectrode biosensors. The rate of d-serine clearance in the rat frontal cortex after a microionophoretic injection revealed a transporter-mediated uptake mechanism. d-Serine uptake was blocked by small neutral l-amino acids, implicating alanine-serine-cysteine (ASC) transporters, in particular high affinity Asc-1 and low affinity ASCT2 transporters. Interestingly, changes in alanine, serine, or threonine levels resulted in d-serine release through ASC transporters. Asc-1, but not ASCT2, appeared to release d-serine in response to changes in amino acid concentrations. Finally, neuronal silencing by tetrodotoxin increased d-serine extracellular concentration by an ASC-transporter-dependent mechanism. Together, these results indicate that d-serine heteroexchange through ASC transporters is present in vivo and may constitute a key component in the regulation of d-serine extracellular concentration. PMID:23581544

  11. Sorafenib/Regorafenib and Phosphatidyl Inositol 3 Kinase/Thymoma Viral Proto-Oncogene Inhibition Interact to Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sajithlal, Gangadharan B.; Hamed, Hossein A.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Booth, Laurence; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Syed, Jahangir; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the multikinase inhibitors sorafenib/regorafenib cooperated with clinically relevant , phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) inhibitors to kill tumor cells. In liver, colorectal, lung, breast, kidney, and brain cancer cells, at clinically achievable doses, sorafenib/regorafenib and the PI3K inhibitor acetic acid (1S,4E,10R,11R,13S,14R)-[4-diallylaminomethylene-6-hydroxy-1-methoxymethyl-10,13-dimethyl-3,7,17-trioxo-1,3,4,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-2-oxa-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-11-yl ester (PX-866) cooperated in a greater than additive fashion to kill tumor cells. Cells lacking phosphatase and tensin homolog were as sensitive to the drug combination as cells expressing the protein. Similar data were obtained using the AKT inhibitors perifosine and 8-[4-(1-aminocyclobutyl)phenyl]-9-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f] [1,6]naphthyridin-3(2H)-one hydrochloride (MK2206). PX-866 treatment abolished AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) phosphorylation, and cell killing correlated with reduced activity of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Expression of activated AKT and to a lesser extent activated mTOR reduced drug combination lethality. Expression of B-cell lymphoma–extra large or dominant negative caspase 9, but not cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1b–converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein short, protected cells from the drug combination. Treatment of cells with PX-866 increased protein levels of p62, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), and microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC) 3 and LC3II that correlated with a large increase in LC3–green fluorescent protein (GFP) vesicle numbers. Exposure of PX-866 treated cells to sorafenib reduced p62 and LAMP2 levels, decreased the ratio of LC3 to LC3II, and reduced LC3-GFP vesicle levels. Knockdown of Beclin1 or autophagy-related 5 suppressed drug toxicity by ?40%. In vivo, sorafenib and PX-866 or regorafenib and MK2206 cooperated to suppress the growth of established HuH7 and HCT116 tumors, respectively. Collectively our data demonstrate that the combination of sorafenib family kinase inhibitors with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT pathway kills tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23877009

  12. Topoisomerase-I PS506 as a Dual Function Cancer Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Gjerset, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Novel biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy selection are urgently needed to facilitate early detection and improve therapy outcomes. We have previously identified a novel phosphorylation site at serine 506 (PS506) on topoisomerase-I (topo-I) and have shown that it is widely expressed in cell lines derived from several cancers, including lung cancer, but is low in cell lines derived from non-cancerous tissues. Here we have investigated how PS506 expression in lung tissue specimens correlates with their malignant status. We find that PS506 expression is significantly elevated in malignant tumors of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to adjacent, non-cancerous lung tissue and benign lung tumors. PS506 expression was up to 6-fold higher in malignant specimens than in paired non-malignant tissue. Using the well-characterized NIH/NCI 60-cell line panel, we correlate the most elevated expression levels of PS506 in lung, ovarian, and colon cancer cells lines with increased sensitivity to camptothecin, a plant alkaloid that targets topo-I. This is consistent with our earlier studies in a smaller sampling of cell lines and with our finding that PS506 increases topo-I DNA binding. Two widely used chemotherapeutic drugs for ovarian and colon cancer, topotecan and irinotecan, respectively, are derived from camptothecin. Irinotecan has also displayed efficacy in clinical trials of NSCLC. Our results suggest that elevated PS506 expression may correlate with clinical chemosensitivity to these agents in ovarian, colon, and NSCLC. PS506 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis or therapy selection. PMID:26248194

  13. Mutational analysis of serine-glycine biosynthesis in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

    PubMed Central

    Beremand, P D; Sojka, G A

    1977-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas capsulata possesses the enzymes of both the "phosphorylated" and the "non-phosphorylated" pathways of serine biosynthesis. Certain mutants with lesions in the phosphorylated pathway are serine-glycine auxotrophs, though they still produce enzymes of the non-phosphorylated sequence. These results indicate that the phosphorylated pathway is essential for the synthesis of serine and glycine in R. capsulata under the condtions tested. PMID:192715

  14. The PS1 Software Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heasley, James N.; Jedicke, R.; Magnier, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 observatory will generate on average 1.4 TBytes of image data during a typical night of observing. To support the reduction and analysis of these data, the Pan-STARRS construction project has developed three software systems: the Image Processing Pipeline (IPP) for the reduction and calibration of the images and the generation of source catalogs, the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a science client designed to develop orbital information for the moving transient sources found by the IPP, and the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS) which will serve as the scientific access point to the catalog data derived by the IPP and as the overall archive for the science products generated by PS1. The IPP has largely been developed internally at the Institute for Astronomy. The software has been extensively tested on CCD mosaic data from the CFH12K, MegaPrime, and Suprime cameras. Since late August 2007 we have been using IPP to process the first images from the PS1 gigapixel camera. MOPS incorporates both legacy code and new software developed for linking observations of objects on different nights into tracklets for orbit determination. The MOPS has been tested with simulations based on our model of the solar system as well as on data from the SpaceWatch observatory. The primary component of the PSPS is the Object Data Manager (ODM) which will serve as the science database for the stationary objects found in the PS1 observations. We anticipate tracking over 5.5 billion objects and 140 billion detections over the 3.5 year mission of PS1. The ODM is leveraging the design work done during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to scale out a database design to accommodate this volume of data.

  15. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Milano, Teresa; Di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Angelaccio, Sebastiana; Pascarella, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases (SHMTs). SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The approach utilized in this study relies on two programs, ProACT2 and WatCH. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules. Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged. This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. PMID:25986490

  16. Nuclear Compartmentalization of Serine Racemase Regulates d-Serine Production: IMPLICATIONS FOR N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE (NMDA) RECEPTOR ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    Kolodney, Goren; Dumin, Elena; Safory, Hazem; Rosenberg, Dina; Mori, Hisashi; Radzishevisky, Inna; Wolosker, Herman

    2015-12-25

    d-Serine is a physiological co-agonist that activates N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and is essential for neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. d-Serine may also trigger NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity, and its dysregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. d-Serine is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase (SR), which directly converts l-serine to d-serine. However, many aspects concerning the regulation of d-serine production under physiological and pathological conditions remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms regulating the synthesis of d-serine by SR in paradigms relevant to neurotoxicity. We report that SR undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and that this process is dysregulated by several insults leading to neuronal death, typically by apoptotic stimuli. Cell death induction promotes nuclear accumulation of SR, in parallel with the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and Siah proteins at an early stage of the cell death process. Mutations in putative SR nuclear export signals (NESs) elicit SR nuclear accumulation and its depletion from the cytosol. Following apoptotic insult, SR associates with nuclear GAPDH along with other nuclear components, and this is accompanied by complete inactivation of the enzyme. As a result, extracellular d-serine concentration is reduced, even though extracellular glutamate concentration increases severalfold. Our observations imply that nuclear translocation of SR provides a fail-safe mechanism to prevent or limit secondary NMDAR-mediated toxicity in nearby synapses. PMID:26553873

  17. Selective N-Hydroxyhydantoin Carbamate Inhibitors of Mammalian Serine Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Cognetta, Armand B; Niphakis, Micah J; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Martini, Michael L; Hulce, Jonathan J; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2015-07-23

    Serine hydrolase inhibitors, which facilitate enzyme function assignment and are used to treat a range of human disorders, often act by an irreversible mechanism that involves covalent modification of the serine hydrolase catalytic nucleophile. The portion of mammalian serine hydrolases for which selective inhibitors have been developed, however, remains small. Here, we show that N-hydroxyhydantoin (NHH) carbamates are a versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be modified on both the staying (carbamylating) and leaving (NHH) groups to optimize potency and selectivity. Synthesis of a small library of NHH carbamates and screening by competitive activity-based protein profiling furnished selective, in vivo-active inhibitors and tailored activity-based probes for multiple mammalian serine hydrolases, including palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1, mutations of which cause the human disease infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26120000

  18. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. PMID:22112764

  19. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-11-01

    we solve a problem of Bank and Laine by showing that there exist. entire functions A of any ... dental entire A is due to Bank and Laine [2, 3]. When A is .... Since the set of rays of completely regular growth is closed [34, Chapter 3,. Theorem 1], it ..... homeomorphisms ?k : R ? R defined by gmk+1(?k(x)) = gmk (x

  20. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-10-06

    Eigenfunctions y are real entire functions of order (deg P + 2)/2 and. each of them ..... which is called the Green transform of the equation (1), see, for example, [7,. 8.1]. ... The 1-skeleton is a connected bi-partite properly embedded graph whose all .... homology and new applications in quantum mechanics, Contemp. Math.,.

  1. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-11-25

    Jul 27, 2006 ... mate for f#(0) in terms of the Fubini–Study area of the image of f, in the case. that f omits n + 1 ... Foundation and continued while the first author was a member at MSRI. The .... By first working on a disc of radius ? limit as. ? ? 1, we ...... national Congress of Mathematicians, vol. 2, p.

  2. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-11-21

    who wants to study the real physical world is forced into complexification. God ..... first an injective map, then an exponential map, and finally an “absolute value”. map. ..... Daniel H. Gottlieb (1998), Skew Symmetric Bundle Maps, Contemporary

  3. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-11-26

    Let M be the class of all non-constant meromorphic functions f in the. complex plane C. In ...... with respect to pre-composition of f with an automorphism of the unit disc. So it is enough to prove (1) ..... By the Law of Cosines. cos ˜?(t) =sin(t ? ?) + ...

  4. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-10-10

    whose Gaussian curvature is bounded from above by a negative constant, and ... [0, 1) ? X which has no limit in X but its image p ? ? has a limit in C. This. limit is called .... The most striking application is to the spectral theory of self-adjoint sec-.

  5. ps

    E-print Network

    2016-01-01

    Sep 6, 2015 ... Besides some general results we study in detail the family of such. symmetric metrics on ... which are invariant with respect to an anti-conformal involution which leaves. all singularities ... General solution of this Schwarz equation is a ratio of two linearly indepen- .... We claim that in this case the. equation.

  6. ps

    E-print Network

    2015-11-27

    Jul 25, 2005 ... Fuchsian differential equations whose general solution is a polynomial. and in terms ...... guarantees that there is a power series solution corresponding to the smaller. exponent. .... 2.2 Equilibria of electric charges in the plane.

  7. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumblebee venom serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Yuling; Choo, Young Moo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia Jingming; Cui Zheng; Wang Dong; Kim, Doh Hoon; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2011-09-01

    Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active components; it has been used as an immunotherapy to treat bee venom hypersensitivity, and venom therapy has been applied as an alternative medicine. Here, we present evidence that the serine protease found in bumblebee venom exhibits fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Compared to honeybee venom, bumblebee venom contains a higher content of serine protease, which is one of its major components. Venom serine proteases from bumblebees did not cross-react with antibodies against the honeybee venom serine protease. We provide functional evidence indicating that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) acts as a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. Bt-VSP activates prothrombin and directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. However, Bt-VSP is not a plasminogen activator, and its fibrinolytic activity is less than that of plasmin. Taken together, our results define roles for Bt-VSP as a prothrombin activator, a thrombin-like protease, and a plasmin-like protease. These findings offer significant insight into the allergic reaction sequence that is initiated by bee venom serine protease and its potential usefulness as a clinical agent in the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Bumblebee venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) is a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. > Bt-VSP activates prothrombin. > Bt-VSP directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. > Bt-VSP is a hemostatically active protein that is a potent clinical agent.

  8. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to L-serine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppula, Rajitha R.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2010-06-01

    A novel experimental technique was used to quantify the motion of E. coli to varying serine concentrations and gradients so as to capture the spatial and temporal variation of the chemotactic response. The average run speed and the cell diffusivity are found to be dependent on the serine concentration. The measured diffusivities were in the range of 1.2-2.5 × 10 -10 m2 s-1. The study revealed that the rotational diffusivity of the cells, induced by the extracellular environment, also varies with the serine concentration. The drift velocity increased with serine gradients reaching a maximum value of ~5.5 µm s-1 at 1.6 µM µm-1 after which it decreased. Experimental analysis demonstrated the interdependence of run speed, rotational diffusivity and drift velocity that characterizes the motion. Further, the motion was found to critically depend on the oxygen concentration and energy level of the cells.

  9. The Pharmacological Landscape and Therapeutic Potential of Serine Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases play critical roles in many biological processes, and several are targets of approved drugs for indications such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and infectious disease. Despite this, most of the 200+ human serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized with respect to their physiological substrates and functions, and the vast majority lack selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we review the current state of pharmacology for mammalian serine hydrolases, including marketed drugs, compounds under clinical investigation, and selective inhibitors emerging from academic probe development efforts. We also highlight recent methodological advances that have accelerated the rate of inhibitor discovery and optimization for serine hydrolases, which we anticipate will aid in their biological characterization and, in some cases, therapeutic validation. PMID:22212679

  10. ACTIVATION OF A CRYPTIC D-SERINE DEAMINASE (DSD) GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    EPA Science Inventory

    D-serine inhibits growth of P. cepacia 17616; however, resistant mutants able to express an ordinarily cryptic D-serine deaminase (dsd) gene were isolated readily. The resistant strains formed high levels of a D-serine deaminase active on D-threonine as well as D-serine. IS eleme...

  11. The PS1 System and Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2007-12-01

    PS1, the Pan-STARRS Telescope No. 1 is a prototype telescope for a distributed aperture synoptic survey telescope: the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. The PS1 System is currently being commissioned and the 3.5 year PS1 Science Mission is expected to begin in the spring of 2008. The PS1 System, including the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline, database and additional software clients will be operated for the duration of the Mission by the PS1 Science Consortium. The planned PS1 Sky Surveys to be carried out include: (1) A 3pi Steradian survey with associated Calibration Fields; (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of NEO "Sweet Spots", (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. These surveys, their scientific goals, and the observing strategy to meet these goals will be discussed. Images and commission data will be presented, along with a summary of the expected PS1 Mission data products. It should be emphasized that there will be some immediate release of PS1 data to the community, and all PS1 data and data products will be released to the astronomical community within one year of the completion of the PS1 Science Mission. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, and the National Central University of Taiwan. The Pan-STARRS project includes contributions from The Institute for Astronomy, the Maui High Performance Computing Center, SAIC, AFRL, and Lincoln Laboratory.

  12. Structure-Based Design of an Organoruthenium Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase Inhibitor Reveals a Switch Governing Lipid Kinase Potency and Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,P.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Milk, L.; Xiao, M.; Smalley, K.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.; Marmorstein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations that constitutively activate the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, including alterations in PI3K, PTEN, and AKT, are found in a variety of human cancers, implicating the PI3K lipid kinase as an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents to treat cancer and other related diseases. In this study, we report on the combination of a novel organometallic kinase inhibitor scaffold with structure-based design to develop a PI3K inhibitor, called E5E2, with an IC50 potency in the mid-low-nanomolar range and selectivity against a panel of protein kinases. We also show that E5E2 inhibits phospho-AKT in human melanoma cells and leads to growth inhibition. Consistent with a role for the PI3K pathway in tumor cell invasion, E5E2 treatment also inhibits the migration of melanoma cells in a 3D spheroid assay. The structure of the PI3K?/E5E2 complex reveals the molecular features that give rise to this potency and selectivity toward lipid kinases with implications for the design of a subsequent generation of PI3K-isoform-specific organometallic inhibitors.

  13. Console Hacking 2010 PS3 Epic Fail

    E-print Network

    Touretzky, David S.

    Console Hacking 2010 PS3 Epic Fail bushing, marcan, segher, sven 27th Chaos Communication Congress Hack Homebrew Channel Drivechips Bannerbomb Bannerbomb for 4.2 latest update broken Indiana Pwns t Wii Xbox 360 PS3 2006 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Mittwoch, 29. Dezember 2010 #12;Twiizer Attack Twilight Hack

  14. Serine Racemase Regulated by Binding to Stargazin and PSD-95

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ting Martin; Paul, Bindu D.; Fu, Chenglai; Hu, Shaohui; Zhu, Heng; Blackshaw, Seth; Wolosker, Herman; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2014-01-01

    d-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist for the glycine site of the synaptic NMDA glutamate receptor, regulates synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Serine racemase (SR) is the enzyme that converts l-serine to d-serine. In this study, we demonstrate that SR interacts with the synaptic proteins, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and stargazin, forming a ternary complex. SR binds to the PDZ3 domain of PSD-95 through the PDZ domain ligand at its C terminus. SR also binds to the C terminus of stargazin, which facilitates the cell membrane localization of SR and inhibits its activity. AMPA receptor activation internalizes SR and disrupts its interaction with stargazin, therefore derepressing SR activity, leading to more d-serine production and potentially facilitating NMDA receptor activation. These interactions regulate the enzymatic activity as well as the intracellular localization of SR, potentially coupling the activities of NMDA and AMPA receptors. This shuttling of a neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme between two receptors appears to be a novel mode of synaptic regulation. PMID:25164819

  15. Effects of L-serine ingestion on human sleep.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Shen, Manzhen; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Satoh, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of L-serine intake on human sleep, we conducted two randomized double-blinded crossover studies. In Study 1, healthy subjects who were dissatisfied with their sleep were given L-serine or a placebo 30 min before going to bed. After waking the next morning, subjective sleep quality was rated using the Ogri-Shirakawa-Azumi subjective sleep rating scale. In Study 2, subjective sleep quality was rated using the St. Mary's Hospital sleep questionnaire, and objective parameters, including sleep initiation time, number of nighttime awakenings, and hours of sleep, were evaluated using actigraphy. In Study 1, factors related to "sleep initiation" and "sleep maintenance" during the L-serine intake period were significantly improved compared to the placebo intake period (p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.008, respectively). In Study 2, scores for "How well did you sleep last night?" and "How satisfied were you with last night's sleep?" were significantly better during L-serine intake compared to placebo (p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.03, respectively). Subjective evaluation of sleep quality on waking was thus improved. In addition, objective evaluation using actigraphy showed that the "number of nighttime awakenings" tended to be decreased (p?=?0.08). These findings suggest that intake of L-serine before going to bed may improve human sleep. PMID:25197619

  16. PMMA and PS / Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Michael; Vaudevan, Viveck; Si, Mayu; Gelfer, Michael; Hsaio, Benjamin; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Peiffer, Dennis

    2002-03-01

    We have been able to produce functionalized clay/Polymethylmethacrylate nanocompoistes using a Brabender twin screw extruder where SAXS spectra indicate a high degree of exfoliation. TEM micrographs show that 70clay is completely exfoliated, 27three platelets and 2structures. This high degree of exfoliation results in a large improvement in thermal stability and UV absorption properties. No significant changes in the modulus are observed by DMA analysis (Mettler-Toledo) below Tg, while evidence of gel formaion is observed above Tg. Cone Calorimetry tests conducted at an incident heat flux of 50kW/m2 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology clearly show that the heat release and mass loss rates are far lower and more gradual in the nanocomposite. These results are consistent with a dramatic increase in the specific heat as determined from high precision DSC (Mettler-Toledo) measurements. FTIR spectroscopy inidicates that exfoliation is driven by specific interactions between PMMA and the clay surfaces. PS/PMMA blends were also produced by this method and a significant decrease in the domain size of the phases was observed with the addition of clay. TEM micrographs indicate that the exfoliated clay platelets are positioned at the polymer interfaces thereby promoting compatibilization.

  17. Metabolomic approaches reveal that phosphatidic and phosphatidyl glycerol phospholipids are major discriminatory non-polar metabolites in responses by Brachypodium distachyon to challenge by Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Allwood, J William; Ellis, David I; Heald, Jim K; Goodacre, Royston; Mur, Luis A J

    2006-05-01

    Metabolomic approaches were used to elucidate some key metabolite changes occurring during interactions of Magnaporthe grisea--the cause of rice blast disease--with an alternate host, Brachypodium distachyon. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provided a high-throughput metabolic fingerprint of M. grisea interacting with the B. distachyon accessions ABR1 (susceptible) and ABR5 (resistant). Principal component-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) allowed the differentiation between developing disease symptoms and host resistance. Alignment of projected 'test-set' on to 'training-set' data indicated that our experimental approach produced highly reproducible data. Examination of PC-DFA loading plots indicated that fatty acids were one chemical group that discriminated between responses by ABR1 and ABR5 to M. grisea. To identify these, non-polar extracts of M. grisea-challenged B. distachyon were directly infused into an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (ESI-MS). PC-DFA indicated that M. grisea-challenged ABR1 and ABR5 were differentially clustered away from healthy material. Subtraction spectra and PC-DFA loadings plots revealed discriminatory analytes (m/z) between each interaction and seven metabolites were subsequently identified as phospholipids (PLs) by ESI-MS-MS. Phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) PLs were suppressed during both resistant and susceptible responses. By contrast, different phosphatidic acid PLs either increased or were reduced during resistance or during disease development. This suggests considerable and differential PL processing of membrane lipids during each interaction which may be associated with the elaboration/suppression of defence mechanisms or developing disease symptoms. PMID:16623898

  18. Sodium Ion-Driven Serine/Threonine Transport in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Dashper, S. G.; Brownfield, L.; Slakeski, N.; Zilm, P. S.; Rogers, A. H.; Reynolds, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an asaccharolytic, gram-negative bacterium that relies on the fermentation of amino acids for metabolic energy. When grown in continuous culture in complex medium containing 4 mM (each) free serine, threonine, and arginine, P. gingivalis assimilated mainly glutamate/glutamine, serine, threonine, aspartate/asparagine, and leucine in free and/or peptide form. Serine and threonine were assimilated in approximately equal amounts in free and peptide form. We characterized serine transport in this bacterium by measuring uptake of the radiolabeled amino acid in washed cells of P. gingivalis energized with a tetrapeptide not containing serine. Serine was transported by a single system with an affinity constant for transport (Kt) of 24 ?M that was competitively inhibited by threonine. Serine transport was dependent on sodium ion concentration in the suspending buffer, and the addition of the ionophore gramicidin caused the inhibition of serine uptake. Together these data indicate that serine transport was sodium ion-motive force driven. A P. gingivalis gene potentially encoding a serine transporter was identified by sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli serine transporter (SstT). This P. gingivalis gene, designated sstT, was inactivated by insertion of a Bacteroides tetQ gene, producing the mutant W50ST. The mutant was unable to transport serine, confirming the presence of a single serine transporter in this bacterium under these growth conditions. The transport of serine by P. gingivalis was dependent on the presence of free cysteine in the suspension buffer. Other reducing agents were unable to stimulate serine uptake. These data show that P. gingivalis assimilates free serine and threonine from culture media via a cysteine-activated, sodium ion-motive force-driven serine/threonine transporter. PMID:11418553

  19. Determination of the PS I content of PS II core preparations using selective emission: a new emission of PS II at 780nm.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jennifer; Hall, Jeremy; Smith, Paul; Akita, Fusamichi; Koua, Faisal Hammad Mekky; Shen, Jian-Ren; Krausz, Elmars

    2014-01-01

    Routinely prepared PS II core samples are often contaminated by a significant (~1-5%) fraction of PS I, as well as related proteins. This contamination is of little importance in many experiments, but masks the optical behaviour of the deep red state in PS II, which absorbs in the same spectral range (700-730nm) as PS I (Hughes et al. 2006). When contamination levels are less than ~1%, it becomes difficult to quantify the PS I related components by gel-based, chromatographic, circular dichroism or EPR techniques. We have developed a fluorescence-based technique, taking advantage of the distinctively different low-temperature emission characteristics of PS II and PS I when excited near 700nm. The approach has the advantage of providing the relative concentration of the two photosystems in a single spectral measurement. A sensitivity limit of 0.01% PS I (or better) can be achieved. The procedure is applied to PS II core preparations from spinach and Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Measurements made of T. vulcanus PS II preparations prepared by re-dissolving crystallised material indicate a low but measurable PS I related content. The analysis provides strong evidence for a previously unreported fluorescence of PS II cores peaking near 780nm. The excitation dependence of this emission as well as its appearance in both low PS I cyanobacterial and plant based PS II core preparations suggests its association with the deep red state of PS II. PMID:24055633

  20. Collisional cooled Ps emitted into vacuum from silica-based porous materials: experiment to measure the Ps cooling time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariazzi, S.; Di Noto, L.; Nebbia, G.; Brusa, R. S.

    2015-06-01

    In recent experiments on positronium time of flight (Ps-TOF) we have studied emission of cooled and thermalized Ps into vacuum from oxidized nanochannels synthetized in silicon. Ps cools down through collisions with the walls of the channels before exiting into vacuum. An important unknown parameter in the Ps-TOF measurements is the permanence time in the medium, i.e. the Ps cooling time before emission into vacuum. In this paper we describe an experiment that allows us to estimate the cooling time of Ps by analyzing the Ps- TOF spectra of cool Ps at three different distances from the sample.

  1. Structures and isomerization of serine in aqueous solution: Computational study

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Structures and isomerization of serine in aqueous solution: Computational study In-Sun Jeon a , Doo online 12 January 2005 Abstract Calculations are presented for the structure and the isomerization transfer paths for the zwitterion/canonical isomerization reaction in the solution phase. The discrete

  2. Expression and characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus alkaline serine protease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated the enzyme had...

  3. The Hunger Games: p53 regulates metabolism upon serine starvation.

    PubMed

    Tavana, Omid; Gu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to support a high proliferative rate. A new study shows that, upon serine starvation, the tumor suppressor p53 activates p21 to shift metabolic flux from purine biosynthesis to glutathione production, which enhances cellular proliferation and viability by combating ROS (Maddocks et al., 2013). PMID:23395165

  4. Nuclear localization and in vivo dynamics of a plant-specic serine/arginine-rich protein

    E-print Network

    Reddy, A.S.N

    Nuclear localization and in vivo dynamics of a plant-speci®c serine/arginine-rich protein Gul Shad@colostate.edu). y These authors have contributed equally to this work. Summary Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins; Schuler, 1998; Zhou et al., 2002). Among the splicing factors, the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family

  5. Phosphorylation Drives a Dynamic Switch in Serine/Arginine-Rich Proteins

    E-print Network

    de Groot, Bert

    Structure Article Phosphorylation Drives a Dynamic Switch in Serine/Arginine-Rich Proteins Sheng Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important players in RNA metabolism and are extensively phos of the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 from a fully disordered state to a partially rigidified arch- like

  6. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  7. Protein chemical synthesis by serine and threonine ligation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Lam, Hiu Yung; Lee, Chi Lung; Li, Xuechen

    2013-01-01

    An efficient method has been developed for the salicylaldehyde ester-mediated ligation of unprotected peptides at serine (Ser) or threonine (Thr) residues. The utility of this peptide ligation approach has been demonstrated through the convergent syntheses of two therapeutic peptides––ovine-corticoliberin and Forteo––and the human erythrocyte acylphosphatase protein (?11 kDa). The requisite peptide salicylaldehyde ester precursor is prepared in an epimerization-free manner via Fmoc–solid-phase peptide synthesis. PMID:23569249

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of the carbapenam core from serine.

    PubMed

    Hart, Barry P; Verma, Sharad K; Rapoport, Henry

    2003-01-10

    The stereospecific synthesis of the functionalized carbapenam core 16 from the serine-derived trisubstituted pyrrolidine 9 is reported. The synthetic strategy relies on synthesizing an appropriately functionalized pyrrolidine, followed by an intramolecular azetidone formation utilizing a modified Mukiyama reagent. The efficient one-pot conversion of the benzenesulfonamide-protected pyrrolidine 9 to the Cbz-protected pyrrolidine 10 is also reported. PMID:12515481

  9. Role of SraP, a Serine-Rich Surface Protein of Staphylococcus aureus, in binding to human platelets.

    PubMed

    Siboo, Ian R; Chambers, Henry F; Sullam, Paul M

    2005-04-01

    The binding of bacteria to platelets is a postulated central event in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Platelet binding by Streptococcus gordonii is mediated in large part by GspB, a high-molecular-mass cell wall glycoprotein. Although Staphylococcus aureus has a GspB homolog (SraP), little is known about its function. SraP has a calculated molecular mass of 227 kDa and, like GspB, is predicted to contain an atypical N-terminal signal sequence, two serine-rich repeat regions (srr1 and srr2) separated by a nonrepeat region, and a C-terminal cell wall anchoring motif (LPDTG). To assess whether SraP contributes to platelet binding, we compared the binding to human platelets of S. aureus strain ISP479C and of an isogenic variant (strain PS767) in which sraP had been disrupted by allelic replacement. Platelet binding in vitro by PS767 was 47% +/- 17% (mean +/- standard deviation) lower than that of ISP479C (P < 0.001). In addition, a recombinant fragment of SraP containing srr1 and the nonrepeat region was found to bind platelets directly. Binding was saturable, suggesting a receptor-ligand interaction. When tested in a rabbit model of endocarditis, in which each animal was simultaneously infected with ISP479C and PS767 at a ratio of approximately 1:1, the titers of the mutant strain within vegetations were significantly lower than those of the parent strain at 1 and 24 h postinfection. These results indicate that SraP can mediate the direct binding of S. aureus to platelets and that the platelet-binding domain of this glycoprotein is located within its N-terminal region. Moreover, the expression of SraP appears to be a virulence determinant in endovascular infection. PMID:15784571

  10. p27Kip1 serine 10 phosphorylation determines its metabolism and interaction with cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Bencivenga, Debora; Tramontano, Annunziata; Borgia, Alessia; Negri, Aide; Caldarelli, Ilaria; Oliva, Adriana; Perrotta, Silverio; Della Ragione, Fulvio; Borriello, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    p27Kip1 is a critical modulator of cell proliferation by controlling assembly, localization and activity of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). p27Kip1 also plays important roles in malignant transformation, modulating cell movement and interaction with the extracellular matrix. A critical p27Kip1 feature is the lack of a stable tertiary structure that enhances its “adaptability” to different interactors and explains the heterogeneity of its function. The absence of a well-defined folding underlines the importance of p27Kip1 post-translational modifications that might highly impact the protein functions. Here, we characterize the metabolism and CDK interaction of phosphoserine10-p27Kip1 (pS10- p27Kip1), the major phosphoisoform of p27Kip1. By an experimental strategy based on specific immunoprecipitation and bidimensional electrophoresis, we established that pS10-p27Kip1 is mainly bound to cyclin E/CDK2 rather than to cyclin A/CDK2. pS10- p27Kip1 is more stable than non-modified p27Kip1, since it is not (or scarcely) phosphorylated on T187, the post-translational modification required for p27Kip1 removal in the nucleus. pS10-p27Kip1 does not bind CDK1. The lack of this interaction might represent a mechanism for facilitating CDK1 activation and allowing mitosis completion. In conclusion, we suggest that nuclear p27Kip1 follows 2 almost independent pathways operating at different rates. One pathway involves threonine-187 and tyrosine phosphorylations and drives the protein toward its Skp2-dependent removal. The other involves serine-10 phosphorylation and results in the elongation of p27Kip1 half-life and specific CDK interactions. Thus, pS10-p27Kip1, due to its stability, might be thought as a major responsible for the p27Kip1-dependent arrest of cells in G1/G0 phase. PMID:25483085

  11. Structural Basis for Catalytic Activation of a Serine Recombinase

    SciTech Connect

    Keenholtz, Ross A.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2014-10-02

    Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here, we present a 1.86 {angstrom} crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites.

  12. Serine racemase: a key player in apoptosis and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Canu, Nadia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2014-01-01

    A fine balance between cell survival and cell death is required to sculpt the nervous system during development. However, an excess of cell death can occur following trauma, exposure to neurotoxins or alcohol, and some developmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) support synaptic plasticity and survival of many neuronal populations whereas inappropriate activation may promote various forms of cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis representing the two extremes of a continuum of cell death processes both “in vitro” and “in vivo.” Hence, by identifying the switches controlling pro-survival vs. apoptosis and apoptosis vs. pro-excitotoxic outcome of NMDAR stimulation, NMDAR modulators could be developed that selectively block the cell death enhancing pro-survival signaling or synaptic plasticity mediated by NMDAR. Among these modulators, a role is emerging for the enzyme serine racemase (SR) that synthesizes D-serine, a key co-agonist with glutamate at NMDAR. This review summarizes the experimental evidence from “in vitro” neuronal cultures—with special emphasis on cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)—and “in vivo” models of neurodegeneration, where the dual role of the SR/D-serine pathway as a master regulator of apoptosis and the apoptosis-necrosis shift will be discussed. PMID:24795622

  13. Structural and functional diversities in lepidopteran serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ajay; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2006-01-01

    Primary protein-digestion in Lepidopteran larvae relies on serine proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin. Efforts toward the classification and characterization of digestive proteases have unraveled a considerable diversity in the specificity and mechanistic classes of gut proteases. Though the evolutionary significance of mutations that lead to structural diversity in serine proteases has been well characterized, detailing the resultant functional diversity has continually posed a challenge to researchers. Functional diversity can be correlated to the adaptation of insects to various host-plants as well as to exposure of insects to naturally occurring antagonistic biomolecules such as plant-derived protease inhibitors (PIs) and lectins. Current research is focused on deciphering the changes in protease specificities and activities arising from altered amino acids at the active site, specificity-determining pockets and other regions, which influence activity. Some insight has been gained through in silico modeling and simulation experiments, aided by the limited availability of characterized proteases. We examine the structurally and functionally diverse Lepidopteran serine proteases, and assess their influence on larval digestive processes and on overall insect physiology. PMID:16847755

  14. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  15. Fast Injection into the PS2

    E-print Network

    Uythoven, J; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual considerations of a fast injection system for protons and ions in the proposed PS2 accelerator are presented. Initial design parameters of the injection septum and kicker systems are derived, taking into account rise and fall times, apertures and machine optics. The requirements for an injection dump used for failures are described. Possible limitations and technical issues are outlined.

  16. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  17. Two Proteases, Trypsin Domain-containing 1 (Tysnd1) and Peroxisomal Lon Protease (PsLon), Cooperatively Regulate Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation in Peroxisomal Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Okumoto, Kanji; Kametani, Yukari; Fujiki, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying protein turnover and enzyme regulation in the peroxisomal matrix remain largely unknown. Trypsin domain-containing 1 (Tysnd1) and peroxisomal Lon protease (PsLon) are newly identified peroxisomal matrix proteins that harbor both a serine protease-like domain and a peroxisome-targeting signal 1 (PTS1) sequence. Tysnd1 processes several PTS1-containing proteins and cleaves N-terminal presequences from PTS2-containing protein precursors. Here we report that knockdown of Tysnd1, but not PsLon, resulted in accumulation of endogenous ?-oxidation enzymes in their premature form. The protease activity of Tysnd1 was inactivated by intermolecular self-conversion of the 60-kDa form to 15- and 45-kDa chains, which were preferentially degraded by PsLon. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation of a very long fatty acid was significantly decreased by knockdown of Tysnd1 and partially lowered by PsLon knockdown. Taken together, these data suggest that Tysnd1 is a key regulator of the peroxisomal ?-oxidation pathway via proteolytic processing of ?-oxidation enzymes. The proteolytic activity of oligomeric Tysnd1 is in turn controlled by self-cleavage of Tysnd1 and degradation of Tysnd1 cleavage products by PsLon. PMID:22002062

  18. Storage and uptake of d-serine into astrocytic synaptic-like vesicles specify gliotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Magalie; Shi, Ting; Puyal, Julien; Knolhoff, Ann M.; Dulong, Jérôme; Gasnier, Bruno; Klingauf, Jürgen; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Jahn, Reinhard; Mothet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Glial cells are increasingly recognized as active players that profoundly influence neuronal synaptic transmission by specialized signalling pathways. In particular, astrocytes have recently been shown to release small molecules such as the amino acids l-glutamate and d-serine as “gliotransmitters”, which directly control the efficacy of adjacent synapses. However, it is still controversial whether gliotransmitters are released from a cytosolic pool or by Ca2+-dependent exocytosis from secretory vesicles, i.e., by a mechanism similar to the release of synaptic vesicles in synapses. Here we report that rat cortical astrocytes contain storage vesicles that display morphological and biochemical features similar to neuronal synaptic vesicles. These vesicles share some, but not all, membrane proteins with synaptic vesicles including the SNARE synaptobrevin 2 and contain both l-glutamate and d-serine. Furthermore, they show uptake of l-glutamate and d-serine that is driven by a proton electrochemical gradient. d-Serine uptake is associated with vesicle acidification and is dependent on chloride. While l-serine is not transported, serine racemase, the synthesizing enzyme for d-serine, is anchored to the membrane of the vesicles allowing local generation of d-serine. Finally, we reveal a previously unexpected mutual vesicular synergy between d-serine and l-glutamate filling in glia vesicles. We conclude that astrocytes contain vesicles capable of storing and releasing d-serine, l-glutamate, and most likely other neuromodulators in an activity-dependent manner. PMID:23426669

  19. Drosophila PS2 and PS3 integrins play distinct roles in retinal photoreceptors-glia interactions.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lígia; Pereira, Emiliana; Correia, Andreia; Santos, Marília A; Amaral, Nuno; Martins, Torcato; Relvas, João B; Pereira, Paulo S

    2015-07-01

    Cellular migration and differentiation are important developmental processes that require dynamic cellular adhesion. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that play key roles in adhesion plasticity. Here, we explore the developing visual system of Drosophila to study the roles of integrin heterodimers in glia development. Our data show that ?PS2 is essential for retinal glia migration from the brain into the eye disc and that glial cells have a role in the maintenance of the fenestrated membrane (Laminin-rich ECM layer) in the disc. Interestingly, the absence of glial cells in the eye disc did not affect the targeting of retinal axons to the optic stalk. In contrast, ?PS3 is not required for retinal glia migration, but together with Talin, it functions in glial cells to allow photoreceptor axons to target the optic stalk. Thus, we present evidence that ?PS2 and ?PS3 integrin have different and specific functions in the development of retinal glia. PMID:25731761

  20. Characterization of a chemostable serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteases are important enzymes involved in numerous essential physiological processes and hold a strong potential for industrial applications. The proteolytic activity of insects’ gut is endowed by many isoforms with diverse properties and specificities. Thus, insect proteases can act as a tool in industrial processes. Results In the present study, purification and properties of a serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana and its potential application as an additive in various bio-formulations are reported. The enzyme was purified near to homogeneity by using acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Enzyme activity was increased up to 4.2 fold after gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as single protein-band with a molecular mass of?~?27.8 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for the proteolytic activity for purified protein were found around pH 8.0 and 60°C respectively. Complete inhibition of the purified enzyme by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride confirmed that the protease was of serine-type. The purified enzyme revealed high stability and compatibility towards detergents, oxidizing, reducing, and bleaching agents. In addition, enzyme also showed stability towards organic solvents and commercial detergents. Conclusion Several important properties of a serine protease from P. Americana were revealed. Moreover, insects can serve as excellent and alternative source of industrially important proteases with unique properties, which can be utilized as additives in detergents, stain removers and other bio-formulations. Properties of the P. americana protease accounted in the present investigation can be exploited further in various industrial processes. As an industrial prospective, identification of enzymes with varying essential properties from different insect species might be good approach and bioresource. PMID:24229392

  1. Enzymatic Defects in Three Genetic Classes of Serine-Requiring Mutants of Bacillus pumilus

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, Paul S.; Pizer, Lewis I.; Isom, Harriet C.

    1973-01-01

    Serine-requiring mutants of Bacillus pumilus NRRL B-3275 have been divided into three groups based on the position of the mutant loci on the linkage map of this organism. Representatives of each group were found deficient in enzymatic activities that constitute the phosphorylated pathway for serine biosynthesis. The evidence suggests that the genes coding for the enzymes of the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis are not clustered in B. pumilus. PMID:4745428

  2. Lanthionine macrocyclization by in situ activation of serine.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J P; Zhang, J; Groeger, S; Liu, C F; Jarosinski, M A

    1998-06-01

    The present report details a straightforward, solid-phase approach to cyclolanthionine peptides. After stepwise assembly of the linear sequence and transformation of a single exposed serine to bromoalanine using P(Ph)3/CBr4, the detritilation of a cysteine side-chain sets the stage for a base-promoted macrocyclization. The entire procedure can be carried out in a solid-phase vessel using conventional 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl/tert-butyl-based chemistry and is amenable to automated format. The utility of this novel procedure is demonstrated by the synthesis of two previously reported lanthionine-containing cyclic peptides. PMID:9650717

  3. Disruption of the SHM2 gene, encoding one of two serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoenzymes, reduces the flux from glycine to serine in Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüpen, Christina; Santos, Maria A; Weber, Ulrike; de Graaf, Albert; Revuelta, José L; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Riboflavin overproduction in the ascomycete Ashbya gossypii is limited by glycine, a precursor of purine biosynthesis, and therefore an indicator of glycine metabolism. Disruption of the SHM 2 gene, encoding a serine hydroxymethyltransferase, resulted in a significant increase in riboflavin productivity. Determination of the enzyme's specific activity revealed a reduction from 3 m-units/mg of protein to 0.5 m-unit/mg protein. The remaining activity was due to an isoenzyme encoded by SHM 1, which is probably mitochondrial. A hypothesis proposed to account for the enhanced riboflavin overproduction of SHM 2-disrupted mutants was that the flux from glycine to serine was reduced, thus leading to an elevated supply with the riboflavin precursor glycine. Evidence for the correctness of that hypothesis was obtained from (13)C-labelling experiments. When 500 microM 99% [1-(13)C]threonine was fed, more than 50% of the label was detected in C-1 of glycine resulting from threonine aldolase activity. More than 30% labelling determined in C-1 of serine can be explained by serine synthesis via serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Knockout of SHM 1 had no detectable effect on serine labelling, but disruption of SHM 2 led to a decrease in serine (2-5%) and an increase in glycine (59-67%) labelling, indicating a changed carbon flux. PMID:12350229

  4. Enhancing the virulence of Paecilomyces lilacinus against Meloidogyne incognita eggs by overexpression of a serine protease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieping; Wang, Jiaxu; Liu, Fan; Pan, Cangsang

    2010-08-01

    To enhance the virulence of Paecilomyces lilacinus against Meloidogyne incognita eggs, a serine protease was overexpressed in P. lilacinus 9410 (PL9410). The cDNA of a mature serine protease gene was cloned from PL9410 and integrated into the genomes of PL9410 transformants through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Our results confirmed that the serine protease gene was overexpressed at the transcriptional level, and that the serine protease activities were enhanced in the transformants when compared to the parent strain. The bioassay results indicated that the relative parasitizing rates of the transformants against M. incognita eggs increased by about 20% in both conidial suspension and mycelium treatment groups. PMID:20473777

  5. Vibrational analysis of L-serine using the density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Wen; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Chang-Ye; Han, Sheng-Hao; Li, Ji-Chen

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we present a computational study of L-serine using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation based on density functional theory (DFT) within the ultrasoft pseudopotentials and generalized-gradient approximation. Taking into account the intermolecular interactions, we can indeed simulate the features of the experimental results very well for L-serine zwitterions in its solid state. The vibrational spectrum of L-serine performed by DFT was in excellent agreement with our previous inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra measured at 20K for L-serine in the 10-200meV region on HET spectrometers at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

  6. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  7. The S8 serine, C1A cysteine and A1 aspartic protease families in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    -like, serine proteases (family S8), the papain-like, cysteine proteases (family C1A), the pepsin-like, aspartic-like, 30 papain-like and 59 pepsin-like proteases from Arabidopsis, are compared with S8, C1A and A1; Crucifereae; Papain; Subtilisin; Pepsin; Cysteine protease; Serine protease; Aspartic protease 1. Introduction

  8. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease Keywords: Cortical granules Fertilization Cortical granule protease Egg receptor for sperm Echinoderms Sea star a b s t r a c t Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SERINE PROTEASE-RELATED GENES IN THE HONEY BEE GENOME.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified 44 serine protease (SP) and 13 serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in the genome of Apis mellifera. Most of these genes encode putative secreted proteins, but 4 SPs and 3 SPHs may associate with the plasma membrane via a transmembrane region. Clip domains represent the most abunda...

  10. Drosophila Omi, a mitochondrial-localized IAP antagonist and proapoptotic serine protease

    E-print Network

    Yin, Y. Whitney

    Drosophila Omi, a mitochondrial-localized IAP antagonist and proapoptotic serine protease Madhavi. Herein, we demon- strate that Drosophila Omi (dOmi), a fly homologue of the serine protease Omi/HtrA2 to the baculovirus IAP repeat 2 (BIR2) domain in Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1) and displaces the initiator caspase DRONC

  11. Gene characterization of two digestive serine proteases in orange blossom wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two full length cDNA sequences, encoding digestive serine proteases (designated as SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2), were recovered from the midgut of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana in an ongoing EST project. The deduced amino acid sequences shared homology with digestive serine proteases from insect...

  12. Glycolytic flux controls d-serine synthesis through glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Sasabe, Jumpei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Kuwasako, Kanako; Muto, Yutaka; Hamase, Kenji; Matsuoka, Masaaki; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2015-01-01

    d-Serine is an essential coagonist with glutamate for stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. Although astrocytic metabolic processes are known to regulate synaptic glutamate levels, mechanisms that control d-serine levels are not well defined. Here we show that d-serine production in astrocytes is modulated by the interaction between the d-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase (SRR) and a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In primary cultured astrocytes, glycolysis activity was negatively correlated with d-serine level. We show that SRR interacts directly with GAPDH, and that activation of glycolysis augments this interaction. Biochemical assays using mutant forms of GAPDH with either reduced activity or reduced affinity to SRR revealed that GAPDH suppresses SRR activity by direct binding to GAPDH and through NADH, a product of GAPDH. NADH allosterically inhibits the activity of SRR by promoting the disassociation of ATP from SRR. Thus, astrocytic production of d-serine is modulated by glycolytic activity via interactions between GAPDH and SRR. We found that SRR is expressed in astrocytes in the subiculum of the human hippocampus, where neurons are known to be particularly vulnerable to loss of energy. Collectively, our findings suggest that astrocytic energy metabolism controls d-serine production, thereby influencing glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus. PMID:25870284

  13. Type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) deregulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Webb, Siobhan L; Sanders, Andrew J; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2011-01-01

    The Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) are a relatively newly identified family of proteolytic enzymes that have become the subject of intense scrutiny in the field of cancer research. Advances in genome screening technology have enabled the identification of putative members and the further characterization of existing members. The TTSPs are involved in a diverse range of physiological functions and new roles continue to be discovered. A large majority of these proteases appear to play crucial roles in the development of disease, especially cancer development and progression. This review presents the current knowledge of the biological role of those TTSPs that have been identified in the development and progression of human cancers. PMID:21196187

  14. Oxidative Deselenization of Selenocysteine: Applications for Programmed Ligation at Serine.

    PubMed

    Malins, Lara R; Mitchell, Nicholas J; McGowan, Sheena; Payne, Richard J

    2015-10-19

    Despite the unique chemical properties of selenocysteine (Sec), ligation at Sec is an under-utilized methodology for protein synthesis. We describe herein an unprecedented protocol for the conversion of Sec to serine (Ser) in a single, high-yielding step. When coupled with ligation at Sec, this transformation provides a new approach to programmed ligations at Ser residues. This new reaction is compatible with a wide range of functionality, including the presence of unprotected amino acid side chains and appended glycans. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated in the rapid synthesis of complex glycopeptide fragments of the epithelial glycoproteins MUC5AC and MUC4 and through the total synthesis of the structured, cysteine (Cys)-free protein eglin?C. PMID:26384718

  15. The PS1 Sky Surveys and Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Ken; Pan-STARRS Telescope No. 1; PS1 Science Consortium

    2007-05-01

    The Pan-STARRS Telescope No. 1 (PS1) is a prototype telescope for a distributed aperture cyclical sky survey telescope; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. The 3.5 year PS1 Science Mission is expected to begin after PS1 Operational Readiness Review, scheduled to take place before the end of 2007. PS1 will be operated for the duration of this Mission by the PS1 Science Consortium. The planned PS1 Sky Surveys to be carried out include: (1) A 3pi Steradian survey with associated Calibration Fields; (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of NEO "Sweet Spots", (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. These surveys, their scientific goals, and the observing strategy to meet these goals will be discussed. Detailed simulations of the PS1 Design Reference Mission will be presented. The expected PS1 data products from the PS1 Science mission will be reviewed. It should be emphasized that all PS1 data and data products will be released to the astronomical community within one year of the completion of the PS1 Science Mission. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, and the National Central University of Taiwan. The Pan-STARRS project includes contributions from The Institute for Astronomy, the Maui High Performance Computing Center, SAIC, AFRL, and Lincoln Laboratory.

  16. Competitive Activity-Based Protein Profiling Identifies Aza-?-Lactams as a Versatile Chemotype for Serine Hydrolase Inhibition

    E-print Network

    Zuhl, Andrea M.

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Most serine hydrolases lack selective inhibitors, which are valuable probes for assigning functions to these enzymes. We recently discovered ...

  17. L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-02-01

    The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23 g/L) and its productivity (0.27 g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87 % (from 9.80 to 1.23 g/L) and 60 % (from 6.54 to 2.63 g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2 g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72 %) and the L-serine productivity (67 %). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62 g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44 g/L/h and yield of 0.21 g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity. PMID:25434811

  18. Serine O-sulfation probed by IRMPD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paciotti, Roberto; Coletti, Cecilia; Re, Nazzareno; Scuderi, Debora; Chiavarino, Barbara; Fornarini, Simonetta; Crestoni, Maria Elisa

    2015-10-21

    The sulfation of amino acids is a frequent post-translational modification. It is highly labile, though, and characterizing it by mass spectrometry, an otherwise powerful and widely exploited tool in analytical proteomics, is a challenge. The presently reported study is aimed at revealing the O-sulfation of l-serine and elucidating the effects of protonation and deprotonation on the structure and stability of the ensuing ionic species, [sSer + H](+) and [sSer - H](-). These ions are obtained as gaseous, isolated species by electrospray ionization, trapped in a Paul ion-trap, and sampled by IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in either the 750-1900 cm(-1) fingerprint range, or the 2900 and 3700 cm(-1) range encompassing the N-H and O-H stretching modes. The recorded IRMPD spectra present diagnostic signatures of the sulfate modification which are missing in the spectra of the native serine ions, [Ser + H](+) and [Ser - H](-). The experimental IRMPD features have been interpreted by comparison with the linear IR spectra of the lowest energy structures that are likely candidates for the sampled ions, calculated at the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Evidence is gathered that the most stable conformations of [sSer + H](+) are stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions between the protonated amino group and both the carbonyl and sulfate oxygens. [sSer - H](-) ions possess a negatively charged sulfate group involved in either a S=O···HN or a S=O···HO hydrogen bond. The experimental IRMPD spectra are consistent with the presence of multiple low-lying structures in a thermally equilibrated population of several species particularly in the case of [sSer - H](-) ions, where the high structural flexibility combined with the presence of a negative charge favors the co-existence of several different H-bonding motifs. PMID:26027702

  19. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  20. LBNL-61925-Update ECLOUD in PS2, PS+, SPS+: AN UPDATE

    E-print Network

    Furman, Miguel

    of the heat load for the PS50, for copper vs. stainless steel chamber surface. The simu- lated results recall that the labels "copper" and "stainless steel" refer here to a Work supported by the U.S. DOE in a dipole bending magnet for each machine, at a magnetic field B corresponding to the specified beam en

  1. Transmission Line Theory 51 MOTOROLAECLinPS and ECLinPS Lite

    E-print Network

    McNeill, John A.

    required by a transmission line. If this rule is applied to the ECLinPS product line a typical PCB trace consuming; therefore, assumptions for simplifying these types of calculations must be made. A reasonable, and distortion are negligible for a typical PCB trace. The basis for this assumption is that losses due

  2. Timing between streak cameras with a precision of 10 ps

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.

    1990-12-07

    The laser beams irradiating a target at the Nova laser facility comprise a set of ten simultaneous events. Two streak cameras, whose resolutions are 40 ps, record the power history for each beam, five beams to a camera; their time bases are cross-timed with a fiducial pulse. Analysis of data recorded for target experiments conducted over a six month period show the precision for cross-timing signals between two streak cameras to be {plus minus}9 ps and for characterizing a single temporal feature of a pulse to be {plus minus}5 ps. Beam synchronization at the end of six months was within 20 ps of the synchronization at the beginning of the experiments. A beam timing shift greater than 25 ps can be detected on a single laser shot; shifts of 10 to 20 ps require several shots to detect. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Sequence conservation, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles of nondigestive serine proteases and serine protease homologs in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Zhang, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang; Zou, Zhen; Chen, Yunru; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in insects encode a large family of proteins involved in digestion, development, immunity, and other processes. While 68 digestive SPs and their close homologs are reported in a companion paper (Kuwar et al., in preparation), we have identified 125 other SPs/SPHs in Manduca sexta and studied their structure, evolution, and expression. Fifty-two of them contain cystine-stabilized structures for molecular recognition, including clip, LDLa, Sushi, Wonton, TSP, CUB, Frizzle, and SR domains. There are nineteen groups of genes evolved from relatively recent gene duplication and sequence divergence. Thirty-five SPs and seven SPHs contain 1, 2 or 5 clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modeling of the 54 clip domains have revealed structural diversity of these regulatory modules. Sequence comparison with their homologs in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Tribolium castaneum allows us to classify them into five subfamilies: A are SPHs with 1 or 5 group-3 clip domains, B are SPs with 1 or 2 group-2 clip domains, C, D1 and D2 are SPs with a single clip domain in group-1a, 1b and 1c, respectively. We have classified into six categories the 125 expression profiles of SP-related proteins in fat body, brain, midgut, Malpighian tubule, testis, and ovary at different stages, suggesting that they participate in various physiological processes. Through RNA-Seq-based gene annotation and expression profiling, as well as intragenomic sequence comparisons, we have established a framework of information for future biochemical research of nondigestive SPs and SPHs in this model species. PMID:25530503

  4. Energy and expectation values of the PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2006-05-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for PsH are computed using a ground state wave function consisting of 1800 explicitly correlated gaussians. The best estimate of the Ps{sup {infinity}}H energy was -0.789 196 740 hartree which is the lowest variational energy to date. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate for Ps{sup {infinity}}H was 2.471 78x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}.

  5. photocredit PlayStation3'SabilitytoblaStdatabetweenchiPS

    E-print Network

    Davis, Brian T.

    that is going to change the way we experience games. This past May, gamers got a taste of some much-awaited PS3 as a backdrop. Sony Corp., in Tokyo, has a lot staked on the success of the PS3--hundreds of millions of dollars a great deal from the PS3, because Sony has promised a lot," says Brian O'Rourke, an analyst at market

  6. PS: A nonprocedural language with data types and modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokhale, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Problem Specification (PS) nonprocedural language is a very high level language for algorithm specification. PS is suitable for nonprogrammers, who can specify a problem using mathematically-oriented equations; for expert programmers, who can prototype different versions of a software system for evaluation; and for those who wish to use specifications for portions (if not all) of a program. PS has data types and modules similar to Modula-2. The compiler generates C code. PS is first shown by example, and then efficiency issues in scheduling and code generation are discussed.

  7. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Kageyama, Toshimi; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:24367382

  8. Enzymatic Synthesis of Galactosylated Serine/Threonine Derivatives by ?-Galactosidase from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sooyoun; Rebehmed, Joseph; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-01-01

    The transgalactosylations of serine/threonine derivatives were investigated using ?-galactosidase from Escherichia coli as biocatalyst. Using ortho-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactoside as donor, the highest bioconversion yield of transgalactosylated N-carboxy benzyl l-serine benzyl ester (23.2%) was achieved in heptane:buffer medium (70:30), whereas with the lactose, the highest bioconversion yield (3.94%) was obtained in the buffer reaction system. The structures of most abundant galactosylated serine products were characterized by MS/MS. The molecular docking simulation revealed that the binding of serine/threonine derivatives to the enzyme’s active site was stronger (?4.6~?7.9 kcal/mol) than that of the natural acceptor, glucose, and mainly occurred through interactions with aromatic residues. For N-tert-butoxycarbonyl serine methyl ester (6.8%) and N-carboxybenzyl serine benzyl ester (3.4%), their binding affinities and the distances between their hydroxyl side chain and the 1?-OH group of galactose moiety were in good accordance with the quantified bioconversion yields. Despite its lower predicted bioconversion yield, the high experimental bioconversion yield obtained with N-carboxybenzyl serine methyl ester (23.2%) demonstrated the importance of the thermodynamically-driven nature of the transgalactosylation reaction. PMID:26084049

  9. Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Kot?owska, M; Kowalski, R; Glogowski, J; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each part was characterized by a unique profile of serine proteolytic enzymes of molecular weights ranging from 29 to 88 kDa. The ductus deferens was found to be a site of very intense proteolytic activity. Two metalloproteases of 58 and 66 kDa were detected in all parts of the reproductive tract and seminal plasma. Using electrophoretic methods for detection of anti-trypsin activity, we found three serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma. Two inhibitors were found in the testis and epididymis and a third in the ductus deferens and seminal plasma. Blood plasma was characterized by the presence of two metalloproteinases and one serine proteinase inhibitor (of low migration rate) that were also detected in the reproductive tract. Amidase and anti-trypsin activities (expressed per gram of protein) differed for yellow and white seminal plasma. We concluded that turkey seminal plasma contains metalloproteases, serine proteinases, and serine proteinase inhibitors. The metalloproteases and one proteinase inhibitor are related to blood proteinases but the other two inhibitors and serine proteinases seem to be unique for the reproductive tract. PMID:15763110

  10. PS2004 Light-harvesting Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2005-11-01

    This special issue of the international scientific research journal Photosynthesis Research consists of 25 original peer-reviewed contributions from participants in the PS 2004 Lisht-Harvesting Systems Workshop. This workshop was held from 26-29, 2004 at Hotel Le Chantecler, Sainte-Adele, Quebec, Canada. The workshop was a satellite meeting of the XIII International Congress on Photosynthesis held August 29-September 3, 2004 in Montreal, Canada. The workshope dealt with all types of photosynthetic antenna systems and types of organisms, including anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants, as well as in vitro studies of isolated pigments. This collection of papers is a good representation of the highly interdisciplinary nature of modern research on photosynthetic antenna complexes, utilizing techniques of advanced spectroscopy, biochemistry, molecular biology, synthetic chemistry and structural determination to understand these diverse and elegant molecular complexes.

  11. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at -70?mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC-NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs. PMID:25801502

  12. Intramolecular Modulation of Serine Protease Inhibitor Activity in a Marine Cyanobacterium with Antifeedant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Matthew, Susan; Ratnayake, Ranjala; Becerro, Mikel A.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many serine protease inhibitors. Further chemical and NMR spectroscopic investigation led us to isolate and structurally characterize a new serine protease inhibitor 1 that is formally derived from an intramolecular condensation of largamide D (2). The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested. This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors. PMID:20631871

  13. Status and Early Science from the PS1 Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    PS1, the Pan-STARRS Telescope No. 1 began the PS1 Science Mission May 13, 2009. Operations of the PS1 System, including the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and science specific software clients are presently funded for 2.5 years by PS1 Science Consortium. The PS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 11PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. As of October, 2010, the PS1 3pi Survey has covered half the sky above a declination of -30 in five bands with 2 or more images. By the time of the AAS meeting, PS1 will have covered 0.75 of the available sky, or about 20,000 square degrees. The coverage, cadence, and data quality of the surveys and the current performance of the PS1 System will be presented. Early science results will be outlined. Transient data release to the community will be described, as well as the eventual release of all PS1 data. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, and NASA. The Pan-STARRS construction project is led by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy with funding support from the United States Air Force Research Laboratory and contributions from the Maui High Performance Computing Center and MIT Lincoln Laboratory."

  14. High-precision calculation of loosely bound states of LiPs+ and NaPs+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takuma; Kino, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    A positronic alkali atom would be the first step to investigate behavior of a positronium(Ps) in an external field from atoms/molecules because the system can be regarded as a simple three-body system using model potentials reflecting electron orbitals of the ion core. In order to precisely determine binding energies and structures of positronic alkali atoms (LiPs+ and NaPs+), we improve the model potential so as to reproduce highly excited atomic energy levels of alkali atoms (Li and Na). The polarization potential included by the model potential is expanded in terms of Gaussian functions to finely determine a short range part of the potential which has been assumed to be a simple form. We find better reproducibility not only of atomic levels of the alkali atoms but also of the dipole polarizability of the core ion than previous works. We construct a model potential between a positron and an ion core based on the model potential between the valence electron and ion core. Binding energies associated with a dissociation of the alkali ion core and positronium, and interparticle distances are recalculated. Our results show slightly deeper bound than other previous studies.

  15. Combined Skin Moisturization of Liposomal Serine Incorporated in Hydrogels Prepared with Carbopol ETD 2020, Rhesperse RM 100 and Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Barua, Sonia; Hwang, Deuk Sun; Na, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Ho Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Woo, Seulki; Kim, Hyewon; Hong, Bomi; Yun, Gyiae; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Jia; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer®. The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products. PMID:26557021

  16. Combined Skin Moisturization of Liposomal Serine Incorporated in Hydrogels Prepared with Carbopol ETD 2020, Rhesperse RM 100 and Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Barua, Sonia; Hwang, Deuk Sun; Na, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Ho Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Woo, Seulki; Kim, Hyewon; Hong, Bomi; Yun, Gyiae; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Jia; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Jaehwi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer®. The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products. PMID:26557021

  17. iPS cells: mapping the policy issues.

    PubMed

    Zarzeczny, Amy; Scott, Christopher; Hyun, Insoo; Bennett, Jami; Chandler, Jennifer; Chargé, Sophie; Heine, Heather; Isasi, Rosario; Kato, Kazuto; Lovell-Badge, Robin; McNagny, Kelly; Pei, Duanqing; Rossant, Janet; Surani, Azim; Taylor, Patrick L; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Caulfield, Timothy

    2009-12-11

    Given the explosion of research on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, it is timely to consider the various ethical, legal, and social issues engaged by this fast-moving field. Here, we review issues associated with the procurement, basic research, and clinical translation of iPS cells. PMID:20005794

  18. PS-ON PBCF Cell Lines and Derivatives

    Cancer.gov

    The Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON) Bioresource Core Facility (PBCF) at ATCC is a central resource for all members of the PS-ON. The PBCF serves as a centralized distributor and repository providing the Network with common stocks of an authenticated

  19. Wavelet-preserved PP- and PS-wave registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yanghua

    2010-12-01

    Calibration of PP- and PS-wave reflection events is a crucial step in multicomponent seismic data inversion and quantitative analysis. This paper presents a workflow of calibration including an optimized estimation of the P- to S-wave velocity ratio and wavelet preservation after a PS-wave trace transformation to the PP-wave two-way time. The optimized velocity ratio is obtained from the spectral analysis of correlation coefficients versus perturbations of a time-variant velocity-ratio function. This analysis may also be conducted in a target-oriented fashion which involves not only searching for the additive perturbation but also the gradient of the local velocity ratio, to overcome possible ambiguities in the correlation spectrum. However, when a PS-wave trace is transformed from the PS time to the PP time, the PS reflection wavelets along the trace are compressed. This wavelet distortion needs be removed to preserve the original PS-wave frequency content, before further inversion processing. Wavelet compression means stretching in the frequency spectrum, and such spectral stretching is time variant depending upon the local P- to S-wave velocity ratio. Thus, the restoration is implemented on the time-frequency spectrum in the Gabor transform domain. Thereafter, wavelet-preserved PS-wave reflections, presented in PP time, may be used in a PP- and PS-wave joint inversion.

  20. Structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/PS heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulathuraan, Kavu; Natarajan, Balan

    2013-02-01

    Porous silicon templates were formed by electrochemical anodization on p-type (100) silicon wafers and transparent conducting Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates and Porous silicon (PS) substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique, using Zinc acetate dehydrate, Monoethanoamine (MEA), ethanol and distilled water. In this process, the films were formed over the surface and also incorporated into the pores of PS and thereby making a shielding layer as well as a contacting workstation. Thus, the ZnO/PS/Si junctions were fabricated. The growth of ZnO on glass and PS has been thoroughly investigated by SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results indicated that ZnO/PS nanocomposite films were polycrystalline in nature with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the (002) oriented ZnO films had the best crystal quality. The grain size of the films on glass and PS were found to be around 60 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO/PS nanocomposite films were systematically investigated by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The influence on the PS interface was correlated with the luminescent behaviour of the resulting heterojunction structure, which is used for various potential applicarions.

  1. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-05-01

    At least twelve /sup 32/P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with /sup 32/Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma.

  2. Bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-serine in human plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Kakehi, Masaaki; Jinno, Fumihiro

    2015-10-15

    D-Serine is an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Plasma concentrations of D-serine and the ratio of D-serine to total serine may be used as clinically-translatable biomarkers in NMDA receptor-related disease. We developed a highly sensitive and specific method using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of the D- and L-isomers of serine in human plasma. Since D- and L-serine are endogenous components, phosphate buffered saline was used as the surrogate matrix. D- and L-serine in human plasma and PBS were treated by cationic exchange solid phase extraction. D-Serine (m/z 106.1 > 60.0), L-serine (m/z 106.1 > 60.1) and DL-serine-d3 (m/z 109.1 > 63.0) were detected using a multiple reaction monitoring. The enantiomer separation of D- and L-serine was successfully achieved without any derivatization step using tandemly-arranged and ice-cold CROWNPAK CR-I(+) columns with an isocratic mobile phase comprised of 0.3% trifluoroacetic acid in 10% acetonitrile. The standard curves were linear throughout the calibration range with 0.01-10 ?g/mL (D-serine) and 0.1-100 ?g/mL (L-serine), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples were within relative standard deviations of less than 15%. The endogenous concentrations of D- and L-serine in human plasma were 0.124-0.199 and 7.97-13.1 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:26205585

  3. Fusogenic Alzheimer's peptide fragment Abeta (29-42) in interaction with lipid bilayers: secondary structure, dynamics, and specific interaction with phosphatidyl ethanolamine polar heads as revealed by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Ravault, Stéphanie; Soubias, Olivier; Saurel, Olivier; Thomas, Annick; Brasseur, Robert; Milon, Alain

    2005-05-01

    The interaction of the native Alzheimer's peptide C-terminal fragment Abeta (29-42), and two mutants (G33A and G37A) with neutral lipid bilayers made of POPC and POPE in a 9:1 molar ratio was investigated by solid-state NMR. This fragment and the lipid composition were selected because they represent the minimum requirement for the fusogenic activity of the Alzheimer's peptide. The chemical shifts of alanine methyl isotropic carbon were determined by MAS NMR, and they clearly demonstrated that the major form of the peptide equilibrated in membrane is not in a helical conformation. (2)H NMR, performed with acyl chain deuterated POPC, demonstrated that there is no perturbation of the acyl chain's dynamics and of the lipid phase transition temperature. (2)H NMR, performed with alanine methyl-deuterated peptide demonstrated that the peptide itself has a limited mobility below and above the lipid phase transition temperature (molecular order parameter equal to 0.94). MAS (31)P NMR revealed a specific interaction with POPE polar head as seen by the enhancement of POPE phosphorus nuclei T(2) relaxation. All these results are in favor of a beta-sheet oligomeric association of the peptide at the bilayer interface, preferentially recruiting phosphatidyl ethanolamine polar heads. PMID:15840826

  4. Serine Transhydroxymethylase of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.): Partial Purification and Properties 1

    PubMed Central

    Mazelis, Mendel; Liu, Elizabeth S.

    1967-01-01

    Serine transhydroxymethylase (EC 2.1.2.1) has been purified 46-fold from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.). The enzyme was completely dependent on the presence of tetrahydrofolic acid for the conversion of serine to glycine. The addition of pyridoxal phosphate gave a large increase in the reaction rate. A double pH optimum was observed with maxima at 7.5 and 9.5. The enzyme is specific for l-serine. The d-isomer is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor. The Michaelis constants for l-serine, tetrahydrofolic acid, and pyridoxal phosphate were 300 ?m, 760 ?m, and 24 ?m, respectively. The addition of K+ also stimulated the reaction rate considerably. The effect was quite specific since all other metal ions tested either had very little: influence or were extremely inhibitory. PMID:16656717

  5. Serine proteinase inhibitors from nematodes and the arms race between host and pathogen 

    E-print Network

    Zang, Xingxing; Maizels, Rick

    2001-01-01

    Parasite nematode genomics is a relatively new field9, but already two of the most interesting gene families to be found encode serine proteinase inhibitors. This article describes a family of nematode proteinase ...

  6. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in vertebrate cell and developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Roman; Bugge, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of vertebrate genome sequences at the turn of the millennium revealed that a vastly larger repertoire of enzymes execute proteolytic cleavage reactions within the pericellular and extracellular environments than was anticipated from biochemical and molecular analysis. Most unexpected was the unveiling of an entire new family of structurally unique multidomain serine proteases that are anchored directly to the plasma membrane. Unlike secreted serine proteases, which function primarily in tissue repair, immunity, and nutrient uptake, these membrane-anchored serine proteases regulate fundamental cellular and developmental processes, including tissue morphogenesis, epithelial barrier function, ion and water transport, cellular iron export, and fertilization. Here the cellular and developmental biology of this fascinating new group of proteases is reviewed. Particularly highlighted is how the study of membrane-anchored serine proteases has expanded our knowledge of the range of physiological processes that require regulated proteolysis at the cell surface. PMID:21721945

  7. Structural insights into the enzymes of the serine and biotin biosynthetic pathways in mycobacterium tuberculosis 

    E-print Network

    Dey, Sanghamitra

    2009-05-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) utilizes different metabolic pathways for its survival during infection. Enzymes of these pathways are often targets for antibiotic development. Genetic studies indicate the importance of the serine and biotin...

  8. Serine Biosynthesis with One Carbon Catabolism and the Glycine Cleavage System Represents a Novel Pathway for

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, Alexei

    Serine Biosynthesis with One Carbon Catabolism and the Glycine Cleavage System Represents a Novel with One Carbon Catabolism and the Glycine Cleavage System Represents a Novel Pathway for ATP Generation

  9. A novel transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS3) overexpressed in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wallrapp, C; Hähnel, S; Müller-Pillasch, F; Burghardt, B; Iwamura, T; Ruthenbürger, M; Lerch, M M; Adler, G; Gress, T M

    2000-05-15

    We report the characterization of a novel serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, recently isolated by cDNA-representational difference analysis, as a gene overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The 2.3-kb mRNA of the gene, named TMPRSS3, is strongly expressed in a subset of pancreatic cancer and various other cancer tissues, and its expression correlates with the metastatic potential of the clonal SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines. The deduced polypeptide sequence consists of 437 amino acids and exhibits all of the structural features characteristic of serine proteases with trypsin-like activity. TMPRSS3 is membrane bound with a NH2-terminal signal-anchor sequence and a glycosylated extracellular region containing the serine protease domain. Thus, TMPRSS3 is a novel membrane-bound serine protease overexpressed in cancer, which may be of importance for processes involved in metastasis formation and tumor invasion. PMID:10825129

  10. Serine-rich protein is a novel positive regulator for silicon accumulation in mangrove.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Azizi, Parisa; Idris, A S

    2015-02-10

    Silicon (Si) plays an important role in reducing plant susceptibility against a variety of different biotic and abiotic stresses; and also has an important regulatory role in soil to avoid heavy metal toxicity and providing suitable growing conditions for plants. A full-length cDNAs of 696bp of serine-rich protein was cloned from mangrove plant (Rhizophora apiculata) by amplification of cDNA ends from an expressed sequence tag homologous to groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), submitted to NCBI (KF211374). This serine-rich protein gene encodes a deduced protein of 223 amino acids. The transcript titre of the serine-rich protein was found to be strongly enriched in roots compared with the leaves of two month old mangrove plants and expression level of this serine-rich protein was found to be strongly induced when the mangrove seedlings were exposed to SiO2. Expression of the serine-rich protein transgenic was detected in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, where the amount of serine increased from 1.02 to 37.8mg/g. The same trend was also seen in Si content in the roots (14.3%) and leaves (7.4%) of the transgenic A. thaliana compared to the wild-type plants under Si treatment. The biological results demonstrated that the accumulation of the serine amino acid in the vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants enhanced their ability to absorb and accumulate more Si in the roots and leaves and suggests that the serine-rich protein gene has potential for use in genetic engineering of different stress tolerance characteristics. PMID:25479011

  11. Beta-sultams-mechanism of reactions and use as inhibitors of serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael I

    2004-05-01

    beta-Sultams are reactive sulfonyl analogues of beta-lactams and show enormous rate enhancements over analogous reactions of sulfonamides. N-Acyl beta-sultams undergo S-N rather than C-N fission, although alpha-alkenyl substituents direct nucleophilic attack to the acyl center. They also inactivate serine enzymes such as elastase and beta-lactamase by sulfonylation of the active site serine. Structure-activity relationships are used to identify differences in transition state structures. PMID:15147170

  12. Unconventional serine proteases: Variations on the catalytic Ser/His/Asp triad configuration

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Özlem Do?an; Paetzel, Mark; Dalbey, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    Serine proteases comprise nearly one-third of all known proteases identified to date and play crucial roles in a wide variety of cellular as well as extracellular functions, including the process of blood clotting, protein digestion, cell signaling, inflammation, and protein processing. Their hallmark is that they contain the so-called “classical” catalytic Ser/His/Asp triad. Although the classical serine proteases are the most widespread in nature, there exist a variety of “nonclassical” serine proteases where variations to the catalytic triad are observed. Such variations include the triads Ser/His/Glu, Ser/His/His, and Ser/Glu/Asp, and include the dyads Ser/Lys and Ser/His. Other variations are seen with certain serine and threonine peptidases of the Ntn hydrolase superfamily that carry out catalysis with a single active site residue. This work discusses the structure and function of these novel serine proteases and threonine proteases and how their catalytic machinery differs from the prototypic serine protease class. PMID:18824507

  13. Stat5a serine 725 and 779 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for hematopoietic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Kovacic, Boris; Li, Geqiang; Hoelbl, Andrea; Yahiaoui, Saliha; Sexl, Veronika; Müllner, Ernst W.; Fajmann, Sabine; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Valent, Peter; Beug, Hartmut; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Bunting, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Stat5 transcription factors are essential gene regulators promoting proliferation, survival, and differentiation of all hematopoietic cell types. Mutations or fusions of oncogenic tyrosine kinases often result in constitutive Stat5 activation. We have modeled persistent Stat5 activity by using an oncogenic Stat5a variant (cS5). To analyze the hitherto unrecognized role of Stat5 serine phosphorylation in this context, we have generated cS5 constructs with mutated C-terminal serines 725 and 779, either alone or in combination. Genetic complementation assays in primary Stat5null/null mast cells and Stat5?N T cells demonstrated reconstitution of proliferation with these mutants. Similarly, an in vivo reconstitution experiment of transduced Stat5null/null fetal liver cells transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients revealed that these mutants exhibit biologic activity in lineage differentiation. By contrast, the leukemogenic potential of cS5 in bone marrow transplants decreased dramatically in cS5 single-serine mutants or was completely absent upon loss of both serine phosphorylation sites. Our data suggest that Stat5a serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for cS5-mediated leukemogenesis. Hence, interference with Stat5a serine phosphorylation might provide a new therapeutic option for leukemia and myeloid dysplasias without affecting major functions of Stat5 in normal hematopoiesis. PMID:20508164

  14. Stat5a serine 725 and 779 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for hematopoietic transformation.

    PubMed

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Kerenyi, Marc A; Kovacic, Boris; Li, Geqiang; Hoelbl, Andrea; Yahiaoui, Saliha; Sexl, Veronika; Müllner, Ernst W; Fajmann, Sabine; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Valent, Peter; Beug, Hartmut; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Bunting, Kevin D; Moriggl, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Stat5 transcription factors are essential gene regulators promoting proliferation, survival, and differentiation of all hematopoietic cell types. Mutations or fusions of oncogenic tyrosine kinases often result in constitutive Stat5 activation. We have modeled persistent Stat5 activity by using an oncogenic Stat5a variant (cS5). To analyze the hitherto unrecognized role of Stat5 serine phosphorylation in this context, we have generated cS5 constructs with mutated C-terminal serines 725 and 779, either alone or in combination. Genetic complementation assays in primary Stat5(null/null) mast cells and Stat5(DeltaN) T cells demonstrated reconstitution of proliferation with these mutants. Similarly, an in vivo reconstitution experiment of transduced Stat5(null/null) fetal liver cells transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients revealed that these mutants exhibit biologic activity in lineage differentiation. By contrast, the leukemogenic potential of cS5 in bone marrow transplants decreased dramatically in cS5 single-serine mutants or was completely absent upon loss of both serine phosphorylation sites. Our data suggest that Stat5a serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for cS5-mediated leukemogenesis. Hence, interference with Stat5a serine phosphorylation might provide a new therapeutic option for leukemia and myeloid dysplasias without affecting major functions of Stat5 in normal hematopoiesis. PMID:20508164

  15. Thermodynamic characteristics of protolytic equilibria of L-serine in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Volkov, A. V.; Khokhlova, E. A.; Krutova, O. N.

    2011-05-01

    The heat effects of the reaction of aqueous solution of L-serine with aqueous solutions of HNO3 and KOH were determined by calorimetry at temperatures of 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K, and ionic strength values of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 (background electrolyte, KNO3). Standard thermodynamic characteristics (?r H o, ?r G o, ?r S o, ? C {/p o}) of the acid-base reactions in aqueous solutions of L-serine were calculated. The effect of the concentration of background electrolyte and temperature on the heats of dissociation of amino acid was considered. The combustion energy of L-serine by bomb calorimetry in the medium of oxygen was determined. The standard combustion and formation enthalpies of crystalline L-serine were calculated. The heats of dissolution of crystalline L-serine in water and solutions of potassium hydroxide at 298.15 K were measured by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of L-serine and products of its dissociation in aqueous solution were calculated.

  16. Hexokinase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: regulation of oligomeric structure by in vivo phosphorylation at serine-14.

    PubMed

    Behlke, J; Heidrich, K; Naumann, M; Müller, E C; Otto, A; Reuter, R; Kriegel, T

    1998-08-25

    Homodimeric hexokinase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to have two sites of phosphorylation: for serine-14 the modification in vivo increases with glucose exhaustion [Kriegel et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 148-152], while for serine-157 it occurs in vitro with ATP in the presence of nonphosphorylateable five-carbon analogues of glucose [Heidrich et al. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1960-1964]. We show now by site-directed mutagenesis and sedimentation analysis that serine-14 phosphorylation affects the oligomeric state of hexokinase, its substitution by glutamate causing complete dissociation; glutamate exchange for serine-157 does not. Phosphorylation of wild-type hexokinase at serine-14 likewise causes dissociation in vitro. In view of the higher glucose affinity of monomeric hexokinase and the high hexokinase concentration in yeast [Womack, F., and Colowick, S. P. (1978) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 191, 742-747; Mayes, E. L., Hoggett, J. G., and Kellett, G. L. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 127-134], we speculate that the in vivo phosphorylation at serine-14 as transiently occurring in glucose derepression might provide a mechanism to improve glucose utilization from low level and/or that nuclear localization of the monomer might be involved in the signal transduction whereby glucose causes catabolite repression. PMID:9718324

  17. Novel serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor: alogliptin.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Bahare, Radhe Shyam; Jain, Pratima; Dikshit, Subodh Narayan; Ganguly, Swastika

    2012-11-01

    Alogliptin (codenamed SYR-322) is a recently approved anti-diabetic drug in Japan, which has been under clinical development phase III in USA and Europe. Alogliptin has been developed by Takeda under the brand name "Nesina". Alogliptin is a highly selective ( > 10,000-time selectivity, potent, reversible and durable serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme is compared to DPP-8 and DPP-9) inhibitor, which has been developed as an alternative second-line to metformin in place of a sulphonylurea. Alogliptin has been observed to increase and prolong the action of incretin hormone by inhibiting the DPP-IV enzyme activity. Alogliptin has been observed to well absorb and show low plasma protein binding, which displays slow-binding properties to DPP-IV enzyme. The X-ray crystallography studies have been revealed that Alogliptin binds to DPP-IV active site by non-covalently and provides sustained reduction of plasma DPP-IV activity as well as lowering of blood glucose, in drug-naive patients with T2DM and inadequate glycemic control, once daily oral dosing regimen with varying levels of doses ranging from 25-800 mg. Alogliptin is approved as monotherapy and in combination with alpha-glucosidase & thiazolidinediones. The 26 week clinical study of Alogliptin revealed that Alogliptin doesn't increase the weight and well tolerated. In the present review, we have tried to cover biology of DPP-IV, molecular chemistry, chemical characterization, crystal polymorphic information, interaction studies, commercial synthesis, current patent status, adverse effects and clinical status of Alogliptin giving emphasis on the medicinal chemistry aspect. PMID:22512582

  18. Serine-71 phosphorylation of Rac1 modulates downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Janett; Proff, Julia; Hävemeier, Anika; Ladwein, Markus; Rottner, Klemens; Barlag, Britta; Pich, Andreas; Tatge, Helma; Just, Ingo; Gerhard, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate a variety of cellular functions by signaling to different signal pathways. It is believed that the presence of a specific effector at the location of GTPase activation determines the route of downstream signaling. We previously reported about EGF-induced Ser-71 phosphorylation of Rac1/Cdc42. By using the phosphomimetic S71E-mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 we investigated the impact of Ser-71 phosphorylation on binding to selected effector proteins. Binding of the constitutively active (Q61L) variants of Rac1 and Cdc42 to their specific interaction partners Sra-1 and N-WASP, respectively, as well as to their common effector protein PAK was abrogated when Ser-71 was exchanged to glutamate as phosphomimetic substitution. Interaction with their common effector proteins IQGAP1/2/3 or MRCK alpha was, however, hardly affected. This ambivalent behaviour was obvious in functional assays. In contrast to Rac1 Q61L, phosphomimetic Rac1 Q61L/S71E was not able to induce increased membrane ruffling. Instead, Rac1 Q61L/S71E allowed filopodia formation, which is in accordance with abrogation of the dominant Sra-1/Wave signalling pathway. In addition, in contrast to Rac1 transfected cells Rac1 S71E failed to activate PAK1/2. On the other hand, Rac1 Q61L/S71E was as effective in activation of NF-kappaB as Rac1 Q61L, illustrating positive signal transduction of phosphorylated Rac1. Together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of Rac1 and Cdc42 at serine-71 represents a reversible mechanism to shift specificity of GTPase/effector coupling, and to preferentially address selected downstream pathways. PMID:22970203

  19. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  20. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard...announces voluntary product standard DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard...Grading Rule Committee. DATES: DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber...

  1. Synthesis and Structures of New One-Dimensional KTiPS 5and RbTiPS 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Junghwan; Lee, Kunsoo; Yun, Hoseop

    1996-08-01

    Two new compounds KTiPS5and RbTIPS5have been synthesized through reactions of the elements with alkali metal halide fluxes. KTiPS5crystallizes in the space groupC32h-C2/mof the monoclinic system with four formula units in a cell of dimensionsa= 17.678(8),b= 7.080(4),c= 6.325(3) Å, ? = 97.99(4)°. RbTiPS5crystallizes in the space groupC32h-C2/mof the monoclinic system with eight formula units in a cell of dimensionsa= 18.159(7),b= 7.081(3),c= 15.352(6) Å, ? = 124.07(2)°. The structures of both compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray techniques. Both structures consist of one-dimensional1?[TiPS-5] chains separated from one another by K+or Rb+cations. The linear chains are built up from the basic repeating unit, [Ti2(PS4)2S2-2], which is composed of two edge-shared TiS6octahedra and two PS4tetrahedra. There is no interchain bonding except the van der Waals interactions. The classical charge of the two compounds can be represented by [A+][Ti4+][PS3-4][S2-] (A= K or Rb).

  2. Preliminary Tuft Testing of Metallic Bristles Versus PS212, PS300, and HVOF300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Turbine engine brush seals are designed with sacrificial brushes and hard shaft coatings to minimize shaft wear and reduce the cost of engine overhauls. Replacing a worm seal is more cost and time effective than refinishing an engine shaft. However, this tribological design causes excessive brush wear and reduces long term seal efficiency. An alternative approach is to coat the shaft with a solid lubricant and allow the bristles to wear into the shaft coating similar to traditional abradable labyrinth seals. This approach can result in reduced seal leakage by forcing the leakage to flow through the seal bristle pack or through a more tortuous shaft wear track. Key to this approach is limiting the shaft wear to an acceptable level were surface refinishing would not be required during every engine overhaul. Included in this paper are brush seal tuft test results for four metallic bristles (nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys) tested against three solid lubricant coatings (NASA's PS212, PS300, and HVOF300). These test results are also compared to previous baseline tests conducted with plasma sprayed chrome carbide. Compared to the baseline results, no tribological benefit was achieved with the metallic bristle/solid lubricant tribopairs tested. To improve the performance of the solid lubricant coatings, issues regarding lubricant phase sizes (homogeneity), and composition need to be addressed.

  3. Part (a) of Hunter's Proof of Henkin's Completeness Theorem for PS Branden Fitelson

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    on the right) required to generate each MP step. PS1 A (B A) PS2 A (B C)) ((A B) (A C)) PS3 (A B) (B. A ((B C) (C B)) [MP, PS3, PS1] 4. (A ((B A) C)) (A C) [MP, 2, 1] 5. (A (B C)) (A (C B)) [MP, 3, PS2] 6. A (A B) [MP, 5, PS1] 7. A (B A) [MP, 6, 5] 8. A A [MP, 7, 4] 9. A A [MP, 8, PS3] 10

  4. The angiotensin receptor type 1-Gq protein-phosphatidyl inositol phospholipase Cbeta-protein kinase C pathway is involved in activation of proximal tubule Na+-ATPase activity by angiotensin(1-7) in pig kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lucienne S; Correa, Juliana S; Lavelle, Anouchka B; Lopes, Anibal G; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2008-05-01

    In a previous study, we observed that angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)) stimulates proximal tubule Na+-ATPase activity through the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R). Here we aimed to study the signalling pathways involved. Our results show that the stimulatory effect of Ang(1-7) on Na+-ATPase activity through AT1R involves a Gq protein-phosphatidyl inositol-phospholipase Cbeta (PI-PLCbeta) pathway because: (1) the effect was reversed by GDPbetaS, a non-hydrolysable GDP analogue, and by a monoclonal Gq protein antibody; (2) the effect was similar and not additive to that of GTPgammaS, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue; (3) Ang(1-7) induced a rapid decrease (30 s) in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate levels, a PI-PLCbeta substrate; and (4) U73122, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLCbeta, abolished Ang(1-7)-induced stimulation of Na+-ATPase activity. Angiotensin(1-7) increased the protein kinase C (PKC) activity similarly to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC. This effect was reversed by losartan, a specific antagonist of AT1R. The stimulatory effects of Ang(1-7) and PMA on Na+-ATPase activity are similar, non-additive and reversed by calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of PKC. A catalytic subunit of PKC (PKC-M) increased the Na+-ATPase activity. These data show that Ang(1-7) stimulates Na+-ATPase activity through the AT1R-Gq protein-PI-PLCbeta-PKC pathway. This effect is similar to that described for angiotensin II, showing for the first time that these compounds could have similar effects in the renal system. PMID:18245203

  5. The PS1 Science Mission - Status and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2013-06-01

    PS1, the Pan-STARRS1 Telescope is in its last year of the PS1 Science Mission. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The PS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. The PS1 3pi Survey has now covered the sky north of dec=-30 with 8 to 12 visits in five bands: g,r,i,z and y or over ~45 epochs per point on sky. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and plans for serving the data to the public. A summary of science highlights will be included. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, and the National Central University of Taiwan, NASA, and NSF.

  6. Electrical and thermal behavior of PS/ferrite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, A. H.; Hemeda, O. M.; Heiba, Z. K.; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the effect of gamma radiation on the structure, thermal and electrical properties of PS/ferrite composite. The Ni0.6Cd0.4Fe2-xSmxO4 was prepared using a conventional sintering ceramic process. Ferrite powder and Styrene was mixed and achieve polymerization process by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. The composite samples have single spinel phase structure. Stability of the crystalline structure and no phase transition due to irradiation are found. The bulk density decreases whereas X-ray density increases with increasing Sm contents for both ferrite and PS/ferrite. The tetrahedral radii rA remains constant with Sm content but octahedral radii rB increases for both ferrite and PS/ferrite composite. The grain size shows increasing trend for PS/ferrite composite. The PS nearly coat the grains and so their boundaries become faint and not sharp. The gamma radiation transfer Fe3+ to Fe2+ due to its ionizing effect.The Fe2+ occupy octahedral site and the stretching vibration of its bond with oxygen (Fe2+-O2-) gives absorption at about 392 cm-1, near octahedral absorption at 462 cm-1.The PS/Ni0.6Cd0.4SmxFe2-xO4 composite becomes thermally more stable than pure polystyrene. The activation energy of conduction E? has a small values and in the range of hopping conduction mechanism.

  7. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  8. Effects of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs on D-serine-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Guliz; Kanit, Lutfiye; Yalcin, Ayfer

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation is deleterious for organs with reduced capacity of regeneration, such as the brain. Recently, studies have focused on investigating the therapeutic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Excitotoxicity is the pathological process when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), receptors are overactivated. This process may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. D-serine is one of the coagonist of NMDA receptors, and increased levels of D-serine are associated with excitotoxicity. In our study, the potential neuroprotective effects of mefenamic acid, acetaminophen, and naproxen sodium were investigated against D-serine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain in vitro. To show their potential neuroprotective properties, NSAIDs were incubated with D-serine and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl content of the brain after different treatments were measured. Our results demostrate that NSAIDs used in the present study significantly reduced ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation against D-serine treatment. PMID:22486999

  9. Quantitative serine protease assays based on formation of copper(II)-oligopeptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative protease assay based on the formation of a copper-oligopeptide complex is developed. In this assay, when a tripeptide GGH fragment is cleaved from an oligopeptide chain by serine proteases, the tripeptide quickly forms a pink GGH/Cu(2+) complex whose concentration can be determined quantitatively by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Therefore, activities of serine proteases can be determined from the formation rate of the GGH/Cu(2+) complex. This principle can be used to detect the presence of serine protease in a real-time manner, or measure proteolytic activities of serine protease cleaving different oligopeptide substrates. For example, by using this assay, we demonstrate that trypsin, a model serine protease, is able to cleave two oligopeptides GGGGKGGH () and GGGGRGGH (). However, the specificity constant (kcat/Km) for is higher than that of (6.4 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)vs. 1.3 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)). This result shows that trypsin is more specific toward arginine (R) than lysine (K) in the oligopeptide sequence. PMID:25386732

  10. Mosquito saliva serine protease enhances dissemination of dengue virus into the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Conway, Michael J; Watson, Alan M; Colpitts, Tonya M; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B; Anderson, John F; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease. PMID:24131723

  11. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Xu, Dongdong; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization in echinoderms was tested both functionally in sea stars, and computationally throughout the echinoderm phylum. We find that the inhibitor of serine protease (soybean trypsin inhibitor) effectively blocks proper transition of the sea star fertilization envelope into a protective sperm repellent, whereas inhibitors of the other main types of proteases had no effect. Scanning the transcriptomes of 15 different echinoderm ovaries revealed sequences of high conservation to the originally identified sea urchin cortical serine protease, CGSP1. These conserved sequences contained the catalytic triad necessary for enzymatic activity, and the tandemly repeated LDLr-like repeats. We conclude that the protease involved in the slow block to polyspermy is an essential and conserved element of fertilization in echinoderms, and may provide an important reagent for identification and testing of the cell surface proteins in eggs necessary for sperm binding. PMID:24878526

  12. Longistatin is an unconventional serine protease and induces protective immunity against tick infestation.

    PubMed

    Anisuzzaman; Islam, M Khyrul; Alim, M Abdul; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Hatta, Takeshi; Yamaji, Kayoko; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Classical serine proteases use the conserved Ser/His/Asp catalytic triad to hydrolyze substrates. Here, we show that longistatin, a salivary gland protein with two EF-hand domains from the vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, does not have the conserved catalytic triad, but still functions as a serine protease. Longistatin was synthesized in and secreted from the salivary glands of ticks, and is injected into host tissues during the acquisition of blood-meals. Longistatin hydrolyzed fibrinogen, an essential plasma protein in the coagulation cascade, and activated plasminogen, into its active form plasmin, a serine protease that dissolves fibrin clots. Longistatin efficiently hydrolyzed several serine protease-specific substrates showing its specificity to the amide bond of Arg. Longistatin did not hydrolyze synthetic substrates specific for other groups of proteases. The enzyme was active at a wide range of temperatures and pHs, with the optimum at 37°C and pH 7. Its activity was efficiently inhibited by various serine protease inhibitors such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin, antipain, and leupeptin with the estimated IC(50) of 278.57 ?M, 0.35 ?M, 41.56 ?M and 198.86 ?M, respectively. In addition, longistatin was also potently inhibited by Zinc (Zn(2+)) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 275 ?M, and the inhibitory effect of Zn(2+) was revived by ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA). Immunization studies revealed that longistatin sharply induced high levels of protective IgG antibodies against ticks. Immunization with longistatin reduced repletion of ticks by about 54%, post engorgement body weight by >11% and molting of nymphs by approximately 34%; thus, the vaccination trial was approximately 73% effective against tick infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that longistatin is a new potent atypical serine protease, and may be an interesting candidate for the development of anti-tick vaccines. PMID:22206819

  13. Novel compounds reducing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation for treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Simon-Szabó, Laura; Kokas, Márton; Greff, Zoltán; Boros, Sándor; Bánhegyi, Péter; Zsákai, Lilián; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Vantus, Tibor; Mandl, József; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Vályi-Nagy, István; ?rfi, László; Ullrich, Axel; Csala, Miklós; Kéri, György

    2016-01-15

    Activation of various interacting stress kinases, particularly the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and a concomitant phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) at serine 307 play a central role both in insulin resistance and in ?-cell dysfunction. IRS-1 phosphorylation is stimulated by elevated free fatty acid levels through different pathways in obesity. A series of novel pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one derivatives were synthesized as potential antidiabetic agents, preventing IRS-1 phosphorylation at serine 307 in a cellular model of lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26704265

  14. Remodeling Natural Products: Chemistry and Serine Hydrolase Activity of a Rocaglate-Derived ?-Lactone

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavaglines are a class of natural products with potent insecticidal and anticancer activities. ?-Lactones are a privileged structural motif found in both therapeutic agents and chemical probes. Herein, we report the synthesis, unexpected light-driven di-epimerization, and activity-based protein profiling of a novel rocaglate-derived ?-lactone. In addition to in vitro inhibition of the serine hydrolases ABHD10 and ACOT1/2, the most potent ?-lactone enantiomer was also found to inhibit these enzymes, as well as the serine peptidases CTSA and SCPEP1, in PC3 cells. PMID:24447064

  15. Anticancer Activity of VDR-Coregulator Inhibitor PS121912

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal S.; Teske, Kelly; Feleke, Belaynesh; Yuan, Nina Y.; Guthrie, Margaret L.; Fernstrum, Grant B.; Vyas, Nishita D.; Han, Lanlan; Preston, Joshua; Bogart, Jonathan W.; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.; Cook, James M.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bikle, Daniel D.; Arnold, Leggy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose PS121912 has been developed as selective vitamin D receptor (VDR)–coregulator inhibitor starting from a high throughput screening campaign to identify new agents that modulate VDR without causing hypercalcemia. Initial antiproliferative effects of PS121912 were observed that are characterized herein to enable future in vivo investigation with this molecule. Methods Antiproliferation and apoptosis was determined using four different cancer cell lines (DU145, Caco2, HL-60, and SKOV3) in the presence of PS121912, 1,25-(OH)2D3, or a combination of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and PS121912. VDR si-RNA was used to identify the role of VDR during this process. The application of ChIP enabled us to determine the involvement of coregulator recruitment during transcription, which was investigated by rt-PCR with VDR target genes and those affiliated with cell cycle progression. Translational changes of apoptotic proteins were determined with an antibody array. The preclinical characterization of PS121912 include the determination of metabolic stability and CYP3A4 inhibition. Results PS121912 induced apoptosis in all four cancer cells, with HL-60 cells being the most sensitive. At sub-micromolar concentrations, PS121912 amplified the growth inhibition of cancer cells caused by 1,25-(OH)2D3 without being antiproliferative by itself. A knockout study with VDR si-RNA confirmed the mediating role of VDR. VDR target genes induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3 were down-regulated with the co-treatment of PS121912. This process was highly dependent on the recruitment of coregulators that in case of CYP24A1 was SRC2. The combination of PS121912 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 reduced the presence of SRC2 and enriched the occupancy of corepressor NCoR at the promoter site. E2F transcription factor 1 and 4 were down-regulated in the presence of PS121912 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 that in turn reduced the transcription levels of cyclin A and D thus arresting HL-60 cells in the S or G2/M phase. In addition, proteins with hematopietic functions such as cyclin-dependent kinase 6, histone deacetylase 9 and transforming growth factor beta 2 and 3 were down-regulated as well. Elevated levels of P21 and GADD45, in concert with cyclin D1 also mediated the antiproliferative response of HL-60 in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and PS121912. Studies at higher concentration of P121912 identified a VDR-independent pathway of antiproliferation that included the enzymatic and transcriptional activation of caspase 3/7. Conclusion Overall, we conclude that PS121912 behaves like a VDR antagonist at low concentrations but interacts with more targets at higher concentrations leading to apoptosis mediated by caspase 3/7 activation. In addition, PS121912 showed an acceptable metabolic stability to enable in vivo cancer studies. PMID:25107568

  16. High-resolution PS-OCT of Enamel Remineralization

    PubMed Central

    Can, Anna M.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesions. However, the depth resolution of the imaging system employed in those previous studies was limited and the outer surface structure of the lesions were not resolved as clearly as desired. The purpose of this study was to repeat the earlier remineralization study using a broadband light-source of higher resolution to determine if there can be improved resolution of the remineralized surface zones of the lesions. An all polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of bovine enamel surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.9 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The structure of the surface zones could be clearly resolved using PS-OCT in the samples that underwent remineralization. The PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the enamel blocks. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents. PMID:21909226

  17. Assessment of dentin remineralization with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manesh, Saman K.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image natural root caries lesions, measure non-destructively the severity of dentin demineralization and determine the efficacy of intervention with anti-caries agents including fluoride and lasers. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT could be used to nondestructively measure the formation of a layer of remineralized dentin on the surface of dentin lesions after exposure to a remineralization solution. In this study images of artificial dentin lesions on extracted human teeth were acquired using PS-OCT after exposure to an artificial demineralizing solution at pH 4.9 for six days and after subsequent exposure to a remineralizing solution at pH 7.0 for 20 days. Polarized light microscopy and microradiography were used to examine histological thin sections from the samples for comparison. PS-OCT successfully measured the formation of a layer of increased mineral content near the lesion surface. PLM and TMR corroborated those results. This study demonstrates the potential use of PS-OCT for the nondestructive measurement of the remineralization of dentin surfaces.

  18. Protein Kinase A-mediated Serine 35 Phosphorylation Dissociates Histone H1.4 from Mitotic Chromosome*S

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    suggest an important role of the specific phosphor- ylation during mitosis. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Cell variant H1.4 at serine 35 (H1.4S35ph), which accumulates at mitosis immediately after H3 phosphorylation at serine 10. Pro- tein kinase A (PKA) was found to be a kinase for H1.4S35. Importantly, Ser-35

  19. The Orphan Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinase ALK7 Signals Arrest of Proliferation and Morphological Differentiation in a Neuronal

    E-print Network

    Ibáñez, Carlos

    capabilities and biological functions of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), a type I receptor serineThe Orphan Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinase ALK7 Signals Arrest of Proliferation and Morphological/threonine kinase predominantly expressed in the nervous system, are unknown. We have constructed a cell line

  20. Potent and Selective Inhibition of Membrane-Type Serine Protease 1 by Human Single-Chain Antibodies

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    Potent and Selective Inhibition of Membrane-Type Serine Protease 1 by Human Single-Chain AntibodiesVised Manuscript ReceiVed December 1, 2002 ABSTRACT: Specific human antibodies targeting proteases expressed, a phage-displayed antibody library was screened against a cancer-associated serine protease, MT-SP1

  1. Catalytic Role of Proton Transfers in the Formation of a Tetrahedral Adduct in a Serine Carboxyl Peptidase

    E-print Network

    Catalytic Role of Proton Transfers in the Formation of a Tetrahedral Adduct in a Serine Carboxyl-acetyl-isoleucyl-prolyl- phenylalaninal (AcIPF) in a serine-carboxyl peptidase (kumamolisin-As) and elucidate the role of proton transfers-carboxyl peptidases have a fold resembling that of subtilisin, the proton transfer processes during the nucleophilic

  2. Physiologically generated presenilin 1 lacking exon 8 fails to rescue brain PS1?/? phenotype and forms complexes with wildtype PS1 and nicastrin

    PubMed Central

    Brautigam, Hannah; Moreno, Cesar L.; Steele, John W.; Bogush, Alexey; Dickstein, Dara L.; Kwok, John B.J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Thinakaran, Gopal; Mathews, Paul M.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gandy, Sam; Ehrlich, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    The presenilin 1 (PSEN1) L271V mutation causes early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease by disrupting the alternative splicing of the PSEN1 gene, producing some transcripts harboring the L271V point mutation and other transcripts lacking exon 8 (PS1?exon8). We previously reported that PS1 L271V increased amyloid beta (A?) 42/40 ratios, while PS1?exon8 reduced A?42/40 ratios, indicating that the former and not the exon 8 deletion transcript is amyloidogenic. Also, PS1?exon8 did not rescue A? generation in PS1/2 double knockout cells indicating its identity as a severe loss-of-function splice form. PS1?exon8 is generated physiologically raising the possibility that we had identified the first physiological inactive PS1 isoform. We studied PS1?exon8 in vivo by crossing PS1?exon8 transgenics with either PS1-null or Dutch APPE693Q mice. As a control, we crossed APPE693Q with mice expressing a deletion in an adjacent exon (PS1?exon9). PS1?exon8 did not rescue embryonic lethality or Notch-deficient phenotypes of PS1-null mice displaying severe loss of function in vivo. We also demonstrate that this splice form can interact with wildtype PS1 using cultured cells and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP)/bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Further co-IP demonstrates that PS1?exon8 interacts with nicastrin, participating in the ?–secretase complex formation. These data support that catalytically inactive PS1?exon8 is generated physiologically and participates in protein-protein interactions. PMID:26608390

  3. The VA, VCD, Raman and ROA spectra of tri-L-serine in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, V Würtz; Jalkanen, K

    2006-03-01

    The structures of one conformer of the nonionic neutral and zwitterionic species of L-serinyl L-serinyl L-serine (SSS or tri-L-serine), together with its cationic and anionic species and the capped N-acetyl tri-L-serine N'-methylamide analog were optimized with density functional theory with the Becke 3LYP hybrid exchange correlation (XC) functional and the PW91 GGA XC functional and the 6-31G* and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Subsequently, the vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism, Raman and Raman optical activity spectra were simulated in order to compare them to experimentally measured spectra. In addition, we compare to previously reported studies for both structural determination and spectral simulations and measurements. A comparison of the various ways to treat the effects of the environment and solvation on both the structure and the spectral properties is thoroughly investigated for one conformer, with the goal to determine which level of theory is appropriate to use in the systematic search of the conformational space. In addition, the effects of the counterion, here Cl- anion, are also investigated. Here we present the current state of the art in nanobiology, where the latest methods in experimental and theoretical vibrational spectroscopy are used to gain useful information about the coupling of the nuclear, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom and structure of tri-L-serine and its capped peptide analog with the environment. PMID:16582466

  4. The Table of Interface Forming Residues as the Specificity Indicator for Serine Proteases Bound to

    E-print Network

    Neshich, Goran

    The Table of Interface Forming Residues as the Specificity Indicator for Serine Proteases Bound proteases specificity determining interface forming residues (IFR). The IFR are obtained by "hard body constructed complexes offered a condition for determining which residues are participating, from both enzyme

  5. Role of eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases in bacterial cell division and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manuse, Sylvie; Fleurie, Aurore; Zucchini, Laure; Lesterlin, Christian; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess a repertoire of versatile protein kinases modulating diverse aspects of their physiology by phosphorylating proteins on various amino acids including histidine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, serine, threonine and tyrosine. One class of membrane serine/threonine protein kinases possesses a catalytic domain sharing a common fold with eukaryotic protein kinases and an extracellular mosaic domain found in bacteria only, named PASTA for 'Penicillin binding proteins And Serine/Threonine kinase Associated'. Over the last decade, evidence has been accumulating that these protein kinases are involved in cell division, morphogenesis and developmental processes in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. However, observations differ from one species to another suggesting that a general mechanism of activation of their kinase activity is unlikely and that species-specific regulation of cell division is at play. In this review, we survey the latest research on the structural aspects and the cellular functions of bacterial serine/threonine kinases with PASTA motifs to illustrate the diversity of the regulatory mechanisms controlling bacterial cell division and morphogenesis. PMID:26429880

  6. Related Arabidopsis serine carboxypeptidase-like sinapoylglucose acyltransferases display distinct but overlapping substrate specificities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes fifty-one proteins annotated as serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) enzymes. Nineteen of these SCPL proteins are highly similar to one another, and represent a clade that appears to be unique to plants. Two of these proteins have been characterized to date: sinapoylgl...

  7. Cha4p of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Activates Transcription via Serine/Threonine Response Elements

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, S.; Schjerling, P.

    1996-01-01

    The CHA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase responsible for the utilization of serine/threonine as nitrogen sources. Previously, we identified two serine/threonine response elements in the CHA1 promoter, UAS(CHA). We report isolation of a mutation, cha4-1, that impairs serine/threonine induction of CHA1 transcription. The cha4-1 allele causes noninducibility of a CHA1p-lacZ translational gene fusion, indicating that Cha4p exerts its action through the CHA1 promoter. Molecular and genetic mapping positioned the cha4 locus 17 cM centromere proximal to put1 on chromosome XII. The coding region of CHA4 predicts a 648-amino acid protein with a DNA-binding motif (residues 43-70) belonging to the Cys(6) zinc cluster class. Gel retardation employing a recombinant peptide, Cha4p(1-174), demonstrated that the peptide in vitro specifically binds UAS(CHA). Binding is abolished by a G-C to T-A mutation in the middle bases of the two CEZ-elements in UAS(CHA). The transcriptional activating ability of UAS(CHA) derivatives in vivo correlates with their ability to bind Cha4p(1-174) in vitro. We conclude that Cha4p is a positive regulator of CHA1 transcription and that Cha4p alone, or as part of a complex, is binding UAS(CHA). PMID:8889513

  8. Purification and cloning of an extracellular serine protease from the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium cystosporium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Kui; Ye, Feng-Ping; Mi, Qi-Li; Tang, Song-Qing; Li, Juan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-05-01

    An extracellular protease (Mc1) was isolated from the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium cystosporium by gel filtration, anion-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. This protease had a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa and displayed an optimal activity at pH 7-9 and 56 degrees (over 30 min). Its proteolytic activity was highly sensitive to the serine protease inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, 0.1 mM), indicating that it belonged to the serine-type peptidase group. The Michaelis constant (Km) and Vmax for substrate N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA were 1.67x10-4 M and 0.6071 OD410 per 30 s, respectively. This protease could degrade a broad range of substrates including casein, gelatin, BSA (bovine serum albumin), and nematode cuticle. Moreover, the enzyme could immobilize the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, suggesting that it might play a role in infection against nematodes. The encoding gene of Mc1 was composed of one intron and two exons, coding for a polypeptide of 405 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mc1 showed 61.4-91.9% identity to serine proteases from other nematode-trapping fungi. Our results identified that Mc1 possessed biochemical properties including optimal reaction condition and substrate preference that are different from previously identified serine proteases. PMID:18633281

  9. Structures and Isomerization of Neutral and Zwitterion SerineWater Clusters

    E-print Network

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Structures and Isomerization of Neutral and Zwitterion Serine­Water Clusters: Computational Study.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/qua.20269 ABSTRACT: Calculations are presented for the structure and the isomerization, 2) clusters. The effects of binding water molecules on the relative stability and the isomerization

  10. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatases are a group of enzymes involved in the regulation of defense mechanisms in plants. This paper describes the effects of an inhibitor of these enzymes on the expression of all of the genes associated with these defense mechanisms. The results suggest that inhibi...

  11. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  12. Serine phosphorylation of the Stat5a C-terminus is a driving force for transformation.

    PubMed

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Hoelbl, Andrea; Li, Geqiang; Bunting, Kevin D; Sexl, Veronika; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Moriggl, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Persistent tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 and Stat5 is associated with oncogenic activity. Phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residue (pTyr) was long believed to be the only essential prerequisite to promote activation and nuclear translocation of Stat proteins. It has become evident, however, that post-translational protein modifications like serine phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation as well as protein splicing and processing constitute further regulatory mechanisms to modulate Stat transcriptional activity and to provide an additional layer of specificity to Jak-Stat signal transduction. Significantly, most vertebrate Stat proteins contain one conserved serine phosphorylation site within their transactivation domains. This phosphorylation motif is located within a P(M)SP sequence. Stat transcription factor activity is negatively influenced by mutation of the serine to alanine. Moreover, it was shown for both Stat3 and Stat5 that their capacity to transform cells was diminished. This review addresses recent advances in understanding the regulation and the biochemical and biological consequences of Stat serine phosphorylation. In particular, we discuss their role in persistently activated Stat proteins for cancer research. PMID:21622220

  13. Interaction of Mannose-binding Protein with Associated Serine EFFECTS OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MUTATIONS*

    E-print Network

    Interaction of Mannose-binding Protein with Associated Serine Proteases EFFECTS OF NATURALLY Mannose-binding protein (MBP; mannose-binding lec- tin) forms part of the innate immune system. By binding proteins is defec- tive in such mutants. Mannose-binding protein (MBP1 ; mannose-binding lectin

  14. Stoichiometry of Complexes between Mannose-binding Protein and Its Associated Serine Proteases

    E-print Network

    Stoichiometry of Complexes between Mannose-binding Protein and Its Associated Serine Proteases mannose-binding protein (MBP) initiates the lectin branch of the complement cascade by binding to sugars in- dependently to activate the complement cascade. Mannose-binding protein (MBP)1 is a key component

  15. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  16. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  17. Molecular insights into mechanisms of lepidopteran serine proteinase resistance to natural plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Terra, Walter R

    2015-11-27

    Plants have a wide range of chemical defenses against predation, including substances that target digestive serine proteinases of herbivorous. Previous works demonstrated that lepidopteran insects have digestive serine proteinases resistant to plant proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) and ketone modifications, while coleopteran ones are sensitive to those plant defenses. This paper focuses on molecular aspects that lead lepidopteran serine proteinases to PPI and ketone modification resistance. Using biochemical experiments and computer 3D modeling we demonstrated that lepidopteran trypsins are more hydrophobic than coleopteran ones, a feature associated to trypsin oligomerization and decreased inhibition by PPI. Moreover, the determination of pKa values of chymotrypsin catalytic residues obtained by TPCK modification indicates that the environment around the active site of ketone-resistant and -sensitive chymotrypsins are different. Structural analysis using resistant and sensitive chymotrypsins data allowed us to point 2 hotspot regions around the active site that could explain the observed differences. Our set of results highlights features of serine proteinases important for understanding the resistance of insects to plant chemical defenses. PMID:26474705

  18. The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF regulates protein sumoylation

    E-print Network

    Lamond, Angus I.

    ) proteins were first described as regulators of both constitutive and alternative splicing (1, 2The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF regulates protein sumoylation Federico Pelischa,b , Juan, WI, and approved July 19, 2010 (received for review April 7, 2010) Protein modification

  19. Plants synthesize ethanolamine by direct decarboxylation of serine using a pyridoxal phosphate enzyme.

    PubMed

    Rontein, D; Nishida, I; Tashiro, G; Yoshioka, K; Wu, W I; Voelker, D R; Basset, G; Hanson, A D

    2001-09-21

    The established pathways from serine to ethanolamine are indirect and involve decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. Here we show that plants can decarboxylate serine directly. Using a radioassay based on ethanolamine (Etn) formation, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent l-serine decarboxylase (SDC) activity was readily detected in soluble extracts from leaves of diverse species, including spinach, Arabidopsis, and rapeseed. A putative Arabidopsis SDC cDNA was identified by searching GenBank for sequences homologous to other amino acid decarboxylases and shown by expression in Escherichia coli to encode a soluble protein with SDC activity. This cDNA was further authenticated by complementing the Etn requirement of a yeast psd1 psd2 mutant. In a parallel approach, a cDNA was isolated from a rapeseed library by its ability to complement the Etn requirement of a yeast cho1 mutant and shown by expression in E. coli to specify SDC. The deduced Arabidopsis and rapeseed SDC polypeptides are 90% identical, lack obvious targeting signals, and belong to amino acid decarboxylase group II. Recombinant Arabidopsis SDC was shown to exist as a tetramer and to contain pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. It does not attack d-serine, l-phosphoserine, other l-amino acids, or phosphatidylserine and is not inhibited by Etn, choline, or their phosphoesters. As a soluble, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzyme, SDC contrasts sharply with phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, which are membrane proteins that have a pyruvoyl cofactor. PMID:11461929

  20. Microarray analysis reveals strategies of Tribolium castaneum larvae to compensate for cysteine and serine protease inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarrays containing Tribolium castaneum whole-genome sequences were developed to study the transcriptome response of T. castaneum larvae to dietary protease inhibitors. In larvae fed diets containing 0.1% of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 alone or in combination with 5.0% of the serine pro...

  1. Phosphorylation of p53 on Key Serines Is Dispensable for Transcriptional Activation and Apoptosis*

    E-print Network

    Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    Phosphorylation of p53 on Key Serines Is Dispensable for Transcriptional Activation and Apoptosis Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 The p53 tumor-activated kinases has been proposed to be essential for p53 stabilization, interaction with tran- scriptional co

  2. The collision between positronium (Ps) and muonium (Mu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Hasi; De, Rina

    2015-06-01

    The collision between a positronium(Ps) and a muonium(Mu) is studied for the first time using the static-exchange model and considering the system as a four-centerCoulomb problem in the centerof mass frame. An exact analysis is made to find the s-wave elastic phase-shifts, the scattering-lengths for both singlet and triplet channels, the integrated/total elastic cross section and the quenching cross section due to orthoto para conversion of Ps and the conversion ratio.

  3. Processing of Neutrophil ?-Defensins Does Not Rely on Serine Proteases In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Nickles, Katrin; Cowland, Jack; Borregaard, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The ?-defensins, human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) are the predominant antimicrobial peptides of neutrophil granules. They are synthesized in promyelocytes and myelocytes as proHNPs, but only processed in promyelocytes and stored as mature HNPs in azurophil granules. Despite decades of search, the mechanisms underlying the posttranslational processing of neutrophil defensins remain unidentified. Thus, neither the enzyme that processes proHNPs nor the localization of processing has been identified. It has been hypothesized that proHNPs are processed by the serine proteases highly expressed in promyelocytes: Neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase 3 (PR3), all of which are able to process recombinant proHNP into HNP in vitro. We investigated whether serine proteases are in fact responsible for processing of proHNP in human bone marrow cells and in human and murine myeloid cell lines. Subcellular fractionation of the human promyelocytic cell line PLB-985 demonstrated proHNP processing to commence in fractions containing endoplasmic reticulum. Processing of 35S-proHNP was insensitive to serine protease inhibitors. Simultaneous knockdown of NE, CG, and PR3 did not decrease proHNP processing in primary human bone marrow cells. Furthermore, introduction of NE, CG, and PR3 into murine promyelocytic cells did not enhance the proHNP processing capability. Finally, two patients suffering from Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome, who lack active neutrophil serine proteases, demonstrated normal levels of fully processed HNP in peripheral neutrophils. Contradicting earlier assumptions, our study found serine proteases dispensable for processing of proHNPs in vivo. This calls for study of other protease classes in the search for the proHNP processing protease(s). PMID:25945506

  4. PS-b-PAA as a high ? polymer for directed self-assembly: a study of solvent and thermal annealing processes for PS-b-PAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Lawson, Richard A.; Yeh, Wei-Ming; Jarnagin, Nathan D.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2013-03-01

    Poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (PS-b-PAA) was shown to be one promising material for achieving substantially smaller pitch patterns than PS-b-PMMA while still retaining high etch contrast and application for chemoepitaxy. Phase separation of acetone vapor annealed PS-b-PAA (Mw=16,000 g/mol with 50:50 volume ratio of PS: PAA) on PS brush achieved a lamellar morphology with a pattern pitch size (L0) of 30 nm. However the thermal annealing of the same PS-b-PAA generated a dramatically larger pitch size of 43 nm. SEM and GPC analysis revealed that the intermolecular crosslinking during thermal annealing process has increased the effective N (degree of polymerization), which suggests that even a small amount of crosslinking would lead to big pitch change. Thus, PS-b-PAA is not suitable for fast thermal annealing process as it loses pitch size control due to PAA crosslinking.

  5. Syntheses, crystal structures, optical and theoretical studies of the actinide thiophosphates SrU(PS4)2, BaU(PS4)2, and SrTh(PS4)2.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Adel; Prakash, Jai; Beard, Jessica C; Lebègue, Sébastien; Malliakas, Christos D; Ibers, James A

    2015-03-16

    Three new actinide thiophosphates, SrU(PS4)2, BaU(PS4)2, and SrTh(PS4)2, have been synthesized by high-temperature solid-state methods, and their crystal structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These three isostructural compounds crystallize in a new structure type in space group D4h13-P42/mbc of the tetragonal system. Their structure features infinite one-dimensional chains of ?1[An(PS4)2(2–)] anions (An = U or Th). Each An atom is coordinated by eight S atoms in a bicapped trigonal prism, and each P atom is tetrahedrally bonded to four S atoms. The compounds are readily charge balanced as Ak2+An4+(P5+(S2–)4)2. Optical studies on single crystals of SrU(PS4)2 and BaU(PS4)2 as well as ground single crystals of SrTh(PS4)2 revealed a direct band gap of 2.13(2) eV and an indirect band gap value of 1.99(2) eV for SrU(PS4)2 and a direct and indirect gap of about 2.28(2) eV for BaU(PS4)2. SrTh(PS4)2 has a relatively large band gap of 3.02(2) eV. DFT calculations for SrU(PS4)2 and BaU(PS4)2 using the HSE functional predict both compounds to be antiferromagnetic and have very similar electronic structures with band gaps of 2.7 eV. The band gap calculated for SrTh(PS4)2 is 3.2 eV. PMID:25714855

  6. BiiPS software: statistical learning in finance

    E-print Network

    Del Moral , Pierre

    BiiPS software: statistical learning in finance ALEA project-team, Inria Bordeaux ­ Sud-Ouest 3. 3 avril 2012ALEA project-team, Inria Bordeaux ­ Sud-Ouest - 2 #12;Problem Modern finance is becoming project-team, Inria Bordeaux ­ Sud-Ouest 3 avril 2012 - 12 More finance applications 3 #12;Pricing

  7. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  8. Golgi Review (TiPS 2001) Page 1 Mobile Factories

    E-print Network

    Nebenführ, Andreas

    Golgi Review (TiPS 2001) Page 1 Mobile Factories: Golgi dynamics in plant cells Andreas Nebenführ L, and how this machinery differs between plants and animals or yeast. Most notable is the discovery function of the Golgi apparatus is that of a complex carbohydrate factory 2 . Thus, the Golgi is the site

  9. PS145A Making Democracy Work: Lessons from India

    E-print Network

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    PS145A Making Democracy Work: Lessons from India Course Information Course Instructor Dr; Much has been written and said about the link between democracy and development, religious and ethnic of the world's most thriving democracies for over 60 years, and, in doing so offered a puzzle for many

  10. Account codes for Equipment Use Fees PS ACCOUNT DESCRIPTION

    E-print Network

    Allen, Micheal S.

    for data collection, specific instructional software only 734800 ­ Attract-Computer Equipment (NOT CAPAccount codes for Equipment Use Fees Fund 163 PS ACCOUNT DESCRIPTION 731300 Audio/Visual Equipment 731800 Attractive Audio/Visual Equipment under $1,000 731900 Attractive Lab Equipment under $1,000 734200

  11. Improving AS Relationship Inference Using PoPs Lior Neudorfer

    E-print Network

    Shavitt, Yuval

    can be classified into three Types of Relationships (ToR) [1]: customer-to-provider (c2p), peerImproving AS Relationship Inference Using PoPs Lior Neudorfer Tel-Aviv University Email: liorus relationships between ASes. These relationships, which have been commonly classified to four distinct Type

  12. Spectroscopic Classification of PS15cwx as a Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Charles; Milne, Peter; Andrews, Jennifer; Smith, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    The AZTEC (Arizona Transient Exploration and Characterization) collaboration reports an optical spectrum of PS15cwx (ATEL #8299) obtained on UT 2015 Nov. 19.33 with the 2.3m Bok telescope (+ Boller & Chivens spectrograph) on Kitt Peak, Arizona.

  13. (PS)2: protein structure prediction server version 3.0.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsun-Tsao; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Chi-Wen; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    Protein complexes are involved in many biological processes. Examining coupling between subunits of a complex would be useful to understand the molecular basis of protein function. Here, our updated (PS)(2) web server predicts the three-dimensional structures of protein complexes based on comparative modeling; furthermore, this server examines the coupling between subunits of the predicted complex by combining structural and evolutionary considerations. The predicted complex structure could be indicated and visualized by Java-based 3D graphics viewers and the structural and evolutionary profiles are shown and compared chain-by-chain. For each subunit, considerations with or without the packing contribution of other subunits cause the differences in similarities between structural and evolutionary profiles, and these differences imply which form, complex or monomeric, is preferred in the biological condition for the subunit. We believe that the (PS)(2) server would be a useful tool for biologists who are interested not only in the structures of protein complexes but also in the coupling between subunits of the complexes. The (PS)(2) is freely available at http://ps2v3.life.nctu.edu.tw/. PMID:25943546

  14. QMaPS: Qualitative Reasoning for Simulation Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Joolingen, Wouter

    1994-01-01

    Describes QMaPS (Qualitative Matching and Prediction system for Simulations), a qualitative reasoning system designed to function as a module in exploratory simulation learning environments. Highlights include a hierarchical organization of variables; multilevel relation typology; modeling of physical and conceptual domain structures; an…

  15. 3Ps, Task-Based Learning, and the Japanese Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanasarnsanee, Mika

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a work in progress that attempted to investigate to what extent task-based learning was more effective than the 3Ps approach in the teaching of Japanese as a foreign language in Thailand. (Author/VWL)

  16. News and Commentary PS externalization: from corpse clearance to drug

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ding

    , Stockholm, Sweden 2 Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado of Environmental Medicine, Nobels va¨g 13, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: þ 46 into an insoluble fibrin clot.2 The pivotal role of PS externalization is illustrated in Scott syndrome, a bleeding

  17. PS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang

    E-print Network

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    PS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang #12;Overview Magnitudes , Cost & TechnologiesMagnitudes , Cost the turbine at 50% load #12;Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heliostats concentrates the Sun's rays to receiver with other countries to build solar power plan #12;CSP Green Project(1/3) Economic sustainability Reduce

  18. BioMaPS: A Roadmap for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Maeve L.; Fister, K. Renee

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript outlines the impact that our National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences program, BioMaPS, has had on the students and faculty at Murray State University. This interdisciplinary program teams mathematics and biology undergraduate students with mathematics and…

  19. Consistent scenario for B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-12-01

    We consider B{yields}PS decays where P stands for pseudoscalar and S for a heavy (1500 MeV) scalar meson. We achieve agreement with available experimental data, which includes two orders of magnitude hierarchy, assuming the scalars mesons are two quark states. The contribution of the dipolar penguin operator O{sub 11} is quantified.

  20. Optimisation of freeze drying conditions for purified serine protease from mango (Mangifera indicaCv. Chokanan) peel.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Tan, Chin Ping; Hamed, Mirhosseini; Aziz, Norashikin Ab; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between the encapsulation variables, namely serine protease content (9-50mg/ml, X1), Arabic gum (0.2-10%(w/w), X2), maltodextrin (2-5%(w/w), X3) and calcium chloride (1.3-5.5%(w/w), X4) on the enzymatic properties of encapsulated serine protease. The study demonstrated that Arabic gum, maltodextrin and calcium chloride, as coating agents, protected serine protease from activity loss during freeze-drying. The overall optimum region resulted in a suitable freeze drying condition with a yield of 92% for the encapsulated serine protease, were obtained using 29.5mg/ml serine protease content, 5.1%(w/w) Arabic gum, 3.5%(w/w) maltodextrin and 3.4%(w/w) calcium chloride. It was found that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and calcium chloride improved the serine protease activity, and Arabic gum was the most effective amongst the examined coating agents. Thus, Arabic gum should be considered as potential protection in freeze drying of serine protease. PMID:25214343

  1. [Effect of ethanol on synthesis of serine and exchange of methyl groups in hepatocytes by NMR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Kholmukhamedov, E L; Teplova, V V; Johnson, C B; MacDonald, J

    2010-01-01

    The method of NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the role of voltage-dependent anion channels in the outer mitochondrial membrane in the mechanism of ethanol hepatotoxicity using the synthesis of serine and exchange of methyl groups in hepatocytes metabolizing 13C-labeled glycine. Here we present and describe a methodological approach developed for the independent monitoring of the synthesis of serine in two intracellular compartments: the cytoplasm and mitochondria of intact hepatocytes, and quantification of different serine isotopomers synthesized in hepatocytes from 13C-labeled glycine. The data obtained indicate that the treatment of cells with ethanol as well as cysteamine (specific inhibitor of mitochondrial synthesis of serine) suppressed the level of mitochondria but not cytoplasmic serine isotopomers. It is concluded that the decrease in the production of mitochondrial serine isotopomers in hepatocytes exposed to ethanol can be caused not only by decreased permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane due to the closure of voltage-dependent anion channels and suppression of the exchange of substrates of serine synthesis in mitochondria but also by the restoration of the cytoplasmic and/or mitochondrial pool of pyridine nucleotides (NADH) during the oxidation of ethanol. Our work reveals a new mechanism of action of ethanol (alcohol intoxication) in hepatocytes through the regulation of glycine metabolism and opens new possibilities in the treatment of alcohol poisoning. PMID:21268350

  2. Identification of potential transmembrane protease serine 4 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents by integrated computational approach.

    PubMed

    Ilamathi, M; Hemanth, R; Nishanth, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V

    2016-01-21

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 is a well known cell surface protease facilitating the extracellular matrix degradation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma. Henceforth targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 is strongly believed to provide therapeutic intervention against hepatocellular carcinoma. Owing to lack of crystal structure for human transmembrane protease serine 4, we predicted its three dimensional structure for the first time in this study. Experimentally proven inhibitor-Tyroserleutide (TSL) against hepatocellular carcinoma via transmembrane protease serine 4 was used as a benchmark to identify structurally similar candidates from PubChem database to create the TSL library. Virtual screening of TSL library against modeled transmembrane protease serine 4 revealed the top four potential inhibitors. Further binding free energy (?Gbind) analysis of the potential inhibitors revealed the best potential lead compound against transmembrane protease serine 4. Drug likeliness nature of the top four potential hits were additionally analyzed in comparison to TSL to confirm on the best potential lead compound with the highest % of human oral absorption. Consequently, e-pharmacophore mapping of the best potential lead compound yielded a six point feature. It was observed to contain four hydrogen bond donor sites (D), one positively ionizable site (P) and one aromatic ring (R). Such e-pharmacophore insight obtained from structural determinants by integrated computational analysis could serve as a framework for further advancement of drug discovery process of new anti-cancer agents with less toxicity and high specificity targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26590327

  3. Serine dipeptide lipids of Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation: Relationship to Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Nemati, Reza; Anstadt, Emily; Liu, Yaling; Son, Young; Zhu, Qiang; Yao, Xudong; Clark, Robert B; Rowe, David W; Nichols, Frank C

    2015-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen strongly associated with loss of attachment and supporting bone for teeth. We have previously shown that the total lipid extract of P. gingivalis inhibits osteoblast differentiation through engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis engage both mouse and human TLR2. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether these serine lipids inhibit osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and whether TLR2 engagement is involved. Osteoblasts were obtained from calvaria of wild type or TLR2 knockout mouse pups that also express the Col2.3GFP transgene. Two classes of serine dipeptide lipids, termed Lipid 654 and Lipid 430, were tested. Osteoblast differentiation was monitored by cell GFP fluorescence and osteoblast gene expression and osteoblast function was monitored as von Kossa stained mineral deposits. Osteoblast differentiation and function were evaluated in calvarial cell cultures maintained for 21days. Lipid 654 significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation and this inhibition was dependent on TLR2 engagement. Lipid 430 also significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation but these effects were only partially attributed to engagement of TLR2. More importantly, Lipid 430 stimulated TNF-? and RANKL gene expression in wild type cells but not in TLR2 knockout cells. Finally, osteoblast cultures were observed to hydrolyze Lipid 654 to Lipid 430 and this likely occurs through elevated PLA2 activity in the cultured cells. In conclusion, our results show that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation and function at least in part through engagement of TLR2. The Lipid 430 serine class also increased the expression of genes that could increase osteoclast activity. We conclude that Lipid 654 and Lipid 430 have the potential to promote TLR2-dependent bone loss as is reported in experimental periodontitis following oral infection with P. gingivalis. These results also support the conclusion that serine dipeptide lipids are involved in alveolar bone loss in chronic periodontitis. PMID:26409254

  4. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2, phosphatidyl inositol 3 phosphate kinase and their clinical and prognostic significance in early and advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Usul Afsar, Cigdem; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunaldi, Meral; K?l?c Bagir, Emine; Gumurdulu, Derya; Burgut, Refik; Erkisi, Melek; Kara, Ismail Oguz; Paydas, Semra; Karaca, Feryal; Ercolak, Vehbi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer related to death in the world. Squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCLC) is the second most frequent histological subtype of lung carcinomas. Recently, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction system-related gene amplifications and mutations are extensively under investigation to estimate the prognosis and to develop individualized therapies in SqCLC. In this study, besides the signal transduction molecule phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate kinase (IP3K) p110?, we explored the expressions of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and receptor-1 (FGFR1) in tumor tissue and also their clinical and prognostic significance in patients with early/advanced SqCLC. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2013, 129 patients (23 early, 106 advanced disease) with a histopathological SqCLC diagnosis were selected from the hospital files of Cukurova University Medical Faculty for this study. Two independent pathologists evaluated FGFR1, FGF2, and PI3K (p110?) expressions in both tumor and stromal tissues from 99 of the patients with sufficient tissue samples, using immunohistochemistry. Considering survival analysis separately for patients with both early and advanced stage diseases, the relationship between the clinical features of the patients and expressions were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: FGFR1 expression was found to be low in 59 (60%) patients and high in 40 (40%) patients. For FGF2; 12 (12%) patients had high, 87 (88%) patients had low expression and for IP3K; 31 (32%) patients had high and 66 (68%) patients had low expressions. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with stage of the disease and the performance status of the patient (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). There was no significant difference in OS of the patients with either low or high expressions of FGFR1, FGF2, and IP3K. When the patients with early or advanced stage disease were separately taken into consideration, the relationship did not differ, either. Any of FGFR1, FGF2 or IP3K expressions was not found predictive for the treatment of early or advanced staged patients. On the other hand, the expressions of both FGFR1 and FGF2 were significantly different with respect to smoking, scar of tuberculosis and scar of radiotherapy (P=0.002; P=0.06 and P=0.05, respectively). Discussion: There has not been identified an effective individualized treatment for SqCLC yet. Therefore, in order to be able to develop such a treatment in the future, it is essential to identify the genetic abnormalities that are responsible for the biological behaviors and carcinogenesis of SqCLC. Although we could not show the prognostic and predictive significance of FGFR1, FGF2 and IP3K expressions in SqCLC, we determined the expression rates of FGFR1, FGF2 and IP3K as a reference for Turkish patients. In conclusion, we want to put some emphasis on the fact that, pulmonary fibrosis which is a late complication of radiotherapy at stage III disease, and the scar of tuberculosis could be associated with FGFR1 and FGF2 expressions. PMID:26617686

  5. Functional Characterization of Calcineurin Homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Using a Host-Induced RNAi System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jun; Voegele, Ralf T.; Zhang, Jinshan; Duan, Yinghui; Luo, Huaiyong; Kang, Zhensheng

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction. PMID:23139840

  6. Accumulation and Phosphorylation of RecQ-Mediated Genome Instability Protein 1 (RMI1) at Serine 284 and Serine 292 during Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Qin; Du, Li-Qing; Fan, Saijun; Liu, Qiang; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome instability usually leads to tumorigenesis. Bloom syndrome (BS) is a genetic disease associated with chromosome instability. The BS gene product, BLM, has been reported to function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to prevent chromosome instability. BTR complex, composed of BLM, topoisomerase III? (Topo III?), RMI1 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 1, BLAP75) and RMI2 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 2, BLAP18), is crucial for maintaining genome stability. Recent work has demonstrated that RMI2 also plays critical role in SAC. However, little is know about RMI1 regulation during the cell cycle. Here we present that RMI1 protein level does not change through G1, S and G2 phases, but significantly increases in M phase. Moreover, phosphorylation of RMI1 occurs in mitosis. Upon microtubule-disturbing agent, RMI1 is phosphorylated primarily at the sites of Serine 284 and Serine 292, which does not interfere with the formation of BTR complex. Additionally, this phosphorylation is partially reversed by roscovitine treatment, implying cycling-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) might be one of the upstream kinases. PMID:26556339

  7. Accumulation and Phosphorylation of RecQ-Mediated Genome Instability Protein 1 (RMI1) at Serine 284 and Serine 292 during Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Qin; Du, Li-Qing; Fan, Saijun; Liu, Qiang; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome instability usually leads to tumorigenesis. Bloom syndrome (BS) is a genetic disease associated with chromosome instability. The BS gene product, BLM, has been reported to function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to prevent chromosome instability. BTR complex, composed of BLM, topoisomerase III? (Topo III?), RMI1 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 1, BLAP75) and RMI2 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 2, BLAP18), is crucial for maintaining genome stability. Recent work has demonstrated that RMI2 also plays critical role in SAC. However, little is know about RMI1 regulation during the cell cycle. Here we present that RMI1 protein level does not change through G1, S and G2 phases, but significantly increases in M phase. Moreover, phosphorylation of RMI1 occurs in mitosis. Upon microtubule-disturbing agent, RMI1 is phosphorylated primarily at the sites of Serine 284 and Serine 292, which does not interfere with the formation of BTR complex. Additionally, this phosphorylation is partially reversed by roscovitine treatment, implying cycling-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) might be one of the upstream kinases. PMID:26556339

  8. Design of a Selective Substrate and Activity Based Probe for Human Neutrophil Serine Protease 4

    PubMed Central

    Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Poreba, Marcin; Snipas, Scott J.; Lin, S. Jack; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Salvesen, Guy S.; Drag, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4), also known as PRSS57, is a recently discovered fourth member of the neutrophil serine proteases family. Although its biological function is not precisely defined, it is suggested to regulate neutrophil response and innate immune reactions. To create optimal substrates and visualization probes for NSP4 that distinguish it from other NSPs we have employed a Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library approach that utilizes natural and unnatural amino acids to explore protease subsite preferences. Library results were validated by synthesizing individual substrates, leading to the identification of an optimal substrate peptide. This substrate was converted to a covalent diphenyl phosphonate probe with an embedded biotin tag. This probe demonstrated high inhibitory activity and stringent specificity and may be suitable for visualizing NSP4 in the background of other NSPs. PMID:26172376

  9. Dynamics of DNA strand exchange by Bxb1 integrase, a model serine site-specific recombinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Ghosh, Pallavi; Sun, Mingxuan; Grindley, Nigel; Hatfull, Graham; Marko, John F.

    2010-03-01

    Site-specific recombination breaks and rejoins DNA at specific sequences within synaptic complexes assembled by specialized recombinase enzymes. Structural data suggest that serine recombinases exchange duplex DNAs via a ``clutch plate'' mechanism allowing the fully cleaved duplex DNA ends to be exchanged by a rigid body rotation. We have directly observed this rotational motion for a simple serine recombinase, the Bxb1 phage integrase, using a single-DNA supercoiling-release assay which allows us to follow cleavage, rotation, religation and product release in real time. The molecular friction associated with the bearing is much larger than that found for type I topoisomerases in a similar assay. Experiments with recombination-incompetent and recombination-competent substrates lead to expected outcomes. We confirm our results in two-DNA braiding-relaxation experiments where synapse rotation can be directly observed in reactions on two long molecules.

  10. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  11. Expression and Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PknB

    PubMed Central

    Av-Gay, Yossef; Jamil, Sarwat; Drews, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    PknB is a member of the newly discovered eukaryotic-like protein serine/threonine kinase (PSTK) family of proteins. The pknB gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The active recombinant protein was purified and shown to be reactive with antiphosphoserine antibodies, as well as with antibodies to the phosphorylated eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 and 6, P38, and Creb. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that PknB is a functional kinase that is autophosphorylated on serine/threonine residues and is also able to phosphorylate the peptide substrate myelin basic protein. Analysis of pknB expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis indicates the presence of pknB mRNA in (i) organisms grown in vitro in bacteriological media, (ii) a murine macrophage in vitro infection model, and (iii) in vivo alveolar macrophages from a patient with tuberculosis. PMID:10531215

  12. Identification of a Candida parapsilosis strain producing extracellular serine peptidase with keratinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Mazotto, Ana Maria; de Melo, Ana Cristina Nogueira; Vieira, Flávia Helena Cardoso; Duarte, Thalita Rodrigues; Macrae, Andrew; Nishikawa, Marília Martins; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2010-01-01

    A yeast strain isolated from feather waste from a chicken processing plant was identified as Candida parapsilosis by biochemical tests and morphological studies. The yeast was able to grow in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1% native feather as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A keratin substrate was obtained from the feathers by dimethylsulphoxide extraction. A 20-fold concentrated culture supernatant from Candida parapsilosis grown on feathers was analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis containing either 1% gelatin or 1% keratin as copolymerised substrates. The presence of a single band with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa with gelatinolytic and keratinolytic activities was observed. This proteolytic activity was fully inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride. These results suggest that the extracellular enzyme belongs to the serine peptidase class. This is the first report of an extracellular serine peptidase produced by C. parapsilosis with keratinolytic activity. The role of this enzyme in yeast-host interactions is discussed. PMID:19672690

  13. Expectation values of the e{sup +}PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.

    2007-07-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for e{sup +}PsH are computed using a ground-state wave function consisting of 1500 explicitly correlated Gaussians. The best estimate of the e{sup +}PsH{sup {infinity}} energy was -0.810 254 hartrees, which has a binding energy of 0.021 057 hartrees against dissociation into e{sup +}+PsH. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate was 2.7508x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Binding energies and annihilation rates are also given for the different finite-mass variants of e{sup +}PsH. Comparisons between expectation values for e{sup +}PsH and PsH provide compelling evidence that the e{sup +}PsH ground state can be regarded as consisting of a weakly bound positron orbiting the PsH ground state.

  14. Malonate-based inhibitors of mammalian serine racemase: kinetic characterization and structure-based computational study.

    PubMed

    Vorlová, Barbora; Nachtigallová, Dana; Jirásková-Vaní?ková, Jana; Ajani, Haresh; Jansa, Petr; Rezá?, Jan; Fanfrlík, Jind?ich; Otyepka, Michal; Hobza, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan; Lepšík, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Overactivation of NMDA receptors has been implicated in various neuropathological conditions, including brain ischaemia, neurodegenerative disorders and epilepsy. Production of d-serine, an NMDA receptor co-agonist, from l-serine is catalyzed in vivo by the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme serine racemase. Specific inhibition of this enzyme has been proposed as a promising strategy for treatment of neurological conditions caused by NMDA receptor dysfunction. Here we present the synthesis and activity analysis of a series of malonate-based inhibitors of mouse serine racemase (mSR). The compounds possessed IC50 values ranging from 40 ± 11 mM for 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)malonate down to 57 ± 1 ?M for 2,2-dichloromalonate, the most effective competitive mSR inhibitor known to date. The structure-activity relationship of the whole series in the human orthologue (hSR) was interpreted using Glide docking, WaterMap analysis of hydration and quantum mechanical calculations based on the X-ray structure of the hSR/malonate complex. Docking into the hSR active site with three thermodynamically favourable water molecules was able to discern qualitatively between good and weak inhibitors. Further improvement in ranking was obtained using advanced PM6-D3H4X/COSMO semiempirical quantum mechanics-based scoring which distinguished between the compounds with IC50 better/worse than 2 mM. We have thus not only found a new potent hSR inhibitor but also worked out a computer-assisted protocol to rationalize the binding affinity which will thus aid in search for more effective SR inhibitors. Novel, potent hSR inhibitors may represent interesting research tools as well as drug candidates for treatment of diseases associated with NMDA receptor overactivation. PMID:25462239

  15. Alternaria-derived serine protease activity drives IL-33–mediated asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Snelgrove, Robert J.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Peiró, Teresa; Akthar, Samia; Campbell, Gaynor A.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear. Objective We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation. Methods IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2?/? mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later. Results Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease–IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model. Conclusion Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. PMID:24636086

  16. Structure of Soybean Serine Acetyltransferase and Formation of the Cysteine Regulatory Complex as a Molecular Chaperone*

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hankuil; Dey, Sanghamitra; Kumaran, Sangaralingam; Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochemical control feature in plant sulfur metabolism. Here we present the 1.75–3.0 ? resolution x-ray crystal structures of soybean (Glycine max) SAT (GmSAT) in apoenzyme, serine-bound, and CoA-bound forms. The GmSAT-serine and GmSAT-CoA structures provide new details on substrate interactions in the active site. The crystal structures and analysis of site-directed mutants suggest that His169 and Asp154 form a catalytic dyad for general base catalysis and that His189 may stabilize the oxyanion reaction intermediate. Glu177 helps to position Arg203 and His204 and the ?1c-?2c loop for serine binding. A similar role for ionic interactions formed by Lys230 is required for CoA binding. The GmSAT structures also identify Arg253 as important for the enhanced catalytic efficiency of SAT in the CRC and suggest that movement of the residue may stabilize CoA binding in the macromolecular complex. Differences in the effect of cold on GmSAT activity in the isolated enzyme versus the enzyme in the CRC were also observed. A role for CRC formation as a molecular chaperone to maintain SAT activity in response to an environmental stress is proposed for this multienzyme complex in plants. PMID:24225955

  17. D-Serine is an endogenous ligand for the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    of the adrenal medulla, the poste- rior pituitary, and the pineal gland (2­4). In contrast, D-serine occurs populations in the brain, it is concentrated mainly in glands, especially the epinephrine-containing cells

  18. Phosphorylation on TRPV4 Serine 824 Regulates Interaction with STIM1

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung H; Lee, Eun J; Chun, Jaesun; Hyun, Sunghee; Kang, Sang S

    2015-01-01

    The TRPV4 cation channel, a member of the TRP vanilloid subfamily, is expressed in a broad range of tissues where it participates in the generation of a Ca2+ signal and/or depolarization of membrane potential. Here, we identified stromal interaction molecule 1 precursor (STIM1) as an auxiliary protein of this epithelial Ca2+channel using confocal microscopy analysis and GST pull-down assay. The STIM1 protein associates specifically with the C-terminal tail of TRPV4 to form a complex. In previous reports, we demonstrated that the serine824 residue of TRPV4 is one of the target phosphorylation sites of serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). In this report we further identified the role of serine 824 phosphorylation. The TRPV4 mutant S824D (not S824A) exhibited a diminished capacity to bind STIM1. Using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that STIM1 is part of the TRPV4 protein complex. Our observations clearly suggest that the formation of a complex between TRPV4 and STIM1 and its plasma membrane localization are regulated through phosphorylation of serine824 of TRPV4, and that the STIM1-TRPV4 complex plays crucial roles in routing TRPV4 to the plasma membrane from the endoplasmic reticulum and in maintaining its function. PMID:25972993

  19. Crystal structure of serine acetyl transferase from Brucella abortus and its complex with coenzyme A.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Nitesh; Alam, Neelima; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2014-10-01

    Brucella abortus is the major cause of premature foetal abortion in cattle, can be transmitted from cattle to humans, and is considered a powerful biological weapon. De novo cysteine biosynthesis is one of the essential pathways reported in bacteria, protozoa, and plants. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) initiates this reaction by catalyzing the formation of O-acetylserine (OAS) using l-serine and acetyl coenzyme A as substrates. Here we report kinetic and crystallographic studies of this enzyme from B. abortus. The kinetic studies indicate that cysteine competitively inhibits the binding of serine to B. abortus SAT (BaSAT) and noncompetitively inhibits the binding of acetyl coenzyme A. The crystal structures of BaSAT in its apo state and in complex with coenzyme A (CoA) were determined to 1.96Å and 1.87Å resolution, respectively. BaSAT was observed as a trimer in a size exclusion column; however, it was seen as a hexamer in dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies and in the crystal structure, indicating it may exist in both states. The complex structure shows coenzyme A bound to the C-terminal region, making mostly hydrophobic contacts from the center of the active site extending up to the surface of the protein. There is no conformational difference in the enzyme between the apo and the complexed states, indicating lock and key binding and the absence of an induced fit mechanism. PMID:25058332

  20. A role for glycosylated Serine-rich repeatproteins in Gram-positive bacterial pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Anel; Sanchez, Carlos J.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacterial attachment to host surfaces is a pivotal event in the biological and infectious processes of both commensal and pathogenic bacteria, respectively. Serine-rich Repeat Proteins (SRRPs) are a family of adhesins in Gram-Positive bacteria that mediate attachment to a variety of host and bacterial surfaces. As such, they contribute towards a wide-range of diseases including sub-acute bacterial endocarditis, community-acquired pneumonia, and meningitis. SRRPs are unique in that they are glycosylated, require a non-canonical Sec-translocase for transport, and are largely composed of a domain containing hundreds of alternating serine residues. These serine-rich repeats are thought to extend a unique non-repeat (NR) domain outward away from the bacterial surface to mediate adhesion. Thus far, NR domains have been determined to bind to sialic acid moieties, keratins, or other NR domains of a similar SRRP. This review summarizes how this important family of bacterial adhesins mediates bacterial attachment to host and bacterial cells, contributes to disease pathogenesis, and might be targeted for pharmacological intervention or used as novel protective vaccine antigens. This review also highlights recent structural findings on the NR domains of these proteins. PMID:22759311

  1. Histone H3 Serine 28 Is Essential for Efficient Polycomb-Mediated Gene Repression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yung, Philip Yuk Kwong; Stuetzer, Alexandra; Fischle, Wolfgang; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    Trimethylation at histone H3K27 is central to the polycomb repression system. Juxtaposed to H3K27 is a widely conserved phosphorylatable serine residue (H3S28) whose function is unclear. To assess the importance of H3S28, we generated a Drosophila H3 histone mutant with a serine-to-alanine mutation at position 28. H3S28A mutant cells lack H3S28ph on mitotic chromosomes but support normal mitosis. Strikingly, all methylation states of H3K27 drop in H3S28A cells, leading to Hox gene derepression and to homeotic transformations in adult tissues. These defects are not caused by active H3K27 demethylation nor by the loss of H3S28ph. Biochemical assays show that H3S28A nucleosomes are a suboptimal substrate for PRC2, suggesting that the unphosphorylated state of serine 28 is important for assisting in the function of polycomb complexes. Collectively, our data indicate that the conserved H3S28 residue in metazoans has a role in supporting PRC2 catalysis. PMID:26004180

  2. Characterization of a Mn sup 2+ -dependent membrane serine kinase that is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, T.J. )

    1991-03-11

    It is hypothesized that the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase may directly phosphorylate and activate one or more serine kinases. The identities of such serine kinases as well as their modes of activation are unclear. The authors have described a serine kinase from rat liver membranes that copurifies with the IR on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-sepharose. The kinase is activated after phosphorylation of the WGA-sepharose-purified fraction by casein kinase-1, casein kinase-2, or casein kinase-3. A tyrosine kinase, possibly IR tyrosine kinase, also participates in the activation process since a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor such as vanadate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, or phosphotyrosine is required in reaction mixtures for activation to be observed. By contrast, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine do not support activation. The activated kinase can use IR {beta}-subunit, myelin basic protein (MBP), and histones as substrates. IR {beta}-subunit phosphorylation was stimulated by MBP, histones, and polylysine, and inhibited by heparin and poly(glu, tyr). The kinase prefers Mn{sup 2+} over Mg{sup 2+} as a metal cofactor.

  3. Serine and SAM Responsive Complex SESAME Regulates Histone Modification Crosstalk by Sensing Cellular Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Swanson, Selene K; Gogol, Madelaine; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L; Suganuma, Tamaki

    2015-11-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme for glycolysis and catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate, which supplies cellular energy. PKM2 also phosphorylates histone H3 threonine 11 (H3T11); however, it is largely unknown how PKM2 links cellular metabolism to chromatin regulation. Here, we show that the yeast PKM2 homolog, Pyk1, is a part of a novel protein complex named SESAME (Serine-responsive SAM-containing Metabolic Enzyme complex), which contains serine metabolic enzymes, SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) synthetases, and an acetyl-CoA synthetase. SESAME interacts with the Set1 H3K4 methyltransferase complex, which requires SAM synthesized from SESAME, and recruits SESAME to target genes, resulting in phosphorylation of H3T11. SESAME regulates the crosstalk between H3K4 methylation and H3T11 phosphorylation by sensing glycolysis and glucose-derived serine metabolism. This leads to auto-regulation of PYK1 expression. Thus, our study provides insights into the mechanism of regulating gene expression, responding to cellular metabolism via chromatin modifications. PMID:26527276

  4. Studies on alkaline serine protease produced by Bacillus clausii GMBE 22.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Dilek; Bal, Hulya; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Ozturk, Nurcin Celik; Ozturk, Hasan Umit; Dilgimen, Aydan Salman; Ozturk, Dilek Coskuner; Erarslan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    An alkali tolerant Bacillus strain having extracellular serine alkaline protease activity was newly isolated from compost and identified as Bacillus clausii GMBE 22. An alkaline protease (AP22) was 4.66-fold purified in 51.5% yield from Bacillus clausii GMBE 22 by ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was identified as serine protease by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Its complete inhibition by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF) also justified that it is a serine alkaline protease. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 25.4 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH values are 60 degrees C and 12.0, respectively. The enzyme showed highest specificity to N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA. The K(m) and k(cat) values for hydrolysis of this substrate are 0.347 mM and 1141 min(-1) respectively. The enzyme was affected by surface active agents to varying extents. The enzyme is stable for 2 h at 30 degrees C and pH 10.5. AP22 is also stable for 5 days over the pH range 9.0-11.0 at room temperature. AP22 has good pH stability compared with the alkaline proteases belonging to other strains of Bacillus clausii reported in the literature. PMID:19431045

  5. Artemether Exhibits Amoebicidal Activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii through Inhibition of the Serine Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yihong; Ran, Wei; Man, Suqin; Li, Xueping; Gao, Hongjian; Tang, Wei; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba sp. parasites are the causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and cutaneous infections. However, there are currently no effective drugs for these organisms. Here, we evaluated the activity of the antimalarial agent artemether against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and identified potential targets of this agent through a proteomic approach. Artemether exhibited in vitro amoebicidal activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced ultrastructural modification and cell apoptosis. The iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis identified 707 proteins that were differentially expressed after artemether treatment. We focused on phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase in the serine biosynthesis pathway because of their importance to the growth and proliferation of protozoan and cancer cells. The expression of these proteins in Acanthamoeba was validated using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting after artemether treatment. The changes in the expression levels of phosphoserine aminotransferase were consistent with those of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Therefore, the downregulation of phosphoserine aminotransferase may be due to the downregulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, exogenous serine might antagonize the activity of artemether against Acanthamoeba trophozoites. These results indicate that the serine biosynthesis pathway is important to amoeba survival and that targeting these enzymes would improve the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. Artemether may be used as a phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase inhibitor to control or block Acanthamoeba infections. PMID:26014935

  6. p38 MAPK regulates PKA? and CUB-serine protease in Amphibalanus amphitrite cyprids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Him Wong, Yue; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The MKK3-p38 MAPK pathway has been reported to mediate larval settlement in Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. To clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we applied label-free proteomics to analyze changes in the proteome of cyprids treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor. The results showed that the expression levels of 80 proteins were significantly modified (p?serine protease and PKA?, were both down-regulated in expression. CUB-serine protease localized to postaxial seta 2 and 3, as well as the 4 subterminal sensilla in the antennule. Importantly, it was co-localized with the neuron transmitter serotonin in the sections, suggesting that the CUB-serine protease was present in the neural system. PKA? was highly expressed during the cyprid and juvenile stages, and it was co-localized with phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) to the cement gland, suggesting that PKA? might have some functions in cement glands. Overall, p38 MAPK might regulate multiple functions in A. amphitrite cyprids, including the energy supply, metamorphosis, neural system and cement glands. PMID:26434953

  7. PAK-dependent STAT5 serine phosphorylation is required for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Hoelbl-Kovacic, A; Bourgeais, J; Hoefling, L; Warsch, W; Grundschober, E; Uras, I Z; Menzl, I; Putz, E M; Hoermann, G; Schuster, C; Fajmann, S; Leitner, E; Kubicek, S; Moriggl, R; Gouilleux, F; Sexl, V

    2014-03-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) is frequently activated in hematological malignancies and represents an essential signaling node downstream of the BCR-ABL oncogene. STAT5 can be phosphorylated at three positions, on a tyrosine and on the two serines S725 and S779. We have investigated the importance of STAT5 serine phosphorylation for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis. In cultured bone marrow cells, expression of a STAT5 mutant lacking the S725 and S779 phosphorylation sites (STAT5(SASA)) prohibits transformation and induces apoptosis. Accordingly, STAT5(SASA) BCR-ABL(+) cells display a strongly reduced leukemic potential in vivo, predominantly caused by loss of S779 phosphorylation that prevents the nuclear translocation of STAT5. Three distinct lines of evidence indicate that S779 is phosphorylated by group I p21-activated kinase (PAK). We show further that PAK-dependent serine phosphorylation of STAT5 is unaffected by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Interfering with STAT5 phosphorylation could thus be a novel therapeutic approach to target BCR-ABL-induced malignancies. PMID:24263804

  8. PAK-dependent STAT5 serine phosphorylation is required for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, A; Hoelbl-Kovacic, A; Bourgeais, J; Hoefling, L; Warsch, W; Grundschober, E; Uras, I Z; Menzl, I; Putz, E M; Hoermann, G; Schuster, C; Fajmann, S; Leitner, E; Kubicek, S; Moriggl, R; Gouilleux, F; Sexl, V

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) is frequently activated in hematological malignancies and represents an essential signaling node downstream of the BCR-ABL oncogene. STAT5 can be phosphorylated at three positions, on a tyrosine and on the two serines S725 and S779. We have investigated the importance of STAT5 serine phosphorylation for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis. In cultured bone marrow cells, expression of a STAT5 mutant lacking the S725 and S779 phosphorylation sites (STAT5SASA) prohibits transformation and induces apoptosis. Accordingly, STAT5SASA BCR-ABL+ cells display a strongly reduced leukemic potential in vivo, predominantly caused by loss of S779 phosphorylation that prevents the nuclear translocation of STAT5. Three distinct lines of evidence indicate that S779 is phosphorylated by group I p21-activated kinase (PAK). We show further that PAK-dependent serine phosphorylation of STAT5 is unaffected by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Interfering with STAT5 phosphorylation could thus be a novel therapeutic approach to target BCR-ABL-induced malignancies. PMID:24263804

  9. Characterization of a serine protease-mediated cell death program activated in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, A.R.; Holohan, C.; Torriglia, A.; Lee, B.F.; Stenson-Cox, C. . E-mail: catherine.stenson@nuigalway.ie

    2006-01-01

    Tightly controlled proteolysis is a defining feature of apoptosis and caspases are critical in this regard. Significant roles for non-caspase proteases in cell death have been highlighted. Staurosporine causes a rapid induction of apoptosis in virtually all mammalian cell types. Numerous studies demonstrate that staurosporine can activate cell death under caspase-inhibiting circumstances. The aim of this study was to investigate the proteolytic mechanisms responsible for cell death under these conditions. To that end, we show that inhibitors of serine proteases can delay cell death in one such system. Furthermore, through profiling of proteolytic activation, we demonstrate, for the first time, that staurosporine activates a chymotrypsin-like serine protease-dependent cell death in HL-60 cells independently, but in parallel with the caspase controlled systems. Features of the serine protease-mediated system include cell shrinkage and apoptotic morphology, regulation of caspase-3, altered nuclear morphology, generation of an endonuclease and DNA degradation. We also demonstrate a staurosporine-induced activation of a putative 16 kDa chymotrypsin-like protein during apoptosis.

  10. p38 MAPK regulates PKA? and CUB-serine protease in Amphibalanus amphitrite cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Him Wong, Yue; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The MKK3-p38 MAPK pathway has been reported to mediate larval settlement in Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. To clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we applied label-free proteomics to analyze changes in the proteome of cyprids treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor. The results showed that the expression levels of 80 proteins were significantly modified (p?serine protease and PKA?, were both down-regulated in expression. CUB-serine protease localized to postaxial seta 2 and 3, as well as the 4 subterminal sensilla in the antennule. Importantly, it was co-localized with the neuron transmitter serotonin in the sections, suggesting that the CUB-serine protease was present in the neural system. PKA? was highly expressed during the cyprid and juvenile stages, and it was co-localized with phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) to the cement gland, suggesting that PKA? might have some functions in cement glands. Overall, p38 MAPK might regulate multiple functions in A. amphitrite cyprids, including the energy supply, metamorphosis, neural system and cement glands. PMID:26434953

  11. Proteolytic activation and inactivation of the serine protease activity of plasma hyaluronan binding protein.

    PubMed

    Choi-Miura, N H; Takahashi, K; Yoda, M; Saito, K; Mazda, T; Tomita, M

    2001-05-01

    We prepared anti-plasma hyaluronan binding protein (PHBP) mouse monoclonal antibodies and studied the fragmentation profile of PHBP with them. PHBP is present in human plasma as a single polypeptide chain (70 kDa). During the purification, PHBP partially fragmentated into the 50-kDa N-terminal fragment and the 27-kDa C-terminal fragment. After the incubation of the purified PHBP, the 70-kDa precursor form was completely cleaved to the 50- and 27-kDa fragments, followed by the 50-kDa to the 26-kDa, and the 27-kDa to the 17-kDa plus the 8-kDa fragments, respectively. Because the purified PHBP contained no other detectable proteins and PHBP has a typical serine protease domain, we concluded that the fragmentation of PHBP was caused by own serine protease activity. PHBP cleaved the C-terminal side of Arg in the peptide effectively and that of Lys weakly. The results of the pre-incubation experiments of PHBP suggested that the single-chain form of PHBP is a precursor, the two-subunit structure is an active form and the three- or four-chain structure is an inactive form of a serine protease. PMID:11379758

  12. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-04-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and applications of a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to an external electrode placed outside of the photocathode of the tube. This electrode is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. Multiple frames are obtained by using multiple gated tubes which share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. Applications of the framing camera to inertial confinement fusion experiments are discussed.

  13. Spectra and relaxation dynamics of the pseudohalide (PS) vibrational bands for Ru(bpy)2(PS)2 complexes, PS = CN, NCS and N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Ryan; Gerardi, Helen K.; Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas J.; Dressick, Walter J.; Heilweil, Edwin J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2013-08-01

    Static and transient infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate cis-Ru(bpy)2(N3)2 (bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine), cis-Ru(bpy)2(NCS)2, and cis-Ru(bpy)2(CN)2 in solution. The NC stretching IR band for cis-Ru(bpy)2(NCS)2 appears at higher frequency (?2106 cm-1 in DMSO) than for the free NCS- anion while the IR bands for the azide and cyanide complexes are closer to those of the respective free anions. The vibrational energy relaxation (VER) lifetime for the azide complex is found to be much shorter (?5 ps) than for either the NCS or CN species (both ?70 ps in DMSO) and the lifetimes resemble those for each corresponding free anion in solution. However, for cis-Ru(bpy)2(N3)2, it is determined that the transition frequency depends more on the solvent than the VER lifetime implying that intramolecular vibrational relaxation is predominant over solvent energy-extracting interactions. These results are compared to the behavior of other related metal complexes in solution.

  14. Antiprotonic Potentials from Global Fits to the PS209 Data

    E-print Network

    E. Friedman; A. Gal

    2003-06-29

    The experimental results for strong interaction effects in antiprotonic atoms by the PS209 collaboration consist of high quality data for several sequences of isotopes along the periodic table. Global analysis of these data in terms of a $\\bar p$-nucleus optical potential achieves good description of the data using a s-wave finite-range \\bar p N interaction. Equally good fits are also obtained with a poorly-defined zero-range potential containing a p-wave term.

  15. PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

  16. Large-area 200-ps gated microchannel plate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, M.J.; Hanks, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Pasha, R.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Hares, J.D.

    1986-08-01

    Results are presented with a 15-mm-wide gated microchannel plate UV and x-ray detector. The active area is part of a 6-..cap omega.. transmission line driven by an electronically generated gate pulse. The microchannel plate is coated with CsI allowing tests with a frequency-quadrupoled, high-repetition-rate 1.05-..mu..m laser. Results showing optical gate widths as short as 100 ps are presented.

  17. L-Serine Treatment May Improve Neurorestoration of Rats after Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia Potentially Through Improvement of Neurorepair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Jiang, Zheng-Lin; Wang, Guo-Hua; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Ren, Tao-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Xu, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify whether treatment with L-serine can improve the brain repair and neurorestoration of rats after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). After pMCAO, the neurological functions, brain lesion volume, and cortical injury were determined. GDNF, NGF, NCAM L1, tenascin-C, and Nogo-A levels were measured. Proliferation and differentiation of the neural stem cells (NSCs) and proliferation of the microvessels in the ischemic boundary zone of the cortex were evaluated. Treatment with L-serine (168 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) began 3 h after pMCAO and was repeated every 12 h for 7 days or until the end of the experiment. L-Serine treatment: 1) reduced the lesion volume and neuronal loss; 2) improved the recovery of neurological functions; 3) elevated the expression of nerve growth-related factors; and 4) facilitated the proliferation of endogenous NSCs and microvessels activated after pMCAO and increased the number of new-born neurons. 5) D-cycloserine, an inhibitor of serine hydroxymethyltransferase, blunted the effects of L-serine on NSC proliferation, differentiation, microvascular proliferation. In conclusions, L-serine treatment in pMCAO rats can reduce brain injury and facilitate neurorestoration which is partly associated with the improvement of proliferation of NSCs and microvessels, reconstruction of neurovascular units and resultant neurorepair. The effects of L-serine on endogenous NSC proliferation and microvascular proliferation are partly mediated by the action of L-serine as a substrate for the production of one-carbon groups used for purine and pyrimidine synthesis and modulation of the expression of some nerve growth-related factors. PMID:24671106

  18. 75 FR 16748 - Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 “American Softwood Lumber Standard”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... the Federal Register on April 3, 2009 (74 FR 15255) announced NIST's circulation of the revision for... National Institute of Standards and Technology Final Voluntary Product Standard; DOC PS 20-10 ``American... DOC PS 20-10 ``American Softwood Lumber Standard'' which will supersede DOC PS 20-05. The...

  19. Communicating Knowing through Communities of Practice: Exploring Internal Communicative Processes and Differences among CoPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Joel O.; McPhee, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Knowing is an enacted, communicated process that is difficult to observe, let alone manage, in organizations. Communities of practice (CoPs) offer a productive solution for improving knowledge and knowledge management, but the communicative processes that enact CoPs have not been explored, leaving CoPs as an organizational black box. This research…

  20. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that ?PS1?PS (PS1) and/or ?PS3?PS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas ?PS2?PS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin ?1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration. PMID:21949686

  1. New Electron Cloud Detectors for the PS Main Magnets

    E-print Network

    Yin Vallgren, Ch; Gilardoni, S; Taborelli, M; Neupert, H; Ferreira Somoza, J

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud (EC) has already been observed during normal operation of the PS, therefore it is necessary to study its in fluence on any beam instability for the future LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU). Two new electron cloud detectors have been discussed, developed and installed during the Long Shutdown (LS1) in one of the PS main magnets. The first measurement method is based on current measurement by using a shielded button-type pick-up. Due to the geometry and space limitation in the PS magnet, the button-type pick-up made of a 96%Al2O3 block coated with a thin layer of solvent-based Ag painting, placed 30 degrees to the bottom part of the vacuum chamber was installed in the horizontal direction where the only opening of the magnet coil is. The other newly developed measurement method is based on detection of photons emitted by the electrons from the electron cloud impinging on the vacuum chamber walls. The emitted photons are reected to a quartz window. A MCP-PMT (Micro-Channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube) wit...

  2. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1987-08-11

    In this paper we describe a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. The time separation between frames can be selected arbitrarily. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a standard wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to a conducting mesh placed over the input window of the tube. The mesh is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. The transmission of the tube as a function of time has been verified using a laser-diode pulser and is approximately Gaussian with a FWHM of 120 ps. Multiple frames are obtained using multiple gated tubes which can then share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. In the present system, the tubes use S-20 photocathodes with an 18 mm diameter and quartz input windows. Spatial resolution is unchanged between d.c. and fast gated operations and has been measured to 10 lp/mm. Applications to time-dependent behavior in laser-produced plasmas will be presented. 7 figs.

  3. A new shape resonance in the Ps^- system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yew Kam

    2012-06-01

    There have been continues experimental and theoretical investigations on the positronium negative ion (Ps^-), one of the simplest three-lepton systems interacting through Coulomb forces. In the present work, we use highly correlated Hylleraas wave functions up to N=1078 terms together with employing the complex-coordinate rotation method [1] to investigate resonances in the Ps^- system. We have located a new S-wave shape resonance lying above the Ps (n=2) threshold. Our preliminary results for the resonance parameters are Er = - 0.0498788 a.u. and ? / 2 = 0.0139470 a.u., where Er and ? denote the resonance energy and width, respectively. This stabilized complex eigenvalue has never been reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. Here, by changing the mass of the positively charged particle from one unit of the electron mass to infinitely heavy, we have traced this resonance pole from the positronium negative ion to the hydrogen negative ion [2]. Detailed calculations will be presented at the meeting. [4pt] [1]. Y. K. Ho, Phys. Reports 99, 1 (1983) and references therein. [0pt] [2]. A. Burgers and E. Lindroth, Euro. Phys. J. D 10, 327 (2000).

  4. Loss-of-function mutation of serine racemase attenuates excitotoxicity by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyan; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, He; Chang, Yuhua; Feng, Meiling; Wu, Shengzhou

    2016-01-01

    Convincing data demonstrate that D-serine, a racemized product of serine racemase (SR), contributes to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, a line of evidence suggests that SR/D-serine contributes to retinal neurodegeneration in a diabetic retinopathy rat model and diabetic retinopathy patients. However, the connection between SR/D-serine and retinal neurodegeneration remains unclear. Herein, we report that intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) induces excitotoxicity in rodent retina; this retinal neurodegeneration was attenuated in retina carrying a loss-of-function of mutation in Srr, the gene for SR, termed Srr(ochre269) . Under the condition of NMDA injection, either posterior pole or middle - but not peripheral - retina from Srr(ochre269) mice was found to retain more retinal ganglion cells (RGC) than the counterpart from w/t (RGCs were identified with retrograde labeling). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining further demonstrated reduced RGC apoptosis from Srr(ochre269) compared to w/t mice under the condition of NMDA injection. Collectively, our studies demonstrate a pivotal role of SR/D-serine in retinal neurotoxicity. We demonstrated that loss-of-function mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase significantly attenuates excitotoxicity in retina; excitotoxicity accounts for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) demise in diabetic retinopathy (DR). We think that our findings deepen the current knowledge of the mechanisms of RGC degeneration. PMID:26485193

  5. Effects of feeding and lighting stimuli on the synthesis of ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ekelman, K.B.; Peraino, C.

    1981-07-01

    This paper compares the circadian fluctuations in the rates of ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase synthesis measured immunochemically in rats given a single 2-h daily feeding in conjunction with exposure to constant light or a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. When the 2-hr feeding was administered to rats under constant light, reciprocal circadian oscillations in ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase synthesis were observed regardless of the temporal location of the feeding interval. Ornithine aminotransferase synthesis began to increase after the feeding interval and reached a maximum 12 h later while serine dehydratase showed the opposite response. In rats maintained on both the restricted feeding regimen and a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle, however, retention of synthesis oscillations depended on the temporal location of the restricted feeding interval within the light-dark cycle. Rats fed for 2 h at the beginning of the dark phase exhibited circadian oscillations in serine dehydratase synthesis and a high nonoscillating level of ornithine aminotransferase synthesis, whereas rats fed for 2 h at the beginning of the light phase exhibited circadian oscillations in ornithine aminotransferase synthesis and a low nonoscillating level of serine dehydratase synthesis. These responses suggest the existence of meal-responsive and light-responsive regulators of ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase synthesis. (JMT)

  6. Serine 1179 Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Increases Superoxide Generation and Alters Cofactor Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Mark C.; He, Donghong; Xie, Lishi; Chen, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is responsible for maintaining systemic blood pressure, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. In addition to producing NO, eNOS can also generate superoxide (O2-.) in the absence of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Previous studies have shown that bovine eNOS serine 1179 (Serine 1177/human) phosphorylation critically modulates NO synthesis. However, the effect of serine 1179 phosphorylation on eNOS superoxide generation is unknown. Here, we used the phosphomimetic form of eNOS (S1179D) to determine the effect of S1179 phosphorylation on superoxide generating activity, and its sensitivity to regulation by BH4, Ca2+, and calmodulin (CAM). S1179D eNOS exhibited significantly increased superoxide generating activity and NADPH consumption compared to wild-type eNOS (WT eNOS). The superoxide generating activities of S1179D eNOS and WT eNOS did not differ significantly in their sensitivity to regulation by either Ca2+ or CaM. The sensitivity of the superoxide generating activity of S1179D eNOS to inhibition by BH4 was significantly reduced compared to WT eNOS. In eNOS-overexpressing 293 cells, BH4 depletion with 10mM DAHP for 48 hours followed by 50ng/ml VEGF for 30 min to phosphorylate eNOS S1179 increased ROS accumulation compared to DAHP-only treated cells. Meanwhile, MTT assay indicated that overexpression of eNOS in HEK293 cells decreased cellular viability compared to control cells at BH4 depletion condition (P<0.01). VEGF-mediated Serine 1179 phosphorylation further decreased the cellular viability in eNOS-overexpressing 293 cells (P<0.01). Our data demonstrate that eNOS serine 1179 phosphorylation, in addition to enhancing NO production, also profoundly affects superoxide generation: S1179 phosphorylation increases superoxide production while decreasing sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of BH4 on this activity. PMID:26560496

  7. Tenectin is a novel ?PS2?PS integrin ligand required for wing morphogenesis and male genital looping in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fraichard, Stéphane; Bougé, Anne-Laure; Kendall, Timmy; Chauvel, Isabelle; Bouhin, Hervé; Bunch, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Morphogenesis of the adult structures of holometabolous insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones and involves cell-cell interactions mediated in part by the cell surface integrin receptors and their extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands. These adhesion molecules and their regulation by hormones are not well characterized. We describe the gene structure of a newly described ECM molecule, tenectin, and demonstrate that it is a hormonally regulated ECM protein required for proper morphogenesis of the adult wing and male genitalia. Tenectin’s function as a new ligand of the PS2 integrins is demonstrated by both genetic interactions in the fly and by cell spreading and cell adhesion assays in cultured cells. Its interaction with the PS2 integrins is dependent on RGD and RGD-like motifs. Tenectin’s function in looping morphogenesis in the development of the male genitalia led to experiments that demonstrate a role for PS integrins in the execution of left-right asymmetry. PMID:20152825

  8. Homologous recombination in human iPS and ES cells for use in gene correction therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Manabu

    2010-03-01

    The emergence of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology has shifted gene correction therapy toward reality. Crucial issues are ensuring the safety of using iPS cell technology in patients and discovering how best to transfer genetically manipulated iPS cells back into patients. One key issue that has hindered progress of gene correction therapy, however, is the inability to achieve efficient homologous recombination in human iPS cells. This review focuses on recently developed technologies that aim to improve homologous recombination in human embryonic stem cells and on their application to iPS cells. PMID:20116450

  9. Generation of Partially Reprogrammed Cells and Fully Reprogrammed iPS Cells by Plasmid Transfection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by overexpression of defined transcription factors. iPS cells can perpetually self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. iPS cells were first generated through infection with retroviruses that contain reprogramming factors. However, development of an exogene-free iPS cell generation method is crucial for future therapeutic applications, because integrated exogenes result in the formation of tumors in chimeras and regain pluripotency after differentiation in vitro. Here, we describe a method to generate iPS cells by transfection of plasmid vectors and to convert partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed iPS cells by switching from mouse ESC culture conditions to KOSR-based media with bFGF. We also describe basic methods used to characterize fully reprogrammed iPS cells. PMID:25476445

  10. Kinetic energy of Ps formed by Ore mechanism in Ar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yosuke; Kino, Yasushi; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate kinetic energy of positronium(Ps) formed by Ore mechanism, we performed positron annihilation age-momentum correlation (AMOC) measurements in Argas for 5.0 MPa and 7.5 MPa at room temperature. From the time dependence of Doppler broadening of para-Ps (p-Ps) self-annihilation gramma-ray component, we observed Ps slowing down process. Using a simple slowing down model, we obtained the initial kinetic energy of Ps formed by Ore mechanism and Ps-Armomentum transfer cross section. The initial kinetic energy was 3.9 eV which was higher than the kinetic energy of Ps formed at the upper limit of Ore gap. The momentum transfer cross section was 0.019 ± 0.010 nm2 in between 1 eV and 3.9 eV, and was close to the theoretical calculation.

  11. Quality control of the tribological coating PS212

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    PS212 is a self-lubricating, composite coating that is applied by the plasma spray process. It is a functional lubricating coating from 25 C (or lower) to 900 C. The coating is prepared from a blend of three different powders with very dissimilar properties. Therefore, the final chemical composition and lubricating effectiveness of the coatings are very sensitive to the process variables used in their preparation. Defined here are the relevant variables. The process and analytical procedures that will result in satisfactory tribological coatings are discussed.

  12. Create and Publish a Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernique, P.; Boch, T.; Pineau, F.; Oberto, A.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the CDS promotes a method for visualizing based on the HEALPix sky tessellation. This method, called “Hierarchical Progressive Survey" or HiPS, allows one to display a survey progressively. It is particularly suited for all-sky surveys or deep fields. This visualization method is now integrated in several applications, notably Aladin, the SiTools/MIZAR CNES framework, and the recent HTML5 “Aladin Lite". Also, more than one hundred surveys are already available in this view mode. In this article, we will present the progress concerning this method and its recent adaptation to the astronomical catalogs such as the GAIA simulation.

  13. BioMaPS: A Roadmap for Success

    PubMed Central

    Fister, K. Renee

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript outlines the impact that our National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences program, BioMaPS, has had on the students and faculty at Murray State University. This interdisciplinary program teams mathematics and biology undergraduate students with mathematics and biology faculty and has produced research insights and curriculum developments at the intersection of these two disciplines. The goals, structure, achievements, and curriculum initiatives are described in relation to the effects they have had to enhance the study of biomathematics. PMID:20810948

  14. T3PS: Tool for Parallel Processing in Parameter Scans

    E-print Network

    Vinzenz Maurer

    2015-02-27

    T3PS is a program that can be used to quickly design and perform parameter scans while easily taking advantage of the multi-core architecture of current processors. It takes an easy to read and write parameter scan definition file format as input. Based on the parameter ranges and other options contained therein, it distributes the calculation of the parameter space over multiple processes and possibly computers. The derived data is saved in a plain text file format readable by most plotting software. The supported scanning strategies include: grid scan, random scan, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, numerical optimization. Several example parameter scans are shown and compared with results in the literature.

  15. T3PS: Tool for Parallel Processing in Parameter Scans

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Vinzenz

    2015-01-01

    T3PS is a program that can be used to quickly design and perform parameter scans while easily taking advantage of the multi-core architecture of current processors. It takes an easy to read and write parameter scan definition file format as input. Based on the parameter ranges and other options contained therein, it distributes the calculation of the parameter space over multiple processes and possibly computers. The derived data is saved in a plain text file format readable by most plotting software. The supported scanning strategies include: grid scan, random scan, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, numerical optimization. Several example parameter scans are shown and compared with results in the literature.

  16. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.

  17. PS3 Solutions 1 (exercise 2.59)

    E-print Network

    Shor, Peter W.

    PS3 Solutions 1 (exercise 2.59) hXi = h0jXj0i = h0j1i = 0 hX 2 i = h0jX 2 j0i = h0jXj1i = h0j0i = 1 #1;(X) = hX 2 i hXi 2 = 1 2 (exercise 2.60) Calculate eigenvalues directly from v #1;#27;. Have (exercise 2.61) State of the system is the eigenvector of v #1; #27; with eigenvalue one. The probbaility

  18. Thromboxane receptor hyper-responsiveness in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension requires serine 324

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, K T; Sikarwar, A S; Hinton, M; Chelikani, P; Dakshinamurti, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysregulation of the thromboxane A2 (TP) receptor, resulting in agonist hypersensitivity and hyper-responsiveness, contributes to exaggerated vasoconstriction in the hypoxic pulmonary artery in neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension. We previously reported that hypoxia inhibits TP receptor phosphorylation, causing desensitization. Hence, we examined the role of PKA-accessible serine residues in determining TP receptor affinity, using site-directed mutational analysis. Experimental Approach Vasoconstriction to a thromboxane mimetic and phosphorylation of TP receptor serine was examined in pulmonary arteries from neonatal swine with persistent pulmonary hypertension and controls. Effects of hypoxia were determined in porcine and human TP receptors. Human TP? serines at positions 324, 329 and 331 (C-terminal tail) were mutated to alanine and transiently expressed in HEK293T cells. Saturation binding and displacement kinetics of a TP antagonist and agonist were determined in porcine TP, wild-type human TP? and all TP mutants. Agonist-elicited calcium mobilization was determined for each TP mutant, in the presence of a PKA activator or inhibitor, and in hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Key Results The Ser324A mutant was insensitive to PKA activation and hypoxia, had a high affinity for agonist and increased agonist-induced calcium mobilization. Ser329A was no different from wild-type TP receptors. Ser331A was insensitive to hypoxia and PKA with a decreased agonist-mediated response. Conclusions and Implications In hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, loss of site-specific phosphorylation of the TP receptor causes agonist hyper-responsiveness. Ser324 is the primary residue phosphorylated by PKA, which regulates TP receptor-agonist interactions. Ser331 mutation confers loss of TP receptor-agonist interaction, regardless of PKA activity. PMID:24490858

  19. Serine 254 enhances an induced fit mechanism in murine 5-aminolevulinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Lendrihas, Thomas; Hunter, Gregory A; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2010-01-29

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (EC 2.3.1.37) (ALAS), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the initial step of heme biosynthesis in animals, fungi, and some bacteria. Condensation of glycine and succinyl coenzyme A produces 5-aminolevulinate, coenzyme A, and carbon dioxide. X-ray crystal structures of Rhodobacter capsulatus ALAS reveal that a conserved active site serine moves to within hydrogen bonding distance of the phenolic oxygen of the PLP cofactor in the closed substrate-bound enzyme conformation and within 3-4 A of the thioester sulfur atom of bound succinyl-CoA. To evaluate the role(s) of this residue in enzymatic activity, the equivalent serine in murine erythroid ALAS was substituted with alanine or threonine. Although both the K(m)(SCoA) and k(cat) values of the S254A variant increased, by 25- and 2-fold, respectively, the S254T substitution decreased k(cat) without altering K(m)(SCoA). Furthermore, in relation to wild-type ALAS, the catalytic efficiency of S254A toward glycine improved approximately 3-fold, whereas that of S254T diminished approximately 3-fold. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that removal of the side chain hydroxyl group in the S254A variant altered the microenvironment of the PLP cofactor and hindered succinyl-CoA binding. Transient kinetic analyses of the variant-catalyzed reactions and protein fluorescence quenching upon 5-aminolevulinate binding demonstrated that the protein conformational transition step associated with product release was predominantly affected. We propose the following: 1) Ser-254 is critical for formation of a competent catalytic complex by coupling succinyl-CoA binding to enzyme conformational equilibria, and 2) the role of the active site serine should be extended to the entire alpha-oxoamine synthase family of PLP-dependent enzymes. PMID:19917609

  20. Viscoelastic properties of pressure overload hypertrophied myocardium: effect of serine protease treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, Jason D.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Barnes, Mary A.; Spinale, Francis G.; Zile, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether and to what extent one component of the extracellular matrix, fibrillar collagen, contributes causally to abnormalities in viscoelasticity, collagen was acutely degraded by activation of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with the serine protease plasmin. Papillary muscles were isolated from normal cats and cats with right ventricular pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) induced by pulmonary artery banding. Plasmin treatment caused MMP activation, collagen degradation, decreased the elastic stiffness constant, and decreased the viscosity constant in both normal and POH muscles. Thus, whereas many mechanisms may contribute to the abnormalities in myocardial viscoelasticity in the POH myocardium, changes in fibrillar collagen appear to play a predominant role.

  1. Distal hinge of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 involves its latency transition and specificities toward serine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingcai; Shaltiel, Shmuel

    2003-01-01

    Background The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) spontaneously converts from an inhibitory into a latent form. Specificity of PAI-1 is mainly determined by its reactive site (Arg346-Met347), which interacts with serine residue of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) with concomitant formation of SDS-stable complex. Other sites may also play roles in determining the specificity of PAI-1 toward serine proteases. Results To understand more about the role of distal hinge for PAI-1 specificities towards serine proteases and for its conformational transition, wild type PAI-1 and its mutants were expressed in baculovirus system. WtPAI-1 was found to be about 12 fold more active than the fibrosarcoma PAI-1. Single site mutants within the Asp355-Arg356-Pro357 segment of PAI-1 yield guanidine activatable inhibitors (a) that can still form SDS stable complexes with tPA and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and (b) that have inhibition rate constants towards plasminogen activators which resemble those of the fibrosarcoma inhibitor. More importantly, latency conversion rate of these mutants was found to be ~3–4 fold faster than that of wtPAI-1. We also tested if Glu351 is important for serine protease specificity. The functional stability of wtPAI-1, Glu351Ala, Glu351Arg was about 18 ± 5, 90 ± 8 and 14 ± 3 minutes, respectively, which correlated well with both their corresponding specific activities (84 ± 15 U/ug, 112 ± 18 U/ug and 68 ± 9 U/ug, respectively) and amount of SDS-stable complex formed with tPA after denatured by Guanidine-HCl and dialyzed against 50 mM sodium acetate at 4°C. The second-order rate constants of inhibition for uPA, plasmin and thrombin by Glu351Ala and Glu351Arg were increased about 2–10 folds compared to wtPAI-1, but there was no change for tPA. Conclusion The Asp355-Pro357 segment and Glu351 in distal hinge are involved in maintaining the inhibitory conformation of PAI-1. Glu351 is a specificity determinant of PAI-1 toward uPA, plasmin and thrombin, but not for tPA. PMID:12848892

  2. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  3. Human hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells promote regeneration of peripheral-nerve injury: an advantageous alternative to ES and iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Kanoh, Maho; Niiyama, Shiro; Hamada, Yuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Sato, Yuichi; Hoffman, Robert M; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    The optimal source of stem cells for regenerative medicine is a major question. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have shown promise for pluripotency but have ethical issues and potential to form teratomas. Pluripotent stem cells have been produced from skin cells by either viral-, plasmid- or transposon-mediated gene transfer. These stem cells have been termed induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells. iPS cells may also have malignant potential and are inefficiently produced. Embryonic stem cells may not be suited for individualized therapy, since they can undergo immunologic rejection. To address these fundamental problems, our group is developing hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells. Our previous studies have shown that mouse hfPS cells can differentiate to neurons, glial cells in vitro, and other cell types, and can promote nerve and spinal cord regeneration in vivo. hfPS cells are located above the hair follicle bulge in what we have termed the hfPS cell area (hfPSA) and are nestin positive and keratin 15 (K-15) negative. Human hfPS cells can also differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. In the present study, human hfPS cells were transplanted in the severed sciatic nerve of the mouse where they differentiated into glial fibrillary-acidic-protein (GFAP)-positive Schwann cells and promoted the recovery of pre-existing axons, leading to nerve generation. The regenerated nerve recovered function and, upon electrical stimulation, contracted the gastrocnemius muscle. The hfPS cells can be readily isolated from the human scalp, thereby providing an accessible, autologous and safe source of stem cells for regenerative medicine that have important advantages over ES or iPS cells. PMID:19507228

  4. In vivo contribution of serine proteases to the proteolytic activation of ?ENaC in aldosterone-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Kohei; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Onoue, Tomoaki; Hayata, Manabu; Morinaga, Jun; Yamazoe, Rika; Ueda, Miki; Mizumoto, Teruhiko; Adachi, Masataka; Miyoshi, Taku; Shiraishi, Naoki; Sakai, Yoshiki; Tomita, Kimio; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2012-10-01

    Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure by modulating the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) that consists of ?-, ?-, and ?-subunits. Aldosterone induces a molecular weight shift of ?ENaC from 85 to 70 kDa that is necessary for the channel activation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that a dual cleavage mechanism is responsible for this shift. It has been postulated that furin executes the primary cleavage in the Golgi and that the second cleavage is provided by other serine proteases such as prostasin or plasmin at the plasma membrane. However, the in vivo contribution of serine proteases to this cleavage remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered the synthetic serine protease inhibitor camostat mesilate (CM) to aldosterone-infused rats. CM decreased the abundance of the 70-kDa form of ENaC and led to a new 75-kDa form with a concomitant increase in the urinary Na-to-K ratio. Because CM inhibits the protease activity of serine proteases such as prostasin and plasmin, but not furin, our findings strongly indicate that CM inhibited the second cleavage of ?ENaC and subsequently suppressed ENaC activity. The results of our current studies also suggest the possibility that the synthetic serine protease inhibitor CM might represent a new strategy for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension in humans. PMID:22832922

  5. Discovery of a Cyclic Boronic Acid ?-Lactamase Inhibitor (RPX7009) with Utility vs Class A Serine Carbapenemases.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Scott J; Reddy, K Raja; Totrov, Maxim; Hirst, Gavin C; Lomovskaya, Olga; Griffith, David C; King, Paula; Tsivkovski, Ruslan; Sun, Dongxu; Sabet, Mojgan; Tarazi, Ziad; Clifton, Matthew C; Atkins, Kateri; Raymond, Amy; Potts, Kristy T; Abendroth, Jan; Boyer, Serge H; Loutit, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Elizabeth E; Durso, Stephanie; Dudley, Michael N

    2015-05-14

    The increasing dissemination of carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacteria has threatened the clinical usefulness of the ?-lactam class of antimicrobials. A program was initiated to discover a new series of serine ?-lactamase inhibitors containing a boronic acid pharmacophore, with the goal of finding a potent inhibitor of serine carbapenemase enzymes that are currently compromising the utility of the carbapenem class of antibacterials. Potential lead structures were screened in silico by modeling into the active sites of key serine ?-lactamases. Promising candidate molecules were synthesized and evaluated in biochemical and whole-cell assays. Inhibitors were identified with potent inhibition of serine carbapenemases, particularly the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), with no inhibition of mammalian serine proteases. Studies in vitro and in vivo show that RPX7009 (9f) is a broad-spectrum inhibitor, notably restoring the activity of carbapenems against KPC-producing strains. Combined with a carbapenem, 9f is a promising product for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25782055

  6. Generalized PP + PS = SS from seismic interferometry David Halliday*, Schlumberger Cambridge Research; Andrew Curtis, The University of Edinburgh; Kees

    E-print Network

    Generalized PP + PS = SS from seismic interferometry David Halliday*, Schlumberger Cambridge to derive a generalized form of relationship between PP, PS, and SS waves, often referred to as PP + PS = SS of the reflected and converted PS waves. Ideally, pure PP waves and pure SS waves would be analyzed independently

  7. Neutrino masses, the ? -term, and PS L 2(7 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gaoli; Pérez, M. Jay; Ramond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Using an S O (10 )-inspired form for the Dirac neutrino mass, we map the neutrino data to the right-handed neutrino Majorana mass matrix, M , and investigate a special form with seesaw tribimaximal mixing; it predicts a normal hierarchy, and the values of the light neutrino masses. It may be generated by mapping he top quark hierarchy onto the vacuum values of familon fields transforming under the family group PS L 2(7 ) . Next, we investigate the hypothesis that these familons play a dual role, generating a hierarchy in the supersymmetric ? -mass matrix of Higgs bosons carrying family quantum numbers. A special PS L 2(7 ) invariant coupling produces a ? matrix with a hierarchy of thirteen orders of magnitude. Only one Higgs field (per hypercharge sector) is light enough (with a ? mass ˜10 - 100 GeV ) to be destabilized by supersymmetry soft breaking at the TeV scale, and upon spontaneous symmetry breaking, gives tree-level masses for the heaviest family.

  8. Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

  9. A magnetic quadrupole pick-up for the CERN PS

    E-print Network

    Chapman-Hatchett, A; Williams, D J

    1999-01-01

    In the LHC era, there will be a need to monitor and correct betatron mismatch between machines in a non-destructive way. For this purpose, a quadrupole pick-up has been designed for the CERN PS. Originally, the PS was built for much larger beam sizes than now required when generating the LHC beam, but its large physical aperture should be maintained. Because of this large aperture to beam-size ratio, the quadrupole signal component in a standard pick-up design is strongly suppressed with respect to the common-mode signal, and thus demands a very high common-mode rejection in the signal processing. A magnetic quadrupole pick-up has been designed, in which the common-mode rejection is incorporated in the pick-up itself, by virtue of its geometry. The rejection is thus limited only by mechanical tolerances and can therefore be very large. Without the common-mode component, the dominating signal is dipolar, and small when the beam is centred in the pick-up. The dipole and quadrupole signals can thus be separated ...

  10. Study on GASTOF - A 10 ps resolution timing detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Luc; Liao, Junhui; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    GASTOF (Gas Time Of Flight) is a type of fast-time detector affiliated to the HPS (High Precision Spectrometer) project which is a forward physics collaborator within CMS. It is a picosecond time resolution Cherenkov gas detector using very fast single anode micro-channel plate photomultiplier (Hamamatsu R3809U-50 or Photek 210) as a photon detector. We firstly measured characteristics of these two types of MCP-PMTs by a fast laser pulse in lab. Then two GASTOF detectors both equipped with a Hamamatsu R3809U-50 tube were studied in a beam test at CERN. According to the analysis of beam test data, the average number of photoelectrons (phe) was 2.0 for both phototubes. By making a cut on the number of photoelectrons such that the mean phe was 3.6 in one phototube and 3.2 in another, we obtained a time resolution of ? ~ 11.7 picosecond (ps) and ? ~ 8.2 ps.

  11. Prediction of relapse and survival in breast cancer patients by pS2 protein status.

    PubMed

    Foekens, J A; Rio, M C; Seguin, P; van Putten, W L; Fauque, J; Nap, M; Klijn, J G; Chambon, P

    1990-07-01

    Application of systemic adjuvant therapy for primary breast cancer patients requires a more accurate identification of patients at high risk for recurrence. We have quantitatively assessed the cytosolic levels of estrogen-regulated pS2 protein in tumors of 205 breast cancer patients (median follow-up, 47 mo). There were no significant associations between the level of pS2 protein and tumor size, lymph node status, and differentiation grade. Using length of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) as end points, 11 ng of pS2 protein/mg of cytosol protein were found as the best cutoff level to discriminate between positive (pS2+) and negative (pS2-). Patients with pS2- tumors showed significantly shorter RFS and OS (P less than 0.0001) than patients with pS2+ tumors. Also after adjustment for tumor size, lymph node status, and estrogen receptor (ER) status, pS2 negativity was associated with earlier recurrence and death. Tumors positive for pS2 (55 of 205, 27%) were almost exclusively confined to the subclass of ER+ tumors (53 of 55, 96%). The death rate for patients with pS2+ tumors was one-tenth of the death rate for patients with pS2-/ER- tumors. In the patients with ER+ tumors, the prognostic power of the pS2 status was especially present in patients whose tumors were also positive for the progesterone receptor (5-yr RFS and OS, 85% and 97% for ER+/PgR+/pS2+ tumors compared with 50% and 54% for the patients with ER+/PgR+/pS2- tumors). In patients with axillary lymph node involvement (N+), pS2 status could discriminate strongly between a good and bad prognosis group (5-yr RFS and OS, 65% and 88% for N+/pS2+ compared with 32% and 34% for N+/pS2-). A similar phenomenon was observed in patients without axillary lymph node involvement (5-yr RFS and OS, 89% and 95% for N0/pS2+ compared with 58% and 82% for N0/pS2-). We conclude that the pS2 status of human primary breast tumors is an important variable for the identification of patients at high risk for recurrence and death. Knowledge of the cytosolic pS2 status appeared of particular importance to identify patients at high risk in the ER+/PgR+ subclass of tumors, and in both the N0 and N+ subclasses of patients. PMID:2354435

  12. Characterization of a membrane-associated serine protease in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.M.; St. John, A.C.

    1987-04-01

    Three membrane-associated proteolytic activities in Escherichia coli were resolved by DEAE-cellulose chromatography from detergent extracts of the total envelope fraction. On the basis of substrate specificity for the hydrolysis of chromogenic amino acid ester substrates, the first two eluting activities were determined previously to be protease V and protease IV, respectively. The third proteolytic activity eluting from the DEAE-cellulose column was further purified by affinity chromatography on benzamidine-Sepharose 6B. They termed this enzyme protease VI. Protease VI did not hydrolyze any of the chromogenic substrates used in the detection of protease IV and protease V. However, all three enzymes generated acid-soluble fragments from a mixture of E. coli membrane proteins which were biosynthetically labeled with radioactive amino acids. The activity of protease VI was sensitive to serine protease inhibitors. Using (/sup 3/H)diisopropylfluorophosphate as an active-site labeling reagent, they determined that protease VI has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000 in polyacrylamide gels. All three membrane-associated serine proteases were insensitive to inhibition by Ecotin, an endogenous, periplasmic inhibitor of trypsin.

  13. Photoreceptor Neuroprotection: Regulation of Akt Activation Through Serine/Threonine Phosphatases, PHLPP and PHLPPL.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Raju V S; Kanan, Yogita; Anderson, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Serine/threonine kinase Akt is a downstream effector of insulin receptor/PI3K pathway that is involved in many processes, including providing neuroprotection to stressed rod photoreceptor cells. Akt signaling is known to be regulated by the serine/threonine phosphatases, PHLPP (PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase) and PHLPPL (PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase-like). We previously reported that both phosphatases are expressed in the retina, as well as in photoreceptor cells. In this study, we examined the PHLPP and PHLPPL phosphatase activities towards non-physiological and physiological substrates. Our results suggest that PHLPP was more active than PHLPPL towards non-physiological substrates, whereas both PHLPP and PHLPP dephosphorylated the physiological substrates of Akt1 and Akt3 with similar efficiencies. Our results also suggest that knockdown of PHLPPL alone does not increase Akt phosphorylation, due to a compensatory increase of PHLPP, which results in the dephosphorylation of Akt. Therefore, PHLPP and PHLPPL regulate Akt activation together when both phosphatases are expressed. PMID:26427440

  14. Realizing Serine/Threonine Ligation: Scope and Limitations and Mechanistic Implication Thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clarence; Li, Tianlu; Lam, Hiu Yung; Zhang, Yinfeng; LI, Xuechen

    2014-05-01

    Serine/Threonine ligation (STL) has emerged as an alternative tool for protein chemical synthesis, bioconjugations as well as macrocyclization of peptides of various sizes. Owning to the high abundance of Ser/Thr residues in natural peptides and proteins, STL is expected to find a wide range of applications in chemical biology research. Herein, we have fully investigated the compatibility of the serine/threonine ligation strategy for X-Ser/Thr ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. Our studies have shown that 17 amino acids are suitable for ligation, while Asp, Glu, and Lys are not compatible. Among the working 17 C-terminal amino acids, the retarded reaction resulted from the bulky ?-branched amino acid (Thr, Val and Ile) is not seen under the current ligation condition. We have also investigated the chemoselectivity involving the amino group of the internal lysine which may compete with the N-terminal Ser/Thr for reaction with the C-terminal salicylaldehyde (SAL) ester aldehyde group. The result suggested that the free internal amino group does not adversely slow down the ligation rate.

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of a Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strain Extracellular Serine Protease VpSP37

    PubMed Central

    Bennici, Carmelo; Quatrini, Paola; Catania, Valentina; Mazzola, Salvatore; Ghersi, Giulio; Cuttitta, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Proteases play an important role in the field of tissue dissociation combined with regenerative medicine. During the years new sources of proteolytic enzymes have been studied including proteases from different marine organisms both eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Herein we have purified a secreted component of an isolate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, with electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to 36 kDa, belonging to the serine proteases family. Sequencing of the N-terminus enabled the in silico identification of the whole primary structure consisting of 345 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 37.4 KDa. The purified enzyme, named VpSP37, contains a Serine protease domain between residues 35 and 276 and a canonical Trypsin/Chimotrypsin 3D structure. Functional assays were performed to evaluate protease activity of purified enzyme. Additionally the performance of VpSP37 was evaluated in tissue dissociations experiments and the use of such enzyme as a component of enzyme blend for tissue dissociation procedures is strongly recommended. PMID:26162075

  16. Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of a Serine Threonine Protein Phosphatase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinglel, Mark; Honkanel, Richard; Ciszak, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues is a well-recognized mechanism in eukaryotic cells for the regulation of cell-cycle progression, cell growth and metabolism. Human serine/threonine phosphatases can be placed into two major families, PPP and PPM. To date the structure on one PPP family member (PPl) has been determined. Here we present the structure of a 323-residue catalytic domain of a second phosphatase belonging to the PPP family of enzyme. catalytic domain of the enzyme has been determined to 1.60Angstrom resolution and refined to R=17.5 and Rfree = 20.8%. The catalytic domain possesses a unique fold consisting of a largely monolithic structure, divisible into closely-associated helical and sheet regions. The catalytic site contains two manganese ions that are involved in substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme crystallizes as a dimer that completely buries catalytic surfaces of both monomers, Also, the structure shows evidence of some flexibility around the active site cleft that may be related to substrate specificity of this enzyme.

  17. Cloning and characterization of an extracellular serine protease from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys conoides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkui; Li, Juan; Liang, Lianming; Tian, Baoyu; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Chunmei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2007-08-01

    An extracellular serine protease (Ac1) with a molecular mass of 35 kDa was purified from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys conoides. The optimum activity of Ac1 is at pH 7.0 and 53.2 degrees C (over 20 min). Ac1 can degrade a broad range of substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, collagen, and nematode cuticles. Moreover, the enzyme can immobilize the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, indicating Ac1 may be involved in infection against nematodes. The encoding gene of Ac1 contains one intron of 60-bp and two exons encoding a polypeptide of 411 amino acid residues. The deduced polypeptide sequence of Ac1 showed a high degree of similarity to two previously reported serine proteases PII and Mlx from other nematode-trapping fungi (81% aa sequence identity). However, three proteases Ac1, Aoz1 and Mlx showed optimum temperatures at 53.2, 45 and 65 degrees C, respectively. Compared to PII, Ac1 appears to have a significantly higher activity against gelatin, bovine serum albumin, and non-denatured collagen. Moreover, our bioassay experiments showed that Ac1 is more effective at immobilizing P. redivivus than B. xylophilus. PMID:17390124

  18. Biochemical characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Caldicoprobacter guelmensis.

    PubMed

    Bouacem, Khelifa; Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Laribi-Habchi, Hassiba; Elhoul, Mouna Ben; Hmida-Sayari, Aïda; Hacene, Hocine; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Jaouadi, Bassem; Bejar, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Caldicoprobacter guelmensis isolated from the hydrothermal hot spring of Guelma (Algeria) produced high amounts of extracellular thermostable serine alkaline protease (called SAPCG) (23,000U/mL). The latter was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, UNO Q-6 FPLC and Zorbex PSM 300 HPLC, and submitted to biochemical characterization assays. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer, with a molecular mass of 55,824.19Da. The 19 N-terminal residue sequence of SAPCG showed high homology with those of microbial proteases. The enzyme was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggested its belonging to the serine protease family. It showed optimum protease activity at pH 10 and 70°C with casein as a substrate. The thermoactivity and thermostability of SAPCG were enhanced in the presence of 2mM Ca(2+). Its half-life times at 80 and 90°C were 180 and 60min, respectively. Interestingly, the SAPCG protease exhibited significant compatibility with iSiS and Persil, and wash performance analysis revealed that it could remove blood-stains effectively. Overall, SAPCG displayed a number of attractive properties that make it a promising candidate for future applications as an additive in detergent formulations. PMID:26261082

  19. Portulaca oleracea L. as a Prospective Candidate Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Sobia; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Ijaz, Bushra; Iqbal, Shahid; Qamar-ul-Zaman; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health problem affecting about 300 million individuals. HCV causes chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Many side effects are associated with the current treatment options. Natural products that can be used as anti-HCV drugs are thus of considerable potential significance. NS3 serine protease (NS3-SP) is a target for the screening of antiviral activity against HCV. The present work explores plants with anti-HCV potential, isolating possible lead compounds. Ten plants, used for medicinal purposes against different infections in rural areas of Pakistan, were collected. The cellular toxicity effects of methanolic extracts of the plants on the viability of Huh-7 cells were studied through the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. Following this, the anti-HCV potential of phytoextracts was assessed by infecting liver cells with HCV-3a-infected serum inoculum. Only the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited more than 70% inhibition. Four fractions were obtained through bioassay-guided extraction of PO. Subsequent inhibition of all organic extract fractions against NS3 serine protease was checked to track the specific target in the virus. The results showed that the PO methanolic crude and ethyl acetate extract specifically abridged the HCV NS3 protease expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Hence, PO extract and its constituents either alone or with interferon could offer a future option to treat chronic HCV. PMID:25871297

  20. Kinetics of action of a two-stage pro-inhibitor of serine ?-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Tilvawala, Ronak; Pratt, R F

    2013-10-01

    ?-Lactamase inhibitors are important in medicine in the protection of ?-lactam antibiotics from ?-lactamase-catalyzed destruction. The most effective inhibitors of serine ?-lactamases covalently modify the enzyme active site. We have recently studied O-acyl and O-phosphyl hydroxamates as a new class of such inhibitors. In this paper, we describe our studies of the N-acyl derivatives of a cyclic O-acyl hydroxamic acid, 3H-benzo[d][1,2]oxazine-1,4-dione, and, in particular, the N-tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative. This compound is not a ?-lactamase inhibitor itself but undergoes spontaneous hydrolysis in aqueous solution, yielding an O-phthaloyl hydroxamic acid, which is a ?-lactamase inhibitor. This compound spontaneously, but reversibly, cyclizes in solution to form phthalic anhydride, which is also a ?-lactamase inhibitor. Both inhibitors react to form the same transiently stable phthaloyl-enzyme complex. Thus, we have a two-step cascade, beginning with a pro-inhibitor, in which each step leads to a different inhibitor, presumably with different enzyme specificities. The kinetics of these transformations have been elucidated in detail. The phthaloyl derivatives, where the free carboxylate is important for facile reaction with the enzyme, represent a new lead for serine ?-lactamase inhibitors. Analogues can be conveniently constructed in situ by reaction of nucleophiles with phthalic anhydrides and then screened for activity. Active hits may then become new leads. PMID:24070199

  1. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  2. Initial characterization of histone H3 serine 10 O-acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Laura-Mae P; Newhart, Alyshia; Bhanu, Natarajan V; Sridharan, Rupa; Gonzales-Cope, Michelle; Plath, Kathrin; Janicki, Susan M; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are indispensable for their role in maintaining cellular physiology, often through their mediation of chromatin-related processes such as transcription. Targeted investigations of this ever expanding network of chemical moieties continue to reveal genetic, biochemical, and cellular nuances of this complex landscape. In this study, we present our findings on a novel class of histone PTMs: Serine, Threonine, and Tyrosine O-acetylation. We have combined highly sensitive nano-LC-MS/MS experiments and immunodetection assays to identify and validate these unique marks found only on histone H3. Mass spectrometry experiments have determined that several of these O-acetylation marks are conserved in many species, ranging from yeast to human. Additionally, our investigations reveal that histone H3 serine 10 acetylation (H3S10ac) is potentially linked to cell cycle progression and cellular pluripotency. Here, we provide a glimpse into the functional implications of this H3-specific histone mark, which may be of high value for further studies of chromatin. PMID:23949383

  3. Characterization of a Novel Serine Protease Inhibitor Gene from a Marine Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-Jian; Hao, Zhen-Yu; Zeng, Rong; Shen, Pei-Hong; Li, Jun-Fang; Wu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    A novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin) gene designated as Spi1C was cloned via the sequenced-based screening of a metagenomic library from uncultured marine microorganisms. The gene had an open reading frame of 642 base pairs, and encoded a 214-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of about 28.7 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Spi1C and some partial proteinase inhibitor I4 serpins were closely related. Functional characterization demonstrated that the recombinant Spi1C protein could inhibit a series of serine proteases. The Spi1C protein exhibited inhibitory activity against ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin with Ki values of around 1.79 × 10?8 and 1.52 × 10?8 M, respectively. No inhibition activity was exhibited against elastase. Using H-d-Phe-Pip-Arg-pNA as the chromogenic substrate, the optimum pH and temperature of the inhibition activity against trypsin were 7.0–8.0 and 25 °C, respectively. The identification of a novel serpin gene underscores the potential of marine metagenome screening for novel biomolecules. PMID:22131953

  4. Staphylococcus aureus secretes a unique class of neutrophil serine protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Stapels, Daphne A. C.; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Bischoff, Markus; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Milder, Fin J.; Ruyken, Maartje; Eisenbeis, Janina; McWhorter, William J.; Herrmann, Mathias; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are indispensable for clearing infections with the prominent human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that S. aureus secretes a family of proteins that potently inhibits the activity of neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs): neutrophil elastase (NE), proteinase 3, and cathepsin G. The NSPs, but not related serine proteases, are specifically blocked by the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) and the functionally orphan Eap homologs EapH1 and EapH2, with inhibitory-constant values in the low-nanomolar range. Eap proteins are together essential for NSP inhibition by S. aureus in vitro and promote staphylococcal infection in vivo. The crystal structure of the EapH1/NE complex showed that Eap molecules constitute a unique class of noncovalent protease inhibitors that occlude the catalytic cleft of NSPs. These findings increase our insights into the complex pathogenesis of S. aureus infections and create opportunities to design novel treatment strategies for inflammatory conditions related to excessive NSP activity. PMID:25161283

  5. The Origin of ``Magic-Number'' Stability and Chiral Selectivity for Serine Clusters in Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anthony; Cooks, R. Graham

    2010-03-01

    Serine ``magic-number'' clusters have attracted substantial experimental and theoretical interest since their discovery. They have been implicated in one possible mechanism leading to the origin of homochirality, as certain clusters exhibit remarkable chiral selectivity. We aim to develop a ``structural landscape'' for these clusters over a range of relevant cluster sizes, enantiomeric compositions, and ionizing charge states using theoretical tools of statistical and quantum mechanics. In this work, we search for low-lying stationary points and global minima of the potential energy landscape via a combined annealing, replica exchange and basin-hopping molecular dynamics approach in a modified AMBER forcefield. These structures are used as inputs for further DFT-based optimization and energy decomposition analysis. It is shown that the behavior and stability of these systems is due to major structural rearrangements as a function of size and charge. Further, the experimentally observed chiral selectivity may be understood in part by the unique network of hydrogen bonds facilitated by the serine hydroxyl side chain. The influence of a further kinetic mechanism is not ruled out by the current results and is discussed.

  6. Implantation Serine Proteinase 1 Exhibits Mixed Substrate Specificity that Silences Signaling via Proteinase-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Navneet; Kumar, Rajeev; Renaux, Bernard; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Nishikawa, Sandra; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Implantation S1 family serine proteinases (ISPs) are tryptases involved in embryo hatching and uterine implantation in the mouse. The two different ISP proteins (ISP1 and ISP2) have been detected in both pre- and post-implantation embryo tissue. To date, native ISP obtained from uterus and blastocyst tissues has been isolated only as an active hetero-dimer that exhibits trypsin-like substrate specificity. We hypothesised that in isolation, ISP1 might have a unique substrate specificity that could relate to its role when expressed alone in individual tissues. Thus, we isolated recombinant ISP1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and evaluated its substrate specificity. Using several chromogenic substrates and serine proteinase inhibitors, we demonstrate that ISP1 exhibits trypsin-like substrate specificity, having a preference for lysine over arginine at the P1 position. Phage display peptide mimetics revealed an expanded but mixed substrate specificity of ISP1, including chymotryptic and elastase activity. Based upon targets observed using phage display, we hypothesised that ISP1 might signal to cells by cleaving and activating proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) and therefore assessed PARs 1, 2 and 4 as potential ISP1 targets. We observed that ISP1 silenced enzyme-triggered PAR signaling by receptor-disarming. This PAR-disarming action of ISP1 may be important for embryo development and implantation. PMID:22132161

  7. Internal structure and positron annihilation in the four-body MuPs system

    E-print Network

    Alexei M. Frolov

    2015-01-07

    A large number of bound state properties of the four-body muonium-positronium system MuPs (or $\\mu^{+} e^{-}_2 e^{+}$) are determined to high accuracy. Based on these expectation values we predict that the weakly-bound four-body MuPs system has the `two-body' cluster structure Mu + Ps. The two neutral clusters Mu ($\\mu^{+} e^{-}$) and Ps ($e^{+} e^{-}$) interact with each other by the attractive van der Waals forces. By using our expectation values of the electron-positron delta-functions we evaluated the half-life $\\tau_a$ of the MuPs system against annihilation of the electron-positron pair: $\\tau_a = \\frac{1}{\\Gamma} \\approx 4.071509 \\cdot 10^{-10}$ $sec$. The hyperfine structure splitting of the ground state in the MuPs system evaluated with our expectation values is $\\Delta \\approx$ 23.064(5) $MHz$.

  8. Internal structure and positron annihilation in the four-body MuPs system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2015-02-01

    A large number of bound state properties of the four-body muonium-positronium system MuPs (or ? + e - 2 e +) are determined to high accuracy. Based on these expectation values we predict that the weakly-bound four-body MuPs system has the `two-body' cluster structure Mu + Ps. The two neutral clusters Mu ( ? + e -) and Ps ( e + e -) interact with each other by the attractive van der Waals forces. By using our expectation values of the electron-positron delta-functions we evaluated the half-life ? a of the MuPs system against annihilation of the electron-positron pair: ?a = 1/? ? 4.071509 × 10-10 s. The hyperfine structure splitting of the ground state in the MuPs system evaluated with our expectation values is ? ? 23.064(5) MHz.

  9. Specificity of proteinase K at P2 to P3' sub-sites and its comparison to other serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Specificity of the commercially important serine protease, proteinase K, has been investigated by measuring free energies of association of proteinase K with turkey ovomucoid third domain inhibitor variants at contact positions P2, P1, P1', P2', and P3'. Correlations of these values were run with similar values that have been obtained for six other serine proteases. Among the six proteases, subtilisin Carlsberg shows a near perfect correlation (Pearson Product correlation coefficient = 0.93 to 0.99) with proteinase K at all of these positions. Proteinase K has only 35% sequence identity with subtilisin Carlsberg, yet, the two enzymes are nearly identical in their specificity at P2 to P3' positions. With other serine proteases such as bovine chymotrypsin, human leukocyte elastase, porcine pancreatic elastase, Streptomyces griseus protease A and B, proteinase K showed relatively poor or no correlation. PMID:24050203

  10. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; Faillace, L.; Verma, A.; Kim, Y.; Buaphad, P.; Andrews, A.; Berls, B.; Eckman, C.; Folkman, K.; Knowles-Swingle, A.; O’Neill, C.; Smith, M.; Grandsaert, T.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Berg, W. J.; Sereno, N. S.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. The system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.

  11. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. Themore »system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.« less

  12. 75 FR 66734 - Proposed Voluntary Product Standard PS 2-10, Structural Plywood

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is soliciting public comment on a proposed revision to Voluntary Product Standard (PS) 2-04, Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels. This revised standard, PS 2-10, was prepared by the Standing Committee for PS 2 and establishes requirements, for those who choose to adhere to the standard, for the structural criteria......

  13. Pharmacological PPAR? Activation Markedly Alters Plasma Turnover of the Amino Acids Glycine, Serine and Arginine in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Anette; Turner, Nigel; Hansson, Göran I.; Wallenius, Kristina; Oakes, Nicholas D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study extends previously reported PPAR? agonist WY 14,643 (30 µmol/kg/day for 4 weeks) effects on circulating amino acid concentrations in rats fed a 48% saturated fat diet. Steady-state tracer experiments were used to examine in vivo kinetic mechanisms underlying altered plasma serine, glycine and arginine levels. Urinary urea and creatinine excretion were measured to assess whole-body amino acid catabolism. WY 14,643 treated animals demonstrated reduced efficiency to convert food consumed to body weight gain while liver weight was increased compared to controls. WY 14,643 raised total amino acid concentration (38%), largely explained by glycine, serine and threonine increases. 3H-glycine, 14C-serine and 14C-arginine tracer studies revealed elevated rates of appearance (Ra) for glycine (45.5±5.8 versus 17.4±2.7 µmol/kg/min) and serine (21.0±1.4 versus 12.0±1.0) in WY 14,643 versus control. Arginine was substantially decreased (?62%) in plasma with estimated Ra reduced from 3.1±0.3 to 1.2±0.2 µmol/kg/min in control versus WY 14,643. Nitrogen excretion over 24 hours was unaltered. Hepatic arginase activity was substantially decreased by WY 14,643 treatment. In conclusion, PPAR? agonism potently alters metabolism of several specific amino acids in the rat. The changes in circulating levels of serine, glycine and arginine reflected altered fluxes into the plasma rather than changes in clearance or catabolism. This suggests that PPAR? has an important role in modulating serine, glycine and arginine de novo synthesis. PMID:25486018

  14. Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production

    SciTech Connect

    E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre

    2011-12-31

    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

  15. Functional Analysis of a Missense Mutation in the Serine Protease Inhibitor SPINT2 Associated with Congenital Sodium Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Faller, Nicolas; Gautschi, Ivan; Schild, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-bound serine proteases play important roles in different biological processes. Their regulation by endogenous inhibitors is poorly understood. A Y163C mutation in the SPINT2 gene encoding the serine protease inhibitor Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibitor HAI-2 is associated with a congenital sodium diarrhea. The functional consequences of this mutation on HAI-2 activity and its physiological targets are unknown. We established a cellular assay in Xenopus laevis oocytes to study functional interactions between HAI-2 and candidate membrane-bound serine proteases expressed in the gastro-intestinal tract. We found that the wild-type form of HAI-2 is a potent inhibitor of nine gastro-intestinal serine proteases. The Y163C mutation in the second Kunitz domain of HAI-2 resulted in a complete loss of inhibitory activity on two intestinal proteases, prostasin and tmprss13. The effect of the mutation of the homologous Y68C in the first Kunitz domain of HAI-2 is consistent with a differential contribution of the two Kunitz domains of HAI-2 in the inhibition of serine proteases. By contrast to the Tyr to Cys, the Tyr to Ser substitution did not change the inhibitory potency of HAI-2, indicating that the thiol-group of the cysteine rather than the Tyr deletion is responsible for the HAI-2 loss of function. Our functional assay allowed us to identify membrane-bound serine proteases as cellular target for inhibition by HAI-2 wild type and mutants, and to better define the role of the Tyr in the second Kunitz domain in the inhibitory activity of HAI-2. PMID:24722141

  16. Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.

    2006-01-01

    In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.

  17. Kristallstruktur und Schwingungsspektrum des Praseodym-ortho-Thiophosphates PrPS4 / Crystal Structure and Vibrational Spectrum of PrPS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibbelmann, Claus; Brockner, Wolfgang; Eisenmann, Brigitte; Schäfer, Herbert

    1984-02-01

    PrPS4 crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I41/acd with the lattice constants a= 1091.4(5) pm. c = 1936.1(8) pm. In the structure there are slightly distorted PS3-4 tetrahedra as discrete structural units, placed along the b-axis. Far infrared, infrared and Raman spectra of this compound have been recorded. The observed frequencies are assigned rangewise by factor group analysis and the Td-D4h-correlation. The Raman data of rare-earth ortho thiophosphates LnPS4 with Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb and Tm are given in a line diagram.

  18. Kristallstruktur und Schwingungsspektrum des Thallium(I)-Zinn(II)-ortho-Thiophosphates TlSnPS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Robert; Brockner, Wolfgang; Eisenmann, Brigitte

    1987-11-01

    TlSnPS4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pna21 (Nr. 33), Z = 4 with the lattice constants a = 1175.8 (5) pm, b = 890.1 (4) pm, c = 663.3 (4) pm. In the structure are sligthly distorted discrete PS3-4 anions. The far infrared, infrared and Raman spectrum is assigned on the basis of PS3-4 -units with C3v symmetry. According to the DTA data the melting point for TlSnPS4 is 575 ± 5 °C. The title compound is not moisture sensitive and semi-conducting.

  19. Purified Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are an Efficient Source for iPS Cell Induction

    PubMed Central

    Niibe, Kunimichi; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Araki, Daisuke; Morikawa, Satoru; Miura, Kyoko; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Shimmura, Shigeto; Sunabori, Takehiko; Mabuchi, Yo; Nagai, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Matsuzaki, Yumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by the forced expression of defined transcription factors. Although most somatic cells are capable of acquiring pluripotency with minimal gene transduction, the poor efficiency of cell reprogramming and the uneven quality of iPS cells are still important problems. In particular, the choice of cell type most suitable for inducing high-quality iPS cells remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we generated iPS cells from PDGFR?+ Sca-1+ (P?S) adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and PDGFR?? Sca-1? osteo-progenitors (OP cells), and compared the induction efficiency and quality of individual iPS clones. MSCs had a higher reprogramming efficiency compared with OP cells and Tail Tip Fibroblasts (TTFs). The iPS cells induced from MSCs by Oct3/4, Sox2, and Klf4 appeared to be the closest equivalent to ES cells by DNA microarray gene profile and germline-transmission efficiency. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that a purified source of undifferentiated cells from adult tissue can produce high-quality iPS cells. In this context, prospectively enriched MSCs are a promising candidate for the efficient generation of high-quality iPS cells. PMID:21412425

  20. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-02-20

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  1. Sub-10 ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckman, L. L.; Varner, G. S.

    2009-04-01

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit-time-spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10 ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  2. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  3. Serine hydrolase organophosphate interactions: Molecular modeling. Final report, 15 June 1991-31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, I.M.

    1995-02-03

    The aging reaction from the adducts of electric eel (EE) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) acetyicholinesterase (AChE) with soman P(-)C(-) and P(-)C(+) show a bell-shaped pH-rate profile. The aging of soman and sarin are specific acid catalyzed and show small (1.1 - 1.6) solvent isotope effects. These results and molecular mechanics calculations support the push-pull mechanism by Glu199 and the H-bonding array of the oxyanion hole in AChE. Semi-empirical calculations for ten phosphonate derivatives gave optimal results with the MNDO Hamiltonian. MNDO was also used for the generation of optimal - geometries and charges for phosphonate esters of Ser- 195 fragments from AChE. Full refinements were performed using program YETI with the fully solvated native Torpedo califomica - AChE, trypsin and chymotrypsm and their adducts with monoisopropyl and diisopropyl phosphate (trypsin only) diastereomers of 2-propyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate and their dealkylation products. The P(R) adducts of soman-inhibited AChE are 17-26 kcal/mol less stable than the Ps adduct. The P(R) 2-propyl methyiphosphonyl adduct of trypsin is less stable than the Ps isomer by 2 kcallmol and the product of dealkylation of the Ps is more stable by 3.7 kcal/mol.

  4. Protein Engineering vol.1 no.4 pp.313--318, 1987 Comparison of the solution and X-ray structures of barley serine

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    of barley serine proteinase inhibitor 2 G.Marius Gore3 , Angela M.Gronenborn, Michael N.G.James2 , Mogens 'Authors to whom reprint requests should be sent A comparison of the solution n.m.r. structures of barley for the restrained energy minimized mean dynamics structure are 1.5 and 2.4 A, respectively Key words: barley serine

  5. Synthesis of Water-Soluble Poly(-hydroxy acids) from Living Ring-Opening Polymerization of O-Benzyl-L-serine Carboxyanhydrides

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Synthesis of Water-Soluble Poly(-hydroxy acids) from Living Ring-Opening Polymerization of O syn- thesized via diazotization of O-benzyl-L-serine with sodium nitrite in sulfuric acid aqueous solution followed by cyclization of the resulting serine-based -hydroxy acid with phosgene. Degradable

  6. An SC35-like Protein and a Novel Serine/Arginine-rich Protein Interact with Arabidopsis U1-70K Protein*

    E-print Network

    Reddy, A.S.N

    An SC35-like Protein and a Novel Serine/Arginine-rich Protein Interact with Arabidopsis U1-70K in nuclear precursor mRNA processing in animals. By using the C-terminal arginine-rich region of Arabidopsis animal SR proteins, has two distinct arginine/serine-rich domains separated by an RNA rec- ognition motif

  7. Coupling of epithelial Na+ and Cl- channels by direct and indirect activation by serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Gondzik, Veronika; Weber, Wolf Michael; Awayda, Mouhamed S

    2012-11-01

    The mammalian collecting duct (CD) is continuously exposed to urinary proteases. The CD expresses an epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) that is activated after cleavage by serine proteases. ENaC also exists at the plasma membrane in the uncleaved form, rendering activation by extracellular proteases an important mechanism for regulating Na(+) transport. Many exogenous and a small number of endogenous extracellular serine proteases have been shown to activate the channel. Recently, kallikrein 1 (KLK1) was shown to increase ?ENaC cleavage in the native CD indicating a possible direct role of this endogenous protease in Na(+) homeostasis. To explore this process, we examined the coordinated effect of this protease on Na(+) and Cl(-) transport in a polarized renal epithelial cell line (Madin-Darby canine kidney). We also examined the role of native urinary proteases in this process. Short-circuit current (I(sc)) was used to measure transport of these ions. The I(sc) exhibited an ENaC-dependent Na(+) component that was amiloride blockable and a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent Cl(-) component that was blocked by inhibitor 172. Apical application of trypsin, an exogenous S1 serine protease, activated I(ENaC) but was without effects on I(CFTR). Subtilisin an exogenous S8 protease that mimics endogenous furin-type proteases activated both currents. A similar activation was also observed with KLK1 and native rat urinary proteases. Activation with urinary proteases occurred within minutes and at protease concentrations similar to those in the CD indicating physiological significance of this process. ENaC activation was irreversible and mediated by enhanced cleavage of ?ENaC. The activation of CFTR was indirect and likely dependent on activation of an endogenous apical membrane protease receptor. Collectively, these data demonstrate coordinated stimulation of separate Na(+) and Cl(-) transport pathways in renal epithelia by extracellular luminal proteases. They also indicate that baseline urinary proteolytic activity is sufficient to modify Na(+) and Cl(-) transport in these epithelia. PMID:22914644

  8. Phosphatidylserine translocation to the mitochondrion is an ATP-dependent process in permeabilized animal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, D.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were pulse labeled with ({sup 3}H)serine, and the synthesis of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine from phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine during the subsequent chase was used as a measure of lipid translocation to the mitochondria. When the CHO-K1 cells were pulse labeled and subsequently permeabilized with 50 {mu}g of saponin per ml, there was no significant turnover of nascent phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine to form phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine during an ensuring chase. Supplementation of the permeabilized cells with 2 mM ATP resulted in significant phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine synthesis (83% of that found in intact cells) from phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine during a subsequent 2-hr chase. Phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine synthesis essentially ceased after 2 hr in the permeabilized cells. The translocation-dependent synthesis of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine was a saturable process with respect to ATP concentration in permeabilized cells. The conversion of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)serine to phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine did not occur in saponin-treated cultures supplemented with 2 mM AMP, 2 mM 5{prime}-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, or apyrase plus 2 mM ATP. ATP was the most effective nucleotide, but the addition of GTP, CTP, UTP, and ADP also supported the translocation-dependent synthesis of phosphatidyl({sup 3}H)ethanolamine albeit to a lesser extent. These data provide evidence that the interorganelle translocation of phosphatidylserine requires ATP and is largely independent of soluble cytosolic proteins.

  9. Distribution of serine/threonine kinase SAD-B in mouse peripheral nerve synapse.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akari; Harada, Kenu; Hida, Yamato; Kitajima, Isao; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa

    2011-05-11

    The serine/threonine kinase SAD regulates neural functions such as axon/dendrite polarization and neurotransmitter release. In the vertebrate central nervous system, SAD-B, a homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans SAD-1, is associated with synaptic vesicles and the active zone cytomatrix in nerve terminals. However, the distribution of SAD-B in the peripheral nervous system remains elusive. Here, we show that SAD-B is specifically localized to neuromuscular junctions. Although the active zone protein bassoon showed a punctated signal indicating its localization to motor end plates, SAD-B shows relatively diffuse localization indicating its association with both the active zone and synaptic vesicles. Therefore, SAD kinase may regulate neurotransmitter release from motor end plates in a similar manner to its regulation of neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system. PMID:21490487

  10. Fray, a Drosophila serine/threonine kinase homologous to mammalian PASK, is required for axonal ensheathment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiserson, W. M.; Harkins, E. W.; Keshishian, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fray is a serine/threonine kinase expressed by the peripheral glia of Drosophila, whose function is required for normal axonal ensheathment. Null fray mutants die early in larval development and have nerves with severe swelling and axonal defasciculation. The phenotype is associated with a failure of the ensheathing glia to correctly wrap peripheral axons. When the fray cDNA is expressed in the ensheathing glia of fray mutants, normal nerve morphology is restored. Fray belongs to a novel family of Ser/Thr kinases, the PF kinases, whose closest relatives are the PAK kinases. Rescue of the Drosophila mutant phenotype with PASK, the rat homolog of Fray, demonstrates a functional homology among these proteins and suggests that the Fray signaling pathway is widely conserved.

  11. Bumblebee Venom Serine Protease Increases Fungal Insecticidal Virulence by Inducing Insect Melanization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Jong Bin; Fu, Zhenli; Liu, Qin; Tao, Xueying; Jin, Byung Rae; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L.; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing (entomopathogenic) fungi have high potential for controlling agriculturally harmful pests. However, their pathogenicity is slow, and this is one reason for their poor acceptance as a fungal insecticide. The expression of bumblebee, Bombus ignitus, venom serine protease (VSP) by Beauveria bassiana (ERL1170) induced melanization of yellow spotted longicorn beetles (Psacothea hilaris) as an over-reactive immune response, and caused substantially earlier mortality in beet armyworm (Spodopetra exigua) larvae when compared to the wild type. No fungal outgrowth or sporulation was observed on the melanized insects, thus suggesting a self-restriction of the dispersal of the genetically modified fungus in the environment. The research is the first use of a multi-functional bumblebee VSP to significantly increase the speed of fungal pathogenicity, while minimizing the dispersal of the fungal transformant in the environment. PMID:23626832

  12. Selective inhibition of plant serine hydrolases by agrochemicals revealed by competitive ABPP.

    PubMed

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Nickel, Sabrina; Pandey, Bikram; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2012-01-15

    Organophosphate and -phosphonates and their thio derivatives are often used in agroindustry as herbicides and insecticides, but their potential off-targets in the plant are poorly investigated. Here, we use competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of serine hydrolases (SHs) to detect targets of these agrochemicals and other compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using broad-range and specific probes, and by overexpression of various SHs in planta, we are able to confirm eight SH-compound interactions, including selective inhibition of carboxylesterase CXE12, prolyloligopeptidase, methylesterase MES2 and tripeptidyl peptidase TPP2. These observations can be used for the design of novel probes and selective inhibitors and may help to assess physiological effects of agrochemicals on crop plants. PMID:21764588

  13. Selective Inhibition of Plant Serine Hydrolases by Agrochemicals Revealed by Competitive ABPP

    PubMed Central

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Nickel, Sabrina; Pandey, Bikram; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate and –phosphonates and their thiol derivatives are often used in agroindustry as herbicides and insecticides, but their potential off-targets in the plant and their consumers are poorly investigated. Here, we use competitive Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP) of serine hydrolases (SHs) to detect targets of these agrochemicals and other compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using broad-range and specific probes, and by overexpression of various SHs in planta, we are able to confirm eight SH-compound interactions, including selective inhibition of carboxylesterase CXE12, prolyloligopeptidase, methylesterase MES2 and tripeptidyl peptidase TPP2. These observations can be used for the design of novel probes and selective inhibitors and may help to assess physiological effects of agrochemicals on crop plants. PMID:21764588

  14. The Role of Serine Proteases and Antiproteases in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Matthew S; Brockbank, Simon; Lowry, Philip; FitzGerald, S Peter; Taggart, Clifford; Weldon, Sinéad

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is an inherited condition with an incidence rate of approximately 1 in 2500 new born babies. CF is characterized as chronic infection of the lung which leads to inflammation of the airway. Sputum from CF patients contains elevated levels of neutrophils and subsequently elevated levels of neutrophil serine proteases. In a healthy individual these proteases aid in the phagocytic process by degrading microbial peptides and are kept in homeostatic balance by cognate antiproteases. Due to the heavy neutrophil burden associated with CF the high concentration of neutrophil derived proteases overwhelms cognate antiproteases. The general effects of this protease/antiprotease imbalance are impaired mucus clearance, increased and self-perpetuating inflammation, and impaired immune responses and tissue. To restore this balance antiproteases have been suggested as potential therapeutics or therapeutic targets. As such a number of both endogenous and synthetic antiproteases have been trialed with mixed success as therapeutics for CF lung disease. PMID:26185359

  15. The biosynthesis of serine and glycine in Pseudomonas AM1 with special reference to growth on carbon sources other than C1 compounds

    PubMed Central

    Harder, W.; Quayle, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    1. A mutant, 20S, of Pseudomonas AM1 was obtained that requires a supplement of serine to grow on succinate, lactate or ethanol. This mutant lacks phosphoserine phosphatase and revertants to wild-type phenotype regained this enzymic activity showing that the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis is necessary for growth on these three substrates. 2. The requirement for supplemental serine by mutant 20S could be met by glycine, suggesting that Pseudomonas AM1 can obtain C1 units from glycine. 3. Mutant 20S grows on C1 compounds at a lower rate compared with the wild type. Supplementation with serine stimulated the growth rate of the mutant suggesting that the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis plays some role, but not an essential role, during growth on C1 compounds. 4. A mutant, 82G, was obtained that requires a supplement of glycine to grow on succinate, lactate or ethanol. When grown in such supplemented media, the mutant lacks serine hydroxymethyltransferase and revertants to wild-type phenotype regained enzymic activity showing that during growth on succinate, lactate or ethanol, glycine is made from serine via serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and that the organism can obtain C1 units from glycine. 5. Mutant 82G grew on methanol and then contained serine hydroxymethyltransferase suggesting that this enzyme is necessary for growth on C1 compounds and that Pseudomonas AM1 may synthesize two such enzymes, one used in growth on C1 compounds, the other used in growth on other substrates. Mutant 82G might lack the latter enzyme. 6. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is specifically inhibited by l-serine and the regulatory implications of this are discussed. PMID:4329715

  16. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-08-11

    Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the D-alanyl–D-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with D-alanyl–D-lactate or D-alanyl–D-serine (D-Ala-D-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of D-Ala-D-Ser-terminating precursors by converting L-Ser to D-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in L-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 wasmore »determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for theL-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against L-Ser versus L-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for L-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of D-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.« less

  17. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-08-11

    Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the D-alanyl–D-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with D-alanyl–D-lactate or D-alanyl–D-serine (D-Ala-D-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of D-Ala-D-Ser-terminating precursors by converting L-Ser to D-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in L-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for theL-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against L-Ser versus L-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for L-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of D-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  18. IrSPI, a Tick Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Tick Feeding and Bartonella henselae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C.; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its potentialities as vaccine against the ticks and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:25057911

  19. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases

    PubMed Central

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the d-alanyl–d-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with d-alanyl–d-lactate or d-alanyl–d-serine (d-Ala-d-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of d-Ala-d-Ser-terminating precursors by converting l-Ser to d-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in l-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for the l-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against l-Ser versus l-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for l-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of d-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:26265719

  20. Pest Protection Conferred by a Beta vulgaris Serine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Smigocki, Ann C.; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savi?, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases. PMID:23468963

  1. Characterization of a novel arginine/serine-rich splicing factor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Lopato, S; Waigmann, E; Barta, A

    1996-01-01

    Many splicing factors in vertebrate nuclei belong to a class of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing arginine/serine (RS) or serine/arginine (SR) domains. Previously, we demonstrated the existence of SR splicing factors in plants. In this article, we report on a novel member of this splicing factor family from Arabidopsis designated atRSp31. It has one N-terminal RNA recognition motif and a C-terminal RS domain highly enriched in arginines. The RNA recognition motif shows significant homology to all animal SR proteins identified to date, but the intermediate region does not show any homology to any other known protein. Subsequently, we characterized two cDNAs from Arabidopsis that are highly homologous to atRSp31 (designated atRSp35 and atRSp41). Their deduced amino acid sequences indicate that these proteins constitute a new family of RS domain splicing factors. Purified recombinant atRSp31 is able to restore splicing in SR protein-deficient human S100 extracts. This indicates that atRSp31 is a true plant splicing factor and plays a crucial role in splicing, similar to that of other RS splicing factors. All of the three genes are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The isolation of this new plant splicing factor family enlarges the essential group of RS domain splicing factors. Furthermore, because no animal equivalent to this protein family has been identified to date, our results suggest that these proteins play key roles in constitutive and alternative splicing in plants. PMID:8989882

  2. Mitochondrial Localized Stat3 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth via Phosphorylation of Serine 727*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifang; Raje, Vidisha; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Yacoub, Adly; Szczepanek, Karol; Meier, Jeremy; Derecka, Marta; Chen, Qun; Hu, Ying; Sisler, Jennifer; Hamed, Hossein; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Valerie, Kristoffer; Dent, Paul; Larner, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key mediator in the development of many cancers. For 20 years, it has been assumed that Stat3 mediates its biological activities as a nuclear localized transcription factor activated by many cytokines. However, recent studies from this laboratory and others indicate that Stat3 has an independent function in the mitochondria (mitoStat3) where it controls the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and mediates Ras-induced transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The actions of mitoStat3 in controlling respiration and Ras transformation are mediated by the phosphorylation state of serine 727. To address the role of mitoStat3 in the pathogenesis of cells that are transformed, we used 4T1 breast cancer cells, which form tumors that metastasize in immunocompetent mice. Substitution of Ser-727 for an alanine or aspartate in Stat3 that has a mitochondrial localization sequence, MLS-Stat3, has profound effects on tumor growth, complex I activity of the ETC, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727A) display slower tumor growth, decreased complex I activity of the ETC, and increased ROS accumulation under hypoxia compared with cells expressing MLS-Stat3. In contrast, cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727D) show enhanced tumor growth and complex I activity and decreased production of ROS. These results highlight the importance of serine 727 of mitoStat3 in breast cancer and suggest a novel role for mitoStat3 in regulation of ROS concentrations through its action on the ETC. PMID:24019511

  3. The Serine Protease Domain of MASP-3: Enzymatic Properties and Crystal Structure in Complex with Ecotin

    PubMed Central

    Gaboriaud, Christine; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Martin, Lydie; Lacroix, Monique; Serre, Laurence; Teillet, Florence; Arlaud, Gérard J.; Rossi, Véronique; Thielens, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins and collectin-11 are known to associate with three homologous modular proteases, the MBL-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). The crystal structures of the catalytic domains of MASP-1 and MASP-2 have been solved, but the structure of the corresponding domain of MASP-3 remains unknown. A link between mutations in the MASP1/3 gene and the rare autosomal recessive 3MC (Mingarelli, Malpuech, Michels and Carnevale,) syndrome, characterized by various developmental disorders, was discovered recently, revealing an unexpected important role of MASP-3 in early developmental processes. To gain a first insight into the enzymatic and structural properties of MASP-3, a recombinant form of its serine protease (SP) domain was produced and characterized. The amidolytic activity of this domain on fluorescent peptidyl-aminomethylcoumarin substrates was shown to be considerably lower than that of other members of the C1r/C1s/MASP family. The E. coli protease inhibitor ecotin bound to the SP domains of MASP-3 and MASP-2, whereas no significant interaction was detected with MASP-1, C1r and C1s. A tetrameric complex comprising an ecotin dimer and two MASP-3 SP domains was isolated and its crystal structure was solved and refined to 3.2 Å. Analysis of the ecotin/MASP-3 interfaces allows a better understanding of the differential reactivity of the C1r/C1s/MASP protease family members towards ecotin, and comparison of the MASP-3 SP domain structure with those of other trypsin-like proteases yields novel hypotheses accounting for its zymogen-like properties in vitro. PMID:23861840

  4. Spinesin/TMPRSS5, a novel transmembrane serine protease, cloned from human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nozomi; Okui, Akira; Yamada, Tatsuo; Nakazato, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Shinichi

    2002-03-01

    A cDNA encoding a novel serine protease, which we designated spinesin, has been cloned from human spinal cord. The longest open reading frame was 457 amino acids. A homology search revealed that the human spinesin gene was located at chromosome 11q23 and contained 13 exons, the gene structure being similar to that of TMPRSS3 whose gene is also located on 11q23. Spinesin has a simple type II transmembrane structure, consisting of, from the N terminus, a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain. Unlike TMPRSS3, it carries no low density lipoprotein receptor domain in the stem region. The extracellular region carries five N-glycosylation sites. The sequence of the protease domain carried the essential triad His, Asp, and Ser and showed some similarity to that of TMPRSS2, hepsin, HAT, MT-SP1, TMPRSS3, and corin, sharing 45.5, 41.9, 41.3, 40.3, 39.1, and 38.5% identity, respectively. The putative mature protease domain preceded by H(6)DDDDK was produced in Escherichia coli, purified, and successfully activated by immobilized enterokinase. Its optimal pH was about 10. It cleaved synthetic substrates for trypsin, which is inhibited by p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not by antipain or leupeptin. Northern blot analysis against mRNA from human tissues including liver, lung, placenta, and heart demonstrated a specific expression of spinesin mRNA in the brain. Immunohistochemically, spinesin was predominantly expressed in neurons, in their axons, and at the synapses of motoneurons in the spinal cord. In addition, some oligodendrocytes were clearly stained. These results indicate that spinesin is transported to the synapses through the axons after its synthesis in the cytoplasm and may play important roles at the synapses. Further analyses are required to clarify its roles at the synapses and in oligodendrocytes. PMID:11741986

  5. The Mechanism of Inhibition of Antibody-based Inhibitors of Membrane-type Serine Protease 1 (MT-SP1)

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    The Mechanism of Inhibition of Antibody-based Inhibitors of Membrane-type Serine Protease 1 (MT-SP1, 600 16th St. Genentech Hall, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA The mechanisms of inhibition of two novel sc-SP1 at low pH, and is a standard mechanism inhibitor of the protease. The mechanisms of inhibition

  6. Structural Basis of Trypsin Inhibition and Entomotoxicity of Cospin, Serine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Defense of Coprinopsis cinerea Fruiting Bodies*

    PubMed Central

    Saboti?, Jerica; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Renko, Miha; Avanzo Cagli?, Petra; Kallert, Sandra; Štrukelj, Borut; Turk, Dušan; Aebi, Markus; Kos, Janko; Künzler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Cospin (PIC1) from Coprinopsis cinerea is a serine protease inhibitor with biochemical properties similar to those of the previously characterized fungal serine protease inhibitors, cnispin from Clitocybe nebularis and LeSPI from Lentinus edodes, classified in the family I66 of the MEROPS protease inhibitor classification. In particular, it exhibits a highly specific inhibitory profile as a very strong inhibitor of trypsin with Ki in the picomolar range. Determination of the crystal structure revealed that the protein has a ?-trefoil fold. Site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry results have confirmed Arg-27 as the reactive binding site for trypsin inhibition. The loop containing Arg-27 is positioned between the ?2 and ?3 strands, distinguishing cospin from other ?-trefoil-fold serine protease inhibitors in which ?4-?5 or ?5-?6 loops are involved in protease inhibition. Biotoxicity assays of cospin on various model organisms revealed a strong and specific entomotoxic activity against Drosophila melanogaster. The inhibitory inactive R27N mutant was not entomotoxic, associating toxicity with inhibitory activity. Along with the abundance of cospin in fruiting bodies of C. cinerea and the lack of trypsin-like proteases in the C. cinerea genome, these results suggest that cospin and its homologs are effectors of a fungal defense mechanism against fungivorous insects that function by specific inhibition of serine proteases in the insect gut. PMID:22167196

  7. Localization of the Serine Protease-binding Sites in the Collagen-like Domain of Mannose-binding Protein

    E-print Network

    Localization of the Serine Protease-binding Sites in the Collagen-like Domain of Mannose to activate MASPs. Serum mannose-binding protein (MBP)1 interacts with car- bohydrates on the surface (1, 2). MBP, which is also referred to as mannose-binding lectin, binds to surface arrays containing

  8. barren inflorescence2 Encodes a Co-Ortholog of the PINOID Serine/Threonine Kinase and Is Required for

    E-print Network

    Malcomber, Simon

    barren inflorescence2 Encodes a Co-Ortholog of the PINOID Serine/Threonine Kinase and Is Required for Organogenesis during Inflorescence and Vegetative Development in Maize1[C][W][OA] Paula McSteen*, Simon) and rice (Oryza sativa) have additional types of axillary meristems in the inflorescence compared

  9. The investigation of nematocidal activity in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2 and characterization of a novel virulence serine protease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowei; Liu, Junwei; Ding, Junmei; He, Qiusheng; Xiong, Rui; Zhang, Keqin

    2009-08-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2 was isolated from a soil sample and was found to have high nematotoxic activity against a free-living nematode, Panagrellus redivivus, and a plant-parasitic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The analysis of virulence factors revealed that although the small molecular metabolites participated in nematode killing, the crude extracellular protein extract from the bacterial culture supernatant contributed significantly to its nematocidal activity. An extracellular protease was purified by chromatography, and its effects on degrading purified nematode cuticle and killing living nematodes were confirmed experimentally. Characterization of this purified protease revealed that the application of phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, an inhibitor of serine proteases, could completely abolish its proteolytic activity. The results from N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed no similarity with any known serine protease in S. maltophilia, suggesting a novel virulence serine protease was obtained. Our study is the first to show the nematocidal activity of S. maltophilia, and we identified a novel serine protease as an important pathogenicity factor. PMID:19898533

  10. PS 135: Game Theory in the Social Sciences Prof. Sean Gailmard

    E-print Network

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    PS 135: Game Theory in the Social Sciences Prof. Sean Gailmard Dept. of Political Science UC. The purposes of the course are to give students a sense of the field of game theory and how political level of mathematics required in the course is relatively light. #12;PS 135: Game Theory in the Social

  11. 7 CFR 1753.37 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.37 Section 1753..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Purchase and Installation of Central Office Equipment § 1753.37 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior...

  12. Emission properties of porphyrin compounds in new polymeric PS:CBP host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Bahram

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a device with fundamental structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (60 nm)/PS:CBP (70 nm)/Al (150 nm) was fabricated. The electroluminescence spectrum of device designated a red shift rather than PS:CBP photoluminescence spectra. It can be suggested that the electroplex emission occurs at PS:CBP interface. By following this step, red light-emitting devices using porphyrin compounds as a red dopant in a new host material PS:CBP with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (60 nm)/PS:CBP:porphyrin compounds(70 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. The electroluminescent spectra of the porphyrin compounds were red-shifted as compared with the PS:CBP blend. OLED devices based on doping 3,4PtTPP and TPPNO2 in PS:CBP showed purer red emission compared with ZnTPP and CoTPP doped devices. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on porphyrin compounds depends on overlaps between the absorption of the porphyrin compounds and the emission of PS:CBP.

  13. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15atx as a type-Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Depagne, E.

    2015-06-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15atx on 2015 June 20.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 400-950 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15atx to be a normal type-Ia supernova a few days before maximum light.

  14. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bzz as a type-Ia supernova at maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Miszalski, B.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bzz on 2015 Aug 16.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-820 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bzz is a type-Ia supernova within a few days of maximum light.

  15. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bjg as a type-Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Colmenero, E. Romero

    2015-07-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bjg on 2015 July 27.0 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-900 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bjg to be a normal type-Ia supernova several days before maximum light.

  16. PsANT, the adenine nucleotide translocase of Puccinia striiformis, promotes cell death and fungal growth

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chunlei; Wei, Jinping; Han, Qingmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Xiaoyuan; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Xueling; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a constitutive mitochondrial component that is involved in ADP/ATP exchange and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in yeast and mammals. However, little is known about the function of ANT in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ANT gene of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), designated PsANT. The PsANT protein contains three typical conserved mitochondrion-carrier-protein (mito-carr) domains and shares more than 70% identity with its orthologs from other fungi, suggesting that ANT is conserved in fungi. Immuno-cytochemical localization confirmed the mitochondrial localization of PsANT in normal Pst hyphal cells or collapsed cells. Over-expression of PsANT indicated that PsANT promotes cell death in tobacco, wheat and fission yeast cells. Further study showed that the three mito-carr domains are all needed to induce cell death. qRT-PCR analyses revealed an in-planta induced expression of PsANT during infection. Knockdown of PsANT using a host-induced gene silencing system (HIGS) attenuated the growth and development of virulent Pst at the early infection stage but not enough to alter its pathogenicity. These results provide new insight into the function of PsANT in fungal cell death and growth and might be useful in the search for and design of novel disease control strategies. PMID:26058921

  17. Proposed Policy Statement Number: PS-67 Title/Topic: Misuse of Drugs or Alcohol

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    603094.2 Proposed Policy Statement Number: PS-67 Title/Topic: Misuse of Drugs or Alcohol Effective Date: 01/07/2013 Revision Number: PS0067.R05 MISUSE OF DRUGS OR ALCOHOL Louisiana State University of the University. Although the University respects an employee's right to privacy, the misuse of drugs or alcohol

  18. 76 FR 35683 - Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health Centers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...This proposed rule would establish, for the first time, conditions of participation (CoPs) that community mental health centers (CMHCs) would have to meet in order to participate in the Medicare program. These proposed CoPs would focus on the care provided to the client, establish requirements for staff and provider operations, and encourage clients to participate in their care plan and......

  19. NASA PS400: A New Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Edmonds, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    A new solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, has been developed for high temperature tribological applications. This plasma sprayed coating is a variant of the patented PS304 coating and has been formulated to provide higher density, smoother surface finish and better dimensional stability than PS304. PS400 is comprised of a nickel-molybdenum binder that provides strength, creep resistance and extreme oxidative and dimensional stability. Chromium oxide, silver and barium-calcium fluoride eutectic are added to the binder to form PS400.Tribological properties were evaluated with a pin-on-disk test rig in sliding contact to 650 C. Coating material samples were exposed to air, argon and vacuum at 760 C followed by cross section microscopic analysis to assess microstructure stability. Oil-Free microturbine engine hot section foil bearing tests were undertaken to assess PS400 s suitability for hot foil gas bearing applications. The preliminary results indicate that PS400 exhibits tribological characteristics comparable to the PS304 coating but with enhanced creep resistance and dimensional stability suitable for demanding, dynamic applications.

  20. Elastomeric Capture Microparticles (ECmuPs) and Their use with Acoustophoresis to Perform Affinity Capture Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Kevin Wallace

    This dissertation describes the development of elastomeric capture microparticles (ECmicroPs) and their use with acoustophoresis to perform affinity capture assays. EC?Ps that function as negative acoustic contrast particles were developed by crosslinking emulsion-based droplets composed of commercially available silicone precursors followed by functionalization with avidin/biotin reagents. The size distribution of the EC?Ps was very broad or narrow depending on the emulsion system that was used during the synthesis process. Elastomeric particles exhibited a very broad size distribution when a bulk-emulsion process was used; however, when microfluidic systems were utilized, their size distribution became comparatively narrow. The functionalization of elastomeric particles was accomplished by the non-specific adsorption of avidin protein followed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) blocking and bio-specific adsorption of a biotinylated-capture antibody. Polydisperse EC?Ps were functionalized to bind prostate specific antigen (PSA) or IgG-phycoerythrin (PE) in aqueous media (buffer, plasma, blood); whereas monodisperse EC?Ps were functionalized to bind a high density lipoprotein in the aqueous media. Polydisperse EC?Ps functionalized to bind PSA in a physiological buffer (PBS pH 7.4) demonstrated nanomolar detection using flow cytometry analysis; whereas EC?Ps functionalized to bind IgG-PE demonstrated picomolar detection in 10% porcine plasma. EC?Ps have a specific density of ~1.03 and are more compressible than their surrounding aqueous media; which allowed the EC?Ps to exhibit negative acoustic contrast properties under an ultrasonic acoustic standing wave field. The negative acoustic contrast property of EC?Ps was advantageously utilized in an IgG-PE assay conducted in 0.1% whole porcine blood. The ligand-bound EC?Ps suspended in the diluted blood sample were flowed through an acoustofluidic device where the application of an ultrasonic acoustic standing wave field focused the ligand-bound EC?Ps to pressure antinodes and the positive acoustic contrast blood cells to the central pressure node of the microchannel. As a result of laminar flow, focused ligand-bound EC?Ps and blood cells were flowed into properly aligned outlet channels at the downstream trifurcation, where they where collected separately off-chip. The cell-free fraction containing ligand-bound EC?Ps was analyzed using flow cytometry; where the detection of IgG-PE was in the picomolar range. This approach has potential applications in the development of rapid assays that detect the presence of low concentrations of biomarkers in a number of biological sample types.

  1. Self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanium dioxide on copolymer microspheres (PS) for CdSe/PS and TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-07-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as the building blocks for designing next generation solar cells, chemical/biological sensors, and metal chalcogenides (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe) are particularly useful for harnessing size-dependent optical and electronic properties in nanostructures. In this paper, relying on the interaction including van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond, CdSe/PS sub-microspheres composite and TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure were prepared via self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanium dioxide on modified PS surface. The morphology, structure and composition obtained products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show the CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanate were assembled on the surface of PS sub-microspheres. CdSe QD-polymer sub-microspheres composites in which the QDs retain their original emission efficiency can be obtained. TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure can improve the efficiency of charge separation.

  2. iPS cell technologies: significance and applications to CNS regeneration and disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, we demonstrated that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by gene transfer, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Since that time, there has been an enormous increase in interest regarding the application of iPS cell technologies to medical science, in particular for regenerative medicine and human disease modeling. In this review article, we outline the current status of applications of iPS technology to cell therapies (particularly for spinal cord injury), as well as neurological disease-specific iPS cell research (particularly for Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). Finally, future directions of iPS cell research are discussed including a) development of an accurate assay system for disease-associated phenotypes, b) demonstration of causative relationships between genotypes and phenotypes by genome editing, c) application to sporadic and common diseases, and d) application to preemptive medicine. PMID:24685317

  3. Tribology and Microstructure of PS212 with a Cr2O3 Seal Coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Benoy, Patricia A.; Korenyi-Both, Andras; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    PS212 is a plasma sprayed metal bonding chrome carbide coating with solid lubricant additives which has lubricating properties at temperatures up to about 900 deg C. The coating is diamond ground to achieve an acceptable tribological surface. But, as with many plasma spray coatings, PS212 is not fully-dense. In this study, a chromium oxide base seal coating is used in an attempt to seal any porosity that is open to the surface of the PS212 coating, and to study the effect of the sealant on the tribological properties of PS212. The results indicate that the seal coating reduces friction and wear when it is applied and then diamond ground leaving a thin layer of seal coating which fills in the surface pits of the PS212 coating.

  4. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. )

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  5. A Critical Appraisal of NLO+PS Matching Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Siegert, Frank; /Freiburg U.

    2012-03-19

    In this publication, uncertainties in and differences between the MC{at}NLO and POWHEG methods for matching next-to-leading order QCD calculations with parton showers are discussed. Implementations of both algorithms within the event generator SHERPA are employed to assess the impact on a representative selection of observables. In the MC{at}NLO approach a phase space restriction has been added to subtraction and parton shower, which allows to vary in a transparent way the amount of non-singular radiative corrections that are exponentiated. Effects on various observables are investigated, using the production of a Higgs boson in gluon fusion, with or without an associated jet, as a benchmark process. The case of H+jet production is presented for the first time in an NLO+PS matched simulation. Uncertainties due to scale choices and non-perturbative effects are explored in the production of W{sup {+-}} and Z bosons in association with a jet. Corresponding results are compared to data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  6. Targeting the membrane-anchored serine protease testisin with a novel engineered anthrax toxin prodrug to kill tumor cells and reduce tumor burden.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erik W; Buzza, Marguerite S; Driesbaugh, Kathryn H; Liu, Shihui; Fortenberry, Yolanda M; Leppla, Stephen H; Antalis, Toni M

    2015-10-20

    The membrane-anchored serine proteases are a unique group of trypsin-like serine proteases that are tethered to the cell surface via transmembrane domains or glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchors. Overexpressed in tumors, with pro-tumorigenic properties, they are attractive targets for protease-activated prodrug-like anti-tumor therapies. Here, we sought to engineer anthrax toxin protective antigen (PrAg), which is proteolytically activated on the cell surface by the proprotein convertase furin to instead be activated by tumor cell-expressed membrane-anchored serine proteases to function as a tumoricidal agent. PrAg's native activation sequence was mutated to a sequence derived from protein C inhibitor (PCI) that can be cleaved by membrane-anchored serine proteases, to generate the mutant protein PrAg-PCIS. PrAg-PCIS was resistant to furin cleavage in vitro, yet cytotoxic to multiple human tumor cell lines when combined with FP59, a chimeric anthrax toxin lethal factor-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein. Molecular analyses showed that PrAg-PCIS can be cleaved in vitro by several serine proteases including the membrane-anchored serine protease testisin, and mediates increased killing of testisin-expressing tumor cells. Treatment with PrAg-PCIS also potently attenuated the growth of testisin-expressing xenograft tumors in mice. The data indicates PrAg can be engineered to target tumor cell-expressed membrane-anchored serine proteases to function as a potent tumoricidal agent. PMID:26392335

  7. Transgene Excision Has No Impact on In Vivo Integration of Human iPS Derived Neural Precursors

    E-print Network

    Major, Tamara

    The derivation of induced human pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) has generated significant enthusiasm particularly for the prospects of cell-based therapy. But there are concerns about the suitability of iPS cells for in vivo ...

  8. Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.

    PubMed

    Abad, María; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Graña, Osvaldo; Megías, Diego; Domínguez, Orlando; Martínez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-10-17

    Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine. PMID:24025773

  9. An AVO method toward direct detection of lithologies combining P-P and P-S reflection data 

    E-print Network

    Carcuz Jerez, Juan Ramon de Jesus

    2004-09-30

    of the intercepts and gradients [APP : RPP in- tercept; BPP : RPP gradient; APS: R0PS intercept; and BPS: R0PS gradient]. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18 2.3 Estimated and actual values of ¢VP =VP ;¢VS=VS;¢½=½, and VP =VS... chapter II [VP : P¡wave velocity; VS : S¡wave veloc- ity; and ½ : density]. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 37 3.2 Intercepts and gradients [APP : RPP intercept; BPP : RPP gradi- ent; APS: R0PS intercept; and BPS: R0PS gradient...

  10. Delayed Amyloid Plaque Deposition and Behavioral Deficits in Outcrossed A?PP/PS1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Brian A.; Kerrisk, Meghan E.; Kaufman, Adam C.; Nygaard, Haakon B.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; Koleske, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia characterized by amyloid plaque accumulation, synapse/dendrite loss, and cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-? precursor protein (A?PP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of this disease and provide a useful model system for studying elements of AD progression. A?PP/PS1 mice have been previously shown to exhibit behavioral deficits and amyloid plaque deposition between 4–9 months of age. We crossed A?PP/PS1 animals with mice of a mixed genetic background (C57BL/6 × 129/SvJ) and investigated the development of AD-like features in the resulting outcrossed mice. The onset of memory-based behavioral impairment is delayed considerably in outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice relative to inbred mice on a C57BL/6 background. While inbred A?PP/PS1 mice develop deficits in radial-arm water maze performance and novel object recognition as early as 8 months, outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice do not display defects until 18 months. Within the forebrain, we find that inbred A?PP/PS1 mice have significantly higher amyloid plaque burden at 12 months than outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice of the same age. Surprisingly, inbred A?PP/PS1 mice at 8 months have low plaque burden suggesting that plaque burden alone cannot explain the accompanying behavioral deficits. Analysis of A?PP processing revealed that elevated levels of soluble A? correlate with the degree of behavioral impairment in both strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that animal behavior, amyloid plaque deposition, and A?PP processing are sensitive to genetic differences between mouse strains. PMID:23047754

  11. Self-assembled micelles of amphiphilic poly(l-phenylalanine)-b-poly(l-serine) polypeptides for tumor-targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Han, Jin; Wang, Keli; Yang, Dan; Yang, Yihua; Du, Qian; Song, Yuanjian; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize self-assembled micelles based on polypeptides as a potential antitumor drug carrier. Amphiphilic poly(l-phenylalanine)-b-poly(l-serine) (PFS) polypeptides were obtained through the polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride. As a novel hydrophilic segment, poly(l-serine) was utilized to enhance tumor targeting due to a large demand of tumors for serine. PFS could self-assemble into micelles with an average diameter of 110–240 nm and a slightly negative charge. PFS polypeptides adopted random coil in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline and could partly transform to ?-helix induced by trifluoroethanol. PFS micelles with a low critical micelle concentration of 4.0 ?g mL?1 were stable in pH 5–9 buffers and serum albumin solution. PFS micelles had a loading capacity of 3.8% for coumarin-6 and exhibited a sustained drug release. Coumarin-6 loaded rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labeled PFS micelles were incubated with Huh-7 tumor cells to study the correlation between drugs and carriers during endocytosis. The uptake of drugs was consistent with the micelles, illustrating that the intracellular transport of drugs highly depended on the micelles. PFS micelles diffused in whole cytoplasm while coumarin-6 assumed localized distribution, suggesting that the micelles could release the loaded drugs in particular areas. The internalization mechanism of PFS micelles was involved with clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Excess serine inhibited the uptake of PFS micelles, which demonstrated that serine receptors played a positive role in the internalization of PFS. The more interesting thing was that the uptake inhibition impacted on normal cells but not on tumor cells at the physiological concentration of serine. The difference in the uptake of PFS micelles was fourfold as high between the tumor cells and the normal cells, which indicated that PFS micelles had good tumor targeting in vitro. In conclusion, PFS micelles reported in this work were a promising drug delivery system for tumor targeting therapy. PMID:25540585

  12. Purification and characterization of a serine alkaline protease from Bacillus clausii GMBAE 42.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Oner, Mine N Kerimak; Erarslan, Altan

    2005-08-01

    An extracellular serine alkaline protease of Bacillus clausii GMBAE 42 was produced in protein-rich medium in shake-flask cultures for 3 days at pH 10.5 and 37 degrees C. Highest alkaline protease activity was observed in the late stationary phase of cell cultivation. The enzyme was purified 16-fold from culture filtrate by DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, with a yield of 58%. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the molecular weight of the enzyme to be 26.50 kDa. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 60 degrees C; however, it is shifted to 70 degrees C after addition of 5 mM Ca(2+) ions. The enzyme was stable between 30 and 40 degrees C for 2 h at pH 10.5; only 14% activity loss was observed at 50 degrees C. The optimal pH of the enzyme was 11.3. The enzyme was also stable in the pH 9.0--12.2 range for 24 h at 30 degrees C; however, activity losses of 38% and 76% were observed at pH values of 12.7 and 13.0, respectively. The activation energy of Hammarsten casein hydrolysis by the purified enzyme was 10.59 kcal mol(-1) (44.30 kJ mol(-1)). The enzyme was stable in the presence of the 1% (w/v) Tween-20, Tween-40,Tween-60, Tween-80, and 0.2% (w/v) SDS for 1 h at 30 degrees C and pH 10.5. Only 10% activity loss was observed with 1% sodium perborate under the same conditions. The enzyme was not inhibited by iodoacetate, ethylacetimidate, phenylglyoxal, iodoacetimidate, n-ethylmaleimidate, n-bromosuccinimide, diethylpyrocarbonate or n-ethyl-5-phenyl-iso-xazolium-3'-sulfonate. Its complete inhibition by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride and relatively high k (cat) value for N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA hydrolysis indicates that the enzyme is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. K (m) and k (cat) values were estimated at 0.655 microM N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and 4.21 x 10(3) min(-1), respectively. PMID:15988584

  13. Multipolar electrostatics based on the Kriging machine learning method: an application to serine.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongna; Mills, Matthew J L; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-04-01

    A multipolar, polarizable electrostatic method for future use in a novel force field is described. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) is used to partition the electron density of a chemical system into atoms, then the machine learning method Kriging is used to build models that relate the multipole moments of the atoms to the positions of their surrounding nuclei. The pilot system serine is used to study both the influence of the level of theory and the set of data generator methods used. The latter consists of: (i) sampling of protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), or (ii) normal mode distortion along either (a) Cartesian coordinates, or (b) redundant internal coordinates. Wavefunctions for the sampled geometries were obtained at the HF/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/apc-1, and MP2/cc-pVDZ levels of theory, prior to calculation of the atomic multipole moments by volume integration. The average absolute error (over an independent test set of conformations) in the total atom-atom electrostatic interaction energy of serine, using Kriging models built with the three data generator methods is 11.3 kJ mol?¹ (PDB), 8.2 kJ mol?¹ (Cartesian distortion), and 10.1 kJ mol?¹ (redundant internal distortion) at the HF/6-31G(d,p) level. At the B3LYP/apc-1 level, the respective errors are 7.7 kJ mol?¹, 6.7 kJ mol?¹, and 4.9 kJ mol?¹, while at the MP2/cc-pVDZ level they are 6.5 kJ mol?¹, 5.3 kJ mol?¹, and 4.0 kJ mol?¹. The ranges of geometries generated by the redundant internal coordinate distortion and by extraction from the PDB are much wider than the range generated by Cartesian distortion. The atomic multipole moment and electrostatic interaction energy predictions for the B3LYP/apc-1 and MP2/cc-pVDZ levels are similar, and both are better than the corresponding predictions at the HF/6-31G(d,p) level. PMID:24633774

  14. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Niederman, Robert A.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Frank, Harry A.

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees represented a diverse international and multidisciplinary group, with over 160 individuals attending from a total of 17 different countries. Attendees came from a wide range of fields assuring that the widest possible interdisciplinary exchanges. They included prominent biochemists, biophysicists, plant physiologists, chemical physicists, as well as theoretical and computational physical chemists, who presented their research findings or to hear the latest advances in this very dynamic field. In the choice of speakers, a balance was created between established scientists and young, emerging researchers, given this opportunity to showcase their results. Sessions were held on electronic and vibrational coherence including coherent sharing of excitations among donor and acceptor molecules during excitation energy transfer, nonphotochemical quenching, acclimation to light environments, evolution, adaptation and biodiversity of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, their structure and membrane organization, spectroscopy and dynamics, as well as artificial antenna systems. A joint session was also held with the participants from the Cyanobacterial Satellite Conference. A special issue of Photosynthesis Research devoted to light harvesting (Volume 121, Issue No. 1, July 2014) has recently appeared which contains peer-reviewed original research contributions arising from talks and posters presented at the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems. Edited by the Organizers of the Workshop, Robert E. Blankenship, Harry A. Frank and Robert A. Niederman, it includes topics ranging from the isolation of new bacteriochlorophyll species from green bacteria, temperature effects on the excited states of the newly discovered chlorophyll (Chl) ƒ, new architectures for enhancing energy capture by biohybrid light-harvesting complexes, forces governing the formation of light-harvesting rings, spectroscopy of carotenoids of algae and diatoms and the supramolecular organization of caroteno-Chl proteins in diatoms, the molecular basis for urea dissociation o

  15. Room temperature light emission from the low-dimensional semiconductors AZrPS{sub 6} ( A = K, Rb, Cs).

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Szarko, J. M.; Yuhas, B. D.; Malliakas, C. D.; Chen, L. X.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2010-03-29

    The new semiconducting thiophosphate compounds KZrPS{sub 6}, RbZrPS{sub 6}, and CsZrPS{sub 6} exhibit red light emission at room temperature. The materials have longer photoluminescence lifetimes than most of the inorganic chalcogenide semiconductors. They can be solution processed into thin films for potential device fabrication.

  16. PS2: managing the next step in the Pan-STARRS wide field survey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgett, William S.

    2012-09-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is unique among the existing or planned major ground-based optical survey systems as the only "distributed aperture" system. The concept of increasing system étendue by replicating small telescopes and digital cameras presents both management opportunities and challenges. The focus in this paper is on management lessons learned from PS1, and how those have been used to form the management plan for PS2. The management plan components emphasized here include technical development, financial and schedule planning, and critical path and risk management. Finally, the status and schedule for PS2 are presented.

  17. POPS: the 60MW power converter for the PS accelerator: Control strategy and performances

    E-print Network

    Boattini, Fulvio; Skawinski, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The main power supply of Proton-Synchrotron (PS) accelerator is one of the biggest at CERN. The old rotating machine system has been replaced with a new NPC based DC/DC power supply named POPS (Power system for PS main magnets) with capacitor banks as energy storage mean. POPS is in operation since February 2011. The operation of the PS accelerator requires a specific design of the control system with very high performance requirements in term of accuracy and precision. This paper describes the main lines of the control strategies analyzing the problems encountered and the solutions adopted. The performances of the converter are presented throughout the paper.

  18. PS2: Managing the next step in the Pan-STARRS wide field survey system

    E-print Network

    Burgett, William S

    2012-01-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is unique among the existing or planned major ground-based optical survey systems as the only "distributed aperture" system. The concept of increasing system \\'etendue by replicating small telescopes and digital cameras presents both management opportunities and challenges. The focus in this paper is on management lessons learned from PS1, and how those have been used to form the management plan for PS2. The management plan components emphasized here include technical development, financial and schedule planning, and critical path and risk management. Finally, the status and schedule for PS2 are presented.

  19. Vitellogenesis in the crayfish Rhynchocinetes typus: role of hepatopancreas in lipid yolk biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Donghi, S; Cerisola, H

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical studies in lipid composition of yolk granules from the crayfish Rhynchocinetes typus is shown to be composed mainly of cholesterol and phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography analysis demonstrates phosphatidyl-choline, -ethanolamine and -serine as its major phospholipidic components. In vivo labeling experiments using 32P-orthophosphoric acid suggest that two of the major yolk phospholipid components, phosphatidyl -choline and -serine could be synthesized in the hepatopancreas and subsequently transported via hemolymph to the growing oocyte. PMID:2073678

  20. Analysis of Sphingolipid Synthesis and Transport by Metabolic Labeling of Cultured Cells with [(3)H]Serine.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Neale D

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of lipid biosynthesis by radioactive precursor incorporation provides information on metabolic rates and the identity of rate-limiting enzymes and transporters. The biosynthesis of sphingolipids in cultured cells is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the formation of a sphingoid base from serine and palmitoyl-CoA. N-acylation of the sphingoid base produces ceramide, which is transported to the Golgi apparatus where phosphocholine or carbohydrate headgroups are added to form sphingomyelin (SM) and complex glycosphingolipids (GSLs), respectively. Herein is described a protocol to measure ceramide and SM biosynthesis in cultured cells based on [(3)H]serine incorporation at the first step in the pathway. The method can be used to assay the effect of pharmacological and genetic manipulations on ceramide synthesis and transport to the Golgi apparatus. PMID:26552685

  1. ( sup 3 H) D-serine labels strychnine-insensitive glycine recognition sites of rat central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Danysz, W.; Fadda, E.; Wroblewski, J.T.; Costa, E. )

    1990-01-01

    In the central nervous system, glycine binds to two recognition sites; one of them (G{sub 2}), associated with the glutamate receptor, is insensitive to strychnine. Strychnine-insensitive sites were predominant in the forebrain areas and bound D-serine and D-alanine better than the respective L stereoisomers. ({sup 3}H) D-serine was a more selective radioligand than ({sup 3}H)glycine for the strychnine-insensitive sites. In the forebain, the binding of both ligands was inhibited by the putative G{sub 2} receptor antagonists, 7-chlorokynurenate and 3-amino-1-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidone, while in pons and in spinal cord only the latter drug was effective. This may indicate the heterogeneity of strychnine-insensitive glycine recognition sites.

  2. [Identification of a novel human MAST4 gene, a new member of the microtubule associated serine-threonine kinase family].

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Gu, S; Li, X; Sun, Y; Zheng, D; Yu, K; Ji, C; Tang, R; Xie, Y; Mao, Y

    2006-01-01

    Human protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins, which are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains). Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human MAST4 (microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4) gene, which locates on human chromosome 5q13. The MAST4 cDNA is 7587 base pairs in length and encodes a putative protein of 2435 amino acids which contains a serine/threonine kinase domain and a PDZ domain. MAST4 protein has 64%, 63%, 59% and 39% identical aminoacid residues with MAST1, MAST2, MAST3 and MASTL respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed relatively high expression level of MAST4 in most normal human tissues, with an exception of in testis, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocyte. PMID:17086981

  3. Further theoretical insight into the reaction mechanism of the hepatitis C NS3/NS4A serine protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-González, José Ángel; Rodríguez, Alex; Puyuelo, María Pilar; González, Miguel; Martínez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The main reactions of the hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4A serine protease are studied using the second-order Møller-Plesset ab initio method and rather large basis sets to correct the previously reported AM1/CHARMM22 potential energy surfaces. The reaction efficiencies measured for the different substrates are explained in terms of the tetrahedral intermediate formation step (the rate-limiting process). The energies of the barrier and the corresponding intermediate are so close that the possibility of a concerted mechanism is open (especially for the NS5A/5B substrate). This is in contrast to the suggested general reaction mechanism of serine proteases, where a two-step mechanism is postulated.

  4. Perceptions of Community Health Workers (CHWs/PS) in the U.S.-Mexico border HEART CVD study.

    PubMed

    Balcazar, Hector G; Wise, Sherrie; Redelfs, Alisha; Rosenthal, E Lee; de Heer, Hendrik D; Burgos, Ximena; Duarte-Gardea, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Although prior research has shown that Community Health Workers/Promotores de Salud (CHW/PS) can facilitate access to care, little is known about how CHW/PS are perceived in their community. The current study reports the findings of a randomized telephone survey conducted in a high-risk urban community environment along the U.S.-Mexico border. In preparation for a community-based CHW/PS intervention called the HEART ecological study, the survey aimed to assess perceptions of CHW/PS, availability and utilization of community resources (recreational and nutrition related) and health behaviors and intentions. A total of 7,155 calls were placed to complete 444 surveys in three zip codes in El Paso, Texas. Results showed that participants felt that healthful community resources were available, but utilization was low and variable: 35% reported going to a park, 20% reported having taken a health class, few reported using a gym (12%), recreation center (8%), or YMCA/YWCA (0.9%). Awareness and utilization of CHW/PS services were low: 20% of respondents had heard of CHW/PS, with 8% reporting previous exposure to CHW/PS services. Upon review of a definition of CHW/PS, respondents expressed positive views of CHW/PS and their value in the healthcare system. Respondents who had previous contact with a CHW/PS reported a significantly more positive perception of the usefulness of CHW/PS (p = 0.006), were more likely to see CHW/PS as an important link between providers and patients (p = 0.008), and were more likely to ask a CHW/PS for help (p = 0.009). Participants who utilized CHW/PS services also had significantly healthier intentions to reduce fast food intake. Future research is needed to evaluate if CHW/PS can facilitate utilization of available community resources such as recreational facilities among Hispanic border residents at risk for CVD. PMID:24518646

  5. The Structure and Phase Diagram of Chiral Alkyl-Serine Monolayers on Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    L Tamam; D Medina; T Menahem; Y Mastai; E Sloutskin; S Yefet; M Deutsch

    2011-12-31

    The structure of liquid-mercury-supported Langmuir films (LFs) of chiral serine-modified fatty acid molecules was studied as a function of length, n = 8-22 carbons, temperature, T = 5-25 C, and surface coverage, A {approx} 40-200 {angstrom}{sup 2} per molecule, for both homochiral and heterochiral compounds. Using surface pressure {pi}-area A isotherms and surface-specific synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods the phase diagram was determined in detail. No lateral order was found for phases comprising surface-parallel molecules, in contrast with unmodified fatty acid LFs on mercury. For phases comprising standing-up molecules, long range lateral order was found for n {>=} 12, but no order for n = 8. The molecules in the ordered phases are extended, and tilt rigidly by {approx}40{sup o} from the surface normal. The homochiral LFs pack in an oblique, single-molecule, unit cell. The heterochiral LFs pack in a body-centered rectangular unit cell, containing two molecules. Unlike unmodified fatty acid LFs, the structure of the standing-up phase does not vary with n, T or A. The interactions underlying these characteristics, and the role of chirality, are discussed.

  6. Group B Streptococcal Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins Promote Interaction With Fibrinogen and Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nai-Yu; Patras, Kathryn A.; Seo, Ho Seong; Cavaco, Courtney K.; Rösler, Berenice; Neely, Melody N.; Sullam, Paul M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) can cause severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns, pregnant women, and the elderly. GBS serine-rich repeat (Srr) surface glycoproteins are important adhesins/invasins in multiple host tissues, including the vagina. However, exact molecular mechanisms contributing to their importance in colonization are unknown. We have recently determined that Srr proteins contain a fibrinogen-binding region (BR) and hypothesize that Srr-mediated fibrinogen binding may contribute to GBS cervicovaginal colonization. In this study, we observed that fibrinogen enhanced wild-type GBS attachment to cervical and vaginal epithelium, and that this was dependent on Srr1. Moreover, purified Srr1-BR peptide bound directly to host cells, and peptide administration in vivo reduced GBS recovery from the vaginal tract. Furthermore, a GBS mutant strain lacking only the Srr1 “latching” domain exhibited decreased adherence in vitro and decreased persistence in a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, suggesting the importance of Srr–fibrinogen interactions in the female reproductive tract. PMID:24620021

  7. The expression of serine carboxypeptidases during maturation and germination of the barley grain.

    PubMed Central

    Dal Degan, F; Rocher, A; Cameron-Mills, V; von Wettstein, D

    1994-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding three additional serine carboxypeptidases (Ser-CPs) have been isolated from a gibberellic acid-induced barley aleurone cDNA library. The three deduced Ser-CPs belong to the two-chain subfamily of Ser-CPs; they are synthesized as precursors with a putative signal peptide, propeptide, and linker peptide between the A and B chains. Their identification provides the proof for the existence of more than three Ser-CPs in cereal grains, and, based on their sequences, they may exhibit new substrate specificities. The expression of these and of the three previously isolated Ser-CPs from barley grains (CP-MI, CP-MII, and CP-MIII) has been investigated by Northern and Western analysis and RNA PCR. CP-MII is the only Ser-CP to be expressed and accumulate in the developing grain and is stored in its active form in the mature grain. All six Ser-CPs are expressed de novo in the germinating grain, in the scutellum, and/or in the aleurone. Furthermore, at least CP-MI, CP-MII, and CP-MIII are secreted into the endosperm. In addition, all Ser-CPs (except CP-MI) are also expressed in the roots and shoots of the growing seedling. This enzyme family thus appears to be ubiquitous in the barley plant, which suggests that Ser-CPs play additional roles besides their participation in the mobilization of storage proteins. Images PMID:7520177

  8. Urinary excretion of D-serine in human: comparison of different ages and species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Nishikawa, T; Satoh, K; Iwata, T; Fukushima, T; Santa, T; Homma, H; Imai, K

    1998-02-01

    The urinary excretion of D-serine (D-Ser) in human, rat and dog of various ages was studied. Great amounts of D-Ser were consistently excreted in human urine throughout life. No age-dependent changes were observed in urinary D-Ser/total-Ser ratios from the newborn to the aged. D-Ser/creatinine ratios in adult human urine were found to be relatively constant in individuals. The constant excretion of D-Ser in human urine was confirmed by analyzing the consecutive 24 h urine of three volunteers. High concentrations of D-Ser and D-alanine (D-Ala) were found in adult dog urine. The urinary D-Ser concentration was high in young rats at unweaned and weaned periods, and then declined with increasing age. In contrast, the urinary D-Ala concentration was very low in suckling rats, and increased rapidly after the weaned state and then declined with increasing age. The species- and age-related excretion of D-Ser in mammalian urine is considered to be due to the differences in the renal handing of D-Ser, because plasma D-Ser concentrations among the groups were not so different. Although free D-Ser has been detected in animal foods and human colostrum, the amount is insufficient to explain the concentration of D-Ser found in urine. These results indicate that urinary D-Ser in mammals may be mainly of endogenous origin. PMID:9514611

  9. Serine repeat antigen peptides which bind specifically to red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Puentes, A; Garcia, J; Vera, R; Lopez, Q R; Urquiza, M; Vanegas, M; Salazar, L M; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-08-01

    It has been reported that serine repeat antigen (SERA) binds directly to human erythrocyte membranes, inside-out vesicles and intact mouse erythrocytes. Similarly, mAbs specific against SERA are effective in blocking red blood cell (RBC) invasion by P. falciparum merozoites. Furthermore, the N-terminal recombinant SERA fragment inhibits the merozoite invasion of erythrocyte. In this study of 49 non-overlapping 20-residue-long peptides encompassing the whole SERA protein FCR3 strain, seven peptides having high RBC binding activity were found. Six of these peptides (three from the SERA N-terminal domain) are located in conserved regions and show affinity constants between 150 and 1100 nM, Hill coefficients between 1.5 and 3.0 and 30000-120000 binding sites per cell. Some of these peptides inhibited in vitro merozoite invasion of erythrocyte and intra-erythrocytic development. Residues which are critical in the binding to erythrocytes (in bold face), i.e. 6725 (YLKETNNAISFESNSGSLEKK), 6733 (YALGSDIPEKCDTLASNCFLS), 6737 (YDNILVKMFKTNENNDKSELI), 6746 (DQGNCDTSWIFASKYHLETI), 6754 (YKKVQNLCGDDTADHAVNIVG) and 6762 (NEVSERVHVYHILKHIKDGK), were determined by means of competition assays with high-binding peptide glycine analogues. The identification of peptides which bind to erythrocyte membrane is important in understanding the process of RBC invasion by P. falciparum merozoites. PMID:10882900

  10. Critical role for p53-serine 15 phosphorylation in stimulating transactivation at p53-responsive promoters

    PubMed Central

    Loughery, Jayne; Cox, Miranda; Smith, Linda M.; Meek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor is induced by various stress stimuli and coordinates an adaptive gene expression programme leading to growth arrest or cell death. Some stimuli, such as DNA damage, lead to rapid and substantial multisite phosphorylation of p53, nucleated initially through phosphorylation of serine 15. Other stimuli, such as hyper-proliferation, do not stimulate p53-phosphorylation, raising questions regarding the physiological role for phosphorylation. Here, we show that a basal level of Ser15 phosphorylation occurs in both unstimulated cells and cells stimulated pharmacologically to induce p53. p53 in which Ser15 is substituted by alanine (S15A) fails to mediate p53-dependent transcription or growth arrest but can be rescued by substitution with aspartate (S15D: a phospho-mimic). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses show that, while wt- and S15A-p53 are detectable on the CDKN1A (p21) promoter (as a representative p53-responsive promoter), S15A-p53 does not stimulate histone acetylation (a measure of chromatin relaxation), nor is its recruitment stimulated, in response to a DNA damage or pharmacological stimulus. These data demonstrate that Ser15 phosphorylation is required for p53 function in the physiological context of p53-responsive promoters and suggest a key and possibly universal role even for low levels of this modification in promoting p53-transcription function. PMID:24928858

  11. Water miscible mono alcohols' effect on the proteolytic performance of Bacillus clausii serine alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Yonca Avci; Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Erarslan, Altan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the Vm, kcat and kcat/Km values of Bacillus clausii GMBE 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. However, the Km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. Whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. The inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 1.32-3.10 M, and the order of the inhibitory effect was 1-propanol>2-propanol>methanol>ethanol. The ?G(?) and ?G(?)E-T values of the enzyme increased at increasing concentrations of all alcohols examined, but the ?G(?)ES value of the enzyme remained almost the same. The constant Km and ?G(?)ES values in the presence and absence of mono alcohols indicated the existence of different binding sites for mono alcohols and casein on enzyme the molecule. The kcat of the enzyme decreased linearly by increasing log P and decreasing dielectric constant (D) values, but the ?G(?) and ?G(?)E-T values of the enzyme increased by increasing log P and decreasing D values of the reaction medium containing mono alcohols. PMID:24092453

  12. Interactions of “Bora-Penicilloates” with Serine ?-Lactamases and DD-Peptidases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Specific boronic acids are generally powerful tetrahedral intermediate/transition state analogue inhibitors of serine amidohydrolases. This group of enzymes includes bacterial ?-lactamases and DD-peptidases where there has been considerable development of boronic acid inhibitors. This paper describes the synthesis, determination of the inhibitory activity, and analysis of the results from two ?-(2-thiazolidinyl) boronic acids that are closer analogues of particular tetrahedral intermediates involved in ?-lactamase and DD-peptidase catalysis than those previously described. One of them, 2-[1-(dihydroxyboranyl)(2-phenylacetamido)methyl]-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, is a direct analogue of the deacylation tetrahedral intermediates of these enzymes. These compounds are micromolar inhibitors of class C ?-lactamases but, very unexpectedly, not inhibitors of class A ?-lactamases. We rationalize the latter result on the basis of a new mechanism of boronic acid inhibition of the class A enzymes. A stable inhibitory complex is not accessible because of the instability of an intermediate on its pathway of formation. The new boronic acids also do not inhibit bacterial DD-peptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). This result strongly supports a central feature of a previously proposed mechanism of action of ?-lactam antibiotics, where deacylation of ?-lactam-derived acyl-enzymes is not possible because of unfavorable steric interactions. PMID:25302576

  13. An oxazetidine amino acid for chemical protein synthesis by rapid, serine-forming ligations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusterla, Ivano; Bode, Jeffrey W.

    2015-08-01

    Amide-forming ligation reactions allow the chemical synthesis of proteins by the union of unprotected peptide segments, and enable the preparation of protein derivatives not accessible by expression or bioengineering approaches. The native chemical ligation (NCL) of thioesters and N-terminal cysteines is unquestionably the most successful approach, but is not ideal for all synthetic targets. Here we describe the synthesis of an Fmoc-protected oxazetidine amino acid for use in the ?-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) amide ligation. When incorporated at the N-terminus of a peptide segment, this four-membered cyclic hydroxylamine can be used for rapid serine-forming ligations with peptide ?-ketoacids. This ligation operates at low concentration (100??M-5?mM) and mild temperatures (20-25?°C). The utility of the reaction was demonstrated by the synthesis of S100A4, a 12?kDa calcium-binding protein not easily accessible by NCL or other amide-forming reactions due to its primary sequence and properties.

  14. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating

    SciTech Connect

    Asenjo, Ana; Gonzalez-Armas, Juan C.; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-10-10

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase. The phosphorylation of S54 is controlled by the coordinated action of two cellular enzymes: a lithium-sensitive kinase, probably glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3) {beta} and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of lithium-sensitive kinase, soon after infection, blocks the viral growth cycle by inhibiting synthesis and/or accumulation of viral RNAs, proteins and extracellular particles. P protein phosphorylation at S54 is required to liberate viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from M protein, during the uncoating process. Kinase inhibition, late in infection, produces a decrease in genomic RNA and infectious viral particles. LiCl, intranasally applied to mice infected with HRSV A2 strain, reduces the number of mice with virus in their lungs and the virus titre. Administration of LiCl to humans via aerosol should prevent HRSV infection, without secondary effects.

  15. Frequent alterations in the expression of serine/threonine kinases in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Capra, Maria; Nuciforo, Paolo Giovanni; Confalonieri, Stefano; Quarto, Micaela; Bianchi, Marco; Nebuloni, Manuela; Boldorini, Renzo; Pallotti, Francesco; Viale, Giuseppe; Gishizky, Mikhail L; Draetta, Giulio F; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo

    2006-08-15

    Protein kinases constitute a large family of regulatory enzymes involved in the homeostasis of virtually every cellular process. Subversion of protein kinases has been frequently implicated in malignant transformation. Within the family, serine/threonine kinases (STK) have received comparatively lesser attention, vis-a-vis tyrosine kinases, in terms of their involvement in human cancers. Here, we report a large-scale screening of 125 STK, selected to represent all major subgroups within the subfamily, on nine different types of tumors ( approximately 200 patients), by using in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays. Twenty-one STK displayed altered levels of transcripts in tumors, frequently with a clear tumor type-specific dimension. We identified three patterns of alterations in tumors: (a) overexpression in the absence of expression in the normal tissues (10 kinases), (b) overexpression in the presence of expression by normal tissues (8 kinases), and (c) underexpression (3 kinases). Selected members of the three classes were subjected to in-depth analysis on larger case collections and showed significant correlations between their altered expression and biological and/or clinical variables. Our findings suggest that alteration in the expression of STK is a relatively frequent occurrence in human tumors. Among the overexpressed kinases, 10 were undetectable in normal controls and are therefore ideal candidates for further validation as potential targets of molecular cancer therapy. PMID:16912193

  16. Midgut serine proteases and alternative host plant utilization in Pieris brassicae L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhardwaj, Usha; Kumar, Pawan; Mazumdar-Leighton, Sudeshna

    2015-01-01

    Pieris brassicae L. is a serious pest of cultivated crucifers in several parts of the world. Larvae of P. brassicae also feed prolifically on garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L., of the family Tropaeolaceae). Proteolytic digestion was studied in larvae feeding on multiple hosts. Fourth instars were collected from cauliflower fields before transfer onto detached, aerial tissues of selected host plants in the lab. Variable levels of midgut proteases were detected in larvae fed on different hosts using protein substrates (casein and recombinant RBCL cloned from cauliflower) and diagnostic, synthetic substrates. Qualitative changes in midgut trypsin activities and quantitative changes in midgut chymotrypsin activities were implicated in physiological adaptation of larvae transferred to T. majus. Midgut proteolytic activities were inhibited to different extents by serine protease inhibitors, including putative trypsin inhibitors isolated from herbivore-attacked and herbivore-free leaves of cauliflower (CfTI) and T. majus (TpTI). Transfer of larvae to T. majus significantly influenced feeding parameters but not necessarily when transferred to different tissues of the same host. Results obtained are relevant for devising sustainable pest management strategies, including transgenic approaches using genes encoding plant protease inhibitors. PMID:25873901

  17. Serine/threonine kinase 17A is a novel candidate for therapeutic targeting in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pingping; Hever-Jardine, Mary P; Rahme, Gilbert J; Yang, Eric; Tam, Janice; Kodali, Anita; Biswal, Bijesh; Fadul, Camilo E; Gaur, Arti; Israel, Mark A; Spinella, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    STK17A is a relatively uncharacterized member of the death-associated protein family of serine/threonine kinases which have previously been associated with cell death and apoptosis. Our prior work established that STK17A is a novel p53 target gene that is induced by a variety of DNA damaging agents in a p53-dependent manner. In this study we have uncovered an additional, unanticipated role for STK17A as a candidate promoter of cell proliferation and survival in glioblastoma (GBM). Unexpectedly, it was found that STK17A is highly overexpressed in a grade-dependent manner in gliomas compared to normal brain and other cancer cell types with the highest level of expression in GBM. Knockdown of STK17A in GBM cells results in a dramatic alteration in cell shape that is associated with decreased proliferation, clonogenicity, migration, invasion and anchorage independent colony formation. STK17A knockdown also sensitizes GBM cells to genotoxic stress. STK17A overexpression is associated with a significant survival disadvantage among patients with glioma which is independent of age, molecular phenotype, IDH1 mutation, PTEN loss, and alterations in the p53 pathway and partially independent of grade. In summary, we demonstrate that STK17A provides a proliferative and survival advantage to GBM cells and is a potential target to be exploited therapeutically in patients with glioma. PMID:24312360

  18. The Serine Hydrolase ABHD6 is a Critical Regulator of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Caleb C.; Brown, Amanda L.; Marshall, Stephanie; Ferguson, Daniel; Sawyer, Janet; Davis, Matthew A.; Melchior, John T.; Blume, Lawrence C.; Howlett, Allyn C.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Mrak, Irina; Leber, Vera; Heier, Christoph; Taschler, Ulrike; Blankman, Jacqueline L.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lee, Richard G.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Zimmermann, Robert; Brown, H. Alex; Brown, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The serine hydrolase ?/? hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) has recently been implicated as a key lipase for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain. However, the biochemical and physiological function for ABHD6 outside of the central nervous system has not been established. To address this we utilized targeted antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to selectively knock down ABHD6 in peripheral tissues to identify in vivo substrates and to understand ABHD6's role in energy metabolism. Here we show that selective knockdown of ABHD6 in metabolic tissues protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and systemic insulin resistance. Using combined in vivo lipidomic identification and in vitro enzymology approaches we show that ABHD6 can hydrolyze several lipid substrates, positioning ABHD6 at the interface of glycerophospholipid metabolism and lipid signal transduction. Collectively, these data suggest that ABHD6 inhibitors may serve as novel therapeutics for obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type II diabetes. PMID:24095738

  19. Interactions between two fission yeast serine/arginine-rich proteins and their modulation by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhaohua; Käufer, Norbert F; Lin, Ren-Jang

    2002-01-01

    The unexpected low number of genes in the human genome has triggered increasing attention to alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins have been correlated with the complex alternative splicing that is a characteristic of metazoans. SR proteins interact with RNA and splicing protein factors, and they also undergo reversible phosphorylation, thereby regulating constitutive and alternative splicing in mammals and Drosophila. However, it is not clear whether the features of SR proteins and alternative splicing are present in simple and genetically tractable organisms, such as yeasts. In the present study, we show that the SR-like proteins Srp1 and Srp2, found in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, interact with each other and the interaction is modulated by protein phosphorylation. By using Srp1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid analysis, we specifically isolated Srp2 from a random screen. This Srp interaction was confirmed by a glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay. We also found that the Srp1-Srp2 complex was phosphorylated at a reduced efficiency by a fission yeast SR-specific kinase, Dis1-suppression kinase (Dsk1). Conversely, Dsk1-mediated phosphorylation inhibited the formation of the Srp complex. These findings offer the first example in fission yeast for interactions between SR-related proteins and the modulation of the interactions by specific protein phosphorylation, suggesting that a mammalian-like SR protein function may exist in fission yeast. PMID:12186627

  20. Astacin Family Metallopeptidases and Serine Peptidase Inhibitors in Spider Digestive Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Foradori, Matthew J.; Tillinghast, Edward K.; Smith, J. Stephen; Townley, Mark A.; Mooney, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Digestive fluid of the araneid spider Argiope aurantia is known to contain zinc metallopeptidases. Using anion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and gel electrophoresis, we isolated two lower-molecular-mass peptidases, designated p16 and p18. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of p16 (37 residues) and p18 (20 residues) are 85% identical over the first 20 residues and are most similar to the N-terminal sequences of the fully active form of meprin (? subunits) from several vertebrates (47–52% and 50–60% identical, respectively). Meprin is a peptidase in the astacin (M12A) subfamily of the astacin (M12) family. Additionally, a 66-residue internal sequence obtained from p16 aligns with the conserved astacin subfamily domain. Thus, at least some spider digestive peptidases appear related to astacin of decapod crustaceans. However, important differences between spider and crustacean metallopeptidases with regard to isoelectric point and their susceptibility to hemolymph-borne inhibitors are demonstrated. Anomalous behavior of the lower-molecular-mass Argiope peptidases during certain fractionation procedures indicates that these peptidases may take part in reversible associations with each other or with other proteins. A. aurantia digestive fluid also contains inhibitory activity effective against insect digestive peptidases. Here we present evidence for at least thirteen, heat-stable serine peptidase inhibitors ranging in molecular mass from about 15 to 32 kDa. PMID:16458560

  1. The Structural Basis of [beta]-Peptide-Specific Cleavage by the Serine Protease Cyanophycinase

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Adrienne M.; Lai, Sandy W.S.; Tavares, John; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2010-10-01

    Cyanophycin, or poly-L-Asp-multi-L-Arg, is a non-ribosomally synthesized peptidic polymer that is used for nitrogen storage by cyanobacteria and other select eubacteria. Upon synthesis, it self-associates to form insoluble granules, the degradation of which is uniquely catalyzed by a carboxy-terminal-specific protease, cyanophycinase. We have determined the structure of cyanophycinase from the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 at 1.5-{angstrom} resolution, showing that the structure is dimeric, with individual protomers resembling aspartyl dipeptidase. Kinetic characterization of the enzyme demonstrates that the enzyme displays Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a k{sub cat} of 16.5 s{sup -1} and a k{sub cat}/K{sub M} of 7.5 x 10{sup -6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirm that cyanophycinase is a serine protease and that Gln101, Asp172, Gln173, Arg178, Arg180 and Arg183, which form a conserved pocket adjacent to the catalytic Ser132, are functionally critical residues. Modeling indicates that cyanophycinase binds the {beta}-Asp-Arg dipeptide residue immediately N-terminal to the scissile bond in an extended conformation in this pocket, primarily recognizing this penultimate {beta}-Asp-Arg residue of the polymeric chain. Because binding and catalysis depend on substrate features unique to {beta}-linked aspartyl peptides, cyanophycinase is able to act within the cytosol without non-specific cleavage events disrupting essential cellular processes.

  2. Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis serine proteases and evidence for their indirect role in insecticide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Li, Ya-Li; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 ?g/g ?-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with ?-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis. PMID:24566149

  3. Influenza Virus H1N1 inhibition by serine protease inhibitor (serpin) antithrombin III

    PubMed Central

    Smee, Donald F.; Hurst, Brett L.; Day, Craig W.; Geiben-Lynn, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are anti-inflammatory mediators with multiple biologic functions. Serpins are also part of the early innate immune response to viral infection that includes mannose binding lectins, soluble CD14, defensins and antimicrobial peptides. Recently, serpin antithrombin III (ATIII) was shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity against HIV, HSV and HCV. We tested ATIII's antiviral activity against a variety of influenza virus strains. In our studies we found strong in vitro inhibition of influenza virus A H1N1 isolates. Our data also demonstrate that ATIII potency was more than 100-fold that of ribavirin. We also found that inhibition was dependent on viral hemagglutinin with decreasing efficacy in the order of H1N1 > H3N2 > H5N1 >> Flu B. In vivo efficacy is currently still lacking demonstrating need for more advanced delivery methods for this biomolecule. Understanding how ATIII regulates influenza virus inhibition may reveal new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24883334

  4. Serine/threonine kinases and E2-ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in Planctomycetes: unexpected findings.

    PubMed

    Arcas, Aida; Cases, Ildefonso; Rojas, Ana M

    2013-10-01

    The regulation of signal transduction by phosphorylation and ubiquitination is essential to ensure the correct behavior of eukaryotic cells. We searched for protein families involved in such signaling in several eukaryotic species and in a limited set of prokaryotes, where two members of the Planctomycetes phylum were included as they exhibit eukaryote-like features (Gemmata obscuriglobus and Pirellula staleyi). We identified sequences homologous to eukaryotic serine/threonine kinases (STKs) and E2-ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in the two Planctomycetes species. To extend these analyses to the Planctomycetes/Verrucomicrobia/Chlamydia super-phylum, we performed comparative analyses using domains from kinases, phosphatases and GTPases that serve as signaling signatures, and we analyzed their distributions. We found substantial differences in kinome densities with regards to other prokaryote clades and among the groups in the Planctomycetes/Verrucomicrobia/Chlamydia super-phylum. In addition, we identified the presence of classic eukaryotic E2-conjugating ubiquitin proteins in prokaryotes, these having previously believed to exist only in eukaryotes. Our phylogenetic analyses of the STKs signature domains and E2-enzymes suggest the existence of horizontal gene transfer. PMID:23918348

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the HSV-2 serine/threonine kinase Us3

    SciTech Connect

    Finnen, Renee L.; Johnston, Susan M.; Neron, Casey E.; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2011-08-15

    The alphaherpesvirus serine/threonine kinase Us3 plays diverse roles in virus multiplication and modifies both nuclear and cytoplasmic substrates. We recently reported that treatment of HSV-2 Us3-transfected and HSV-2-infected cells with leptomycin B, an inhibitor of nuclear export mediated by interaction of chromosomal regional maintenance protein (CRM1) with leucine rich nuclear export signals (NESs), resulted in nuclear trapping of Us3. Here, we utilized fluorescence loss in photobleaching to monitor nuclear export of HSV-2 Us3 and confirm that this process proceeds solely via a CRM1-mediated mechanism. Analysis of deletion derivatives of HSV-2 Us3 fused to a nuclear export reporter protein implicated the involvement of NES-like sequences in nuclear export. However, nuclear trapping of HSV-2 Us3 proteins carrying mutations in these potential NESs was not observed, indicating that these sequences are not functional in the context of full-length protein. Our analyses also revealed previously unidentified regions of HSV-2 Us3 that contribute to its kinase activity.

  6. Carbamoyl Triazoles, Known Serine Protease Inhibitors, Are a Potent New Class of Antimalarials.

    PubMed

    McConville, Matthew; Fernández, Jorge; Angulo-Barturen, Íñigo; Bahamontes-Rosa, Noemi; Ballell-Pages, Lluis; Castañeda, Pablo; de Cózar, Cristina; Crespo, Benigno; Guijarro, Laura; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Martínez-Martínez, Maria S; de Mercado, Jaime; Santos-Villarejo, Ángel; Sanz, Laura M; Frigerio, Micol; Washbourn, Gina; Ward, Stephen A; Nixon, Gemma L; Biagini, Giancarlo A; Berry, Neil G; Blackman, Michael J; Calderón, Félix; O'Neill, Paul M

    2015-08-27

    Screening of the GSK corporate collection, some 1.9 million compounds, against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), revealed almost 14000 active hits that are now known as the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS). Followup work by Calderon et al. clustered and computationally filtered the TCAMS through a variety of criteria and reported 47 series containing a total of 522 compounds. From this enhanced set, we identified the carbamoyl triazole TCMDC-134379 (1), a known serine protease inhibitor, as an excellent starting point for SAR profiling. Lead optimization of 1 led to several molecules with improved antimalarial potency, metabolic stabilities in mouse and human liver microsomes, along with acceptable cytotoxicity profiles. Analogue 44 displayed potent in vitro activity (IC50 = 10 nM) and oral activity in a SCID mouse model of Pf infection with an ED50 of 100 and ED90 of between 100 and 150 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results presented encourage further investigations to identify the target of these highly active compounds. PMID:26222445

  7. A mutation in the serine protease TMPRSS4 in a novel pediatric neurodegenerative disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate the genetic basis of a novel neurodegenerative disorder in an Old Order Amish pedigree by combining homozygosity mapping with exome sequencing. Methods and results We identified four individuals with an autosomal recessive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroimaging studies identified progressive global CNS tissue loss presenting early in life, associated with microcephaly, seizures, and psychomotor retardation; based on this, we named the condition Autosomal Recessive Cerebral Atrophy (ARCA). Using two unbiased genetic approaches, homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we narrowed the candidate region to chromosome 11q and identified the c.995C?>?T (p.Thr332Met) mutation in the TMPRSS4 gene. Sanger sequencing of additional relatives confirmed that the c.995C?>?T genotype segregates with the ARCA phenotype. Residue Thr332 is conserved across species and among various ethnic groups. The mutation is predicted to be deleterious, most likely due to a protein structure alteration as demonstrated with protein modelling. Conclusions This novel disease is the first to demonstrate a neurological role for a transmembrane serine proteases family member. This study demonstrates a proof-of-concept whereby combining exome sequencing with homozygosity mapping can find the genetic cause of a rare disease and acquire better understanding of a poorly described protein in human development. PMID:23957953

  8. TMPRSS3, a type II transmembrane serine protease mutated in non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness.

    PubMed

    Guipponi, Michel; Antonarakis, Stylianos Emmanuel; Scott, Hamish Steele

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we and others have shown that mutations in TMPRSS3 were responsible for autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss. TMPRSS3 is a member of the Type II Transmembrane Serine Protease (TTSP) family and encodes for a protease that also contains LDLRA (low-density lipoprotein receptor class A) and SRCR (scavenger receptor cysteine rich) domains. Fourteen pathogenic mutations, which occur not only in the catalytic domain but also in the LDLRA and SRCR domains, have been identified to date that cause the DFNB8/10 forms of deafness. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TMPRSS3 mutants were proteolytically inactive indicating that TMPRSS3 protease activity is critical for normal auditory function. However, how missense mutations in the LDLRA and SRCR domains affect the proteolytic activity of TMPRSS3 remains to be elucidated. Although the role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system is currently not completely understood, it has been shown to regulate the activity of the ENaC sodium channel in vitro and could therefore participate in the regulation of sodium concentration in the cochlea. TMPRSS3 mutations are not a common cause of hereditary deafness, the elucidation of its function is nevertheless important for better understanding of hearing, and provide biological targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:17981648

  9. Mice deficient for the type II transmembrane serine protease, TMPRSS1/hepsin, exhibit profound hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Guipponi, Michel; Tan, Justin; Cannon, Ping Z F; Donley, Lauren; Crewther, Pauline; Clarke, Maria; Wu, Qingyu; Shepherd, Robert K; Scott, Hamish S

    2007-08-01

    Defective proteolysis has been implicated in hearing loss through the discovery of mutations causing autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in a type II transmembrane serine protease gene, TMPRSS3. To investigate their physiological function and the contribution of this family of proteases to the auditory function, we analyzed the hearing status of mice deficient for hepsin, also known as TMPRSS1. These mice exhibited profound hearing loss with elevated hearing thresholds compared with their heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Their cochleae showed abnormal tectorial membrane development, reduction in fiber compaction in the peripheral portion of the auditory nerve, and decreased expression of the myelin proteins myelin basic protein and myelin protein zero. In addition, reduced level of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel was detected in the sensory hair cells of Tmprss1-null mice. We examined thyroid hormone levels in Tmprss1-deficient mice, as similar cochlear defects have been reported in animal models of hypothyroidism, and found significantly reduced free thyroxine levels. These data show that TMPRSS1 is required for normal auditory function. Hearing impairment present in Tmprss1-null mice is characterized by a combination of various structural, cellular, and molecular abnormalities that are likely to affect different cochlear processes. PMID:17620368

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells express serine protease inhibitor to evade the host immune response.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Najib; Heathcote, Dean; Moore, Robert; Yang, Sunmi; Azzi, Jamil; Mfarrej, Bechara; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Lee, Jeng-Shin; Ashton-Rickardt, Philip G; Abdi, Reza

    2011-01-27

    Clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been initiated worldwide. An improved understanding of the mechanisms by which allogeneic MSCs evade host immune responses is paramount to regulating their survival after administration. This study has focused on the novel role of serine protease inhibitor (SPI) in the escape of MSCs from host immunosurveillance through the inhibition of granzyme B (GrB). Our data indicate bone marrow-derived murine MSCs express SPI6 constitutively. MSCs from mice deficient for SPI6 (SPI6(-/-)) exhibited a 4-fold higher death rate by primed allogeneic cytotoxic T cells than did wild-type MSCs. A GrB inhibitor rescued SPI6(-/-) MSCs from cytotoxic T-cell killing. Transduction of wild-type MSCs with MigR1-SPI6 also protected MSCs from cytotoxic T cell-mediated death in vitro. In addition, SPI6(-/-) MSCs displayed a shorter lifespan than wild-type MSCs when injected into an allogeneic host. We conclude that SPI6 protects MSCs from GrB-mediated killing and plays a pivotal role in their survival in vivo. Our data could serve as a basis for future SPI-based strategies to regulate the survival and function of MSCs after administration and to enhance the efficacy of MSC-based therapy for diseases. PMID:21076046

  11. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. PMID:24657583

  12. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  13. Inhibition of protein serine/threonine phosphatases by fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Shima, H; Vesonder, R F; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H; Katoh, S; Tamura, S; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M

    1996-03-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme, which is a common contaminant of corn, is suspected to be a cause of human esophageal cancer. FB1 is hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rats, and although the mechanisms involved have not been clarified, the latter is associated with a weak initiating activity. The effects of FB1 on the activity of protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPs) (PP1, PP2A, PP2B, PP2C and PP5/T/K/H) were investigated in the present study. Inhibition of dephosphorylation was noted for all five PPs with IC50 values of 80 microM-3000 microM. Among the five PPs examined, PP5 was most sensitive with an IC50 of 80 microM. This concentration is comparable to that estimated to be reached in the rat body by feeding FB1 to obtain hepatic tumors. Inhibition of PP5 could thus play important roles in the toxicity and carcinogenic action of FB1. PMID:8602837

  14. Detection and identification of a serine to arginine sequence variant in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ren, Diya; Zhang, Jian; Pritchett, Ross; Liu, Hongbin; Kyauk, Jennifer; Luo, Jun; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2011-10-01

    Sequence variants, also known as unintended amino acid substitutions in the protein primary structure, are one of the critical quality attributes needed to be monitored during process development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here we report on analytical methods for detection and identification of a sequence variant in an IgG1 mAb expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The presence of the sequence variant was detected by an imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (ICIEF) assay, showing a new basic species in mAb charge variant profile. The new basic variant was fractionated and enriched by ion-exchange chromatography, analyzed by reduced light and heavy chain mass determination, and characterized by HPLC-UV/MS/MS of tryptic and endoproteinase Lys-C peptide maps. A Serine to Arginine sequence variant was identified at the heavy chain 441 position (S441R), and confirmed by using synthetic peptides. The relative level of the S441R variant was estimated to be in the range of 0.3-0.6% for several mAb batches analyzed via extracted ion chromatogram (EIC). This work demonstrates the effectiveness of using integrated analytical methods to detect and identify protein heterogeneity and the importance of monitoring product quality during mAb bioprocess development. PMID:21900054

  15. Extracellular Proteolysis of Apolipoprotein E (apoE) by Secreted Serine Neuronal Protease

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Irfan Y.; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and ?1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occuring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  16. Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis Serine Proteases and Evidence for Their Indirect Role in Insecticide Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Li, Ya-Li; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 ?g/g ?-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with ?-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis. PMID:24566149

  17. Improving lignocellulose degradation using xylanase-cellulase fusion protein with a glycine-serine linker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Jung, Sera; Lee, Kwang Ho; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-02-01

    The fungal hydrolytic system efficiently degrades lignocellulosics efficiently. We previously characterized two hydrolytic enzymes from Gloeophyllum trabeum, namely, endoglucanase (Cel5B) and xylanase (Xyl10g). To enhance lignocellulosic degradation, we designed a fusion protein (Xyl10g GS Cel5B) using a glycine-serine (GS) linker and expressed it in Pichia pastoris GS115, which produced a hydrolytic fusion enzyme for the degradation of lignocellulosics. Purified Xyl10g GS Cel5B protein has a molecular weight of approximately 97 kDa and shows a lower specific activity than Xyl10g or Cel5B. However, Xyl10g GS Cel5B can degrade popping-pretreated rice straw, corn stover, kenaf, and oak more efficiently than the mixture of Xyl10g and Cel5B, by about 1.41-, 1.37-, 1.32-, and 1.40-fold, respectively. Our results suggest that Xyl10g GS Cel5B is an efficient hydrolytic enzyme and a suitable candidate for degrading lignocellulosics to produce fermentable sugar. PMID:25478962

  18. [Effect of FUT-187, oral serine protease inhibitor, on inflammation in the gastric remnant].

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, H; Inoue, M; Tamura, S; Iwanaga, T; Imaoka, M; Furukawa, H; Hiratsuka, M; Kikkawa, N; Kobayashi, K; Okamura, J; Takada, N; Ogawa, Y; Yamada, T; Takami, M; Takada, T; Okuda, H; Yano, T; Satomi, T; Kawasaki, T; Oshima, S; Yamasaki, K; Imamoto, H; Noguchi, S; Fujimoto, N; Mori, T

    1996-12-01

    Excessive enterogastric reflux following partial gastrectomy is believed to be responsible for the cause of inflammation in the gastric remnant. We examined the effect of FUT-187, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, on symptoms and endoscopic findings in 33 patients who were diagnosed endoscopically as postgastrectomy gastritis. Patients took 50 mg FUT-187 orally after each meal and at bedtime for 8 weeks. Before treatment, 30 patients (91%) suffered from several symptoms including regurgitation and/or bitter taste in the mouth (49%), epigastric pain (42%) and nausea (36%). From endoscopic observation, erythema was detected in 32 patients, edema in 23 patients and erosion and/or ulcer in 9 patients. After treatment the global improvement rating for subjective symptoms was 76.7% (23/30) and the improvement of endoscopic findings was 63.6% (21/33). Diarrhea was observed in one patient but could be easily controlled by discontinuation of the drug. Our results suggest that FUT-187 can be a useful drug for the treatment of postgastrectomy gastritis with its efficacy and safety. PMID:8978806

  19. Cell surface serine protease matriptase-2 suppresses fetuin-A/AHSG-mediated induction of hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Stirnberg, Marit; Maurer, Eva; Arenz, Katharina; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Gütschow, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Matriptase-2 is a type II transmembrane serine protease controlling the expression of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. By cleaving hemojuvelin, matriptase-2 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein/sons of mothers against decapentaplegic signaling. So far, the only known putative substrates of matriptase-2 are hemojuvelin and matriptase-2 itself. In this study, fetuin-A (?2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein) was identified in vitro as a substrate of matriptase-2. The protease-substrate interaction was validated by isolating matriptase-2 via the affinity to fetuin-A. Fetuin-A is a liver-derived plasma protein with multiple functions, which is proteolytically processed to yield a disulfide-linked two-chain form. In co-transfected cells, a matriptase-2-dependent conversion of unprocessed fetuin-A into a two-chain form was detected. Conversely, downregulation of endogenously expressed matriptase-2 stabilized fetuin-A. Arg and Lys residues located within the 40 residue spanning connecting peptide of fetuin-A were identified as cleavage sites for matriptase-2. Analysis of hepcidin expression revealed an inductive effect of fetuin-A, which was abolished by matriptase-2. Fetuin-A deficiency in mice resulted in decreased hepcidin mRNA levels. These findings implicate a role of fetuin-A in iron homeostasis and provide new insights into the mechanism of how matriptase-2 might modulate hepcidin expression. PMID:25205713

  20. The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF regulates protein sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Pelisch, Federico; Gerez, Juan; Druker, Jimena; Schor, Ignacio E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Risso, Guillermo; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Westman, Belinda J; Lamond, Angus I; Arzt, Eduardo; Srebrow, Anabella

    2010-09-14

    Protein modification by conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is involved in diverse biological functions, such as transcription regulation, subcellular partitioning, stress response, DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that the serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF, a factor involved in splicing regulation and other RNA metabolism-related processes, is a regulator of the sumoylation pathway. The overexpression of this protein stimulates, but its knockdown inhibits SUMO conjugation. SF2/ASF interacts with Ubc9 and enhances sumoylation of specific substrates, sharing characteristics with already described SUMO E3 ligases. In addition, SF2/ASF interacts with the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1), regulating PIAS1-induced overall protein sumoylation. The RNA recognition motif 2 of SF2/ASF is necessary and sufficient for sumoylation enhancement. Moreover, SF2/ASF has a role in heat shock-induced sumoylation and promotes SUMO conjugation to RNA processing factors. These results add a component to the sumoylation pathway and a previously unexplored role for the multifunctional SR protein SF2/ASF. PMID:20805487

  1. Legume grains enhance ileal losses of specific endogenous serine-protease proteins in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Paulo; Montagne, Lucile; Freire, João P B; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Teixeira, Artur; Bento, Ofélia; Abreu, Manuel C; Toullec, René; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2002-07-01

    Feeding legume grains to pigs usually increases losses of endogenous proteins at the terminal ileum. However, the identity of such proteins is largely unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the ileal flow and identity of soluble proteins present in large concentrations in ileal digesta of young pigs fed soybean meal (SBM), peas (P), faba beans (FB), or blue lupin (L) in expt. 1, and white (WPC) or black (BPC) chickpeas in expt. 2. Protein in the control diet (C) was provided by casein. Ileal digesta proteins were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Coomassie blue staining, densitometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Three protein bands at molecular masses of 25, 27, and 30 kDa had a higher ileal flow (P < 0.05) in the pigs fed the legume-based diets compared to those fed the control diet in expt. 2. This was true for the 25- and 30-kDa proteins (P < 0.05) and the 27-kDa protein (P < 0.10) in pigs fed the legume-containing diets in expt. 1. These proteins shared N-terminal amino acid sequences with enzymes of the serine protease family including pig trypsin (25 kDa) and blood coagulation factor IX or chymotrypsin (27 and 30 kDa). PMID:12097670

  2. Isolation and Identification of an Extracellular Subtilisin-Like Serine Protease Secreted by the Bat Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Risch, Thomas S.; Savary, Brett J.

    2015-01-01

    White nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of bats. WNS is responsible for unprecedented mortalities in North American cave bat populations. There have been few descriptions of enzyme activities that may function in WNS host/pathogen interactions, while no study has isolated and described secreted proteases. To address the hypothesis that Pseudogymnoascus destructans secretes extracellular proteases that function in wing necrosis during WNS infection, the object of this study was to culture P. destructans on various media, then isolate and structurally identify those proteases accumulated stably in the culture medium. We found a single dominant protease activity on minimal nutrient broth enriched with protein substrates, which was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. This P. destructans serine protease (PdSP1) was isolated by preparative isoelectric focusing and concanavalin A lectin affinity chromatography. PdSP1 showed a molecular weight 27,900 (estimated by SDS-PAGE), broad pH optimum 6-8, and temperature optimum 60°C. Structural characterization of PdSP1 by MALDI-TOF MS, Orbitrap MS/MS, and Edman amino-terminal peptide sequencing matched it directly to a hypothetical protein accession from the sequenced P. destructans genome that is further identified as a MEROPS family S8A subtilisin-like serine peptidase. Two additional isoforms, PdSP2 and PdSP3, were identified in the P. destructans genome with 90% and 53% homology, respectively. P. destructans S8A serine proteases showed closer sequence conservation to P. pannorum and plant pathogenic fungi than to human pathogenic dermatophytes. Peptide-specific polyclonal antibodies developed from the PdSP1 sequence detected the protein in western blots. These subtilisin-like serine proteases are candidates for further functional studies in WNS host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25785714

  3. Thiol-Based Redox Modulation of a Cyanobacterial Eukaryotic-Type Serine/Threonine Kinase Required for Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; García-Domínguez, Mario; Florencio, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein phosphorylation is a principal signaling mechanism that mediates regulation of enzymatic activities, modulation of gene expression, and adaptation to environmental changes. Recent studies have shown a ubiquitous distribution of eukaryotic-type Serine/Threonine protein kinases in prokaryotic genomes, though the functions, substrates, and possible regulation of these enzymes remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether cyanobacterial protein phosphorylation may be subject to redox regulation through modulation of the cysteine redox state, as has previously been reported for animals and plants. We also explored the role of a cyanobacterial Serine/Threonine kinase in oxidative stress tolerance. Results: The Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Serine/Threonine kinase SpkB was found to be inhibited by oxidation and reactivated by thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction. A Synechocystis mutant devoid of the SpkB kinase was unable to phosphorylate the glycyl-tRNA synthetase ?-subunit (GlyS), one of the most prominent phosphoproteins in the wild type, and recombinant purified SpkB could phosphorylate purified GlyS. In vivo characterization of the SpkB mutant showed a pronounced hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and displayed severe growth retardation or death in response to menadione, methyl viologen, and elevated light intensities. Innovation: This study points out a previously unrecognised complexity of prokaryotic regulatory pathways in adaptation to the environment and extends the roles of bacterial eukaryotic-like Serine/Threonine kinases to oxidative stress response. Conclusion: The SpkB kinase is required for survival of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under conditions implying increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species, and the activity of SpkB depends on the redox state of its cysteines. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 521–533. PMID:22530622

  4. Blocked inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3?/? impairs in vivo neural precursor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Jope, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Adult neurogenesis augments neuronal plasticity, and deficient neurogenesis may contribute to mood disorders and schizophrenia and impede treatment responses. Since these diseases may be associated with inadequately controlled glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), we tested if blocked inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3 impairs neurogenesis. Methods Neural precursor cell (NPC) proliferation was measured by dentate gyrus BrdU labeling in GSK3alpha/beta21A/21A/9A/9A knockin mice with serine-to-alanine mutations to block inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3 while it remains within the physiological range, since GSK3 is not overexpressed. Results There was a drastic 40% impairment in neurogenesis in vivo in GSK3 knockin mice compared with wild-type mice. Impaired neurogenesis could be due to effects of GSK3 in NPCs or in surrounding cells that modulate NPCs. In vitro proliferation was equivalent for NPCs from GSK3 knockin and wild-type mice, suggesting an in vivo deficiency in GSK3 knockin mice of external support for NPC proliferation. Measurements of two neurotrophins that promote neurogenesis demonstrated less hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor, but not brain-derived growth factor, in GSK3 knockin mice than wild-type mice, reinforcing the possibility that insufficient environmental support in GSK3 knockin mice may contribute to impaired neurogenesis. In vivo chronic co-administration of lithium and fluoxetine, which each increase inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of wild-type GSK3, increased NPC proliferation in wild-type, but not GSK3 knockin, mice. Conclusions Blocked inhibitory control of GSK3 impaired neurogenesis and the capacity of therapeutic drugs to stimulate neurogenesis, likely through deficient environmental factors that support neurogenesis, which may contribute to psychiatric diseases and responses to therapeutic drugs. PMID:19520363

  5. Hyperspherical hidden crossing calculation of Ps formation in low-energy e+-Na collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. J.; Shertzer, J.

    2011-05-01

    The hyperspherical hidden crossing method (HHCM) can provide important insight into scattering processes. Previously, we have used the HHCM to calculate the Ps(1s)-formation cross section in low-energy e+-H and e+-Li collisions. Here we apply the HHCM to low-energy e+-Na collisions. We use the Peach model potential and treat e+e-Na+ as an effective three-body system. We calculate the Ps(1s)-formation cross sections for 0 <= L <= 3 and compare our results with a hyperspherical close-coupling calculation. The HHCM provides an explanation for the small S-wave Ps(1s)-formation cross section. The S-wave Stückelberg phase is close to ? for the three collision systems due to destructive interference between the two amplitudes that correspond to different paths leading to Ps(1s) formation.

  6. Public Domain, Public Interest, Public Funding: Focussing on the ‘Three P’s’ in Scientific Research 

    E-print Network

    Waelde, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the ‘three Ps’ of scientific research: Public Domain; Public Interest; Public Funding by examining difficulties faced by scientists engaged in scientific research. It discusses the problems faced when ...

  7. 2. P.S. Rittermann, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, WEST SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. P.S. Rittermann, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, WEST SIDE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Flammable Storage Building Submarine Mine Depot, Fort Point vicinity, Long Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Research and optimization of the ESD response characteristic in a ps-LDMOS transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Wang; Siyang, Liu; Weifeng, Sun; Tingting, Huang

    2014-01-01

    The ESD response characteristic in a p-type symmetric lateral DMOS (ps-LDMOS) has been investigated. The experimental results show that the ps-LDMOS has weak ESD robustness due to an absence of the “snapback" characteristic. In addition, the location of the hot spot changes little for the special device. The method for reducing the lattice temperature of the hot spot can be used to enhance the ESD capacity of the ps-LDMOS, thereby, a novel and easily-achievable ps-LDMOS structure with a p-type lightly doped drain (p-LDD) has been proposed. The special region p-LDD lowers the electric field at the edge of the poly gate, making the whole distribution of the surface electric field more uniform. Therefore, the ESD robustness is improved two times and no obvious change of other electric parameters is introduced.

  9. Preparation of raspberry-like ZIF-8/PS composite spheres via dispersion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2015-10-14

    Raspberry-like ZIF-8/PS composite spheres are prepared via dispersion polymerization of styrene with ZIF-8 and PVP as co-stabilizers. PVP is found to be crucial in determining morphology of the final product. It helps adherence of ZIF-8 nanoparticles to PS spheres. It is found that ZIF-8 nanoparticles thus prepared are partially embedded into PS sphere surfaces, resulting in a stable raspberry-like structure. Surface coverage of ZIF-8 can reach up to ?32%. The effects of ZIF-8 content and PVP concentration on the particle size and morphology are examined in detail with the mechanisms elucidated. The raspberry-like spheres can be used as a template to grow thick ZIF-8 layers on the PS spheres through subsequent solvothermal treatment, leading to the formation of polymer-core MOF-shell structure. PMID:26332440

  10. Study of Neutron Induced Defects in Ceramics using the GiPS Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May-Tal Beck, S.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Beck, A.; Wagner, A.; Brauer, G.; Ocherashvili, A.; Israelashvili, I.; Hen, O.

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a study of neutron irradiation damage in Sapphire and B4C, produced with a fluence of 6×1018 n/cm2 and ~1015 n/cm2, respectively. Measurements were performed at the GiPS facility and the SPONSOR beam at HZDR, and in the PAL spectrometer at NRCN. Bulk and vacancies lifetimes were identified in the Sapphire, ~150ps and ~188ps, respectively, with complete trapping in the irradiation induced vacancies. Irradiation damage in B4C found to be limited to the surface. A single lifetime of ~166ps was measured in both irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and was associated with the bulk.

  11. Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of serine 276 phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B using in silico molecular docking

    PubMed Central

    Law, Mary; Corsino, Patrick; Parker, Nicole Teoh; Law, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    NF-?B is activated in many types of cancer. Phosphorylation of p65 at serine 276 is required for the expression of a subset of NF-?B regulated genes, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Thus, inhibition of serine 276 phosphorylation may prevent metastasis and angiogenesis in certain tumor types. Using in silico molecular docking, small molecules that are predicted to bind to a structural pocket near serine 276 were identified. One compound, NSC-127102, hinders serine 276 phosphorylation and the expression of IL-8 and VCAM-1. Small molecules such as NSC-127102 may be optimized for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:19910110

  12. Resolving Discrepancy between Nucleotides and Amino Acids in Deep-Level Arthropod Phylogenomics: Differentiating Serine Codons in 21-Amino-Acid Models

    E-print Network

    Zwick, Andreas; Regier, Jerome C.; Zwickl, Derrick J.

    2012-11-20

    amino acids. This study investigates the cause of that discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINIDINGS: The hypothesis is tested that failure to distinguish the serine residues encoded by two disjunct clusters of codons (TCN, AGY) in amino acid analyses...

  13. Characterization of Peptides from Capsicum annuum Hybrid Seeds with Inhibitory Activity Against ?-Amylase, Serine Proteinases and Fungi.

    PubMed

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Rodrigues, Rosana; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Katia Valevski S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last several years, the activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), isolated from plant species, against different microorganisms has been demonstrated. More recently, some of these AMPs have been described as potent inhibitors of ?-amylases and serine proteinases from insects and mammals. The aim of this work was to obtain AMPs from protein extracts of a hybrid Capsicum (Ikeda × UENF 1381) seeds and to evaluate their microbial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Initially, proteins were extracted from the Capsicum hybrid seeds in buffer (sodium phosphate pH 5.4,) and precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90% saturated). Extract of hybrid seeds was subjected to size exclusion chromatography, and three fractions were obtained: S1, S2 and S3. The amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, of the 6 kDa peptide from the S3 fraction, named HyPep, showed 100% identity with PSI-1.2, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from C. annuum seeds, however the bifunctionality of this inhibitor against two enzymes is being shown for the first time in this work. The S3 fraction showed the highest antifungal activity, inhibiting all the yeast strains tested, and it also exhibited inhibitory activity against human salivary and Callosobruchus maculatus ?-amylases as well as serine proteinases. PMID:25750185

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of trypsin-like serine protease from triangle-shell pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongquan; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Yurong; Liu, Qiaolin; Li, Yaoguo; Yi, Zili; Chen, Kaijian; Xiao, Tiaoyi

    2014-10-01

    Trypsin-like serine protease (TLS) is ubiquitous in animals and plays a number of diverse roles, including dietary protein digestion, hemolymph coagulation, antimicrobial activity and immune responses, among others. This study reports the isolation of a 1048 bp full-length cDNA sequence of TLS from triangle-shell pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii), including a 12 bp 5' UTR (untranslated region), a 172 bp 3' UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Bioinformatic analysis shows that the gene belongs to the trypsin-like serine protease superfamily, and contains a 15 residues N-terminal signal peptide and a conserved C-terminal domain. In comparison to other serine proteases, the catalytic triad were identified as His-98, Asp-149, and Ser-240. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed a broad expression of the TLS gene in ten tested tissues. Time-course expression analysis demonstrated that the expression level of the TLS mRNA was significantly up-regulated in eight tested tissues (liver, intestine, gill, heart, axe foot, adductor muscle, kidney and gonad), but down-regulated in mantle and stomach after Aeromonas hydrophila injection. This is one of the results indicate that TLS may be involved in innate defense reactions against A. hydrophila in triangle-shell pearl mussel. PMID:25149589

  15. Purification and Characterization of a New Serine Protease (VLCII) Isolated from Vipera lebetina Venom: Its Role in Hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Amel, Kadi-Saci; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2015-08-01

    Snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs) affect various physiological functions including blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation. Coagulant serine proteinase (VLCII) was purified from Vipera lebetina venom using three chromatographic steps: gel filtration on SephadexG-75, DEAE-Sephadex A-50, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on C8 column. VLCII appeared homogenous (60 kDa) when tested on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). VLCII as a thrombin-like enzyme was able to hydrolyze N?-CBZ L-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride and could be a serine protease because it is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The proteolytic activity of VLCII was not affected by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 1.10-phenanthroline. It showed high coagulant activity against human plasma and cleaved both A? chain and B? chain of bovine fibrinogen. The isolated VLCII displayed proaggregating effect on human platelet in a concentration-dependent manner with an absence of lag time. Clopidogrel P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitor reduced markedly the aggregating effect induced by VLCII than aspirin, indicating the involvement of ADP signaling pathway. PMID:25917874

  16. Isolation, expression and characterization of a novel dual serine protease inhibitor, OH-TCI, from king cobra venom.

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Ying; Liu, Shu-Bai; Lee, Wen-Hui; Qian, Jin-Qiao; Zhang, Yun

    2008-10-01

    Snake venom Kunitz/BPTI members are good tools for understanding of structure-functional relationship between serine proteases and their inhibitors. A novel dual Kunitz/BPTI serine proteinase inhibitor named OH-TCI (trypsin- and chymotrypsin-dual inhibitor from Ophiophagus hannah) was isolated from king cobra venom by three chromatographic steps of gel filtration, trypsin affinity and reverse phase HPLC. OH-TCI is composed of 58 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 6339Da. Successful expression of OH-TCI was performed as the maltose-binding fusion protein in E. coli DH5alpha. Much different from Oh11-1, the purified native and recombinant OH-TCI both had strong inhibitory activities against trypsin and chymotrypsin although the sequence identity (74.1%) between them is very high. The inhibitor constants (K(i)) of recombinant OH-TCI were 3.91 x 10(-7) and 8.46 x10(-8)M for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. To our knowledge, it was the first report of Kunitz/BPTI serine proteinase inhibitor from snake venom that had equivalent trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities. PMID:18582511

  17. Vaccinia virus F16 protein, a predicted catalytically inactive member of the prokaryotic serine recombinase superfamily, is targeted to nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    Senkevich, Tatiana G.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The F16L gene of vaccinia virus (VACV) is conserved in all chordopoxviruses except avipoxviruses. The crocodile poxvirus F16 protein ortholog has highly significant similarity to prokaryotic serine recombinases and contains all amino acids that comprise the catalytic site. In contrast, F16 orthologs encoded by other poxviruses show only marginally significant similarity to serine recombinases, lack essential amino acids of the active site and are most likely inactive derivatives of serine recombinases. Nevertheless, the conservation of F16L in non-avian poxviruses suggested an important function. However, a VACV mutant with the F16L gene knocked out replicated normally in dividing and quiescent cells. The F16 protein was synthesized early after infection and detected in virus cores. When expressed in infected or uninfected cells, F16 accumulated in nucleoli depending on the level of expression and confluency of cells. Evidence was obtained that F16 forms multimers, which might regulate concentration-dependent intracellular localization. PMID:21752417

  18. Crystallization of a Nonclassical Kazal-type Carcinoscorpius Rotundicauda Serine Protease Inhibitor, CrSPI-1, Complexed with Subtilisin

    SciTech Connect

    Tulsidas, S.; Thangamani, S; Ho, B; Sivaraman, J; Ding, J

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteases play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. The innate immune system is known to respond to invading pathogens in a nonspecific manner. The serine protease cascade is an essential component of the innate immune system of the horseshoe crab. The serine protease inhibitor CrSPI isoform 1 (CrSPI-1), a unique nonclassical Kazal-type inhibitor of molecular weight 9.3 kDa, was identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. It potently inhibits subtilisin and constitutes a powerful innate immune defence against invading microbes. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and cocrystallization of CrSPI-1 with subtilisin are reported. The crystals diffracted to 2.6 {angstrom}resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.8, b = 65.0, c = 111.9 {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.4. The Matthews coefficient (VM = 2.64 {angstrom}3 Da-1, corresponding to 53% solvent content) and analysis of the preliminary structure solution indicated the presence of one heterotrimer (1:2 ratio of CrSPI-1:subtilisin) and one free subtilisin molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  19. Structural Insights into the Protease-like Antigen Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 and Its Noncanonical Active-Site Serine

    SciTech Connect

    Hodder, Anthony N.; Malby, Robyn L.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Colman, Peter M.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Smith, Brian J.

    2009-08-28

    The sera genes of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium encode a family of unique proteins that are maximally expressed at the time of egress of parasites from infected red blood cells. These multi-domain proteins are unique, containing a central papain-like cysteine-protease fragment enclosed between the disulfide-linked N- and C-terminal domains. However, the central fragment of several members of this family, including serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5), contains a serine (S596) in place of the active-site cysteine. Here we report the crystal structure of the central protease-like domain of Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, revealing a number of anomalies in addition to the putative nucleophilic serine: (1) the structure of the putative active site is not conducive to binding substrate in the canonical cysteine-protease manner; (2) the side chain of D594 restricts access of substrate to the putative active site; and (3) the S{sub 2} specificity pocket is occupied by the side chain of Y735, reducing this site to a small depression on the protein surface. Attempts to determine the structure in complex with known inhibitors were not successful. Thus, despite having revealed its structure, the function of the catalytic domain of SERA5 remains an enigma.

  20. Solution structure and DNA binding of the catalytic domain of the large serine resolvase TnpX.

    PubMed

    Headey, Stephen J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Adams, Vicki; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I; Scanlon, Martin J; Wilce, Matthew C J

    2015-05-01

    The transfer of antibiotic resistance between bacteria is mediated by mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons. TnpX is a member of the large serine recombinase subgroup of site-specific recombinases and is responsible for the excision and insertion of mobile genetic elements that encode chloramphenicol resistance in the pathogens Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile. TnpX consists of three structural domains: domain I contains the catalytic site, whereas domains II and III contain DNA-binding motifs. We have solved the solution structure of residues 1-120 of the catalytic domain I of TnpX. The TnpX catalytic domain shares the same overall fold as other serine recombinases; however, differences are evident in the identity of the proposed hydrogen donor and in the size, amino acid composition, conformation, and dynamics of the TnpX active site loops. To obtain the interaction surface of TnpX1-120 , we titrated a DNA oligonucleotide containing the circular intermediate joint attCI recombination site into (15) N-labeled TnpX1-120 and observed progressive nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift perturbations using (15) N HSQC spectra. Perturbations were largely confined to a region surrounding the catalytic serine and encompassed residues of the active site loops. Utilizing the perturbation map and the data-driven docking program, HADDOCK, we have generated a model of the DNA interaction complex for the TnpX catalytic domain. PMID:25720550

  1. Necrotic Cells Actively Attract Phagocytes through the Collaborative Action of Two Distinct PS-Exposure Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zao; Venegas, Victor; Nagaoka, Yuji; Morino, Eri; Raghavan, Prashant; Audhya, Anjon; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Zhou, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis, a kind of cell death closely associated with pathogenesis and genetic programs, is distinct from apoptosis in both morphology and mechanism. Like apoptotic cells, necrotic cells are swiftly removed from animal bodies to prevent harmful inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, gain-of-function mutations in certain ion channel subunits result in the excitotoxic necrosis of six touch neurons and their subsequent engulfment and degradation inside engulfing cells. How necrotic cells are recognized by engulfing cells is unclear. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important apoptotic-cell surface signal that attracts engulfing cells. Here we observed PS exposure on the surface of necrotic touch neurons. In addition, the phagocytic receptor CED-1 clusters around necrotic cells and promotes their engulfment. The extracellular domain of CED-1 associates with PS in vitro. We further identified a necrotic cell-specific function of CED-7, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, in promoting PS exposure. In addition to CED-7, anoctamin homolog-1 (ANOH-1), the C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase TMEM16F, plays an independent role in promoting PS exposure on necrotic cells. The combined activities from CED-7 and ANOH-1 ensure efficient exposure of PS on necrotic cells to attract their phagocytes. In addition, CED-8, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian Xk-related protein 8 also makes a contribution to necrotic cell-removal at the first larval stage. Our work indicates that cells killed by different mechanisms (necrosis or apoptosis) expose a common “eat me” signal to attract their phagocytic receptor(s); furthermore, unlike what was previously believed, necrotic cells actively present PS on their outer surfaces through at least two distinct molecular mechanisms rather than leaking out PS passively. PMID:26061275

  2. Deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau in cerebellum of PS1 E280A Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Falla, Diego; Matschke, Jakob; Bernreuther, Christian; Hagel, Christian; Puig, Berta; Villegas, Andres; Garcia, Gloria; Zea, Julian; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Ferrer, Isidre; Lopera, Francisco; Glatzel, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) caused by presenilin-1 mutation E280A (PS1-E280A) presents wide clinical and neuropathological variabilities. We characterized clinically and neuropathologically PS1-E280A focusing in cerebellar involvement and compared it with early-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (EOSAD). Twelve E280A brains and 12 matched EOSAD brains were analyzed for beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau) morphology, beta-amyloid subspecies 1-40, 1-42 levels, pTau levels, and expression of stress kinases in frontal cortex and cerebellum. The data were correlated to clinical and genetic findings. We observed higher beta-amyloid load, beta-amyloid 1-42 and pTau concentrations in frontal cortex of PS1-E280A compared with EOSAD. High beta-amyloid load was found in the cerebellum of PS1-E280A and EOSAD patients. In PS1-E280A, beta-amyloid localized to the molecular and Purkinje cell layers, whereas EOSAD showed them in Purkinje and granular cell layers. Surprisingly, 11 out of 12 PS1-E280A patients showed deposition of pTau in the cerebellum. Also, seven out of 12 PS1-E280A patients presented cerebellar ataxia. We conclude that deposition of beta-amyloid in the cerebellum is prominent in early-onset AD irrespective of genetic or sporadic origin. The presence of pTau in cerebellum in PS1-E280A underscores the relevance of cerebellar involvement in AD and might be correlated to clinical phenotype. PMID:21159009

  3. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bqc as a type-IIb SN before maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Miszalski, B.

    2015-08-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bqc on 2015 Aug 10.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bqc is likely a type-IIb supernova a few days before maximum light, with good matches to spectra of SN 1993J at -3 or -2 days from maximum.

  4. N-terminal amino acid sequences of D-serine deaminases of wild-type and operator-constitutive strains of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Heincz, M C; McFall, E

    1975-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the D-serine deaminases from strains of Escherichia coli K-12 that harbor wild-type and high-level constitutive catabolite-insensitive operator-initiator regions are identical: Met-Ser-GluNH2-Ser-Gly-Arg-His-Cys. This result indicates that the operator-initiator region is probably distinct from the D-serine deaminase structural gene. Images PMID:1099073

  5. Compensatory phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions revealed by loss of function and gain of function mutants of multiple serine phosphorylation sites in endothelial nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Philip M; Fulton, David; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P; Kemp, Bruce E; Jo, Hanjoong; Sessa, William C

    2003-04-25

    We examined the influence of individual serine phosphorylation sites in endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) on basal and stimulated NO release, cooperative phosphorylation, and co-association with hsp90 and Akt. Mutation of the serine phosphorylation sites 116, 617, and 1179 to alanines affected the phospho-state of at least one other site, demonstrating cooperation between multiple phosphorylation events, whereas mutation of serine 635 to alanine did not cause compensation. Mutation of serines 116 and 617 to alanine promoted a greater protein-protein interaction with hsp90 and Akt and greater phosphorylation on serine 1179, the major site for Akt phosphorylation. More importantly, using alanine substitutions, Ser-116 is important for agonist, but not basal NO release, Ser-635 is important for basal, but not stimulated, Ser-617 negatively regulates basal and stimulated NO release, and Ser-1179 phosphorylation is stimulatory for both basal and agonist-mediated NO release. Using putative "gain of function" mutants (serine to aspartate) serines 635 and 1179 are important positive regulators of basal and stimulated NO release. S635D eNOS is the most efficacious, yielding 5-fold increases in basal and 2-fold increases in stimulated NO release from cells. However, S617A and S617D eNOS both increased NO release with opposite actions in NOS activity assays. Thus, multiple serine phosphorylation events regulate basal and stimulate NO release with Ser-635 and Ser-1179 being important positive regulatory sites and Ser-116 as a negative regulatory. Ser-617 may not be important for directly regulating NO release but is important as a modulator of phosphorylation at other sites and protein-protein interactions. PMID:12591925

  6. Immortalization eliminates a roadblock during cellular reprogramming into iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Utikal, Jochen; Polo, Jose M; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Maherali, Nimet; Kulalert, Warakorn; Walsh, Ryan M; Khalil, Adam; Rheinwald, James G; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2009-08-27

    The overexpression of defined transcription factors in somatic cells results in their reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The extremely low efficiency and slow kinetics of in vitro reprogramming suggest that further rare events are required to generate iPS cells. The nature and identity of these events, however, remain elusive. We noticed that the reprogramming potential of primary murine fibroblasts into iPS cells decreases after serial passaging and the concomitant onset of senescence. Consistent with the notion that loss of replicative potential provides a barrier for reprogramming, here we show that cells with low endogenous p19(Arf) (encoded by the Ink4a/Arf locus, also known as Cdkn2a locus) protein levels and immortal fibroblasts deficient in components of the Arf-Trp53 pathway yield iPS cell colonies with up to threefold faster kinetics and at a significantly higher efficiency than wild-type cells, endowing almost every somatic cell with the potential to form iPS cells. Notably, the acute genetic ablation of Trp53 (also known as p53) in cellular subpopulations that normally fail to reprogram rescues their ability to produce iPS cells. Our results show that the acquisition of immortality is a crucial and rate-limiting step towards the establishment of a pluripotent state in somatic cells and underscore the similarities between induced pluripotency and tumorigenesis. PMID:19668190

  7. Efficient Generation of Virus-Free iPS Cells Using Liposomal Magnetofection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Young; Noh, Eun Hyung; Chung, Hyung-Min; Kang, Man-Jong; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Se Pill

    2012-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, and advances in nanotechnology clearly have great potential to enhance stem cell research. Here, we introduce a liposomal magnetofection (LMF) method for iPS cell generation. Efficient conditions for generating virus-free iPS cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were determined through the use of different concentrations of CombiMag nanoparticle-DNA(pCX-OKS-2A and pCX-cMyc)-lipoplexes and either one or two cycles of the LMF procedure. The cells were prepared in a short reprogramming time period (?8 days, 0.032–0.040%). Among the seven LMF-iPS cell lines examined, two were confirmed to be integration-free, and an integration-free LMF-iPS cell line was produced under the least toxic conditions (single LMF cycle with a half-dose of plasmid). This cell line also displayed in vitro/in vivo pluripotency, including teratoma formation and chimeric mouse production. In addition, the safety of CombiMag-DNA lipoplexes for the transfection of MEF cells was confirmed through lactate dehydrogenase activity assay and transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrated that the LMF method is simple, effective, and safe. LMF may represent a superior technique for the generation of virus-free or integration-free iPS cell lines that could lead to enhanced stem cell therapy in the future. PMID:23049868

  8. Integrin ?PS3/??-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Nagaosa, Kaz; Mori, Toshinobu; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2013-04-12

    Integrins exert a variety of cellular functions as heterodimers of two transmembrane subunits named ? and ?. Integrin ??, a ?-subunit of Drosophila integrin, is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria. Here, we searched for an ?-subunit that forms a complex and cooperates with ??. Examinations of RNAi-treated animals suggested that ?PS3, but not any of four other ?-subunits, is required for the effective phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila embryos. The mutation of ?PS3-encoding scb, deficiency, insertion of P-element, or alteration of nucleotide sequences, brought about a reduction in the level of phagocytosis. The defect in phagocytosis by deficiency was reverted by the forced expression of scb. Furthermore, flies in which the expression of both ?PS3 and ?? was inhibited by RNAi showed a level of phagocytosis almost equal to that observed in flies with RNAi for either subunit alone. A loss of ?PS3 also decreased the activity of larval hemocytes in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, a co-immunoprecipitation analysis using a Drosophila cell line treated with a chemical cross-linker suggested a physical association between ?PS3 and ??. These results collectively indicated that integrin ?PS3/?? serves as a receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria by Drosophila phagocytes. PMID:23426364

  9. Community Perspectives Associated With the African PsA-TT (MenAfriVac) Vaccine Trials

    PubMed Central

    Idoko, Olubukola T.; Diallo, Aldiouma; Sow, Samba O.; Hodgson, Abraham; Akinsola, Adebayo; Diarra, Bou; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Ansah, Patrick Odum; Kampmann, Beate; Bouma, Enricke; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Enwere, Godwin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?The Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was established to address epidemic meningitis as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and, to that end, worked to develop a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT. Methods.?Experiences in 4 clinical trial sites are described. Culturally sensitive collaborative strategies were adopted to manage acceptable communication methods, peculiarities with the consent process, participant medical issues, community care, and death. Results.?The clinical trials were completed successfully through community acceptance and active community collaboration. The trials also strengthened the capacities in the participating communities, and actively worked to resolve community problems. Conclusions.?The understanding and integration of sociocultural realities of communities were major assets in the conduct and acceptance of these trials. MVP succeeded in these sites and provided a sound example for future clinical studies in Africa. Clinical Trials Registration.?ISRTCN78147026 (PsA-TT 002); ISRCTN87739946 (PsA-TT 003); ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT 004); PACTR ATMR2010030001913177 (PsA-TT 006); and PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT 007). PMID:26553669

  10. Optimization of serine protease purification from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel in polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two phase system.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing. PMID:22489172

  11. New molecular-scale information on polystyrene dynamics in PS and PS-BaTiO3 composites from FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Olmos, D; Martín, E V; González-Benito, J

    2014-11-28

    A new idea to understand the macromolecular motion occurring along the thermal relaxations of polystyrene (PS) and PS-barium titanate composites is proposed. Detailed analysis of PS infrared bands provides a better knowledge of the factors affecting polymer dynamics. Average spectral positions and integrated absorbance of bands in the region of C-H out-of-plane vibrations showed a continuous decrease with temperature, whereas those in the region of aliphatic and aromatic C-H stretching vibrations showed the sharpest changes with temperature. Relaxation temperatures were determined from the changes observed in the band wavenumber or area with temperature. These results were attributed to changes in the distribution of the phenyl ?-electron cloud, causing important dipole moment variations in the different vibration modes when the thermal transitions are taking place. Finally, although the presence of BaTiO3 particles does not seem to exert any specific effect on the PS dynamics in the glassy state, the Curie transition of these particles might induce a kind of confinement effect observable by FTIR. PMID:25301098

  12. College Algebra Placement Test (Math 1001, 1031, 1051, 1151, 1155, PsTL 1006) Placement in Math 1001, 1031, 1051, 1151, 1155, PsTL 1006

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    College Algebra Placement Test (Math 1001, 1031, 1051, 1151, 1155, PsTL 1006) Placement in Math: have completed at least 3 years of high school math, including at least 2 years of algebra and 1 year of geometry, AND think that their first math course at the University may be college algebra. Students

  13. Modulation of Macrophage Gene Expression via Liver X Receptor ? Serine 198 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowei; Hussein, Maryem A.; Shrestha, Elina; Leone, Sarah; Aiyegbo, Mohammed S.; Lambert, W. Marcus; Pourcet, Benoit; Cardozo, Timothy; Gustafson, Jan-Ake; Fisher, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    In mouse models of atherosclerosis, normalization of hyperlipidemia promotes macrophage emigration and regression of atherosclerotic plaques in part by liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated induction of the chemokine receptor CCR7. Here we report that LXR? serine 198 (S198) phosphorylation modulates CCR7 expression. Low levels of S198 phosphorylation are observed in plaque macrophages in the regression environment where high levels of CCR7 expression are observed. Consistent with these findings, CCR7 gene expression in human and mouse macrophages cell lines is induced when LXR? at S198 is nonphosphorylated. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), we also observed induction of CCR7 by ligands that promote nonphosphorylated LXR? S198, and this was lost in LXR-deficient BMDMs. LXR? occupancy at the CCR7 promoter is enhanced and histone modifications associated with gene repression are reduced in RAW264.7 cells expressing nonphosphorylated LXR? (RAW-LXR? S198A) compared to RAW264.7 cells expressing wild-type (WT) phosphorylated LXR? (RAW-LXR? WT). Expression profiling of ligand-treated RAW-LXR? S198A cells compared to RAW-LXR? WT cells revealed induction of cell migratory and anti-inflammatory genes and repression of proinflammatory genes. Modeling of LXR? S198 in the nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated states identified phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the hinge region commensurate with the presence of sites for protein interaction. Therefore, gene transcription is regulated by LXR? S198 phosphorylation, including that of antiatherogenic genes such as CCR7. PMID:25825525

  14. Dual roles of brain serine hydrolase KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and organophosphate detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Issa, Roger S.; Ward, Anna M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Casida, John E.

    2008-04-01

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and -/- (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC{sub 50} 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although there was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and -/- mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51% decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and -/- brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 -/- mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification.

  15. Serine / threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor nucleocytoplasmic shuttling

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David A; Urban, Gudrun; Aragon, Ileana V; Swingle, Mark; Miller, Beth; Rusconi, Sandro; Bueno, Manuel; Dean, Nicholas M; Honkanen, Richard E

    2001-01-01

    Background In most cells glucocorticoid receptors (GR) reside predominately in the cytoplasm. Upon hormone binding, the GR translocates into the nucleus, where the hormone-activated GR-complex regulates the transcription of GR-responsive genes. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 5 (PP5) associates with the GR-heat-shock protein-90 complex, and the suppression of PP5 expression with ISIS 15534 stimulates the activity of GR-responsive reporter plasmids, without affecting the binding of hormone to the GR. Results To further characterize the mechanism by which PP5 affects GR-induced gene expression, we employed immunofluorescence microscopy to track the movement of a GR-green fluorescent fusion protein (GR-GFP) that retained hormone binding, nuclear translocation activity and specific DNA binding activity, but is incapable of transactivation. In the absence of glucocorticoids, GR-GFP localized mainly in the cytoplasm. Treatment with dexamethasone results in the efficient translocation of GR-GFPs into the nucleus. The nuclear accumulation of GR-GFP, without the addition of glucocorticoids, was also observed when the expression of PP5 was suppressed by treatment with ISIS 15534. In contrast, ISIS 15534 treatment had no apparent effect on calcium induced nuclear translocation of NFAT-GFP. Conclusion These studies suggest that PP5 participates in the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and that the GR-induced transcriptional activity observed when the expression of PP5 is suppressed by treatment with ISIS 15534 results from the nuclear accumulation of GR in a form that is capable of binding DNA yet still requires agonist to elicit maximal transcriptional activation. PMID:11389770

  16. The structure of Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase reveals a novel redox switch that regulates its activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chitnumsub, Penchit Ittarat, Wanwipa; Jaruwat, Aritsara; Noytanom, Krittikar; Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee; Pornthanakasem, Wichai; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of P. falciparum SHMT revealed snapshots of an intriguing disulfide/sulfhydryl switch controlling the functional activity. Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase (PfSHMT), an enzyme in the dTMP synthesis cycle, is an antimalarial target because inhibition of its expression or function has been shown to be lethal to the parasite. As the wild-type enzyme could not be crystallized, protein engineering of residues on the surface was carried out. The surface-engineered mutant PfSHMT-F292E was successfully crystallized and its structure was determined at 3 Å resolution. The PfSHMT-F292E structure is a good representation of PfSHMT as this variant revealed biochemical properties similar to those of the wild type. Although the overall structure of PfSHMT is similar to those of other SHMTs, unique features including the presence of two loops and a distinctive cysteine pair formed by Cys125 and Cys364 in the tetrahydrofolate (THF) substrate binding pocket were identified. These structural characteristics have never been reported in other SHMTs. Biochemical characterization and mutation analysis of these two residues confirm that they act as a disulfide/sulfhydryl switch to regulate the THF-dependent catalytic function of the enzyme. This redox switch is not present in the human enzyme, in which the cysteine pair is absent. The data reported here can be further exploited as a new strategy to specifically disrupt the activity of the parasite enzyme without interfering with the function of the human enzyme.

  17. Dual Roles of Brain Serine Hydrolase KIAA1363 in Ether Lipid Metabolism and Organophosphate Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Issa, Roger S.; Ward, Anna M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Casida, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and ?/? (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC50 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although there was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and ?/? mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51 % decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and ?/? brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5’-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 ?/? mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification. PMID:18164358

  18. Circulating plasma serine208-phosphorylated troponin T levels are indicator of cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Deruy, Emilie; Belliard, Aude; Mulder, Paul; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Henry, Jean-Paul; Thuillez, Christian; Amouyel, Philippe; Richard, Vincent; Pinet, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by progressive alterations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function, named LV remodelling. Although several risk factors such as infarct size have been identified, HF remains difficult to predict in clinical practice. Recently, using phosphoproteomic technology, we found that serine208-phosphorylated troponin T (P-Ser208-TnT) decreases in LV of HF rats. Our aim was to determine the performance of P-Ser208-TnT as plasma biomarker of HF compared to conventional cardiac biomarkers such as B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein (CRP) or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP-1) measured by x-MAP technology, as well as its capacity to reflect a pharmacological improvement of HF. We observed a significant increase of BNP, TnT and cTnI levels and a significant decrease of P-Ser208-TnT and TIMP-1 in the plasma of 2-month-MI rats compared with control rats with no modulation of CRP level. Circulating levels of P-Ser208-TnT were shown to be associated with most of the echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters of cardiac function. We verified that the decrease of P-Ser208-TnT was not because of an excess of phosphatase activity in plasma of HF rats. Two-month-MI rats treated with the heart rate reducing agent ivabradine had improved LV function and increased plasma levels of P-Ser208-TnT. Thus, circulating phosphorylated troponin T is a highly sensitive biological indicator of cardiac dysfunction and has the potentiality of a new biomarker of HF post-MI, and of a surrogate marker for the efficacy of a successful treatment of HF. PMID:23905701

  19. A Cyclic Peptidic Serine Protease Inhibitor: Increasing Affinity by Increasing Peptide Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Longguang; Paaske, Berit; Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Jensen, Jan K.; Sørensen, Hans Peter; Liu, Zhuo; Nielsen, Jakob T.; Christensen, Anni; Hosseini, Masood; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Jensen, Knud J.; Huang, Mingdong; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Peptides are attracting increasing interest as protease inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate a new inhibitory mechanism and a new type of exosite interactions for a phage-displayed peptide library-derived competitive inhibitor, mupain-1 (CPAYSRYLDC), of the serine protease murine urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). We used X-ray crystal structure analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, liquid state NMR, surface plasmon resonance analysis, and isothermal titration calorimetry and wild type and engineered variants of murine and human uPA. We demonstrate that Arg6 inserts into the S1 specificity pocket, its carbonyl group aligning improperly relative to Ser195 and the oxyanion hole, explaining why the peptide is an inhibitor rather than a substrate. Substitution of the P1 Arg with novel unnatural Arg analogues with aliphatic or aromatic ring structures led to an increased affinity, depending on changes in both P1 - S1 and exosite interactions. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that exosite interactions, while still supporting high affinity binding, differed substantially between different uPA variants. Surprisingly, high affinity binding was facilitated by Ala-substitution of Asp9 of the peptide, in spite of a less favorable binding entropy and loss of a polar interaction. We conclude that increased flexibility of the peptide allows more favorable exosite interactions, which, in combination with the use of novel Arg analogues as P1 residues, can be used to manipulate the affinity and specificity of this peptidic inhibitor, a concept different from conventional attempts at improving inhibitor affinity by reducing the entropic burden. PMID:25545505

  20. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  1. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  2. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  3. A novel locust (Schistocerca gregaria) serine protease inhibitor with a high affinity for neutrophil elastase

    PubMed Central

    Brillard-Bourdet, Michèle; Hamdaoui, Ahmed; Hajjar, Eric; Boudier, Christian; Reuter, Nathalie; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Bieth, Joseph G.; Gauthier, Francis

    2006-01-01

    We have purified to homogeneity two forms of a new serine protease inhibitor specific for elastase/chymotrypsin from the ovary gland of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. This protein, greglin, has 83 amino acid residues and bears putative phosphorylation sites. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed no homology with pacifastin insect inhibitors and only a distant relationship with Kazal-type inhibitors. This was confirmed by computer-based structural studies. The most closely related homologue is a putative gene product from Ciona intestinalis with which it shares 38% sequence homology. Greglin is a fast-acting and tight binding inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (kass=1.2×107 M?1·s?1, Ki=3.6 nM) and subtilisin. It also binds neutrophil cathepsin G, pancreatic elastase and chymotrypsin with a lower affinity (26 nM?Ki?153 nM), but does not inhibit neutrophil protease 3 or pancreatic trypsin. The capacity of greglin to inhibit neutrophil elastase was not significantly affected by exposure to acetonitrile, high temperature (90 °C), low or high pH (2.5–11.0), N-chlorosuccinimide-mediated oxidation or the proteolytic enzymes trypsin, papain and pseudolysin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Greglin efficiently inhibits the neutrophil elastase activity of sputum supernatants from cystic fibrosis patients. Its biological function in the locust ovary gland is currently unknown, but its physicochemical properties suggest that it can be used as a template to design a new generation of highly resistant elastase inhibitors for treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:16839309

  4. The contribution of serine 194 phosphorylation to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein function.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Goro; Zubair, Mohamad; Ishii, Tomohiro; Mitsui, Toshikatsu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Auchus, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme catalyzes the initial step of steroid hormone biosynthesis. StAR was initially identified in adrenocortical cells as a phosphoprotein, the expression and phosphorylation of which were stimulated by corticotropin. A number of in vitro studies have implicated cAMP-dependent phosphorylation at serine 194 (S194, S195 in human StAR) as an important residue for StAR activity. To explore the importance of S194 phosphorylation in StAR function in vivo, we developed a transgenic model using a bacterial artificial chromosome expressing either wild-type (WT) StAR or StAR mutation S194A to rescue StAR knockout (KO) mice. Despite StAR protein expression comparable to or higher than amounts seen with control animals or rescue with WT StAR, S194A StAR did not rescue the neonatal lethality and only partially rescued the sex reversal in male mice observed uniformly in StAR KO mice. Like the StAR KO mice, the adrenal cortex and testicular Leydig cells contained abundant lipid deposits when stained with oil red O. Adrenal StAR from S194A rescue animals lacks an acidic species, which appears upon corticotropin stimulation in animals rescued with WT StAR, consistent with defective StAR phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that S194 is an essential residue for normal StAR function in the adrenal cortex and testes of mice. PMID:24850413

  5. Species-Specific Serological Detection for Schistosomiasis by Serine Protease Inhibitor (SERPIN) in Multiplex Assay

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, Chihiro; Fujii, Yoshito; Miura, Masashi; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Nagi, Sachiyo; Hamano, Shinjiro; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Hirayama, Kenji; Mwau, Matilu; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium cause schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the diagnostic value of selected Schistosoma antigens for the development of a multiplex serological immunoassay for sero-epidemiological surveillance. Methodology/Principal Findings Diagnostic ability of recombinant antigens from S. mansoni and S. haematobium was assessed by Luminex multiplex immunoassay using plasma from school children in two areas of Kenya, endemic for different species of schistosomiasis. S. mansoni serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) and Sm-RP26 showed significantly higher reactivity to patient plasma as compared to the control group. Sm-Filamin, Sm-GAPDH, Sm-GST, Sm-LAP1, Sm-LAP2, Sm-Sm31, Sm-Sm32 and Sm-Tropomyosin did not show difference in reactivity between S. mansoni infected and uninfected pupils. Sm-RP26 was cross-reactive to plasma from S. haematobium patients, whereas Sm-SERPIN was species-specific. Sh-SEPRIN was partially cross-reactive to S. mansoni infected patients. ROC analysis for Sm-RP26, Sm-SERPIN and Sh-SERPIN showed AUC values of 0.833, 0.888 and 0.947, respectively. Using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient analysis, we also found significant positive correlation between the number of excreted eggs and median fluorescence intensity (MFI) from the multiplex immunoassays for Sm-SERPIN (? = 0.430, p-value = 0.003) and Sh-SERPIN (? = 0.433, p-value = 0.006). Conclusions/Significance Sm-SERPIN is a promising species-specific diagnostic antigen. Sh-SEPRIN was partially cross-reactive to S. mansoni infected patients. SERPINs showed correlation with the number of excreted eggs. These indicate prospects for inclusion of SERPINs in the multiplex serological immunoassay system. PMID:26291988

  6. Intranasal Immunization of Lambs with Serine/Threonine Phosphatase 2A against Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Fawzi, Elshaima; Cruz Bustos, Teresa; Gómez Samblas, Mercedes; González-González, Gloria; Solano, Jenifer; González-Sánchez, María Elena; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Corral-Caridad, María Jesús; Cuquerella, Montserrat; Osuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Seven 3-month-old, female, helminth-free lambs were immunized intranasally with three doses (1 mg total) of a recombinant part of the catalytic region of the serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2Ar) (group 1 [G1]). In addition, four lambs were used as an adjuvant control group (G2), four as unimmunized, infected controls (G3), and four as unimmunized, uninfected controls (G4). Fifteen days after the last immunization, lambs from G1, G2, and G3 were challenged with 10,000 larval stage 3 (L3) organisms in a plurispecific nematode infection composed of ca. 40% Trichostrongylus colubriformis, 40% Haemonchus contortus, and 20% Teladorsagia circumcincta. All the lambs were clinically monitored throughout the experiment. Parasitological (fecal egg output and immunological response), biopathological (packed-cell volume and leukocyte and eosinophil counts), and zootechnical (live-weight gain) analyses were conducted. On day 105 of the experiment, all the animals were slaughtered and the adult worm population in their abomasa examined. Intranasal administration of PP2Ar with bacterial walls as an adjuvant elicited a strong immune response in the immunized lambs, as evidenced by their humoral immune response. Immunized animals and animals receiving the adjuvant shed significantly (P < 0.001) fewer numbers of parasites' eggs in their feces. The immunization significantly reduced the helminth burden in the abomasa by the end of the experiment (>68%), protection being provided against both Haemonchus and Teladorsagia. Live-weight gain in the immunized lambs was similar to that in the uninfected controls versus the infected or adjuvanted animal groups. Our results suggest that heterologous immunization of ruminants by intranasal administration may be efficacious in the struggle to control gastrointestinal helminths in these livestock. PMID:23761655

  7. I?B kinase ? phosphorylates Dok1 serines in response to TNF, IL-1, or ? radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghoon; Andrieu, Charlotte; Saltel, Frédéric; Destaing, Olivier; Auclair, Jessie; Pouchkine, Véronique; Michelon, Jocelyne; Salaun, Bruno; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Jurdic, Pierre; Kieff, Elliott D.; Sylla, Bakary S.

    2004-01-01

    Dok1 is an abundant Ras-GTPase-activating protein-associated tyrosine kinase substrate that negatively regulates cell growth and promotes migration. We now find that I?B kinase ? (IKK?) associated with and phosphorylated Dok1 in human epithelial cells and B lymphocytes. IKK? phosphorylation of Dok1 depended on Dok1 S439, S443, S446, and S450. Recombinant IKK? also phosphorylated Dok1 or Dok1 amino acids 430–481 in vitro. TNF-?, IL-1, ? radiation, or IKK? overexpression phosphorylated Dok1 S443, S446, and S450 in vivo, as detected with Dok1 phospho-S site-specific antisera. Moreover, Dok1 with S439, S443, S446, and S450 mutated to A was not phosphorylated by IKK? in vivo. Surprisingly, mutant Dok1 A439, A443, A446, and A450 differed from wild-type Dok1 in not inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation or cell growth. Mutant Dok1 A439, A443, A446, and A450 also did not promote cell motility, whereas wild-type Dok1 promoted cell motility, and Dok1 E439, E443, E446, and E450 further enhanced cell motility. These data indicate that IKK? phosphorylates Dok1 S439S443 and S446S450 after TNF-?, IL-1, or ?-radiation and implicate the critical Dok1 serines in Dok1 effects after tyrosine kinase activation. PMID:15574499

  8. Function and clinical relevance of kallikrein-related peptidases and other serine proteases in gynecological cancers.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Julia; Beaufort, Nathalie; Schmitt, Manfred; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Goettig, Peter; Magdolen, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Gynecological cancers, including malignant tumors of the ovaries, the endometrium and the cervix, account for approximately 10% of tumor-associated deaths in women of the Western world. For screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy response prediction, the group of enzymes known as serine (Ser-)proteases show great promise as biomarkers. In the present review, following a summary of the clinical facts regarding malignant tumors of the ovaries, the endometrium and the cervix, and characterization of the most important Ser-proteases, we thoroughly review the current state of knowledge relating to the use of proteases as biomarkers of the most frequent gynecological cancers. Within the Ser-protease group, the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, which encompasses a subgroup of 15 members, holds particular promise, with some acting via a tumor-promoting mechanism and others behaving as protective factors. Further, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) seem to play an unfavorable role in gynecological tumors, while down-regulation of high-temperature requirement proteins A 1, 2 and 3 (HtrA1,2,3) is associated with malignant disease and cancer progression. Expression/activity levels of other Ser-proteases, including the type II transmembrane Ser-proteases (TTSPs) matriptase, hepsin (TMPRSS1), and the hepsin-related protease (TMPRSS3), as well as the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Ser-proteases prostasin and testisin, may be of clinical relevance in gynecological cancers. In conclusion, proteases are a rich source of biomarkers of gynecological cancer, though the enzymes' exact roles and functions merit further investigation. PMID:24490956

  9. Type II Transmembrane Serine Protease Gene Variants Associate with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luostari, Kaisa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Tengström, Maria; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Kataja, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are related to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in cancer. Genetic variants in these genes may alter their function, leading to cancer onset and progression, and affect patient outcome. Here, 464 breast cancer cases and 370 controls were genotyped for 82 single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering eight genes. Association of the genotypes was estimated against breast cancer risk, breast cancer–specific survival, and survival in different treatment groups, and clinicopathological variables. SNPs in TMPRSS3 (rs3814903 and rs11203200), TMPRSS7 (rs1844925), and HGF (rs5745752) associated significantly with breast cancer risk (Ptrend?=?0.008–0.042). SNPs in TMPRSS1 (rs12151195 and rs12461158), TMPRSS2 (rs2276205), TMPRSS3 (rs3814903), and TMPRSS7 (rs2399403) associated with prognosis (P?=?0.004–0.046). When estimating the combined effect of the variants, the risk of breast cancer was higher with 4–5 alleles present compared to 0–2 alleles (P?=?0.0001; OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.39–3.94). Women with 6–8 survival-associating alleles had a 3.3 times higher risk of dying of breast cancer compared to women with 1–3 alleles (P?=?0.001; HR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.58–6.88). The results demonstrate the combined effect of variants in TTSPs and their related genes in breast cancer risk and patient outcome. Functional analysis of these variants will lead to further understanding of this gene family, which may improve individualized risk estimation and development of new strategies for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25029565

  10. Type II transmembrane serine protease gene variants associate with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luostari, Kaisa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Tengström, Maria; Palvimo, Jorma J; Kataja, Vesa; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti

    2014-01-01

    Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are related to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in cancer. Genetic variants in these genes may alter their function, leading to cancer onset and progression, and affect patient outcome. Here, 464 breast cancer cases and 370 controls were genotyped for 82 single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering eight genes. Association of the genotypes was estimated against breast cancer risk, breast cancer-specific survival, and survival in different treatment groups, and clinicopathological variables. SNPs in TMPRSS3 (rs3814903 and rs11203200), TMPRSS7 (rs1844925), and HGF (rs5745752) associated significantly with breast cancer risk (Ptrend?=?0.008-0.042). SNPs in TMPRSS1 (rs12151195 and rs12461158), TMPRSS2 (rs2276205), TMPRSS3 (rs3814903), and TMPRSS7 (rs2399403) associated with prognosis (P?=?0.004-0.046). When estimating the combined effect of the variants, the risk of breast cancer was higher with 4-5 alleles present compared to 0-2 alleles (P?=?0.0001; OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.39-3.94). Women with 6-8 survival-associating alleles had a 3.3 times higher risk of dying of breast cancer compared to women with 1-3 alleles (P?=?0.001; HR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.58-6.88). The results demonstrate the combined effect of variants in TTSPs and their related genes in breast cancer risk and patient outcome. Functional analysis of these variants will lead to further understanding of this gene family, which may improve individualized risk estimation and development of new strategies for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25029565

  11. Protection of salmon calcitonin breakdown with serine proteases by various ovomucoid species for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rakhi B; Khan, Mansoor A

    2004-02-01

    The current work compared protective effects of various ovomucoid species against salmon calcitonin (sCT) metabolism by serine proteases. sCT solutions (50 microM) were incubated at 37 degrees C with trypsin (0.5 microM), alpha-chymotrypsin (0.1 microM), or elastase (0.48 microM) in 50 mM Tris buffer (pH 8.0) containing or lacking different concentrations of turkey ovomucoid (tOVM), duck ovomucoid (dOVM), or chicken ovomucoid (cOVM) and aprotinin. Caco-2 cell homogenate was also incubated with sCT and the contents of the proteases were assayed by using their specific substrates. Metabolites were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques. In the absence of inhibitors, there was a considerable degradation of sCT by the proteases. dOVM and tOVM increased the half-life of sCT with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin at enzyme-to-inhibitor ratio of 1:4 showing similar efficacy. dOVM was found to be superior to tOVM in protecting sCT from elastase. cOVM was ineffective in protecting sCT against alpha-chymotrypsin. Caco-2 cell homogenate degraded sCT, which was prevented by tOVM. sCT was cleaved into different molecular weight fragments with different proteases. In general, the metabolite formation decreased when inhibitor concentration increased. dOVM and tOVM effectively stabilized sCT against all three proteases. However, cOVM could not prevent the degradation by alpha-chymotrypsin. PMID:14705196

  12. Novel antiviral host factor, TNK1, regulates IFN signaling through serine phosphorylation of STAT1.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Ee Lyn; Chan, Stephanie T; Cho, Noell E; Wilkins, Courtney; Woodward, Jessica; Li, Meng; Kikkawa, Ushio; Tellinghuisen, Timothy; Gale, Michael; Saito, Takeshi

    2014-02-01

    In response to viral infection, the host induces over 300 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are the central component of intracellular antiviral innate immunity. Inefficient induction of ISGs contributes to poor control and persistence of hepatitis C virus infection. Therefore, further understanding of the hepatocytic ISG regulation machinery will guide us to an improved management strategy against hepatitis C virus infection. In this study, comprehensive genome-wide, high-throughput cDNA screening for genes regulating ISG expression identified a tyrosine kinase nonreceptor 1 (TNK1) as a unique player in the ISG induction pathway. The immune-modulatory function of TNK1 has never been studied, and this study characterizes its significance in antiviral innate immunity. TNK1 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes and maintains basal ISG expression. More importantly, TNK1 plays a critical role in type I IFN-mediated ISG induction. We discovered that the activated IFN receptor complex recruits TNK1 from the cytoplasm. TNK1 is then phosphorylated to enhance its kinase activity. The activated TNK1 potentiates JAK-STAT signaling through dual phosphorylation of STAT1 at tyrosine 701 and serine 727 amino acid positions. Our loss-of-function approach demonstrated that TNK1 governs a cluster of ISG expression that defines the TNK1 pathway effector genes. More importantly, TNK1 abundance is inversely correlated to viral replication efficiency and is also a determinant factor for the hepatocytic response to antiviral treatment. Taken together, our studies found a critical but unidentified integrated component of the IFN-JAK-STAT signaling cascade. PMID:24449862

  13. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  14. Transcriptional analysis of an immune-responsive serine protease from Indian malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Janneth; Agrawal, Neema; Sharma, Anil; Malhotra, Pawan; Adak, Tridibes; Chauhan, Virander S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2007-01-01

    Background The main vector for transmission of malaria in India is the Anopheles culicifacies mosquito species, a naturally selected subgroup of which is completely refractory (R) to transmission of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax; Results Here, we report the molecular characterization of a serine protease (acsp30)-encoding gene from A. culicifacies, which was expressed in high abundance in the refractory strain compared to the susceptible (S) strain. The transcriptional upregulation of acsp30 upon Plasmodium challenge in the refractory strain coincided with ookinete invasion of mosquito midgut. Gene organization and primary sequence of acsp30 were identical in the R and S strains suggesting a divergent regulatory status of acsp30 in these strains. To examine this further, the upstream regulatory sequences of acsp30 were isolated, cloned and evaluated for the presence of promoter activity. The 702 bp upstream region of acsp30 from the two strains revealed sequence divergence. The promoter activity measured by luciferase-based reporter assay was shown to be 1.5-fold higher in the R strain than in the S. Gel shift experiments demonstrated a differential recruitment of nuclear proteins to upstream sequences of acsp30 as well as a difference in the composition of nuclear proteins in the two strains, both of which might contribute to the relative abundance of acsp30 in the R strain; Conclusion The specific upregulation of acsp30 in the R strain only in response to Plasmodium infection is suggestive of its role in contributing the refractory phenotype to the A. culicifacies mosquito population. PMID:17502004

  15. Large Scale Structural Rearrangement of a Serine Hydrolase from Francisella tularensis Facilitates Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Weston, Leigh A.; Kuhn, Misty L.; Geissler, Brett; Gehring, Alexandra M.; Armoush, Nicola; Adkins, Chinessa T.; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Winsor, James R.; Lavis, Luke D.; Satchell, Karla J. F.; Becker, Daniel P.; Anderson, Wayne F.; Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Tularemia is a deadly, febrile disease caused by infection by the Gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Members of the ubiquitous serine hydrolase protein family are among current targets to treat diverse bacterial infections. Herein we present a structural and functional study of a novel bacterial carboxylesterase (FTT258) from F. tularensis, a homologue of human acyl protein thioesterase (hAPT1). The structure of FTT258 has been determined in multiple forms, and unexpectedly large conformational changes of a peripheral flexible loop occur in the presence of a mechanistic cyclobutanone ligand. The concomitant changes in this hydrophobic loop and the newly exposed hydrophobic substrate binding pocket suggest that the observed structural changes are essential to the biological function and catalytic activity of FTT258. Using diverse substrate libraries, site-directed mutagenesis, and liposome binding assays, we determined the importance of these structural changes to the catalytic activity and membrane binding activity of FTT258. Residues within the newly exposed hydrophobic binding pocket and within the peripheral flexible loop proved essential to the hydrolytic activity of FTT258, indicating that structural rearrangement is required for catalytic activity. Both FTT258 and hAPT1 also showed significant association with liposomes designed to mimic bacterial or human membranes, respectively, even though similar structural rearrangements for hAPT1 have not been reported. The necessity for acyl protein thioesterases to have maximal catalytic activity near the membrane surface suggests that these conformational changes in the protein may dually regulate catalytic activity and membrane association in bacterial and human homologues. PMID:23430251

  16. Human Cystathionine-?-Synthase Phosphorylation on Serine227 Modulates Hydrogen Sulfide Production in Human Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    d’Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Donnarumm, Erminia; Russo, Annapina; Fusco, Ferdinando; Ianaro, Angela; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Russo, Giulia; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Urothelium, the epithelial lining the inner surface of human bladder, plays a key role in bladder physiology and pathology. It responds to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli by releasing several factors and mediators. Recently it has been shown that hydrogen sulfide contributes to human bladder homeostasis. Hydrogen sulfide is mainly produced in human bladder by the action of cystathionine-?-synthase. Here, we demonstrate that human cystathionine-?-synthase activity is regulated in a cGMP/PKG-dependent manner through phosphorylation at serine 227. Incubation of human urothelium or T24 cell line with 8-Bromo-cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) but not dibutyryl-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (d-cAMP) causes an increase in hydrogen sulfide production. This result is congruous with the finding that PKG is robustly expressed but PKA only weakly present in human urothelium as well as in T24 cells. The cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation elicited by 8-Br-cGMP is selectively reverted by KT5823, a specific PKG inhibitor. Moreover, the silencing of cystathionine-?-synthase in T24 cells leads to a marked decrease in hydrogen sulfide production either in basal condition or following 8-Br-cGMP challenge. In order to identify the phosphorylation site, recombinant mutant proteins of cystathionine-?-synthase in which Ser32, Ser227 or Ser525 was mutated in Ala were generated. The Ser227Ala mutant cystathionine-?-synthase shows a notable reduction in basal biosynthesis of hydrogen sulfide becoming unresponsive to the 8-Br-cGMP challenge. A specific antibody that recognizes the phosphorylated form of cystathionine-?-synthase has been produced and validated by using T24 cells and human urothelium. In conclusion, human cystathionine-?-synthase can be phosphorylated in a PKG-dependent manner at Ser227 leading to an increased catalytic activity. PMID:26368121

  17. Serine-based gemini surfactants with different spacer linkages: from self-assembly to DNA compaction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sandra G; Oliveira, Isabel S; do Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F

    2014-12-14

    Cationic gemini surfactants have strong potential as compaction agents of nucleic acids for efficient non-viral gene delivery. In this work, we present the aggregation behavior of three novel cationic serine-based gemini surfactants as well as their ability to compact DNA per se and mixed with a helper lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). All the surfactants have a 12-12-12 configuration, i.e. two main 12-carbon alkyl chains linked to the nitrogen atom of the amino acid residue and a 12 methylene spacer, but they differ in the nature of the spacer linkage: for (12Ser)2N12, an amine bond; for (12Ser)2CON12, an amide bond; and for (12Ser)2COO12, an ester bond. Interestingly, while the amine-based gemini aggregates into micelles, the amide and ester ones spontaneously form vesicles, which denotes a strong influence of the type of linkage on the surfactant packing parameter. The size, ?-potential and stability of the vesicles have been characterized by light microscopy, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The interaction of the gemini aggregates with DNA at different charge ratios and in the absence and presence of DOPE has been studied by DLS, fluorescence spectroscopy and cryo-SEM. All the compounds are found to efficiently compact DNA (complexation > 90%), but relevant differences are obtained in terms of the size, ?-potential and stability of the lipoplexes formed. Results are rationalized in terms of headgroup differences and the type of aggregates present prior to DNA condensation. PMID:25342304

  18. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  19. A theoretical study of the active sites of papain and S195C rat trypsin: implications for the low reactivity of mutant serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The serine and cysteine proteinases represent two important classes of enzymes that use a catalytic triad to hydrolyze peptides and esters. The active site of the serine proteinases consists of three key residues, Asp...His...Ser. The hydroxyl group of serine functions as a nucleophile and the imidazole ring of histidine functions as a general acid/general base during catalysis. Similarly, the active site of the cysteine proteinases also involves three key residues: Asn, His, and Cys. The active site of the cysteine proteinases is generally believed to exist as a zwitterion (Asn...His+...Cys-) with the thiolate anion of the cysteine functioning as a nucleophile during the initial stages of catalysis. Curiously, the mutant serine proteinases, thiol subtilisin and thiol trypsin, which have the hybrid Asp...His...Cys triad, are almost catalytically inert. In this study, ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations have been performed on the active sites of papain and the mutant serine proteinase S195C rat trypsin. These calculations predict that the active site of papain exists predominately as a zwitterion (Cys-...His+...Asn). However, similar calculations on S195C rat trypsin demonstrate that the thiol mutant is unable to form a reactive thiolate anion prior to catalysis. Furthermore, structural comparisons between native papain and S195C rat trypsin have demonstrated that the spatial juxtapositions of the triad residues have been inverted in the serine and cysteine proteinases and, on this basis, I argue that it is impossible to convert a serine proteinase to a cysteine proteinase by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:8819168

  20. D-serine facilitates the effectiveness of extinction to reduce drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Sherri; Seymour, Claire M.; Burger, Ashley; Wagner, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a disease that is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and use despite negative health and social consequences. One obstacle in treating addiction is a high susceptibility for relapse which persists despite prolonged periods of abstinence. Relapse can be triggered by drug predictive stimuli such as environmental context and drug associated cues, as well as the addictive drug itself. The conditioned place preference (CPP) behavioral model is a useful paradigm for studying the ability of these drug predictive stimuli to reinstate drug-seeking behavior. The present study investigated the dose-dependent effects of D-serine (10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) on extinction training and drug-primed reinstatement in cocaine-conditioned rats. In the first experiment, D-serine had no effect on the acquisition or development of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization or CPP. In the second experiment, D-serine treatment resulted in significantly decreased time spent in the drug-paired compartment following completion of an extinction protocol. A cocaine-primed reinstatement test indicated that the combination of extinction training along with D-serine treatment resulted in a significant reduction of drug-seeking behavior. The third experiment assessed D-serine’s long-term effects to diminish drug-primed reinstatement. D-serine treatment given during extinction was effective in reducing drug-seeking for more than four weeks of abstinence after the last cocaine exposure. These findings demonstrate that D-serine may be an effective adjunct therapeutic agent along with cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:22728761

  1. Neu-Laxova Syndrome Is a Heterogeneous Metabolic Disorder Caused by Defects in Enzymes of the L-Serine Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Acuna-Hidalgo, Rocio; Schanze, Denny; Kariminejad, Ariana; Nordgren, Ann; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Conner, Peter; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Nilsson, Daniel; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Wedell, Anna; Freyer, Christoph; Wredenberg, Anna; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kayserili, Hülya; Elcioglu, Nursel; Ghaderi-Sohi, Siavash; Goodarzi, Payman; Setayesh, Hamidreza; van de Vorst, Maartje; Steehouwer, Marloes; Pfundt, Rolph; Krabichler, Birgit; Curry, Cynthia; MacKenzie, Malcolm G.; Boycott, Kym M.; Gilissen, Christian; Janecke, Andreas R.; Hoischen, Alexander; Zenker, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of severe malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Homozygous mutations in PHGDH, a gene involved in the first and limiting step in L-serine biosynthesis, were recently identified as the cause of the disease in three families. By studying a cohort of 12 unrelated families affected by NLS, we provide evidence that NLS is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutations in all three genes encoding enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Consistent with recently reported findings, we could identify PHGDH missense mutations in three unrelated families of our cohort. Furthermore, we mapped an overlapping homozygous chromosome 9 region containing PSAT1 in four consanguineous families. This gene encodes phosphoserine aminotransferase, the enzyme for the second step in L-serine biosynthesis. We identified six families with three different missense and frameshift PSAT1 mutations fully segregating with the disease. In another family, we discovered a homozygous frameshift mutation in PSPH, the gene encoding phosphoserine phosphatase, which catalyzes the last step of L-serine biosynthesis. Interestingly, all three identified genes have been previously implicated in serine-deficiency disorders, characterized by variable neurological manifestations. Our findings expand our understanding of NLS as a disorder of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway and suggest that NLS represents the severe end of serine-deficiency disorders, demonstrating that certain complex syndromes characterized by early lethality could indeed be the extreme end of the phenotypic spectrum of already known disorders. PMID:25152457

  2. Image enhancement using a range gated MCPII video system with a 180-ps FWHM shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.C.; Yates, G.J.; Zadgarino, P.

    1995-09-01

    The video image of a target submerged in a scattering medium was improved through the use of range gating techniques. The target, an Air Force resolution chart, was submerged in 18 in. of a colloidal suspension of tincture green soap in water. The target was illuminated with pulsed light from a Raman shifted, frequency-doubled, ND:YAG laser having a wavelength of 559 mm and a width of 20 ps FWHM. The laser light reflected by the target along with the light scattered by the soap, was imaged onto a microchannel-plate image intensifier (MCPII). The output from the MCPII was then recorded with a RS-170 video camera and a video digitizer. The MCPII was gated on with a pulse synchronously timed to the laser pulse. The relative timing between the reflected laser pulse and the shuttering of the MCPII determined the distance to the imaged region. The resolution of the image was influenced by the MCPII`s shutter time. A comparison was made between the resolution of images obtained with 6 ns, 500 ps and 180 ps FWHM (8 ns, 750 ps and 250 ps off-to-off) shutter times. it was found that the image resolution was enhanced by using the faster shutter since the longer exposures allowed light scattered by the water to be recorded too. The presence of scattered light in the image increased the noise, thereby reducing the contrast and the resolution.

  3. Ear2 deletion causes early memory and learning deficits in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Markus P; Hammerschmidt, Thea; Martinez, Ana; Terwel, Dick; Eichele, Gregor; Witten, Anika; Figura, Stefanie; Stoll, Monika; Schwartz, Stephanie; Pape, Hans-Christian; Schultze, Joachim L; Weinshenker, David; Heneka, Michael T; Urban, Inga

    2014-06-25

    To assess the consequences of locus ceruleus (LC) degeneration and subsequent noradrenaline (NA) deficiency in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) were crossed with Ear2(-/-) mice that have a severe loss of LC neurons projecting to the hippocampus and neocortex. Testing spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation revealed an impairment in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice, whereas APP/PS1 or Ear2(-/-) mice showed only minor changes. These deficits were associated with distinct synaptic changes including reduced expression of the NMDA 2A subunit and increased levels of NMDA receptor 2B in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. Acute pharmacological replacement of NA by L-threo-DOPS partially restored phosphorylation of ?-CaMKII and spatial memory performance in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. These changes were not accompanied by altered APP processing or amyloid ? peptide (A?) deposition. Thus, early LC degeneration and subsequent NA reduction may contribute to cognitive deficits via CaMKII and NMDA receptor dysfunction independent of A? and suggests that NA supplementation could be beneficial in treating AD. PMID:24966384

  4. Genesis and Variability of [Ps1] Prion Factors in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Derkatch, I. L.; Chernoff, Y. O.; Kushnirov, V. V.; Inge-Vechtomov, S. G.; Liebman, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that multicopy plasmids containing the complete SUP35 gene are able to induce the appearance of the non-Mendelian factor [PS1]. This result was later interpreted by others as a crucial piece of evidence for a model postulating that [PS1] is a self-modified, prion-like conformational derivative of the Sup35 protein. Here we support this interpretation by proving that it is the overproduction of Sup35 protein, and not the excess of SUP35 DNA or mRNA that causes the appearance of [PS1]. We also show that the ``prion-inducing domain'' of Sup35p is in the N-terminal region, which, like the ``prion-inducing domain'' of another yeast prion, Ure2p, was previously shown to be distinct from the functional domain of the protein. This suggests that such a chimeric organization may be a common pattern of some prion elements. Finally, we find that [PS1] factors of different efficiencies and different mitotic stabilities are induced in the same yeast strain by overproduction of the identical Sup35 protein. We suggest that the different [PS1]-containing derivatives are analogous to the mysterious mammalian prion strains and result from different conformational variants of Sup35p. PMID:8978027

  5. Production of Retinal Cells from Confluent Human iPS Cells.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Sacha; Goureau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells could be used as an unlimited source of retinal cells for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Although much progress has been made in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards different retinal lineages, the production of retinal cells from hiPS cells for therapeutic approaches require the development of easy and standardized protocols. In this chapter, we describe a simple and effective protocol for retinal differentiation of hiPS cells bypassing embryoid body formation and the use of exogenous molecules and substrates. In 2 weeks, confluent hiPS cells cultured in pro-neural medium can generate both retinal pigmented epithelial cells and self-forming neural retina-like structures containing retinal progenitor cells. These progenitors can be differentiated into all retinal cell types, including retinal ganglion cells and precursors of photoreceptors, which could find important applications in regenerative medicine. This differentiation system and the resulting hiPS-derived retinal cells will also offer opportunity to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying human retinal development, and the establishment of in vitro models of human retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25417064

  6. Preparation and characterization of monodispersed PS/Ag composite microspheres through modified electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuehui; Zhang, Qinghua

    2012-07-01

    A modified electroless silver-plating process has been devised for the preparation of monodispersed, polystyrene/silver (PS/Ag) composite microspheres with tunable shell thickness. Tailoring was achieved by altering the concentration of the silver precursor in the plating bath. PS/Ag composite microspheres were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that a dense, stable and uniform silver nanoshell was formed on the surface of PS microspheres in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and glucose. The bulk conductivity of the PS/Ag composites increased from 1.16 S/m to 3.57 × 104 S/m, corresponding to a shell thickness of 35-198 nm. The PS/Ag composite microspheres with diameters of ca. 3 ?m might have great potential to be used as fillers in anisotropic conductive films because of the uniform diameter, low density and good conductivity of the microspheres.

  7. PS/PMMA Blends in the Presence of Cyclohexane: Selective Solvent Washing or Equilibrium Adsorption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, Harald; Harton, S. E.; Luning, J.; Betz, H.

    2007-03-01

    Cyclohexane has been frequently used as a selective solvent to remove PS layers or domains from polystyrene:poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS:PMMA) blends and for reorganization or self-assembly of polymer brushes and block copolymers. We have found that cyclohexane is not efficient at PS removal, observing significant residual PS at PMMA surfaces. These results were compared to PMMA surfaces after PS was allowed to adsorb to the surface from a dilute theta solution in cyclohexane. Using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and inverse gas chromatography, coupled with theoretical calculations using self-consistent mean-field theory, we have demonstrated that selectively washing a polymer from a polymer blend is nearly identical to adsorption of a polymer to a `soft' surface from a dilute solution. Improved knowledge about the effects of selective solvents will improve experimental analysis of washed systems as well as the manipulation of block copolymer and polymer brush reorganization or self-assembly.

  8. Human iPS Cell-Derived Germ Cells: Current Status and Clinical Potential.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fertile spermatozoa and oocytes were generated from mouse induced pluripotent (iPS) cells using a combined in vitro and in vivo induction system. With regard to germ cell induction from human iPS cells, progress has been made particularly in the male germline, demonstrating in vitro generation of haploid, round spermatids. Although iPS-derived germ cells are expected to be developed to yield a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART) that can address unmet reproductive needs, genetic and/or epigenetic instabilities abound in iPS cell generation and germ cell induction. In addition, there is still room to improve the induction protocol in the female germline. However, rapid advances in stem cell research are likely to make such obstacles surmountable, potentially translating induced germ cells into the clinical setting in the immediate future. This review examines the current status of the induction of germ cells from human iPS cells and discusses the clinical potential, as well as future directions. PMID:26237592

  9. Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

    2008-02-01

    A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

  10. Neutral serine protease from Penicillium italicum. Purification, biochemical characterization, and use for antioxidative peptide preparation from Scorpaena notata muscle.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Ferid; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, purification and properties of an extracellular neutral serine protease from the fungus Penicillium italicum and its potential application as an antioxidant peptides producer are reported. The protease was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-Sepharose ion exchange chromatography, and TSK-HPLC gel filtration with a 10.2-fold increase in specific activity and 25.8 % recovery. The purified enzyme appeared as single protein band with a molecular mass of 24 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum pH and temperature for the proteolytic activity were pH 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the pH range of 6.0-9.0. The protease was activated by divalent cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Complete inhibition of the purified enzyme by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride confirmed that the protease was of serine-type. The purified enzyme revealed high stability and relatively broad specificity. Scorpaena notata muscle protein hydrolysates prepared using purified serine protease (protease from P. italicum (Prot-Pen)) showed good in vitro antioxidative activities. The antioxidant activities of Scorpaena muscle protein hydrolyzed by Prot-Pen (SMPH-PP) were evaluated using various antioxidant assays: 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous chelating activity, and DNA nicking assay. SMPH-PP showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity and almost the same strongest protection against hydroxyl radical induced DNA breakage. PMID:25035105

  11. Ontogeny of hepatic enzymes involved in serine- and folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H R; Jones, G M; Narkewicz, M R

    2001-05-01

    Serine occupies a central position in folate-dependent, one-carbon metabolism through 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (FTHF). We characterized the ontogeny of the specific activity of key enzymes involved in serine, 5,10-MTHF, and 5-FTHF metabolism: methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFS), MTHF reductase (MTHFR), the glycine cleavage system (GCS), methionine synthase (MS), and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) in rabbit liver, placenta, brain, and kidney. In liver, MTHFS activity is low in the fetus (0.36 +/- 0.07 nmol. min(-1). mg protein(-1)), peaks at 3 wk (1.48 +/- 0.50 nmol. min(-1). mg protein(-1)), and then decreases to adult levels (1.13 +/- 0.32 nmol. min(-1). mg protein(-1)). MTHFR activity is highest early in gestation (24.9 +/- 2.4 nmol. h(-1). mg protein(-1)) and declines rapidly by birth (4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol. h(-1). mg protein(-1)). MS is highest during fetal life and declines after birth. Cytosolic SHMT activity does not vary during development, but mitochondrial SHMT peaks at 23 days. GCS activity is high in the fetus and the neonate, declining after weaning. In placenta and brain, all activities are low throughout gestation. Cytosolic and mitochondrial SHMT activities are low in kidney and rise after weaning, whereas MTHFS is low throughout development. These data suggest that the liver is the primary site of activity for these enzymes. Throughout development, there are multiple potential sources for production of 5,10-MTHF, but early in gestation high MTHFR activity and low MTHFS activity could reduce 5,10-MTHF availability. PMID:11292595

  12. Contribution of serine, folate and glycine metabolism to the ATP, NADPH and purine requirements of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, P M; Markert, E K; Gounder, M; Lin, H; Dvorzhinski, D; Dolfi, S C; Chan, L L-Y; Qiu, J; DiPaola, R S; Hirshfield, K M; Boros, L G; Bertino, J R; Oltvai, Z N; Vazquez, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations on cancer cell metabolism indicate increased serine synthesis from glucose as a marker of poor prognosis. We have predicted that a fraction of the synthesized serine is routed to a pathway for ATP production. The pathway is composed by reactions from serine synthesis, one-carbon (folate) metabolism and the glycine cleavage system (SOG pathway). Here we show that the SOG pathway is upregulated at the level of gene expression in a subset of human tumors and that its level of expression correlates with gene signatures of cell proliferation and Myc target activation. We have also estimated the SOG pathway metabolic flux in the NCI60 tumor-derived cell lines, using previously reported exchange fluxes and a personalized model of cell metabolism. We find that the estimated rates of reactions in the SOG pathway are highly correlated with the proliferation rates of these cell lines. We also observe that the SOG pathway contributes significantly to the energy requirements of biosynthesis, to the NADPH requirement for fatty acid synthesis and to the synthesis of purines. Finally, when the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line is treated with the antifolate methotrexate, we observe a decrease in the ATP levels, AMP kinase activation and a decrease in ribonucleotides and fatty acids synthesized from [1,2-13C2]-D-glucose as the single tracer. Taken together our results indicate that the SOG pathway activity increases with the rate of cell proliferation and it contributes to the biosynthetic requirements of purines, ATP and NADPH of cancer cells. PMID:24157871

  13. Serine Carboxypeptidase SCPEP1 and Cathepsin A Play Complementary Roles in Regulation of Vasoconstriction via Inactivation of Endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuefang; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Seyrantepe, Volkan; Peng, Junzheng; Kollmann, Katrin; Tremblay, Johanne; Lavoie, Julie L.; Hinek, Aleksander; Lübke, Torben; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    The potent vasoconstrictor peptides, endothelin 1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II control adaptation of blood vessels to fluctuations of blood pressure. Previously we have shown that the circulating level of ET-1 is regulated through its proteolytic cleavage by secreted serine carboxypeptidase, cathepsin A (CathA). However, genetically-modified mouse expressing catalytically inactive CathA S190A mutant retained about 10–15% of the carboxypeptidase activity against ET-1 in its tissues suggesting a presence of parallel/redundant catabolic pathway(s). In the current work we provide direct evidence that the enzyme, which complements CathA action towards ET-1 is a retinoid-inducible lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase 1 (Scpep1), a CathA homolog with previously unknown biological function. We generated a mouse strain devoid of both CathA and Scpep1 activities (DD mice) and found that in response to high-salt diet and systemic injections of ET-1 these animals showed significantly increased blood pressure as compared to wild type mice or those with single deficiencies of CathA or Scpep1. We also found that the reactivity of mesenteric arteries from DD mice towards ET-1 was significantly higher than that for all other groups of mice. The DD mice had a reduced degradation rate of ET-1 in the blood whereas their cultured arterial vascular smooth muscle cells showed increased ET-1-dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2. Together, our results define the biological role of mammalian serine carboxypeptidase Scpep1 and suggest that Scpep1 and CathA together participate in the control of ET-1 regulation of vascular tone and hemodynamics. PMID:24586188

  14. Expression of serine proteinase P186 of Arthrobotrys oligospora and analysis of its nematode-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailong; Qiao, Jun; Meng, Qingling; Gong, Shasha; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Tianli; Tian, Lulu; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-12-01

    The nematode-trapping fungi possess a unique capability of predating and invading nematodes. As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora has been widely used to study the interactions between nematode-trapping fungi and their hosts. Serine proteinase is one of the important virulence factors during process of invasion of the nematode-trapping fungi into nematodes. In this study, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the gene sequence of serine proteinase 186 from A. oligospora, cloned it into pPIC9K vector and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed recombinant serine proteinase186 (reP186) was purified via Ni-affinity chromatography. The in vitro nematode-degrading activity of reP186 was analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed that reP186 with molecular weight of 33 kDa was successfully obtained. ReP186 was capable of degrading a series of protein substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, denatured collagen and nematode cortical layer. The reP186 exhibited the maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was highly sensitive to the inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. Treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus with reP186 for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively, resulted in 62, 88 and 100 % of killing rates for C. elegans, and 52, 65 and 84 % of killing rates for H. contortus, respectively, indicating a relatively strong nematode-degrading bioactivity of reP186. PMID:26419902

  15. In vitro anti-leishmanial efficacy of potato tuber extract (PTEx): leishmanial serine protease(s) as putative target.

    PubMed

    Paik, Dibyendu; Das, Partha; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2014-11-01

    Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease (NTD) causes major health problems in the tropical and subtropical world. Most of the antileishmanial modern therapies with different formulations of pentavalent antimonials, Miltefosine, Amphotericin B etc. are not satisfactory in recent times due to high toxicity to the host and present rising strain resistance issues. So there is an urgent need to develop new, safe and cost-effective drugs against leishmaniasis. In this regard, bioactive phytocomponents may lead to the discovery of new medicines with appropriate efficiency. The prominent roles played by Leishmania proteases in the virulence of this parasite make them very promising targets for the development of current therapeutics of leishmaniasis. As part of a search for novel drugs, we have evaluated in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of serine protease inhibitor rich fraction (PTEx) obtained from potato tuber. The extract (PTEx) was prepared by sodium bisulfite fractionation and inhibitors were identified by reverse zymography. Inhibition study of PTEx in gelatin-zymogram and spectrophotometric assay using BApNA and BTpNA as substrate reveal its strong inhibitory activity against trypsin as well as serine proteases present in cell lysate of Leishmania donovani infective strain. The in vitro MTT based colorimetric assay as well as ex vivo L. donovani infected macrophages showed reduced parasite viability and intracellular parasite load with IC50 = 312.5 ± 0.1 ?g/ml and IC50 82.3 ± 0.2 ?g/ml of PTEx respectively in a concentration dependent manner. This anti-leishmanial effect was also preceded by PTEx induced acute formation of ROS and prolonged NO generation. The PTEx has no significant cytotoxic effect on host macrophages. So taken together, these findings indicate that PTEx has promising leishmanicidal effect and thus this study provides a new perspective of natural serine protease inhibitor from potato tuber on the development of new drug against leishmaniasis. PMID:25128800

  16. Structure of XC6422 from Xanthomonas campestris at 1.6 Å resolution: a small serine ?/?-hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao-Yu; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2006-06-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from X. campestris has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. The determined X. campestris structure shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine ?/? hydrolase, with an extra strand preceding the first ?-strand to lead to extensive subunit interactions in the crystal. XC6422 is a conserved hypothetical protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. The protein consists of 220 amino acids and its structure has been determined to 1.6 Å resolution using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Although it has very low sequence identity to protein sequences in the PDB (less than 20%), the determined structure nevertheless shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine ?/?-hydrolases, with an active site that is fully accessible to solvent owing to the absence of a lid domain. Modelling studies with the serine esterase inhibitor E600 indicate that XC6422 adopts a conserved Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad common to this superfamily and has a preformed oxyanion hole for catalytic activation. These structural features suggest that XC6422 is most likely to be a hydrolase active on a soluble ester or a small lipid. An extra strand preceding the first ?-strand in the canonical ?/?-hydrolase fold leads to extensive subunit interactions between XC6422 monomers, which may explain why XC6422 crystals of good diffraction quality can grow to dimensions of up to 1.5 mm in a few days.

  17. Cloning and molecular characterization of a cubilin-related serine proteinase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Takeharu; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Islam, M Khyrul; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2004-08-01

    Serine proteinases are one of the largest proteolytic families of enzymes, and have diverse cellular activities in mammalian tissues. We report here the cloning and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding the serine proteinase of the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlSP). The HlSP cDNA is 1570 bp long and the deduced precursor protein consists of 464 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 50.4 kDa and a pI of 8.2. The preprotein, consisting of 443 amino acids, was predicted to include a complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, and bone morphogenic protein-1 domain, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain, and a catalytic domain. HlSP sequence analysis showed high similarity to serine proteinases reported from arthropods and vertebrate animal species. Two-dimensional immunoblot analysis revealed endogenous HlSP in adult tick extracts at 50 kDa. Endogenous HlSP was also expressed in all lifecycle stages of H. longicornis. Immunohistochemical studies detected the endogenous enzyme in the midgut epithelial cells of an adult tick. The Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant HlSP was demonstrated to degrade bovine serum albumin and hydrolyze the substrate Bz-L-Arg-pNA at the rate of 30.2 micromol/min/mg protein. Further, HlSP expression was up-regulated during a blood-feeding process, indicating its involvement in the digestion of host blood components. PMID:15262284

  18. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser(65))--which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)--and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser(65). How Ser(65)-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65)) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser(65) by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), thereby promoting Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser(65). Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser(65) in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65), leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser(65)-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). PMID:26116755

  19. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)—which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)—and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. PMID:26116755

  20. Novel Potent Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease Inhibitors Derived from Proline-Based Macrocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kevin X.; Njoroge, F. George; Arasappan, Ashok; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Yang, Weiying; Parekh, Tejal N.; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Yao, Nanhua; Madison, Vincent; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor

    2008-06-30

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease is essential for viral replication. It has been a target of choice for intensive drug discovery research. On the basis of an active pentapeptide inhibitor, 1, we envisioned that macrocyclization from the P2 proline to P3 capping could enhance binding to the backbone Ala156 residue and the S4 pocket. Thus, a number of P2 proline-based macrocyclic {alpha}-ketoamide inhibitors were prepared and investigated in an HCV NS3 serine protease continuous assay (K*{sub i}). The biological activity varied substantially depending on factors such as the ring size, number of amino acid residues, number of methyl substituents, type of heteroatom in the linker, P3 residue, and configuration at the proline C-4 center. The pentapeptide inhibitors were very potent, with the C-terminal acids and amides being the most active ones (24, K*{sub i} = 8 nM). The tetrapeptides and tripeptides were less potent. Sixteen- and seventeen-membered macrocyclic compounds were equally potent, while fifteen-membered analogues were slightly less active. gem-Dimethyl substituents at the linker improved the potency of all inhibitors (the best compound was 45, K*{sub i} = 6 nM). The combination of tert-leucine at P3 and dimethyl substituents at the linker in compound 47 realized a selectivity of 307 against human neutrophil elastase. Compound 45 had an IC{sub 50} of 130 nM in a cellular replicon assay, while IC{sub 50} for 24 was 400 nM. Several compounds had excellent subcutaneous AUC and bioavailability in rats. Although tripeptide compound 40 was 97% orally bioavailable, larger pentapeptides generally had low oral bioavailability. The X-ray crystal structure of compounds 24 and 45 bound to the protease demonstrated the close interaction of the macrocycle with the Ala156 methyl group and S4 pocket. The strategy of macrocyclization has been proved to be successful in improving potency (>20-fold greater than that of 1) and in structural depeptization.

  1. Protein inhibitors of serine proteinases: role of backbone structure and dynamics in controlling the hydrolysis constant.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Markley, John L

    2003-05-13

    Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases bind as substrates and are cleaved by cognate proteinases at their reactive sites. The hydrolysis constant for this cleavage reaction at the P(1)-P(1)' peptide bond (K(hyd)) is determined by the relative concentrations at equilibrium of the "intact" (uncleaved, I) and "modified" (reactive site cleaved, I*) forms of the inhibitor. The pH dependence of K(hyd) can be explained in terms of a pH-independent term, K(hyd) degrees, plus the proton dissociation constants of the newly formed amino and carboxylate groups at the cleavage site. Two protein inhibitors that differ from one another by a single residue substitution have been found to have K(hyd) degrees values that differ by a factor of 5 [Ardelt, W., and Laskowski, M., Jr. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 220, 1041-1052]: turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) has K(hyd) degrees = 1.0, and Indian peafowl ovomucoid third domain (OMIPF3), which differs from OMTKY3 by the substitution P(2)'-Tyr(20)His, has K(hyd) degrees = 5.15. What mechanism is responsible for this small difference? Is it structural (enthalpic) or dynamic (entropic)? Does the mutation affect the free energy of the I state, the I* state, or both? We have addressed these questions through NMR investigations of the I and I forms of OMTKY3 and OMIPF3. Information about structure was derived from measurements of NMR chemical shift changes and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings; information about dynamics was obtained through measurements of (15)N relaxation rates and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOEs with model-free analysis of the results. Although the I forms of each variant are more dynamic than the corresponding I forms, the study revealed no appreciable difference in the backbone dynamics of either intact inhibitor (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) or modified inhibitor (OMIPF3* vs OMTKY3*). Instead, changes in chemical shifts and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings suggested that the K(hyd) degrees difference arises from differential intramolecular interactions within the intact inhibitors (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) in a region of each protein that becomes disordered upon reactive site cleavage (to OMIPF3* and OMTKY3*). PMID:12731859

  2. Characterisation of a secretory serine protease inhibitor (SjB6) from Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteins belonging to the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily play essential physiological roles in many organisms. In pathogens, serpins are thought to have evolved specifically to limit host immune responses by interfering with the host immune-stimulatory signals. Serpins are less well characterised in parasitic helminths, although some are thought to be involved in mechanisms associated with host immune modulation. In this study, we cloned and partially characterised a secretory serpin from Schistosoma japonicum termed SjB6, these findings provide the basis for possible functional roles. Methods SjB6 gene was identified through database mining of our previously published microarray data, cloned and detailed sequence and structural analysis and comparative modelling carried out using various bioinformatics and proteomics tools. Gene transcriptional profiling was determined by real-time PCR and the expression of native protein determined by immunoblotting. An immunological profile of the recombinant protein produced in insect cells was determined by ELISA. Results SjB6 contains an open reading frame of 1160 base pairs that encodes a protein of 387 amino acid residues. Detailed sequence analysis, comparative modelling and structural-based alignment revealed that SjB6 contains the essential structural motifs and consensus secondary structures typical of inhibitory serpins. The presence of an N-terminal signal sequence indicated that SjB6 is a secretory protein. Real-time data indicated that SjB6 is expressed exclusively in the intra-mammalian stage of the parasite life cycle with its highest expression levels in the egg stage (p?

  3. Cloning and structural analysis of MMCP-1, MMCP-4 and MMCP-5, three mouse mast cell-specific serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Huang, R Y; Blom, T; Hellman, L

    1991-07-01

    Here we present the cloning of three novel mouse mast cell-specific serine proteases, MMCP-1, MMCP-4 and MMCP-5. A region of approximately 4 kb covering the five exons and 930 bp 5' and 280 bp 3' flanking sequences of the gene for MMCP-1 was characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. A comparison with the corresponding region of the rat mucosal mast cell-specific protease RMCP-II is presented. cDNA clones for the mast cell proteases MMCP-4 (950 bp) and MMCP-5 (1098 bp) were isolated from a cDNA library of a connective tissue mast cell-like mouse mastocytoma cell line. All three proteases were found to belong to the family of chymotrypic serine proteases as deduced from the absence of the Asp 189 which is characteristic for all serine proteases having cleavage specificities similar to pancreatic trypsin. The active polypeptides, excluding possible post-translational glycosylations, have an Mr of 25-26 kDa. Analysis of the amino acid composition reveals a positive net charge for all three proteases MMCP-1 +3, MMCP-4 +18 and MMCP-5 +12). Based on their high sequence identity (88%) and high positive net charges (+18 and +18, respectively) we assume that the MMCP-4 is the mouse homolog to rat RMCP-I. Probes specific for each of these three highly homologous protease genes have been generated by subcloning of fragments of approximately 100 bp in length, originating from the 3' ends of the mRNA into plasmid vectors. Northern blot analysis of mRNA from a number of murine cell lines shows gene expression of these proteases to be specific for the differentiation stage of the mast cell. The MMCP-1 is expressed only at the mucosal mast cell stage and 5 only in mast cells of the connective tissue mast cell stage. These serine proteases may serve as highly specific markers in the analysis of mast cell heterogeneity, differentiation and function. PMID:2060576

  4. Catalysis of the Oligomerization of O-Phospho-Serine, Aspartic Acid, or Glutamic Acid by Cationic Micelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohler, Christof; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of relatively concentrated aqueous solutions of 0-phospho-serine (50 mM), aspartic acid (100 mM) or glutamic acid (100 mM) with carbonyldiimidazole leads to the formation of an activated intermediate that oligomerizes efficiently. When the concentration of amino acid is reduced tenfold, few long oligomers can be detected. Positively-charged cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles concentrate the negatively-charged activated intermediates of the amino acids at their surfaces and catalyze efficient oligomerization even from dilute solutions.

  5. Catalysis of the Oligomerization of O-Phospho-Serine, Aspartic Acid, or Glutamic Acid by Cationic Micelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehler, Christof; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of relatively concentrated aqueous solutions of O-phospho-serine (50 mM), aspartic acid (100 mM) or glutamic acid (100 mM) with carbonyldiimidazole leads to the formation of an activated intermediate that oligomerizes efficiently. When the concentration of amino acid is reduced tenfold, few long oligomers can be detected. Positively-charged cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles concentrate the negatively-charged activated intermediates of the amino acids at their surfaces and catalyze efficient oligomerization even from dilute solutions.

  6. PS2 in breast cancer--alternative or complementary tool to steroid receptor status? Evaluation of 446 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gion, M.; Mione, R.; Pappagallo, G. L.; Gatti, C.; Nascimben, O.; Bari, M.; Leon, A. E.; Vinante, O.; Bruscagnin, G.

    1993-01-01

    The oestrogen induced pS2 protein was measured in the cytosol of 446 breast cancer samples by an immunoradiometric assay. The relationships between pS2 and several clinical and biological parameters were evaluated. pS2 was not correlated to age, pT and nodal status, while it was higher in pre- than in peri- and post-menopausal women. A statistically significant positive association was found between pS2 and ER, PgR and cathepsin D. However, the frequency of pS2 negative values in ER+ (25.6%), PgR+ (21.7%) and cathepsin D-(19.0%) cases suggests that pS2 provides information independent of the above parameters in a fairly high percentage of patients. The prognostic role of pS2 was evaluated in 267 cases (follow up time 24-102 months). pS2+ showed longer RFS (P = 0.016) and OS (P = 0.004) than pS2-. pS2+ cases were significantly associated with a better prognosis in N+ but not in N- cases. Multivariate analysis showed that pS2 is an independent prognostic factor being the second most effective indicator for OS after nodal status and the third for RFS after nodal status and cathepsin D. From the present findings, we conclude that pS2 probably provides additional biological information to steroid receptor status and cathepsin D in patients with primary breast cancer. PMID:8347494

  7. E22 Analogue Electronics PS3 Answers p 1/4 E2.2 Analogue electronics

    E-print Network

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    E22 Analogue Electronics PS3 Answers p 1/4 E2.2 Analogue electronics Problem sheet 3 (Week 5) Q1 inZ j j = + + = + - + R2 R1 R1 R2 Vcc Vin Vout #12;E22 Analogue Electronics PS3 Answers p 222 Analogue Electronics PS3 Answers p 3/4 inverting amplifier, the open loop gain of the amplifier

  8. Fiber-optic ultrasonic sensing systems using PS-FBG for damage monitoring in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Yoji; Wu, Qi

    2015-07-01

    Fiber-optic ultrasonic sensing systems have been developed for structural health monitoring of composite structures by introduction of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (PS-FBGs). The systems can achieve the compatibility of high sensitivity and broadband performance. First, PS-FBG balanced sensing system was developed and succeeded in detection of small acoustic emission signals of composite laminates. Next, erbium fiber ring laser sensing system with inbuilt PS-FBG was developed. This system has high robustness due to its self-adjustment function for environmental disturbances and achieved much higher sensitivity and ultra-broadband respondency than piezoelectric ceramic sensors. These systems have large potential to realize the ultrasonic SHM.

  9. Studies of Space Charge Effects in the Proposed CERN PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert; De Maria, Riccardo; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Wienands, Ulrich; /SLAC

    2012-06-22

    A new proton synchrotron, the PS2, is under design study to replace the current proton synchrotron at CERN for the LHC upgrade. Nonlinear space charge effects could cause significant beam emittance growth and particle losses and limit the performance of the PS2. In this paper, we report on studies of the potential space-charge effects at the PS2 using three-dimensional self-consistent macroparticle tracking codes, IMPACT, MaryLie/IMPACT, and Synergia. We will present initial benchmark results among these codes. Effects of space-charge on the emittance growth, especially due to synchrotron coupling, aperture sizes, initial painted distribution, and RF ramping scheme will also be discussed.

  10. Industry Needs Fulfilled by Patented NASA PS300 Solid Lubricant Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the NASA Glenn Research Center was awarded a patent (#5866518) for a new high-temperature solid lubricant coating material, PS300. A combination of wear-resistant metals and ceramics with solid lubricant additives, PS300 reduces friction and wear in sliding contacts from below ambient to over 650 C. This lubricant is an outgrowth of over three decades of high-temperature tribological research and was specifically developed as a shaft lubricant to protect foil air bearings used in Oil-Free turbomachinery, like gas turbines. Foil bearings are lubricated by air at high speeds but experience sliding and wear during initial startup and shut down when a lubricating film of air has not yet developed. PS300 shaft coatings have successfully lubricated foil bearings for over 100 000 cycles without wearing out.

  11. High speed, high strength microwelding of Si/glass using ps-laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Hansen, Assi; Vihinen, Joma; Amberla, Tiina; Kangastupa, Jarno

    2015-02-01

    A novel microwelding procedure to join Si-to-glass using ps-laser pulses with high repetition rates is presented. The procedure provides weld joint with mechanical strength as high as 85 MPa and 45 MPa in sample pairs of Si/aluminosilicate (Si/SW-Y) and Si/borosilicate (Si/Borofloat 33), respectively, which are higher than anodic bonding, at high spatial resolution (< 20 µm) and very high throughput without pre- and post-heating. Laser-matter interaction analysis indicates that excellent weld joint of Si/glass is obtained by avoiding violent evaporation of Si substrate using ps-laser pulses. Laser welded Si/glass samples can be singulated along the weld lines by standard blade dicer without defects, demonstrating welding by ps-laser pulses is applicable to wafer-level packaging. PMID:25836199

  12. Establishment of a simple assay in vitro for hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease based on recombinant substrate and single-chain protease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Gui-Xin; Hou, Li-Hua; Guan, Rong-Bin; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Hai-Tao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simple and convenient assay in vitro for the Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease based on the recombinant protease and substrate, and to evaluate its feasibility in screening the enzyme inhibitors. METHODS: Based on the crystallographic structure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease, a novel single-chain serine protease was designed, in which the central sequence of cofactor NS4A was linked to the N-terminus of NS3 serine protease domain via a flexible linker GSGS. The fusion gene was obtained by two-step PCR that was carried out with three primers and then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pQE30, and the recombinant clone was verified by DNA sequencing. The single-chain recombinant protease was expressed when the E.coli was induced with IPTG and the expression conditions were optimized to produce large amount of soluble protease. The recombinant substrate NS5ab that covers the cleavage point NS5A/B was also expressed in E.coli. Both of the protease and substrate were purified by using Ni-NTA agarose metal affinity resin, then they were mixed together in a specific buffer, and the mixture was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The cleavage system was used to evaluate some compounds for their inhibitory activity on serine protease. RESULTS: The single-chain recombinant protease was over-expressed as soluble protein when the E.coli was induced at a low dosage of IPTG (0.2 mM) and cultured at a low temperature (15 °C). The protease was purified by using Ni-NTA agarose metal affinity resin (the purity is over 95%). The recombinant substrate NS5ab was expressed in an insoluble form and could refold successfully after purification and dialysis. A simple and convenient assay in vitro was established, in which the purified single-chain serine protease could cleave the recombinant substrate NS5ab into two fragments that were visualized by SDS-PAGE. PMSF had an effect on inhibiting activity of serine protease, while EDTA had not. CONCLUSION: A simple and convenient assay in vitro for hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease is based on recombinant substrate NS5ab and single-chain serine protease. This assay can be used in screening of enzyme inhibitors. PMID:12439931

  13. Status and Early Science Results of the PS1 Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, K.

    2012-09-01

    Pan-STARRS1 began the PS1 Science Mission May 13, 2010. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The PS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey; which currently has obtained more than 30 epochs in 5 passbands (grizy) of the entire sky north of Dec = -30, or 30,000 square degrees with 0.26 arcsecond pixels, or nearly 2 Petabytes of images; (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky or a total of 70 square degrees; (3) A solar system ecliptic plane survey optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects and Kuiper Belt Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey of ~50 square degrees in the galactic buldge; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31 with special attention to a proper cadence for microlensing. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the images, the photometric calibration, and astrometric precision will be presented. Early science ranging from the solar system, brown dwarfs, galactic structure, supernovae, and galaxy counts will be presented. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, and NASA through the NEOO program.

  14. Proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel and therapeutic application of a serine protease inhibitor for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kenichiro; Tomita, Kimio

    2012-02-01

    Proteases are involved in numerous essential biological processes including blood clotting, controlled cell death, and tissue differentiation. Prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease, has been identified as a potential regulator of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function in the kidney, lung, and airways. ENaC is composed of three homologous subunits ?, ?, and, ?. The dual cleavage of ? subunit by furin and ? subunit by prostasin and furin releases inhibitory segments from ENaC, leading to the channel activation. Protease nexin-1, an endogenous prostasin inhibitor, inhibits ENaC activity through the suppression of prostasin activity, strongly suggesting the possibility that a coordinated regulation of serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors plays a key role in the sodium handling in the kidney. Camostat mesilate (CM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, reduced prostasin activity and subsequently decreased ENaC current. Oral administration of CM to Dahl salt-sensitive rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure with an elevation of the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. These findings suggest that synthetic serine protease inhibitors such as CM might represent a new class of antihypertensive drugs in patients with salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:22038264

  15. Sub-100-ps structural dynamics of horse heart myoglobin probed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering

    PubMed Central

    Oang, Key Young; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Jo, Junbeom; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong Goo; Kim, Tae Wu; Jun, Sunhong; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2015-01-01

    Here we report sub-100-ps structural dynamics of horse heart myoglobin revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering. By applying the time-slicing scheme to the measurement and subsequent deconvolution, we investigate the protein structural dynamics that occur faster than the X-ray temporal pulse width of synchrotrons (~100 ps). The singular value decomposition analysis of the experimental data suggests that two structurally distinguishable intermediates are formed within 100 ps. In particular, the global structural change occurring on the time scale of 70 ps is identified. PMID:25678733

  16. 10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Thomas F.; Duling, Irl N., III

    1996-12-01

    An actively mode-locked single-polarization erbium fiber laser modulated at 10 GHz utilizes intracavity soliton formation to produce 1.3-ps pulses, well below the Kuizenga-Siegman limit, without passive mode locking. The observed degree of pulse shortening agrees with the predictions of recently developed soliton laser models. The pulse dropout ratio was measured to be less than 10-12 , and the rms amplitude and phase jitter are less than 1.1% and 0.16 ps, respectively.

  17. Comparison of soft and hard tissue ablation with sub-ps and ns pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, L.B.; Stuart, B.C.; Celliers, P.M.; Feit, M.D.; Glinsky, M.E.; Heredia, N.J.; Herman, S.; Lane, S.M.; London, R.A.; Matthews, D.L.; Perry, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Chang, T.D.; Neev, J.

    1996-05-01

    Tissue ablation with ultrashort laser pulses offers several unique advantages. The nonlinear energy deposition is insensitive to tissue type, allowing this tool to be used for soft and hard tissue ablation. The localized energy deposition lead to precise ablation depth and minimal collateral damage. This paper reports on efforts to study and demonstrate tissue ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser. Ablation efficiency and extent of collateral damage for 0.3 ps and 1000 ps duration laser pulses are compared. Temperature measurements of the rear surface of a tooth section is also presented.

  18. Ethics and the 7 `P`s` of computer use policies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.J.; Voss, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    A Computer Use Policy (CUP) defines who can use the computer facilities for what. The CUP is the institution`s official position on the ethical use of computer facilities. The authors believe that writing a CUP provides an ideal platform to develop a group ethic for computer users. In prior research, the authors have developed a seven phase model for writing CUPs, entitled the 7 P`s of Computer Use Policies. The purpose of this paper is to present the model and discuss how the 7 P`s can be used to identify and communicate a group ethic for the institution`s computer users.

  19. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise beneficial strain of Rhizobium as a pathogen. PMID:25743038

  20. Cordysobin, a novel alkaline serine protease with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Xian; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Feng; Geng, Xiao-Li; Wang, He-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel serine protease, designated as cordysobin, was purified from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera. The isolation procedure utilized ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sepharose followed by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The protease did not adsorb on DEAE-cellulose but bound to SP-Sepharose. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the protease resolved as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa. Its optimal pH was 10.0, and the optimal temperature was 65°C. The protease displayed a K(m) value of 0.41 ?M and 13.44 ?M·min?¹ using Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-MCA as substrate at pH 10.0 and 37°C. Protease activity was enhanced by the Fe²? ion at low concentration range of 1.25-10 mM and was strongly inhibited by Hg²? up to 1.25 mM. The protease was strongly inhibited by chymostatin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), suggesting that it is a serine protease. It manifested significant inhibitory activity toward HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with an IC?? value of 8.2×10?³ ?M, which is the highest anti-HIV-1 RT activity of reported mushroom proteins. PMID:22014786