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Sample records for phosphatidyl serine ps

  1. Alteration by phosphatidyl serine of tension responses and 45Ca distribution in aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Goodman, F R; Weiss, G B; Goth, A

    1976-07-01

    The effects of phosphatidyl serine (PS) on 45Ca distribution, 45Ca movements and contractions were examined in rabbit aortic smooth muscle. Contractile responses to submaximal concentrations of norepinephrine and histamine were potentiated by prior exposure to PS, but equivalent responses to potassium were unaffected. Addition of PS to the incubation solution decreased 45Ca uptake; exposure of aortic strips to PS during washout of either 45Ca or promethium (147Pm) resulted in maintained increases in efflux. These PS-induced alterations in net loss of 45Ca or 147Pm can be attributed to a decreased membrane reuptake and/or rebinding. However, the presence of PS during the washout significantly reduced the increases in 45Ca efflux rate elicited with either 0.05 mM concentrations of Ca++ or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Thus, in rabbit aortic smooth muscle, exogenous PS can alter the availability and/or exchangeability of a membrane-bound Ca++ fraction. By specifically increasing the affinity for Ca++ at relevant membrane sites or stores. PS may enhance the ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to stimulatory agents that mobilize Ca++ from these sites and, in this manner, potentiate contractile responses. PMID:933004

  2. Structural Basis for Calcium and Phosphatidyl Serine Regulation of PLC δ1

    PubMed Central

    Lomasney, Jon W.; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Kobayashi, Minae; King, Klim

    2012-01-01

    Many membrane associated enzymes including those of the phospholipase C (PLC) superfamily are regulated by specific interactions with lipids. Previously we have shown that the C2 domain of PLC δ1 is required for phosphatidyl serine (PS) dependent enzyme activation, and that activation requires the presence of Ca2+. To identify the site of interaction and the role of Ca2+ in the activation mechanism, we mutagenized three highly conserved Ca2+ binding residues (Asp 653, Asp-706 and Asp-708) to Gly in the C2 domain of PLC δ1. The PS-dependent Ca2+ binding affinities of the mutant enzymes D653G, D706G and D708G were reduced by an order of magnitude and the maximal Ca2+ binding was reduced to half of that of the native enzyme. The Ca2+ dependent PS binding was also reduced in the mutant enzymes. Under basal conditions, the Ca2+ dependence and maximal hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) was not altered in the mutants. However, the Ca2+ dependent PS stimulation was severely defective. PS reduces the Km of the native enzyme almost 20 fold, but far less for the mutants. Replacing Asp-653, Asp-706 and Asp-708 simultaneously to glycine in the C2 domain of PLC δ1, leads to a complete and selective loss of the stimulation and binding by PS. These results show that D653, 706 and 708 are required for Ca2+ binding in the C2 domain and demonstrate a mechanism by which C2 domains can mediate regulation of enzyme activity by specific lipid ligands. PMID:22385159

  3. Separation of the Stern and diffuse layer in coarse-grained models: The cases of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and PIP2 monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangaveti, S.; Travesset, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present here a method to separate the Stern and diffuse layer in general systems into two regions that can be analyzed separately. The Stern layer can be described in terms of Bjerrum pairing and the diffuse layer in terms of Poisson-Boltzmann theory (monovalent) or strong coupling theory plus a slowly decaying tail (divalent). We consider three anionic phospholipids: phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2), which we describe within a minimal coarse-grained model as a function of ionic concentration. The case of mixed lipid systems is also considered, which shows a high level of binding cooperativity as a function of PIP2 localization. Implications for existing experimental systems of lipid heterogeneities are also discussed.

  4. Autoradiography of phosphatidyl choline

    SciTech Connect

    Saffitz, J.E.; Gross, R.W.; Williamson, J.R.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-03-01

    Saturated choline phosphatides are extracted during conventional tissue processing for electron microscopy. To facilitate autoradiographic subcellular localization of arrhythmogenic myocardial phospholipids, we evaluated tissue processing procedures for preservation of saturated phosphatidyl choline (PC). Suspensions, of a murine plasmacytoma were incubated with negative, unilamellar liposomes containing 14C-choline-labeled PC or 14C-1-palmitate dipalmitoyl PC. Extraction of radioactivity was monitored at each processing step by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Conventional fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide followed by acetone dehydration and Spurr's plastic embedding led to extraction of nearly all radioactivity. However, treatment of cells with 1.5% tannic acid after glutaraldehyde but before osmium tetroxide fixation preserved 93.1 +/- .6% of 14C-choline-labeled PC. Virtually identical results were obtained with dipalmitoyl PC. Autoradiography demonstrated no significant translocation of labeled PC from plasmacytoma cells to unlabeled avian erythrocytes, mixed in equal proportions after fixation but before dehydration and embedding.

  5. PS Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Four papers are reviewed. They include a description of how instructional modules and small group problem-solving (PS) in a second-year plant anatomy course produced excellent PS skills and various ideas on PS in the context of chemistry. Also reviews guided-design as a strategy to help develop PS skills. (JN)

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours

  8. Detection of related substances in polyene phosphatidyl choline extracted from soybean and in its commercial capsule by comprehensive supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometry compared with HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qikun; Liu, Wanjun; Li, Xiaoting; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used to comprehensively profile polyene phosphatidyl choline (PPC) extracted from soybean. We achieved an efficient chromatographic analysis using a BEH-2EP column (3 × 100 mm(2) , 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of CO2 and a cosolvent in gradient combination at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The cosolvent consisted of methanol, acetonitrile, and water (containing 10 mM ammonium acetate and 0.2% formic acid). The total single-run time was 7 min. We used this method to accurately detect ten different phospholipids (PLs) during extraction. The limits of quantification for phosphatidyl choline, lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidic acid (PA), sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol (PI), cholesterol, cardiolipin, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) were 20.6, 19.52, 1.21, 2.38, 0.50, 2.28, 54.3, 0.60, 0.65, and 4.85 ng/mL, respectively. However, adopting the high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection method issued by the China Food and Drug Administration, only PA, LPC, PE, PI, and PPC could be analyzed accurately, and the limits of quantification were 33.89, 60.5, 30.3, 10.9, and 61.79 μg/mL, respectively. The total single-run time was at the least 20 min. Consequently, the supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was more suitable for the analysis of related PLs. PMID:26614404

  9. Facile Synthesis of Phosphatidyl Saccharides for Preparation of Anionic Nanoliposomes with Enhanced Stability

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Falkeborg, Mia; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong; Jensen, Henrik Max; Bertelsen, Kresten; Thorsen, Michael; Tan, Tianwei; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Physical stability during storage and against processing such as dehyration/rehydration are the cornerstone in designing delivery vehicles. In this work, mono-, di- and tri-saccharides were enzymatically conjugated to phosphatidyl group through a facile approach namely phospholipase D (PLD) mediated transphosphatidylation in a biphasic reaction system. The purified products were structurally identified and the connectivities of carbohydrate to phosphatidyl moiety precisely mapped by 1H, 31P, 13C NMR pulse sequences and LC-ESI-FTMS. The synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides were employed as the sole biomimetic component for preparation of nanoliposomes. It was found that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of phosphatidyl saccharides increases as more bulky sugar moiety (mono- to tri-) is introduced. Phosphatidyl di-saccharide had the largest membrane curvature. In comparison to the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposome, all phosphatidyl saccharides liposomes are anionic and demonstrated significantly enhanced stability during storage. According to the confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) analyses, the nanoliposomes formed by the synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides also show excellent stability against dehydration/rehydration process in which most of the liposomal structures remained intact. The abundance hydroxyl groups in the saccharide moieties might provide sufficient H-bondings for stabilization. This work demonstrated the synthesized phosphatidyl saccharides are capable of functioning as enzymatically liable materials which can form stable nanoliposomes without addition of stabilizing excipients. PMID:24069243

  10. The Structure and Biosynthesis of Phosphatidyl Inositol in Cauliflower Inflorescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, S.; Mudd, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol has been isolated from cauliflower inflorescence and soybean. Analysis of the fatty acid distribution showed that unsaturated fatty acids were preferred at position 2, and that saturated fatty acids were preferred at position 1. Mitochondrial preparations from cauliflower inflorescence were capable of synthesizing phosphatidyl inositol from myo-inositol and cytidine diphosphate diglyceride. The optimal pH for the reaction was 9.0. Metal ions were required for the reaction: Mn2+ ions were optimally effective at 1.5 mm, and Mg2+ ions were maximally effective at 30 mm. The maximal rate in the presence of Mn2+ was 9 times as great as that in the presence of Mg2+. Phosphatidyl inositol could also be synthesized when cytidine diphosphate diglyceride was replaced by cytidine triphosphate, but the pH optimum then shifted to 8.1. PMID:16657379

  11. Early increase in phosphatidyl choline synthesis by choline and transmethylation pathways in spreading fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Maziere, C.; Maziere, J.C.; Mora, L.; Polonovski, J.

    1986-11-01

    Phosphatidyl choline (PC) synthesis in trypsinized and reattaching fibroblasts during the spreading state was studied by incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline and (methyl-/sup 14/C)methionine. The choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE) transmethylation pathways were both transiently increased about 2-fold during the first 2 h after replating. Maximum increase appeared to be simultaneous with maximum spreading. Incorporation of (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate showed that the increase in PC synthesis was specific and most probably related to establishment of cell-substrate adhesion sites.

  12. Molecular Basis of Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol Mannoside Biosynthesis and Regulation in Mycobacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Marcelo E.; Kordulkov, Jana; Alzari, Pedro M.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Jackson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs) are unique glycolipids found in abundant quantities in the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope of all Mycobacterium species. They are based on a phosphatidyl-myo-inositol lipid anchor carrying one to six mannose residues and up to four acyl chains. PIMs are considered not only essential structural components of the cell envelope but also the structural basis of the lipoglycans (lipomannan and lipoarabinomannan), all important molecules implicated in host-pathogen interactions in the course of tuberculosis and leprosy. Although the chemical structure of PIMs is now well established, knowledge of the enzymes and sequential events leading to their biosynthesis and regulation is still incomplete. Recent advances in the identification of key proteins involved in PIM biogenesis and the determination of the three-dimensional structures of the essential phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosyltransferase PimA and the lipoprotein LpqW have led to important insights into the molecular basis of this pathway. PMID:20801880

  13. L-serine picrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, B. A.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Boldyreva, E. V.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Two crystalline salts have been obtained from the system L-serine - picric acid - H2O: L-serinium picrate monohydrate (I) and tris(L-serine) bis(L-serinium) dipicrate trihydrate (II). The salt (I) crystallizes in monoclinic system (space group P21, Z=4). Asymmetric unit of (I) contains two formula units. Carboxyl groups of both L-serinium cations form hydrogen bonds with picrate anions with OO distances: 2.595 (6) and 2.638 (5) . The salt (II) crystallizes in orthorhombic system (space group P212121, Z=4). Asymmetric unit of (II) contains one formula unit. Carboxyl groups of both L-serinium cations form short O-HO hydrogen bonds with two of three zwitterionic moieties, forming two dimeric (L-serine L-serinium) cations with OO distances: 2.485 (3) and 2.487 (3) . The infrared and Raman spectra of obtained salts are recorded and discussed.

  14. d-serine levels in Alzheimer's disease: implications for novel biomarker development

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, C; Lourenco, M V; Vargas-Lopes, C; Suemoto, C K; Brandão, C O; Reis, T; Leite, R E P; Laks, J; Jacob-Filho, W; Pasqualucci, C A; Grinberg, L T; Ferreira, S T; Panizzutti, R

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder still in search of effective methods of diagnosis. Altered levels of the NMDA receptor co-agonist, d-serine, have been associated with neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. However, whether d-serine levels are deregulated in AD remains elusive. Here, we first measured D-serine levels in post-mortem hippocampal and cortical samples from nondemented subjects (n=8) and AD patients (n=14). We next determined d-serine levels in experimental models of AD, including wild-type rats and mice that received intracerebroventricular injections of amyloid-β oligomers, and APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Finally, we assessed d-serine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD, as compared with patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (n=9), major depression (n=9) and healthy controls (n=10), and results were contrasted with CSF amyloid-β/tau AD biomarkers. d-serine levels were higher in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of AD patients than in control subjects. Levels of both d-serine and serine racemase, the enzyme responsible for d-serine production, were elevated in experimental models of AD. Significantly, d-serine levels were higher in the CSF of probable AD patients than in non-cognitively impaired subject groups. Combining d-serine levels to the amyloid/tau index remarkably increased the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of probable AD in our cohort. Our results show that increased brain and CSF d-serine levels are associated with AD. CSF d-serine levels discriminated between nondemented and AD patients in our cohort and might constitute a novel candidate biomarker for early AD diagnosis. PMID:25942042

  15. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Three Unique Helicobacter pylori ?-Cholesteryl phosphatidyl glucosides

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy Q.; Davis, Ryan A.; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Steryl glycosides produced by bacteria play important biological roles in the evasion and modulation of host immunity. Step economy syntheses of three cholesteryl-6-O-phosphatidyl-?-D-glucopyranosides (?CPG) unique to H. pylori have been achieved. The approach relies upon regioselective C-6 deprotection of per-O-trimethylsilyl-?-D-cholesterylglucoside followed by phosphoramidite coupling. Global TMS ether deprotection in the presence of oxygen and subsequent deprotection of the cyano ethyl phosphoester afforded the target compounds in 16-21% overall yield starting from D-glucose. The structures of these natural products were rigorously determined using a combination of 2D NMR methods and mass spectrometry. These robust synthesis and characterization protocols provide analogues to facilitate glycolipidomic profiling and biological studies. PMID:25195783

  16. The ps in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Newton, David W

    2012-01-01

    The decline of ps (pharmaceutical sciences) content and emphasis, especially pharmaceutics in pharmacy education, has been followed by pharmacy practice journals since the final BS to PharmD degree transition of 1990-2000. The particular deficit of drug compatibility, compounding, packaging, reactivity, solubility, stability and storage instruction, and information was a major impetus for the 1996 premier of the International journal of pharmaceutical compounding and the 2011 introduction of the Science and technology for the hospital pharmacist electronic newsletter. The four ps examples provided in this article to corroborate the introduction to Vol. 1, No. 2 of the Science and technology for the hospital pharmacist, which featured Dr. Richard Penna's prudent reflection that biological, chemical, and physical ps facts and knowledge are vital to patient care. PMID:23050313

  17. Orchestrating Serine Resolvases

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Phoebe A.; Mouw, Kent. W.; P.Montaño, Sherwin; Boocock, Martin R.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Stark, W. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable feature of the Serine resolvases is their regulation: the WT enzymes will catalyze intra- but not intermolecular recombination, can sense the relative orientation of their sites, and can exchange strands directionally despite the fact that there is no net release of chemical bond energy. This key to this regulation is that they are only active within a large, intertwined complex called the “synaptosome.” Because substrate topology greatly facilitates (or, in other cases, inhibits) formation of the synaptosome, it acts as a “topological filter.” Within the defined topology of the synaptosome, strand exchange releases supercoiling tension, providing an energy source to bias the reaction direction. The regulatory portion of this complex contains additional copies of the recombinase and sometimes other DNA bending proteins. We are using a combination of x-ray crystallography, biochemistry and genetics to model the full synaptic complex and to understand how the regulatory portion activates the crossover-site bound recombinases. PMID:20298188

  18. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  19. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  20. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  1. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, J.D.; Castle, A.M.; Ma, A.K.; Stukenbrok, H.

    1984-01-01

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by (3H)choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulat

  2. Electrical manipulation of glycan-phosphatidyl inositol-tethered proteins in planar supported bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, J T; Wlfing, C; Boxer, S G

    1996-01-01

    Electric fields have been used to manipulate and concentrate glycan-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-tethered proteins in planar supported bilayers. Naturally GPI-linked CD48, along with engineered forms of I-Ek and B7-2, in which their transmembrane domains have been genetically replaced with the GPI linkage, were studied. The proteins were labeled with fluorescently tagged antibodies, allowing the electric field-induced behavior to be followed by epifluorescence microscopy. All three protein complexes were observed to migrate toward the cathode with the B7-2 and CD48, each tethered to the membrane by a single GPI linker, moving significantly faster than the I-Ek, which has two GPI linkers. Patterns scratched into the membrane function as barriers to lateral diffusion and were used to isolate the proteins into highly concentrated corrals. All field-induced concentration profiles were completely reversible, indicating that the supported bilayer provides a stable, fluid environment in which GPI-tethered proteins can be manipulated. The ability to electrically control the spatial distribution of membrane-tethered proteins provides new opportunities for the study of biological membranes and the development of membrane-based devices. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8913608

  3. Phosphatidyl choline is recognized by a series of Ly-1+ murine B cell lymphomas specific for erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Mercolino, T J; Arnold, L W; Haughton, G

    1986-01-01

    Cells from 6 of 14 different Ly-1+ murine B cell lymphomas bound to synthetic liposomes encapsulating fluorescein. The liposomes were made from distearoyl phosphatidyl choline (DSPC), distearoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DSPG), and cholesterol. In all cases, liposome binding was due to recognition of phosphatidyl choline by the surface IgM on the tumor cells. Liposome binding could be inhibited by DSPC but not by DSPG, and the number of liposomes bound per cell was directly related to the cell surface concentration of IgM. The IgM secreted by a hybridoma derived from one of the lymphomas, CH12, was shown to agglutinate liposomes, and was used in a solid-phase immunoassay to study inhibition of liposome binding by pure phospholipids; DSPC and sphingomyelin both inhibited, whereas DSPG did not. The Ig borne by the six lymphomas that bind phosphatidylcholine also bind to both SRBC and bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes. The idiotypic of CH12 IgM is similar to that expressed by Ly-1+ normal splenic B cells of the same specificity. The significance of these data in relation to other commonly studied autoantigens, and to the restricted specificity of normal Ly-1+ B cells is discussed. PMID:2416866

  4. Enhanced Ps-Ps interactions due to quantum confinement.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D B; Mills, A P

    2011-11-18

    Slow positrons implanted into a porous silica film may efficiently form positronium (Ps) atoms that diffuse through a network of interconnected pores. At high Ps densities, the long lifetime of ortho-positronium atoms is reduced due to Ps-Ps spin dependent interactions at a rate that implies an effective free-space scattering cross section, ?(e) = (3.4 0.5) 10(-14) cm(-2), at least 25 times larger than the theoretical value. This enhanced interaction rate may be explained if the quantum confinement of Ps results in interpore tunneling rates that depend critically on the distribution of pore sizes, so that rather than uniformly sampling the porous matrix Ps diffusion is limited to a small subset of the pores. PMID:22181877

  5. 21 CFR 582.5701 - Serine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serine. 582.5701 Section 582.5701 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5701 Serine. (a) Product. Serine (L-...

  6. A Fully Synthetic and Biochemically Validated Phosphatidyl Inositol-3-Phosphate Hapten via Asymmetric Synthesis and Native Chemical Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Brent D.; Burkhardt, Anne L.; Foley, Klaudia; Cullis, Courtney; Driscoll, Denise; DAmore, Natalie Roy; Miller, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and biochemical validation of a phosphatidyl inositol-3 phosphate (PI3P) immunogen. The inositol stereochemistry was secured through peptide-catalyzed asymmetric phosphorylation catalysis, and the subsequent incorporation of a cysteine residue was achieved by native chemical ligation (NCL). Conjugation of the PI3P hapten to maleimide activated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) provided a PI3P immunogen, which was successfully used to generate selective PI3P antibodies. The incorporation of a sulfhydryl nucleophile into a phosphoinositide hapten demonstrates a general strategy to reliably access phosphoinositide immunogens. PMID:24344932

  7. Phage-encoded Serine Integrases and Other Large Serine Recombinases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Margaret C M

    2015-08-01

    The large serine recombinases (LSRs) are a family of enzymes, encoded in temperate phage genomes or on mobile elements, that precisely cut and recombine DNA in a highly controllable and predictable way. In phage integration, the LSRs act at specific sites, the attP site in the phage and the attB site in the host chromosome, where cleavage and strand exchange leads to the integrated prophage flanked by the recombinant sites attL and attR. The prophage can excise by recombination between attL and attR but this requires a phage-encoded accessory protein, the recombination directionality factor (RDF). Although the LSRs can bind specifically to all the recombination sites, only specific integrase-bound sites can pair in a synaptic complex prior to strand exchange. Recent structural information has led to a breakthrough in our understanding of the mechanism of the LSRs, notably how the LSRs bind to their substrates and how LSRs display this site-selectivity. We also understand that the RDFs exercise control over the LSRs by protein-protein interactions. Other recent work with the LSRs have contributed to our understanding of how all serine recombinases undergo strand exchange subunit rotation, facilitated by surfaces that resemble a molecular bearing. PMID:26350324

  8. L-serine in disease and development.

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Tom J; Snell, Keith; Duran, Marinus; Berger, Ruud; Poll-The, Bwee-Tien; Surtees, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The amino acid L-serine, one of the so-called non-essential amino acids, plays a central role in cellular proliferation. L-Serine is the predominant source of one-carbon groups for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and deoxythymidine monophosphate. It has long been recognized that, in cell cultures, L-serine is a conditional essential amino acid, because it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities to meet the cellular demands for its utilization. In recent years, L-serine and the products of its metabolism have been recognized not only to be essential for cell proliferation, but also to be necessary for specific functions in the central nervous system. The findings of altered levels of serine and glycine in patients with psychiatric disorders and the severe neurological abnormalities in patients with defects of L-serine synthesis underscore the importance of L-serine in brain development and function. This paper reviews these recent insights into the role of L-serine and the pathways of L-serine utilization in disease and during development, in particular of the central nervous system. PMID:12534373

  9. [Calpain II of rabbit skeletal muscle. Regulation of enzymatic activity: influence of the presence of membrane phospholipids on enzymatic autolysis in the presence or not of substrate].

    PubMed

    Cottin, P; Garret, C; Ducastaing, A

    1988-01-01

    A calcium activated neutral proteinase (calpain II) was prepared on a large scale at a high degree of purity from rabbit skeletal muscle using an original purification procedure. "In vitro" highly purified Calpain II was optimally activated by 2 mM Ca2+ and had two subunits with a molecular weight of 80 kDa and 28 kDa. The influence of membrane acid phospholipids (phosphatidyl inositol PI, phosphatidyl serine PS) and neutral phospholipids (phosphatidyl choline) on calcium enzymatic autolysis in the presence or not of substrate was electrophoretically studied. In the absence of a substrate no degradation of the catalytic subunit (80 kDa) was observed: phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl serine stimulated drastically the 28 kDa subunit degradation with a release of a common 18 kDa product. In the presence of substrate (beta-globin) the 28 kDa subunit was more protected against calcium autolysis. On the other hand, phosphatidyl serine seemed to induce simultaneously 80 and 28 kDa degradations: the released breakdown products were different from those obtained with phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl choline. In presence or absence of substrate, phosphatidyl choline did not affect significantly the calpain II calcium autolysis. Further studies on calpain II-membrane binding as well as its influence on calpain - activity are in progress. PMID:2847259

  10. Neuronal release of d-serine: a physiological pathway controlling extracellular d-serine concentration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dina; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Shleper, Maria; Klinker, Chanda M. C.; Bowser, Michael T.; Wolosker, Herman

    2010-01-01

    d-Serine is thought to be a glia-derived transmitter that activates N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the brain. Here, we investigate the pathways for d-serine release using primary cultures, brain slices, and in vivo microdialysis. In contrast with the notion that d-serine is exclusively released from astrocytes, we found that d-serine is released by neuronal depolarization both in vitro and in vivo. Veratridine (50 ?M) or depolarization by 40 mM KCl elicits a significant release of endogenous d-serine from primary neuronal cultures. Controls with astrocyte cultures indicate that glial cells are insensitive to veratridine, but release d-serine mainly by the opening of volume-regulated anion channels. In cortical slices perfused with veratridine, endogenous d-serine release is 10-fold higher than glutamate receptor-evoked release. Release of d-serine from slices does not require internal or external Ca2+, suggesting a nonvesicular release mechanism. To confirm the neuronal origin of d-serine, we selectively loaded neurons in cortical slices with d-[3H]serine or applied d-alanine, which specifically releases d-serine from neurons. Depolarization with veratridine promotes d-serine release in vivo monitored by high temporal resolution microdialysis of the striatum. Our data indicate that the neuronal pool of d-serine plays a major role in d-serine dynamics, with implications for the regulation of NMDAR transmission. Rosenberg, D., Kartvelishvily, E., Shleper, M., Klinker, C. M. C., Bowser, M. T., Wolosker, H. Neuronal release of d-serine: a physiological pathway controlling extracellular d-serine concentration. PMID:20371631

  11. Association of anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies and low complement levels in systemic sclerosis patients--results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    B?l?nescu, Paul; L?daru, Anca; B?l?nescu, Eugenia; B?icu?, Cristian; Dan, Gheorghe Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Some systemic sclerosis (Ssc) patients express antiphospholipid antibodies and their percentage varies within studies in the literature. The particular role of these antibodies in clinical manifestations of Ssc is still unknown. The aim of the study was to examine an extended panel of antiphospholipid antibodies in Ssc patients who did not have any clinical features of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A cross-sectional study was designed and 36 consecutive patients with Ssc were recruited. A relatively high proportion of patients (14 patients - 38.9%) had antiphospholipid antibody presence. Most Ssc patients (11 patients - 30.6%) had IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies. Serum IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies, IgM anti prothrombin and IgG anti ?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies were associated with low complement levels in Ssc patients. In multivariate analysis, only serum IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies concentration and serum IgG anti ?2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies concentration were independently associated with hypocomplementemia after adjusting for age and gender. No other correlations with Ssc clinical characteristics were found. In conclusion, antiphospholipid antibodies are present in a large proportion of Ssc patients who do not have clinical features or a history of antiphospholipid antibodies. IgM anti phosphatidyl ethanolamine antibodies seem to be more frequent and the dominant antiphospholipid antibody type in the group recruited from the Romanian Ssc population. PMID:26067612

  12. Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Roger

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  13. Serine and glycine metabolism in cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Amelio, Ivano; Cutruzzol, Francesca; Antonov, Alexey; Agostini, Massimiliano; Melino, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    Serine and glycine are biosynthetically linked, and together provide the essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that are crucial to cancer cell growth. Moreover, serine/glycine biosynthesis also affects cellular antioxidative capacity, thus supporting tumour homeostasis. A crucial contribution of serine/glycine to cellular metabolism is through the glycine cleavage system, which refuels one-carbon metabolism; a complex cyclic metabolic network based on chemical reactions of folate compounds. The importance of serine/glycine metabolism is further highlighted by genetic and functional evidence indicating that hyperactivation of the serine/glycine biosynthetic pathway drives oncogenesis. Recent developments in our understanding of these pathways provide novel translational opportunities for drug development, dietary intervention, and biomarker identification of human cancers. PMID:24657017

  14. D-Serine and Serine Racemase Are Associated with PSD-95 and Glutamatergic Synapse Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Jacobi, Ariel A.; Anderson, Stewart A.; Lynch, David R.

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous coagonist at the glycine site of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), synthesized by serine racemase (SR) through conversion of L-serine. It is crucial for synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Our previous studies demonstrated specific loss of SR, D-serine-responsive synaptic NMDARs, and glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons lacking α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which promotes glutamatergic synapse formation and maturation during development. We thus hypothesize that D-serine and SR (D-serine/SR) are associated with glutamatergic synaptic development. Using morphological and molecular studies in cortical neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development. Endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95, but not presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), in glutamatergic synapses of cultured cortical neurons. Low-density astrocytes in cortical neuronal cultures lack SR expression but contain enriched D-serine in large vesicle-like structures, suggesting possible synthesis of D-serine in postsynaptic neurons and storage in astrocytes. More interestingly, endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic terminals of glutamatergic synapses during early and late synaptic development, implicating involvement of D-serine/SR in glutamatergic synaptic development. Exogenous application of D-serine enhances the interactions of SR with PSD-95 and NR1, and increases the number of VGLUT1- and PSD-95-positive glutamatergic synapses, suggesting that exogenous D-serine enhances postsynaptic SR/PSD-95 signaling and stabilizes glutamatergic synapses during cortical synaptic development. This is blocked by NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK), a specific antagonist at the glycine site of NMDARs, demonstrating that D-serine effects are mediated through postsynaptic NMDARs. Conversely, exogenous application of glycine has no such effects, suggesting D-serine, rather than glycine, modulates postsynaptic events. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development, implicating D-serine/SR as regulators of cortical synaptic and circuit development. PMID:26941605

  15. D-Serine and Serine Racemase Are Associated with PSD-95 and Glutamatergic Synapse Stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Jacobi, Ariel A; Anderson, Stewart A; Lynch, David R

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous coagonist at the glycine site of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), synthesized by serine racemase (SR) through conversion of L-serine. It is crucial for synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Our previous studies demonstrated specific loss of SR, D-serine-responsive synaptic NMDARs, and glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons lacking α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which promotes glutamatergic synapse formation and maturation during development. We thus hypothesize that D-serine and SR (D-serine/SR) are associated with glutamatergic synaptic development. Using morphological and molecular studies in cortical neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development. Endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95, but not presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), in glutamatergic synapses of cultured cortical neurons. Low-density astrocytes in cortical neuronal cultures lack SR expression but contain enriched D-serine in large vesicle-like structures, suggesting possible synthesis of D-serine in postsynaptic neurons and storage in astrocytes. More interestingly, endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic terminals of glutamatergic synapses during early and late synaptic development, implicating involvement of D-serine/SR in glutamatergic synaptic development. Exogenous application of D-serine enhances the interactions of SR with PSD-95 and NR1, and increases the number of VGLUT1- and PSD-95-positive glutamatergic synapses, suggesting that exogenous D-serine enhances postsynaptic SR/PSD-95 signaling and stabilizes glutamatergic synapses during cortical synaptic development. This is blocked by NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK), a specific antagonist at the glycine site of NMDARs, demonstrating that D-serine effects are mediated through postsynaptic NMDARs. Conversely, exogenous application of glycine has no such effects, suggesting D-serine, rather than glycine, modulates postsynaptic events. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development, implicating D-serine/SR as regulators of cortical synaptic and circuit development. PMID:26941605

  16. d-Serine in the aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Billard, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-10

    Experimental evidences now indicate that memory formation relies on the capacity of neuronal networks to manage long-term changes in synaptic communication. This property is driven by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), which requires the binding of glutamate but also the presence of the co-agonist d-serine at the glycine site. Defective memory function and impaired brain synaptic plasticity observed in aging are rescued by partial agonist acting at this site suggesting that this gating process is targeted to induce age-related cognitive defects. This review aims at compelling recent studies characterizing the role of d-serine in changes in functional plasticity that occur in the aging hippocampus since deficits are rescued by d-serine supplementation. The impaired efficacy of endogenous d-serine is not due to changes in the affinity to glycine-binding site but to a decrease in tissue levels of the amino acid resulting from a weaker expression of the producing enzyme serine racemase (SR). Interestingly, neither SR expression, d-serine levels, nor NMDAR activation is affected in aged LOU/C rats, a model of healthy aging in which memory deficits do not occur. These old animals do not develop oxidative stress suggesting that the d-serine-related pathway could be targeted by the age-related accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, senescent rats chronically treated with the reducing agent N-acetyl-cysteine to prevent oxidative damage, show intact NMDAR activation linked to preserved d-serine levels and SR expression. These results point to a significant role of d-serine in age-related functional alterations underlying hippocampus-dependent memory deficits, at least within the CA1 area since the amino acid does not appear as critical in changes affecting the dentate gyrus. PMID:25740810

  17. The PS1 Software Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heasley, James N.; Jedicke, R.; Magnier, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 observatory will generate on average 1.4 TBytes of image data during a typical night of observing. To support the reduction and analysis of these data, the Pan-STARRS construction project has developed three software systems: the Image Processing Pipeline (IPP) for the reduction and calibration of the images and the generation of source catalogs, the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a science client designed to develop orbital information for the moving transient sources found by the IPP, and the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS) which will serve as the scientific access point to the catalog data derived by the IPP and as the overall archive for the science products generated by PS1. The IPP has largely been developed internally at the Institute for Astronomy. The software has been extensively tested on CCD mosaic data from the CFH12K, MegaPrime, and Suprime cameras. Since late August 2007 we have been using IPP to process the first images from the PS1 gigapixel camera. MOPS incorporates both legacy code and new software developed for linking observations of objects on different nights into tracklets for orbit determination. The MOPS has been tested with simulations based on our model of the solar system as well as on data from the SpaceWatch observatory. The primary component of the PSPS is the Object Data Manager (ODM) which will serve as the science database for the stationary objects found in the PS1 observations. We anticipate tracking over 5.5 billion objects and 140 billion detections over the 3.5 year mission of PS1. The ODM is leveraging the design work done during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to scale out a database design to accommodate this volume of data.

  18. The effect of phospholipids on anaphylactic histamine release

    PubMed Central

    Mongar, J. L.; Svec, P.

    1972-01-01

    1. Histamine release by antigen from three sensitized rat tissues is potentiated by phosphatidyl serine (PS). The effect is greatest with isolated peritoneal cells. Phosphatidyl inositol, ethanolamine, choline and phosphatidic acid are inactive. 2. PS greatly increases the rate of antigen-induced histamine release and only slightly prolongs the duration of the release process. 3. PS shows a concentration-dependent effect over the range 1-10 ?g/ml. At 10 ?g/ml it is active over a wide range of antigen concentrations. 4. Calcium ions are necessary for the potentiation by PS of antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal cells. PMID:4120351

  19. Phospholipid metabolism of serine in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes involves phosphatidylserine and direct serine decarboxylation.

    PubMed Central

    Elabbadi, N; Ancelin, M L; Vial, H J

    1997-01-01

    Erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium knowlesi efficiently incorporated radioactive serine into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Serine was also metabolized into ethanolamine (Etn) and phosphorylethanolamine (P-Etn) via direct serine decarboxylation; this is a major phenomenon since together these metabolites represent 60% of total radioactive water-soluble metabolites. They were identified by reverse-phase HPLC and two TLC-type analyses and confirmed by alkaline phosphatase treatment, which depleted the radioactive P-Etn peak completely with a concomitant increase in that of Etn. In the presence of 5 microM labelled serine, radioactivity appeared in Etn and P-Etn after a 25 min lag period, and isotopic equilibrium was reached at 40 and 95 min respectively. There was a similar lag period for PtdEtn formation, which accumulated steadily for at least 180 min. Incorporation of serine into phospholipids and water-soluble metabolites increased in the presence of up to 500 microM external serine. An apparent plateau was then reached for all metabolites except intracellular serine and Etn. Exogenous Etn (at 20 microM) induced a concomitant dramatic decrease in serine incorporation into P-Etn and all phospholipids, but not into Etn. Increasing exogenous serine to 100 microM decreased the incorporation of radioactive Etn into PtdEtn by only 30%, and the PtdCho level was not affected. 2-Hydroxyethylhydrazine significantly decreased serine incorporation into P-Etn and PtdEtn, whereas Etn was accumulated. No concomitant inhibition of PtdSer or PtdCho labelling from serine occurred, even when PtdEtn formation was decreased by 95%. This indicates that the PtdEtn pool derived from direct serine decarboxylation differed from that derived from PtdSer decarboxylation, and the latter appeared to be preferentially used for PtdCho biosynthesis. Hydroxylamine also inhibited phosphorylation of serine-derived Etn but not that of exogenous Etn. The rate of PtdSer synthesis from 10 microM L-serine was 3.1+/-0.5 and 2.95+/-1.3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells, whereas L-serine decarboxylation accounted for 7.1+/-1.5 and 9.9+/-3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells for P. falciparum and P. knowlesi respectively (means+/-S.E.M.). The serine decarboxylating reaction was not detected in other higher eukaryotic cells such as mouse fibroblasts and human lymphocytes. Finally, these results also indicate compartmentalization of phospholipid metabolism in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. PMID:9182701

  20. Abnormal serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 is associated with tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Yarchoan, Mark; Toledo, Jon B.; Lee, Edward B.; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Kazi, Hala; Han, Li-Ying; Louneva, Natalia; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Kim, Sangwon F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Arnold, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal insulin signaling abnormalities have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the specificity of this association and its underlying mechanisms have been unclear. This study investigated the expression of abnormal serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in 157 human brain autopsy cases that included AD, tauopathies, α-synucleinopathies, TDP-43 proteinopathies, and normal aging. IRS1-pS616, IRS1-pS312 and downstream target Akt-pS473 measures were most elevated in AD but were also significantly increased in the tauopathies: Pick's disease, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed frequent co-expression of IRS1-pS616 with pathologic tau in neurons and dystrophic neurites. To further investigate an association between tau and abnormal serine phosphorylation of IRS1, we examined the presence of abnormal IRS1-pS616 expression in pathological tau-expressing transgenic mice and demonstrated that abnormal IRS1-pS616 frequently co-localizes in tangle-bearing neurons. Conversely, we observed increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau in the high-fat diet-fed mouse, a model of insulin resistance. These results provide confirmation and specificity that abnormal phosphorylation of IRS1 is a pathological feature of AD and other tauopathies, and provide support for an association between insulin resistance and abnormal tau as well as amyloid-β. PMID:25107476

  1. MUW Approach of PS OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael

    Polarization sensitive (PS) OCT is a functional extension of OCT that exploits the light's polarization state to generate intrinsic, tissue specific contrast and enables quantitative measurements of tissue parameters. This chapter explains the technique, discusses polarization-changing light-tissue interactions and demonstrates the application of PS-OCT to retinal imaging. Two polarization-changing light-tissue interactions are discussed and their use for retinal diagnostics are demonstrated: (i) birefringence, which is found in fibrous tissues like the retinal nerve fiber layer and can be used for glaucoma diagnostics; and (ii) depolarization, which is observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and can be used to segment the RPE and associated lesions like drusen or geographic atrophies in age related macular degeneration.

  2. BKM-120 (Buparlisib): A Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase Inhibitor with Anti-Invasive Properties in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Nowicki, Michal O.; Behera, Prajna; Cho, Choi-Fong; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean E.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive, invasive tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). There is a widely acknowledged need for anti-invasive therapeutics to limit glioblastoma invasion. BKM-120 is a CNS-penetrant pan-class I phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor in clinical trials for solid tumors, including glioblastoma. We observed that BKM-120 has potent anti-invasive effects in glioblastoma cell lines and patient-derived glioma cells in vitro. These anti-migratory effects were clearly distinguishable from cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at higher drug concentrations and longer durations of drug exposure. The effects were reversible and accompanied by changes in cell morphology and pronounced reduction in both cell/cell and cell/substrate adhesion. In vivo studies showed that a short period of treatment with BKM-120 slowed tumor spread in an intracranial xenografts. GDC-0941, a similar potent and selective PI3K inhibitor, only caused a moderate reduction in glioblastoma cell migration. The effects of BKM-120 and GDC-0941 were indistinguishable by in vitro kinase selectivity screening and phospho-protein arrays. BKM-120 reduced the numbers of focal adhesions and the velocity of microtubule treadmilling compared with GDC-0941, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to PI3K inhibition contribute to the anti-invasive effects of BKM-120. Our data suggest the CNS-penetrant PI3K inhibitor BKM-120 may have anti-invasive properties in glioblastoma. PMID:26846842

  3. BKM-120 (Buparlisib): A Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase Inhibitor with Anti-Invasive Properties in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Nowicki, Michal O; Behera, Prajna; Cho, Choi-Fong; Chiocca, E Antonio; Lawler, Sean E

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive, invasive tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). There is a widely acknowledged need for anti-invasive therapeutics to limit glioblastoma invasion. BKM-120 is a CNS-penetrant pan-class I phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor in clinical trials for solid tumors, including glioblastoma. We observed that BKM-120 has potent anti-invasive effects in glioblastoma cell lines and patient-derived glioma cells in vitro. These anti-migratory effects were clearly distinguishable from cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at higher drug concentrations and longer durations of drug exposure. The effects were reversible and accompanied by changes in cell morphology and pronounced reduction in both cell/cell and cell/substrate adhesion. In vivo studies showed that a short period of treatment with BKM-120 slowed tumor spread in an intracranial xenografts. GDC-0941, a similar potent and selective PI3K inhibitor, only caused a moderate reduction in glioblastoma cell migration. The effects of BKM-120 and GDC-0941 were indistinguishable by in vitro kinase selectivity screening and phospho-protein arrays. BKM-120 reduced the numbers of focal adhesions and the velocity of microtubule treadmilling compared with GDC-0941, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to PI3K inhibition contribute to the anti-invasive effects of BKM-120. Our data suggest the CNS-penetrant PI3K inhibitor BKM-120 may have anti-invasive properties in glioblastoma. PMID:26846842

  4. G/sub o/ protein of fat cells: role in hormonal regulation of agonist-stimulated phosphatidyl inositol breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Rapiejko, P.J.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-05-01

    Incubating rat fat cell membranes in the presence of (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and pertussis toxin (PT) results in the ADP-ribosylation of two peptides (M/sub r/ = 41,000 and 40,000). The 41,000-M/sub r/ peptide is the inhibitory G-protein of adenylate cyclase (G/sub i/). The 40,000-M/sub r/ peptide radiolabeled in the presence of (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and PT has been purified from rabbit heart and bovine brain, but has not been identified uniformly in membranes of fat cells. Two rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against the alpha-subunit of bovine brain G/sub o/ were used to probe the nature of the 40,000-M/sub r/ peptide in rat fat cell membranes that had been separated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose. Both antisera specific for the alpha-subunit of G/sub o/ recognized the M/sub r/ = 40,000 peptide of fat cells that is ADP-ribosylated in the presence of PT. PT treatment of rat fat cells blocks epinephrine-stimulated inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) generation. The inhibition of IP/sub 3/ generation by PT suggests a role for either G/sub i/ or G/sub o/ in receptor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol breakdown in the rat fat cell.

  5. Phosphatidyl-inositide signalling proteins in a novel class of sensory cells in the mammalian olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Rebecca; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Paysan, Jacques

    2005-05-01

    Ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells and basal stem cells represent major cellular components of the main olfactory epithelium in mammals. Here we describe a novel class of sensory cells in the olfactory neuroepithelium. The cells express phospholipase C beta-2 (PLC beta2), transient receptor potential channels 6 (TRPC6) and inositol 3, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptors type III (InsP3R-III). Unlike ciliated olfactory neurons, they express neither olfactory marker protein nor centrin, adenylyl cyclase or cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels. Typical components of the cytoskeleton of microvilli, ezrin and actin are found co-localized with PLC beta2 and TRPC6 in apical protrusions of the cells. In Ca2+-imaging experiments, the cells responded to odours. They express neuronal marker proteins and possess an axon-like process, but following bulbectomy the cells do not degenerate. Our results suggest a novel class of microvillous secondary chemosensory cells in the mammalian olfactory system. These cells, which utilize phosphatidyl-inositides in signal transduction, represent about 5% of all olfactory cells. Their abundance indicates that they play an important role in stimulus-dependent functions and/or the regeneration of the olfactory system. PMID:15926917

  6. Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase from Soybean Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michelle K.; Reynolds, Paul H. S.; Blevins, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase has been purified 1,550-fold from the plant fraction of soybean (Glycine max [L]. Merr. cv Williams) nodules. The pH optimum for the enzyme was at 8.5. The native molecular weight was 230,000 with a subunit molecular weight of 55,000 which suggested a tetramer of identical subunits. The enzyme kinetics for the enzyme were Michaelis-Menten; there was no evidence for cooperativity in the binding of either substrates or product inhibitors. There were two Km values for serine at 1.5 and 40 millimolar. The Km for l-tetrahydrofolate was 0.25 millimolar. l-Methyl-, l-methenyl-, and l-methylene-tetrahydrofolates were all noncompetitive inhibitors with l-tetrahydrofolate with Ki values of 1.8, 3.0, and 2.9 millimolar, respectively. Glycine was a competitive inhibitor with serine with a Ki value of 3.0 millimolar. The intersecting nature of the double reciprocal plots together with the product inhibition data suggested an ordered mechanism with serine the first substrate to bind and glycine the last product released. The enzyme was insensitive to a wide range of metabolites which have previously been reported to affect its activity. These results are discussed with respect to the roles of serine hydroxymethyltransferase and the one-carbon metabolite pool in control of the carbon flow to the purine biosynthetic pathway in ureide biogenesis. PMID:16664855

  7. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-08-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO/sub 2/ at twice the wild type rate when it was fed (/sup 14/C) glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO/sub 2/ concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme.

  8. Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase Assays

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Thomas; Nairn, Angus C.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for assaying serine/threonine protein phosphatases are discussed. Three commonly used protocols are presented that employ either colorometric or radiometric assays. These methods can be used to assay a variety of preparations of serine/threonine phosphatases, from crude lysates to purified proteins. Strategies are discussed concerning the application of a particular protocol for a particular purpose. The assays discussed can be use in either a high throughput mode where simple comparison of activities can be compared, or in specific assays where kinetic data can be derived. PMID:20890902

  9. L-serine dehydratase from Arthrobacter globiformis.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, F; Bridgeland, E S; Jones, K M

    1977-01-01

    1. L-Serine dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.13) was purified 970-fold from glycine-grown Arthrobacter globiformis to a final specific activity of 660micronmol of pyruvate formed/min per mg of protein. 2. The enzyme is specific for L-serine; D-serine, L-threonine and L-cysteine are not attacked. 3. The time-course of pyruvate formation by the purified enzyme, in common with enzyme in crude extracts and throughout the purification, is non-linear. The reaction rate increases progressively for several minutes before becoming constant. The enzyme is activated by preincubation with L-serine and a linear time-course is then obtained. 4. The substrate-saturation curve for L-serine is sigmoid. The value of [S]0.5 varies with protein concentration, from 6.5mM at 23microng/ml to 20mM at 0.23microng/ml. The Hill coefficient remains constant at 2.9.5 The enzyme shows a non-specific requirement for a univalent or bivalent cation. Half-maximal activity is produced by 1.0mM-MgCl2 or by 22.5mM-KCl. 6. L-Cysteine and D-serine act as competitive inhibitors of L-serine dehydratase, with Ki values of 1.2 and 4.9mM respectively. L-Cysteine, at higher concentrations, also causes a slowly developing irreversible inhibition of the enzyme. 7. Inhibition by HgCl2 (5micronM)can be partially reversed in its initial phase by 1mM-L-cysteine, but after 10 min it becomes irreversible. 8. In contrast with the situation in all cell-free preparations, toluene-treated cells of A. globiformis form pyruvate from L-serine at a constant rate from the initiation of the reaction, show a hyperbolic substrate-saturation curve with an apparent Km of 7mM and do not require a cation for activity. PMID:322657

  10. Significance of the d-Serine-Deaminase and d-Serine Metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sakinc, Trkan; Kline, Kimberly; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott; Gatermann, Sren G.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species of Staphylococcus that is typically uropathogenic and possesses a gene coding for a d-serine-deaminase (DsdA). As d-serine is prevalent in urine and toxic or bacteriostatic to many bacteria, it is not surprising that the d-serine-deaminase gene is found in the genome of uropathogens. It has been suggested that d-serine-deaminase or the ability to respond to or to metabolize d-serine is important for virulence. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a high intracellular d-serine concentration affects expression of virulence factors. S. saprophyticus is able to grow in the presence of high d-serine concentrations; however, its d-serine metabolism has not been described. The activity of the d-serine-deaminase was verified by analyzing the formation of pyruvate from d-serine in different strains with and without d-serine-deaminase. Cocultivation experiments were performed to show that d-serine-deaminase confers a growth advantage to S. saprophyticus in the presence of d-serine. Furthermore, in vivo coinfection experiments showed a disadvantage for the ?dsdA mutant during urinary tract infection. Expression analysis of known virulence factors by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the surface-associated lipase Ssp is upregulated in the presence of d-serine. In addition, we show that S. saprophyticus is able to use d-serine as the sole carbon source, but interestingly, d-serine had a negative effect on growth when glucose was also present. Taken together, d-serine metabolism is associated with virulence in S. saprophyticus, as at least one known virulence factor is upregulated in the presence of d-serine and a ?dsdA mutant was attenuated in virulence murine model of urinary tract infection. PMID:24082071

  11. Significance of the D-serine-deaminase and D-serine metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for virulence.

    PubMed

    Korte-Berwanger, Miriam; Sakinc, Trkan; Kline, Kimberly; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Hultgren, Scott; Gatermann, Sren G

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species of Staphylococcus that is typically uropathogenic and possesses a gene coding for a D-serine-deaminase (DsdA). As D-serine is prevalent in urine and toxic or bacteriostatic to many bacteria, it is not surprising that the D-serine-deaminase gene is found in the genome of uropathogens. It has been suggested that D-serine-deaminase or the ability to respond to or to metabolize D-serine is important for virulence. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a high intracellular D-serine concentration affects expression of virulence factors. S. saprophyticus is able to grow in the presence of high D-serine concentrations; however, its D-serine metabolism has not been described. The activity of the D-serine-deaminase was verified by analyzing the formation of pyruvate from D-serine in different strains with and without D-serine-deaminase. Cocultivation experiments were performed to show that D-serine-deaminase confers a growth advantage to S. saprophyticus in the presence of D-serine. Furthermore, in vivo coinfection experiments showed a disadvantage for the ?dsdA mutant during urinary tract infection. Expression analysis of known virulence factors by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the surface-associated lipase Ssp is upregulated in the presence of D-serine. In addition, we show that S. saprophyticus is able to use D-serine as the sole carbon source, but interestingly, D-serine had a negative effect on growth when glucose was also present. Taken together, D-serine metabolism is associated with virulence in S. saprophyticus, as at least one known virulence factor is upregulated in the presence of D-serine and a ?dsdA mutant was attenuated in virulence murine model of urinary tract infection. PMID:24082071

  12. Catalytic mechanism of serine racemase from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Maekawa, Motoki; Hayashi, Shuhei; Goto, Masaru; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2013-03-01

    The eukaryotic serine racemase from Dictyostelium discoideum is a fold-type II pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes racemization and dehydration of both isomers of serine. In the present study, the catalytic mechanism and role of the active site residues of the enzyme were examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of the PLP-binding lysine (K56) to alanine abolished both serine racemase and dehydrase activities. Incubation of D- and L-serine with the resultant mutant enzyme, K56A, resulted in the accumulation of PLP-serine external aldimine, while less amounts of pyruvate, ?-aminoacrylate, antipodal serine and quinonoid intermediate were formed. An alanine mutation of Ser81 (S81) located on the opposite side of K56 against the PLP plane converted the enzyme from serine racemase to L-serine dehydrase; S81A showed no racemase activity and had significantly reduced D-serine dehydrase activity, but it completely retained its L-serine dehydrase activity. Water molecule(s) at the active site of the S81A mutant enzyme probably drove D-serine dehydration by abstracting the ?-hydrogen in D-serine. Our data suggest that the abstraction and addition of ?-hydrogen to L- and D-serine are conducted by K56 and S81 at the si- and re-sides, respectively, of PLP. PMID:23269477

  13. Revealing the multiple structures of serine

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Susana; Sanz, M. Eugenia; Lpez, Juan C.; Alonso, Jos L.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the conformational landscape of the proteinogenic amino acid serine [CH2OHCH(NH2)COOH] in the gas phase. Solid serine was vaporized by laser ablation, expanded in a supersonic jet, and characterized by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the isolation conditions of the jet there have been discovered up to seven different neutral (non-zwitterionic) structures of serine, which are conclusively identified by the comparison between the experimental values of the rotational and quadrupole coupling constants with those predicted by ab initio calculations. These seven forms can serve as a basis to represent the shape of serine in the gas phase. From the postexpansion abundances we derived the conformational stability trend, which is controlled by the subtle network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed between the polar groups in the amino acid backbone and the hydroxy side chain. It is proposed that conformational cooling perturbs the equilibrium conformational distribution; thus, some of the lower-energy forms are missing in the supersonic expansion. PMID:18077350

  14. Cross-talk between diverse serine integrases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Rockenbach, Kate; Dedrick, Rebekah M; VanDemark, Andrew P; Hatfull, Graham F

    2014-01-23

    Phage-encoded serine integrases are large serine recombinases that mediate integrative and excisive site-specific recombination of temperate phage genomes. They are well suited for use in heterologous systems and for synthetic genetic circuits as the attP and attB attachment sites are small (<50 bp), there are no host factor or DNA supercoiling requirements, and they are strongly directional, doing only excisive recombination in the presence of a recombination directionality factor. Combining different recombinases that function independently and without cross-talk to construct complex synthetic circuits is desirable, and several different serine integrases are available. However, we show here that these functions are not reliably predictable, and we describe a pair of serine integrases encoded by mycobacteriophages Bxz2 and Peaches with unusual and unpredictable specificities. The integrases share only 59% amino acid sequence identity and the attP sites have fewer than 50% shared bases, but they use the same attB site and there is non-reciprocal cross-talk between the two systems. The DNA binding specificities do not result from differences in specific DNA contacts but from the constraints imposed by the configuration of the component half-sites within each of the attachment site DNAs. PMID:24161951

  15. 21 CFR 582.5701 - Serine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serine. 582.5701 Section 582.5701 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5701 - Serine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serine. 582.5701 Section 582.5701 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5701 - Serine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serine. 582.5701 Section 582.5701 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  18. Resurgence of serine: an often neglected but indispensable amino Acid.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, Satish C; Hanson, Richard W

    2012-06-01

    Serine is generally classified as a nutritionally nonessential (dispensable) amino acid, but metabolically, serine is indispensible and plays an essential role in several cellular processes. Serine is the major source of one-carbon units for methylation reactions that occur via the generation of S-adenosylmethionine. The regulation of serine metabolism in mammalian tissues is thus of critical importance for the control of methyl group transfer. In addition to the well known role of d-serine in the brain, l-serine has recently been implicated in breast cancer and other tumors due in part to the genomic copy number gain for 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, the enzyme that controls the entry of glycolytic intermediates into the pathway of serine synthesis. Here, we review recent information regarding the synthesis of serine and the regulation of its metabolism and discuss the role played by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in this process. PMID:22566694

  19. Detection and Functional Analysis of Estrogen Receptor ? Phosphorylated at Serine 216 in Mouse Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Sawako; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Serine 216 constitutes a protein kinase C phosphorylation motif located within the DNA binding domain of estrogen receptor ? (ER?). In this chapter we present experimental procedures confirming that mouse ER? is phosphorylated at serine 216 in peripheral blood neutrophils and in neutrophils that infiltrate the uterus, as well as the role of phosphoserine 216 in neutrophil migration. A phospho-peptide antibody (?P-S216) was utilized in Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and double immunofluorescence staining to detect this phosphorylation of an endogenous ER?. Both immunohistochemistry (with ?P-S216 or neutrophil marker Ly6G antibody) and double immunofluorescence staining of mouse uterine sections prepared from C3H/HeNCrIBR females revealed that phosphorylated ER? was expressed in all infiltrating neutrophils during hormonal cycles but not in any other of the other uterine cells. Neutrophils infiltrate the uterus from the blood stream. White blood cells (WBC) were prepared from peripheral blood of C3H/HeNCrIBR females or males and double immunostained. Blood neutrophils also expressed phosphorylated ER? but in only about 20 % of cells in both sexes. Only the neutrophils expressing phosphorylated ER? spontaneously migrated in in vitro Transwell migration assays and infiltrated the uterus in mice. PMID:26585153

  20. Sorafenib/regorafenib and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase/thymoma viral proto-oncogene inhibition interact to kill tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sajithlal, Gangadharan B; Hamed, Hossein A; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Booth, Laurence; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Syed, Jahangir; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine whether the multikinase inhibitors sorafenib/regorafenib cooperated with clinically relevant , phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) inhibitors to kill tumor cells. In liver, colorectal, lung, breast, kidney, and brain cancer cells, at clinically achievable doses, sorafenib/regorafenib and the PI3K inhibitor acetic acid (1S,4E,10R,11R,13S,14R)-[4-diallylaminomethylene-6-hydroxy-1-methoxymethyl-10,13-dimethyl-3,7,17-trioxo-1,3,4,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-2-oxa-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-11-yl ester (PX-866) cooperated in a greater than additive fashion to kill tumor cells. Cells lacking phosphatase and tensin homolog were as sensitive to the drug combination as cells expressing the protein. Similar data were obtained using the AKT inhibitors perifosine and 8-[4-(1-aminocyclobutyl)phenyl]-9-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f] [1,6]naphthyridin-3(2H)-one hydrochloride (MK2206). PX-866 treatment abolished AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) phosphorylation, and cell killing correlated with reduced activity of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Expression of activated AKT and to a lesser extent activated mTOR reduced drug combination lethality. Expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large or dominant negative caspase 9, but not cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1b-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein short, protected cells from the drug combination. Treatment of cells with PX-866 increased protein levels of p62, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), and microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC) 3 and LC3II that correlated with a large increase in LC3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vesicle numbers. Exposure of PX-866 treated cells to sorafenib reduced p62 and LAMP2 levels, decreased the ratio of LC3 to LC3II, and reduced LC3-GFP vesicle levels. Knockdown of Beclin1 or autophagy-related 5 suppressed drug toxicity by ?40%. In vivo, sorafenib and PX-866 or regorafenib and MK2206 cooperated to suppress the growth of established HuH7 and HCT116 tumors, respectively. Collectively our data demonstrate that the combination of sorafenib family kinase inhibitors with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT pathway kills tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23877009

  1. In Vivo d-Serine Hetero-Exchange through Alanine-Serine-Cysteine (ASC) Transporters Detected by Microelectrode Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    d-Serine, a co-agonist of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebral ischemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, or schizophrenia. d-Serine signaling represents an important pharmacological target for treating these diseases; however, the biochemical mechanisms controlling extracellular d-serine levels in vivo are still unclear. d-Serine heteroexchange through small neutral amino acid transporters has been shown in cell cultures and brain slices and could provide a biochemical mechanism for the control of d-serine extracellular concentration in vivo. Alternatively, exocytotic d-serine release has also been proposed. In this study, the dynamics of d-serine release and clearance were explored in vivo on a second-by-second time scale using microelectrode biosensors. The rate of d-serine clearance in the rat frontal cortex after a microionophoretic injection revealed a transporter-mediated uptake mechanism. d-Serine uptake was blocked by small neutral l-amino acids, implicating alanine-serine-cysteine (ASC) transporters, in particular high affinity Asc-1 and low affinity ASCT2 transporters. Interestingly, changes in alanine, serine, or threonine levels resulted in d-serine release through ASC transporters. Asc-1, but not ASCT2, appeared to release d-serine in response to changes in amino acid concentrations. Finally, neuronal silencing by tetrodotoxin increased d-serine extracellular concentration by an ASC-transporter-dependent mechanism. Together, these results indicate that d-serine heteroexchange through ASC transporters is present in vivo and may constitute a key component in the regulation of d-serine extracellular concentration. PMID:23581544

  2. HSAN1 mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase reveal a close structure-function-phenotype relationship.

    PubMed

    Bode, Heiko; Bourquin, Florence; Suriyanarayanan, Saranya; Wei, Yu; Alecu, Irina; Othman, Alaa; Von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hornemann, Thorsten

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 and SPTLC2 subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The mutations induce a permanent shift in the substrate preference from l-serine to l-alanine, which results in the pathological formation of atypical and neurotoxic 1-deoxy-sphingolipids (1-deoxySL). Here we compared the enzymatic properties of 11 SPTLC1 and six SPTLC2 mutants using a uniform isotope labelling approach. In total, eight SPT mutants (STPLC1p.C133W, p.C133Y, p.S331F, p.S331Y and SPTLC2p.A182P, p.G382V, p.S384F, p.I504F) were associated with increased 1-deoxySL synthesis. Despite earlier reports, canonical activity with l-serine was not reduced in any of the investigated SPT mutants. Three variants (SPTLC1p.S331F/Y and SPTLC2p.I505Y) showed an increased canonical activity and increased formation of C20 sphingoid bases. These three mutations are associated with an exceptionally severe HSAN1 phenotype, and increased C20 sphingosine levels were also confirmed in plasma of patients. A principal component analysis of the analysed sphingoid bases clustered the mutations into three separate entities. Each cluster was related to a distinct clinical outcome (no, mildand severe HSAN1 phenotype). A homology model based on the protein structure of the prokaryotic SPT recapitulated the same grouping on a structural level. Mutations associated with the mild form clustered around the active site, whereas mutations associated with the severe form were located on the surface of the protein. In conclusion, we showed that HSAN1 mutations in SPT have distinct biochemical properties, which allowed for the prediction of the clinical symptoms on the basis of the plasma sphingoid base profile. PMID:26681808

  3. PMMA and PS / Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Michael; Vaudevan, Viveck; Si, Mayu; Gelfer, Michael; Hsaio, Benjamin; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Peiffer, Dennis

    2002-03-01

    We have been able to produce functionalized clay/Polymethylmethacrylate nanocompoistes using a Brabender twin screw extruder where SAXS spectra indicate a high degree of exfoliation. TEM micrographs show that 70clay is completely exfoliated, 27three platelets and 2structures. This high degree of exfoliation results in a large improvement in thermal stability and UV absorption properties. No significant changes in the modulus are observed by DMA analysis (Mettler-Toledo) below Tg, while evidence of gel formaion is observed above Tg. Cone Calorimetry tests conducted at an incident heat flux of 50kW/m2 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology clearly show that the heat release and mass loss rates are far lower and more gradual in the nanocomposite. These results are consistent with a dramatic increase in the specific heat as determined from high precision DSC (Mettler-Toledo) measurements. FTIR spectroscopy inidicates that exfoliation is driven by specific interactions between PMMA and the clay surfaces. PS/PMMA blends were also produced by this method and a significant decrease in the domain size of the phases was observed with the addition of clay. TEM micrographs indicate that the exfoliated clay platelets are positioned at the polymer interfaces thereby promoting compatibilization.

  4. PP/PS anisotropic stereotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Steinar; Alerini, Mathias; Ursin, Bjørn

    2010-04-01

    Stereotomography is a slope tomographic method which gives good results for background velocity model estimation in 2-D isotropic media. We develop here the extension of the method to 3-D general anisotropic media for PP and PS events. We do not take into account the issue of shear wave degeneracy. As in isotropic media, the sensitivity matrix of the inversion can be computed by paraxial ray tracing. We introduce a `constant Z stereotomography' approach, which can reduce the size of the sensitivity matrix. Based on ray perturbation theory, we give all the derivatives of stereotomography data parameters with respect to model parameters in a 3-D general anisotropic medium. These general formulas for the derivatives can also be used in other applications that rely on anisotropic ray perturbation theory. In particular, we obtain derivatives of the phase velocity with respect to position, phase angle and elastic medium parameters, all for general anisotropic media. The derivatives are expressed using the Voigt notation for the elastic medium parameters. We include a Jacobian that allows to change the model parametrization from Voigt to Thomsen parameters. Explicit expressions for the derivatives of the data are given for the case of 2-D tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We validate the method by single-parameter estimation of each Thomsen parameter field of a 2-D TTI synthetic model, where data are modelled by ray tracing. For each Thomsen parameter, the estimated velocity field fits well with the true velocity field.

  5. Polymerization of serine guanylate in the presence of montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    Serine guanylate was prepared and its polymerization studied in the presence of montmorillonite and in its absence. In water, without clay, serine guanylate polymerizes in the same way as does serine adenylate. In the presence of montmorillonite, serine guanylate polymerizes to a lesser extent and produces also lower degrees of polymerization than does serine adenylate. It is postulated that the reason for this difference in behavior might lie in the fact that guanylic acid is much more acidic than adenylic acid; hence would bind much more strongly to the edges of montmorillonite and thus, by blocking these sites, would inhibit the catalytic activity of the clay.

  6. Franklin PS-2 (XPS-2) Glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    This Franklin PS-2 training glider is about to be towed aloft by the specially modified car in front. NACA researchers used the PS-2 in a study of ground effect on a towed glider. Langley flew two of the Franklin gliders in the late 1930s, but the Navy never really found a good use for training gliders.

  7. Parallel software simulation using PS-nets

    SciTech Connect

    Markov, N.G.; Miroshnichenko, E.A.; Saraikin, A.V.

    1995-09-01

    The requirements of techniques for parallel software simulation are discussed. According to these requirements, techniques on the basis of PS-nets are suggested. The fundamentals of program system modeling by PS-nets are given. The tools developed for modeling are described.

  8. Franklin PS-2 (XPS-2) Glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Franklin PS-2 (XPS-2) Glider: This Franklin PS-2 training glider is about to be towed aloft by the specially modified car in front. NACA researchers used the PS-2 in a study of ground effect on a towed glider. Langley flew two of the Franklin gliders in the late 1930s, but the Navy never really found a good use for training gliders.: This Franklin PS-2 training glider is about to be towed aloft by the specially modified car in front. NACA researchers used the PS-2 in a study of ground effect on a towed glider. Langley flew two of the Franklin gliders in the late 1930s, but the Navy never really found a good use for training gliders.

  9. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Leite, Natlia Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D; Ruggiero Neto, Joo; Beales, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells' surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1's anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7-8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1's anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells. PMID:26331251

  10. Role of the serine-rich surface glycoprotein GspB of Streptococcus gordonii in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan Q; Bensing, Barbara A; Bayer, Arnold S; Chambers, Henry F; Sullam, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    The direct binding of bacteria to platelets is a central interaction in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. GspB is a serine-rich, cell wall glycoprotein of Streptococcus gordonii that mediates the binding of this organism to human platelets in vitro. To assess the contribution of this adhesin to the pathogenesis of endocarditis, we compared the virulence of S. gordonii M99 (which expresses GspB) with an isogenic, gspB mutant (PS846) in two rat models of endovascular infection. In the first group of experiments, animals were infected intravenously with M99 or PS846, and sacrificed 72 h later, to assess levels of bacteria within cardiac vegetations, kidneys, and spleens. When inoculated with 10(5)CFU, rats infected with PS846 had significantly lower densities of organisms within vegetations (mean: 3.84 log(10)CFU/g) as compared with M99-infected rats (6.67 log(10)CFU/g; P<0.001). Marked differences were also seen in rats co-infected with M99 and PS846, at a 1:1 ratio. While M99 was found at high levels within vegetations, kidneys and spleens (mean log(10)CFU/g: 6.62, 5.07 and 4.18, respectively) PS846 was not detected within these tissues. Thus, platelet binding by GspB appears to be a major interaction in the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. gordonii. PMID:18656529

  11. A bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom serine protease inhibitor that acts as a microbial serine protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hu; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Lee, Kyung Yong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors from bumblebee venom have been shown to block plasmin activity. In this study, we identified the protein BiVSPI from the venom of Bombus ignitus to be a serine protease inhibitor and an antimicrobial factor. BiVSPI is a 55-amino acid mature peptide with ten conserved cysteine residues and a P1 methionine residue. BiVSPI is expressed in the venom gland and also found in the venom as an 8-kDa peptide. Recombinant BiVSPI that was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells exhibited inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin but not trypsin. BiVSPI also inhibited microbial serine proteases, such as subtilisin A (Ki=6.57nM) and proteinase K (Ki=7.11nM). In addition, BiVSPI was shown to bind directly to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Beauveria bassiana but not to Escherichia coli. Consistent with these results, BiVSPI exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. These findings provide evidence for a novel serine protease inhibitor in bumblebee venom that has antimicrobial functions. PMID:24158004

  12. Metal ion dependency of serine racemase from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Murase, Hirotaka; Maekawa, Motoki; Goto, Masaru; Hayashi, Shuhei; Saito, Hajime; Maki, Masatoshi; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2012-10-01

    D-Serine is known to act as an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the mammalian brain and is endogenously synthesized from L-serine by a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, serine racemase. Though the soil-living mycetozoa Dictyostelium discoideum possesses no genes homologous to that of NMDA receptor, it contains genes encoding putative proteins relating to the D-serine metabolism, such as serine racemase, D-amino acid oxidase, and D-serine dehydratase. D. discoideum is an attractive target for the elucidation of the unknown functions of D-serine such as a role in cell development. As part of the elucidation of the role of D-serine in D. discoideum, we cloned, overexpressed, and examined the properties of the putative serine racemase exhibiting 46% amino acid sequence similarity with the human enzyme. The enzyme is unique in its stimulation by monovalent cations such as Na(+) in addition to Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), which are well-known activators for the mammalian serine racemase. Mg(2+) or Na(+) binding caused two- to ninefold enhancement of the rates of both racemization and dehydration. The half-maximal activation concentrations of Mg(2+) and Na(+) were determined to be 1.2 ?M and 2.2 mM, respectively. In the L-serine dehydrase reaction, Mg(2+) and Na(+) enhanced the k (cat) value without changing the K (m) value. Alanine mutation of the residues E207 and D213, which correspond to the Mg(2+)-binding site of Schizosaccharomyces pombe serine racemase, abolished the Mg(2+)- and Na(+)-dependent stimulation. These results suggest that Mg(2+) and Na(+) share the common metal ion-binding site. PMID:22311068

  13. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Milano, Teresa; Di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Angelaccio, Sebastiana; Pascarella, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases (SHMTs). SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The approach utilized in this study relies on two programs, ProACT2 and WatCH. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules. Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged. This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. PMID:25986490

  14. Squash inhibitor family of serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Otlewski, J; Krowarsch, D

    1996-01-01

    Squash inhibitors of serine proteinases form an uniform family of small proteins. They are built of 27-33 amino-acid residues and cross-linked with three disulfide bridges. The reactive site peptide bond (P1-P1') is between residue 5 (Lys, Arg or Leu) and 6 (always Ile). High resolution X-ray structures are available for two squash inhibitors complexed with trypsin. NMR solution structures have also been determined for free inhibitors. The major structural motif is a distorted, triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. A similar folding motif has been recently found in a number of proteins, including: conotoxins from fish-hunting snails, carboxypeptidase inhibitor from potato, kalata B1 polypeptide, and in some growth factors (e.g. nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 2, platelet-derived growth factor). Squash inhibitors are highly stable and rigid proteins. They inhibit a number of serine proteinases: trypsin, plasmin, kallikrein, blood clotting factors: Xa and XIIa, cathepsin G. The inhibition spectrum can be much broadened if specific amino-acid substitutions are introduced, especially at residues which contact proteinase. Squash inhibitors inhibit proteinases via the standard mechanism. According to the mechanism, inhibitors are substrates which exibit at neutral pH a high kcat/K(m) index for hydrolysis and resynthesis of the reactive site, and a low value of the hydrolysis constant. PMID:8922025

  15. Determination of the PS I content of PS II core preparations using selective emission: a new emission of PS II at 780nm.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jennifer; Hall, Jeremy; Smith, Paul; Akita, Fusamichi; Koua, Faisal Hammad Mekky; Shen, Jian-Ren; Krausz, Elmars

    2014-01-01

    Routinely prepared PS II core samples are often contaminated by a significant (~1-5%) fraction of PS I, as well as related proteins. This contamination is of little importance in many experiments, but masks the optical behaviour of the deep red state in PS II, which absorbs in the same spectral range (700-730nm) as PS I (Hughes et al. 2006). When contamination levels are less than ~1%, it becomes difficult to quantify the PS I related components by gel-based, chromatographic, circular dichroism or EPR techniques. We have developed a fluorescence-based technique, taking advantage of the distinctively different low-temperature emission characteristics of PS II and PS I when excited near 700nm. The approach has the advantage of providing the relative concentration of the two photosystems in a single spectral measurement. A sensitivity limit of 0.01% PS I (or better) can be achieved. The procedure is applied to PS II core preparations from spinach and Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Measurements made of T. vulcanus PS II preparations prepared by re-dissolving crystallised material indicate a low but measurable PS I related content. The analysis provides strong evidence for a previously unreported fluorescence of PS II cores peaking near 780nm. The excitation dependence of this emission as well as its appearance in both low PS I cyanobacterial and plant based PS II core preparations suggests its association with the deep red state of PS II. PMID:24055633

  16. Separation of PS-PMMA block copolymers from PS precursors via selective adsorption on nanoprous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang Yeol

    2005-03-01

    We report a simple adsorption-based separation method using nanoporous silica in solution via controlling solvent quality to remove polystyrene (PS) homopolymers from polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) diblock copolymers. In particular, the solvent quality is controlled by employing binary mixed solvents of THF (good solvent) and isooctane (nonsolvent for both PS and PMMA). The aim of this work is to qualitatively study the competitive adsorption between PS and PS-PMMA and to provide a correlative understanding of polymer adsorption in nanopores with interaction chromatography techniques. In addition, the quantitative understanding of polymer adsorption is further employed to develop a simple polymer separation scheme for manipulating polymer adsorption via solvent quality. In particular, concentration changes of PS and PS-PMMA in the supernatant solution have been quantitatively measured for the adsorption studies using solvent gradient interaction chromatography techniques. We found that the PS-PMMA (43k-32k) selectively adsorb over PS (43k) precursors at the THF composition window between 42 % and 55% in THF/IO (v/v) mixed solvents. For THF/IO solvents with composition higher than 60 % THF, polymers did not adsorb to the nanoporous silica due to the good solvent quality.

  17. Nuclear Compartmentalization of Serine Racemase Regulates d-Serine Production: IMPLICATIONS FOR N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE (NMDA) RECEPTOR ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    Kolodney, Goren; Dumin, Elena; Safory, Hazem; Rosenberg, Dina; Mori, Hisashi; Radzishevisky, Inna; Wolosker, Herman

    2015-12-25

    d-Serine is a physiological co-agonist that activates N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and is essential for neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. d-Serine may also trigger NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity, and its dysregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. d-Serine is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase (SR), which directly converts l-serine to d-serine. However, many aspects concerning the regulation of d-serine production under physiological and pathological conditions remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms regulating the synthesis of d-serine by SR in paradigms relevant to neurotoxicity. We report that SR undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and that this process is dysregulated by several insults leading to neuronal death, typically by apoptotic stimuli. Cell death induction promotes nuclear accumulation of SR, in parallel with the nuclear translocation of GAPDH and Siah proteins at an early stage of the cell death process. Mutations in putative SR nuclear export signals (NESs) elicit SR nuclear accumulation and its depletion from the cytosol. Following apoptotic insult, SR associates with nuclear GAPDH along with other nuclear components, and this is accompanied by complete inactivation of the enzyme. As a result, extracellular d-serine concentration is reduced, even though extracellular glutamate concentration increases severalfold. Our observations imply that nuclear translocation of SR provides a fail-safe mechanism to prevent or limit secondary NMDAR-mediated toxicity in nearby synapses. PMID:26553873

  18. Collisional cooled Ps emitted into vacuum from silica-based porous materials: experiment to measure the Ps cooling time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariazzi, S.; Di Noto, L.; Nebbia, G.; Brusa, R. S.

    2015-06-01

    In recent experiments on positronium time of flight (Ps-TOF) we have studied emission of cooled and thermalized Ps into vacuum from oxidized nanochannels synthetized in silicon. Ps cools down through collisions with the walls of the channels before exiting into vacuum. An important unknown parameter in the Ps-TOF measurements is the permanence time in the medium, i.e. the Ps cooling time before emission into vacuum. In this paper we describe an experiment that allows us to estimate the cooling time of Ps by analyzing the Ps- TOF spectra of cool Ps at three different distances from the sample.

  19. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. PMID:22112764

  20. ENDOGENOUS PROTEINACEOUS INHIBITORS OF BARLEY MALT SERINE ENDOPROTEINASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley malt contains endoproteinases belonging to all four of the commonly occurring classes, including serine proteinases. It also contains low-molecular-weight proteins that inhibit the activities of many of these endoproteinases, but it had never been shown that any barley or malt serine protein...

  1. Effect of Serine Hydroxamate on Phospholipid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Lewis I.; Merlie, John P.

    1973-01-01

    Serine hydroxamate, which inhibits the charging of seryl-transfer ribonucleic acid, reduced the synthesis of phospholipid and nucleic acids in Escherichia coli. This effect was analogous to depriving amino acid auxotrophs of their nutritional requirement and appears to be a manifestation of the stringent response shown by rel+ strains of E. coli. Amino acid starvation (serine or methionine) alone or serine hydroxamate treatment alone results in 60 to 80% inhibition of lipid accumulation, 90% inhibition of ribonucleic acid accumulation, and an increase in guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). These three effects were reversed by addition of chloramphenicol (CM). A combination of serine starvation and serine hydroxamate treatment resulted in inhibition of lipid and RNA accumulation as well as an increase in ppGpp, but the consequences of the double block were not reversed by CM. We conclude that a strong interrelationship exists among these processes and that CM acts to relax a stringent response by mechanisms other than interference with ppGpp formation. All species of phospholipid were affected by a stringent response evoked by amino acid starvation or addition of serine hydroxamate, but in all cases the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine was most severely inhibited. Serine hydroxamate was not incorporated into lipid but specifically caused phosphatidylserine accumulation. Serine starvation produced a dramatic alteration of the distribution of isotope incorporated into phospholipid, which resulted from the stringent response compounded with the limitation of a substrate for phosphatidylserine synthesis. Images PMID:4576413

  2. Final results for ? production in the HARP/PS214 experiment at CERN PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.; HARP/PS214 Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The final results on ? production in proton nucleus or ? nucleus interactions for incident particle momenta between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c as measured in the HARP/PS214 experiment at CERN PS are presented.

  3. CRTS observations of recent PS1 transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A. A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Prieto, J.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Valenti et al. (2010, ATel#2773) recently reported the discovery of an AGN outburst (PS1-1000382) detected in PS1 taken data on June 12.23 UT with magnitude g=17.9. The redshift of the AGN is given by Valenti et al. (2010) as z=0.435 and host galaxy SDSS J160414.08+091354.0. We have extracted the five year archival CSS/CRTS lightcurve at the location of PS1-1000382 and SDSS DR7 data.

  4. Selective N-Hydroxyhydantoin Carbamate Inhibitors of Mammalian Serine Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Cognetta, Armand B; Niphakis, Micah J; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Martini, Michael L; Hulce, Jonathan J; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2015-07-23

    Serine hydrolase inhibitors, which facilitate enzyme function assignment and are used to treat a range of human disorders, often act by an irreversible mechanism that involves covalent modification of the serine hydrolase catalytic nucleophile. The portion of mammalian serine hydrolases for which selective inhibitors have been developed, however, remains small. Here, we show that N-hydroxyhydantoin (NHH) carbamates are a versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be modified on both the staying (carbamylating) and leaving (NHH) groups to optimize potency and selectivity. Synthesis of a small library of NHH carbamates and screening by competitive activity-based protein profiling furnished selective, in vivo-active inhibitors and tailored activity-based probes for multiple mammalian serine hydrolases, including palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1, mutations of which cause the human disease infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26120000

  5. Serine catabolism regulates mitochondrial redox control during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jiangbin; Fan, Jing; Venneti, Sriram; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Pawel, Bruce R.; Zhang, Ji; Finley, Lydia W.S.; Lu, Chao; Lindsten, Tullia; Cross, Justin; Qing, Guoliang; Liu, Zhandong; Simon, M. Celeste; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2014-01-01

    The de novo synthesis of the non-essential amino acid serine is often upregulated in cancer. In this study we demonstrate that the serine catabolic enzyme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) is induced when Myc-transformed cells are subjected to hypoxia. In mitochondria, SHMT2 can initiate the degradation of serine to CO2 and NH4+ resulting in net production of NADPH from NADP+. Knockdown of SHMT2 in Myc-dependent cells reduced cellular NADPH/NADP+ ratio, increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triggered hypoxia-induced cell death. In vivo, SHMT2 suppression led to impaired tumor growth. In myc-amplified neuroblastoma patient samples, there was a significant correlation between SHMT2 and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) and SHMT2 expression correlated with unfavorable patient prognosis. Together these data demonstrate that mitochondrial serine catabolism supports tumor growth by maintaining mitochondrial redox balance and cell survival. PMID:25186948

  6. The 4 Ps as a Guiding Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps perspective addresses immediate needs: to help institutions gain traction in their retention strategies by framing and reframing the challenges and the possible responses, by challenging some of the traditional mental models about retention that can distract or dilute those strategies, and by offering focus and coherence to institutional

  7. Spectroscopic Classification of PS15aez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic observation of transient PS15aez (Atel #7437) at 2015-04-23T23:18:42 UT. One spectrum was obtained in the visible (400-800nm) with resolution R~350 using the SPRAT spectrograph on the Liverpool Telescope located at Roque de los Muchachos.

  8. Beyond metric gravity: Progress on PS-200

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.; Dyer, P.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Hughes, R.J.; Jarmie, N.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Nieto, M.M.; Schauer, M.M.M.; Schecker, J.A.; Cornford, S.; Hosea, K.; Kenefick, R.A.; Hoibraaten, S.; Midzor, M.M.; Parry, S.P.; Ristenen, R.A.; Witteborn, F.C.; Rochet, J.

    1993-03-01

    The reconciliation of quantum mechanics and gravity on varying distance scales requires changes to General Relativity that may be testable implications. We briefly review the status of tests with matter of the inverse square law and the principle of equivalence, then report on progress on the drift-tube measurement section of PS- 200, the experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antiprotons.

  9. Beyond metric gravity: Progress on PS-200

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.; Dyer, P.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Hughes, R.J.; Jarmie, N.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Nieto, M.M.; Schauer, M.M.M.; Schecker, J.A. ); Cornford, S.; Hosea, K.; Kenefick, R.A. ); Hoibraaten, S.; Midzor, M.M.; Parry, S.P.; Ristenen, R.A. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (U

    1993-01-01

    The reconciliation of quantum mechanics and gravity on varying distance scales requires changes to General Relativity that may be testable implications. We briefly review the status of tests with matter of the inverse square law and the principle of equivalence, then report on progress on the drift-tube measurement section of PS- 200, the experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antiprotons.

  10. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  11. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  12. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumblebee venom serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Yuling; Choo, Young Moo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia Jingming; Cui Zheng; Wang Dong; Kim, Doh Hoon; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2011-09-01

    Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active components; it has been used as an immunotherapy to treat bee venom hypersensitivity, and venom therapy has been applied as an alternative medicine. Here, we present evidence that the serine protease found in bumblebee venom exhibits fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Compared to honeybee venom, bumblebee venom contains a higher content of serine protease, which is one of its major components. Venom serine proteases from bumblebees did not cross-react with antibodies against the honeybee venom serine protease. We provide functional evidence indicating that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) acts as a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. Bt-VSP activates prothrombin and directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. However, Bt-VSP is not a plasminogen activator, and its fibrinolytic activity is less than that of plasmin. Taken together, our results define roles for Bt-VSP as a prothrombin activator, a thrombin-like protease, and a plasmin-like protease. These findings offer significant insight into the allergic reaction sequence that is initiated by bee venom serine protease and its potential usefulness as a clinical agent in the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Bumblebee venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) is a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. > Bt-VSP activates prothrombin. > Bt-VSP directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. > Bt-VSP is a hemostatically active protein that is a potent clinical agent.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Prisic, Sladjana; Husson, Robert N

    2014-10-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  15. Drosophila PS2 and PS3 integrins play distinct roles in retinal photoreceptors-glia interactions.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lgia; Pereira, Emiliana; Correia, Andreia; Santos, Marlia A; Amaral, Nuno; Martins, Torcato; Relvas, Joo B; Pereira, Paulo S

    2015-07-01

    Cellular migration and differentiation are important developmental processes that require dynamic cellular adhesion. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that play key roles in adhesion plasticity. Here, we explore the developing visual system of Drosophila to study the roles of integrin heterodimers in glia development. Our data show that ?PS2 is essential for retinal glia migration from the brain into the eye disc and that glial cells have a role in the maintenance of the fenestrated membrane (Laminin-rich ECM layer) in the disc. Interestingly, the absence of glial cells in the eye disc did not affect the targeting of retinal axons to the optic stalk. In contrast, ?PS3 is not required for retinal glia migration, but together with Talin, it functions in glial cells to allow photoreceptor axons to target the optic stalk. Thus, we present evidence that ?PS2 and ?PS3 integrin have different and specific functions in the development of retinal glia. PMID:25731761

  16. Structure-Based Design of an Organoruthenium Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase Inhibitor Reveals a Switch Governing Lipid Kinase Potency and Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,P.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Milk, L.; Xiao, M.; Smalley, K.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.; Marmorstein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations that constitutively activate the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, including alterations in PI3K, PTEN, and AKT, are found in a variety of human cancers, implicating the PI3K lipid kinase as an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents to treat cancer and other related diseases. In this study, we report on the combination of a novel organometallic kinase inhibitor scaffold with structure-based design to develop a PI3K inhibitor, called E5E2, with an IC50 potency in the mid-low-nanomolar range and selectivity against a panel of protein kinases. We also show that E5E2 inhibits phospho-AKT in human melanoma cells and leads to growth inhibition. Consistent with a role for the PI3K pathway in tumor cell invasion, E5E2 treatment also inhibits the migration of melanoma cells in a 3D spheroid assay. The structure of the PI3K?/E5E2 complex reveals the molecular features that give rise to this potency and selectivity toward lipid kinases with implications for the design of a subsequent generation of PI3K-isoform-specific organometallic inhibitors.

  17. D-Serine metabolism in C6 glioma cells: Involvement of alanine-serine-cysteine transporter (ASCT2) and serine racemase (SRR) but not D-amino acid oxidase (DAO).

    PubMed

    Sikka, Pilleriin; Walker, Rosie; Cockayne, Rebecca; Wood, Matthew J A; Harrison, Paul J; Burnet, Philip W J

    2010-06-01

    D-serine is an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coagonist. It is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR), but many aspects of its metabolism remain unclear, especially in the forebrain, which lacks active D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), the major D-serine degradative enzyme. Candidate mechanisms include SRR operating in alpha,beta-eliminase mode (converting D-serine to pyruvate) and regulation by serine transport, in which the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter ASCT2 is implicated. Here we report studies in C6 glioma cells, which "simulate" the forebrain, in that the cells express SRR and ASCT2 but lack DAO activity. We measured D-serine, ASCT2, SRR, and DAO expression and DAO activity in two situations: after incubation of cells for 48 hr with serine isomers and after increased or decreased SRR expression by transfection and RNA interference, respectively. Incubation with serine enantiomers decreased [(3)H]D-serine uptake and ASCT2 mRNA and increased SRR immunoreactivity but did not alter DAO immunoreactivity, and DAO activity remained undetectable. SRR overexpression increased D-serine and pyruvate and decreased [(3)H]D-serine uptake and ASCT2 mRNA but did not affect DAO. SRR knockdown did not alter any of the parameters. Our data suggest that D-serine transport mediated by ASCT2 contributes prominently to D-serine homeostasis when DAO activity is absent. The factors regulating D-serine are important for understanding normal NMDA receptor function and because D-serine, along with DAO and SRR, is implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:20091774

  18. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to L-serine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppula, Rajitha R.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2010-06-01

    A novel experimental technique was used to quantify the motion of E. coli to varying serine concentrations and gradients so as to capture the spatial and temporal variation of the chemotactic response. The average run speed and the cell diffusivity are found to be dependent on the serine concentration. The measured diffusivities were in the range of 1.2-2.5 10 -10 m2 s-1. The study revealed that the rotational diffusivity of the cells, induced by the extracellular environment, also varies with the serine concentration. The drift velocity increased with serine gradients reaching a maximum value of ~5.5 m s-1 at 1.6 M m-1 after which it decreased. Experimental analysis demonstrated the interdependence of run speed, rotational diffusivity and drift velocity that characterizes the motion. Further, the motion was found to critically depend on the oxygen concentration and energy level of the cells.

  19. The Pharmacological Landscape and Therapeutic Potential of Serine Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases play critical roles in many biological processes, and several are targets of approved drugs for indications such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimers disease, and infectious disease. Despite this, most of the 200+ human serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized with respect to their physiological substrates and functions, and the vast majority lack selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we review the current state of pharmacology for mammalian serine hydrolases, including marketed drugs, compounds under clinical investigation, and selective inhibitors emerging from academic probe development efforts. We also highlight recent methodological advances that have accelerated the rate of inhibitor discovery and optimization for serine hydrolases, which we anticipate will aid in their biological characterization and, in some cases, therapeutic validation. PMID:22212679

  20. ACTIVATION OF A CRYPTIC D-SERINE DEAMINASE (DSD) GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    EPA Science Inventory

    D-serine inhibits growth of P. cepacia 17616; however, resistant mutants able to express an ordinarily cryptic D-serine deaminase (dsd) gene were isolated readily. The resistant strains formed high levels of a D-serine deaminase active on D-threonine as well as D-serine. IS eleme...

  1. Pathogenic disruption of DISC1-serine racemase binding elicits schizophrenia-like behavior via D-serine depletion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, T.M.; Abazyan, S.; Abazyan, B.; Nomura, J.; Yang, C.; Seshadri, S.; Sawa, A.; Snyder, S.H.; Pletnikov, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Perturbation of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) and D-serine/NMDA receptor hypofunction have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we demonstrate that these two pathways intersect with behavioral consequences. DISC1 binds to and stabilizes serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that generates D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the NMDA receptor. Mutant DISC1 fails to bind to SR, facilitating ubiquitination and degradation of SR and a decrease in D-serine production. To elucidate DISC1-SR interactions in vivo, we generated a mouse model of selective and inducible expression of mutant DISC1 in astrocytes, the main source of D-serine in the brain. Expression of mutant DISC1 down-regulates endogenous DISC1 and decreases protein but not mRNA levels of SR, resulting in diminished production of D-serine. In contrast, mutant DISC1 does not alter levels of ALDH1L1, connexins, GLT-1 or binding partners of DISC1 and SR, LIS1 or PICK1. Adult male and female mice with life-long expression of mutant DISC1 exhibit behavioral abnormalities consistent with hypofunction of NMDA neurotransmission. Specifically, mutant mice display greater responses to an NMDA antagonist, MK-801, in open field and pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle tests and are significantly more sensitive to the ameliorative effects of D-serine. These findings support a model wherein mutant DISC1 leads to SR degradation via dominant-negative effects, resulting in D-serine deficiency that diminishes NMDA neurotransmission thus linking DISC1 and NMDA pathophysiologic mechanisms in mental illness. PMID:22801410

  2. Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism of Micrococcus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Brian J.; Morman, Manuel R.; White, David C.

    1972-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of Micrococcus denitrificans was unusual in that phosphatidyl choline (PC) was a major phospholipid (30.9%). Other phospholipids were phosphatidyl glycerol (PG, 52.4%), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE, 5.8%), an unknown phospholipid (5.3%), cardiolipin (CL, 3.2%), phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine (PDME, 0.9%), phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine (PMME, 0.6%), phosphatidyl serine (PS, 0.5%), and phosphatidic acid (0.4%). Kinetics of 32P incorporation suggested that PC was formed by the successive methylations of PE. Pulse-chase experiments with pulses of 32P or acetate-1-14C to exponentially growing cells showed loss of isotopes from PMME, PDME, PS, and CL with biphasic kinetics suggesting the same type of multiple pools of these lipids as proposed in other bacteria. The major phospholipids, PC, PG, and PE, were metabolically stable under these conditions. The fatty acids isolated from the complex lipids were also unusual in being a simple mixture of seven fatty acids with oleic acid representing 86% of the total. Few free fatty acids and no non-extractable fatty acids associated with the cell wall or membrane were found. Images PMID:4640503

  3. Phospholipid composition and metabolism of Micrococcus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, B J; Morman, M R; White, D C

    1972-12-01

    The phospholipid composition of Micrococcus denitrificans was unusual in that phosphatidyl choline (PC) was a major phospholipid (30.9%). Other phospholipids were phosphatidyl glycerol (PG, 52.4%), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE, 5.8%), an unknown phospholipid (5.3%), cardiolipin (CL, 3.2%), phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine (PDME, 0.9%), phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine (PMME, 0.6%), phosphatidyl serine (PS, 0.5%), and phosphatidic acid (0.4%). Kinetics of (32)P incorporation suggested that PC was formed by the successive methylations of PE. Pulse-chase experiments with pulses of (32)P or acetate-1-(14)C to exponentially growing cells showed loss of isotopes from PMME, PDME, PS, and CL with biphasic kinetics suggesting the same type of multiple pools of these lipids as proposed in other bacteria. The major phospholipids, PC, PG, and PE, were metabolically stable under these conditions. The fatty acids isolated from the complex lipids were also unusual in being a simple mixture of seven fatty acids with oleic acid representing 86% of the total. Few free fatty acids and no non-extractable fatty acids associated with the cell wall or membrane were found. PMID:4640503

  4. Covalent structure of human haptoglobin: a serine protease homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosky, A; Barnett, D R; Lee, T H; Touchstone, B; Hay, R E; Arnott, M S; Bowman, B H; Fitch, W M

    1980-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences and the disulfide arrangements of the two chains of human haptoglobin 1-1 were established. The alpha 1 and beta chains of haptoglobin contain 83 and 245 residues, respectively. Comparison of the primary structure of haptoglobin with that of the chymotrypsinogen family of serine proteases revealed a significant degree of chemical similarity. The probability was less than 10(-5) that the chemical similarity of the beta chain of haptoglobin to the proteases was due to chance. The amino acid sequence of the beta chain of haptoglobin is 29--33% identical to bovine trypsin, bovine chymotrypsin, porcine elastase, human thrombin, or human plasmin. Comparison of haptoglobin alpha 1 chain to activation peptide regions of the zymogens revealed an identity of 25% to the fifth "kringle" region of the activation peptide of plasminogen. The probability was less than 0.014 that this similarity was due to chance. These results strongly indicate haptoglobin to be a homolog of the chymotrypsinogen family of serine proteases. Alignment of the beta-chain sequence of haptoglobin to the serine proteases is remarkably consistent except for an insertion of 16 residues in the region corresponding to the methionyl loop of the serine proteases. The active-site residues typical of the serine proteases, histidine-57 and serine-195, are replaced in haptoglobin by lysine and alanine, respectively; however, aspartic acid-102 and the trypsin specificity, residue, aspartic acid-189, do occur in haptoglobin. Haptoglobin and the serine proteases represent a striking example of homologous proteins with different biological functions. PMID:6997877

  5. A Serine Protease Isolated from the Bristles of the Amazonic Caterpillar, Premolis semirufa, Is a Potent Complement System Activator

    PubMed Central

    Villas Boas, Isadora Maria; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Gonalves-de-Andrade, Rute M.; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa, commonly named pararama, is found in the Brazilian Amazon region. Accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles causes an intense itching sensation, followed by symptoms of an acute inflammation, which last for three to seven days after the first incident. After multiple accidents a chronic inflammatory reaction, called Pararamose, characterized by articular synovial membrane thickening with joint deformities common to chronic synovitis, frequently occurs. Although complement mediated inflammation may aid the host defense, inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system and generation of anaphylatoxins can lead to inflammatory disorder and pathologies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, whether the Premolis semirufas bristles extract could interfere with the human complement system. Results The bristles extract was able to inhibit the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway, as well as the activation of the lectin pathway, but had no effect on the classical pathway, and this inhibition seemed to be caused by activation and consumption of complement components. The extract induced the production of significant amounts of all three anaphylatoxins, C3a, C4a and C5a, promoted direct cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and induced a significant generation of terminal complement complexes in normal human serum. By using molecular exclusion chromatography, a serine protease of 82 kDa, which activates complement, was isolated from P. semirufa bristles extract. The protease, named here as Ps82, reduced the haemolytic activity of the alternative and classical pathways and inhibited the lectin pathway. In addition, Ps82 induced the cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and the generation of C3a and C4a in normal human serum and it was capable to cleave human purified C5 and generate C5a. The use of Phenanthroline, metalloprotease inhibitor, in the reactions did not significantly interfere with the activity of the Ps82, whereas the presence of PMSF, serine protease inhibitor, totally blocked the activity. Conclusion These data show that a serine protease present in the Premolis semirufas bristles extract has the ability to activate the complement system, which may contribute to the inflammatory process presented in humans after envenomation. PMID:25760458

  6. Endothelin-1 stimulates catalase activity through the PKC? mediated phosphorylation of Serine 167

    PubMed Central

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Kangath, Archana; Pardo, Daniel; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates catalase activity in endothelial cells and lambs with acute increases in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), without altering gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Exposing pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) to ET-1 increased catalase activity and decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These changes correlated with an increase in serine phosphorylated catalase. Using the inhibitory peptide ?V1.1, this phosphorylation was shown to be PKC? dependent. Mass spectrometry identified serine167 as the phosphorylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a phospho-mimic (S167D) catalase. Activity assays using recombinant protein purified from E.coli or transiently transfected COS-7 cells, demonstrated that S167D-catalase had an increased ability to degrade H2O2 compared to the wildtype enzyme. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we were able to verify that pS167 catalase levels are modulated in lambs with acute increases in PBF in the presence and absence of the ET receptor antagonist, tezosentan. S167 is being located on the dimeric interface suggesting it could be involved in regulating the formation of catalase tetramers. To evaluate this possibility we utilized analytical gel-filtration to examine the multimeric structure of recombinant wildtype- and S167D-catalase. We found that recombinant wildtype catalase was present as a mixture of monomers and dimers while S167D catalase was primarily tetrameric. Further, the incubation of wildtype catalase with PKC? was sufficient to convert wildtype catalase into a tetrameric structure. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the phosphorylation of catalase regulates its multimeric structure and activity. PMID:24211614

  7. Paradoxical roles of serine racemase and D-serine in the G93A mSOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Misty; Marecki, John C; Marinesco, Stephane; Labrie, Viviane; Roder, John C; Barger, Steven W; Crow, John P

    2012-02-01

    D-serine is an endogenous neurotransmitter that binds to the NMDA receptor, thereby increasing the affinity for glutamate, and the potential for excitotoxicity. The primary source of D-serine in vivo is enzymatic racemization by serine racemase (SR). Regulation of D-serine in vivo is poorly understood, but is thought to involve a combination of controlled production, synaptic reuptake by transporters, and intracellular degradation by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). However, SR itself possesses a well-characterized eliminase activity, which effectively degrades D-serine as well. D-serine is increased two-fold in spinal cords of G93A Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mice--the standard model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS mice with SR disruption show earlier symptom onset, but survive longer (progression phase is slowed), in an SR-dependent manner. Paradoxically, administration of D-serine to ALS mice dramatically lowers cord levels of D-serine, leading to changes in the onset and survival very similar to SR deletion. D-serine treatment also increases cord levels of the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (Asc-1). Although the mechanism by which SOD1 mutations increases D-serine is not known, these results strongly suggest that SR and D-serine are fundamentally involved in both the pre-symptomatic and progression phases of disease, and offer a direct link between mutant SOD1 and a glial-derived toxic mediator. PMID:22117694

  8. Participation of d-serine in the development and reproduction of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Chihiro; Niwano, Kimio; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Horiike, Kihachiro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagata, Yoko

    2016-04-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori contains high concentrations of free d-serine, an optical isomer of l-serine. To elucidate its function, we first investigated the localization of d-serine in various organs of silkworm larvae, pupae, and adult moths. Using immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-d-serine antibody, we found d-serine in the microvilli of midgut goblet and cylindrical cells and in peripheral matrix components of testicular and ovarian cells. By spectrophotometric analysis, d-serine was also found in the hemolymph and fat body. d-Alanine was not detected in the various organs by immunohistochemistry. Serine racemase, which catalyzes the inter-conversion of l- and d-serine, was found to co-localize with d-serine, and d-serine production from l-serine by intrinsic serine racemase was suggested. O-Phospho-l-serine is an inhibitor of serine racemase, and it was administered to the larvae to reduce the d-serine level. This reagent decreased the midgut caspase-3 level and caused a delay in spermatogenesis and oogenesis. The reagent also decreased mature sperm and egg numbers, suggesting d-serine participation in these processes. d-Serine administration induced an increase in pyruvate levels in testis, midgut, and fat body, indicating conversion of d-serine to pyruvate. On the basis of these results, together with our previous investigation of ATP biosynthesis in testis, we consider the possible involvement of d-serine in ATP synthesis for metamorphosis and reproduction. PMID:26828952

  9. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32 and diesel oil 0. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  10. Internal gastargets in AmPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaan, A. P.; Postma, O.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van Leeuwen, E.; Doets, M.; Kraan, M.

    1997-05-01

    Internal gas targets in AmPS A.P. Kaan, O. Postma, J.F.J. van den Brand, E. van Leeuwen, M. Doets, M. Kra= an National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics; Kruislaan 409; 1098 SJ Amsterdam; Holland In the Amsterdam Puls Stretcher/storage ring AmPS(1 GeV electrons), we designed a set-up in order to accommodate a gas target with a density of 1016 mol/cm2. The storage cell needed for this purpose is a aluminium tube with a length of 40 cm, a diameter of 15 mm and a wall thickness of 25 =B5m. Three sets of conductance limiters on both sides of the target, combined with dry turbopumps are designed to be used as differential pumping stations. These limiters cause discontinuities in the beam path and must therefor be retractable and radio frequency compatible in both positions. Low =B5 materials must be used because of the depolarisation effects of changing magnetic fields. The calculations show that the flow resistance's are sufficient to reduce the load of the getter pumps to a level with which the lifetime of the pump elements remain acceptable. The design of the mechanics and the vacuum system will be explained. Recent results from the measurements after installation in combination with the influence on the lifetime on the beam will be presented

  11. Phosphoramidates as novel activity-based probes for serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Haedke, Ute R; Frommel, Sandra C; Hansen, Fabian; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Bogyo, Matthew; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2014-05-26

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) are small molecules that exclusively form covalent bonds with catalytically active enzymes. In the last decade, they have especially been used in functional proteomics studies of proteases. Here, we present phosphoramidate peptides as a novel type of ABP for serine proteases. These molecules can be made in a straightforward manner by standard Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, allowing rapid diversification. The resulting ABPs covalently bind different serine proteases, depending on the amino acid recognition element adjacent to the reactive group. A reporter tag enables downstream gel-based analysis or LC-MS/MS-mediated identification of the targeted proteases. Overall, we believe that these readily accessible probes will provide new avenues for the functional study of serine proteases in complex proteomes. PMID:24817682

  12. A proposed mechanism for IS607-family serine transposases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The transposases encoded by the IS607 family of mobile elements are unusual serine recombinases with an inverted domain order and minimal specificity for target DNA. Results Structural genomics groups have determined three crystal structures of the catalytic domains of IS607 family transposases. The dimers formed by these catalytic domains are very different from those seen for other serine recombinases and include interactions that usually only occur upon formation of a synaptic tetramer. Conclusions Based on these structures, we propose a model for how IS607-family transposases could form a synaptic tetramer. The model suggests that, unlike other serine recombinases, these enzymes carry out sequence-specific DNA binding and catalysis in trans: the DNA binding and catalytic domains of each subunit are proposed to interact with different DNA duplexes. The model also suggests an explanation for the minimal target DNA specificity. PMID:24195768

  13. Regulation of genes encoding PS I and PS II proteins in Synechocystis

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, L.B.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The mechanisms of regulation of the genes encoding PS I and PS II components are largely unknown for the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In an attempt to elucidate how PS I and PS II biogenesis is controlled, we have isolated RNA from cells grown in various light conditions and analyzed relative steady-state levels of transcripts on Northern blots. Results from blots probed with psaA and psaB (which we recently cloned and sequenced) as well as previously isolated clones for psbA1, psbA2, psbD2, psaD, rbcL, and rrn will be presented. Preliminary data indicate the psbA and psaA-psaB transcripts accumulate in cells put in the dark, although the psaA-psaB transcript levels are somewhat reduced in the dark. Future experiments will focus on molecular analysis of the promoter region for the psaA-psaB operon.

  14. An application of diagonal electrophoresis to the selective purification of serine phosphate peptides. Serine phosphate peptides from ovalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Milstein, Celia P.

    1968-01-01

    A diagonal-electrophoresis method for the selective purification of serine phosphate peptides was applied to tryptic, chymotryptic and peptic digests of oxidized ovalbumin. This method is based on the release of the phosphate group bound to serine by treatment with alkaline phosphatase on paper. The identified serine phosphate peptides were purified by paper electrophoresis at pH65 and 20, dephosphorylation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase, and paper electrophoresis at pH20 again, in that order. The presence of two groups of serine phosphate peptides was apparent from the amino acid composition. One group contained no lysine, cysteic acid, proline, leucine or isoleucine (sequence 1) and the other had all those amino acids (sequence 2). Further degradation with subtilisin of those peptides and `dansyl'Edman sequence analysis established their partial sequences. The proposed sequences are as follows (with `SerP' representing serine phosphate): sequence 1, -Ala-Gly-Arg-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-SerP-Ala-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val-Ala-Ala-Ser-(Val,Glx2,Ser,Phe)-Arg-; sequence 2, -Asp-Lys-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Gly-Asp-SerP-Ile-Glx-Ala-Glx-CySO3H-Gly-(Thr,Ser,Val)-(Asp,His,Val)-. The partial sequence of one of the phosphopeptides, Asp-(Glu,Ile,SerP), reported by Flavin (1954) was used to establish the proposed sequence 2. PMID:4881141

  15. Two Proteases, Trypsin Domain-containing 1 (Tysnd1) and Peroxisomal Lon Protease (PsLon), Cooperatively Regulate Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation in Peroxisomal Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Okumoto, Kanji; Kametani, Yukari; Fujiki, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying protein turnover and enzyme regulation in the peroxisomal matrix remain largely unknown. Trypsin domain-containing 1 (Tysnd1) and peroxisomal Lon protease (PsLon) are newly identified peroxisomal matrix proteins that harbor both a serine protease-like domain and a peroxisome-targeting signal 1 (PTS1) sequence. Tysnd1 processes several PTS1-containing proteins and cleaves N-terminal presequences from PTS2-containing protein precursors. Here we report that knockdown of Tysnd1, but not PsLon, resulted in accumulation of endogenous ?-oxidation enzymes in their premature form. The protease activity of Tysnd1 was inactivated by intermolecular self-conversion of the 60-kDa form to 15- and 45-kDa chains, which were preferentially degraded by PsLon. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation of a very long fatty acid was significantly decreased by knockdown of Tysnd1 and partially lowered by PsLon knockdown. Taken together, these data suggest that Tysnd1 is a key regulator of the peroxisomal ?-oxidation pathway via proteolytic processing of ?-oxidation enzymes. The proteolytic activity of oligomeric Tysnd1 is in turn controlled by self-cleavage of Tysnd1 and degradation of Tysnd1 cleavage products by PsLon. PMID:22002062

  16. Serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs): biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Dautin, Nathalie

    2010-06-01

    Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) constitute a large family of proteases secreted by Escherichia coli and Shigella. SPATEs exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. First, a C-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the N-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. Second, the secreted N-terminal domains of SPATEs are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. Some of these secreted proteases are toxins, eliciting various effects on mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the biogenesis of SPATEs and their function as toxins. PMID:22069633

  17. Enzymatic methods for the determination of L-serine concentration and L-(/sup 14/C)serine specific radioactivity in blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cassady, A.I.; Reilly, P.E.B.

    1981-11-15

    Methods are described for the use of L-serine dehydratase purified from Clostridium acidiurici for the determination of L-serine concentrations and L(/sup 14/C)serine specific radioactivity in sheep plasma. A spectrophotometric assay using this enzyme accurately measured the concentration of L-serine in standard solutions and in a commerically available mixture of amino acids and related compounds. This assay was shown to be suitable for measurement of plasma L-serine concentrations in excess of 30 ..mu..M. The reverse isotope dilution method was used for plasma L-(/sup 14/C)serine specific radioactivity measurements. Carrier L-serine was added to plasma and separated from neutral and anionic compounds using ion-exchange chromatography. The L-serine was then converted to pyruvate with L-serine dehydratase and this was purified as the phenylhydrazone derivative. After recrystallization, drying and weighing, the derivative was assayed for radioactivity. The accuracy of this method was verified by adding L-(U-/sup 14/C)serine to plasma and comparing the experimentally determined L-(/sup 14/C)serine specific radioactivity with the calculated value. The method yielded a value which was 98.6 +/- 0.8% of this calculated value.

  18. PS2004 Light-harvesting Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2005-11-01

    This special issue of the international scientific research journal Photosynthesis Research consists of 25 original peer-reviewed contributions from participants in the PS 2004 Lisht-Harvesting Systems Workshop. This workshop was held from 26-29, 2004 at Hotel Le Chantecler, Sainte-Adele, Quebec, Canada. The workshop was a satellite meeting of the XIII International Congress on Photosynthesis held August 29-September 3, 2004 in Montreal, Canada. The workshope dealt with all types of photosynthetic antenna systems and types of organisms, including anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants, as well as in vitro studies of isolated pigments. This collection of papers is a good representation of the highly interdisciplinary nature of modern research on photosynthetic antenna complexes, utilizing techniques of advanced spectroscopy, biochemistry, molecular biology, synthetic chemistry and structural determination to understand these diverse and elegant molecular complexes.

  19. Genetic alterations and aberrant expression of genes related to the phosphatidyl-inositol-3'-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) signal transduction pathway in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Knobbe, Christiane B; Reifenberger, Guido

    2003-10-01

    Glioblastomas frequently carry mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene on 10q23.3. The tumor suppressor properties of Pten are closely related to its inhibitory effect on the phosphatidyl-inositol-3'-kinase (Pi3k)-dependent activation of protein kinase B (Akt) signalling. Here, we report on the analysis of 17 genes related to the Pi3k/Akt signalling pathway for genetic alteration and aberrant expression in a series of 103 glioblastomas. Mutation, homozygous deletion or loss of expression of PTEN was detected in 32% of the tumors. In contrast, we did not find any aberrations in the inositol polyphosphate phosphatase like-1 gene (INPPL1), whose gene product may also counteract Pi3k-dependent Akt activation. Analysis of genes encoding proteins that may activate the pathway upstream of Pi3k revealed variable fractions of tumors with EGFR amplification (31%), PDGFRA amplification (8%), and IRS2 amplification (2%). The protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2/FAK1) gene was neither amplified nor overexpressed at the mRNA level. Investigation of three genes encoding catalytic subunits of Pi3k (PIK3CA, PIK3CD, and PIK3C2B) revealed amplification of PIK3C2B (1q32) in 6 tumors (6%). Overexpression of PIK3C2B mRNA was detected in 4 of these cases. PIK3CD (1p36.2) and PIK3CA (3q26.3) were not amplified but PIK3CD mRNA was overexpressed in 6 tumors (6%). Amplification and overexpression of AKT1 was detected in a single case of gliosarcoma. The IRS1, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, AKT2, AKT3, FRAP1, and RPS6KB1 genes were neither amplified nor overexpressed in any of the tumors. Taken together, our data indicate that different genes related to the Pi3k/Akt signalling pathway may be aberrant in glioblastomas. PMID:14655756

  20. Regulation of transcription by eukaryotic-like serine-threonine kinases and phosphatases in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David P; Ulijasz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial eukaryotic-like serine threonine kinases (eSTKs) and serine threonine phosphatases (eSTPs) have emerged as important signaling elements that are indispensable for pathogenesis. Differing considerably from their histidine kinase counterparts, few eSTK genes are encoded within the average bacterial genome, and their targets are pleiotropic in nature instead of exclusive. The growing list of important eSTK/P substrates includes proteins involved in translation, cell division, peptidoglycan synthesis, antibiotic tolerance, resistance to innate immunity and control of virulence factors. Recently it has come to light that eSTK/Ps also directly modulate transcriptional machinery in many microbial pathogens. This novel form of regulation is now emerging as an additional means by which bacteria can alter their transcriptomes in response to host-specific environmental stimuli. Here we focus on the ability of eSTKs and eSTPs in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens to directly modulate transcription, the known mechanistic outcomes of these modifications, and their roles as an added layer of complexity in controlling targeted RNA synthesis to enhance virulence potential. PMID:25603430

  1. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T., Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1Thr286 and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment. PMID:26902162

  2. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T, Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1(Thr286) and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment. PMID:26902162

  3. Timing between streak cameras with a precision of 10 ps

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R.A.

    1990-12-07

    The laser beams irradiating a target at the Nova laser facility comprise a set of ten simultaneous events. Two streak cameras, whose resolutions are 40 ps, record the power history for each beam, five beams to a camera; their time bases are cross-timed with a fiducial pulse. Analysis of data recorded for target experiments conducted over a six month period show the precision for cross-timing signals between two streak cameras to be {plus minus}9 ps and for characterizing a single temporal feature of a pulse to be {plus minus}5 ps. Beam synchronization at the end of six months was within 20 ps of the synchronization at the beginning of the experiments. A beam timing shift greater than 25 ps can be detected on a single laser shot; shifts of 10 to 20 ps require several shots to detect. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  4. The Hunger Games: p53 regulates metabolism upon serine starvation.

    PubMed

    Tavana, Omid; Gu, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to support a high proliferative rate. A new study shows that, upon serine starvation, the tumor suppressor p53 activates p21 to shift metabolic flux from purine biosynthesis to glutathione production, which enhances cellular proliferation and viability by combating ROS (Maddocks etal., 2013). PMID:23395165

  5. Purification and properties of serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Delle Fratte, S; White, R H; Maras, B; Bossa, F; Schirch, V

    1997-01-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of serine to glycine with the transfer of the one-carbon group to tetrahydrofolate to form 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. No SHMT has been purified from a nonmethanogenic Archaea strain, in part because this group of organisms uses modified folates as the one-carbon acceptor. These modified folates are not readily available for use in assays for SHMT activity. This report describes the purification and characterization of SHMT from the thermophilic organism Sulfolobus solfataricus. The exchange of the alpha-proton of glycine with solvent protons in the absence of the modified folate was used as the activity assay. The purified protein catalyzes the synthesis of serine from glycine and a synthetic derivative of a fragment of the natural modified folate found in S. solfataricus. Replacement of the modified folate with tetrahydrofolate did not support serine synthesis. In addition, this SHMT also catalyzed the cleavage of both allo-threonine and beta-phenylserine in the absence of the modified folate. The cleavage of these two amino acids in the absence of tetrahydrofolate is a property of other characterized SHMTs. The enzyme contains covalently bound pyridoxal phosphate. Sequences of three peptides showed significant similarity with those of peptides of SHMTs from two methanogens. PMID:9393711

  6. Dynamics simulation of the interaction between serine and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Ying-Bo; Han, Sheng-Hao; Yu, Hui

    2013-05-01

    Using the first principles density functional theory (DFT), we simulated the neutron scattering spectra of the hydration dynamics of serine. Experimental data analyses have shown that dissociative H2O molecules were more likely to form hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with an -OH group in monohydrated serine and easily shift to a -NH_3 ^ + group at a higher hydration level [P. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. H. Han, Q. W. Yan, R. C. Ford, and J. C. Li, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5000 (2006), 10.1021/jp0569741]. We set the 1:1 ratio hydrated compounds at the two positions and found that the H2O could be optimized to form H-bonds with -OH and -NH3+ separately. When the simulated phonon signals of the -OHH2O and -NH3+H2O combinations were summed on a 3:1 scale, the calculating spectra were in good agreement with the experimental results, especially for the peak at 423 cm-1 of the -OHH2O combination and the peak at 367 cm-1 of the -NH3+H2O combination, which mutually complemented the real spectrum. We confirm that H2O may break the intermolecular H-bonds of the interlaced binding -OH to form a new structure, and that with the skeleton deformation of serine, H2O forms stronger H-bonds more often with the -NH3+ side indicating the flexible dynamic mechanism of the serine hydration process.

  7. Expression and characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus alkaline serine protease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated the enzyme had...

  8. Serine Transhydroxymethylase in Methionine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J. L.; Parks, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Serine transhydroxymethylase appears to be the first enzyme in the synthesis of the methyl group of methionine. Properties of serine transhydroxymethylase activity as assayed by the production of formaldehyde were correlated with properties of cell-free extracts for the methylation of homocysteine deriving the methyl group from the ?-carbon of serine. The reaction required pyridoxal phosphate and tetrahydrofolic acid, and was characterized in cell-free extracts with respect to Michaelis constant, pH optimum, incubation time, and optimal enzyme concentration. The activity was sensitive to inhibition by methionine, and to a much greater extent by S-adenosylmethionine. Serine transhydroxymethylase and the methylation of homocysteine reactions were not repressed by methionine and were stimulated by glycine. The activities of cell-free extracts for these reactions were significantly higher in cells in exponential than in stationary growth. When cells were grown in 10 mm glycine, the activities remained high throughout the culture cycle. The data indicated that glycine rather than methionine is involved in the control of the formation of the enzyme. PMID:5776524

  9. A conserved extraordinarily long serine homopolymer in Dictyostelid amoebae

    PubMed Central

    Tian, X; Strassmann, J E; Queller, D C

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein sequences often contain amino-acid homopolymers that consist of a single amino acid repeated from several to dozens of times. Some of these are functional but others may persist largely because of high expansion rates due to DNA slippage. However, very long homopolymers with over a hundred repeats are very rare. We report an extraordinarily long homopolymer consisting of 306 tandem serine repeats from the single-celled eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum, which also has a multicellular stage. The gene has a paralog with 132 repeats and orthologs, also with high serine repeat numbers, in various other Dictyostelid species. The conserved gene structure and protein sequences suggest that the homopolymer is functional. The high codon diversity and very poor alignment of serine codons in this gene between species similarly indicate functionality. This is because the serine homopolymer is conserved despite much DNA sequence change. A survey of other very long amino-acid homopolymers in eukaryotes shows that high codon diversity is the rule, suggesting that these too may be functional. PMID:24084645

  10. A serine sensor for multicellularity in a bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Arvind R; DeLoughery, Aaron; Bradshaw, Niels; Chen, Yun; O’Shea, Erin; Losick, Richard; Chai, Yunrong

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a simple environmental sensing mechanism for biofilm formation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis that operates without the involvement of a dedicated RNA or protein. Certain serine codons, the four TCN codons, in the gene for the biofilm repressor SinR caused a lowering of SinR levels under biofilm-inducing conditions. Synonymous substitutions of these TCN codons with AGC or AGT impaired biofilm formation and gene expression. Conversely, switching AGC or AGT to TCN codons upregulated biofilm formation. Genome-wide ribosome profiling showed that ribosome density was higher at UCN codons than at AGC or AGU during biofilm formation. Serine starvation recapitulated the effect of biofilm-inducing conditions on ribosome occupancy and SinR production. As serine is one of the first amino acids to be exhausted at the end of exponential phase growth, reduced translation speed at serine codons may be exploited by other microbes in adapting to stationary phase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01501.001 PMID:24347549

  11. Energy and expectation values of the PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2006-05-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for PsH are computed using a ground state wave function consisting of 1800 explicitly correlated gaussians. The best estimate of the Ps{sup {infinity}}H energy was -0.789 196 740 hartree which is the lowest variational energy to date. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate for Ps{sup {infinity}}H was 2.471 78x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}.

  12. PS: A nonprocedural language with data types and modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokhale, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Problem Specification (PS) nonprocedural language is a very high level language for algorithm specification. PS is suitable for nonprogrammers, who can specify a problem using mathematically-oriented equations; for expert programmers, who can prototype different versions of a software system for evaluation; and for those who wish to use specifications for portions (if not all) of a program. PS has data types and modules similar to Modula-2. The compiler generates C code. PS is first shown by example, and then efficiency issues in scheduling and code generation are discussed.

  13. High-precision calculation of loosely bound states of LiPs+ and NaPs+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takuma; Kino, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    A positronic alkali atom would be the first step to investigate behavior of a positronium(Ps) in an external field from atoms/molecules because the system can be regarded as a simple three-body system using model potentials reflecting electron orbitals of the ion core. In order to precisely determine binding energies and structures of positronic alkali atoms (LiPs+ and NaPs+), we improve the model potential so as to reproduce highly excited atomic energy levels of alkali atoms (Li and Na). The polarization potential included by the model potential is expanded in terms of Gaussian functions to finely determine a short range part of the potential which has been assumed to be a simple form. We find better reproducibility not only of atomic levels of the alkali atoms but also of the dipole polarizability of the core ion than previous works. We construct a model potential between a positron and an ion core based on the model potential between the valence electron and ion core. Binding energies associated with a dissociation of the alkali ion core and positronium, and interparticle distances are recalculated. Our results show slightly deeper bound than other previous studies.

  14. Resonances in PsH below the p+Ps^- threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zong-Chao; Ho, Y. K.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, Di Rienzi and Drachman carried out an investigation of high-lying resonances in the Ps-H system lying below the Ps^- + H^+ threshold [1]. Using an effective potential formalism, they calculated the resonance energies for some S, P and D states. In the present work, we present a calculation of S-wave resonances lying below the p + Ps^- threshold by using the method of complex-coordinate rotation [2]. We use elaborate Hylleraas wave functions [3] in which all the six inter-particle coordinates are included [4]. Using up to 6412 terms in the basis functions, resonance energies and widths for several lower members of a Rydberg series are calculated. At the meeting, we will compare our preliminary results with those of the earlier calculation [1]. [1] J. Di Rienzi and R. J. Drachman, Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 032705. [2] Y. K. Ho, Phys. Rept. 99 (1983) 1, and references therein. [3] Z.-C. Yan and Y. K. Ho, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 2697. [4] Z.-C. Yan and G. W. F. Drake, J. Phys. B. 30 (1997) 4723.

  15. The HARP detector at the CERN PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanesi, M. G.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Radicioni, E.; Simone, S.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Robbins, S.; Soler, F. J. P.; Gling, C.; Mass, M.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Krasin, I.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Carassiti, V.; Di Capua, E.; Evangelisti, F.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Arce, P.; Brocard, R.; Decreuse, G.; Friend, B.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Legrand, J.-C.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; van der Vlugt, R.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Morone, M. C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G. B.; Graulich, J. S.; Grgoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Ferri, F.; Paleari, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Postoev, V.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Barichello, G.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Laveder, M.; Menegolli, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Pepato, A.; Dumarchez, J.; Troquereau, S.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Iaciofano, A.; Lobello, M.; Marinilli, F.; Orestano, D.; Panayotov, D.; Pasquali, M.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Nicholson, R.; Bogomilov, M.; Burin, K.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Petev, P.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, S.; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Gmez-Cadenas, J. J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.

    2007-02-01

    HARP is a high-statistics, large solid angle experiment to measure hadron production using proton and pion beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/ c impinging on many different solid and liquid targets from low to high Z. The experiment, located in the T9 beam of the CERN PS, took data in 2001 and 2002. For the measurement of momenta of produced particles and for the identification of particle types, the experiment includes a large-angle spectrometer, based on a Time Projection Chamber and a system of Resistive Plate Chambers, and a forward spectrometer equipped with a set of large drift chambers, a threshold Cherenkov detector, a time-of-flight wall and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The large angle system uses a solenoidal magnet, while the forward spectrometer is based on a dipole magnet. Redundancy in particle identification has been sought, to enable the cross-calibration of efficiencies and to obtain a few percent overall accuracy in the cross-section measurements. Detector construction, operation and initial physics performances are reported. In addition, the full chain for data recording and analysis, from trigger to the software framework, is described.

  16. Phosphorylation of human estrogen receptor-beta at serine 105 inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hung-Ming; Babu, C.V. Suresh; Wang, Jiang; Yuan, Yong; Lam, Ying-Wai; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Leung, Yuet-Kin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple phosphorylation sites on the human estrogen receptor (hER)? were identified and shown to influence mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast, functional phosphorylation sites of hER? have yet to be experimentally identified and validated. Here, using mass spectrometry, we uncovered three serines (S75, S87, and S105) in the N-terminus of hER? as targets of ERK1/2 and p38 kinases. We raised a specific antibody against phosphorylated S105 (pS105) and demonstrated that this site was endogenously phosphorylated in MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells. A phospho-mimetic mutant generated from hER?1 was found to exhibit higher transactivation activity than hER?1. Ectopic expression of this mutant inhibited cell migration and invasion, but did not affect cell growth and cell-cycle progression in these cell models. In breast cancer specimens, pS105-hER? immunoreactivity was detected with a higher prevalence and intensity than that of hER?1. These results underscore the functional importance of the first experimentally identified hER?-phosphorylation site in breast cancer. PMID:22370157

  17. Serine protease activity in m-1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Schiro, Faith R; Hamm, L Lee

    2002-04-01

    An apical serine protease, channel-activating protease 1 (CAP1), augments sodium transport in A6 cells. Prostasin, a novel serine protease originally purified from seminal fluid, has been proposed to be the mammalian ortholog of CAP1. We have recently found functional evidence for a similar protease activity in the M-1 cortical collecting duct cell line. The purposes of the present studies were to determine whether prostasin (or CAP1) is present in collecting duct cells by use of mouse M-1 cells, to sequence mouse prostasin, and to further characterize the identity of the serine protease activity and additional functional features in M-1 cells. Using mouse expressed sequence tag sequences that are highly homologous to the published human prostasin sequence as templates, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) were used to sequence mouse prostasin mRNA, which shows 99% identical to published mouse CAP1 sequence. A single 1800-bp transcript was found by Northern analysis, and this was not altered by aldosterone. Equivalent short-circuit current (I(eq)), which represents sodium transport in these cells, dropped to 59+/-3% of control value within 1 hour of incubation with aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor. Trypsin increased the I(eq) in aprotinin-treated cells to the value of the control group within 5 minutes. Application of aprotinin not only inhibited amiloride sensitive I(eq) but also reduced transepithelial resistance (R(te)) to 43+/-2%, an effect not expected with simple inhibition of sodium channels. Trypsin partially reversed the effect of aprotinin on R(te). Another serine protease inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI), decreased I(eq) in M-1 cells. STI inhibited I(eq) gradually over 6 hours, and the inhibition of I(eq) by 2 inhibitors was additive. STI decreased transepithelial resistance much less than did aprotinin. Neither aldosterone nor dexamethasone significantly augmented protease activity or prostasin mRNA levels, and in fact, dexamethasone decreased prostasin mRNA expression. In conclusion, although prostasin is present in M-1 cells and probably augments sodium transport in these cells, serine proteases probably have other effects (eg, resistance) in the collecting duct in addition to effects on sodium channels. Steroids do not alter these effects in M-1 cells. Additional proteases are likely also present in mouse collecting duct cells. PMID:11967240

  18. PS-ON PBCF Cell Lines and Derivatives

    Cancer.gov

    The Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON) Bioresource Core Facility (PBCF) at ATCC is a central resource for all members of the PS-ON. The PBCF serves as a centralized distributor and repository providing the Network with common stocks of an authenticated

  19. Inner blood-retinal barrier mediates l-isomer-predominant transport of serine.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Masanori; Okamoto, Masashi; Hirose, Shirou; Yoneyama, Daisuke; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2011-09-01

    D-serine, a coagonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, which mediate visual signal transmission, is thought to be generated from L-serine via serine racemase in the retina. However, the source of L-serine and D-serine in the retina are yet to be determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of the blood-to-retina transport of serine at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB). In vivo study revealed the blood-to-retina transport of [(3) H]L-serine with an influx clearance of 49.9 ?L/(ming retina), which is greater than that of [(3) H]D-serine. This was consistent with the L-isomer-predominant uptake of serine by conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2 cells), an in vitro inner BRB model. [(3) H]L-Serine and [(3) H]D-serine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells took place in an Na(+)-dependent and a concentration-dependent manner with Michaelis constant values of 97.5 ?M and 9.63 mM, respectively. The uptake process of [(3) H]L-serine and [(3) H]D-serine was significantly inhibited by system ASC (alanine-serine-cysteine) substrates. Polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunocytochemistry revealed the expression of ASC transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 in TR-iBRB2 cells. These results suggest that the system ASC at the inner BRB is a potent pathway for supplying serine in the form of the L-isomer from the circulating blood to the retina. PMID:21590774

  20. Telomere Reprogramming and Maintenance in Porcine iPS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells. PMID:24098638

  1. Role of SraP, a Serine-Rich Surface Protein of Staphylococcus aureus, in binding to human platelets.

    PubMed

    Siboo, Ian R; Chambers, Henry F; Sullam, Paul M

    2005-04-01

    The binding of bacteria to platelets is a postulated central event in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Platelet binding by Streptococcus gordonii is mediated in large part by GspB, a high-molecular-mass cell wall glycoprotein. Although Staphylococcus aureus has a GspB homolog (SraP), little is known about its function. SraP has a calculated molecular mass of 227 kDa and, like GspB, is predicted to contain an atypical N-terminal signal sequence, two serine-rich repeat regions (srr1 and srr2) separated by a nonrepeat region, and a C-terminal cell wall anchoring motif (LPDTG). To assess whether SraP contributes to platelet binding, we compared the binding to human platelets of S. aureus strain ISP479C and of an isogenic variant (strain PS767) in which sraP had been disrupted by allelic replacement. Platelet binding in vitro by PS767 was 47% +/- 17% (mean +/- standard deviation) lower than that of ISP479C (P < 0.001). In addition, a recombinant fragment of SraP containing srr1 and the nonrepeat region was found to bind platelets directly. Binding was saturable, suggesting a receptor-ligand interaction. When tested in a rabbit model of endocarditis, in which each animal was simultaneously infected with ISP479C and PS767 at a ratio of approximately 1:1, the titers of the mutant strain within vegetations were significantly lower than those of the parent strain at 1 and 24 h postinfection. These results indicate that SraP can mediate the direct binding of S. aureus to platelets and that the platelet-binding domain of this glycoprotein is located within its N-terminal region. Moreover, the expression of SraP appears to be a virulence determinant in endovascular infection. PMID:15784571

  2. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  3. Architecture of a Serine Recombinase-DNA Regulatory Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mouw, Kent W.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Gajjar, Mark M.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2008-04-29

    An essential feature of many site-specific recombination systems is their ability to regulate the direction and topology of recombination. Resolvases from the serine recombinase family assemble an interwound synaptic complex that harnesses negative supercoiling to drive the forward reaction and promote recombination between properly oriented sites. To better understand the interplay of catalytic and regulatory functions within these synaptic complexes, we have solved the structure of the regulatory site synapse in the Sin resolvase system. It reveals an unexpected synaptic interface between helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domains that is also highlighted in a screen for synapsis mutants. The tetramer defined by this interface provides the foundation for a robust model of the synaptic complex, assembled entirely from available crystal structures, that gives insight into how the catalytic activity of Sin and other serine recombinases may be regulated.

  4. Crystal structure of maize serine racemase with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lingling; Song, Yang; Wang, Chengliang; Sun, Jiaqi; Wang, Leilei; Cheng, Beijiu; Fan, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Serine racemase (SR) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that is responsible for D-serine biosynthesis in vivo. The first X-ray crystal structure of maize SR was determined to 2.1? resolution and PLP binding was confirmed in solution by UV-Vis absorption spectrometry. Maize SR belongs to the type II PLP-dependent enzymes and differs from the SR of a vancomycin-resistant bacterium. The PLP is bound to each monomer by forming a Schiff base with Lys67. Structural comparison with rat and fission yeast SRs reveals a similar arrangement of active-site residues but a different orientation of the C-terminal helix. PMID:26919519

  5. Architecture of a Serine Recombinase-DNA Regulatory Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Kent W.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Gajjar, Mark M.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary An essential feature of many site-specific recombination systems is their ability to regulate the direction and topology of recombination. Resolvases from the serine recombinase family assemble an interwound synaptic complex that harnesses negative supercoiling to drive the forward reaction and promote recombination between properly oriented sites. To better understand the interplay of catalytic and regulatory functions within these synaptic complexes, we have solved the structure of the regulatory site synapse in the Sin resolvase system. It reveals an unexpected synaptic interface between helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domains that is also highlighted in a screen for synapsis mutants. The tetramer defined by this interface provides the foundation for a robust model of the synaptic complex, assembled entirely from available crystal structures, that gives insight into how the catalytic activity of Sin and other serine recombinases may be regulated. PMID:18439894

  6. Site-specific DNA Inversion by Serine Recombinases.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reid C

    2015-02-01

    Reversible site-specific DNA inversion reactions are widely distributed in bacteria and their viruses. They control a range of biological reactions that most often involve alterations of molecules on the surface of cells or phage. These programmed DNA rearrangements usually occur at a low frequency, thereby preadapting a small subset of the population to a change in environmental conditions, or in the case of phages, an expanded host range. A dedicated recombinase, sometimes with the aid of additional regulatory or DNA architectural proteins, catalyzes the inversion of DNA. RecA or other components of the general recombination-repair machinery are not involved. This chapter discusses site-specific DNA inversion reactions mediated by the serine recombinase family of enzymes and focuses on the extensively studied serine DNA invertases that are stringently controlled by the Fis-bound enhancer regulatory system. The first section summarizes biological features and general properties of inversion reactions by the Fis/enhancer-dependent serine invertases and the recently described serine DNA invertases in Bacteroides. Mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by the Hin and Gin invertases are then explored in more depth, particularly with regards to recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Fis/enhancer regulatory system. These include the steps leading to the formation of the active recombination complex (invertasome) containing the recombinase tetramer and Fis/enhancer element and the process of DNA strand exchange by rotation of synapsed subunit pairs within the invertasome. The role of DNA topological forces that function in concert with the Fis/enhancer controlling element in specifying the overwhelming bias for DNA inversion over deletion and intermolecular recombination is also discussed. PMID:26104558

  7. Granules of cytolytic T-lymphocytes contain two serine esterases.

    PubMed Central

    Masson, D; Nabholz, M; Estrade, C; Tschopp, J

    1986-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules from cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL) contain two proteins which react with the serine esterase-specific affinity label diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). One of these is a trypsin-like esterase which consists of two disulfide-linked 35-kd subunits. The other consists of a single 29-kd chain. Both molecules are induced concomitantly with cytolytic activity and perforin activity in a CTL-derived T-cell hybrid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3488903

  8. Site-specific DNA Inversion by Serine Recombinases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reversible site-specific DNA inversion reactions are widely distributed in bacteria and their viruses. They control a range of biological reactions that most often involve alterations of molecules on the surface of cells or phage. These programmed DNA rearrangements usually occur at a low frequency, thereby preadapting a small subset of the population to a change in environmental conditions, or in the case of phages, an expanded host range. A dedicated recombinase, sometimes with the aid of additional regulatory or DNA architectural proteins, catalyzes the inversion of DNA. RecA or other components of the general recombination-repair machinery are not involved. This chapter discusses site-specific DNA inversion reactions mediated by the serine recombinase family of enzymes and focuses on the extensively studied serine DNA invertases that are stringently controlled by the Fis-bound enhancer regulatory system. The first section summarizes biological features and general properties of inversion reactions by the Fis/enhancer-dependent serine invertases and the recently described serine DNA invertases in Bacteroides. Mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by the Hin and Gin invertases are then discussed in more depth, particularly with regards to recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Fis/enhancer regulatory system, the assembly of the active recombination complex (invertasome) containing the Fis/enhancer, and the process of DNA strand exchange by rotation of synapsed subunit pairs within the invertasome. The role of DNA topological forces that function in concert with the Fis/enhancer controlling element in specifying the overwhelming bias for DNA inversion over deletion and intermolecular recombination is emphasized. PMID:25844275

  9. Asymmetric synthesis of the carbapenam core from serine.

    PubMed

    Hart, Barry P; Verma, Sharad K; Rapoport, Henry

    2003-01-10

    The stereospecific synthesis of the functionalized carbapenam core 16 from the serine-derived trisubstituted pyrrolidine 9 is reported. The synthetic strategy relies on synthesizing an appropriately functionalized pyrrolidine, followed by an intramolecular azetidone formation utilizing a modified Mukiyama reagent. The efficient one-pot conversion of the benzenesulfonamide-protected pyrrolidine 9 to the Cbz-protected pyrrolidine 10 is also reported. PMID:12515481

  10. Phospholipid Metabolism in Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Short, Steven A.; White, David C.; Aleem, M. I. H.

    1969-01-01

    The lipid composition of the chemoautotroph Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans has been examined. Fatty acids represent 2% of the dry weight of the cells and 86% of the total are extractable with organic solvents. About 25% of the total fatty acids are associated with diacyl phospholipids. Polar carotenoids, the benzoquinone coenzyme Q-8, and most of the fatty acids are present in the neutral lipids. The phospholipids have been identified as phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine (42%), phosphatidyl glycerol (23%), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (20%), cardiolipin (13%), phosphatidyl choline (1.5%), and phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine (1%) by chromatography of the diacyl lipids, by chromatography in four systems of the glycerol phosphate esters derived from the lipids by mild alkaline methanolysis, and by chromatographic identification of the products of acid hydrolysis of the esters. No trace of phosphatidylserine (PS), glycerolphosphorylserine, or serine could be detected in the lipid extract or in derivatives of that extract. This casts some doubt on the postulated involvement of PS in iron metabolism. After growth in the presence of 14C and 32P, there was essentially no difference in the turnover of either isotope in the glycerolphosphate ester derived from each lipid in cells grown at pH 1.5 or 3.5. Images PMID:5802599

  11. Activation of human neutrophil gelatinase by endogenous serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, M C; Winterbourn, C C

    1988-01-01

    The role of serine proteinases and oxidants in the activation of gelatinase released from human neutrophils was investigated. Gelatinase was measured by its ability to degrade both gelatin and native glomerular basement-membrane type IV collagen. When fMet-Leu-Phe or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was used to stimulate the neutrophils, no gelatinase activity was measured in the absence of a mercurial activator, indicating that the enzyme was released entirely in latent form. However, when fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells were treated with cytochalasin B, 50-70% of the maximal gelatinase activity was released. Activation was blocked by the serine-proteinase inhibitor phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride and a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, but was not affected by an inhibitor of cathepsin G. Addition of catalase or azide to prevent oxidative reactions did not affect activation of gelatinase under any conditions of stimulation, indicating that oxidants were not involved in activation. Our results imply that oxidative activation of gelatinase does not occur readily. However, neutrophil serine proteinases, particularly elastase, provide an alternative and apparently more efficient mechanism of activation. PMID:2829854

  12. Structural Basis for Catalytic Activation of a Serine Recombinase

    SciTech Connect

    Keenholtz, Ross A.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2014-10-02

    Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here, we present a 1.86 {angstrom} crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites.

  13. A new serine protease from the leaves of Thespesia populnea.

    PubMed

    Ishwarya, S; Sangeetha, R

    2013-01-01

    A serine protease was purified 6.9-fold from the leaves of Thespesia populnea using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by CM-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme was named populnein and was characterized. It was made up of a single polypeptide, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that the enzyme had a molecular mass of 14,518 Da. Inhibition of enzyme activity by phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride indicates that populnein belongs to the class of serine proteases. The enzyme had appreciable pH and temperature stability. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 8.0 and temperature 40°C. The enzyme was thermostable and retained 85% of its activity at 70°C after 1 hr. The enzyme was also resistant to autodigestion. The stabilization of the membrane of red blood cells exhibited by the protease populnein was found to be higher than for diclofenac. More studies are necessary to investigate the biological activity and applications of serine protease of T. populnea. PMID:23215657

  14. Structural basis for catalytic activation of a serine recombinase

    PubMed Central

    Keenholtz, Ross A.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2011-01-01

    Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here we present a 1.86Å crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites. PMID:21645851

  15. Preliminary Tuft Testing of Metallic Bristles Versus PS212, PS300, and HVOF300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Turbine engine brush seals are designed with sacrificial brushes and hard shaft coatings to minimize shaft wear and reduce the cost of engine overhauls. Replacing a worm seal is more cost and time effective than refinishing an engine shaft. However, this tribological design causes excessive brush wear and reduces long term seal efficiency. An alternative approach is to coat the shaft with a solid lubricant and allow the bristles to wear into the shaft coating similar to traditional abradable labyrinth seals. This approach can result in reduced seal leakage by forcing the leakage to flow through the seal bristle pack or through a more tortuous shaft wear track. Key to this approach is limiting the shaft wear to an acceptable level were surface refinishing would not be required during every engine overhaul. Included in this paper are brush seal tuft test results for four metallic bristles (nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys) tested against three solid lubricant coatings (NASA's PS212, PS300, and HVOF300). These test results are also compared to previous baseline tests conducted with plasma sprayed chrome carbide. Compared to the baseline results, no tribological benefit was achieved with the metallic bristle/solid lubricant tribopairs tested. To improve the performance of the solid lubricant coatings, issues regarding lubricant phase sizes (homogeneity), and composition need to be addressed.

  16. Serine protease inhibitors: novel therapeutic targets for stroke?

    PubMed

    Vivien, D; Buisson, A

    2000-05-01

    Although the thrombolytic activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) may be beneficial in the acute treatment of stroke, recent studies have suggested that this serine protease could also play a critical role in determining the extent of neuronal death after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). This hypothesis is based on several experimental results: t-PA-deficient mice are resistant to excitotoxic neuronal death induced by the intrahippocampal injection of kainate; the infarct volume induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery is reduced in t-PA knockout mice; and the intravenous injection of t-PA can under certain circumstances potentiate the infarct volume in animals subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. In the CNS, the serine proteases have been identified to occur both in neurons and glial cells. Their enzymatic activity regulates the balance between the accumulation and the degradation of the extracellular matrix. They are involved in many physiologic functions, ranging from synaptic outgrowth during perinatal development to plasticity in adults. For instance, thrombin and t-PA are known to modulate neurite outgrowth and tissue remodeling in the early stages of development. In the adult brain, t-PA may contribute to the late phase of long-term potentiation and to the subsequent synaptic growth in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. This balance between the degradation and accumulation of the extracellular matrix may also be integral to various pathologic processes involved in acute brain injury. For example, compounds that modulate the activity of serine proteases exhibit neuroprotective activity. Based on the above, numerous studies have focused on the production and modulation of the endogenously produced serine protease inhibitors, termed serpins, such as type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor, neuroserpin, and protease nexin-1. In the present review, we will discuss the need to distinguish between the potentially neurotoxic effects of t-PA and its beneficial effect on reperfusion. We will present data supporting the idea that the modulation of serine protease activity may represent a novel and efficient strategy for the treatment of acute cerebral injury in humans. PMID:10826525

  17. Synthesis and Structures of New One-Dimensional KTiPS 5and RbTiPS 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Junghwan; Lee, Kunsoo; Yun, Hoseop

    1996-08-01

    Two new compounds KTiPS5and RbTIPS5have been synthesized through reactions of the elements with alkali metal halide fluxes. KTiPS5crystallizes in the space groupC32h-C2/mof the monoclinic system with four formula units in a cell of dimensionsa= 17.678(8),b= 7.080(4),c= 6.325(3) , ? = 97.99(4). RbTiPS5crystallizes in the space groupC32h-C2/mof the monoclinic system with eight formula units in a cell of dimensionsa= 18.159(7),b= 7.081(3),c= 15.352(6) , ? = 124.07(2). The structures of both compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray techniques. Both structures consist of one-dimensional1?[TiPS-5] chains separated from one another by K+or Rb+cations. The linear chains are built up from the basic repeating unit, [Ti2(PS4)2S2-2], which is composed of two edge-shared TiS6octahedra and two PS4tetrahedra. There is no interchain bonding except the van der Waals interactions. The classical charge of the two compounds can be represented by [A+][Ti4+][PS3-4][S2-] (A= K or Rb).

  18. 13C MRS Detection of Changes in Serine Isotopomers Reflects Changes in Mitochondrial Redox Status

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. Bryce; Tikunov, Andrey P.; Lee, Haakil; Wolak, Justyna E.; Pediaditakis, Peter; Romney, Doug A.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Gamcsik, Michael P.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    The glycine cleavage system (GCS), the major pathway of glycine catabolism in liver, is found only in the mitochondria matrix and is regulated by the NAD+/NADH ratio. In conjunction with serine hydroxymethyltransferase, glycine forms the 1 and 2 positions of serine, while the 3 position is formed exclusively by GCS. Therefore, we sought to exploit this pathway to show that quantitative measurements of serine isotopomers in liver can be used to monitor the NAD+/NADH ratio using 13C NMR spectroscopy. Rat hepatocytes were treated with modulators of GCS activity followed by addition of 2-13C-glycine, and the changes in the proportions of newly synthesized serine isotopomers were compared to controls. Cysteamine, a competitive inhibitor of GCS, prevented formation of mitochondrial 3-13C-serine and 2,3-13C-serine isotopomers while reducing 2-13C-serine by 55%, demonstrating that ca 20% of glycine-derived serine is produced in the cytosol. Glucagon, which activates GCS activity, and the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) both increased serine isotopomers, while rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I, had the opposite effect. These results demonstrate that 13C MRS monitoring of the formation of serine isotopomers in isolated rat hepatocytes given 2-13C-glycine reflects the changes of mitochondrial redox status. PMID:22190282

  19. Hierarchy of scales in B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-08-31

    We show that the naive factorization approach can accommodate the existence of the observed hierarchy of branching ratios for the B{yields}PS decays (P stands for pseudoscalar and S for scalar mesons respectively.

  20. The PS1 Science Mission - Status and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2013-06-01

    PS1, the Pan-STARRS1 Telescope is in its last year of the PS1 Science Mission. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The PS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. The PS1 3pi Survey has now covered the sky north of dec=-30 with 8 to 12 visits in five bands: g,r,i,z and y or over ~45 epochs per point on sky. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and plans for serving the data to the public. A summary of science highlights will be included. The PS1 Science Consortium consists of The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawai'i in Manoa, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Durham, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Los Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, and the National Central University of Taiwan, NASA, and NSF.

  1. Detecting surface deformation by phase stacking based on the PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming; Deng, Kazhong; Fan, Hongdong

    2011-10-01

    In the surface deformation monitoring, synthetic aperture radar differential interferometry (D-InSAR) has the advantages of all-weather, large-scale and high accuracy, it is hard to form interferogram for limited factors such as spatial decorrelation, temporal decorrelation and atmospheric effect. For the reason, the method of PS-DInSAR was proposed. However, the method needs so many SAR images, more than twenty scenes. Therefore, the method based on the phase stacking of PS for surface deformation monitoring was proposed and verified. The PS-DInSAR model and D-InSAR model are combined and simplified under certain conditions that assume the phase error of atmospheric disturbances are random and equal in an interferogram and the deformation is linear. The optimal master image for interferometric combinations is selected by comprehensive correlation function model. Then the PS points are detected and the Delaunay triangle is established according to the PS. The Minimum Cost Flow is used based on the Delaunay triangle of PS to unwrap the phase. Then the deformation and deformation rate are obtained by the linear analysis for temporal series of interferograms. At last, nine ENVISAT images captured during 2003.6-2006.3 in Tianjin area were processed, and the mean subsidence rate of this area was obtained.

  2. Gene-delivery systems for iPS cell generation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lijian; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2009-01-01

    Importance of the field Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer extraordinary promise for regenerative medicine applications, and provide new opportunities for use in disease modeling, drug screening and drug toxicology. Areas coved in this review iPS cell technology is still in its infancy. In this review article, we present a comprehensive survey of reprogramming approaches focusing on gene-delivery systems used for generation of iPS cells from somatic cells, categorize gene-delivery vectors, and discuss their advantages and limitations for somatic cell reprogramming. We include pertinent literature published between 2006 and the present. What the reader will gain Although iPS cell technology has been improved via the use of various gene-delivery vectors, it still suffers from either low reprogramming efficiency or too many genomic modification steps. Extensive work is still required to improve current vectors or explore new vectors for effectively reprogramming human somatic cells into iPS cells, with or without minimal genomic modification steps. Take home message A single non-integrating reprogramming vector system with high reprogramming efficiency is probably essential for generation of clinically translatable human iPS cells. PMID:20088717

  3. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells(PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development. PMID:26923982

  4. Electrical and thermal behavior of PS/ferrite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, A. H.; Hemeda, O. M.; Heiba, Z. K.; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the effect of gamma radiation on the structure, thermal and electrical properties of PS/ferrite composite. The Ni0.6Cd0.4Fe2-xSmxO4 was prepared using a conventional sintering ceramic process. Ferrite powder and Styrene was mixed and achieve polymerization process by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. The composite samples have single spinel phase structure. Stability of the crystalline structure and no phase transition due to irradiation are found. The bulk density decreases whereas X-ray density increases with increasing Sm contents for both ferrite and PS/ferrite. The tetrahedral radii rA remains constant with Sm content but octahedral radii rB increases for both ferrite and PS/ferrite composite. The grain size shows increasing trend for PS/ferrite composite. The PS nearly coat the grains and so their boundaries become faint and not sharp. The gamma radiation transfer Fe3+ to Fe2+ due to its ionizing effect.The Fe2+ occupy octahedral site and the stretching vibration of its bond with oxygen (Fe2+-O2-) gives absorption at about 392 cm-1, near octahedral absorption at 462 cm-1.The PS/Ni0.6Cd0.4SmxFe2-xO4 composite becomes thermally more stable than pure polystyrene. The activation energy of conduction E? has a small values and in the range of hopping conduction mechanism.

  5. Characterization of a chemostable serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteases are important enzymes involved in numerous essential physiological processes and hold a strong potential for industrial applications. The proteolytic activity of insects gut is endowed by many isoforms with diverse properties and specificities. Thus, insect proteases can act as a tool in industrial processes. Results In the present study, purification and properties of a serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana and its potential application as an additive in various bio-formulations are reported. The enzyme was purified near to homogeneity by using acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Enzyme activity was increased up to 4.2 fold after gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as single protein-band with a molecular mass of?~?27.8kDa in SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for the proteolytic activity for purified protein were found around pH8.0 and 60C respectively. Complete inhibition of the purified enzyme by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride confirmed that the protease was of serine-type. The purified enzyme revealed high stability and compatibility towards detergents, oxidizing, reducing, and bleaching agents. In addition, enzyme also showed stability towards organic solvents and commercial detergents. Conclusion Several important properties of a serine protease from P. Americana were revealed. Moreover, insects can serve as excellent and alternative source of industrially important proteases with unique properties, which can be utilized as additives in detergents, stain removers and other bio-formulations. Properties of the P. americana protease accounted in the present investigation can be exploited further in various industrial processes. As an industrial prospective, identification of enzymes with varying essential properties from different insect species might be good approach and bioresource. PMID:24229392

  6. Insulin resistance and muscle insulin receptor substrate?1 serine hyperphosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E. A.; Cartwright, Brian M.; McCurry, Melanie P.; Lee, Michelle L.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects is profound in spite of muscle insulin receptor and insulin?responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression being nearly normal. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate?1 (IRS?1) at Tyr896 is a necessary step in insulin stimulation of translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Serine phosphorylation of IRS?1 by some kinases diminishes insulin action in mice. We evaluated the phosphorylation status of muscle IRS?1 in 33 subjects with the metabolic syndrome and seventeen lean controls. Each underwent euglycemic insulin clamps and a thigh muscle biopsy before and after 8 weeks of either strength or endurance training. Muscle IRS?1 phosphorylation at six sites was quantified by immunoblots. Metabolic syndrome muscle IRS?1 had excess phosphorylation at Ser337 and Ser636 but not at Ser307, Ser789, or Ser1101. Ser337 is a target for phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and Ser636 is phosphorylated by c?Jun N?terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Exercise training without weight loss did not change the IRS?1 serine phosphorylation. These data suggest that baseline hyperphosphorylation of at least two key serines within muscle IRS?1 diminishes the transmission of the insulin signal and thereby decreases the insulin?stimulated translocation of GLUT4. Excess fasting phosphorylation of muscle IRS?1 at Ser636 may be a major cause of the insulin resistance seen in obesity and might prevent improvement in insulin responsiveness when exercise training is not accompanied by weight loss. PMID:25472611

  7. Expression and Characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus Alkaline Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tanveer; Tabassum, Romana; Orts, William J.; Lee, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the enzyme had optimal activity under alkaline conditions (pH 810). In addition, the enzyme had an elevated optimum temperature (60C). The protease was also stable in the presence of many surfactants and oxidant. Thus, the C. proteolyticus protease has potential applications in industries such as the detergent market. PMID:24453843

  8. Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Greene, Whitney A; Kaini, Ramesh R; Shen-Gunther, Jane; Chen, Hung-I H; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development. PMID:25392691

  9. Association between intrinsic disorder and serine/threonine phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serine/threonine phosphorylation is an important mechanism that is involved in the regulation of protein function. In eukaryotes, phosphorylation occurs predominantly in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins. Though serine/threonine phosphorylation and protein disorder are much less prevalent in prokaryotes, some bacteria have high levels of serine/threonine phosphorylation and disorder, including the medically important M. tuberculosis. Here I show that serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in M. tuberculosis are highly enriched in intrinsically disordered regions, indicating similarity in the substrate recognition mechanisms of eukaryotic and M. tuberculosis kinases. Serine/threonine phosphorylation has been linked to the pathogenicity and survival of M. tuberculosis. Thus, a better understanding of how its kinases recognize their substrates could have important implications in understanding and controlling the biology of this deadly pathogen. These results also indicate that the association between serine/threonine phosphorylation and disorder is not a feature restricted to eukaryotes. PMID:25648268

  10. Inhibition of Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP) by ?2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoji; Wada, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Irie, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Eto, Masatoshi; Imamura, Takahisa

    2012-10-01

    ASP is a serine protease secreted by Aeromonas sobria. ASP cleaves various plasma proteins, which is associated with onset of sepsis complications, such as shock and blood coagulation disorder. To investigate a host defense mechanism against this virulence factor, we examined the plasma for ASP inhibitor(s). Human plasma inhibited ASP activity for azocasein, which was almost completely abolished by treating plasma with methylamine, which inactivates ?2-macroglobulin (?2-MG). The ASP-inhibitor complex in ASP-added plasma was not detected by immunoblotting using anti-ASP antibody; however, using gel filtration of the plasma ASP activity for an oligopeptide, the ASP substrate was eluted in the void fraction (Mw>200 000), suggesting ASP trapping by ?2-MG. Indeed, human ?2-MG inhibited ASP azocaseinolytic activity in a dose-dependent manner, rapidly forming a complex with the ASP. Fibrinogen degradation by ASP was completely inhibited in the presence of ?2-MG. ?1-Protease inhibitor, antithrombin, and ?2-plasmin inhibitor neither inhibited ASP activity nor formed a complex with ASP. Surprisingly, ASP degraded these plasma serine protease inhibitors. Thus, ?2-MG is the major ASP inhibitor in the human plasma and can limit ASP virulence activities in A. sobria infection sites. However, as shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, slow ASP inhibition by ?2-MG in plasma may indicate insufficient ASP control in vivo. PMID:23089609

  11. Dynamic properties of extremophilic subtilisin-like serine-proteases.

    PubMed

    Tiberti, Matteo; Papaleo, Elena

    2011-04-01

    The investigation of the structural determinants of enzymatic temperature adaptation is a crucial pre-requisite both in terms of fundamental research and industrial applications to develop new biocatalysts active at different temperature ranges. In several cases, the differences related to cold- or warm-adaptation are related to subtle structural and aminoacidic differences at the molecular level, often hard to detect. In this context, we present a comparative study of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic subtilisin-like serine proteases by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent using a multiple-replica approach. Our results strongly enforce the current view on localized flexibility in crucial functional regions for cold-adapted serine proteases and point out a different optimization and usage of salt-bridge interactions and networks in cold- and warm-adapted enzymes. The analyses allow to identify a subset of structural and dynamic features strictly associated to cold adaptation and which change from cold- to heat-active subtilisins. In particular, the thermophilic subtilisin presents a high affinity calcium binding site which is not structurally conserved in the mesophilic and psychrophilic counterparts, which, as it turns out from the MD analyses, at the same position show a stable salt bridge network and no stabilizing intra-molecular interactions, respectively. These aspects, along with differential flexibility in regions close to the active site or substrate binding pocket, can be an indication of evolution at this protein site toward a lower stability moving from high to low temperature conditions. PMID:21276854

  12. Regulation of scleraxis transcriptional activity by serine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Rushita A; Wang, Ryan; Jahan, Fahmida; Wigle, Jeffrey T; Czubryt, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are the major extracellular matrix producing cells in the heart. Our laboratory was the first to demonstrate that the transcription factor scleraxis induces collagen 1?2 expression in both cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Here we identify a novel post-translational mechanism by which scleraxis activity is regulated and determine its effect on transcription of genes targeted by scleraxis. Putative serine phosphorylation sites on scleraxis were revealed by in silico analysis using motif prediction software. Mutation of key serine residues to alanine, which cannot be phosphorylated, significantly attenuated the expression of fibrillar type I collagen and myofibroblast marker genes that are normally induced by scleraxis. Down-regulation of collagen 1?2 expression was due to reduced binding of the non-phosphorylated scleraxis mutant to specific E-box DNA-binding sites within the promoter as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation in human cardiac myofibroblast cells and by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. This is the first evidence suggesting that scleraxis is phosphorylated under basal conditions. The phosphorylation sequence matched that targeted by Casein Kinase 2, and inhibition of this kinase activity disrupted the ability of scleraxis to modulate the expression of its target genes while also attenuating TGF?-induced expression of type I collagen and myofibroblast phenotype conversion marker genes. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for regulation of scleraxis activity, which may prove to be tractable for pharmacologic manipulation. PMID:26883788

  13. Neutrophil serine proteases exert proteolytic activity on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jerke, Uwe; Hernandez, Daniel Perez; Beaudette, Patrick; Korkmaz, Brice; Dittmar, Gunnar; Kettritz, Ralph

    2015-10-01

    Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) are released from activated neutrophils during inflammation. Here we studied the transfer of the three major NSPs, namely proteinase 3, human neutrophil elastase, and cathepsin G, from neutrophils to endothelial cells and used an unbiased approach to identify novel endothelial NSP substrates. Enzymatically active NSPs were released from stimulated neutrophils and internalized by endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and the Boc-Ala substrate assay. Using terminal-amine isotopic labeling of substrates in endothelial cells, we identified 121 peptides from 82 different proteins consisting of 36 substrates for proteinase 3, 30 for neutrophil elastase, and 28 for cathepsin G, respectively. We characterized the extended cleavage pattern and provide corresponding IceLogos. Gene ontology analysis showed significant cytoskeletal substrate enrichment and confirmed several cytoskeletal protein substrates by immunoblotting. Finally, ANCA-stimulated neutrophils released all three active NSPs into the supernatant. Supernatants increased endothelial albumin flux and disturbed the endothelial cell cytoskeletal architecture. Serine protease inhibition abrogated this effect. Longer exposure to NSPs reduced endothelial cell viability and increased apoptosis. Thus, we identified novel NSP substrates and suggest NSP inhibition as a therapeutic measure to inhibit neutrophil-mediated inflammatory vascular diseases. PMID:26061547

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of serine proteases from Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) and Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma venom

    PubMed Central

    Sukkapan, Pattadon; Jia, Ying; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Prez, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Serine proteases are widely found in snake venoms. They have variety of functions including contributions to hemostasis. In this study, five serine proteases were cloned and characterized from two different cDNA libraries: factor V activator (RVV-V), alpha fibrinogenase (RVAF) and beta fibrinogenase (RVBF) from Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis), and plasminogen activator (APL-PA) and protein C activator (APL-C) from Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma. The snake venom serine proteases were clustered in phylogenetic tree according to their functions. KA/KS values suggested that accelerated evolution has occurred in the mature protein coding regions in cDNAs of snake venom serine proteases. PMID:21640745

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of serine proteases from Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) and Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma venom.

    PubMed

    Sukkapan, Pattadon; Jia, Ying; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Prez, John C

    2011-08-01

    Serine proteases are widely found in snake venoms. They have variety of functions including contributions to hemostasis. In this study, five serine proteases were cloned and characterized from two different cDNA libraries: factor V activator (RVV-V), alpha fibrinogenase (RVAF) and beta fibrinogenase (RVBF) from Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis), and plasminogen activator (APL-PA) and protein C activator (APL-C) from Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma. The snake venom serine proteases were clustered in phylogenetic tree according to their functions. K(A)/K(S) values suggested that accelerated evolution has occurred in the mature protein coding regions in cDNAs of snake venom serine proteases. PMID:21640745

  16. Vibrational analysis of L-serine using the density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Wen; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Chang-Ye; Han, Sheng-Hao; Li, Ji-Chen

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we present a computational study of L-serine using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation based on density functional theory (DFT) within the ultrasoft pseudopotentials and generalized-gradient approximation. Taking into account the intermolecular interactions, we can indeed simulate the features of the experimental results very well for L-serine zwitterions in its solid state. The vibrational spectrum of L-serine performed by DFT was in excellent agreement with our previous inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra measured at 20K for L-serine in the 10-200meV region on HET spectrometers at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

  17. SEA and strategy formation theories: From three Ps to five Ps

    SciTech Connect

    Cherp, Aleh Watt, Alan Vinichenko, Vadim

    2007-10-15

    A transition to environmentally sustainable societies should involve a significant and comprehensive - strategic - change. Much of the promise of SEA is associated precisely with its perceived capacity to facilitate such a strategic transformation by influencing selected 'strategic decisions'. This paper examines the potential effectiveness and limitations of such an approach in light of contemporary organizational strategy theories. Most of these theories separate 'strategies' from 'decisions' and also transcend the notion of strategies as formal plans, policies and programs (PPPs). Instead, they consider strategies as 'five Ps', adding 'Position', 'Perspective', 'Pattern' and 'Ploy' to the 'Plan'. Lessons from organizational strategy formation give rise to the following challenges for SEA theory and practice: 1.How to assess and influence informal as well as formal aspects of strategic initiatives? 2.How to extend SEA 'beyond decisions' to address 'emergent strategies' where strategic action is not necessarily preceded by a decision? 3.How to ensure that knowledge provided as a result of SEA is strategically relevant and communicated to key players in strategy formation? 4.How to deal with an uncontrollable and unpredictable environment in which strategic initiatives unfold? 5.How to recognize those situations when SEA can have most strategic influence? This paper takes a step towards examining these challenges by exploring the intellectual history of SEA in light of the main strategy formation theories and by identifying directions in which the SEA discourse may be further enhanced to meet these five challenges.

  18. Characterization of crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads in SBR matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Yoon-Jong; Choe, Soonja

    1995-12-01

    Monodisperse sized crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads were prepared by a reaction of semibatch emulsion polymerization with styrene monomer, divinylbenzene(DVB) crosslinking agent and potassium persulfate(K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}) initiator in the absence of emulsifier. The glass transition temperature(T{sub g}) and the mean diameter of the beads were increased from 100{degrees}C to 135{degrees}C and from 402 nm to 532 nm, respectively, for an incorporation of 2 to 10 mol% DVB. Crosslinking density was also linearly increased with DVB content. SEM microphotographs of SBR composite filled with various contents of PS beads revealed that PS beads are relatively well dispersed without changing the spherical shape of the beads in all range of compositions. In stress-strain analysis, elongation at break and tensile strength of SBR composite were increased with the bead content. Applicability of the PS beads as a filler in SBR matrix is tested by plotting Mooney-Rivlin or Guth-Smallwood equations. However, mechanical properties of the composite with the beads were not so excellent as those of the composite with carbon black. Crosslinked PS beads are still tentative as a white color reinforcing filler on SBR matrix.

  19. High-resolution PS-OCT of Enamel Remineralization.

    PubMed

    Can, Anna M; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesions. However, the depth resolution of the imaging system employed in those previous studies was limited and the outer surface structure of the lesions were not resolved as clearly as desired. The purpose of this study was to repeat the earlier remineralization study using a broadband light-source of higher resolution to determine if there can be improved resolution of the remineralized surface zones of the lesions. An all polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of bovine enamel surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.9 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The structure of the surface zones could be clearly resolved using PS-OCT in the samples that underwent remineralization. The PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the enamel blocks. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents. PMID:21909226

  20. Assessment of dentin remineralization with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manesh, Saman K.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image natural root caries lesions, measure non-destructively the severity of dentin demineralization and determine the efficacy of intervention with anti-caries agents including fluoride and lasers. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT could be used to nondestructively measure the formation of a layer of remineralized dentin on the surface of dentin lesions after exposure to a remineralization solution. In this study images of artificial dentin lesions on extracted human teeth were acquired using PS-OCT after exposure to an artificial demineralizing solution at pH 4.9 for six days and after subsequent exposure to a remineralizing solution at pH 7.0 for 20 days. Polarized light microscopy and microradiography were used to examine histological thin sections from the samples for comparison. PS-OCT successfully measured the formation of a layer of increased mineral content near the lesion surface. PLM and TMR corroborated those results. This study demonstrates the potential use of PS-OCT for the nondestructive measurement of the remineralization of dentin surfaces.

  1. Engineering of high yield production of L-serine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-04-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevented by deletion of three L-serine deaminases sdaA, sdaB, and tdcG, as well as serine hydroxyl methyl transferase (SHMT) encoded by glyA. Upon overexpression of the serine production pathway, consisting of a feedback resistant version of serA along with serB and serC, this quadruple deletion strain showed a very high serine production yield (0.45 g/g glucose) during small-scale batch fermentation in minimal medium. Serine, however, was found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations to this strain, which lead to slow growth and production during fed batch fermentation, resulting in a serine production of 8.3 g/L. The production strain was therefore evolved by random mutagenesis to achieve increased tolerance towards serine. Additionally, overexpression of eamA, a cysteine/homoserine transporter was demonstrated to increase serine tolerance from 1.6 g/L to 25 g/L. During fed batch fermentation, the resulting strain lead to the serine production titer of 11.7 g/L with yield of 0.43 g/g glucose, which is the highest yield reported so far for any organism. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 807-816. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416585

  2. Serine uptake by luminal and basolateral membrane vesicles from rabbit kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U; Sheikh, M I

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of renal transport of L- and D-serine by membrane vesicles prepared from either whole cortex, pars convoluta or pars recta of rabbit proximal tubule was studied by a rapid filtration technique and by a spectrophotometric method using a potential-sensitive carbocyanine dye. Transport studies carried out with different salt gradients and by employing various ionophores showed that uptake of both L- and D-serine by luminal membrane vesicles from whole cortex was mediated by an Na+-dependent and electrogenic transport process. Eadie-Hofstee analysis of experimental data, obtained under extravesicular greater than intravesicular NaCl gradients, revealed the existence of multiple transport systems for L-serine but only one system for the D-isomer. The value of KA (the concentration producing a half-maximal optical response) for the D-serine transport system was calculated to be approximately 30 mM. Luminal membrane vesicles from pars convoluta take up both L- and D-serine by a single and common transport system. KA values for L- and D-serine transport were calculated to be 3.7 and 30 mM, respectively. Luminal membrane vesicles from pars recta take up L-serine by means of two transport systems, one of high affinity (KA = 0.37 mM) and the other of low affinity (KA = 10 mM). By contrast, no D-serine transport by these membrane vesicles could be detected. Uptake of L-serine by basolateral membrane vesicles is Na+ independent and electroneutral. Filtration studies showed that the transport is saturable (Km = 25-30 mM) and is inhibited by the presence of L-phenylalanine (but not by D-serine), indicating carrier-mediated uptake of L-serine. PMID:6434730

  3. The collision between positronium (Ps) and muonium (Mu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Hasi; De, Rina

    2015-06-01

    The collision between a positronium(Ps) and a muonium(Mu) is studied for the first time using the static-exchange model and considering the system as a four-centerCoulomb problem in the centerof mass frame. An exact analysis is made to find the s-wave elastic phase-shifts, the scattering-lengths for both singlet and triplet channels, the integrated/total elastic cross section and the quenching cross section due to orthoto para conversion of Ps and the conversion ratio.

  4. Glycolytic flux controls D-serine synthesis through glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masataka; Sasabe, Jumpei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Kuwasako, Kanako; Muto, Yutaka; Hamase, Kenji; Matsuoka, Masaaki; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2015-04-28

    D-Serine is an essential coagonist with glutamate for stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. Although astrocytic metabolic processes are known to regulate synaptic glutamate levels, mechanisms that control D-serine levels are not well defined. Here we show that d-serine production in astrocytes is modulated by the interaction between the D-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase (SRR) and a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In primary cultured astrocytes, glycolysis activity was negatively correlated with D-serine level. We show that SRR interacts directly with GAPDH, and that activation of glycolysis augments this interaction. Biochemical assays using mutant forms of GAPDH with either reduced activity or reduced affinity to SRR revealed that GAPDH suppresses SRR activity by direct binding to GAPDH and through NADH, a product of GAPDH. NADH allosterically inhibits the activity of SRR by promoting the disassociation of ATP from SRR. Thus, astrocytic production of D-serine is modulated by glycolytic activity via interactions between GAPDH and SRR. We found that SRR is expressed in astrocytes in the subiculum of the human hippocampus, where neurons are known to be particularly vulnerable to loss of energy. Collectively, our findings suggest that astrocytic energy metabolism controls D-serine production, thereby influencing glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus. PMID:25870284

  5. Cloning of a D-serine-regulated transcript dsr-2 from rat cerebral neocortex.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Go; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Umino, Asami; Shimazu, Dai; Sakurai, Shin-ichiro; Takebayashi, Hironao; Nishikawa, Toru

    2005-12-01

    D-serine is now considered to be an endogenous co-agonist of the NMDA receptor in mammalian brain. To obtain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying D-serine metabolism and function, we explored transcripts that are responsive to D-serine in the neocortex of the 8-day-old infant rat by a differential cloning technique, RNA arbitrarily primed PCR. We isolated a novel D-serine inducible transcript, D-serine-responsive transcript-2 (dsr-2), that was exclusively expressed in the brain. Sequence analysis of the corresponding cDNAs to the transcript revealed that the dsr-2 mRNA consists of 7199 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 111 amino acids. The dsr-2 gene was located on the reverse strand within an intron of the neurexin-3alpha gene, mapped to rat chromosome 6q24-31. The regional distribution of the basal expression of dsr-2 and its ontogenic changes in the brain closely correlated with those of free D-serine and of NMDA receptor R2B subunit mRNA, but were somewhat different from those of the neurexin-3alpha transcript. These findings suggest that dsr-2 may be involved in D-serine metabolism and/or function, and in the interactions between D-serine, NMDA receptor and neurexin-3alpha, in mammalian brain. PMID:16277602

  6. Glycolytic flux controls d-serine synthesis through glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Sasabe, Jumpei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Kuwasako, Kanako; Muto, Yutaka; Hamase, Kenji; Matsuoka, Masaaki; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2015-01-01

    d-Serine is an essential coagonist with glutamate for stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. Although astrocytic metabolic processes are known to regulate synaptic glutamate levels, mechanisms that control d-serine levels are not well defined. Here we show that d-serine production in astrocytes is modulated by the interaction between the d-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase (SRR) and a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In primary cultured astrocytes, glycolysis activity was negatively correlated with d-serine level. We show that SRR interacts directly with GAPDH, and that activation of glycolysis augments this interaction. Biochemical assays using mutant forms of GAPDH with either reduced activity or reduced affinity to SRR revealed that GAPDH suppresses SRR activity by direct binding to GAPDH and through NADH, a product of GAPDH. NADH allosterically inhibits the activity of SRR by promoting the disassociation of ATP from SRR. Thus, astrocytic production of d-serine is modulated by glycolytic activity via interactions between GAPDH and SRR. We found that SRR is expressed in astrocytes in the subiculum of the human hippocampus, where neurons are known to be particularly vulnerable to loss of energy. Collectively, our findings suggest that astrocytic energy metabolism controls d-serine production, thereby influencing glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus. PMID:25870284

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SERINE PROTEASE-RELATED GENES IN THE HONEY BEE GENOME.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified 44 serine protease (SP) and 13 serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in the genome of Apis mellifera. Most of these genes encode putative secreted proteins, but 4 SPs and 3 SPHs may associate with the plasma membrane via a transmembrane region. Clip domains represent the most abunda...

  8. Gene characterization of two digestive serine proteases in orange blossom wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two full length cDNA sequences, encoding digestive serine proteases (designated as SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2), were recovered from the midgut of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana in an ongoing EST project. The deduced amino acid sequences shared homology with digestive serine proteases from insect...

  9. Deamidation of asparagine residues in a recombinant serine hydroxymethyltransferase.

    PubMed

    di Salvo, M L; Delle Fratte, S; Maras, B; Bossa, F; Wright, H T; Schirch, V

    1999-12-15

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase purified from rabbit liver cytosol has at least two Asn residues (Asn(5) and Asn(220)) that are 67 and 30% deamidated, respectively. Asn(5) is deamidated equally to Asp and isoAsp, while Asn(220) is deamidated only to isoAsp. To determine the effect of these Asn deamidations on enzyme activity and stability a recombinant rabbit liver cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli over a 5-h period. About 90% of the recombinant enzyme could be isolated with the two Asn residues in a nondeamidated form. Compared with the enzyme isolated from liver the recombinant enzyme had a 35% increase in catalytic activity but exhibited no significant changes in either affinity for substrates or stability. Introduction of Asp residues for either Asn(5) or Asn(220) did not significantly alter activity or stability of the mutant forms. In vitro incubation of the recombinant enzyme at 37 degrees C and pH 7.3 resulted in the rapid deamidation of Asn(5) to both Asp and isoAsp with a t(1/2) of 50-70 h, which is comparable to the rate found with small flexible peptides containing the same sequence. The t(1/2) for deamidation of Asn(220) was at least 200 h. This residue may become deamidated only after some unfolding of the enzyme. The rates for deamidation of Asn(5) and Asn(220) are consistent with the structural environment of the two Asn residues in the native enzyme. There are also at least two additional deamidation events that occur during prolonged incubation of the recombinant enzyme. PMID:10600164

  10. Serine O-sulfation probed by IRMPD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paciotti, Roberto; Coletti, Cecilia; Re, Nazzareno; Scuderi, Debora; Chiavarino, Barbara; Fornarini, Simonetta; Crestoni, Maria Elisa

    2015-10-21

    The sulfation of amino acids is a frequent post-translational modification. It is highly labile, though, and characterizing it by mass spectrometry, an otherwise powerful and widely exploited tool in analytical proteomics, is a challenge. The presently reported study is aimed at revealing the O-sulfation of l-serine and elucidating the effects of protonation and deprotonation on the structure and stability of the ensuing ionic species, [sSer + H](+) and [sSer - H](-). These ions are obtained as gaseous, isolated species by electrospray ionization, trapped in a Paul ion-trap, and sampled by IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in either the 750-1900 cm(-1) fingerprint range, or the 2900 and 3700 cm(-1) range encompassing the N-H and O-H stretching modes. The recorded IRMPD spectra present diagnostic signatures of the sulfate modification which are missing in the spectra of the native serine ions, [Ser + H](+) and [Ser - H](-). The experimental IRMPD features have been interpreted by comparison with the linear IR spectra of the lowest energy structures that are likely candidates for the sampled ions, calculated at the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Evidence is gathered that the most stable conformations of [sSer + H](+) are stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions between the protonated amino group and both the carbonyl and sulfate oxygens. [sSer - H](-) ions possess a negatively charged sulfate group involved in either a S=OHN or a S=OHO hydrogen bond. The experimental IRMPD spectra are consistent with the presence of multiple low-lying structures in a thermally equilibrated population of several species particularly in the case of [sSer - H](-) ions, where the high structural flexibility combined with the presence of a negative charge favors the co-existence of several different H-bonding motifs. PMID:26027702

  11. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  12. Large serine recombinase domain structure and attachment site binding.

    PubMed

    Van Duyne, Gregory D; Rutherford, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Large serine recombinases (LSRs) catalyze the movement of DNA elements into and out of bacterial chromosomes using site-specific recombination between short DNA "attachment sites". The LSRs that function as bacteriophage integrases carry out integration between attachment sites in the phage (attP) and in the host (attB). This process is highly directional; the reverse excision reaction between the product attL and attR sites does not occur in the absence of a phage-encoded recombination directionality factor, nor does recombination typically occur between other pairings of attachment sites. Although the mechanics of strand exchange are reasonably well understood through studies of the closely related resolvase and invertase serine recombinases, many of the fundamental aspects of the LSR reactions have until recently remained poorly understood on a structural level. In this review, we discuss the results of several years worth of biochemical and molecular genetic studies of LSRs in light of recently described structural models of LSR-DNA complexes. The focus is understanding LSR domain structure, how LSRs bind to the attP and attB attachment sites, and the differences between attP-binding and attB-binding modes. The simplicity, site-selectivity and strong directionality of the LSRs has led to their use as important tools in a number of genetic engineering applications in a wide variety of organisms. Given the important potential role of LSR enzymes in genetic engineering and gene therapy, understanding the structure and DNA-binding properties of LSRs is of fundamental importance for those seeking to enhance or alter specificity and functionality in these systems. PMID:23980849

  13. Physiologically generated presenilin 1 lacking exon 8 fails to rescue brain PS1-/- phenotype and forms complexes with wildtype PS1 and nicastrin.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, Hannah; Moreno, Cesar L; Steele, John W; Bogush, Alexey; Dickstein, Dara L; Kwok, John B J; Schofield, Peter R; Thinakaran, Gopal; Mathews, Paul M; Hof, Patrick R; Gandy, Sam; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2015-01-01

    The presenilin 1 (PSEN1) L271V mutation causes early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease by disrupting the alternative splicing of the PSEN1 gene, producing some transcripts harboring the L271V point mutation and other transcripts lacking exon 8 (PS1(?exon8)). We previously reported that PS1 L271V increased amyloid beta (A?) 42/40 ratios, while PS1(?exon8) reduced A?42/40 ratios, indicating that the former and not the exon 8 deletion transcript is amyloidogenic. Also, PS1(?exon8) did not rescue A? generation in PS1/2 double knockout cells indicating its identity as a severe loss-of-function splice form. PS1(?exon8) is generated physiologically raising the possibility that we had identified the first physiological inactive PS1 isoform. We studied PS1(?exon8) in vivo by crossing PS1(?exon8) transgenics with either PS1-null or Dutch APP(E693Q) mice. As a control, we crossed APP(E693Q) with mice expressing a deletion in an adjacent exon (PS1(?exon9)). PS1(?exon8) did not rescue embryonic lethality or Notch-deficient phenotypes of PS1-null mice displaying severe loss of function in vivo. We also demonstrate that this splice form can interact with wildtype PS1 using cultured cells and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP)/bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Further co-IP demonstrates that PS1(?exon8) interacts with nicastrin, participating in the ?-secretase complex formation. These data support that catalytically inactive PS1(?exon8) is generated physiologically and participates in protein-protein interactions. PMID:26608390

  14. Physiologically generated presenilin 1 lacking exon 8 fails to rescue brain PS1−/− phenotype and forms complexes with wildtype PS1 and nicastrin

    PubMed Central

    Brautigam, Hannah; Moreno, Cesar L.; Steele, John W.; Bogush, Alexey; Dickstein, Dara L.; Kwok, John B.J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Thinakaran, Gopal; Mathews, Paul M.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gandy, Sam; Ehrlich, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    The presenilin 1 (PSEN1) L271V mutation causes early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease by disrupting the alternative splicing of the PSEN1 gene, producing some transcripts harboring the L271V point mutation and other transcripts lacking exon 8 (PS1∆exon8). We previously reported that PS1 L271V increased amyloid beta (Aβ) 42/40 ratios, while PS1∆exon8 reduced Aβ42/40 ratios, indicating that the former and not the exon 8 deletion transcript is amyloidogenic. Also, PS1∆exon8 did not rescue Aβ generation in PS1/2 double knockout cells indicating its identity as a severe loss-of-function splice form. PS1∆exon8 is generated physiologically raising the possibility that we had identified the first physiological inactive PS1 isoform. We studied PS1∆exon8 in vivo by crossing PS1∆exon8 transgenics with either PS1-null or Dutch APPE693Q mice. As a control, we crossed APPE693Q with mice expressing a deletion in an adjacent exon (PS1∆exon9). PS1∆exon8 did not rescue embryonic lethality or Notch-deficient phenotypes of PS1-null mice displaying severe loss of function in vivo. We also demonstrate that this splice form can interact with wildtype PS1 using cultured cells and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP)/bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Further co-IP demonstrates that PS1∆exon8 interacts with nicastrin, participating in the γ–secretase complex formation. These data support that catalytically inactive PS1∆exon8 is generated physiologically and participates in protein-protein interactions. PMID:26608390

  15. Activity based protein profiling to detect serine hydrolase alterations in virus infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Shahiduzzaman, Md.; Coombs, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a newly emerging technique that uses active site-directed probes to monitor the functional status of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are one of the largest families of enzymes in mammals. More than 200 serine hydrolases have been identified, but little is known about their specific roles. Serine hydrolases are involved in a variety of physiological functions, including digestion, immune response, blood coagulation, and reproduction. ABPP has been used recently to investigate hostvirus interactions and to understand the molecular pathogenesis of virus infections. Monitoring the altered serine hydrolases during viral infection gives insight into the catalytic activity of these enzymes that will help to identify novel targets for diagnostic and therapeutic application. This review presents the usefulness of ABPP in detecting and analyzing functional annotation of host cell serine hydrolases as a result of hostvirus interaction. PMID:23024641

  16. L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-02-01

    The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23g/L) and its productivity (0.27g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87% (from 9.80 to 1.23g/L) and 60% (from 6.54 to 2.63g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72%) and the L-serine productivity (67%). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44g/L/h and yield of 0.21g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity. PMID:25434811

  17. Storage and uptake of D-serine into astrocytic synaptic-like vesicles specify gliotransmission.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Magalie; Shi, Ting; Puyal, Julien; Knolhoff, Ann M; Dulong, Jrme; Gasnier, Bruno; Klingauf, Jrgen; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Jahn, Reinhard; Mothet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-20

    Glial cells are increasingly recognized as active players that profoundly influence neuronal synaptic transmission by specialized signaling pathways. In particular, astrocytes have been shown recently to release small molecules, such as the amino acids l-glutamate and d-serine as "gliotransmitters," which directly control the efficacy of adjacent synapses. However, it is still controversial whether gliotransmitters are released from a cytosolic pool or by Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis from secretory vesicles, i.e., by a mechanism similar to the release of synaptic vesicles in synapses. Here we report that rat cortical astrocytes contain storage vesicles that display morphological and biochemical features similar to neuronal synaptic vesicles. These vesicles share some, but not all, membrane proteins with synaptic vesicles, including the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) synaptobrevin 2, and contain both l-glutamate and d-serine. Furthermore, they show uptake of l-glutamate and d-serine that is driven by a proton electrochemical gradient. d-Serine uptake is associated with vesicle acidification and is dependent on chloride. Whereas l-serine is not transported, serine racemase, the synthesizing enzyme for d-serine, is anchored to the membrane of the vesicles, allowing local generation of d-serine. Finally, we reveal a previously unexpected mutual vesicular synergy between d-serine and l-glutamate filling in glia vesicles. We conclude that astrocytes contain vesicles capable of storing and releasing d-serine, l-glutamate, and most likely other neuromodulators in an activity-dependent manner. PMID:23426669

  18. Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling. PMID:24602834

  19. QMaPS: Qualitative Reasoning for Simulation Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Joolingen, Wouter

    1994-01-01

    Describes QMaPS (Qualitative Matching and Prediction system for Simulations), a qualitative reasoning system designed to function as a module in exploratory simulation learning environments. Highlights include a hierarchical organization of variables; multilevel relation typology; modeling of physical and conceptual domain structures; an

  20. A 100 ps gated x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P.J.; Blake, R.L.; Caldwell, S.; Hockaday, M.; Chrien, R.; Smith, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    Material opacities are of interest in many fields. We have developed a Bragg reflection spectrometer that is gated for imaging samples in a laser heated environment for opacity measurement. A micro-channel plate is coated with a photocathode material and a fast pulse is launched across it. Electrons are converted to photons in a phosphor and recorded on film. Optical gate pulse widths of 100 ps are achieved. Some optical pulse width and sensitivity enhancements are noted at launch and termination. Events of interest are 200 ps long. The framing window is approximately 250 ps in length. Timing jitter is a problem. The instrument timing networks have been examined, and the source of jitter is still unknown. Timing to 50 ps resolution is desired. Close in proximity to the laser-driven event leads to complications in shielding from hard x-rays, hot electrons and shock-driven damage. High Z materials provide shielding from hard x-rays. Magnets screen out hot electrons produced by laser-matter interactions Filters provide energy fiducials. PCD`s provide high resolution timing measurements. Data is recorded on film in a specially designed film pack. The instrument is designed to be used in the NOVA Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  2. BioMaPS: A Roadmap for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Maeve L.; Fister, K. Renee

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript outlines the impact that our National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences program, BioMaPS, has had on the students and faculty at Murray State University. This interdisciplinary program teams mathematics and biology undergraduate students with mathematics and

  3. (PS)2: protein structure prediction server version 3.0

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsun-Tsao; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Chi-Wen; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are involved in many biological processes. Examining coupling between subunits of a complex would be useful to understand the molecular basis of protein function. Here, our updated (PS)2 web server predicts the three-dimensional structures of protein complexes based on comparative modeling; furthermore, this server examines the coupling between subunits of the predicted complex by combining structural and evolutionary considerations. The predicted complex structure could be indicated and visualized by Java-based 3D graphics viewers and the structural and evolutionary profiles are shown and compared chain-by-chain. For each subunit, considerations with or without the packing contribution of other subunits cause the differences in similarities between structural and evolutionary profiles, and these differences imply which form, complex or monomeric, is preferred in the biological condition for the subunit. We believe that the (PS)2 server would be a useful tool for biologists who are interested not only in the structures of protein complexes but also in the coupling between subunits of the complexes. The (PS)2 is freely available at http://ps2v3.life.nctu.edu.tw/. PMID:25943546

  4. Spectroscopic Classification of PS15cwx as a Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Charles; Milne, Peter; Andrews, Jennifer; Smith, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    The AZTEC (Arizona Transient Exploration and Characterization) collaboration reports an optical spectrum of PS15cwx (ATEL #8299) obtained on UT 2015 Nov. 19.33 with the 2.3m Bok telescope (+ Boller & Chivens spectrograph) on Kitt Peak, Arizona.

  5. 3Ps, Task-Based Learning, and the Japanese Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanasarnsanee, Mika

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a work in progress that attempted to investigate to what extent task-based learning was more effective than the 3Ps approach in the teaching of Japanese as a foreign language in Thailand. (Author/VWL)

  6. To the Teacher: P.S. Write Soon!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4 through 8 who want to adapt the activities listed in the publication "P.S. Write Soon!" for classroom use, this guide provides chapter by chapter examples of the kinds of classroom projects suggested by the book that can be incorporated into an existing unit on letter writing or used as the basis for letter

  7. Consistent scenario for B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-12-01

    We consider B{yields}PS decays where P stands for pseudoscalar and S for a heavy (1500 MeV) scalar meson. We achieve agreement with available experimental data, which includes two orders of magnitude hierarchy, assuming the scalars mesons are two quark states. The contribution of the dipolar penguin operator O{sub 11} is quantified.

  8. BioMaPS: A Roadmap for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Maeve L.; Fister, K. Renee

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript outlines the impact that our National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences program, BioMaPS, has had on the students and faculty at Murray State University. This interdisciplinary program teams mathematics and biology undergraduate students with mathematics and…

  9. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that

  10. The Pan-STARRS PS4 telescope suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Burgett, William; Teran, Jose U.

    2008-07-01

    The Pan-STARRS project is planning to build a suite of four telescopes (PS4) on the summit of Mauna Kea at the site of the current University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. These telescopes will have the goal of surveying the entire sky visible from a single site in 5 colors (g, r, i, z, and y) on the time scale of approximately 1 week at a spatial resolution limited primarily by the quality of the site. To accomplish this task each of these four telescopes will be equipped with a Giga-Pixel camera, a camera shutter, and a 6 filter mechanism. A prototype telescope for this project (PS1) that includes all of these subsystems is already under going commissioning. The project is currently involved in developing the Environmental Impact Statement that is required to build the PS4 array of telescopes. We give an overview here of the scientific goals, the instrumentation package, the telescope design, and the enclosure design for the PS4 system.

  11. Spectroscopic Classification of AT2016axb (=PS16axi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Peter; Berger, Edo; Bieryla, Allyson; Brzycki, Bryan; Cohn, Amy; Dillett, Sean; Feder-Staehle, Richard; Frostig, Danielle; Grell, Gabe; James, Nicholas; Johnson, April; Mahmood, Zahra; Merryman, Hunter; Peak, Barra; Sanders, Cecilia; Taylor, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    We obtained a low-resolution optical spectrum of AT2016axb (=PS16axi) reported by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST; Huber et al., ATel #7153). Observations were carried out on 2016 March 16.3 UT using the FAST spectrograph mounted on the F.L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope.

  12. Effects of serine protease inhibitors on growth and development and digestive serine proteinases of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    PubMed

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Bandani, Ali R

    2011-01-01

    In the current study the effects of serine proteinase inhibitors (TLCK, TPCK, SBTI, and a combination of SBTI and TPCK) with concentrations of 1% and 4% of dietary protein in artificial diets were tested against growth of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), development, and its gut serine proteinase targets. Analysis of variance indicated that protease inhibitors affected nymphal development time, adult weight, and survival. Mean development time of third instar nymphs in control, SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and TPCK was 7.18, 9.74, 9.97, and 8.52 days, respectively. The highest mortality (100 % mortality) was observed when a combination of TPCK and SBTI, both at 4% of dietary protein, was used followed by TPCK (4%) that produced 95% mortality. There were significant differences in proteinase activity between treatments and controls when BApNA and SAAPFpNA were used as substrates for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Reduction of trypsin activity in insects fed with low doses of SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and both doses of TPCK (1% and 4%) was 40, 26, 23, and 17%, respectively. Inhibition of chymotrypsin activity was seen in the insects fed on SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and TPCK (4%) where inhibition was 14, 9, and 36%, respectively. Maximum inhibition of chymotrypsin activity was observed in the insects fed on diets containing high doses of TPCK (4%). In gel assays, the greatest effects were observed when E. integriceps were fed on high doses of SBTI and TPCK. Therefore, TPCK followed by SBTI proved to be the most effective proteinase inhibitors of E. integriceps. PMID:21867440

  13. Effects of Serine Protease Inhibitors on Growth and Development and Digestive Serine Proteinases of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Bandani, Ali R.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study the effects of serine proteinase inhibitors (TLCK, TPCK, SBTI, and a combination of SBTI and TPCK) with concentrations of 1% and 4% of dietary protein in artificial diets were tested against growth of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), development, and its gut serine proteinase targets. Analysis of variance indicated that protease inhibitors affected nymphal development time, adult weight, and survival. Mean development time of third instar nymphs in control, SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and TPCK was 7.18, 9.74, 9.97, and 8.52 days, respectively. The highest mortality (100 % mortality) was observed when a combination of TPCK and SBTI, both at 4% of dietary protein, was used followed by TPCK (4%) that produced 95% mortality. There were significant differences in proteinase activity between treatments and controls when BApNA and SAAPFpNA were used as substrates for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Reduction of trypsin activity in insects fed with low doses of SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and both doses of TPCK (1% and 4%) was 40, 26, 23, and 17%, respectively. Inhibition of chymotrypsin activity was seen in the insects fed on SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and TPCK (4%) where inhibition was 14, 9, and 36%, respectively. Maximum inhibition of chymotrypsin activity was observed in the insects fed on diets containing high doses of TPCK (4%). In gel assays, the greatest effects were observed when E. integriceps were fed on high doses of SBTI and TPCK. Therefore, TPCK followed by SBTI proved to be the most effective proteinase inhibitors of E. integriceps. PMID:21867440

  14. Sequence conservation, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles of nondigestive serine proteases and serine protease homologs in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Zhang, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang; Zou, Zhen; Chen, Yunru; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in insects encode a large family of proteins involved in digestion, development, immunity, and other processes. While 68 digestive SPs and their close homologs are reported in a companion paper (Kuwar et al., in preparation), we have identified 125 other SPs/SPHs in Manduca sexta and studied their structure, evolution, and expression. Fifty-two of them contain cystine-stabilized structures for molecular recognition, including clip, LDLa, Sushi, Wonton, TSP, CUB, Frizzle, and SR domains. There are nineteen groups of genes evolved from relatively recent gene duplication and sequence divergence. Thirty-five SPs and seven SPHs contain 1, 2 or 5 clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modeling of the 54 clip domains have revealed structural diversity of these regulatory modules. Sequence comparison with their homologs in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Tribolium castaneum allows us to classify them into five subfamilies: A are SPHs with 1 or 5 group-3 clip domains, B are SPs with 1 or 2 group-2 clip domains, C, D1 and D2 are SPs with a single clip domain in group-1a, 1b and 1c, respectively. We have classified into six categories the 125 expression profiles of SP-related proteins in fat body, brain, midgut, Malpighian tubule, testis, and ovary at different stages, suggesting that they participate in various physiological processes. Through RNA-Seq-based gene annotation and expression profiling, as well as intragenomic sequence comparisons, we have established a framework of information for future biochemical research of nondigestive SPs and SPHs in this model species. PMID:25530503

  15. Inhibition of pan-class I phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase by NVP-BKM120 effectively blocks proliferation and induces cell death in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zang, Chuanbing; Eucker, Jan; Liu, Hongyu; Coordes, Annekatrin; Lenarz, Minoo; Possinger, Kurt; Scholz, Christian Wilfried

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent aggressive lymphoma, with a great demand for novel treatments for relapsing and refractory disease. Constitutive activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is often detected in this lymphoma. Inhibition of this signaling cascade with the pan-class I PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death. DLBCL proliferation was further decreased if NVP-BKM120-induced autophagy was blocked. Treatment with NVP-BKM120 was associated with an increase of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Translation of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 is facilitated by cap-dependent mRNA translation, a process that was partially inhibited by NVP-BKM120. Overall, we demonstrated here the potential of NVP-BKM120 for the treatment of DLBCL. PMID:23721513

  16. Overdose of D-serine Induces Movement Disorder and Neuromuscular Changes of Zebrafish Larvae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-Guang; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-04-01

    D-serine is a well-known activator of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors; however, little is known about the teratogenic effects of D-serine overdose during early embryonic development. Here, we used zebrafish as a model to test toxicity and teratogenicity, since they have transparent eggs, making the organogenesis of zebrafish embryos easier to be observed. After D-serine injection (100-1000 ppm), the most evident defective phenotypes were bent trunk phenotypes, including malformed somite boundary, twisted body axis and shorter body length. As the injection dosages increased, the rates of embryos with bent trunk phenotypes decreased (0% for 0 ppm, n=573; 59.9~84.3% for 100-1000 ppm of D-serine, n=383-451). In addition, D-serine-injected embryos exhibited significantly reduced the frequencies of spontaneous in-chorion contraction (21.7 for 0 ppm vs. 18.3-0.9 for 100-1000 ppm D-serine, n=30) in comparison with mock-treated controls (0 ppm). Subtle changes are easily observed by staining with specific monoclonal antibodies F59, Znp1, Zn5 and ?-bungarotoxin to detect morphological changes in muscle fibers, primary motor axons, secondary motor axon projections and neuromuscular junctions, respectively. Our data show that overdose of D-serine leads to misalignment of muscle fibers and motor neuron defects, especially secondary motor neuron axonal growth defects. PMID:24791063

  17. Characterization of a novel Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pariani, Sebastián; Contreras, Marisol; Rossi, Franco R; Sander, Valeria; Corigliano, Mariana G; Simón, Francisco; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Duschak, Vilma G; Clemente, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Many different types of serine proteinase inhibitors have been involved in several kinds of plant physiological processes, including defense mechanisms against phytopathogens. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which are included in the serine proteinase inhibitor family, are present in several organisms. These proteins play a regulatory role in processes that involve serine proteinases like trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, elastase and/or subtilisin. In the present work, we characterized two putative Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors from Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a single putative Kazal-type domain. The expression of these inhibitors is transiently induced in response to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that they play some role in defense against pathogens. We also evaluated the inhibitory specificity of one of the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which resulted to be induced during the local response to B. cinerea infection. The recombinant Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor displayed high specificity for elastase and subtilisin, but low specificity for trypsin, suggesting differences in its selectivity. In addition, this inhibitor exhibited a strong antifungal activity inhibiting the germination rate of B. cinerea conidia in vitro. Due to the important role of proteinase inhibitors in plant protection against pathogens and pests, the information about Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors described in the present work could contribute to improving current methods for plant protection against pathogens. PMID:26853817

  18. D-serine as a gliotransmitter and its roles in brain development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Marion R. Van; Sild, Mari; Ruthazer, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new techniques to study glial cells has revealed that they are active participants in the development of functional neuronal circuits. Calcium imaging studies demonstrate that glial cells actively sense and respond to neuronal activity. Glial cells can produce and release neurotransmitter-like molecules, referred to as gliotransmitters, that can in turn influence the activity of neurons and other glia. One putative gliotransmitter, D-serine is believed to be an endogenous co-agonist for synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity mediated by this receptor. The observation that D-serine levels in the mammalian brain increase during early development, suggests a possible role for this gliotransmitter in normal brain development and circuit refinement. In this review we will examine the data that D-serine and its associated enzyme serine racemase are developmentally regulated. We will consider the evidence that D-serine is actively released by glial cells and examine the studies that have implicated D-serine as a critical player involved in regulating NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission and neuronal migration during development. Furthermore, we will consider how dysregulation of D-serine may play an important role in the etiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:23630460

  19. Serine-borate complex as a transition-state inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Tate, S S; Meister, A

    1978-01-01

    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, a membrane-bound enzyme, functions in the gamma-glutamyl cycle to catalyze utilization of glutathione. It has been postulated that the amino-acid-stimulated utilization of glutathione by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase reflects an aspect of amino acid translocation. As one approach to the effective in vivo inhibition of this enzyme, the inhibition of the enzyme by L-serine in the presence of borate buffers [Revel, J.P. & Ball, E.G. (1959) J. Biol. Chem. 234, 577-582] was reinvestigated. Inhibition by L-serine, D-serine, and alpha-methyl-DL-serine in the presence of borate is competitive with respect to gamma-glutamyl substrate and such inhibition is parallel to the activity of transpeptidase toward L-gamma-glutamyl, D-gamma-glutamyl, and L-gamma-(alpha-methyl)glutamyl derivatives. L-Serine and borate effectively protect against inactivation of the enzyme by the gamma-glutamyl analogs, 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine and azaserine, which bind to the gamma-glutamyl site of the enzyme. These studies, kinetic investigations, equilibrium dialysis experiments, and other data support the view that inhibition is produced by formation of serine-borate complex which binds at the gamma-glutamyl binding site of the light subunit of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The data indicate that serine-borate complex is a transition state inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. PMID:33382

  20. Serine integrase chimeras with activity in E. coli and HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Farruggio, Alfonso P; Calos, Michele P

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, application of serine integrases for genomic engineering has increased in popularity. The factor-independence and unidirectionality of these large serine recombinases makes them well suited for reactions such as site-directed vector integration and cassette exchange in a wide variety of organisms. In order to generate information that might be useful for altering the specificity of serine integrases and to improve their efficiency, we tested a hybridization strategy that has been successful with several small serine recombinases. We created chimeras derived from three characterized members of the serine integrase family, phiC31, phiBT1, and TG1 integrases, by joining their amino- and carboxy-terminal portions. We found that several phiBT1-phiC31 (BC) and phiC31-TG1 (CT) hybrid integrases are active in E. coli. BC chimeras function on native att-sites and on att-sites that are hybrids between those of the two donor enzymes, while CT chimeras only act on the latter att-sites. A BC hybrid, BC{-1}, was also active in human HeLa cells. Our work is the first to demonstrate chimeric serine integrase activity. This analysis sheds light on integrase structure and function, and establishes a potentially tractable means to probe the specificity of the thousands of putative large serine recombinases that have been revealed by bioinformatics studies. PMID:25217617

  1. Serine racemase is associated with schizophrenia susceptibility in humans and in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Viviane; Fukumura, Ryutaro; Rastogi, Anjali; Fick, Laura J.; Wang, Wei; Boutros, Paul C.; Kennedy, James L.; Semeralul, Mawahib O.; Lee, Frankie H.; Baker, Glen B.; Belsham, Denise D.; Barger, Steven W.; Gondo, Yoichi; Wong, Albert H.C.; Roder, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. d-serine is an important NMDAR modulator, and to elucidate the role of the d-serine synthesis enzyme serine racemase (Srr) in schizophrenia, we identified and characterized mice with an ENU-induced mutation that results in a complete loss of Srr activity and dramatically reduced d-serine levels. Mutant mice displayed behaviors relevant to schizophrenia, including impairments in prepulse inhibition, sociability and spatial discrimination. Behavioral deficits were exacerbated by an NMDAR antagonist and ameliorated by d-serine or the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Expression profiling revealed that the Srr mutation influenced several genes that have been linked to schizophrenia and cognitive ability. Transcript levels altered by the Srr mutation were also normalized by d-serine or clozapine treatment. Furthermore, analysis of SRR genetic variants in humans identified a robust association with schizophrenia. This study demonstrates that aberrant Srr function and diminished d-serine may contribute to schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:19483194

  2. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at -70?mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC-NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs. PMID:25801502

  3. Crystal Structure of Serine Racemase that Produces Neurotransmitter d-Serine for Stimulation of the NMDA Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masaru

    d-Serine is an endogenous coagonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and is involved in excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Mammalian pyridoxal 5-phosphate-dependent serine racemase, which is localized in the mammalian brain, catalyzes the racemization of l-serine to yield d-serine and vice versa. We have determined the structures of three forms of the mammalian enzyme homolog from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Lys57 and Ser82 located on the protein and solvent sides, respectively, with respect to the cofactor plane, are acid-base catalysts that shuttle protons to the substrate. The modified enzyme, which has a unique lysino-d-alanyl residue at the active site, also binds the substrate serine in the active site, suggesting that the lysino-d-alanyl residue acts as a catalytic base in the same manner as Lys57 of the wild type enzyme.

  4. Solubility, thermal, photoconductivity and laser damage threshold studies on L-serine acetate (LSA) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, K.; Thayanithi, V.; Mani, A.; Amudha, M.; Kumar, P. Praveen

    2015-06-01

    L-serine acetate crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility of L-Serine Acetate was determined at different temperatures. L-Serine Acetate was characterized by SEM is to identify the morphology of the crystal. TG and DTA study reveals the thermal stability of the grown crystal. Dielectric measurement was carried out for different temperature ranges. Photo conductivity study revealed the nature of conductivity of the crystal under halogen light. Laser damage threshold of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser source. NLO property of the crystal is confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  5. Spectra and relaxation dynamics of the pseudohalide (PS) vibrational bands for Ru(bpy)2(PS)2 complexes, PS = CN, NCS and N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Ryan; Gerardi, Helen K.; Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas J.; Dressick, Walter J.; Heilweil, Edwin J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2013-08-01

    Static and transient infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate cis-Ru(bpy)2(N3)2 (bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine), cis-Ru(bpy)2(NCS)2, and cis-Ru(bpy)2(CN)2 in solution. The NC stretching IR band for cis-Ru(bpy)2(NCS)2 appears at higher frequency (∼2106 cm-1 in DMSO) than for the free NCS- anion while the IR bands for the azide and cyanide complexes are closer to those of the respective free anions. The vibrational energy relaxation (VER) lifetime for the azide complex is found to be much shorter (∼5 ps) than for either the NCS or CN species (both ∼70 ps in DMSO) and the lifetimes resemble those for each corresponding free anion in solution. However, for cis-Ru(bpy)2(N3)2, it is determined that the transition frequency depends more on the solvent than the VER lifetime implying that intramolecular vibrational relaxation is predominant over solvent energy-extracting interactions. These results are compared to the behavior of other related metal complexes in solution.

  6. Altered Serine/Threonine Kinase Activity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Jennifer L; Hammond, John H.; Yates, Stefani D.; Chen, Dongquan; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H.; McCullumsmith, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence implicates alterations in multiple signaling pathways in the etiology of schizophrenia. Previously, these studies were limited to the analysis of one or a few phosphoprotein a time. Here, we use a novel kinase array platform to simultaneously investigate the convergence of multiple signaling cascades implicated in schizophrenia. This technology uses consensus peptide substrates to assess activity levels of a large number (>100) of serine/threonine protein kinases. 19 peptide substrates were differentially phosphorylated (>15% change) in the frontal cortex in schizophrenia. These peptide substrates were examined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to group them according to the functions and to identify processes most likely affected in schizophrenia. Pathway analysis placed 14 of the 19 peptides into cellular homeostatic pathways, 10 into pathways governing cytoskeletal organization, and 8 into pathways governing ion homeostasis. These data are the first to simultaneously investigate comprehensive changes in signaling cascades in a severe psychiatric disorder. The examination of kinase activity in signaling pathways may facilitate the identification of novel substrates for drug discovery and the development of safer and more effective pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. PMID:24780530

  7. Exploring a new serine protease from Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Nafeesa, Zohara; Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-03-01

    Coagulation is an important physiological process in hemostasis which is activated by sequential action of proteases. This study aims to understand the involvement of aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. (AqFEC) European burp less variety in blood coagulation cascade. AqFEC hydrolyzed casein in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of protease activity was further confirmed by casein zymography which revealed the possible presence of two high molecular weight protease(s). The proteolytic activity was inhibited only by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride suggesting the presence of serine protease(s). In a dose-dependent manner, AqFEC also hydrolysed A? and B? subunits of fibrinogen, whereas it failed to degrade the ? subunit of fibrinogen even at a concentration as high as 100 ?g and incubation time up to 4 h. AqFEC reduced the clotting time of citrated plasma by 87.65%. The protease and fibrinogenolytic activity of AqFEC suggests its possible role in stopping the bleeding and ensuing wound healing process. PMID:25577345

  8. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-05-01

    At least twelve /sup 32/P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with /sup 32/Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma.

  9. MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Marcia H; Boldt, Angelica B W; Catarino, Sandra J; Mendes, Hellen C; Boschmann, Stefanie E; Goeldner, Isabela; Messias-Reason, Iara

    2015-09-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system has a pivotal role in the defense against infectious organisms. After binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin 11 to carbohydrates or acetylated residues on pathogen surfaces, dimers of MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2) activate a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex and pathogen lysis. Alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding MASP-1 results in two other products, MASP-3 and MAp44, which regulate activation of the cascade. A similar mechanism allows the gene encoding MASP-2 to produce the truncated MAp19 protein. Polymorphisms in MASP1 and MASP2 genes are associated with protein serum levels and functional activity. Since the first report of a MASP deficiency in 2003, deficiencies in lectin pathway proteins have been associated with recurrent infections and several polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility or protection to infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the role of MASP polymorphisms and serum levels in bacterial, viral and protozoan infectious diseases. PMID:25862418

  10. Trapping kinetics in isolated cyanobacterial PS I complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavov, Chavdar; El-Mohsnawy, Eithar; Rgner, Matthias; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

    2009-02-01

    The excitation energy trapping and the role of the 'red' chlorophyll (Chl) states in the photosystem (PS) I monomers and trimers from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus were studied. We demonstrate the adequacy of the "charge recombination" model for the trapping kinetics. On the basis of this model the reaction center excited state can be resolved. The overall kinetics is shown to be trap-limited even though the presence of the 'red' Chls induces a substantial slowing down (60%) of the trapping. Two kinetically different 'red' Chl pools were resolved. Both of these 'red' pools originate from the same groups of pigments in either of the two aggregation states. This indicates that careful isolation does not disturb substantially the 'red' Chls and we can exclude their location at the monomer-monomer interface. Acceleration of the secondary electron transfer step in the studied complexes as compared to PS I from mesophilic organisms is observed.

  11. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-04-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and applications of a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to an external electrode placed outside of the photocathode of the tube. This electrode is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. Multiple frames are obtained by using multiple gated tubes which share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. Applications of the framing camera to inertial confinement fusion experiments are discussed.

  12. Large-area 200-ps gated microchannel plate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, M.J.; Hanks, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Pasha, R.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Hares, J.D.

    1986-08-01

    Results are presented with a 15-mm-wide gated microchannel plate UV and x-ray detector. The active area is part of a 6-..cap omega.. transmission line driven by an electronically generated gate pulse. The microchannel plate is coated with CsI allowing tests with a frequency-quadrupoled, high-repetition-rate 1.05-..mu..m laser. Results showing optical gate widths as short as 100 ps are presented.

  13. PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

  14. The four "P"s of marketing are dead.

    PubMed

    English, J

    2000-01-01

    For several decades marketing planning in the United States has relied upon the "four Ps" model. Product, price, place, and promotion were considered the foundation of the marketing mix. This model, however, has never been a comfortable fit for health care and, as the new century dawns, we find that a new marketing model--emphasizing the "four Rs"--is emerging. The foundations of the new model are relevance, response, relationships, and results. PMID:11183425

  15. Anomalous high ionic conductivity of nanoporous -Li3PS4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Payzant, E Andrew; Yu, Xiang; Wu, Zili; Dudney, Nancy J; Kiggans, Jim; Hong, Kunlun; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes hold the promise for enabling high-energy battery chemistries and circumventing safety issues of conventional lithium batteries1-3. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and broad electrochemical window in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of battery materials. Herein we show an enhancement of room-temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 3 orders of magnitude by creating nanostructured Li3PS4. This material has a wide (5V) electrochemical window and superior chemical stability against lithium metal. The nanoporous structure of Li3PS4 reconciles two vital effects that enhance ionic conductivity: (1) The reduced dimension to nanometer-sized framework stabilizes the high conduction beta phase that occurs at elevated temperatures1,4; and (2) The high surface-to-bulk ratio of nanoporous -Li3PS4 promotes surface conduction5,6. Manipulating the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes has far-reaching implications for materials design and synthesis in a broad range of applications such as batteries, fuel-cells, sensors, photovoltaic systems, and so forth3,7.

  16. Research of beam smoothing technologies using CPP, SSD, and PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Li, Ping; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Tian, Xiaocheng; Xu, Dangpeng; Dong, Jun; Zhu, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    Precise physical experiments place strict requirements on target illumination uniformity in Inertial Confinement Fusion. To obtain a smoother focal spot and suppress transverse SBS in large aperture optics, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) was studied combined with continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS). New ways of PS are being developed to improve the laser irradiation uniformity and solve LPI problems in indirect-drive laser fusion. The near field and far field properties of beams using polarization smoothing were studied and compared, including birefringent wedge and polarization control array. As more parameters can be manipulated in a combined beam smoothing scheme, quad beam smoothing was also studies. Simulation results indicate through adjusting dispersion directions of one-dimensional (1-D) SSD beams in a quad, two-dimensional SSD can be obtained. Experiments have been done on SG-III laser facility using CPP and Multi-FM SSD. The research provides some theoretical and experimental basis for the application of CPP, SSD and PS on high-power laser facilities.

  17. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1987-08-11

    In this paper we describe a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. The time separation between frames can be selected arbitrarily. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a standard wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to a conducting mesh placed over the input window of the tube. The mesh is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. The transmission of the tube as a function of time has been verified using a laser-diode pulser and is approximately Gaussian with a FWHM of 120 ps. Multiple frames are obtained using multiple gated tubes which can then share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. In the present system, the tubes use S-20 photocathodes with an 18 mm diameter and quartz input windows. Spatial resolution is unchanged between d.c. and fast gated operations and has been measured to 10 lp/mm. Applications to time-dependent behavior in laser-produced plasmas will be presented. 7 figs.

  18. Antitumor Activity of 3-Indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Margaret L; Sidhu, Preetpal S.; Hill, Emily K.; Horan, Timothy C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Teske, Kelly A.; Yuan, Nina Y.; Sidorko, Marina; Kodali, Revathi; Cook, James M.; Han, Lanlan; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.; Bikle, Daniel D.; Moore, Richard G.; Singh, Rakesh K.; Arnold, Leggy A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the in vivo effects of 3-indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912 in treating ovarian cancer and leukemia, respectively. Materials and Methods Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and western blotting were applied to demonstrate the induction of apoptosis. Xenografted mice were investigated to show the antitumor effects of 3-indolylmethanamines. 13C-Nuclear magnetic resource (NMR) and western blotting were used to demonstrate inhibition of glucose metabolism. Results 31B inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation and activated caspase-3, cleaved poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and p38. 31B reduced ovarian cancer xenograft tumor growth and PS121912 inhibited the growth of HL-60 derived xenografts without any sign of toxicity. Compound 31B inhibited de novo glycolysis and lipogenesis mediated by the reduction of fatty acid synthase and lactate dehydrogenase-A expression. Conclusion 3-Indolylmethanamines represent a new class of antitumor agents. We have shown for the first time the in vivo anticancer effects of 3-indolylmethanamines 31B and PS121912. PMID:26504023

  19. iPS cell transplantation for traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Goulão, Miguel; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of work has been published on transplantation of a wide range of neural stem and progenitor cell types derived from the developing and adult CNS, as well as from pluripotent embryonic stem cells, in models of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, many of these cell-based approaches present practical issues for clinical translation such as ethical cell derivation, generation of potentially large numbers of homogenously prepared cells, and immune rejection. With the advent of induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cell technology, many of these issues may potentially be overcome. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated integration, differentiation into mature CNS lineages, migration and long-term safety of iPS cell transplants in a variety of SCI models, as well as therapeutic benefits in some cases. Given the clinical potential of this advance in stem cell biology, we present a concise review of studies published to date involving iPS cell transplantation in animal models of SCI. PMID:26201863

  20. Functional Characterization of Calcineurin Homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Using a Host-Induced RNAi System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Guo, Jun; Voegele, Ralf T.; Zhang, Jinshan; Duan, Yinghui; Luo, Huaiyong; Kang, Zhensheng

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction. PMID:23139840

  1. Combined Skin Moisturization of Liposomal Serine Incorporated in Hydrogels Prepared with Carbopol ETD 2020, Rhesperse RM 100 and Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Barua, Sonia; Hwang, Deuk Sun; Na, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Ho Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Woo, Seulki; Kim, Hyewon; Hong, Bomi; Yun, Gyiae; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Jia; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Jaehwi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer. The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products. PMID:26557021

  2. Combined Skin Moisturization of Liposomal Serine Incorporated in Hydrogels Prepared with Carbopol ETD 2020, Rhesperse RM 100 and Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Barua, Sonia; Hwang, Deuk Sun; Na, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Ho Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Woo, Seulki; Kim, Hyewon; Hong, Bomi; Yun, Gyiae; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Jia; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer®. The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products. PMID:26557021

  3. Bacterial serine proteases secreted by the autotransporter pathway: classification, specificity and role in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases exist in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms and have emerged during evolution as the most abundant and functionally diverse group. In gram-negative bacteria, there is a growing family of high molecular weight serine proteases secreted to the external milieu by a fascinating and widely employed bacterial secretion mechanism, known as the autotransporter pathway. They were initially found in Neisseria, Shigella, and pathogenic Escherichia coli, but have now been also identified in Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella, and Edwarsiella species. Here, we focus on proteins belonging to the Serine Protease Autotransporter of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Recent findings regarding the predilection of serine proteases to host intracellular or extracellular protein-substrates involved in numerous biological functions, such as those implicated in cytoskeleton stability, autophagy or innate and adaptive immunity, have helped provide a better understanding of SPATEs’ contributions in pathogenesis. Here, we discuss their classification, substrate specificity, and potential roles in pathogenesis. PMID:23689588

  4. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in vertebrate cell and developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Roman; Bugge, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of vertebrate genome sequences at the turn of the millennium revealed that a vastly larger repertoire of enzymes execute proteolytic cleavage reactions within the pericellular and extracellular environments than was anticipated from biochemical and molecular analysis. Most unexpected was the unveiling of an entire new family of structurally unique multidomain serine proteases that are anchored directly to the plasma membrane. Unlike secreted serine proteases, which function primarily in tissue repair, immunity, and nutrient uptake, these membrane-anchored serine proteases regulate fundamental cellular and developmental processes, including tissue morphogenesis, epithelial barrier function, ion and water transport, cellular iron export, and fertilization. Here the cellular and developmental biology of this fascinating new group of proteases is reviewed. Particularly highlighted is how the study of membrane-anchored serine proteases has expanded our knowledge of the range of physiological processes that require regulated proteolysis at the cell surface. PMID:21721945

  5. Small Molecule Activation of PKM2 in Cancer Cells Induces Serine Auxotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Charles; Hixon, Jeff; Choe, Sung; Marks, Kevin; Gross, Stefan; Murphy, Erin; DeLaBarre, Byron; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Sethumadhavan, Shalini; Wang, Xiling; Yan, Shunqi; Gao, Yi; Fang, Cheng; Wei, Wentao; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Shaohui; Qian, Kevin; Saunders, Jeff; Driggers, Ed; Woo, Hin Koon; Kunii, Kaiko; Murray, Stuart; Yang, Hua; Yen, Katharine; Liu, Wei; Cantley, Lewis C.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Su, Shinsan M.; Jin, Shengfang; Salituro, Francesco G.; Dang, Lenny

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Proliferating tumor cells use aerobic glycolysis to support their high metabolic demands. Paradoxically, increased glycolysis is often accompanied by expression of the lower activity PKM2 isoform, effectively constraining lower glycolysis. Here, we report the discovery of PKM2 activators with a unique allosteric binding mode. Characterization of how these compounds impact cancer cells revealed an unanticipated link between glucose and amino acid metabolism. PKM2 activation resulted in a metabolic rewiring of cancer cells manifested by a profound dependency on the nonessential amino acid serine for continued cell proliferation. Induction of serine auxotrophy by PKM2 activation was accompanied by reduced carbon flow into the serine biosynthetic pathway and increased expression of high affinity serine transporters. These data support the hypothesis that PKM2 expression confers metabolic flexibility to cancer cells that allows adaptation to nutrient stress. PMID:22999886

  6. Small molecule activation of PKM2 in cancer cells induces serine auxotrophy.

    PubMed

    Kung, Charles; Hixon, Jeff; Choe, Sung; Marks, Kevin; Gross, Stefan; Murphy, Erin; DeLaBarre, Byron; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Sethumadhavan, Shalini; Wang, Xiling; Yan, Shunqi; Gao, Yi; Fang, Cheng; Wei, Wentao; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Shaohui; Qian, Kevin; Saunders, Jeff; Driggers, Ed; Woo, Hin Koon; Kunii, Kaiko; Murray, Stuart; Yang, Hua; Yen, Katharine; Liu, Wei; Cantley, Lewis C; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Su, Shinsan M; Jin, Shengfang; Salituro, Francesco G; Dang, Lenny

    2012-09-21

    Proliferating tumor cells use aerobic glycolysis to support their high metabolic demands. Paradoxically, increased glycolysis is often accompanied by expression of the lower activity PKM2 isoform, effectively constraining lower glycolysis. Here, we report the discovery of PKM2 activators with a unique allosteric binding mode. Characterization of how these compounds impact cancer cells revealed an unanticipated link between glucose and amino acid metabolism. PKM2 activation resulted in a metabolic rewiring of cancer cells manifested by a profound dependency on the nonessential amino acid serine for continued cell proliferation. Induction of serine auxotrophy by PKM2 activation was accompanied by reduced carbon flow into the serine biosynthetic pathway and increased expression of high affinity serine transporters. These data support the hypothesis that PKM2 expression confers metabolic flexibility to cancer cells that allows adaptation to nutrient stress. PMID:22999886

  7. The ins and outs of serine integrase site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Karen; Van Duyne, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Serine integrases catalyze the integration and excision of phage genomes into and out of bacterial chromosomes in a highly specific and directional manner, making these proteins powerful tools for genome engineering. In 2013, the first structure of a serine integrase-DNA complex was reported. This work revealed how the phage attP sequence is recognized by the integrase and provided important clues about how serine integrases bind to other attachment site sequences. The resulting structural models indicate that distinct spatial arrangements of integrase domains are present for each attachment site complex. Here we describe how serine integrases may exploit this site-dependent domain arrangement to regulate the direction of recombination. We also discuss how phage-encoded recombination directionality factors could change this directionality by altering the nature of inter-subunit interactions. PMID:24509164

  8. Phorbol ester stimulates phosphorylation on serine 1327 of the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R E; Volle, D J; Sanderson, S D

    1994-10-21

    Phorbol esters stimulate the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor on discrete serine and threonine residues in intact cells. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor cytoplasmic domain on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues regulates receptor tyrosine kinase activity and signaling. In these studies, we demonstrate that phorbol ester treatment of intact COS-1 cells transiently expressing the human insulin receptor stimulates phosphorylation of serine 1327 within the carboxyl-terminal tail of the insulin receptor beta subunit. Phosphopeptide maps of wild-type (Ser1327) and mutant (Ala1327) human insulin receptors revealed the absence of a single phosphopeptide in the Ala1327 receptors when compared with wild-type receptors from phorbol ester-treated cells. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed phosphoserine within the phosphopeptide from wild-type receptors that is absent in the Ala1327 receptor. The synthetic peptide 1327S (KRSYEEHIPYTHMNGGKK) corresponding to amino acids 1325-1342 of the human insulin receptor is phosphorylated on serine by protein kinase C. After digestion with trypsin, the phosphorylated synthetic peptide comigrated with the serine-phosphorylated peptide isolated from wild-type insulin receptors that was absent from the Ala1327 mutant. Ser1327 is proximal to autophosphorylation sites Tyr1328 and Tyr1334. The potential effects of serine phosphorylation at position 1327 on subsequent phosphorylation of these tyrosines by the insulin receptor kinase were examined using synthetic peptides. The chemically modified peptide 1327S(P) was synthesized with the stoichiometric addition of phosphate to the side chain hydroxyl of a serine corresponding to position 1327 of the insulin receptor. Kinetic analysis revealed that the addition of phosphate to the serine improved substrate recognition by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase almost 2-fold. The average Km was 1.44 mM for the peptide 1327S(P) versus 2.64 mM for peptide 1327S. However, when compared with the unphosphorylated control peptide, 1327S, the serine-phosphorylated peptide 1327S(P) also reduced the Vmax of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase 53%. Radiosequence analysis revealed that the chemical addition of phosphate to the serine in peptide 1327S(P) inhibited insulin receptor-catalyzed phosphorylation of the tyrosine on 1327S(P) corresponding to Tyr1334 but not of the tyrosine corresponding to Tyr1328. These data suggest that the juxtaposition of a serine phosphorylation site adjacent to receptor tyrosine phosphorylation sites provides the potential for regulation of insulin receptor autophosphorylation and signaling through its carboxyl-terminal tail. PMID:7929343

  9. Breast Cancer-Associated pS2 Protein: Synthesis and Secretion by Normal Stomach Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, M. C.; Bellocq, J. P.; Daniel, J. Y.; Tomasetto, C.; Lathe, R.; Chenard, M. P.; Batzenschlager, A.; Chambon, P.

    1988-08-01

    The human pS2 gene is specifically expressed under estrogen transcriptional control in a subclass of estrogen receptor-containing human breast cancer cells. The pS2 gene encodes an 84-amino acid protein that is secreted after signal peptide cleavage. The distribution of pS2 protein in normal human tissues was studied with antibodies to pS2; pS2 was specifically expressed and secreted by mucosa cells of the normal stomach antrum and body of both female and male individuals. Moreover, no estrogen receptor could be detected in these cells, indicating that pS2 gene expression is estrogen-independent in the stomach. The function of the pS2 protein in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. However, the pS2 protein is similar in sequence to a porcine pancreatic protein that has been shown to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and gastric secretion.

  10. Expectation values of the e{sup +}PsH system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.

    2007-07-15

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for e{sup +}PsH are computed using a ground-state wave function consisting of 1500 explicitly correlated Gaussians. The best estimate of the e{sup +}PsH{sup {infinity}} energy was -0.810 254 hartrees, which has a binding energy of 0.021 057 hartrees against dissociation into e{sup +}+PsH. The 2{gamma} annihilation rate was 2.7508x10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Binding energies and annihilation rates are also given for the different finite-mass variants of e{sup +}PsH. Comparisons between expectation values for e{sup +}PsH and PsH provide compelling evidence that the e{sup +}PsH ground state can be regarded as consisting of a weakly bound positron orbiting the PsH ground state.

  11. Bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-serine in human plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Kakehi, Masaaki; Jinno, Fumihiro

    2015-10-15

    D-Serine is an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Plasma concentrations of D-serine and the ratio of D-serine to total serine may be used as clinically-translatable biomarkers in NMDA receptor-related disease. We developed a highly sensitive and specific method using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of the D- and L-isomers of serine in human plasma. Since D- and L-serine are endogenous components, phosphate buffered saline was used as the surrogate matrix. D- and L-serine in human plasma and PBS were treated by cationic exchange solid phase extraction. D-Serine (m/z 106.1 > 60.0), L-serine (m/z 106.1 > 60.1) and DL-serine-d3 (m/z 109.1 > 63.0) were detected using a multiple reaction monitoring. The enantiomer separation of D- and L-serine was successfully achieved without any derivatization step using tandemly-arranged and ice-cold CROWNPAK CR-I(+) columns with an isocratic mobile phase comprised of 0.3% trifluoroacetic acid in 10% acetonitrile. The standard curves were linear throughout the calibration range with 0.01-10 ?g/mL (D-serine) and 0.1-100 ?g/mL (L-serine), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples were within relative standard deviations of less than 15%. The endogenous concentrations of D- and L-serine in human plasma were 0.124-0.199 and 7.97-13.1 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:26205585

  12. Serine-rich protein is a novel positive regulator for silicon accumulation in mangrove.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Azizi, Parisa; Idris, A S

    2015-02-10

    Silicon (Si) plays an important role in reducing plant susceptibility against a variety of different biotic and abiotic stresses; and also has an important regulatory role in soil to avoid heavy metal toxicity and providing suitable growing conditions for plants. A full-length cDNAs of 696bp of serine-rich protein was cloned from mangrove plant (Rhizophora apiculata) by amplification of cDNA ends from an expressed sequence tag homologous to groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), submitted to NCBI (KF211374). This serine-rich protein gene encodes a deduced protein of 223 amino acids. The transcript titre of the serine-rich protein was found to be strongly enriched in roots compared with the leaves of two month old mangrove plants and expression level of this serine-rich protein was found to be strongly induced when the mangrove seedlings were exposed to SiO2. Expression of the serine-rich protein transgenic was detected in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, where the amount of serine increased from 1.02 to 37.8mg/g. The same trend was also seen in Si content in the roots (14.3%) and leaves (7.4%) of the transgenic A. thaliana compared to the wild-type plants under Si treatment. The biological results demonstrated that the accumulation of the serine amino acid in the vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants enhanced their ability to absorb and accumulate more Si in the roots and leaves and suggests that the serine-rich protein gene has potential for use in genetic engineering of different stress tolerance characteristics. PMID:25479011

  13. Novel serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor: alogliptin.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Bahare, Radhe Shyam; Jain, Pratima; Dikshit, Subodh Narayan; Ganguly, Swastika

    2012-11-01

    Alogliptin (codenamed SYR-322) is a recently approved anti-diabetic drug in Japan, which has been under clinical development phase III in USA and Europe. Alogliptin has been developed by Takeda under the brand name "Nesina". Alogliptin is a highly selective ( > 10,000-time selectivity, potent, reversible and durable serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme is compared to DPP-8 and DPP-9) inhibitor, which has been developed as an alternative second-line to metformin in place of a sulphonylurea. Alogliptin has been observed to increase and prolong the action of incretin hormone by inhibiting the DPP-IV enzyme activity. Alogliptin has been observed to well absorb and show low plasma protein binding, which displays slow-binding properties to DPP-IV enzyme. The X-ray crystallography studies have been revealed that Alogliptin binds to DPP-IV active site by non-covalently and provides sustained reduction of plasma DPP-IV activity as well as lowering of blood glucose, in drug-naive patients with T2DM and inadequate glycemic control, once daily oral dosing regimen with varying levels of doses ranging from 25-800 mg. Alogliptin is approved as monotherapy and in combination with alpha-glucosidase & thiazolidinediones. The 26 week clinical study of Alogliptin revealed that Alogliptin doesn't increase the weight and well tolerated. In the present review, we have tried to cover biology of DPP-IV, molecular chemistry, chemical characterization, crystal polymorphic information, interaction studies, commercial synthesis, current patent status, adverse effects and clinical status of Alogliptin giving emphasis on the medicinal chemistry aspect. PMID:22512582

  14. Serine-71 phosphorylation of Rac1 modulates downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Janett; Proff, Julia; Hvemeier, Anika; Ladwein, Markus; Rottner, Klemens; Barlag, Britta; Pich, Andreas; Tatge, Helma; Just, Ingo; Gerhard, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate a variety of cellular functions by signaling to different signal pathways. It is believed that the presence of a specific effector at the location of GTPase activation determines the route of downstream signaling. We previously reported about EGF-induced Ser-71 phosphorylation of Rac1/Cdc42. By using the phosphomimetic S71E-mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 we investigated the impact of Ser-71 phosphorylation on binding to selected effector proteins. Binding of the constitutively active (Q61L) variants of Rac1 and Cdc42 to their specific interaction partners Sra-1 and N-WASP, respectively, as well as to their common effector protein PAK was abrogated when Ser-71 was exchanged to glutamate as phosphomimetic substitution. Interaction with their common effector proteins IQGAP1/2/3 or MRCK alpha was, however, hardly affected. This ambivalent behaviour was obvious in functional assays. In contrast to Rac1 Q61L, phosphomimetic Rac1 Q61L/S71E was not able to induce increased membrane ruffling. Instead, Rac1 Q61L/S71E allowed filopodia formation, which is in accordance with abrogation of the dominant Sra-1/Wave signalling pathway. In addition, in contrast to Rac1 transfected cells Rac1 S71E failed to activate PAK1/2. On the other hand, Rac1 Q61L/S71E was as effective in activation of NF-kappaB as Rac1 Q61L, illustrating positive signal transduction of phosphorylated Rac1. Together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of Rac1 and Cdc42 at serine-71 represents a reversible mechanism to shift specificity of GTPase/effector coupling, and to preferentially address selected downstream pathways. PMID:22970203

  15. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  16. Unconventional serine proteases: Variations on the catalytic Ser/His/Asp triad configuration

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, zlem Do?an; Paetzel, Mark; Dalbey, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    Serine proteases comprise nearly one-third of all known proteases identified to date and play crucial roles in a wide variety of cellular as well as extracellular functions, including the process of blood clotting, protein digestion, cell signaling, inflammation, and protein processing. Their hallmark is that they contain the so-called classical catalytic Ser/His/Asp triad. Although the classical serine proteases are the most widespread in nature, there exist a variety of nonclassical serine proteases where variations to the catalytic triad are observed. Such variations include the triads Ser/His/Glu, Ser/His/His, and Ser/Glu/Asp, and include the dyads Ser/Lys and Ser/His. Other variations are seen with certain serine and threonine peptidases of the Ntn hydrolase superfamily that carry out catalysis with a single active site residue. This work discusses the structure and function of these novel serine proteases and threonine proteases and how their catalytic machinery differs from the prototypic serine protease class. PMID:18824507

  17. Hexokinase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: regulation of oligomeric structure by in vivo phosphorylation at serine-14.

    PubMed

    Behlke, J; Heidrich, K; Naumann, M; Mller, E C; Otto, A; Reuter, R; Kriegel, T

    1998-08-25

    Homodimeric hexokinase 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to have two sites of phosphorylation: for serine-14 the modification in vivo increases with glucose exhaustion [Kriegel et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 148-152], while for serine-157 it occurs in vitro with ATP in the presence of nonphosphorylateable five-carbon analogues of glucose [Heidrich et al. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1960-1964]. We show now by site-directed mutagenesis and sedimentation analysis that serine-14 phosphorylation affects the oligomeric state of hexokinase, its substitution by glutamate causing complete dissociation; glutamate exchange for serine-157 does not. Phosphorylation of wild-type hexokinase at serine-14 likewise causes dissociation in vitro. In view of the higher glucose affinity of monomeric hexokinase and the high hexokinase concentration in yeast [Womack, F., and Colowick, S. P. (1978) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 191, 742-747; Mayes, E. L., Hoggett, J. G., and Kellett, G. L. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 127-134], we speculate that the in vivo phosphorylation at serine-14 as transiently occurring in glucose derepression might provide a mechanism to improve glucose utilization from low level and/or that nuclear localization of the monomer might be involved in the signal transduction whereby glucose causes catabolite repression. PMID:9718324

  18. Thermodynamic characteristics of protolytic equilibria of L-serine in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Volkov, A. V.; Khokhlova, E. A.; Krutova, O. N.

    2011-05-01

    The heat effects of the reaction of aqueous solution of L-serine with aqueous solutions of HNO3 and KOH were determined by calorimetry at temperatures of 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K, and ionic strength values of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 (background electrolyte, KNO3). Standard thermodynamic characteristics (?r H o, ?r G o, ?r S o, ? C {/p o}) of the acid-base reactions in aqueous solutions of L-serine were calculated. The effect of the concentration of background electrolyte and temperature on the heats of dissociation of amino acid was considered. The combustion energy of L-serine by bomb calorimetry in the medium of oxygen was determined. The standard combustion and formation enthalpies of crystalline L-serine were calculated. The heats of dissolution of crystalline L-serine in water and solutions of potassium hydroxide at 298.15 K were measured by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of L-serine and products of its dissociation in aqueous solution were calculated.

  19. Stat5a serine 725 and 779 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for hematopoietic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Kovacic, Boris; Li, Geqiang; Hoelbl, Andrea; Yahiaoui, Saliha; Sexl, Veronika; Mllner, Ernst W.; Fajmann, Sabine; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Valent, Peter; Beug, Hartmut; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Bunting, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Stat5 transcription factors are essential gene regulators promoting proliferation, survival, and differentiation of all hematopoietic cell types. Mutations or fusions of oncogenic tyrosine kinases often result in constitutive Stat5 activation. We have modeled persistent Stat5 activity by using an oncogenic Stat5a variant (cS5). To analyze the hitherto unrecognized role of Stat5 serine phosphorylation in this context, we have generated cS5 constructs with mutated C-terminal serines 725 and 779, either alone or in combination. Genetic complementation assays in primary Stat5null/null mast cells and Stat5?N T cells demonstrated reconstitution of proliferation with these mutants. Similarly, an in vivo reconstitution experiment of transduced Stat5null/null fetal liver cells transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients revealed that these mutants exhibit biologic activity in lineage differentiation. By contrast, the leukemogenic potential of cS5 in bone marrow transplants decreased dramatically in cS5 single-serine mutants or was completely absent upon loss of both serine phosphorylation sites. Our data suggest that Stat5a serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for cS5-mediated leukemogenesis. Hence, interference with Stat5a serine phosphorylation might provide a new therapeutic option for leukemia and myeloid dysplasias without affecting major functions of Stat5 in normal hematopoiesis. PMID:20508164

  20. Stat5a serine 725 and 779 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for hematopoietic transformation.

    PubMed

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Kerenyi, Marc A; Kovacic, Boris; Li, Geqiang; Hoelbl, Andrea; Yahiaoui, Saliha; Sexl, Veronika; Mllner, Ernst W; Fajmann, Sabine; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Valent, Peter; Beug, Hartmut; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Bunting, Kevin D; Moriggl, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Stat5 transcription factors are essential gene regulators promoting proliferation, survival, and differentiation of all hematopoietic cell types. Mutations or fusions of oncogenic tyrosine kinases often result in constitutive Stat5 activation. We have modeled persistent Stat5 activity by using an oncogenic Stat5a variant (cS5). To analyze the hitherto unrecognized role of Stat5 serine phosphorylation in this context, we have generated cS5 constructs with mutated C-terminal serines 725 and 779, either alone or in combination. Genetic complementation assays in primary Stat5(null/null) mast cells and Stat5(DeltaN) T cells demonstrated reconstitution of proliferation with these mutants. Similarly, an in vivo reconstitution experiment of transduced Stat5(null/null) fetal liver cells transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients revealed that these mutants exhibit biologic activity in lineage differentiation. By contrast, the leukemogenic potential of cS5 in bone marrow transplants decreased dramatically in cS5 single-serine mutants or was completely absent upon loss of both serine phosphorylation sites. Our data suggest that Stat5a serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for cS5-mediated leukemogenesis. Hence, interference with Stat5a serine phosphorylation might provide a new therapeutic option for leukemia and myeloid dysplasias without affecting major functions of Stat5 in normal hematopoiesis. PMID:20508164

  1. Dynamic regulation of d-serine release in the vertebrate retina

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Eric G; Stevens, Eric S; Miller, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the functional properties of NMDA receptor coagonist release and to specifically evaluate whether light-evoked release mechanisms contribute to the availability of the coagonist d-serine. Two different methods were involved in our approach: (i) whole-cell recordings from identified retinal ganglion cells in the tiger salamander were used to study light adaptation with positive and negative contrast stimuli over a range of 1log unit against a steady background illumination and (ii) the mechanisms for intensity encoding to a range of light intensities covering 6 log10 units were investigated. This latter study employed extracellular recordings of the proximal negative field potential, pharmacologically manipulated to generate a pure NMDA mediated response. For the adaptation study, we examined the light-evoked responses under control conditions, followed by light stimuli presented in the presence of d-serine, followed by light stimulation in the presence of dichlorokynurenic acid to block the coagonist site of NMDA receptors. For the brightness encoding studies, we examined the action of d-serine on each intensity used and then applied the enzyme d-serine deaminase to remove significant levels of d-serine. These studies provided new insights into the mechanisms that regulate coagonist availability in the vertebrate retina. Our results strongly support the idea that light-evoked coagonist release, a major component of which is d-serine, is needed to provide the full range of coagonist availability for optimal activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:25480802

  2. Activation of a serine/threonine kinase signaling pathway by transforming growth factor type beta.

    PubMed Central

    Atfi, A; Lepage, K; Allard, P; Chapdelaine, A; Chevalier, S

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional factor that regulates proliferation and differentiation of many cell types. TGF-beta mediates its effects by binding to and activating cell surface receptors that possess serine/threonine kinase activity. However, the intracellular signaling pathways through which TGF-beta receptors act remain largely unknown. Here we show that TGF-beta activates a 78-kDa protein (p78) serine/threonine kinase as evidenced by an in-gel kinase assay. Ligand-induced activation of the kinase was near-maximal 5 min after TGF-beta addition to the cells and occurred exclusively on serine and threonine residues. This kinase is distinct from TGF-beta receptor type II, as well as several cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases of similar size, including protein kinase C, Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, and ribosomal S6 kinase. Indeed, these kinases can be separated almost completely from p78 kinase by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. Furthermore, using different cell lines, we demonstrate that p78 kinase is activated only in cells for which TGF-beta can act as a growth inhibitory factor. These data raise the interesting possibility that protein serine/threonine kinases contribute to the intracellular relay of biological signals originating from receptor serine/threonine kinases such as the TGF-beta receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8618854

  3. A novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Iketani, Aya; Nakamura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Yuya; Awai, Koichiro; Shioi, Yuzo

    2013-03-01

    A serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from basidiocarps of the edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes was characterized. The protease was purified to near homogeneity by three steps of chromatography using acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (Ac-YVAD-MCA) as a substrate. The enzyme was termed FvSerP (F. velutipes serine protease). This enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the caspase-specific inhibitor, Ac-YVAD-CHO, as well as moderately inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. Based on the N-terminal sequence, the cDNA of FvSerP was identified. The deduced protease sequence was a peptide composed of 325 amino acids with a molecular mass of 34.5kDa. The amino acid sequence of FvSerP showed similarity to neither caspases nor to the plant subtilisin-like serine protease with caspase-like activity called saspase. FvSerP shared identity to the functionally unknown genes from class of Agaricomycetes, with similarity to the peptidase S41 domain of a serine protease. It was thus concluded that this enzyme is likely a novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities belonging to the peptidase S41 family and distributed in the class Agaricomycetes. This enzyme possibly functions in autolysis, a type of programmed cell death that occurs in the later stages of development of basidiocarps with reference to their enzymatic functions. PMID:23537874

  4. 7 CFR 1753.37 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.37 Section 1753... Installation of Central Office Equipment 1753.37 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation of P&S, the borrower shall review with the GFR the current and future requirements...

  5. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Domnguez-Gimnez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martn-Bermudo, Mara D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that ?PS1?PS (PS1) and/or ?PS3?PS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas ?PS2?PS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin ?1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration. PMID:21949686

  6. Communicating Knowing through Communities of Practice: Exploring Internal Communicative Processes and Differences among CoPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Joel O.; McPhee, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Knowing is an enacted, communicated process that is difficult to observe, let alone manage, in organizations. Communities of practice (CoPs) offer a productive solution for improving knowledge and knowledge management, but the communicative processes that enact CoPs have not been explored, leaving CoPs as an organizational black box. This research

  7. 7 CFR 1753.37 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.37 Section 1753... Installation of Central Office Equipment 1753.37 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation of P&S, the borrower shall review with the GFR the current and future requirements...

  8. 7 CFR 1753.37 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.37 Section 1753... Installation of Central Office Equipment 1753.37 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation of P&S, the borrower shall review with the GFR the current and future requirements...

  9. 7 CFR 1753.37 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.37 Section 1753... Installation of Central Office Equipment 1753.37 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation of P&S, the borrower shall review with the GFR the current and future requirements...

  10. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein ? subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein ? subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P.?sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a G?-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P.?sojae. PMID:25976113

  11. Phosphoserine phosphatase activity is elevated and correlates negatively with plasma d-serine concentration in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Yuji; Sekine, Masae; Fujii, Kumiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Aoki, Akiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2016-03-30

    The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. D-3serine and glycine are endogenous l-serine-derived NMDAR co-agonists. We hypothesized that the l-serine synthesis pathway could be involved in schizophrenia. We measured the activity of phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a rate-limiting enzyme in l-serine synthesis, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 49 normal control subjects. Plasma amino acid (l-serine, d-serine, glycine, glutamine, and glutamate) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral blood mRNA expression levels of PHGDH, PSAT1, PSP, and SR, determined by quantitative real-time PCR were compared between patients and controls. PSP activity was higher in patients than in controls, especially in male patients. In male patients, the plasma l-serine concentration was higher than that in controls. In patients, PSP activity was negatively correlated with plasma d-serine and glycine levels. Furthermore, PSP activity was positively correlated with plasma l-serine concentration. These results were statistically significant only in male patients. PSP, PSAT1, and PHGDH mRNA levels were lower in patients than in controls, except when the PHGDH expression level was compared with ACTB expression. In summary, we found the l-serine synthesis system to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, especially in male patients. PMID:26804975

  12. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertani, G.; Baresi, L.

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated.

  13. Genetic transformation in the methanogen Methanococcus voltae PS.

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, G; Baresi, L

    1987-01-01

    Mutations causing requirements for histidine, purine, and vitamin B12 were obtained in strain PS of Methanococcus voltae (archaebacteria) upon irradiation with UV or gamma rays. The first two mutations were shown to revert at low frequencies and were used to demonstrate the occurrence of transformation with homologous, wild-type DNA. The transformation rates obtained for these presumably chromosomal markers were in the range of 2 to 100 transformants per microgram of DNA. Mutants resistant to 2-bromoethanesulfonate and to 5-methyl-DL-tryptophan were also isolated. Images PMID:3034867

  14. Science spin: iPS cell research in the news.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, T; Rachul, C

    2011-05-01

    Big scientific developments have always been spun to meet particular social agendas. We have seen it in the context of global warming, nuclear power, and genetically modified organisms. But few stories illustrate the phenomenon of spin as well as the reaction, and concomitant media coverage, that surrounded the November 2007 announcement regarding the reprogramming of skin cells to produce cells with qualities comparable to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. PMID:21512523

  15. BioMaPS: A Roadmap for Success

    PubMed Central

    Fister, K. Renee

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript outlines the impact that our National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences program, BioMaPS, has had on the students and faculty at Murray State University. This interdisciplinary program teams mathematics and biology undergraduate students with mathematics and biology faculty and has produced research insights and curriculum developments at the intersection of these two disciplines. The goals, structure, achievements, and curriculum initiatives are described in relation to the effects they have had to enhance the study of biomathematics. PMID:20810948

  16. Quality control of the tribological coating PS212

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    PS212 is a self-lubricating, composite coating that is applied by the plasma spray process. It is a functional lubricating coating from 25 C (or lower) to 900 C. The coating is prepared from a blend of three different powders with very dissimilar properties. Therefore, the final chemical composition and lubricating effectiveness of the coatings are very sensitive to the process variables used in their preparation. Defined here are the relevant variables. The process and analytical procedures that will result in satisfactory tribological coatings are discussed.

  17. Create and Publish a Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernique, P.; Boch, T.; Pineau, F.; Oberto, A.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the CDS promotes a method for visualizing based on the HEALPix sky tessellation. This method, called Hierarchical Progressive Survey" or HiPS, allows one to display a survey progressively. It is particularly suited for all-sky surveys or deep fields. This visualization method is now integrated in several applications, notably Aladin, the SiTools/MIZAR CNES framework, and the recent HTML5 Aladin Lite". Also, more than one hundred surveys are already available in this view mode. In this article, we will present the progress concerning this method and its recent adaptation to the astronomical catalogs such as the GAIA simulation.

  18. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor coagonist d-serine suppresses intake of high-preference food.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Sho; Kakuta, Shigeru; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Kuni; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kinoshita, Toshio; Yada, Toshihiko; Amano, Naoji; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2015-09-01

    d-Serine is abundant in the forebrain and physiologically important for modulating excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission as a coagonist of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. NMDA signaling has been implicated in the control of food intake. However, the role of d-serine on appetite regulation is unknown. To clarify the effects of d-serine on appetite, we investigated the effect of oral d-serine ingestion on food intake in three different feeding paradigms (one-food access, two-food choice, and refeeding after 24-h fasting) using three different strains of male mice (C57Bl/6J, BKS, and ICR). The effect of d-serine was also tested in leptin signaling-deficient db/db mice and sensory-deafferented (capsaicin-treated) mice. The expression of orexigenic neuropeptides [neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related protein (Agrp)] in the hypothalamus was compared in fast/refed experiments. Conditioned taste aversion for high-fat diet (HFD) was tested in the d-serine-treated mice. Under the one-food-access paradigm, some of the d-serine-treated mice showed starvation, but not when fed normal chow. HFD feeding with d-serine ingestion did not cause aversion. Under the two-food-choice paradigm, d-serine suppressed the intake of high-preference food but not normal chow. d-Serine also effectively suppressed HFD intake but not normal chow in db/db mice and sensory-deafferented mice. In addition, d-serine suppressed normal chow intake after 24-h fasting despite higher orexigenic gene expression in the hypothalamus. d-Serine failed to suppress HFD intake in the presence of L-701,324, the selective and full antagonist at the glycine-binding site of the NMDA receptor. Therefore, d-serine suppresses the intake of high-preference food through coagonism toward NMDA receptors. PMID:26157056

  19. Neuronal D-serine and glycine release via the Asc-1 transporter regulates NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dina; Artoul, Samar; Segal, Adi C; Kolodney, Goren; Radzishevsky, Inna; Dikopoltsev, Elena; Foltyn, Veronika N; Inoue, Ran; Mori, Hisashi; Billard, Jean-Marie; Wolosker, Herman

    2013-02-20

    D-Serine and glycine are coagonists of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), but their relative contributions for several NMDAR-dependent processes are unclear. We now report that the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter-1 (Asc-1) mediates release of both D-serine and glycine from neurons, and, in turn, this modulates NMDAR synaptic activity. Asc-1 antiporter activity is enhanced by D-isoleucine (D-Ile), which releases D-serine and glycine from Asc-1-transfected cells, primary neuronal cultures, and hippocampal slices. D-Ile has no effect on astrocytes, which do not express Asc-1. We show that D-Ile enhances the long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat and mouse hippocampal CA1 by stimulating Asc-1-mediated endogenous D-serine release. D-Ile effects on synaptic plasticity are abolished by enzymatically depleting D-serine or by using serine racemase knock-out (SR-KO) mice, confirming its specificity and supporting the notion that LTP depends mostly on D-serine release. Conversely, our data also disclose a role of glycine in activating synaptic NMDARs. Although acute enzymatic depletion of D-serine also drastically decreases the isolated NMDAR synaptic potentials, these responses are still enhanced by D-Ile. Furthermore, NMDAR synaptic potentials are preserved in SR-KO mice and are also enhanced by D-Ile, indicating that glycine overlaps with D-serine binding at synaptic NMDARs. Altogether, our results disclose a novel role of Asc-1 in regulating NMDAR-dependent synaptic activity by mediating concurrent non-vesicular release of D-serine and glycine. Our data also highlight an important role of neuron-derived D-serine and glycine, indicating that astrocytic D-serine is not solely responsible for activating synaptic NMDARs. PMID:23426681

  20. Identification and Characterization of Fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum Autotransporter Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Yara; Eini, Amir; Naor, Ronit; Rosen, Graciela; Bachrach, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral anaerobe associated with periodontal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and colorectal carcinoma. A serine endopeptidase of 61–65 kDa capable of damaging host tissue and of inactivating immune effectors was detected previously in F. nucleatum. Here we describe the identification of this serine protease, named fusolisin, in three oral F. nucleatum sub-species. Gel zymogram revealed fusobacterial proteolytic activity with molecular masses ranging from 55–101 kDa. All of the detected proteases were inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF. analysis revealed that all of the detected proteases are encoded by genes encoding an open reading frame (ORF) with a calculated mass of approximately 115 kDa. Bioinformatics analysis of the identified ORFs demonstrated that they consist of three domains characteristic of autotransporters of the type Va secretion system. Our results suggest that the F. nucleatum fusolisins are derived from a precursor of approximately 115 kDa. After crossing the cytoplasmic membrane and cleavage of the leader sequence, the C-terminal autotransporter domain of the remaining 96–113 kDa protein is embedded in the outer membrane and delivers the N-terminal S8 serine protease passenger domain to the outer cell surface. In most strains the N-terminal catalytic 55–65 kDa domain self cleaves and liberates itself from the autotransporter domain after its transfer across the outer cell membrane. In F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 this autocatalytic activity is less efficient resulting in a full length membrane-anchored serine protease. The mature serine protease was found to cleave after Thr, Gly, Ala and Leu residues at the P1 position. Growth of F. nucleatum in complex medium was inhibited when serine protease inhibitors were used. Additional experiments are needed to determine whether fusolisin might be used as a target for controlling fusobacterial infections. PMID:25357190

  1. Identification and characterization of fusolisin, the Fusobacterium nucleatum autotransporter serine protease.

    PubMed

    Doron, Lior; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Ibrahim, Yara; Eini, Amir; Naor, Ronit; Rosen, Graciela; Bachrach, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral anaerobe associated with periodontal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and colorectal carcinoma. A serine endopeptidase of 61-65 kDa capable of damaging host tissue and of inactivating immune effectors was detected previously in F. nucleatum. Here we describe the identification of this serine protease, named fusolisin, in three oral F. nucleatum sub-species. Gel zymogram revealed fusobacterial proteolytic activity with molecular masses ranging from 55-101 kDa. All of the detected proteases were inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF. analysis revealed that all of the detected proteases are encoded by genes encoding an open reading frame (ORF) with a calculated mass of approximately 115 kDa. Bioinformatics analysis of the identified ORFs demonstrated that they consist of three domains characteristic of autotransporters of the type Va secretion system. Our results suggest that the F. nucleatum fusolisins are derived from a precursor of approximately 115 kDa. After crossing the cytoplasmic membrane and cleavage of the leader sequence, the C-terminal autotransporter domain of the remaining 96-113 kDa protein is embedded in the outer membrane and delivers the N-terminal S8 serine protease passenger domain to the outer cell surface. In most strains the N-terminal catalytic 55-65 kDa domain self cleaves and liberates itself from the autotransporter domain after its transfer across the outer cell membrane. In F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 this autocatalytic activity is less efficient resulting in a full length membrane-anchored serine protease. The mature serine protease was found to cleave after Thr, Gly, Ala and Leu residues at the P1 position. Growth of F. nucleatum in complex medium was inhibited when serine protease inhibitors were used. Additional experiments are needed to determine whether fusolisin might be used as a target for controlling fusobacterial infections. PMID:25357190

  2. Antimicrobial activity of a honeybee (Apis cerana) venom Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Kwang Sik; Zou, Feng Ming; Wan, Hu; Choi, Yong Soo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kwon, Hyung Wook; Je, Yeon Ho; Jin, Byung Rae

    2013-12-15

    Insect-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors exhibit thrombin, elastase, plasmin, proteinase K, or subtilisin A inhibition activity, but so far, no functional roles for bee-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors have been identified. In this study, a bee (Apis cerana) venom Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor (AcKTSPI) that acts as a microbial serine protease inhibitor was identified. AcKTSPI contained a single Kazal domain that displayed six conserved cysteine residues and a P1 threonine residue. AcKTSPI was expressed in the venom gland and was present as a 10-kDa peptide in bee venom. Recombinant AcKTSPI Kazal domain (AcKTSPI-Kd) expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells demonstrated inhibitory activity against subtilisin A (Ki 67.03 nM) and proteinase K (Ki 91.53 nM), but not against α-chymotrypsin or trypsin, which implies a role for AcKTSPI as a microbial serine protease inhibitor. However, AcKTSPI-Kd exhibited no detectable inhibitory effects on factor Xa, thrombin, tissue plasminogen activator, or elastase. Additionally, AcKTSPI-Kd bound directly to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, and Fusarium graminearum but not to Escherichia coli. Consistent with these findings, AcKTSPI-Kd showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and antifungal activity against both plant-pathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi. These findings constitute molecular evidence that AcKTSPI acts as an inhibitor of microbial serine proteases. This paper provides a novel view of the antimicrobial functions of a bee venom Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor. PMID:24076031

  3. Allosteric activation and contrasting properties of L-serine dehydratase types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shawei; Xu, Xiao Lan; Grant, Gregory A

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial L-serine dehydratases differ from mammalian L- and D-serine dehydratases and bacterial D-serine dehydratases by the presence of an iron-sulfur center rather than a pyridoxyl phosphate prosthetic group. They exist in two forms, types 1 and 2, distinguished by their sequence and oligomeric configuration. Both types contain an ASB domain, and the type 1 enzymes also contain an ACT domain in a tandem arrangement with the ASB domain like that in type 1 D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDHs). This investigation reveals striking kinetic differences between L-serine dehydratases from Bacillus subtilis (bsLSD, type 1) and Legionella pneumophila (lpLSD, type 2). lpLSD is activated by monovalent cations and inhibited by monovalent anions. bsLSD is strongly activated by cations, particularly potassium, and shows a mixed response to anions. Flouride is a competitive inhibitor for lpLSD but an apparent activator for bsLSD at low concentrations and an inhibitor at high concentrations. The reaction products, pyruvate and ammonia, also act as activators but to different extents for each type. Pyruvate activation is competitive with L-serine, but activation of the enzyme is not compatible with it simply competing for binding at the active site and suggests the presence of a second, allosteric site. Because activation can be eliminated by higher levels of L-serine, it may be that this second site is actually a second serine binding site. This is consistent with type 1 PGDH in which the ASB domain functions as a second site for substrate binding and activation. PMID:22686449

  4. An Essential Signal Peptide Peptidase Identified in an RNAi Screen of Serine Peptidases of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Catherine X.; Brown, Elaine; Hamilton, Alana; Van der Veken, Pieter; Augustyns, Koen; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2015-01-01

    The serine peptidases of Trypanosoma brucei have been viewed as potential drug targets. In particular, the S9 prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily is thought to be a good avenue for drug discovery. This is based on the finding that some S9 peptidases are secreted and active in the mammalian bloodstream, and that they are a class of enzyme against which drugs have successfully been developed. We collated a list of all serine peptidases in T. brucei, identifying 20 serine peptidase genes, of which nine are S9 peptidases. We screened all 20 serine peptidases by RNAi to determine which, if any, are essential for bloodstream form T. brucei survival. All S9 serine peptidases were dispensable for parasite survival in vitro, even when pairs of similar genes, coding for oligopeptidase B or prolyl oligopeptidase, were targeted simultaneously. We also found no effect on parasite survival in an animal host when the S9 peptidases oligopeptidase B, prolyl oligopeptidase or dipeptidyl peptidase 8 were targeted. The only serine peptidase to emerge from the RNAi screen as essential was a putative type-I signal peptide peptidase (SPP1). This gene was essential for parasite survival both in vitro and in vivo. The growth defect conferred by RNAi depletion of SPP1 was rescued by expression of a functional peptidase from an RNAi resistant SPP1 gene. However, expression of catalytically inactive SPP1 was unable to rescue cells from the SPP1 depleted phenotype, demonstrating that SPP1 serine peptidase activity is necessary for T. brucei survival. PMID:25816352

  5. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42?C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42?C, almost all cells disappeared by 48?hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42?C, and iPS cell death at 42?C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  6. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  7. Generation of Partially Reprogrammed Cells and Fully Reprogrammed iPS Cells by Plasmid Transfection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by overexpression of defined transcription factors. iPS cells can perpetually self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. iPS cells were first generated through infection with retroviruses that contain reprogramming factors. However, development of an exogene-free iPS cell generation method is crucial for future therapeutic applications, because integrated exogenes result in the formation of tumors in chimeras and regain pluripotency after differentiation in vitro. Here, we describe a method to generate iPS cells by transfection of plasmid vectors and to convert partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed iPS cells by switching from mouse ESC culture conditions to KOSR-based media with bFGF. We also describe basic methods used to characterize fully reprogrammed iPS cells. PMID:25476445

  8. Accelerating PS model-based dynamic cardiac MRI using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Xie, Guoxi; Shi, Caiyun; Su, Shi; Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Xin; Qiu, Bensheng

    2016-02-01

    High spatiotemporal resolution MRI is a challenging topic in dynamic MRI field. Partial separability (PS) model has been successfully applied to dynamic cardiac MRI by exploiting data redundancy. However, the model requires substantial preprocessing data to accurately estimate the model parameters before image reconstruction. Since compressed sensing (CS) is a potential technique to accelerate MRI by reducing the number of acquired data, the combination of PS and CS, named as Stepped-SparsePS, was introduced to accelerate the preprocessing data acquisition of PS in this work. The proposed Stepped-SparsePS method sequentially reconstructs a set of aliased dynamic images in each channel based on PS model and then the final dynamic images from the aliased images using CS. The results from numerical simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Stepped-SparsePS could significantly reduce data acquisition time while preserving high spatiotemporal resolution. PMID:26552006

  9. Kinetic energy of Ps formed by Ore mechanism in Ar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yosuke; Kino, Yasushi; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate kinetic energy of positronium(Ps) formed by Ore mechanism, we performed positron annihilation age-momentum correlation (AMOC) measurements in Argas for 5.0 MPa and 7.5 MPa at room temperature. From the time dependence of Doppler broadening of para-Ps (p-Ps) self-annihilation gramma-ray component, we observed Ps slowing down process. Using a simple slowing down model, we obtained the initial kinetic energy of Ps formed by Ore mechanism and Ps-Armomentum transfer cross section. The initial kinetic energy was 3.9 eV which was higher than the kinetic energy of Ps formed at the upper limit of Ore gap. The momentum transfer cross section was 0.019 0.010 nm2 in between 1 eV and 3.9 eV, and was close to the theoretical calculation.

  10. iPS cell technology: Future impact on renal care.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Benjamin S; Steinman, Theodore I

    2015-08-01

    iPS cells from patients with kidney disease are a new tool with the potential to impact the future of renal care. They can be used in the laboratory to model the pathophysiology of human kidney disease, and have the potential to establish a new area of immunocompatible, on-demand renal transplantation. Critical challenges remain before the full potential of these cells can be accurately assessed. We need to understand whether the derived cell types are mature and can replace kidney function(s). To what extent can iPS cells model kidney disease in the simplified environment of cell culture? Ultimately, successful integration of these cells as autograft therapies will require demonstration of safety and efficacy equal or superior to the existing gold standards of kidney allograft transplantation and dialysis. Specific educational and infrastructural changes will be necessary if these specialized technologies are to be adopted as an accepted modalities in clinical medicine. Given these barriers, the first fruit of these labors is likely to be improved understanding of pathophysiological pathways in human IPS cell disease models, followed by drug discovery and testing. These experiments will lead naturally to improvements in differentiation and experiments in animal models testing function. The time course to achieve the desired goals remains unknown, but the ultimate hope is that new, more effective and less expensive modalities for renal replacement therapy will occur in the foreseeable future. A new standard of care for patients is anticipated that addresses limitations of currently available treatments. PMID:26454909

  11. SIMION PC/PS2 electrostatic lens design program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, D. A.; Delmore, J. E.; Appelhans, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    SIMION PC/PS2 4.02 is a personal computer program for designing and analyzing charged particle (ions and electrons) lenses, ion transport systems, and various types of mass spectrometers and surface probes that utilize charged particles. The modification of an existing design or the generation of a completely new one is performed interactively with a graphics screen and mouse. Once the geometry has been defined, the operating conditions (electrode voltages and magnetic field configuration) can be quickly changed and the resultant fields viewed in several different 2D and 3D modes. The trajectories of charged particles moving in these fields are calculated utilizing sophisticated ``look-ahead'' algorithms that dynamically control the time step to optimize speed and accuracy. A unique graphics display of the electrostatic fields and ion trajectories gives the user an intuitive, easily understood view of the performance characteristics. simion also includes a totally integrated capability for users to easily construct subprograms, which are automatically compiled and integrated into the main program, for defining and controlling all of the major functions of trajectory calculations. This makes it possible to model dynamic electric fields (e.g., rf), including ion-molecule collisions or neutralizations, etc. Operational experience with specific ion lenses designed with simion and tested in several different applications are discussed. SIMION PC/PS2 is available upon written request for the cost of distribution.

  12. Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

  13. Study on GASTOF - A 10 ps resolution timing detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Luc; Liao, Junhui; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    GASTOF (Gas Time Of Flight) is a type of fast-time detector affiliated to the HPS (High Precision Spectrometer) project which is a forward physics collaborator within CMS. It is a picosecond time resolution Cherenkov gas detector using very fast single anode micro-channel plate photomultiplier (Hamamatsu R3809U-50 or Photek 210) as a photon detector. We firstly measured characteristics of these two types of MCP-PMTs by a fast laser pulse in lab. Then two GASTOF detectors both equipped with a Hamamatsu R3809U-50 tube were studied in a beam test at CERN. According to the analysis of beam test data, the average number of photoelectrons (phe) was 2.0 for both phototubes. By making a cut on the number of photoelectrons such that the mean phe was 3.6 in one phototube and 3.2 in another, we obtained a time resolution of ? ~ 11.7 picosecond (ps) and ? ~ 8.2 ps.

  14. STS-52 PS MacLean, backup PS Tryggvason, and PI pose on JSC's CCT flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Canadian Payload Specialist (PS) Steven G. MacLean (left) and backup Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason (right) take a break from a camera training session in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The two Canadian Space Agency (CSA) representatives pose on the CCT's aft flight deck with Canadian scientist David Zimick, the principal investigator (PI) for the materials experiment in low earth orbit (MELEO). MELEO is a component of the CANEX-2 experiment package, manifest to fly on the scheduled October 1992 STS-52 mission. The CCT is part of the shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  15. Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase to target serine biosynthesis in cancers.

    PubMed

    Mullarky, Edouard; Lucki, Natasha C; Beheshti Zavareh, Reza; Anglin, Justin L; Gomes, Ana P; Nicolay, Brandon N; Wong, Jenny C Y; Christen, Stefan; Takahashi, Hidenori; Singh, Pradeep K; Blenis, John; Warren, J David; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Asara, John M; DeNicola, Gina M; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Lairson, Luke L; Cantley, Lewis C

    2016-02-16

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to promote growth and proliferation. The genetic evidence pointing to the importance of the amino acid serine in tumorigenesis is striking. The gene encoding the enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), which catalyzes the first committed step of serine biosynthesis, is overexpressed in tumors and cancer cell lines via focal amplification and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated up-regulation. PHGDH-overexpressing cells are exquisitely sensitive to genetic ablation of the pathway. Here, we report the discovery of a selective small molecule inhibitor of PHGDH, CBR-5884, identified by screening a library of 800,000 drug-like compounds. CBR-5884 inhibited de novo serine synthesis in cancer cells and was selectively toxic to cancer cell lines with high serine biosynthetic activity. Biochemical characterization of the inhibitor revealed that it was a noncompetitive inhibitor that showed a time-dependent onset of inhibition and disrupted the oligomerization state of PHGDH. The identification of a small molecule inhibitor of PHGDH not only enables thorough preclinical evaluation of PHGDH as a target in cancers, but also provides a tool with which to study serine metabolism. PMID:26831078

  16. Cell-type specific mechanisms of D-serine uptake and release in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Magalie; Parpura, Vladimir; Mothet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence during the last decade established that D-serine is a key signaling molecule utilized by neurons and astroglia in the mammalian central nervous system. D-serine is increasingly appreciated as the main physiological endogenous coagonist for synaptic NMDA receptors at central excitatory synapses; it is mandatory for long-term changes in synaptic strength, memory, learning, and social interactions. Alterations in the extracellular levels of D-serine leading to disrupted cell-cell signaling are a trademark of many chronic or acute neurological (i.e., Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, stroke) and psychiatric (i.e., schizophrenia) disorders, and are associated with addictive behavior (i.e., cocaine addiction). Indeed, fine tuning of the extracellular levels of D-serine, achieved by various molecular machineries and signaling pathways, is necessary for maintenance of accurate NMDA receptor functions. Here, we review the experimental data supporting the notion that astroglia and neurons use different pathways to regulate levels of extracellular D-serine. PMID:24910611

  17. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Claire N. J.; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. PMID:27003418

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of the serine and glycine pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Maria; Minieri, Marilena; Melino, Gerry; Amelio, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Serine and glycine are amino acids that provide the essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Employing 3 subsequent enzymes, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH), phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), 3-phosphoglycerate from glycolysis can be converted in serine, which in turn can by converted in glycine by serine methyl transferase (SHMT). Besides proving precursors for macromolecules, serine/glycine biosynthesis is also required for the maintenance of cellular redox state. Therefore, this metabolic pathway has a pivotal role in proliferating cells, including cancer cells. In the last few years an emerging literature provides genetic and functional evidences that hyperactivation of serine/glycine biosynthetic pathway drives tumorigenesis. Here, we extend these observations performing a bioinformatics analysis using public cancer datasets. Our analysis highlighted the relevance of PHGDH and SHMT2 expression as prognostic factor for breast cancer, revealing a substantial ability of these enzymes to predict patient survival outcome. However analyzing patient datasets of lung cancer our analysis reveled that some other enzymes of the pathways, rather than PHGDH, might be associated to prognosis. Although these observations require further investigations they might suggest a selective requirement of some enzymes in specific cancer types, recommending more cautions in the development of novel translational opportunities and biomarker identification of human cancers. PMID:25436979

  19. Bioinformatics analysis of the serine and glycine pathway in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Alexey; Agostini, Massimiliano; Morello, Maria; Minieri, Marilena; Melino, Gerry; Amelio, Ivano

    2014-11-30

    Serine and glycine are amino acids that provide the essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Employing 3 subsequent enzymes, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH), phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), 3-phosphoglycerate from glycolysis can be converted in serine, which in turn can by converted in glycine by serine methyl transferase (SHMT). Besides proving precursors for macromolecules, serine/glycine biosynthesis is also required for the maintenance of cellular redox state. Therefore, this metabolic pathway has a pivotal role in proliferating cells, including cancer cells. In the last few years an emerging literature provides genetic and functional evidences that hyperactivation of serine/glycine biosynthetic pathway drives tumorigenesis. Here, we extend these observations performing a bioinformatics analysis using public cancer datasets. Our analysis highlighted the relevance of PHGDH and SHMT2 expression as prognostic factor for breast cancer, revealing a substantial ability of these enzymes to predict patient survival outcome. However analyzing patient datasets of lung cancer our analysis reveled that some other enzymes of the pathways, rather than PHGDH, might be associated to prognosis. Although these observations require further investigations they might suggest a selective requirement of some enzymes in specific cancer types, recommending more cautions in the development of novel translational opportunities and biomarker identification of human cancers. PMID:25436979

  20. The Cutting Edge: Membrane Anchored Serine Protease Activities in the Pericellular Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Antalis, Toni M.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Hodge, Kathryn M.; Hooper, John D.; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The serine proteases of the trypsin-like (S1) family play critical roles in many key biological processes including digestion, blood coagulation, and immunity. Recent studies have identified members of this family which contain amino- or carboxy-terminal domains that serve to tether the serine protease catalytic domain directly at the plasma membrane. These membrane anchored serine proteases are proving to be key components of the cell machinery for activation of precursor molecules in the pericellular microenvironment, playing vital functions in the maintenance of homeostasis. Substrates activated by membrane anchored serine proteases include peptide hormones, growth and differentiation factors, receptors, enzymes, adhesion molecules and viral coat proteins. In addition, new insights into our understanding of the physiological functions of these proteases and their involvement in human pathology have come from animal models and patient studies. This review discusses emerging evidence for the diversity of this fascinating group of membrane serine proteases as potent modifiers of the pericellular microenvironment through proteolytic processing of diverse substrates. We also discuss the functional consequences of the activities of these proteases on mammalian physiology and disease. PMID:20507279

  1. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hlne; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE. PMID:26790714

  2. Quantitative serine protease assays based on formation of copper(II)-oligopeptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative protease assay based on the formation of a copper-oligopeptide complex is developed. In this assay, when a tripeptide GGH fragment is cleaved from an oligopeptide chain by serine proteases, the tripeptide quickly forms a pink GGH/Cu(2+) complex whose concentration can be determined quantitatively by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Therefore, activities of serine proteases can be determined from the formation rate of the GGH/Cu(2+) complex. This principle can be used to detect the presence of serine protease in a real-time manner, or measure proteolytic activities of serine protease cleaving different oligopeptide substrates. For example, by using this assay, we demonstrate that trypsin, a model serine protease, is able to cleave two oligopeptides GGGGKGGH () and GGGGRGGH (). However, the specificity constant (kcat/Km) for is higher than that of (6.4 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)vs. 1.3 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)). This result shows that trypsin is more specific toward arginine (R) than lysine (K) in the oligopeptide sequence. PMID:25386732

  3. Antibody-dependent tumour cytolysis by human neutrophils: effect of synthetic serine esterase inhibitors and substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Dallegri, F; Frumento, G; Ballestrero, A; Goretti, R; Torresin, A; Patrone, F

    1987-01-01

    The requirement for serine esterase activity in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in human neutrophils against Raji target cells has been investigated. The lysis was prevented when the serine esterase inhibitors TPCK and TLCK (chloromethyl-ketone derivatives of tosylamino acids) were introduced into the system. Moreover, neutrophils pretreated with TPCK or TLCK and washed were inhibited as well, via a process unaffected by the presence of adequate amounts of enzymatic substrates. This suggests that the inhibition mediated by TPCK and TLCK is independent of serine esterase blockade, therefore implying the inactivation of some other step crucial to the lysis. The addition of synthetic chymotrypsin substrates (tyrosine and phenylalanine esters) impaired the Raji cell lysis in a dose-related manner without altering the constitution of neutrophil-target conjugates. Trypsin ester substrates were ineffective. These results are in agreement with the involvement of a serine esterase activity with chymotrypsin-like specificity, which should participate in the lysis at a post-binding step. We conclude that neutrophil-mediated ADCC, as developed in our model system, needs the intervention of a serine esterase or esterases, like other systems of cell-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:3666787

  4. Effects of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs on D-serine-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Guliz; Kanit, Lutfiye; Yalcin, Ayfer

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation is deleterious for organs with reduced capacity of regeneration, such as the brain. Recently, studies have focused on investigating the therapeutic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Excitotoxicity is the pathological process when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), receptors are overactivated. This process may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. D-serine is one of the coagonist of NMDA receptors, and increased levels of D-serine are associated with excitotoxicity. In our study, the potential neuroprotective effects of mefenamic acid, acetaminophen, and naproxen sodium were investigated against D-serine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain in vitro. To show their potential neuroprotective properties, NSAIDs were incubated with D-serine and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl content of the brain after different treatments were measured. Our results demostrate that NSAIDs used in the present study significantly reduced ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation against D-serine treatment. PMID:22486999

  5. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE. PMID:26790714

  6. Human hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells promote regeneration of peripheral-nerve injury: an advantageous alternative to ES and iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Kanoh, Maho; Niiyama, Shiro; Hamada, Yuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Sato, Yuichi; Hoffman, Robert M; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    The optimal source of stem cells for regenerative medicine is a major question. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have shown promise for pluripotency but have ethical issues and potential to form teratomas. Pluripotent stem cells have been produced from skin cells by either viral-, plasmid- or transposon-mediated gene transfer. These stem cells have been termed induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells. iPS cells may also have malignant potential and are inefficiently produced. Embryonic stem cells may not be suited for individualized therapy, since they can undergo immunologic rejection. To address these fundamental problems, our group is developing hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells. Our previous studies have shown that mouse hfPS cells can differentiate to neurons, glial cells in vitro, and other cell types, and can promote nerve and spinal cord regeneration in vivo. hfPS cells are located above the hair follicle bulge in what we have termed the hfPS cell area (hfPSA) and are nestin positive and keratin 15 (K-15) negative. Human hfPS cells can also differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. In the present study, human hfPS cells were transplanted in the severed sciatic nerve of the mouse where they differentiated into glial fibrillary-acidic-protein (GFAP)-positive Schwann cells and promoted the recovery of pre-existing axons, leading to nerve generation. The regenerated nerve recovered function and, upon electrical stimulation, contracted the gastrocnemius muscle. The hfPS cells can be readily isolated from the human scalp, thereby providing an accessible, autologous and safe source of stem cells for regenerative medicine that have important advantages over ES or iPS cells. PMID:19507228

  7. Laser-Free RF-Gun as a Combined Source of Thz and Ps-Sub-Ps X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; Faillace, L.; Verma, A.; Kim, Y.; Buaphad, P.; Andrews, A.; Berls, B.; Eckman, C.; Folkman, K.; Knowles-Swingle, A.; O'Neill, C.; Smith, M.; Grandsaert, T.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Berg, W. J.; Sereno, N. S.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A. A.

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ?inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. The system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.

  8. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. Themore » system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.« less

  9. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; Faillace, L.; Verma, A.; Kim, Y.; Buaphad, P.; Andrews, A.; Berls, B.; Eckman, C.; Folkman, K.; Knowles-Swingle, A.; O’Neill, C.; Smith, M.; Grandsaert, T.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Berg, W. J.; Sereno, N. S.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. The system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.

  10. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  11. p38 MAPK inhibition enhances PS-341 (bortezomib)-induced cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Hideshima, Teru; Podar, Klaus; Chauhan, Dharminder; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Mitsiades, Constantine; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Hamasaki, Makoto; Raje, Noopur; Hideshima, Hiromasa; Schreiner, George; Nguyen, Aaron N; Navas, Tony; Munshi, Nikhil C; Richardson, Paul G; Higgins, Linda S; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2004-11-18

    Although PS-341 (bortezomib) is a promising agent to improve multiple myeloma (MM) patient outcome, 65% of patients with relapsed and refractory disease do not respond. We have previously shown that heat shock protein (Hsp)27 is upregulated after PS-341 treatment, that overexpression of Hsp27 confers PS-341 resistance, and that inhibition of Hsp27 overcomes PS-341 resistance. Since Hsp27 is a downstream target of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK-mitogen-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK2), we hypothesized that inhibition of p38 MAPK activity could augment PS-341 cytotoxicity by downregulating Hsp27. Although p38 MAPK inhibitor SCIO-469 (Scios Inc, CA, USA) alone did not induce significant growth inhibition, it blocked baseline and PS-341-triggered phosphorylation of p38 MAPK as well as upregulation of Hsp27, associated with enhanced cytotoxicity in MM.1S cells. Importantly, SCIO-469 enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and augmented cleavage of caspase-8 and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. Moreover, SCIO-469 downregulated PS-341-induced increases in G2/M-phase cells, associated with downregulation of p21Cip1 expression. Importantly, SCIO-469 treatment augmented cytotoxicity of PS-341 even against PS-341-resistant cell lines and patient MM cells. These studies therefore provide the framework for clinical trials of SCIO-469 to enhance sensitivity and overcome resistance to PS-341, thereby improving patient outcome in MM. PMID:15480425

  12. Sub-10 ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckman, L. L.; Varner, G. S.

    2009-04-01

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit-time-spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10 ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  13. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-02-20

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  14. Effects of phosphorylation on the intrinsic propensity of backbone conformations of serine/threonine.

    PubMed

    He, Erbin; Yan, Guanghui; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Li, Wenfei

    2016-03-01

    Each amino acid has its intrinsic propensity for certain local backbone conformations, which can be further modulated by the physicochemical environment and post-translational modifications. In this work, we study the effects of phosphorylation on the intrinsic propensity for different local backbone conformations of serine/threonine by molecular dynamics simulations. We showed that phosphorylation has very different effects on the intrinsic propensity for certain local backbone conformations for the serine and threonine. The phosphorylation of serine increases the propensity of forming polyproline II, whereas that of threonine has the opposite effect. Detailed analysis showed that such different responses to phosphorylation mainly arise from their different perturbations to the backbone hydration and the geometrical constraints by forming side-chain-backbone hydrogen bonds due to phosphorylation. Such an effect of phosphorylation on backbone conformations can be crucial for understanding the molecular mechanism of phosphorylation-regulated protein structures/dynamics and functions. PMID:26759163

  15. Adaptation of caddisfly larval silks to aquatic habitats by phosphorylation of h-fibroin serines.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Russell J; Wang, Ching Shuen

    2010-04-12

    Aquatic caddisflies diverged from a silk-spinning ancestor shared with terrestrial moths and butterflies. Caddisfly larva spin adhesive silk underwater to construct protective shelters with adventitiously gathered materials. A repeating (SX)(n) motif conserved in the H-fibroin of several caddisfly species is densely phosphorylated. In total, more than half of the serines in caddisfly silk may be phosphorylated. Major molecular adaptations allowing underwater spinning of an ancestral dry silk appear to have been phosphorylation of serines and the accumulation of basic residues in the silk proteins. The amphoteric nature of the silk proteins could contribute to silk fiber assembly through electrostatic association of phosphorylated blocks with arginine-rich blocks. The presence of Ca(2+) in the caddisfly larval silk proteins suggest phosphorylated serines could contribute to silk fiber periodic substructure through Ca(2+) crossbridging. PMID:20196534

  16. Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease. PMID:24131723

  17. Microfluidic analysis of serine levels using seryl-tRNA synthetase coupled with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Kugimiya, Akimitsu; Matsuzaki, Emi

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of amino acid content is useful for the diagnosis of several types of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. In this study, a microfluidic method for the analysis of serine using enzymatic reactions coupled with spectrophotometric detection was developed. The assay system has some advantages in the analytical field, such as the ability to detect small amounts of analyte and reaction solution and a rapid and efficient reaction. For the specific detection of serine, seryl-tRNA synthetase was coupled with the generation of hydrogen peroxide, which was then detected by the Trinder reagent spectrophotometric method. Seryl- and other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are involved in the biosynthesis of peptides and proteins in the human body and should allow precise recognition of the corresponding amino acids. This approach provided selective quantitation of up to 250 ?M serine in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0) in a semiautomatic system. PMID:25190303

  18. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Xu, Dongdong; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization in echinoderms was tested both functionally in sea stars, and computationally throughout the echinoderm phylum. We find that the inhibitor of serine protease (soybean trypsin inhibitor) effectively blocks proper transition of the sea star fertilization envelope into a protective sperm repellent, whereas inhibitors of the other main types of proteases had no effect. Scanning the transcriptomes of 15 different echinoderm ovaries revealed sequences of high conservation to the originally identified sea urchin cortical serine protease, CGSP1. These conserved sequences contained the catalytic triad necessary for enzymatic activity, and the tandemly repeated LDLr-like repeats. We conclude that the protease involved in the slow block to polyspermy is an essential and conserved element of fertilization in echinoderms, and may provide an important reagent for identification and testing of the cell surface proteins in eggs necessary for sperm binding. PMID:24878526

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef associates with a cellular serine kinase in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, E T; Baur, A; Struble, H; Peterlin, B M; Levy, J A; Cheng-Mayer, C

    1994-01-01

    With T-cell lines constitutively expressing Nef from the SF2 strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1SF2) in the form of a hybrid CD8-Nef fusion protein or T-cell lines chronically infected with HIV-1SF2, a cellular serine kinase was found that specifically associates with Nef. Proteins of 62 kDa and 72 kDa, which coimmunoprecipitated with Nef, were phosphorylated in in vitro kinase assays. This Nef-associated serine kinase activity was not blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C or protein kinase A and was lost when Nef was truncated at amino acid 94 or 99. These findings present evidence that a serine kinase activity is associated with Nef expressed in human T lymphocytes. Images PMID:8108442

  20. Mosquito saliva serine protease enhances dissemination of dengue virus into the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Conway, Michael J; Watson, Alan M; Colpitts, Tonya M; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B; Anderson, John F; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease. PMID:24131723

  1. Mitogen inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in intact cells via serine 9 phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stambolic, V; Woodgett, J R

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a protein-serine kinase implicated in cell-fate determination and differentiation, phosphorylates several regulatory proteins that are activated by dephosphorylation in response to hormones or growth factors. GSK-3 beta is phosphorylated in vitro at serine 9 by p70 S6 kinase and p90rsk-1, resulting in its inhibition [Sutherland, Leighton, and Cohen (1993) Biochem. J. 296, 15-19]. Using HeLa cells expressing GSK-3 beta or a mutant containing alanine at residue 9, we demonstrate that serine 9 is modified in intact cells and is targeted specifically by p90rsk-1, and that phosphorylation leads to loss of activity. Since p90rsk-1 is directly activated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, agonists of this pathway, such as insulin, repress GSK-3 function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7980435

  2. Longistatin is an unconventional serine protease and induces protective immunity against tick infestation.

    PubMed

    Anisuzzaman; Islam, M Khyrul; Alim, M Abdul; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Hatta, Takeshi; Yamaji, Kayoko; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Classical serine proteases use the conserved Ser/His/Asp catalytic triad to hydrolyze substrates. Here, we show that longistatin, a salivary gland protein with two EF-hand domains from the vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, does not have the conserved catalytic triad, but still functions as a serine protease. Longistatin was synthesized in and secreted from the salivary glands of ticks, and is injected into host tissues during the acquisition of blood-meals. Longistatin hydrolyzed fibrinogen, an essential plasma protein in the coagulation cascade, and activated plasminogen, into its active form plasmin, a serine protease that dissolves fibrin clots. Longistatin efficiently hydrolyzed several serine protease-specific substrates showing its specificity to the amide bond of Arg. Longistatin did not hydrolyze synthetic substrates specific for other groups of proteases. The enzyme was active at a wide range of temperatures and pHs, with the optimum at 37C and pH 7. Its activity was efficiently inhibited by various serine protease inhibitors such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), aprotinin, antipain, and leupeptin with the estimated IC(50) of 278.57 ?M, 0.35 ?M, 41.56 ?M and 198.86 ?M, respectively. In addition, longistatin was also potently inhibited by Zinc (Zn(2+)) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 275 ?M, and the inhibitory effect of Zn(2+) was revived by ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA). Immunization studies revealed that longistatin sharply induced high levels of protective IgG antibodies against ticks. Immunization with longistatin reduced repletion of ticks by about 54%, post engorgement body weight by >11% and molting of nymphs by approximately 34%; thus, the vaccination trial was approximately 73% effective against tick infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that longistatin is a new potent atypical serine protease, and may be an interesting candidate for the development of anti-tick vaccines. PMID:22206819

  3. Performance Analysis of the ertPS Algorithm and Enhanced ertPS Algorithm for VoIP Services in IEEE 802.16e Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong Joo; Hwang, Gang Uk

    In this paper, we analyze the extended real-time Polling Service (ertPS) algorithm in IEEE 802.16e systems, which is designed to support Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) services with data packets of various sizes and silence suppression. The analysis uses a two-dimensional Markov Chain, where the grant size and the voice packet state are considered, and an approximation formula for the total throughput in the ertPS algorithm is derived. Next, to improve the performance of the ertPS algorithm, we propose an enhanced uplink resource allocation algorithm, called the e2rtPS algorithm, for VoIP services in IEEE 802.16e systems. The e2rtPS algorithm considers the queue status information and tries to alleviate the queue congestion as soon as possible by using remaining network resources. Numerical results are provided to show the accuracy of the approximation analysis for the ertPS algorithm and to verify the effectiveness of the e2rtPS algorithm.

  4. Prediction of relapse and survival in breast cancer patients by pS2 protein status.

    PubMed

    Foekens, J A; Rio, M C; Seguin, P; van Putten, W L; Fauque, J; Nap, M; Klijn, J G; Chambon, P

    1990-07-01

    Application of systemic adjuvant therapy for primary breast cancer patients requires a more accurate identification of patients at high risk for recurrence. We have quantitatively assessed the cytosolic levels of estrogen-regulated pS2 protein in tumors of 205 breast cancer patients (median follow-up, 47 mo). There were no significant associations between the level of pS2 protein and tumor size, lymph node status, and differentiation grade. Using length of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) as end points, 11 ng of pS2 protein/mg of cytosol protein were found as the best cutoff level to discriminate between positive (pS2+) and negative (pS2-). Patients with pS2- tumors showed significantly shorter RFS and OS (P less than 0.0001) than patients with pS2+ tumors. Also after adjustment for tumor size, lymph node status, and estrogen receptor (ER) status, pS2 negativity was associated with earlier recurrence and death. Tumors positive for pS2 (55 of 205, 27%) were almost exclusively confined to the subclass of ER+ tumors (53 of 55, 96%). The death rate for patients with pS2+ tumors was one-tenth of the death rate for patients with pS2-/ER- tumors. In the patients with ER+ tumors, the prognostic power of the pS2 status was especially present in patients whose tumors were also positive for the progesterone receptor (5-yr RFS and OS, 85% and 97% for ER+/PgR+/pS2+ tumors compared with 50% and 54% for the patients with ER+/PgR+/pS2- tumors). In patients with axillary lymph node involvement (N+), pS2 status could discriminate strongly between a good and bad prognosis group (5-yr RFS and OS, 65% and 88% for N+/pS2+ compared with 32% and 34% for N+/pS2-). A similar phenomenon was observed in patients without axillary lymph node involvement (5-yr RFS and OS, 89% and 95% for N0/pS2+ compared with 58% and 82% for N0/pS2-). We conclude that the pS2 status of human primary breast tumors is an important variable for the identification of patients at high risk for recurrence and death. Knowledge of the cytosolic pS2 status appeared of particular importance to identify patients at high risk in the ER+/PgR+ subclass of tumors, and in both the N0 and N+ subclasses of patients. PMID:2354435

  5. Tau Phosphorylation at Serine 396 Residue Is Required for Hippocampal LTD

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Philip; Piers, Thomas; Yi, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Huh, Seonghoo; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Whitcomb, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Tau is required for the induction of long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Here we probe the role of tau in LTD, finding that an AMPA receptor internalization mechanism is impaired in tau KO mice, and that LTD causes specific phosphorylation at the serine 396 and 404 residues of tau. Surprisingly, we find that phosphorylation at serine 396, specifically, is critical for LTD but has no role in LTP. Finally, we show that tau KO mice exhibit deficits in spatial reversal learning. These findings underscore the physiological role for tau at the synapse and identify a behavioral correlate of its role in LTD. PMID:25810511

  6. Remodeling Natural Products: Chemistry and Serine Hydrolase Activity of a Rocaglate-Derived ?-Lactone

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavaglines are a class of natural products with potent insecticidal and anticancer activities. ?-Lactones are a privileged structural motif found in both therapeutic agents and chemical probes. Herein, we report the synthesis, unexpected light-driven di-epimerization, and activity-based protein profiling of a novel rocaglate-derived ?-lactone. In addition to in vitro inhibition of the serine hydrolases ABHD10 and ACOT1/2, the most potent ?-lactone enantiomer was also found to inhibit these enzymes, as well as the serine peptidases CTSA and SCPEP1, in PC3 cells. PMID:24447064

  7. Novel compounds reducing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation for treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Simon-Szab, Laura; Kokas, Mrton; Greff, Zoltn; Boros, Sndor; Bnhegyi, Pter; Zskai, Lilin; Szntai-Kis, Csaba; Vantus, Tibor; Mandl, Jzsef; Bnhegyi, Gbor; Vlyi-Nagy, Istvn; ?rfi, Lszl; Ullrich, Axel; Csala, Mikls; Kri, Gyrgy

    2016-01-15

    Activation of various interacting stress kinases, particularly the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and a concomitant phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) at serine 307 play a central role both in insulin resistance and in ?-cell dysfunction. IRS-1 phosphorylation is stimulated by elevated free fatty acid levels through different pathways in obesity. A series of novel pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one derivatives were synthesized as potential antidiabetic agents, preventing IRS-1 phosphorylation at serine 307 in a cellular model of lipotoxicity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26704265

  8. Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.

    2006-01-01

    In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.

  9. Study of the crystalline structures of the syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) under mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaka, Suguru; Hotta, Atsushi

    2008-03-01

    Polystyrene (PS) has become one of the important, yet complicated semi-crystalline materials since the successful synthesis of the syndiotactic PS (sPS) by Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Since then, sPS has been actively investigated and four different crystalline forms (α, β, γ and δ), two mesomorphic forms and various clathrate forms have been found, indicating complex feature of its crystalline structures. Among the four crystalline forms, α and β-crystals can be obtained by different annealing processes and both crystalline structures comprise the same all-trans planar conformation. In this work, β-crystal structure was made by high temperature annealing and the sPS with β-crystal structure was mechanically stretched above the glass transition temperature of sPS, followed by the crystalline transition analysis studied by FT-IR.

  10. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol. PMID:22163721

  11. Internal structure and positron annihilation in the four-body MuPs system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2015-02-01

    A large number of bound state properties of the four-body muonium-positronium system MuPs (or ? + e - 2 e +) are determined to high accuracy. Based on these expectation values we predict that the weakly-bound four-body MuPs system has the `two-body' cluster structure Mu + Ps. The two neutral clusters Mu ( ? + e -) and Ps ( e + e -) interact with each other by the attractive van der Waals forces. By using our expectation values of the electron-positron delta-functions we evaluated the half-life ? a of the MuPs system against annihilation of the electron-positron pair: ?a = 1/? ? 4.071509 10-10 s. The hyperfine structure splitting of the ground state in the MuPs system evaluated with our expectation values is ? ? 23.064(5) MHz.

  12. Kristallstruktur und Schwingungsspektrum des Praseodym-ortho-Thiophosphates PrPS4 / Crystal Structure and Vibrational Spectrum of PrPS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibbelmann, Claus; Brockner, Wolfgang; Eisenmann, Brigitte; Schfer, Herbert

    1984-02-01

    PrPS4 crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I41/acd with the lattice constants a= 1091.4(5) pm. c = 1936.1(8) pm. In the structure there are slightly distorted PS3-4 tetrahedra as discrete structural units, placed along the b-axis. Far infrared, infrared and Raman spectra of this compound have been recorded. The observed frequencies are assigned rangewise by factor group analysis and the Td-D4h-correlation. The Raman data of rare-earth ortho thiophosphates LnPS4 with Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb and Tm are given in a line diagram.

  13. DRiPs Solidify: Progress in Understanding Endogenous MHC Class I Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Defective Ribosomal Products (DRiPs) are a subset of rapidly degraded polypeptides that provide peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. Here, I review recent progress in understanding DRiP biogenesis. These findings place DRiPs at the center of the MHC class I antigen processing pathway, linking immunosurveillance of viruses and tumors to mechanisms of specialized translation and cellular compartmentalization. DRiPs enable the immune system to rapidly and sensitively detect alterations in cellular gene expression. PMID:21962745

  14. Data from crosslinked PS honeycomb thin film by deep UV irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Van-Tien; Lee, Hwa Su; Choi, Jae-Hak; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Thin polystyrene (PS) films with highly ordered honeycomb pattern were successfully fabricated by an improved phase separation method. The PS film was successfully crosslinked after applying a deep UV irradiation. This work presents a proof of crosslinking PS by characterizing ATR-FTIR, TGA and the wetting property of the honeycomb films, which were prepared using a solvent/non-solvent ratio of 90/10, before and after 6h of UV irradiation. PMID:26793742

  15. Kristallstruktur und Schwingungsspektrum des Thallium(I)-Zinn(II)-ortho-Thiophosphates TlSnPS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Robert; Brockner, Wolfgang; Eisenmann, Brigitte

    1987-11-01

    TlSnPS4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pna21 (Nr. 33), Z = 4 with the lattice constants a = 1175.8 (5) pm, b = 890.1 (4) pm, c = 663.3 (4) pm. In the structure are sligthly distorted discrete PS3-4 anions. The far infrared, infrared and Raman spectrum is assigned on the basis of PS3-4 -units with C3v symmetry. According to the DTA data the melting point for TlSnPS4 is 575 5 C. The title compound is not moisture sensitive and semi-conducting.

  16. Effect of nano CdS dispersion on thermal conductivity of PS/PVC and PS/PMMA polymeric blend nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Vishal; Patidar, Dinesh; Sharma, Kananbala

    2015-06-01

    The effect of dispersion of CdS nano-filler particles in respective PS/PVC and PS/PMMA polymer blend matrices on the effective thermal conductivity has been studied through Hot Disk Thermal Constant Analyzer based on transient plane source (TPS) technique. The thick film samples have been prepared by dispersing nano-filler particles of CdS (6 wt%) in respective PS/PVC and PS/PMMA binary blend matrices. The nanocomposite nature of prepared samples ascertained through small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It is observed that at room temperature nano CdS dispersed polymeric blend samples offer higher effective thermal conductivity.

  17. A Serine-Threonine Kinase (StkP) Regulates Expression of the Pneumococcal Pilus and Modulates Bacterial Adherence to Human Epithelial and Endothelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny A.; Mitchell, Andrea M.; Mitchell, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The pneumococcal serine threonine protein kinase (StkP) acts as a global regulator in the pneumococcus. Bacterial mutants deficient in StkP are less virulent in animal models of infection. The gene for this regulator is located adjacent to the gene for its cognate phosphatase in the pneumococcal genome. The phosphatase dephosphorylates proteins phosphorylated by StkP and has been shown to regulate a number of key pneumococcal virulence factors and to modulate adherence to eukaryotic cells. The role of StkP in adherence of pneumococci to human cells has not previously been reported. In this study we show StkP represses the pneumococcal pilus, a virulence factor known to be important for bacterial adhesion. In a serotype 4 strain regulation of the pilus by StkP modulates adherence to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and human lung epithelial cells. This suggests that the pneumococcal pilus may play a role in adherence during infections such as meningitis and pneumonia. We show that regulation of the pilus occurs at the population level as StkP alters the number of pili-positive cells within a single culture. As far as we are aware this is the first gene identified outside of the pilus islet that regulates the biphasic expression of the pilus. These findings suggest StkPs role in cell division may be linked to regulation of expression of a cell surface adhesin. PMID:26090876

  18. Serine Metabolism Supports the Methionine Cycle and DNA/RNA Methylation through De Novo ATP Synthesis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Labuschagne, Christiaan F.; Adams, Peter D.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Crosstalk between cellular metabolism and the epigenome regulates epigenetic and metabolic homeostasis and normal cell behavior. Changes in cancer cell metabolism can directly impact epigenetic regulation and promote transformation. Here we analyzed the contribution of methionine and serine metabolism to methylation of DNA and RNA. Serine can contribute to this pathway by providing one-carbon units to regenerate methionine from homocysteine. While we observed this contribution under methionine-depleted conditions, unexpectedly, we found that serine supported the methionine cycle in the presence and absence of methionine through de novo ATP synthesis. Serine starvation increased the methionine/S-adenosyl methionine ratio, decreasing the transfer of methyl groups to DNA and RNA. While serine starvation dramatically decreased ATP levels, this was accompanied by lower AMP and did not activate AMPK. This work highlights the difference between ATP turnover and new ATP synthesis and defines a vital function of nucleotide synthesis beyond making nucleic acids. PMID:26774282

  19. Nickel and Cobalt Resistance Engineered in Escherichia coli by Overexpression of Serine Acetyltransferase from the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Thlaspi goesingense

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Persans, Michael W.; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-l-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  20. Serine Metabolism Supports the Methionine Cycle and DNA/RNA Methylation through De Novo ATP Synthesis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Oliver D K; Labuschagne, Christiaan F; Adams, Peter D; Vousden, Karen H

    2016-01-21

    Crosstalk between cellular metabolism and the epigenome regulates epigenetic and metabolic homeostasis and normal cell behavior. Changes in cancer cell metabolism can directly impact epigenetic regulation and promote transformation. Here we analyzed the contribution of methionine and serine metabolism to methylation of DNA and RNA. Serine can contribute to this pathway by providing one-carbon units to regenerate methionine from homocysteine. While we observed this contribution under methionine-depleted conditions, unexpectedly, we found that serine supported the methionine cycle in the presence and absence of methionine through de novo ATP synthesis. Serine starvation increased the methionine/S-adenosyl methionine ratio, decreasing the transfer of methyl groups to DNA and RNA. While serine starvation dramatically decreased ATP levels, this was accompanied by lower AMP and did not activate AMPK. This work highlights the difference between ATP turnover and new ATP synthesis and defines a vital function of nucleotide synthesis beyond making nucleic acids. PMID:26774282

  1. Reducing the serine availability complements the inhibition of the glutamine metabolism to block leukemia cell growth.

    PubMed

    Polet, Florence; Corbet, Cyril; Pinto, Adan; Rubio, Laila Illan; Martherus, Ruben; Bol, Vanesa; Drozak, Xavier; Grgoire, Vincent; Riant, Olivier; Feron, Olivier

    2016-01-12

    Leukemia cells are described as a prototype of glucose-consuming cells with a high turnover rate. The role of glutamine in fueling the tricarboxylic acid cycle of leukemia cells was however recently identified confirming its status of major anaplerotic precursor in solid tumors. Here we examined whether glutamine metabolism could represent a therapeutic target in leukemia cells and whether resistance to this strategy could arise. We found that glutamine deprivation inhibited leukemia cell growth but also led to a glucose-independent adaptation maintaining cell survival. A proteomic study revealed that glutamine withdrawal induced the upregulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) and phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), two enzymes of the serine pathway. We further documented that both exogenous and endogenous serine were critical for leukemia cell growth and contributed to cell regrowth following glutamine deprivation. Increase in oxidative stress upon inhibition of glutamine metabolism was identified as the trigger of the upregulation of PHGDH. Finally, we showed that PHGDH silencing in vitro and the use of serine-free diet in vivo inhibited leukemia cell growth, an effect further increased when glutamine metabolism was blocked. In conclusion, this study identified serine as a key pro-survival actor that needs to be handled to sensitize leukemia cells to glutamine-targeting modalities. PMID:26625201

  2. Effects of serine protease inhibitors on viability and morphology of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lopez, R E; Morgado-Daz, J A; Chvez, M A; Giovanni-De-Simone, S

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the importance of serine proteases in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes, we analyzed the effects of classical serine protease inhibitors and a Kunitz-type inhibitor, obtained from sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-I), on the viability and morphology of parasites in culture. Classical inhibitors were selected on the basis of their ability to inhibit L. amazonensis serine proteases, previously described. The N-tosyl-L: -phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) and benzamidine (Bza) inhibitors, which are potential Leishmania proteases inhibitors, in all experimental conditions reduced the parasite viability, with regard to time dependence. On the other hand, N-tosyl-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) did not significantly affect the parasite viability, as it was poor Leishmania enzymes inhibitor. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that both Bza and TPCK induced changes in the flagellar pocket region with membrane alteration, including bleb formation. However, TPCK effects were more pronounced than those of Bza in Leishmania flagellar pocket in plasma membrane, and intracellular vesicular bodies was visualized. ShPI-I proved to be a powerful inhibitor of L. amazonensis serine proteases and the parasite viability. The ultrastructural alterations caused by ShPI-I were more dramatic than those induced by the classical inhibitors. Vesiculation of the flagellar pocket membrane, the appearance of a cytoplasmic vesicle that resembles an autophagic vacuole, and alterations of promastigotes shape resulted. PMID:17726617

  3. Serine racemase deletion disrupts memory for order and alters cortical dendritic morphology

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, Loren M.; Balu, Darrick T.; Kanter, Benjamin R.; Lykken, Christine; Basu, Alo C.; Coyle, Joseph T.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial evidence implicating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in memory and cognition. It has also been suggested that NMDAR hypofunction might underlie the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia since morphological changes, including alterations in the dendritic architecture of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), have been reported in the schizophrenic brain post mortem. Here, we used a genetic model of NMDAR hypofunction, a serine racemase knockout (SR?/?) mouse in which the first coding exon of the mouse serine racemase gene has been deleted, to explore the role of d-serine in regulating cognitive functions as well as dendritic architecture. SR ?/? mice exhibited a significantly disrupted representation of the order of events in distinct experiences as revealed by object recognition and odor sequence tests; however, SR ?/? animals were unimpaired in the detection of novel objects and in spatial displacement, and showed intact relational memory in a test of transitive inference. In addition, SR ?/? mice exhibited normal sociability and preference for social novelty. Neurons in the medial PFC of SR?/? mice displayed reductions in the complexity, total length, and spine density of apical dendrites. These findings demonstrate that d-serine is important for specific aspects of cognition, as well as in regulating dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC. Moreover, they suggest that NMDAR hypofunction might, in part, be responsible for the cognitive deficits and synaptic changes associated with schizophrenia, and highlight this signaling pathway as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21029376

  4. Microarray analysis reveals strategies of Tribolium castaneum larvae to compensate for cysteine and serine protease inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarrays containing Tribolium castaneum whole-genome sequences were developed to study the transcriptome response of T. castaneum larvae to dietary protease inhibitors. In larvae fed diets containing 0.1% of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 alone or in combination with 5.0% of the serine pro...

  5. Related Arabidopsis serine carboxypeptidase-like sinapoylglucose acyltransferases display distinct but overlapping substrate specificities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes fifty-one proteins annotated as serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) enzymes. Nineteen of these SCPL proteins are highly similar to one another, and represent a clade that appears to be unique to plants. Two of these proteins have been characterized to date: sinapoylgl...

  6. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  7. Design of activated serine-containing catalytic triads with atomic level accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Sridharan; Wang, Chu; Yu, Kai; Kuzin, Alexandre P.; Richter, Florian; Lew, Scott; Miklos, Aleksandr E.; Matthews, Megan L.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Su, Min; Hunt, John. F.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in the computational design of enzymes is that multiple properties must be simultaneously optimized -- substrate-binding, transition state stabilization, and product release -- and this has limited the absolute activity of successful designs. Here, we focus on a single critical property of many enzymes: the nucleophilicity of an active site residue that initiates catalysis. We design proteins with idealized serine-containing catalytic triads, and assess their nucleophilicity directly in native biological systems using activity-based organophosphate probes. Crystal structures of the most successful designs show unprecedented agreement with computational models, including extensive hydrogen bonding networks between the catalytic triad (or quartet) residues, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that these networks are critical for serine activation and organophosphate-reactivity. Following optimization by yeast-display, the designs react with organophosphate probes at rates comparable to natural serine hydrolases. Co-crystal structures with diisopropyl fluorophosphate bound to the serine nucleophile suggest the designs could provide the basis for a new class of organophosphate captures agents. PMID:24705591

  8. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

  9. Cha4p of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Activates Transcription via Serine/Threonine Response Elements

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, S.; Schjerling, P.

    1996-01-01

    The CHA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase responsible for the utilization of serine/threonine as nitrogen sources. Previously, we identified two serine/threonine response elements in the CHA1 promoter, UAS(CHA). We report isolation of a mutation, cha4-1, that impairs serine/threonine induction of CHA1 transcription. The cha4-1 allele causes noninducibility of a CHA1p-lacZ translational gene fusion, indicating that Cha4p exerts its action through the CHA1 promoter. Molecular and genetic mapping positioned the cha4 locus 17 cM centromere proximal to put1 on chromosome XII. The coding region of CHA4 predicts a 648-amino acid protein with a DNA-binding motif (residues 43-70) belonging to the Cys(6) zinc cluster class. Gel retardation employing a recombinant peptide, Cha4p(1-174), demonstrated that the peptide in vitro specifically binds UAS(CHA). Binding is abolished by a G-C to T-A mutation in the middle bases of the two CEZ-elements in UAS(CHA). The transcriptional activating ability of UAS(CHA) derivatives in vivo correlates with their ability to bind Cha4p(1-174) in vitro. We conclude that Cha4p is a positive regulator of CHA1 transcription and that Cha4p alone, or as part of a complex, is binding UAS(CHA). PMID:8889513

  10. Cross-Linking of Serine Racemase Dimer by Reactive Oxygen Species and Reactive Nitrogen Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Barger, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Serine racemase (SR) is the only identified enzyme in mammals responsible for isomerization of L-serine to D-serine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors in the forebrain. Our previous data reported that an apparent SR dimer resistant to SDS and ?-mercaptoethanol was elevated in microglial cells after proinflammatory activation. Because the activation of microglia is typically associated with an oxidative burst, oxidative cross-linking between SR subunits was speculated. In this study, an siRNA technique was employed to confirm the identity of this SR dimer band. The oxidative species potentially responsible for the cross-linking was investigated with recombinant SR protein. The data indicate that nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical were the likely candidates, while superoxide and hydrogen peroxide per se failed to contribute. Furthermore, the mechanism of formation of SR dimer by peroxynitrite oxidation was studied by mass spectrometry. A disulfide bond between Cys6 and Cys113 was identified in both SIN-1 treated SR monomer and dimer. Activity assays indicated that SIN-1 treatment decreased SR activity, confirming our previous conclusion that noncovalent dimer is the most active form of SR. These findings suggest a compensatory feedback whereby the consequences of neuroinflammation might dampen D-serine production to limit excitotoxic stimulation of NMDA receptors. PMID:22354542

  11. NRF2 regulates serine biosynthesis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Gina M; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Mullarky, Edouard; Sudderth, Jessica A; Hu, Zeping; Wu, David; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yang; Asara, John M; Huffman, Kenneth E; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Minna, John D; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Cantley, Lewis C

    2015-12-01

    Tumors have high energetic and anabolic needs for rapid cell growth and proliferation, and the serine biosynthetic pathway was recently identified as an important source of metabolic intermediates for these processes. We integrated metabolic tracing and transcriptional profiling of a large panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to characterize the activity and regulation of the serine/glycine biosynthetic pathway in NSCLC. Here we show that the activity of this pathway is highly heterogeneous and is regulated by NRF2, a transcription factor frequently deregulated in NSCLC. We found that NRF2 controls the expression of the key serine/glycine biosynthesis enzyme genes PHGDH, PSAT1 and SHMT2 via ATF4 to support glutathione and nucleotide production. Moreover, we show that expression of these genes confers poor prognosis in human NSCLC. Thus, a substantial fraction of human NSCLCs activates an NRF2-dependent transcriptional program that regulates serine and glycine metabolism and is linked to clinical aggressiveness. PMID:26482881

  12. Regulation of the EBNA1 Epstein-Barr Virus Protein by Serine Phosphorylation and Arginine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Shire, Kathy; Kapoor, Priya; Jiang, Ke; Hing, Margaret Ng Thow; Sivachandran, Nirojini; Nguyen, Tin; Frappier, Lori

    2006-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA1 protein is important for the replication and mitotic segregation of EBV genomes in latently infected cells and also activates the transcription of some of the viral latency genes. A Gly-Arg-rich region between amino acids 325 and 376 is required for both the segregation and transcriptional activation functions of EBNA1. Here we show that this region is modified by both arginine methylation and serine phosphorylation. Mutagenesis of the four potentially phosphorylated serines in this region indicated that phosphorylation of multiple serines contributes to the efficient segregation of EBV-based plasmids by EBNA1, at least in part by increasing EBNA1 binding to hEBP2. EBNA1 was also found to bind the arginine methyltransferases PRMT1 and PRMT5. Multiple arginines in the 325-376 region were methylated in vitro by PRMT1 and PRMT5, as was an N-terminal Gly-Arg-rich region between amino acids 41 and 50. EBNA1 was also shown to be methylated in vivo, predominantly in the 325-376 region. Treatment of cells with a methylation inhibitor or down-regulation of PRMT1 altered EBNA1 localization, resulting in the formation of EBNA1 rings around the nucleoli. The results indicate that EBNA1 function is influenced by both serine phosphorylation and arginine methylation. PMID:16699006

  13. Serine phosphorylation of the Stat5a C-terminus is a driving force for transformation.

    PubMed

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Hoelbl, Andrea; Li, Geqiang; Bunting, Kevin D; Sexl, Veronika; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Moriggl, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Persistent tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 and Stat5 is associated with oncogenic activity. Phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residue (pTyr) was long believed to be the only essential prerequisite to promote activation and nuclear translocation of Stat proteins. It has become evident, however, that post-translational protein modifications like serine phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation as well as protein splicing and processing constitute further regulatory mechanisms to modulate Stat transcriptional activity and to provide an additional layer of specificity to Jak-Stat signal transduction. Significantly, most vertebrate Stat proteins contain one conserved serine phosphorylation site within their transactivation domains. This phosphorylation motif is located within a P(M)SP sequence. Stat transcription factor activity is negatively influenced by mutation of the serine to alanine. Moreover, it was shown for both Stat3 and Stat5 that their capacity to transform cells was diminished. This review addresses recent advances in understanding the regulation and the biochemical and biological consequences of Stat serine phosphorylation. In particular, we discuss their role in persistently activated Stat proteins for cancer research. PMID:21622220

  14. Soybean-milk-coagulating activity of Bacillus pumilus derives from a serine proteinase.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, M; Yasuda, M; Nakachi, K; Kobamoto, N; Oku, H; Kato, F

    2000-04-01

    A proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus pumilus strain TYO-67, which was able to coagulate the protein in soybean milk, was characterized enzymologically. The optimum pH and temperature for its activities were 9.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was strongly believed to be a serine proteinase because it was completely inhibited by the addition of diisopropyl fluorophosphate or phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. Hammerstein milk casein, cytochrome c and soybean protein were good substrates for the enzyme. Seven cleavages were detected using the oxidized insulin B-chain as peptide substrate for the proteolytic specificity test of the serine proteinase from B. pumilus. The bonds most susceptible to the action of the serine proteinase from B. pumilus were Leu-15-Tyr-16. The mode of action on soybean milk protein by the enzyme from B. pumilus was also investigated. The acidic subunit in glycinin and the alpha-, alpha- and beta-subunits in beta-conglycinin were degraded during the enzyme reaction. However, the basic subunit in glycinin could not be degraded by the enzyme. The formation of coagula in soybean milk caused by the serine proteinase from B. pumilus was mainly due to the hydrophobic interaction. PMID:10803893

  15. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  16. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  17. Role of eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases in bacterial cell division and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manuse, Sylvie; Fleurie, Aurore; Zucchini, Laure; Lesterlin, Christian; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess a repertoire of versatile protein kinases modulating diverse aspects of their physiology by phosphorylating proteins on various amino acids including histidine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, serine, threonine and tyrosine. One class of membrane serine/threonine protein kinases possesses a catalytic domain sharing a common fold with eukaryotic protein kinases and an extracellular mosaic domain found in bacteria only, named PASTA for 'Penicillin binding proteins And Serine/Threonine kinase Associated'. Over the last decade, evidence has been accumulating that these protein kinases are involved in cell division, morphogenesis and developmental processes in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. However, observations differ from one species to another suggesting that a general mechanism of activation of their kinase activity is unlikely and that species-specific regulation of cell division is at play. In this review, we survey the latest research on the structural aspects and the cellular functions of bacterial serine/threonine kinases with PASTA motifs to illustrate the diversity of the regulatory mechanisms controlling bacterial cell division and morphogenesis. PMID:26429880

  18. Purification and cloning of an extracellular serine protease from the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium cystosporium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Kui; Ye, Feng-Ping; Mi, Qi-Li; Tang, Song-Qing; Li, Juan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-05-01

    An extracellular protease (Mc1) was isolated from the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium cystosporium by gel filtration, anion-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. This protease had a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa and displayed an optimal activity at pH 7-9 and 56 degrees (over 30 min). Its proteolytic activity was highly sensitive to the serine protease inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, 0.1 mM), indicating that it belonged to the serine-type peptidase group. The Michaelis constant (Km) and Vmax for substrate N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA were 1.67x10-4 M and 0.6071 OD410 per 30 s, respectively. This protease could degrade a broad range of substrates including casein, gelatin, BSA (bovine serum albumin), and nematode cuticle. Moreover, the enzyme could immobilize the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, suggesting that it might play a role in infection against nematodes. The encoding gene of Mc1 was composed of one intron and two exons, coding for a polypeptide of 405 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mc1 showed 61.4-91.9% identity to serine proteases from other nematode-trapping fungi. Our results identified that Mc1 possessed biochemical properties including optimal reaction condition and substrate preference that are different from previously identified serine proteases. PMID:18633281

  19. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  20. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatases are a group of enzymes involved in the regulation of defense mechanisms in plants. This paper describes the effects of an inhibitor of these enzymes on the expression of all of the genes associated with these defense mechanisms. The results suggest that inhibi...

  1. POLYMORPHISMS IN CYTOPLASMIC SERINE HYDROXYMETHYLTRANSFERASE AND METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE AFFECT THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN MEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation in folate-regulating enzymes contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) enzyme is proposed to regulate a key metabolic intersection in folate metabolism. We hypothesized that a variant in cSHMT (cSHMT 1420CT) aff...

  2. The natural killer cell serine protease gene Lmet1 maps to mouse chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Thia, K.Y.T.; Smyth, M.J.; Jenkins, N.A.; Gilbert, D.J.; Copeland, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes play a key role in immune responses against viruses and tumors. Lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis by both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells is often associated with the formation of membrane lesions on target cells caused by exocytosis of cytoplasmic granule serine proteases and a pore-forming protein, perforin. A variety of granzymes have been found to reside within the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes, but unlike perforin, isolated serine proteases are not intrinsically lytic. However, a role for serine proteases in cellular cytotoxicity has been supported by the ability of protease inhibitors to completely abrogate lymphocyte cytotoxicity, and the demonstration that serine proteases can initiate DNA fragmentation in target cells transfected or pretreated with a sublytic concentration of perforin. Granzymes cloned in human, mouse, and rat encode four granzyme activities and all are expressed in either T cells, their thymic precursors, and/or NK cells. In particular, a rat granzyme that cleaves after methionine residues, but not phenylalanine residues and its human equivalent, human Met-ase 1, are unique granzymes with restricted expression in CD3-NK cells. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Plants synthesize ethanolamine by direct decarboxylation of serine using a pyridoxal phosphate enzyme.

    PubMed

    Rontein, D; Nishida, I; Tashiro, G; Yoshioka, K; Wu, W I; Voelker, D R; Basset, G; Hanson, A D

    2001-09-21

    The established pathways from serine to ethanolamine are indirect and involve decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. Here we show that plants can decarboxylate serine directly. Using a radioassay based on ethanolamine (Etn) formation, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent l-serine decarboxylase (SDC) activity was readily detected in soluble extracts from leaves of diverse species, including spinach, Arabidopsis, and rapeseed. A putative Arabidopsis SDC cDNA was identified by searching GenBank for sequences homologous to other amino acid decarboxylases and shown by expression in Escherichia coli to encode a soluble protein with SDC activity. This cDNA was further authenticated by complementing the Etn requirement of a yeast psd1 psd2 mutant. In a parallel approach, a cDNA was isolated from a rapeseed library by its ability to complement the Etn requirement of a yeast cho1 mutant and shown by expression in E. coli to specify SDC. The deduced Arabidopsis and rapeseed SDC polypeptides are 90% identical, lack obvious targeting signals, and belong to amino acid decarboxylase group II. Recombinant Arabidopsis SDC was shown to exist as a tetramer and to contain pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. It does not attack d-serine, l-phosphoserine, other l-amino acids, or phosphatidylserine and is not inhibited by Etn, choline, or their phosphoesters. As a soluble, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzyme, SDC contrasts sharply with phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, which are membrane proteins that have a pyruvoyl cofactor. PMID:11461929

  4. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2, phosphatidyl inositol 3 phosphate kinase and their clinical and prognostic significance in early and advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Usul Afsar, Cigdem; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunaldi, Meral; K?l?c Bagir, Emine; Gumurdulu, Derya; Burgut, Refik; Erkisi, Melek; Kara, Ismail Oguz; Paydas, Semra; Karaca, Feryal; Ercolak, Vehbi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer related to death in the world. Squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCLC) is the second most frequent histological subtype of lung carcinomas. Recently, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction system-related gene amplifications and mutations are extensively under investigation to estimate the prognosis and to develop individualized therapies in SqCLC. In this study, besides the signal transduction molecule phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate kinase (IP3K) p110?, we explored the expressions of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and receptor-1 (FGFR1) in tumor tissue and also their clinical and prognostic significance in patients with early/advanced SqCLC. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2013, 129 patients (23 early, 106 advanced disease) with a histopathological SqCLC diagnosis were selected from the hospital files of Cukurova University Medical Faculty for this study. Two independent pathologists evaluated FGFR1, FGF2, and PI3K (p110?) expressions in both tumor and stromal tissues from 99 of the patients with sufficient tissue samples, using immunohistochemistry. Considering survival analysis separately for patients with both early and advanced stage diseases, the relationship between the clinical features of the patients and expressions were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: FGFR1 expression was found to be low in 59 (60%) patients and high in 40 (40%) patients. For FGF2; 12 (12%) patients had high, 87 (88%) patients had low expression and for IP3K; 31 (32%) patients had high and 66 (68%) patients had low expressions. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with stage of the disease and the performance status of the patient (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). There was no significant difference in OS of the patients with either low or high expressions of FGFR1, FGF2, and IP3K. When the patients with early or advanced stage disease were separately taken into consideration, the relationship did not differ, either. Any of FGFR1, FGF2 or IP3K expressions was not found predictive for the treatment of early or advanced staged patients. On the other hand, the expressions of both FGFR1 and FGF2 were significantly different with respect to smoking, scar of tuberculosis and scar of radiotherapy (P=0.002; P=0.06 and P=0.05, respectively). Discussion: There has not been identified an effective individualized treatment for SqCLC yet. Therefore, in order to be able to develop such a treatment in the future, it is essential to identify the genetic abnormalities that are responsible for the biological behaviors and carcinogenesis of SqCLC. Although we could not show the prognostic and predictive significance of FGFR1, FGF2 and IP3K expressions in SqCLC, we determined the expression rates of FGFR1, FGF2 and IP3K as a reference for Turkish patients. In conclusion, we want to put some emphasis on the fact that, pulmonary fibrosis which is a late complication of radiotherapy at stage III disease, and the scar of tuberculosis could be associated with FGFR1 and FGF2 expressions. PMID:26617686

  5. Neural stem cells differentiated from iPS cells spontaneously regain pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Sol; Hong, Yean Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Do, Jeong Tae

    2014-10-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by transduction of exogenous reprogramming factors. After induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are established, exogenous genes are silenced. In the pluripotent state, retroviral genes integrated in the host genome are kept inactive through epigenetic transcriptional regulation. In this study, we tried to determine whether exogenous genes remain silenced or are reactivated upon loss of pluripotency or on differentiation using an in vitro system. We induced differentiation of iPS cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro; the NSCs appeared morphologically indistinguishable from brain-derived NSCs and stained positive for the NSC markers Nestin and Sox2. These iPS cell-derived NSCs (iPS-NSCs) were also capable of differentiating into all three neural subtypes. Interestingly, iPS-NSCs spontaneously formed aggregates on long-term culture and showed reactivation of the Oct4-GFP marker, which was followed by the formation of embryonic stem cell-like colonies. The spontaneously reverted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive (iPS-NSC-GFP(+) ) cells expressed high levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog) and formed germline chimeras, indicating that iPS-NSC-GFP(+) cells had the same pluripotency as the original iPS cells. The reactivation of silenced exogenous genes was tightly correlated with the downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) during differentiation of iPS cells. This phenomenon was not observed in doxycycline-inducible iPS cells, where the reactivation of exogenous genes could be induced only by doxycycline treatment. These results indicate that pluripotency can be regained through reactivation of exogenous genes, which is associated with dynamic change of Dnmt levels during differentiation of iPS cells. PMID:24898298

  6. A Critical Appraisal of NLO+PS Matching Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Siegert, Frank; /Freiburg U.

    2012-03-19

    In this publication, uncertainties in and differences between the MC{at}NLO and POWHEG methods for matching next-to-leading order QCD calculations with parton showers are discussed. Implementations of both algorithms within the event generator SHERPA are employed to assess the impact on a representative selection of observables. In the MC{at}NLO approach a phase space restriction has been added to subtraction and parton shower, which allows to vary in a transparent way the amount of non-singular radiative corrections that are exponentiated. Effects on various observables are investigated, using the production of a Higgs boson in gluon fusion, with or without an associated jet, as a benchmark process. The case of H+jet production is presented for the first time in an NLO+PS matched simulation. Uncertainties due to scale choices and non-perturbative effects are explored in the production of W{sup {+-}} and Z bosons in association with a jet. Corresponding results are compared to data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  7. Dynamics of ps-pulse induced gratings in LC panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Kajzar, Francois

    2002-06-01

    In the present work we focused our attention on studies of PVK:TNF hybrid polymer liquid crystal panels under short pulse laser illumination conditions. The diffraction gratings in a LC panel were induced by crossed beams generated by doubled in frequency Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 532 nm) delivering pulses of 20 ps duration. So induced gratings were read by a cw laser radiation coming from a weak power He-Ne laser working at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm. The temporal evolution of intensity of first order diffraction measured in PVK:TNF hybrid liquid crystal panels shows many interesting features and complexity dependent on various experimental conditions. The substantial diffraction is observed already in time less than 1 ms after the pulse and the grating decay is completed within hundreds of milliseconds. At least three different steps of grating build-up can be distinguished which depend in various ways on the experimental conditions. A tentative mechanism of the observed responses is discussed in connection with the photoconductive properties of polymeric layers and the optical and electrical properties of the used liquid crystal E-7 (Merck).

  8. Serine 216 Phosphorylation ofEstrogen Receptor ? in Neutrophils: Migration and Infiltration into the Mouse Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Sawako; Moore, Rick; Flake, Gordon; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas estrogen receptors are present in immune cells, it is not known if they are phosphorylated to regulate immune cell functions. Here we determined the phosphorylation status of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) at residue serine 216 in mouse neutrophils and examined its?role in migration and infiltration. Serine 216 is the conserved phosphorylation site within the DNA binding domains found in the majority of nuclear receptors. Methodology/Principal Findings A phospho-peptide antibody specific to phosphorylated serine 216 and ER? KO mice were utilized in immunohistochemistry, double immuno-staining or Western blot to detect phosphorylation of ER? in peripheral blood as well as infiltrating neutrophils in the mouse uterus. Transwell assays were performed to examine migration of neutrophils. An anti-Ly6G antibody identified neutrophils. About 20% of neutrophils expressed phosphorylated ER? at serine 216 in peripheral white blood cells (WBC) from C3H/HeNCrIBR females. Phosphorylation was additively segregated between C3H/HeNCrIBR and C57BL/6 females. Only neutrophils that expressed phosphorylated ER? migrated in Transwell assays as well as infiltrated the mouse uterus during normal estrous cycles. Conclusions/Significance ER? was phosphorylated at serine 216 in about 20% of mouse peripheral blood neutrophils. Only those that express phosphorylated ER? migrate and infiltrate the mouse uterus. This phosphorylation was the first to be characterized in endogenous ER? found in normal tissues and cells. Phosphorylated ER? may have opened a novel research direction for biological roles of phosphorylation in ER? actions and can be developed as a drug target for treatment of immune-related diseases. PMID:24386386

  9. Functional and Structural Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Serine Protease B, VesB*

    PubMed Central

    Gadwal, Shilpa; Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Delarosa, Jaclyn R.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Sandkvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The chymotrypsin subfamily A of serine proteases consists primarily of eukaryotic proteases, including only a few proteases of bacterial origin. VesB, a newly identified serine protease that is secreted by the type II secretion system in Vibrio cholerae, belongs to this subfamily. VesB is likely produced as a zymogen because sequence alignment with trypsinogen identified a putative cleavage site for activation and a catalytic triad, His-Asp-Ser. Using synthetic peptides, VesB efficiently cleaved a trypsin substrate, but not chymotrypsin and elastase substrates. The reversible serine protease inhibitor, benzamidine, inhibited VesB and served as an immobilized ligand for VesB affinity purification, further indicating its relationship with trypsin-like enzymes. Consistent with this family of serine proteases, N-terminal sequencing implied that the propeptide is removed in the secreted form of VesB. Separate mutagenesis of the activation site and catalytic serine rendered VesB inactive, confirming the importance of these features for activity, but not for secretion. Similar to trypsin but, in contrast to thrombin and other coagulation factors, Na+ did not stimulate the activity of VesB, despite containing the Tyr250 signature. The crystal structure of catalytically inactive pro-VesB revealed that the protease domain is structurally similar to trypsinogen. The C-terminal domain of VesB was found to adopt an immunoglobulin (Ig)-fold that is structurally homologous to Ig-folds of other extracellular Vibrio proteins. Possible roles of the Ig-fold domain in stability, substrate specificity, cell surface association, and type II secretion of VesB, the first bacterial multidomain trypsin-like protease with known structure, are discussed. PMID:24459146

  10. Differential Expression of Enzymes Associated with Serine/Glycine Metabolism in Different Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glycine and serine are well-known, classic metabolites of glycolysis. Here, we profiled the expression of enzymes associated with serine/glycine metabolism in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer and discuss their potential clinical implications. Methods We used western blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine five serine-/glycine-metabolismassociated proteins (PHGDH, PSAT, PSPH, SHMT, and GLDC) in six breast cancer cell lines and 709 breast cancer cases using tissue microarray (TMA). Results PHGDH and PSPH, associated with serine metabolism, were highly expressed in the TNBC cells. GLDC, associated with glycine metabolism, was highly expressed in HER-2-positive MDA-MB-453 and TNBC-related MDA-MB-435S. TMA showed that the TNBC-type breast cancer tissues highly expressed PHGDH, PSPH, and SHMT1, but not the luminal-A-type tissues (p<0.001). PSPH and SHMT1 expression in the tumor stroma of HER-2-type cancers was the highest, but the luminal-A tissues showed the lowest expression (p<0.001). GLDC was most frequently expressed in cancer cells and stroma of the HER-2-positive cancers and least frequently in TNBC (p<0.001). By Cox multivariate analysis, tumor PSPH positivity (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.068, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0494.079, p?=?0.036), stromal PSPH positivity (HR: 2.152, 95% CI: 1.1074.184, p?=?0.024), and stromal SHMT1 negativity (HR: 2.142, 95% CI: 1.2193.764, p?=?0.008) were associated with short overall survival. Conclusions Expression of serine-metabolismassociated proteins was increased in TNBC and decreased in the luminal-A cancers. Expression of glycine-metabolismassociated proteins was high in the tumor and stroma of HER-2-positive cancers. PMID:24979213

  11. An Unorthodox Sensory Adaptation Site in the Escherichia coli Serine Chemoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The serine chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli contains four canonical methylation sites for sensory adaptation that lie near intersubunit helix interfaces of the Tsr homodimer. An unexplored fifth methylation site, E502, lies at an intrasubunit helix interface closest to the HAMP domain that controls input-output signaling in methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. We analyzed, with in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) kinase assays, the serine thresholds and response cooperativities of Tsr receptors with different mutationally imposed modifications at sites 1 to 4 and/or at site 5. Tsr variants carrying E or Q at residue 502, in combination with unmodifiable D and N replacements at adaptation sites 1 to 4, underwent both methylation and demethylation/deamidation, although detection of the latter modifications required elevated intracellular levels of CheB. These Tsr variants could not mediate a chemotactic response to serine spatial gradients, demonstrating that adaptational modifications at E502 alone are not sufficient for Tsr function. Moreover, E502 is not critical for Tsr function, because only two amino acid replacements at this residue abrogated serine chemotaxis: Tsr-E502P had extreme kinase-off output and Tsr-E502I had extreme kinase-on output. These large threshold shifts are probably due to the unique HAMP-proximal location of methylation site 5. However, a methylation-mimicking glutamine at any Tsr modification site raised the serine response threshold, suggesting that all sites influence signaling by the same general mechanism, presumably through changes in packing stability of the methylation helix bundle. These findings are consistent with control of input-output signaling in Tsr through dynamic interplay of the structural stabilities of the HAMP and methylation bundles. PMID:24272777

  12. Self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanium dioxide on copolymer microspheres (PS) for CdSe/PS and TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-07-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as the building blocks for designing next generation solar cells, chemical/biological sensors, and metal chalcogenides (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe) are particularly useful for harnessing size-dependent optical and electronic properties in nanostructures. In this paper, relying on the interaction including van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond, CdSe/PS sub-microspheres composite and TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure were prepared via self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanium dioxide on modified PS surface. The morphology, structure and composition obtained products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show the CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanate were assembled on the surface of PS sub-microspheres. CdSe QD-polymer sub-microspheres composites in which the QDs retain their original emission efficiency can be obtained. TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure can improve the efficiency of charge separation.

  13. Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN70 suppresses plant defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nasir Ahmed; Zhang, Meixiang; Ru, Yanyan; Liu, Tingli; Xu, Jing; Liu, Li; Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, produces a large number of effector proteins that enter into host cells. The Crinklers (Crinkling and Necrosis, CRN) are cytoplasmic effectors that are conserved in oomycete pathogens and their encoding genes are highly expressed at the infective stages in P. sojae. However, their roles in pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterized an effector PsCRN70 by transiently and stably overexpressing it in Nicotiana benthamiana. We demonstrated that PsCRN70 was localized to the plant cell nucleus and suppressed cell death elicited by all the tested cell death-inducing proteins, including BAX, PsAvh241, PsCRN63, PsojNIP and R3a/Avr3a. Overexpression of the PsCRN70 gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. parasitica. The H2O2 accumulation in the PsCRN70-transgenic plants was reduced compared to the GFP-lines. The transcriptional levels of the defense-associated genes, including PR1b, PR2b, ERF1 and LOX, were also down-regulated in the PsCRN70-transgenic lines. Our results suggest that PsCRN70 may function as a universal suppressor of the cell death induced by many elicitors, the host H2O2 accumulation and the expression of defense-associated genes, and therefore promotes pathogen infection. PMID:24858571

  14. Spectral classification of PS15blq/MASTER OT J173142.37+435334.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2015-10-01

    We report spectroscopic classification of PS15blq from the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST; Huber et al., ATel #7153; http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ ). This object was discovered independently by both PSST and the MASTER survey - see Shumkov et al ATel #8104, and Smith et al ATel.

  15. The effect of PS-K, a protein bound polysaccharide, on immune responses against allogeneic antigens.

    PubMed

    Ehrke, M J; Reino, J M; Eppolito, C; Mihich, E

    1983-01-01

    A single dose of PS-K administered to C57B1/6J mice after immunization augmented both the humoral and cellular allogeneic responses against P815 tumor cells. PS-K addition to primary alloantigen sensitization cultures (C57B1/6J spleen cells against X-irradiated P815 cells) resulted in augmented 3H-thymidine uptake and cell mediated cytolytic activity. Ten daily administrations of PS-K to DBA/2J mice after implantation of a mammary tumor of DBA/2HaDD origin results in increased tumor regression and prolonged survival of the mice. PS-K addition to human mixed lymphocyte cultures caused an augmentation of both cell mediated cytolytic activity and 3H thymidine uptake. The dose dependence of the PS-K effects were described by a bell shaped curve and PS-K did not appear to affect the day of peak development of the various responses. The effects were consistently greater if PS-K was administered at the same time or after antigen presentation. Thus, the immunoaugmenting effects induced by PS-K were similar in each model system tested. PMID:6220984

  16. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bzz as a type-Ia supernova at maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Miszalski, B.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bzz on 2015 Aug 16.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-820 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bzz is a type-Ia supernova within a few days of maximum light.

  17. Emission properties of porphyrin compounds in new polymeric PS:CBP host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Bahram

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a device with fundamental structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (60 nm)/PS:CBP (70 nm)/Al (150 nm) was fabricated. The electroluminescence spectrum of device designated a red shift rather than PS:CBP photoluminescence spectra. It can be suggested that the electroplex emission occurs at PS:CBP interface. By following this step, red light-emitting devices using porphyrin compounds as a red dopant in a new host material PS:CBP with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (60 nm)/PS:CBP:porphyrin compounds(70 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. The electroluminescent spectra of the porphyrin compounds were red-shifted as compared with the PS:CBP blend. OLED devices based on doping 3,4PtTPP and TPPNO2 in PS:CBP showed purer red emission compared with ZnTPP and CoTPP doped devices. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on porphyrin compounds depends on overlaps between the absorption of the porphyrin compounds and the emission of PS:CBP.

  18. NASA PS400: A New Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Edmonds, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    A new solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, has been developed for high temperature tribological applications. This plasma sprayed coating is a variant of the patented PS304 coating and has been formulated to provide higher density, smoother surface finish and better dimensional stability than PS304. PS400 is comprised of a nickel-molybdenum binder that provides strength, creep resistance and extreme oxidative and dimensional stability. Chromium oxide, silver and barium-calcium fluoride eutectic are added to the binder to form PS400.Tribological properties were evaluated with a pin-on-disk test rig in sliding contact to 650 C. Coating material samples were exposed to air, argon and vacuum at 760 C followed by cross section microscopic analysis to assess microstructure stability. Oil-Free microturbine engine hot section foil bearing tests were undertaken to assess PS400 s suitability for hot foil gas bearing applications. The preliminary results indicate that PS400 exhibits tribological characteristics comparable to the PS304 coating but with enhanced creep resistance and dimensional stability suitable for demanding, dynamic applications.

  19. PsANT, the adenine nucleotide translocase of Puccinia striiformis, promotes cell death and fungal growth

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chunlei; Wei, Jinping; Han, Qingmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Xiaoyuan; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Xueling; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a constitutive mitochondrial component that is involved in ADP/ATP exchange and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in yeast and mammals. However, little is known about the function of ANT in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ANT gene of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), designated PsANT. The PsANT protein contains three typical conserved mitochondrion-carrier-protein (mito-carr) domains and shares more than 70% identity with its orthologs from other fungi, suggesting that ANT is conserved in fungi. Immuno-cytochemical localization confirmed the mitochondrial localization of PsANT in normal Pst hyphal cells or collapsed cells. Over-expression of PsANT indicated that PsANT promotes cell death in tobacco, wheat and fission yeast cells. Further study showed that the three mito-carr domains are all needed to induce cell death. qRT-PCR analyses revealed an in-planta induced expression of PsANT during infection. Knockdown of PsANT using a host-induced gene silencing system (HIGS) attenuated the growth and development of virulent Pst at the early infection stage but not enough to alter its pathogenicity. These results provide new insight into the function of PsANT in fungal cell death and growth and might be useful in the search for and design of novel disease control strategies. PMID:26058921

  20. Genome Sequence of Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae PS15

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Rajanna, Chythanya; Floyd, Jared T.; Smith, Kenneth P.; Andersen, Jody L.; He, Guixin; Ayers, Ryan M.; Johnson, Judith A.; Werdann, James J.; Sandoval, Ava A.; Mojica, Nadia M.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Mudge, Joann

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of a non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strain, PS15, organized into 3,512 open reading frames within a 3.9-Mb genome, was determined. The PS15 genome sequence will allow for the study of the evolution of virulence and environmental adaptation in V. cholerae. PMID:23409261

  1. 7 CFR 1753.26 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 1792, subpart C. (e) Two sets of the building plans and specifications shall be prepared and... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.26 Section 1753... Buildings 1753.26 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) For headquarters and commercial office...

  2. 7 CFR 1753.47 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from the approved LD (7 CFR part 1737) must be approved by RUS (See 1753.3). (2) The standard RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.47 Section 1753... Construction by Contract 1753.47 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation...

  3. 7 CFR 1753.47 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from the approved LD (7 CFR part 1737) must be approved by RUS (See 1753.3). (2) The standard RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.47 Section 1753... Construction by Contract 1753.47 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation...

  4. 7 CFR 1753.47 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from the approved LD (7 CFR part 1737) must be approved by RUS (See 1753.3). (2) The standard RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.47 Section 1753... Construction by Contract 1753.47 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation...

  5. 7 CFR 1753.26 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 1792, subpart C. (e) Two sets of the building plans and specifications shall be prepared and... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.26 Section 1753... Buildings 1753.26 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) For headquarters and commercial office...

  6. 7 CFR 1753.26 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 1792, subpart C. (e) Two sets of the building plans and specifications shall be prepared and... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.26 Section 1753... Buildings 1753.26 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) For headquarters and commercial office...

  7. 7 CFR 1753.47 - Plans and specifications (P&S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from the approved LD (7 CFR part 1737) must be approved by RUS (See 1753.3). (2) The standard RUS... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plans and specifications (P&S). 1753.47 Section 1753... Construction by Contract 1753.47 Plans and specifications (P&S). (a) General. (1) Prior to the preparation...

  8. Immunolocalization of PsNLEC-1, a lectin-like glycoprotein expressed in developing pea nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, P; Kardailsky, I V; Brewin, N J

    1997-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) nodule lectin gene PsNlec1 is a member of the legume lectin gene family that is strongly expressed in infected pea nodule tissue. A full-length cDNA sequence of PsNlec1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and a specific antiserum was generated from the purified protein. Immunoblotting of material from isolated symbiosomes revealed that the glycoprotein was present in two antigenic isoforms, PsNLEC-1A and PsNLEC-1B. The N-terminal sequence of isoform A showed homology to an eight-amino acid propeptide sequence previously identified from the cDNA sequence of isoform B. In nodule homogenates the antiserum recognized an additional fast-migrating band, PsNLEC-1C. Fractionation studies indicated that PsNLEC-1C was associated with a 100,000 g nodule membrane fraction, suggesting an association with cytoplasmic membrane or vesicles. Immunogold localization in pea nodule tissue sections demonstrated that the PsNLEC-1 antigen was present in the symbiosome compartment and also in the vacuole but revealed differences in distribution between infected host cells in different parts of the nodule. These data suggest that PsNLEC-1 is subject to posttranslational modification and that the various antigenic isoforms can be used to monitor membrane and vesicle targeting during symbiosome development. PMID:9414555

  9. The Postnatal Development of d-Serine in the Retinas of Two Mouse Strains, Including a Mutant Mouse with a Deficiency in d-Amino Acid Oxidase and a Serine Racemase Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    d-Serine, an N-methyl d-aspartate receptor coagonist, and its regulatory enzymes, d-amino acid oxidase (DAO; degradation) and serine racemase (SR; synthesis), have been implicated in crucial roles of the developing central nervous system, yet the functional position that they play in regulating the availability of d-serine throughout development of the mammalian retina is not well-known. Using capillary electrophoresis and a sensitive method of enantiomeric amino acid separation, we were able to determine total levels of d-serine at specific ages during postnatal development of the mouse retina in two different strains of mice, one of which contained a loss-of-function point mutation for DAO while the other was a SR knockout line. Each mouse line was tested against conspecific wild type (WT) mice for each genetic strain. The universal trend in all WT and transgenic mice was a large amount of total retinal d-serine at postnatal age 2 (P2), followed by a dramatic decrease as the mice matured into adulthood (P7080). SR knockout mice retinas had 41% less d-serine than WT retinas at P2, and 10 times less as an adult. DAO mutant mice retinas had significantly elevated levels of d-serine when compared to WT retinas at P2 (217%), P4 (223%), P8 (194%), and adulthood (227%). PMID:25083578

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of PS300: A New Self-Lubricating High Temperature Composite Coating for Use to 800 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Edmonds, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces PS300, a plasma sprayed, self-lubricating composite coating for use in sliding contacts at temperatures to 800 C. PS300 is a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with silver and BaF2/CaF2 eutectic solid lubricant additives. PS300 is similar to PS200, a chromium carbide based coating, which is currently being investigated for a variety of tribological applications. In pin-on-disk testing up to 650 C, PS300 exhibited comparable friction and wear properties to PS200. The PS300 matrix, which is predominantly chromium oxide rather than chromium carbide, does not require diamond grinding and polishes readily with silicon carbide abrasives greatly reducing manufacturing costs compared to PS200. It is anticipated that PS300 has potential for sliding bearing and seal applications in both aerospace and general industry.

  11. iPS cell technologies: significance and applications to CNS regeneration and disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, we demonstrated that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by gene transfer, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Since that time, there has been an enormous increase in interest regarding the application of iPS cell technologies to medical science, in particular for regenerative medicine and human disease modeling. In this review article, we outline the current status of applications of iPS technology to cell therapies (particularly for spinal cord injury), as well as neurological disease-specific iPS cell research (particularly for Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease). Finally, future directions of iPS cell research are discussed including a) development of an accurate assay system for disease-associated phenotypes, b) demonstration of causative relationships between genotypes and phenotypes by genome editing, c) application to sporadic and common diseases, and d) application to preemptive medicine. PMID:24685317

  12. [Current status and perspective on regenerative medicine for spinal cord injury using iPS cell].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon, there is an increasing interest in the iPS cells and reprogramming technologies in medical science. While iPS cells are expected to open new era providing enormous opportunities in the biomedical sciences in terms of cell therapies for regenerative medicine, safety-related concerns for iPS cell-based cell therapy should be resolved prior to the clinical application of iPS cells. In this symposium, the pre-clinical investigations of cell therapy for SCI using neural stem/progenitor cells derived from iPS cells, and their safety issues in vivo are outlined. PMID:24291863

  13. Tribology and Microstructure of PS212 with a Cr2O3 Seal Coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Benoy, Patricia A.; Korenyi-Both, Andras; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    PS212 is a plasma sprayed metal bonding chrome carbide coating with solid lubricant additives which has lubricating properties at temperatures up to about 900 deg C. The coating is diamond ground to achieve an acceptable tribological surface. But, as with many plasma spray coatings, PS212 is not fully-dense. In this study, a chromium oxide base seal coating is used in an attempt to seal any porosity that is open to the surface of the PS212 coating, and to study the effect of the sealant on the tribological properties of PS212. The results indicate that the seal coating reduces friction and wear when it is applied and then diamond ground leaving a thin layer of seal coating which fills in the surface pits of the PS212 coating.

  14. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Niederman, Robert A.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Frank, Harry A.

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees represented a diverse international and multidisciplinary group, with over 160 individuals attending from a total of 17 different countries. Attendees came from a wide range of fields assuring that the widest possible interdisciplinary exchanges. They included prominent biochemists, biophysicists, plant physiologists, chemical physicists, as well as theoretical and computational physical chemists, who presented their research findings or to hear the latest advances in this very dynamic field. In the choice of speakers, a balance was created between established scientists and young, emerging researchers, given this opportunity to showcase their results. Sessions were held on electronic and vibrational coherence including coherent sharing of excitations among donor and acceptor molecules during excitation energy transfer, nonphotochemical quenching, acclimation to light environments, evolution, adaptation and biodiversity of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, their structure and membrane organization, spectroscopy and dynamics, as well as artificial antenna systems. A joint session was also held with the participants from the Cyanobacterial Satellite Conference. A special issue of Photosynthesis Research devoted to light harvesting (Volume 121, Issue No. 1, July 2014) has recently appeared which contains peer-reviewed original research contributions arising from talks and posters presented at the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems. Edited by the Organizers of the Workshop, Robert E. Blankenship, Harry A. Frank and Robert A. Niederman, it includes topics ranging from the isolation of new bacteriochlorophyll species from green bacteria, temperature effects on the excited states of the newly discovered chlorophyll (Chl) ƒ, new architectures for enhancing energy capture by biohybrid light-harvesting complexes, forces governing the formation of light-harvesting rings, spectroscopy of carotenoids of algae and diatoms and the supramolecular organization of caroteno-Chl proteins in diatoms, the molecular basis for urea dissociation of phycocyanin trimers and the role of vibronic molecular excitation theory in describing the spectral dynamics of pigment-protein complexes.

  15. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. )

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  16. The Ames dwarf mutation attenuates Alzheimer's disease phenotype of APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Puig, Kendra L; Kulas, Joshua A; Franklin, Whitney; Rakoczy, Sharlene G; Taglialatela, Giulio; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Combs, Colin K

    2016-04-01

    APP/PS1 double transgenic mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) demonstrate robust brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide containing plaque deposition, increased markers of oxidative stress, behavioral dysfunction, and proinflammatory gliosis. On the other hand, lack of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone due to a recessive mutation in the Prop 1 gene (Prop1df) in Ames dwarf mice results in a phenotype characterized by potentiated antioxidant mechanisms, improved learning and memory, and significantly increased longevity in homozygous mice. Based on this, we hypothesized that a similar hormone deficiency might attenuate disease changes in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. To test this idea, APP/PS1 mice were crossed to the Ames dwarf mouse line. APP/PS1, wild-type, df/+, df/df, df/+/APP/PS1, and df/df/APP/PS1 mice were compared at 6 months of age through behavioral testing and assessing amyloid burden, reactive gliosis, and brain cytokine levels. df/df mice demonstrated lower brain growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. This correlated with decreased astrogliosis and microgliosis in the df/df/APP/PS1 mice and, surprisingly, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 concentrations. The df/df/APP/PS1 mice also demonstrated significantly elevated brain levels of multiple cytokines in spite of the attenuated gliosis. These data indicate that the df/df/APP/PS1 line is a unique resource in which to study aging and resistance to disease and suggest that the affected pituitary hormones may have a role in regulating disease progression. PMID:26973101

  17. Characterization of a yeast D-amino acid oxidase microbiosensor for D-serine detection in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pernot, Pierre; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Schuvailo, Oleg; Soldatkin, Alexey; Pollegioni, Loredano; Pilone, Mirella; Adeline, Marie-Thrse; Cespuglio, Raymond; Marinesco, Stphane

    2008-03-01

    d-Serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and alterations in its concentration have been related to several brain disorders, especially schizophrenia. It is therefore an important target neuromodulator for the pharmaceutical industry. To monitor d-serine levels in vivo, we have developed a microbiosensor based on cylindrical platinum microelectrodes, covered with a membrane of poly-m-phenylenediamine (PPD) and a layer of immobilized d-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (RgDAAO). By detecting the hydrogen peroxide produced by enzymatic degradation of d-serine, this microbiosensor shows a detection limit of 16 nM and a mean response time of 2 s. Interferences by ascorbic acid, uric acid, l-cysteine, and by biogenic amines and their metabolites are rejected at more than 97% by the PPD layer. Although several d-amino acids are potential substrates for RgDAAO, d-serine was the only endogenous substrate present in sufficient concentration to be detected by our microbiosensor in the central nervous system. When implanted in the cortex of anesthetized rats, this microbiosensor detected the increase in concentration of d-serine resulting from its diffusion across the blood-brain barrier after an intraperitoneal injection. This new device will make it possible to investigate in vivo the variations in d-serine concentrations occurring under normal and pathological conditions and to assess the pharmacological potency of new drugs designed to impact d-serine metabolism. PMID:18229946

  18. Pyruvate kinase M2 promotes de novo serine synthesis to sustain mTORC1 activity and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jiangbin; Mancuso, Anthony; Tong, Xuemei; Ward, Patrick S.; Fan, Jing; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Thompson, Craig B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that most cancer cells display high glycolytic activity, cancer cells selectively express the less active M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2). Here we demonstrate that PKM2 expression makes a critical regulatory contribution to the serine synthetic pathway. In the absence of serine, an allosteric activator of PKM2, glycolytic efflux to lactate is significantly reduced in PKM2-expressing cells. This inhibition of PKM2 results in the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates that feed into serine synthesis. As a consequence, PKM2-expressing cells can maintain mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity and proliferate in serine-depleted medium, but PKM1-expressing cells cannot. Cellular detection of serine depletion depends on general control nonderepressible 2 kinase-activating transcription factor 4 (GCN2-ATF4) pathway activation and results in increased expression of enzymes required for serine synthesis from the accumulating glycolytic precursors. These findings suggest that tumor cells use serine-dependent regulation of PKM2 and GCN2 to modulate the flux of glycolytic intermediates in support of cell proliferation. PMID:22509023

  19. Identification of potential transmembrane protease serine 4 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents by integrated computational approach.

    PubMed

    Ilamathi, M; Hemanth, R; Nishanth, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V

    2016-01-21

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 is a well known cell surface protease facilitating the extracellular matrix degradation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma. Henceforth targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 is strongly believed to provide therapeutic intervention against hepatocellular carcinoma. Owing to lack of crystal structure for human transmembrane protease serine 4, we predicted its three dimensional structure for the first time in this study. Experimentally proven inhibitor-Tyroserleutide (TSL) against hepatocellular carcinoma via transmembrane protease serine 4 was used as a benchmark to identify structurally similar candidates from PubChem database to create the TSL library. Virtual screening of TSL library against modeled transmembrane protease serine 4 revealed the top four potential inhibitors. Further binding free energy (?Gbind) analysis of the potential inhibitors revealed the best potential lead compound against transmembrane protease serine 4. Drug likeliness nature of the top four potential hits were additionally analyzed in comparison to TSL to confirm on the best potential lead compound with the highest % of human oral absorption. Consequently, e-pharmacophore mapping of the best potential lead compound yielded a six point feature. It was observed to contain four hydrogen bond donor sites (D), one positively ionizable site (P) and one aromatic ring (R). Such e-pharmacophore insight obtained from structural determinants by integrated computational analysis could serve as a framework for further advancement of drug discovery process of new anti-cancer agents with less toxicity and high specificity targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26590327

  20. Optimisation of freeze drying conditions for purified serine protease from mango (Mangifera indicaCv. Chokanan) peel.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Tan, Chin Ping; Hamed, Mirhosseini; Aziz, Norashikin Ab; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between the encapsulation variables, namely serine protease content (9-50mg/ml, X1), Arabic gum (0.2-10%(w/w), X2), maltodextrin (2-5%(w/w), X3) and calcium chloride (1.3-5.5%(w/w), X4) on the enzymatic properties of encapsulated serine protease. The study demonstrated that Arabic gum, maltodextrin and calcium chloride, as coating agents, protected serine protease from activity loss during freeze-drying. The overall optimum region resulted in a suitable freeze drying condition with a yield of 92% for the encapsulated serine protease, were obtained using 29.5mg/ml serine protease content, 5.1%(w/w) Arabic gum, 3.5%(w/w) maltodextrin and 3.4%(w/w) calcium chloride. It was found that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and calcium chloride improved the serine protease activity, and Arabic gum was the most effective amongst the examined coating agents. Thus, Arabic gum should be considered as potential protection in freeze drying of serine protease. PMID:25214343

  1. Serine dipeptide lipids of Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation: Relationship to Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Nemati, Reza; Anstadt, Emily; Liu, Yaling; Son, Young; Zhu, Qiang; Yao, Xudong; Clark, Robert B; Rowe, David W; Nichols, Frank C

    2015-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen strongly associated with loss of attachment and supporting bone for teeth. We have previously shown that the total lipid extract of P. gingivalis inhibits osteoblast differentiation through engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis engage both mouse and human TLR2. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether these serine lipids inhibit osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and whether TLR2 engagement is involved. Osteoblasts were obtained from calvaria of wild type or TLR2 knockout mouse pups that also express the Col2.3GFP transgene. Two classes of serine dipeptide lipids, termed Lipid 654 and Lipid 430, were tested. Osteoblast differentiation was monitored by cell GFP fluorescence and osteoblast gene expression and osteoblast function was monitored as von Kossa stained mineral deposits. Osteoblast differentiation and function were evaluated in calvarial cell cultures maintained for 21 days. Lipid 654 significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation and this inhibition was dependent on TLR2 engagement. Lipid 430 also significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation but these effects were only partially attributed to engagement of TLR2. More importantly, Lipid 430 stimulated TNF-α and RANKL gene expression in wild type cells but not in TLR2 knockout cells. Finally, osteoblast cultures were observed to hydrolyze Lipid 654 to Lipid 430 and this likely occurs through elevated PLA2 activity in the cultured cells. In conclusion, our results show that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation and function at least in part through engagement of TLR2. The Lipid 430 serine class also increased the expression of genes that could increase osteoclast activity. We conclude that Lipid 654 and Lipid 430 have the potential to promote TLR2-dependent bone loss as is reported in experimental periodontitis following oral infection with P. gingivalis. These results also support the conclusion that serine dipeptide lipids are involved in alveolar bone loss in chronic periodontitis. PMID:26409254

  2. Rapid loss of perforin and serine protease RNA in cytotoxic lymphocytes exposed to sensitive targets.

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, A; Kwon, B S; Brahmi, Z

    1991-01-01

    We have previously reported that cytotoxic lymphocytes, when exposed to sensitive target cells, temporarily lose their lytic potential. The mechanism leading to this loss of lytic activity is still unknown but it is reversible and the lytic potency can be recovered when the effector cells are incubated with interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 12-14 hr. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of RNA coding for perforin and for two serine proteases, HSP1 and HSP2, in cytotoxic lymphocytes exposed to sensitive targets. Perforin and the two serine proteases are contained in granules of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted and non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic lymphocytes, but their exact role in the lytic mechanism is still debated. Here we used four different human cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) as effector cells: an MHC-restricted CTL (SG-CTL), a non-MHC-restricted CTL (IE6), a natural killer (NK)-like cell line (3.3) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. In all effector cells we observed a rapid loss of perforin and of serine protease RNAs within 5 min following the addition of sensitive targets. The effector cells recovered the RNA messages as early as 30 min, although the kinetics of recovery was faster with CTL than with NK-like or LAK effector cells. When we exposed the effector cells to resistant targets we did not detect any loss of perforin or serine protease RNAs. Incubation of the effector cells with cycloheximide, prior to the addition of sensitive targets, did not block message loss, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was not required in this process. Cycloheximide treatment, however, inhibited the recovery of perforin and serine protease RNAs. Taken together, our results indicate that the target-mediated loss of lytic activity in cytotoxic lymphocytes may be a consequence of the down-regulation of perforin or of serine protease transcripts, or both. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1721042

  3. The midgut of Aedes albopictus females expresses active trypsin-like serine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical regions and is associated with the transmission of several arboviruses. Although this species is increasingly relevant to public health due its ability to successfully colonize both urban and rural habitats, favoring the dispersion of viral infections, little is known about its biochemical traits, with all assumptions made based on studies of A. aegypti. In previous studies we characterized the peptidase profile of pre-imaginal stages of A. albopictus and we reported the first proteomic analysis of the midgut from sugar-fed females of this insect species. Methods In the present work, we further analyzed the peptidase expression in the midgut of sugar-fed females using 1DE-substrate gel zymography, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and protein identification based on similarity. Results The combination of zymography, in solution assays using fluorescent substrates and 2DE-MS/MS allowed us to identify the active serine peptidase fingerprint in the midgut of A. albopictus females. Zymographic analysis revealed a proteolytic profile composed of at least 13 bands ranging from ~25 to 250kDa, which were identified as trypsin-like serine peptidases by using specific inhibitors of this class of enzymes. Concomitant use of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC and trypsin-like serine protease inhibitors corroborated the zymographic findings. Our proteomic approach allowed the identification of two different trypsin-like serine peptidases and one chymotrypsin in protein spots of the alkaline region in 2DE map of the A. albopictus female midgut. Identification of these protein coding genes was achieved by similarity to the A. aegypti genome sequences using Mascot and OMSSA search engines. Conclusion These results allowed us to detect, identify and characterize the expression of active trypsin-like serine peptidases in the midgut of sugar-fed A. albopictus females. In addition, proteomic analysis allowed us to confidently assign the expression of two trypsin genes and one chymotrypsin gene to the midgut of this mosquito. These results contribute to the gene annotation in this species of unknown genome and represent a small but important step toward the protein-level functional and localization assignment of trypsin-like serine peptidase genes in the Aedes genus. PMID:24886160

  4. Reduction of inflammatory responses by L-serine treatment leads to neuroprotection in mice after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Pei-Pei; Xu, Li-Hua; Yang, Juan-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Lin; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Sun, Li; Wang, Guo-Hua; Li, Xia

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of l-serine and the underlying mechanisms in mice after traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced using a weight drop model. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with l-serine 3 h after TBI and then injected twice each day for 7 days or until the end of the experiment. The neurological severity score, brain water content, lesion volume, and neurone loss were determined. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 and the number of GFAP- and Iba-1-positive cells and activated caspase-3-positive neurones in the brain tissue ipsilateral to TBI were also measured. Simultaneously, the influences of l-serine on these variables were observed. In addition, the expression of glycine receptors and l-serine-induced currents were measured. We found l-serine treatment: 1) decreased the neurological deficit score, brain water content, lesion volume, and neurone loss; 2) inhibited activated caspase-3; and 3) reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and the number of GFAP- and Iba-1-positive cells. The effects of l-serine were antagonised by the administration of strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors. In addition, we found that glycine receptors were expressed mainly in the cortical neurones but less in the astrocytes or microglial cells, and l-serine activated these receptors and induced strychnine-sensitive currents in these neurones. In conclusion, l-serine induces the activation of glycine receptors, which alleviates neuronal excitotoxicity, a secondary brain injury process, thereby reduces the activation of astrocytes and microglial cells and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits neuronal apoptosis. Thus, l-serine treatment leads to neuroprotection of brain tissue through reducing inflammatory responses and improves recovery of the neurological functions in mice after traumatic brain injury. PMID:25747604

  5. An HDAC2-TET1 switch at distinct chromatin regions significantly promotes the maturation of pre-iPS to iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tingyi; Chen, Wen; Wang, Xiukun; Zhang, Man; Chen, Jiayu; Zhu, Songcheng; Chen, Long; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Guiying; Jia, Wenwen; Yu, Yangyang; Duan, Tao; Wu, Minjuan; Liu, Houqi; Gao, Shaorong; Kang, Jiuhong

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is one of the limiting steps of somatic cell reprogramming, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we reported that knockdown of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) specifically promoted the maturation of iPS cells. Further studies showed that HDAC2 knockdown significantly increased histone acetylation, facilitated TET1 binding and DNA demethylation at the promoters of iPS cell maturation-related genes during the transition of pre-iPS cells to a fully reprogrammed state. We also found that HDAC2 competed with TET1 in the binding of the RbAp46 protein at the promoters of maturation genes and knockdown of TET1 markedly prevented the activation of these genes. Collectively, our data not only demonstrated a novel intrinsic mechanism that the HDAC2-TET1 switch critically regulates iPS cell maturation, but also revealed an underlying mechanism of the interplay between histone acetylation and DNA demethylation in gene regulation. PMID:25934799

  6. Accumulation and Phosphorylation of RecQ-Mediated Genome Instability Protein 1 (RMI1) at Serine 284 and Serine 292 during Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Qin; Du, Li-Qing; Fan, Saijun; Liu, Qiang; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome instability usually leads to tumorigenesis. Bloom syndrome (BS) is a genetic disease associated with chromosome instability. The BS gene product, BLM, has been reported to function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to prevent chromosome instability. BTR complex, composed of BLM, topoisomerase III? (Topo III?), RMI1 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 1, BLAP75) and RMI2 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 2, BLAP18), is crucial for maintaining genome stability. Recent work has demonstrated that RMI2 also plays critical role in SAC. However, little is know about RMI1 regulation during the cell cycle. Here we present that RMI1 protein level does not change through G1, S and G2 phases, but significantly increases in M phase. Moreover, phosphorylation of RMI1 occurs in mitosis. Upon microtubule-disturbing agent, RMI1 is phosphorylated primarily at the sites of Serine 284 and Serine 292, which does not interfere with the formation of BTR complex. Additionally, this phosphorylation is partially reversed by roscovitine treatment, implying cycling-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) might be one of the upstream kinases. PMID:26556339

  7. Accumulation and Phosphorylation of RecQ-Mediated Genome Instability Protein 1 (RMI1) at Serine 284 and Serine 292 during Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Qin; Du, Li-Qing; Fan, Saijun; Liu, Qiang; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome instability usually leads to tumorigenesis. Bloom syndrome (BS) is a genetic disease associated with chromosome instability. The BS gene product, BLM, has been reported to function in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to prevent chromosome instability. BTR complex, composed of BLM, topoisomerase III? (Topo III?), RMI1 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 1, BLAP75) and RMI2 (RecQ-mediated genome instability protein 2, BLAP18), is crucial for maintaining genome stability. Recent work has demonstrated that RMI2 also plays critical role in SAC. However, little is know about RMI1 regulation during the cell cycle. Here we present that RMI1 protein level does not change through G1, S and G2 phases, but significantly increases in M phase. Moreover, phosphorylation of RMI1 occurs in mitosis. Upon microtubule-disturbing agent, RMI1 is phosphorylated primarily at the sites of Serine 284 and Serine 292, which does not interfere with the formation of BTR complex. Additionally, this phosphorylation is partially reversed by roscovitine treatment, implying cycling-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) might be one of the upstream kinases. PMID:26556339

  8. The generation of iPS cells using non-viral magnetic nanoparticle based transfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Joo; Jeon, Kilsoo; Lim, HyeJin; Choi, Hye yeon; Lee, Eung-Ryoung; Park, Seung Hwa; Park, Jae-Yong; Hong, Sunghoi; Kim, Soonhag; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2011-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from various somatic cells; however, a major restriction of the technology is the use of potentially harmful genome-integrating viral DNAs. Here, without a viral vector, we generated iPS cells from fibroblasts using a non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection method that employs biodegradable cationic polymer PEI-coated super paramagnetic nanoparticles (NP). Our findings support the possible use of transient expression of iPS genes in somatic cells by magnet-based nanofection for efficient generation of iPS cells. Results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis and TEM analyses demonstrated efficient conjugation of NP with iPS genes. After transfection, nanofection-mediated iPS cells showed ES cell-like characteristics, including expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, differentiation of three germ layer lineages, and formation of teratomas. Our results demonstrate that magnet-based nanofection may provide a safe method for use in generation of virus-free and exogenous DNA-free iPS cells, which will be crucial for future clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:21683440

  9. Preparation and properties of biocompatible PS-PEG/calcium phosphate nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Peifeng; Sun, Ying; Gong, Tao; Zhu, Mingjie; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhirong; Duan, Yourong

    2015-03-01

    A facile room-temperature method was used to prepare phosphatidylserine (PS)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/calcium phosphate (CaP) nanospheres (PS-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether/CaP nanospheres). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the PS-PEG/CaP porous nanospheres were spherical with a diameter of 8-12 nm. X-ray and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results also confirmed that the PS-PEG micelle was packed in the CaP shell. PS-PEG/CaP nanospheres exhibited little effect on the hemolysis, coagulation characteristics of blood and inflammatory response, demonstrating a negligible cytotoxicity response in LO2 liver cells. Experiments performed in zebrafish demonstrated that the PS-PEG/CaP nanospheres had a long circulatory residence time and did not induce apoptosis in zebrafish. Taken together, these results suggest that the PS-PEG/CaP nanospheres have great potential to be used as a drug carrier. PMID:24787691

  10. Early temporal short-term memory deficits in double transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Lagadec, Saioa; Rotureau, Lolita; Hmar, Agns; Macrez, Nathalie; Delcasso, Sebastien; Jeantet, Yannick; Cho, Yoon H

    2012-01-01

    We tested single APP (Tg2576) transgenic, PS1 (PS1dE9) transgenic, and double APP/PS1 transgenic mice at 3 and 6 months of age on the acquisition of a hippocampal-dependent operant "differential reinforcement of low rate schedule" (DRL) paradigm. In this task mice are required to wait for at least 10 seconds (DRL-10s) between 2 consecutive nose poke responses. Our data showed that while single APP and PS1 transgene expression did not affect DRL learning and performance, mice expressing double APP/PS1 transgenes were impaired in the acquisition of DRL-10s at 6 months, but not at 3 months of age. The same impaired double transgenic mice, however, were perfectly capable of normal acquisition of signaled DRL-10s (SDRL-10s) task, a hippocampal-independent task, wherein mice were required to emit responses when the end of the 10-second delay was signaled by a lighting of the chamber. The age-dependent and early deficits of APP/PS1 mice suggest that the appetitive DRL paradigm is sensitive to the amyloid pathology present in double APP/PS1 mice, and that this mouse line represents a good model with which to study the efficacy of therapeutic strategies against Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20817351

  11. Constraints on Cosmological Parameters from the PS1 Spectroscopic SNIa Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolnic, Daniel; PS1 Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the 258 confirmed Type Ia Supernovae (0.03 < z < 0.65) discovered over the full course of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey. This sample is a subset of the 348 SNIa discovered by PS1 that can be used for the cosmology analysis. We present improvements to the PS1 photometry, astrometry and calibration that further reduce the systematic uncertainties in the PS1 SN Ia distances. We then discuss the combination of our PS1 sample with the full set of light curves from external samples to form the largest combined sample of SNIa. This analysis is the first to use the PS1 Supercal process that determines a global calibration solution to allow the combination of many different supernova samples. We will preview constraints on cosmological parameters with this combined sample. We will also discuss analysis of the larger PS1 photometric sample, as well as the low-z SNIa survey, called Foundation, that is currently being conducted with the Pan-STARRs telescope.

  12. Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.

    PubMed

    Abad, Mara; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Caamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Graa, Osvaldo; Megas, Diego; Domnguez, Orlando; Martnez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-10-17

    Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine. PMID:24025773

  13. Design of a Selective Substrate and Activity Based Probe for Human Neutrophil Serine Protease 4

    PubMed Central

    Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Poreba, Marcin; Snipas, Scott J.; Lin, S. Jack; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Salvesen, Guy S.; Drag, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4), also known as PRSS57, is a recently discovered fourth member of the neutrophil serine proteases family. Although its biological function is not precisely defined, it is suggested to regulate neutrophil response and innate immune reactions. To create optimal substrates and visualization probes for NSP4 that distinguish it from other NSPs we have employed a Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library approach that utilizes natural and unnatural amino acids to explore protease subsite preferences. Library results were validated by synthesizing individual substrates, leading to the identification of an optimal substrate peptide. This substrate was converted to a covalent diphenyl phosphonate probe with an embedded biotin tag. This probe demonstrated high inhibitory activity and stringent specificity and may be suitable for visualizing NSP4 in the background of other NSPs. PMID:26172376

  14. Tobacco serine/threonine protein kinase gene NrSTK enhances black shank resistance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y-L; Wang, B-W; Xu, Z-L; Li, M-Y; Song, Z-B; Li, W-Z; Li, Y-P

    2015-01-01

    A serine/threonine protein kinase gene (NrSTK) was cloned from Nicotiana repanda based on the sequence of a previously isolated resistance gene analog (RGA). Expression of RGA was induced by challenge with the pathogen black shank. The NrSTK gene was predicted to encode a protein kinase that contained an ATP binding site at residues 41-69 and a serine/threonine protein kinase activation sequence spanning the region 161-173. Overexpression of NrSTK in the susceptible tobacco variety Honghuadajinyuan significantly enhanced resistance to black shank, indicating that NrSTK plays a role in incompatibility reactions between tobacco and the pathogen. Characterization of NrSTK will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in black shank resistance in N. repanda. PMID:26662438

  15. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Caseinolytic Serine Protease from the Latex of Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sorokhaibam J; Singh, Laishram R; Devi, Sanjenbam K; Singh, Senjam S; Devi, Chingsubam B; Rully, Huidrom

    2015-01-01

    A new thermostable caseinolytic serine protease was purified from the latex of Euphorbia heterophylla L. to electrophoretic homogeneity by a procedure involving successive steps of pretreatment of the latex, PEG fractionation, CM-cellulose chromatography and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The purified protease was found to be a monomeric protein of molecular weight 77.2 kDa. It exhibited caseinolytic activity with hyperbolic azocasein saturation with Vmax and Km values of 0.11 units.mL(-1) and 0.55 mg.mL(-1) respectively. Specific inhibitory studies revealed the enzyme to be a serine protease. The protease was characterized by pH optimum of 8.0 and high thermostability with T1/2 of 75C. Based on the results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protease was shown to be a new protein not characterized earlier. PMID:26149399

  16. Dynamics of DNA strand exchange by Bxb1 integrase, a model serine site-specific recombinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Ghosh, Pallavi; Sun, Mingxuan; Grindley, Nigel; Hatfull, Graham; Marko, John F.

    2010-03-01

    Site-specific recombination breaks and rejoins DNA at specific sequences within synaptic complexes assembled by specialized recombinase enzymes. Structural data suggest that serine recombinases exchange duplex DNAs via a ``clutch plate'' mechanism allowing the fully cleaved duplex DNA ends to be exchanged by a rigid body rotation. We have directly observed this rotational motion for a simple serine recombinase, the Bxb1 phage integrase, using a single-DNA supercoiling-release assay which allows us to follow cleavage, rotation, religation and product release in real time. The molecular friction associated with the bearing is much larger than that found for type I topoisomerases in a similar assay. Experiments with recombination-incompetent and recombination-competent substrates lead to expected outcomes. We confirm our results in two-DNA braiding-relaxation experiments where synapse rotation can be directly observed in reactions on two long molecules.

  17. Characterization of the usage of the serine metabolic network in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohamadi, Mahya; Liu, Xiaojing; Shestov, Alexander A; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    The serine, glycine, one carbon (SGOC) metabolic network is implicated in cancer pathogenesis but its general functions are unknown. We carried out a computational reconstruction of the SGOC network and then characterized its expression across thousands of cancer tissues. Pathways including methylation and redox metabolism exhibited heterogeneous expression indicating a strong context dependency of their usage in tumors. From an analysis of coexpression, simultaneous up- or down-regulation of nucleotide synthesis, NADPH and glutathione synthesis was found to be a common occurrence in all cancers. Finally, we developed a method to trace the metabolic fate of serine using stable isotopes, high-resolution mass spectrometry and a mathematical model. Although the expression of single genes didnt appear indicative of flux, the collective expression of several genes in a given pathway allowed for successful flux prediction. Together these findings identify expansive and heterogeneous functions for the SGOC metabolic network in human cancer. PMID:25456139

  18. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  19. A chemical proteomic atlas of brain serine hydrolases identifies cell type-specific pathways regulating neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Viader, Andreu; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Joslyn, Christopher M; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Mori, Simone; Nguyen, William; Conti, Bruno; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGL?) and -beta (DAGL?) to neurons and microglia, respectively. Disruption of DAGL? perturbed eCB-eicosanoid crosstalk specifically in microglia and suppressed neuroinflammatory events in vivo independently of broader effects on eCB content. Mapping the cellular distribution of metabolic enzymes thus identifies pathways for regulating specialized inflammatory responses in the brain while avoiding global alterations in CNS function. PMID:26779719

  20. Histochemical demonstration of chymotrypsin like serine esterases in mucosal mast cells in four species including man.

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, J F; Newlands, G F; Gibson, S; Ferguson, A; Miller, H R

    1985-01-01

    Serine esterases were detected in the granules of mucosal mast cells from rat, mouse, sheep, and man. Successful demonstration of enzyme activity required brief fixation (6 h) of tissues in 4% paraformaldehyde. Staining with naphthol AS-D chloroacetate produced an intense red reaction product in intraepithelial mucosal mast cells (globule leucocytes) and mucosal mast cells within the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract. The mast cell identity of cells stained for esterase was confirmed by sequential staining with toluidine blue (pH 0.5). Furthermore, the numbers of cells detected after staining for esterases or with toluidine blue were highly correlated. Esterase activity within mucosal mast cells/globule leucocytes from all species was inhibited with the serine enzyme inhibitor phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride. Further histochemical studies with the substrate, N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine B-naphthyl ester, indicated that mucosal mast cells and globule leucocytes contain esterases which are chymotrypsin like in substrate specificity. Images PMID:3988950

  1. An anticoagulant serine protease from the wasp venom of Vespa magnifica.

    PubMed

    Han, Junyou; You, Dewen; Xu, Xueqing; Han, Wenyu; Lu, Yi; Lai, Ren; Meng, Qingxiong

    2008-04-01

    Wasp is an important venomous animal that can induce human fatalities. Coagulopathy is a clinical symptom after massive wasp stings, but the reason leading to the envenomation manifestation is still not known. In this paper, a toxin protein is purified and characterized by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, CM-Sephadex C-25 cationic exchange and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) from the venom of the wasp, Vespa magnifica (Smith). This protein, named magnvesin, contains serine protease-like activity and inhibits blood coagulation. The cDNA encoding magnvesin is cloned from the venom sac cDNA library of the wasp. The deduced protein from the cDNA is composed of 305 amino acid residues. Magnvesin shares 52% identity with allergen serine protease from the wasp Polistes dominulus. Magnvesin exerted its anti-coagulant function by hydrolyzing coagulant factors TF, VII, VIII, IX and X. PMID:18308355

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of two digestive serine proteases from the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.

    PubMed

    Mittapalli, O; Stuart, J J; Shukle, R H

    2005-06-01

    Full-length cDNA and genomic sequences for two genes (designated mdesprot-I and mdesprot-II) encoding digestive serine proteases in Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, have been cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed similarity with trypsin-like digestive serine proteases from other Dipterans. Both mdesprot-I and mdesprot-II encoded proteins with secretion signal peptides at the N-terminals, indicating the proteins are secreted proteases that should function as midgut digestive proteases. A cytological analysis with fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed the cytological localization of mdesprot-I and mdesprot-II on the long arm of Autosome 2. Results are discussed in the context of the efficacy of potential protease inhibitors to develop Hessian fly resistant wheat through genetic engineering approaches. PMID:15926900

  3. Delayed amyloid plaque deposition and behavioral deficits in outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Couch, Brian A; Kerrisk, Meghan E; Kaufman, Adam C; Nygaard, Haakon B; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Koleske, Anthony J

    2013-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia characterized by amyloid plaque accumulation, synapse/dendrite loss, and cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-? precursor protein (A?PP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of this disease and provide a useful model system for studying elements of AD progression. A?PP/PS1 mice have been previously shown to exhibit behavioral deficits and amyloid plaque deposition between 4-9 months of age. We crossed A?PP/PS1 animals with mice of a mixed genetic background (C57BL/6 129/SvJ) and investigated the development of AD-like features in the resulting outcrossed mice. The onset of memory-based behavioral impairment is delayed considerably in outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice relative to inbred mice on a C57BL/6 background. While inbred A?PP/PS1 mice develop deficits in radial-arm water maze performance and novel object recognition as early as 8 months, outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice do not display defects until 18 months. Within the forebrain, we find that inbred A?PP/PS1 mice have significantly higher amyloid plaque burden at 12 months than outcrossed A?PP/PS1 mice of the same age. Surprisingly, inbred A?PP/PS1 mice at 8 months have low plaque burden, suggesting that plaque burden alone cannot explain the accompanying behavioral deficits. Analysis of A?PP processing revealed that elevated levels of soluble A? correlate with the degree of behavioral impairment in both strains. Taken together, these findings suggest that animal behavior, amyloid plaque deposition, and A?PP processing are sensitive to genetic differences between mouse strains. PMID:23047754

  4. Serine Protease(s) Secreted by the Nematode Trichuris muris Degrade the Mucus Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Sumaira Z.; McGuckin, Michael A.; Grencis, Richard K.; Thornton, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The polymeric mucin component of the intestinal mucus barrier changes during nematode infection to provide not only physical protection but also to directly affect pathogenic nematodes and aid expulsion. Despite this, the direct interaction of the nematodes with the mucins and the mucus barrier has not previously been addressed. We used the well-established Trichuris muris nematode model to investigate the effect on mucins of the complex mixture of immunogenic proteins secreted by the nematode called excretory/secretory products (ESPs). Different regimes of T. muris infection were used to simulate chronic (low dose) or acute (high dose) infection. Mucus/mucins isolated from mice and from the human intestinal cell line, LS174T, were treated with ESPs. We demonstrate that serine protease(s) secreted by the nematode have the ability to change the properties of the mucus barrier, making it more porous by degrading the mucin component of the mucus gel. Specifically, the serine protease(s) acted on the N-terminal polymerising domain of the major intestinal mucin Muc2, resulting in depolymerisation of Muc2 polymers. Importantly, the respiratory/gastric mucin Muc5ac, which is induced in the intestine and is critical for worm expulsion, was protected from the depolymerising effect exerted by ESPs. Furthermore, serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) which may protect the mucins, in particular Muc2, from depolymerisation, were highly expressed in mice resistant to chronic infection. Thus, we demonstrate that nematodes secrete serine protease(s) to degrade mucins within the mucus barrier, which may modify the niche of the parasite to prevent clearance from the host or facilitate efficient mating and egg laying from the posterior end of the parasite that is in intimate contact with the mucus barrier. However, during a TH2-mediated worm expulsion response, serpins, Muc5ac and increased levels of Muc2 protect the barrier from degradation by the nematode secreted protease(s). PMID:23071854

  5. A second serine protease associated with mannan-binding lectin that activates complement.

    PubMed

    Thiel, S; Vorup-Jensen, T; Stover, C M; Schwaeble, W; Laursen, S B; Poulsen, K; Willis, A C; Eggleton, P; Hansen, S; Holmskov, U; Reid, K B; Jensenius, J C

    1997-04-01

    The complement system comprises a complex array of enzymes and non-enzymatic proteins that is essential for the operation of the innate as well as the adaptive immune defence. The complement system can be activated in three ways: by the classical pathway which is initiated by antibody-antigen complexes, by the alternative pathway initiated by certain structures on microbial surfaces, and by an antibody-independent pathway that is initiated by the binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL; first described as mannan-binding protein) to carbohydrates. MBL is structurally related to the complement C1 subcomponent, C1q, and seems to activate the complement system through an associated serine protease known as MASP (ref. 4) or p100 (ref. 5), which is similar to C1r and C1s of the classical pathway. MBL binds to specific carbohydrate structures found on the surface of a range of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, parasitic protozoa and viruses, and exhibits antibacterial activity through killing mediated by the terminal, lytic complement components or by promoting phagocytosis. The level of MBL in plasma is genetically determined, and deficiency is associated with frequent infections in childhood, and possibly also in adults (for review, see ref. 6). We have now identified a new MBL-associated serine protease (MASP-2) which shows a striking homology with the previously reported MASP (MASP-1) and the two C1q-associated serine proteases C1r and C1s. Thus complement activation through MBL, like the classical pathway, involves two serine proteases and may antedate the development of the specific immune system of vertebrates. PMID:9087411

  6. Malonate-based inhibitors of mammalian serine racemase: kinetic characterization and structure-based computational study.

    PubMed

    Vorlov, Barbora; Nachtigallov, Dana; Jirskov-Van?kov, Jana; Ajani, Haresh; Jansa, Petr; Rez?, Jan; Fanfrlk, Jind?ich; Otyepka, Michal; Hobza, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan; Lepk, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Overactivation of NMDA receptors has been implicated in various neuropathological conditions, including brain ischaemia, neurodegenerative disorders and epilepsy. Production of d-serine, an NMDA receptor co-agonist, from l-serine is catalyzed invivo by the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme serine racemase. Specific inhibition of this enzyme has been proposed as a promising strategy for treatment of neurological conditions caused by NMDA receptor dysfunction. Here we present the synthesis and activity analysis of a series of malonate-based inhibitors of mouse serine racemase (mSR). The compounds possessed IC50 values ranging from 4011mM for 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)malonate down to 571?M for 2,2-dichloromalonate, the most effective competitive mSR inhibitor known to date. The structure-activity relationship of the whole series in the human orthologue (hSR) was interpreted using Glide docking, WaterMap analysis of hydration and quantum mechanical calculations based on the X-ray structure of the hSR/malonate complex. Docking into the hSR active site with three thermodynamically favourable water molecules was able to discern qualitatively between good and weak inhibitors. Further improvement in ranking was obtained using advanced PM6-D3H4X/COSMO semiempirical quantum mechanics-based scoring which distinguished between the compounds with IC50 better/worse than 2mM. We have thus not only found a new potent hSR inhibitor but also worked out a computer-assisted protocol to rationalize the binding affinity which will thus aid in search for more effective SR inhibitors. Novel, potent hSR inhibitors may represent interesting research tools as well as drug candidates for treatment of diseases associated with NMDA receptor overactivation. PMID:25462239

  7. Inhibition of human serine racemase, an emerging target for medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jirásková-Vaníčková, Jana; Ettrich, Rudiger; Vorlová, Barbora; Hoffman, Hillary E; Lepšík, Martin; Jansa, Petr; Konvalinka, Jan

    2011-06-01

    Proteins of glutamatergic NMDA receptor signaling pathways have been studied as targets for intervention in a variety of neuropathological conditions, including neurodegenerations, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, drug addiction, and schizophrenia. High activity NMDA-blocking agents have been designed to treat some of these disorders; however, their effect is often compromised by undesirable side effects. Therefore, alternative ways of modulating NMDA receptor function need to be sought after. The opening of the NMDA receptor ion channel requires occupation of two distinct binding sites, the glutamate site and the glycine site. It has been shown that D-serine, rather than glycine, can trigger the physiological NMDA receptor function. D-serine is a product of the activity of a specific enzyme, serine racemase (SR), which was identified a decade ago. SR has therefore emerged as a new potential target for the NMDA-receptor-based diseases. There is evidence linking increased levels of D-Ser to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease and decreased concentrations of D-serine to schizophrenia. SR is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent enzyme found in the cytosol of glial and neuronal cells. It is activated by ATP, divalent cations like Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), and reducing agents. This paper reviews the present literature on the activity and inhibition of mammalian SRs. It summarizes approaches that have been applied to design SR inhibitors and lists the known active compounds. Based on biochemical and docking analyses, i) we delineate for the first time the ATP binding site of human SR, and ii) we suggest possible mechanisms of action for the active compounds. In the end, we discuss the SR features that make the discovery of its inhibitors a challenging, yet very important, task of medicinal chemistry. PMID:21291385

  8. Identification of Novel Peptidyl Serine α-Galactosyltransferase Gene Family in Plants*♦

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Fumie; Suyama, Akiko; Oka, Takuji; Yoko-o, Takehiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Shimma, Yoh-ichi

    2014-01-01

    In plants, serine residues in extensin, a cell wall protein, are glycosylated with O-linked galactose. However, the enzyme that is involved in the galactosylation of serine had not yet been identified. To identify the peptidyl serine O-α-galactosyltransferase (SGT), we chose Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model. We established an assay system for SGT activity using C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana cell extracts. SGT protein was partially purified from cell extracts of C. reinhardtii and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to determine its amino acid sequence. The sequence matched the open reading frame XP_001696927 in the C. reinhardtii proteome database, and a corresponding DNA fragment encoding 748 amino acids (BAL63043) was cloned from a C. reinhardtii cDNA library. The 748-amino acid protein (CrSGT1) was produced using a yeast expression system, and the SGT activity was examined. Hydroxylation of proline residues adjacent to a serine in acceptor peptides was required for SGT activity. Genes for proteins containing conserved domains were found in various plant genomes, including A. thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The AtSGT1 and NtSGT1 proteins also showed SGT activity when expressed in yeast. In addition, knock-out lines of AtSGT1 and knockdown lines of NtSGT1 showed no or reduced SGT activity. The SGT1 sequence, which contains a conserved DXD motif and a C-terminal membrane spanning region, is the first example of a glycosyltransferase with type I membrane protein topology, and it showed no homology with known glycosyltransferases, indicating that SGT1 belongs to a novel glycosyltransferase gene family existing only in the plant kingdom. PMID:24914209

  9. Osteoclastogenesis is negatively regulated by D-serine produced by osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Takarada-Iemata, Mika; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Tomomi; Nakamura, Yukari; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-10-01

    We have shown the functional expression by chondrocytes of serine racemase (SR) which is responsible for the synthesis of D-serine (Ser) from L-Ser in cartilage. In this study, we evaluated the possible functional expression of SR by bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Expression of SR mRNA was seen in osteoblasts localized at the cancellous bone surface in neonatal rat tibial sections and in cultured rat calvarial osteoblasts endowed to release D-Ser into extracellular medium, but not in cultured osteoclasts differentiated from murine bone marrow progenitor cells. Sustained exposure to D-Ser failed to significantly affect alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca(2+) accumulation in cultured osteoblasts, but significantly inhibited differentiation and maturation in a concentration-dependent manner at a concentration range of 0.1-1 mM without affecting cellular survival in cultured osteoclasts. By contrast, L-Ser promoted osteoclastic differentiation in a manner sensitive to the inhibition by D-Ser. Matured osteoclasts expressed mRNA for the amino acid transporter B(0,+) (ATB(0,+) ) and the system alanine, serine, and cysteine amino acid transporter-2 (ASCT2), which are individually capable of similarly incorporating extracellular L- and D-Ser. Knockdown of these transporters by siRNA prevented both the promotion by L-Ser and the inhibition by D-Ser of osteoclastic differentiation in pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that D-Ser may play a pivotal role in osteoclastogenesis through a mechanism related to the incorporation mediated by both ATB(0,+) and ASCT2 of serine enantiomers in osteoclasts after the synthesis and subsequent release from adjacent osteoblasts. PMID:22252936

  10. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR. PMID:26352274

  11. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus prevents amoebal encystment-mediating serine proteinase expression and circumvents cell encystment.

    PubMed

    Boratto, Paulo; Albarnaz, Jonas Dutra; Almeida, Gabriel Magno de Freitas; Botelho, Lucas; Fontes, Alide Caroline Lima; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Santos, Daniel de Assis; Bonjardim, Cludio Antnio; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abraho, Jnatas Santos

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living amoebas distributed worldwide. Few studies have explored the interactions between these protozoa and their infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). Here we show that, once the amoebal encystment is triggered, trophozoites become significantly resistant to APMV. Otherwise, upon infection, APMV is able to interfere with the expression of a serine proteinase related to amoebal encystment and the encystment can no longer be triggered. PMID:25520511

  12. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus Prevents Amoebal Encystment-Mediating Serine Proteinase Expression and Circumvents Cell Encystment

    PubMed Central

    Boratto, Paulo; Albarnaz, Jonas Dutra; Almeida, Gabriel Magno de Freitas; Botelho, Lucas; Fontes, Alide Caroline Lima; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Santos, Daniel de Assis; Bonjardim, Cludio Antnio; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2014-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living amoebas distributed worldwide. Few studies have explored the interactions between these protozoa and their infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). Here we show that, once the amoebal encystment is triggered, trophozoites become significantly resistant to APMV. Otherwise, upon infection, APMV is able to interfere with the expression of a serine proteinase related to amoebal encystment and the encystment can no longer be triggered. PMID:25520511

  13. Alternaria-derived serine protease activity drives IL-33–mediated asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Snelgrove, Robert J.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Peiró, Teresa; Akthar, Samia; Campbell, Gaynor A.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear. Objective We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation. Methods IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2−/− mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later. Results Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease–IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model. Conclusion Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. PMID:24636086

  14. Structures of Plasmodium vivax serine hydroxymethyltransferase: implications for ligand-binding specificity and functional control

    PubMed Central

    Chitnumsub, Penchit; Jaruwat, Aritsara; Riangrungroj, Pinpunya; Ittarat, Wanwipa; Noytanom, Krittikar; Oonanant, Worrapoj; Vanichthanankul, Jarunee; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Maenpuen, Somchart; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria, rely heavily on de novo folate biosynthesis, and the enzymes in this pathway have therefore been explored extensively for antimalarial development. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) from Plasmodium spp., an enzyme involved in folate recycling and dTMP synthesis, has been shown to catalyze the conversion of l- and d-serine to glycine (Gly) in a THF-dependent reaction, the mechanism of which is not yet fully understood. Here, the crystal structures of P. vivax SHMT (PvSHMT) in a binary complex with l-serine and in a ternary complex with d-serine (d-Ser) and (6R)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5FTHF) provide clues to the mechanism underlying the control of enzyme activity. 5FTHF in the ternary-complex structure was found in the 6R form, thus differing from the previously reported structures of SHMTGly(6S)-5FTHF from other organisms. This suggested that the presence of d-Ser in the active site can alter the folate-binding specificity. Investigation of binding in the presence of d-Ser and the (6R)- or (6S)-5FTHF enantiomers indicated that both forms of 5FTHF can bind to the enzyme but that only (6S)-5FTHF gives rise to a quinonoid intermediate. Likewise, a large surface area with a highly positively charged electrostatic potential surrounding the PvSHMT folate pocket suggested a preference for a polyglutamated folate substrate similar to the mammalian SHMTs. Furthermore, as in P. falciparum SHMT, a redox switch created from a cysteine pair (Cys125Cys364) was observed. Overall, these results assert the importance of features such as stereoselectivity and redox status for control of the activity and specificity of PvSHMT. PMID:25478836

  15. Virus-induced gene silencing of PEAM4 affects floral morphology by altering the expression pattern of PsSOC1a and PsPVP in pea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe-Hao; Jia, Fei-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Qin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Li-Lin

    2014-01-15

    pea-MADS4 (PEAM4) regulates floral morphology in Pisum sativum L., however, its molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed reverse genetic approach that facilities an easier and more rapid study of gene functions. In this study, the PEAM4 gene was effectively silenced by VIGS using a pea early browning virus (PEBV) in wild type pea JI992. The infected plants showed abnormal phenotypes, as the floral organs, especially the sepals and petals changed in both size and shape, which made the corolla less closed. The petals changed in morphology and internal symmetry with, the stamens reduced and carpel dehisced. Larger sepals and longer tendrils with small cauline leaves appeared, with some sepals turning into bracts, and secondary inflorescences with fused floral organs were formed, indicating a flower-to-inflorescence change. The infected plants also displayed a delayed and prolonged flowering time. The PEAM4-VIGS plants with altered floral morphology were similar to the pim (proliferating inflorescence meristem) mutant and also mimicked the phenotypes of ap1 mutants in Arabidopsis. The expression pattern of the homologous genes PsSOC1a and PsSVP, which were involved in flowering time and florescence morphological control downstream of PEAM4, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and mRNA in situ hybridization. PsSOC1a and PsSVP were ectopically expressed and enhanced in the floral meristems from PEAM4-silenced plants. Our data suggests that PEAM4 may have a similar molecular mechanism as AtAP1, which inhibits the expression of PsSOC1a and PsSVP in the floral meristem from the early stages of flower development. As such, in this way PEAM4 plays a crucial role in maintaining floral organ identity and flower development in pea. PMID:24331430

  16. Dynamic dipole polarizabilities of H- and Ps- in weakly coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Sabyasachi; Li, H. W.; Jiang, Pinghui

    2013-08-01

    The effects of weakly coupled plasmas on the dynamic dipole polarizabilities of the H- and Ps- ions are investigated using highly correlated exponential wave functions. The Debye-Hückel shielding approach of plasma modeling is used to represent weakly coupled plasma environments. In free-atomic cases, results obtained from the present study for H- are in agreement with the available calculations and results for Ps- are reported for the first time. Frequency-dependent polarizabilities of H- and Ps- as functions of screening parameter are also presented for the first time.

  17. PS2: managing the next step in the Pan-STARRS wide field survey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgett, William S.

    2012-09-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is unique among the existing or planned major ground-based optical survey systems as the only "distributed aperture" system. The concept of increasing system tendue by replicating small telescopes and digital cameras presents both management opportunities and challenges. The focus in this paper is on management lessons learned from PS1, and how those have been used to form the management plan for PS2. The management plan components emphasized here include technical development, financial and schedule planning, and critical path and risk management. Finally, the status and schedule for PS2 are presented.

  18. The Characteristics of Murine iPS Cells and siRNA Transfection Under Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, K; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    iPS cells are attractive for the regenerative medicine. The creation of pluripotent cells from somatic cells has great potential for basic and clinical research and application. Retroviral transduction of four or three transfection factors has been shown to initiate a reprogramming process. Here, we describe the effect of transcription factors regarding the growth and differentiation of mouse iPS cells in normoxia or hypoxia. Furthermore, we introduce the function of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in mouse iPS cells in hypoxia using RT-PCR and western blotting together with HIFs knockdown techniques. PMID:25476444

  19. Phosphorylation on TRPV4 Serine 824 Regulates Interaction with STIM1

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung H; Lee, Eun J; Chun, Jaesun; Hyun, Sunghee; Kang, Sang S

    2015-01-01

    The TRPV4 cation channel, a member of the TRP vanilloid subfamily, is expressed in a broad range of tissues where it participates in the generation of a Ca2+ signal and/or depolarization of membrane potential. Here, we identified stromal interaction molecule 1 precursor (STIM1) as an auxiliary protein of this epithelial Ca2+channel using confocal microscopy analysis and GST pull-down assay. The STIM1 protein associates specifically with the C-terminal tail of TRPV4 to form a complex. In previous reports, we demonstrated that the serine824 residue of TRPV4 is one of the target phosphorylation sites of serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). In this report we further identified the role of serine 824 phosphorylation. The TRPV4 mutant S824D (not S824A) exhibited a diminished capacity to bind STIM1. Using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that STIM1 is part of the TRPV4 protein complex. Our observations clearly suggest that the formation of a complex between TRPV4 and STIM1 and its plasma membrane localization are regulated through phosphorylation of serine824 of TRPV4, and that the STIM1-TRPV4 complex plays crucial roles in routing TRPV4 to the plasma membrane from the endoplasmic reticulum and in maintaining its function. PMID:25972993

  20. Quantitative Correlation of Conformational Binding Enthalpy with Substrate Specificity of Serine Proteases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Members of the same protease family show different substrate specificity, even if they share identical folds, depending on the physiological processes they are part of. Here, we investigate the key factors for subpocket and global specificity of factor Xa, elastase, and granzyme B which despite all being serine proteases and sharing the chymotrypsin-fold show distinct substrate specificity profiles. We determined subpocket interaction potentials with GRID for static X-ray structures and an in silico generated ensemble of conformations. Subpocket interaction potentials determined for static X-ray structures turned out to be insufficient to explain serine protease specificity for all subpockets. Therefore, we generated conformational ensembles using molecular dynamics simulations. We identified representative binding site conformations using distance-based hierarchical agglomerative clustering and determined subpocket interaction potentials for each representative conformation of the binding site. Considering the differences in subpocket interaction potentials for these representative conformations as well as their abundance allowed us to quantitatively explain subpocket specificity for the nonprime side for all three example proteases on a molecular level. The methods to identify key regions determining subpocket specificity introduced in this study are directly applicable to other serine proteases, and the results provide starting points for new strategies in rational drug design. PMID:26709959

  1. Dubiumin, a chymotrypsin-like serine protease from the seeds of Solanum dubium Fresen.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Morishima, Isao; Babiker, Elfadil E; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2009-03-01

    A serine protease was purified 6.7-fold and with 35% recovery from the seeds Solanum dubium Fresen by a simple purification procedure that combined ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme, named dubiumin, has a molecular mass of 66kDa as estimated by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Carbohydrate staining established the existence of a carbohydrate moiety attached to the enzyme. Inhibition of enzyme activity by serine protease inhibitors such as PMSF and chymostatin indicated that the enzyme belongs to the chymotrypsin-like serine protease class. Dubiumin is a basic protein with pI value of 9.3, acts optimally at pH 11.0, and is stable over a wide range of pH (3.0-12.0). The enzyme is also thermostable retaining complete activity at 60 degrees C after 1h and acts optimally at 70 degrees C for 30 min. Furthermore, it is highly stable in the presence of various denaturants (2.0% SDS, 7.0M urea and 3.0M guanidine hydrochloride) and organic solvents [CH(3)CN-H(2)O (1:1, v/v) and MeOH-H(2)O (1:1, v/v)] when incubated for 1h. The enzyme showed a high resistance to autodigestion even at low concentrations. PMID:19268997

  2. A role for glycosylated Serine-rich repeatproteins in Gram-positive bacterial pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Anel; Sanchez, Carlos J.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacterial attachment to host surfaces is a pivotal event in the biological and infectious processes of both commensal and pathogenic bacteria, respectively. Serine-rich Repeat Proteins (SRRPs) are a family of adhesins in Gram-Positive bacteria that mediate attachment to a variety of host and bacterial surfaces. As such, they contribute towards a wide-range of diseases including sub-acute bacterial endocarditis, community-acquired pneumonia, and meningitis. SRRPs are unique in that they are glycosylated, require a non-canonical Sec-translocase for transport, and are largely composed of a domain containing hundreds of alternating serine residues. These serine-rich repeats are thought to extend a unique non-repeat (NR) domain outward away from the bacterial surface to mediate adhesion. Thus far, NR domains have been determined to bind to sialic acid moieties, keratins, or other NR domains of a similar SRRP. This review summarizes how this important family of bacterial adhesins mediates bacterial attachment to host and bacterial cells, contributes to disease pathogenesis, and might be targeted for pharmacological intervention or used as novel protective vaccine antigens. This review also highlights recent structural findings on the NR domains of these proteins. PMID:22759311

  3. The host metabolite D-serine contributes to bacterial niche specificity through gene selection

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, James P. R.; Goldstone, Robert J.; Burgess, Karl; Cogdell, Richard J.; Beatson, Scott A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Smith, David G. E.; Roe, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli comprise a diverse array of both commensals and niche-specific pathotypes. The ability to cause disease results from both carriage of specific virulence factors and regulatory control of these via environmental stimuli. Moreover, host metabolites further refine the response of bacteria to their environment and can dramatically affect the outcome of the host-pathogen interaction. Here we demonstrate that the host metabolite, D-serine, selectively affects gene expression in E. coli O157:H7. Transcriptomic profiling showed exposure to D-serine results in activation of the SOS response and suppresses expression of the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) used to attach to host cells. We also show that concurrent carriage of both the D-serine tolerance locus (dsdCXA) and the LEE pathogenicity island encoding a T3SS is extremely rare, a genotype that we attribute to an ‘evolutionary incompatibility’ between the two loci. This study demonstrates the importance of co-operation between both core and pathogenic genetic elements in defining niche specificity. PMID:25526369

  4. Artemether Exhibits Amoebicidal Activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii through Inhibition of the Serine Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yihong; Ran, Wei; Man, Suqin; Li, Xueping; Gao, Hongjian; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba sp. parasites are the causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and cutaneous infections. However, there are currently no effective drugs for these organisms. Here, we evaluated the activity of the antimalarial agent artemether against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and identified potential targets of this agent through a proteomic approach. Artemether exhibited in vitro amoebicidal activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced ultrastructural modification and cell apoptosis. The iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis identified 707 proteins that were differentially expressed after artemether treatment. We focused on phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase in the serine biosynthesis pathway because of their importance to the growth and proliferation of protozoan and cancer cells. The expression of these proteins in Acanthamoeba was validated using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting after artemether treatment. The changes in the expression levels of phosphoserine aminotransferase were consistent with those of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Therefore, the downregulation of phosphoserine aminotransferase may be due to the downregulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, exogenous serine might antagonize the activity of artemether against Acanthamoeba trophozoites. These results indicate that the serine biosynthesis pathway is important to amoeba survival and that targeting these enzymes would improve the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. Artemether may be used as a phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase inhibitor to control or block Acanthamoeba infections. PMID:26014935

  5. Characterization of a serine protease-mediated cell death program activated in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, A.R.; Holohan, C.; Torriglia, A.; Lee, B.F.; Stenson-Cox, C. . E-mail: catherine.stenson@nuigalway.ie

    2006-01-01

    Tightly controlled proteolysis is a defining feature of apoptosis and caspases are critical in this regard. Significant roles for non-caspase proteases in cell death have been highlighted. Staurosporine causes a rapid induction of apoptosis in virtually all mammalian cell types. Numerous studies demonstrate that staurosporine can activate cell death under caspase-inhibiting circumstances. The aim of this study was to investigate the proteolytic mechanisms responsible for cell death under these conditions. To that end, we show that inhibitors of serine proteases can delay cell death in one such system. Furthermore, through profiling of proteolytic activation, we demonstrate, for the first time, that staurosporine activates a chymotrypsin-like serine protease-dependent cell death in HL-60 cells independently, but in parallel with the caspase controlled systems. Features of the serine protease-mediated system include cell shrinkage and apoptotic morphology, regulation of caspase-3, altered nuclear morphology, generation of an endonuclease and DNA degradation. We also demonstrate a staurosporine-induced activation of a putative 16 kDa chymotrypsin-like protein during apoptosis.

  6. Serine Protease MP2 Activates Prophenoloxidase in the Melanization Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yuan; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    In arthropods, melanization plays a major role in the innate immune response to encapsulate and kill the invasive organisms. It is mediated by a serine protease cascade and is regulated by serpins. The identification of the molecular components of melanization and the regulation of those components are still unclear in Drosophila melanogaster, although some genetic research on the activation of melanization has been reported. Here we report that Drosophila serine protease MP2 directly cleaves both recombinant and native prophenoloxidase-1. Overexpression or repression of MP2 in flies resulted in increased and decreased rates of cleavage, respectively, of prophenoloxidase-1. Moreover, serine protease inhibitor Spn27A formed SDS-stable complexes with MP2, both in vitro and in vivo. The amidase activity of MP2 was inhibited efficiently by Spn27A. Spn27A also prevented MP2 from cleaving prophenoloxidase-1. Taken together, these results indicate that under our experimental conditions MP2 functions as a prophenoloxidase-activating protease, and that this function is inhibited by Spn27A. MP2 and Spn27A thus constitute a regulatory unit in the prophenoloxidase activation cascade in Drosophila. The combination of genetic, molecular genetic and biochemical approaches should allow further advances in our understanding of the prophenoloxidase-activating cascade in insects and indirectly shed further light on protease-cascades in humans and other vertebrates. PMID:24260243

  7. Positive correlation between expression level of mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase and breast cancer grade

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming plays an essential role in supporting the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) directs serine to the metabolism of one-carbon unit and the synthesis of thymidilate as a key factor in this metabolic shift. Although the mitochondrial isoform of SHMT (SHMT2) has been proven to be a crucial factor in the serine/glycine metabolism in several cancer cell types, the expression pattern of SHMT2 and the correlation of expression level of SHMT2 and other clinicopathological parameters in clinical breast cancer remain to be explored. In this research, 76 breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy were enrolled for immunohistochemical analysis of the expression level of SHMT2 in their cancerous breast tissues for comparison with that in matching, distant noncancerous tissues. The results showed that SHMT2 was not expressed in the distant noncancerous cells. In contrast, SHMT2 protein could be stained in all breast cancer samples at varying degrees. Higher level of SHMT2 was expressed in grade III breast cancer cells than that those in grade III (P<0.05). In conclusion, SHMT2 was highly expressed in breast cancer cells, and the expression level of SHMT2 was positively correlated with breast cancer grade, suggesting that SHMT2 could be a target for anticancer therapies. PMID:25999742

  8. Positive correlation between expression level of mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase and breast cancer grade.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming plays an essential role in supporting the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) directs serine to the metabolism of one-carbon unit and the synthesis of thymidilate as a key factor in this metabolic shift. Although the mitochondrial isoform of SHMT (SHMT2) has been proven to be a crucial factor in the serine/glycine metabolism in several cancer cell types, the expression pattern of SHMT2 and the correlation of expression level of SHMT2 and other clinicopathological parameters in clinical breast cancer remain to be explored. In this research, 76 breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy were enrolled for immunohistochemical analysis of the expression level of SHMT2 in their cancerous breast tissues for comparison with that in matching, distant noncancerous tissues. The results showed that SHMT2 was not expressed in the distant noncancerous cells. In contrast, SHMT2 protein could be stained in all breast cancer samples at varying degrees. Higher level of SHMT2 was expressed in grade III breast cancer cells than that those in grade I-II (P<0.05). In conclusion, SHMT2 was highly expressed in breast cancer cells, and the expression level of SHMT2 was positively correlated with breast cancer grade, suggesting that SHMT2 could be a target for anticancer therapies. PMID:25999742

  9. Evidence for the existence of granzyme-like serine proteases in teleost cytotoxic cells.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Kesavannair; Evans, Donald L; Jaso-Friedmann, Liliana

    2004-04-01

    Granzymes are granule-associated serine proteases, which are important effector molecules in NK cell and CTL functions. The granzyme family poses a perplexing problem in phylogenetics due to the lack of nonmammalian sequence information. We now report the identification of a cDNA that codes for a granzyme homologue, channel catfish granzyme-1 (CFGR-1), from nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCC) of a teleost. NCC are the first identified and extensively studied cytotoxic cell population in teleosts. Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) granzyme cDNA encodes a protein with approximately 50% similarity to granzymes A and K. Highly conserved catalytic triad residues of serine proteases and other motifs common to granzymes were also identified. Conserved amino acid sequences, structure-function data available for the serine protease family, and the crystal structure of human granzyme K supported a model of CFGR-1. It suggested an Arg/Lys primary substrate specificity that is shared with granzymes A and K. Furthermore, CFGR-1 has the four conserved disulfide bonds of granzymes A, K, and M. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this molecule is a member of the granzyme family. Expression of CFGR-1 in NCC was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Presence of a granzyme-like molecule that might play an important role in the effector functions of NCC indicates that cell-mediated immunity with granule exocytosis and Fas pathways have been conserved for more than 300 million years. PMID:15114423

  10. Artemether Exhibits Amoebicidal Activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii through Inhibition of the Serine Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yihong; Ran, Wei; Man, Suqin; Li, Xueping; Gao, Hongjian; Tang, Wei; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba sp. parasites are the causative agents of Acanthamoeba keratitis, fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and cutaneous infections. However, there are currently no effective drugs for these organisms. Here, we evaluated the activity of the antimalarial agent artemether against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and identified potential targets of this agent through a proteomic approach. Artemether exhibited in vitro amoebicidal activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced ultrastructural modification and cell apoptosis. The iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis identified 707 proteins that were differentially expressed after artemether treatment. We focused on phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase in the serine biosynthesis pathway because of their importance to the growth and proliferation of protozoan and cancer cells. The expression of these proteins in Acanthamoeba was validated using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting after artemether treatment. The changes in the expression levels of phosphoserine aminotransferase were consistent with those of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Therefore, the downregulation of phosphoserine aminotransferase may be due to the downregulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, exogenous serine might antagonize the activity of artemether against Acanthamoeba trophozoites. These results indicate that the serine biosynthesis pathway is important to amoeba survival and that targeting these enzymes would improve the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. Artemether may be used as a phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase inhibitor to control or block Acanthamoeba infections. PMID:26014935

  11. p38 MAPK regulates PKA? and CUB-serine protease in Amphibalanus amphitrite cyprids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Him Wong, Yue; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The MKK3-p38 MAPK pathway has been reported to mediate larval settlement in Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. To clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we applied label-free proteomics to analyze changes in the proteome of cyprids treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor. The results showed that the expression levels of 80 proteins were significantly modified (p?serine protease and PKA?, were both down-regulated in expression. CUB-serine protease localized to postaxial seta 2 and 3, as well as the 4 subterminal sensilla in the antennule. Importantly, it was co-localized with the neuron transmitter serotonin in the sections, suggesting that the CUB-serine protease was present in the neural system. PKA? was highly expressed during the cyprid and juvenile stages, and it was co-localized with phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) to the cement gland, suggesting that PKA? might have some functions in cement glands. Overall, p38 MAPK might regulate multiple functions in A. amphitrite cyprids, including the energy supply, metamorphosis, neural system and cement glands. PMID:26434953

  12. PAK-dependent STAT5 serine phosphorylation is required for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Hoelbl-Kovacic, A; Bourgeais, J; Hoefling, L; Warsch, W; Grundschober, E; Uras, I Z; Menzl, I; Putz, E M; Hoermann, G; Schuster, C; Fajmann, S; Leitner, E; Kubicek, S; Moriggl, R; Gouilleux, F; Sexl, V

    2014-03-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) is frequently activated in hematological malignancies and represents an essential signaling node downstream of the BCR-ABL oncogene. STAT5 can be phosphorylated at three positions, on a tyrosine and on the two serines S725 and S779. We have investigated the importance of STAT5 serine phosphorylation for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis. In cultured bone marrow cells, expression of a STAT5 mutant lacking the S725 and S779 phosphorylation sites (STAT5(SASA)) prohibits transformation and induces apoptosis. Accordingly, STAT5(SASA) BCR-ABL(+) cells display a strongly reduced leukemic potential in vivo, predominantly caused by loss of S779 phosphorylation that prevents the nuclear translocation of STAT5. Three distinct lines of evidence indicate that S779 is phosphorylated by group I p21-activated kinase (PAK). We show further that PAK-dependent serine phosphorylation of STAT5 is unaffected by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Interfering with STAT5 phosphorylation could thus be a novel therapeutic approach to target BCR-ABL-induced malignancies. PMID:24263804

  13. Isolation and characterization of a serine protease-producing marine bacterium Marinomonas arctica PT-1.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ah Young; Park, Jae Kweon

    2016-02-01

    A serine protease-producing marine bacterial strain named as PT-1 was isolated and identified as a family of Marinomonas arctica, based on molecular characterization of 16S rRNA gene sequence, phylogenetic tree, and fatty acid composition analyses. Optimized culture conditions for growth of the bacterium PT-1 and production of protease (ProA) were determined to be pH 8.0 in the presence of 5% NaCl, at 37C during 24h of incubation in the presence of 1.0% skim milk. The molecular weight of the purified ProA was estimated to be 63-kDa as a major band by SDS-PAGE. We were intrigued to find that the activity of ProA was not inhibited by pepstatin A, chymostatin, and leupeptin known as inhibitors for cysteine protease. However, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) completely inhibited protease activity, suggesting that the ProA is like a serine protease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on serine protease of Marinomonas species. PMID:26627890

  14. A Bisbenzamidine Phosphonate as a Janus-faced Inhibitor for Trypsin-like Serine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Huler, Daniela; Scheidt, Tamara; Stirnberg, Marit; Steinmetzer, Torsten; Gtschow, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid approach was applied for the design of an inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases. Compound 16 [(R,R)- and (R,S)-diphenyl (4-(1-(4-amidinobenzylamino)-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-ylcarbamoyl)phenylamino)(4-amidinophenyl)methylphosphonate hydrochloride], prepared in a convergent synthetic procedure, possesses a phosphonate warhead prone to react with the active site serine residue in a covalent, irreversible manner. Each of the two benzamidine moieties of 16 can potentially be accommodated in the S1 pocket of the target enzyme, but only the benzamidine close to the phosphonate group would then promote an irreversible interaction. The Janus-faced inhibitor 16 was evaluated against several serine proteases and caused a pronounced inactivation of human thrombin with a second-order rate constant (kinac /Ki) of 59?500?M(-1) ?s(-1). With human matriptase, 16 showed preference for a reversible mode of inhibition (IC50 =2.6??M) as indicated by linear progress curves and enzyme reactivation. PMID:26306030

  15. HATL5: A Cell Surface Serine Protease Differentially Expressed in Epithelial Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory S.; Zoratti, Gina L.; Murray, Andrew S.; Bergum, Christopher; Tanabe, Lauren M.; List, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, cell surface proteases belonging to the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family have emerged as important enzymes in the mammalian degradome, playing critical roles in epithelial biology, regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and cancer. Human airway trypsin-like protease 5 (HATL5) is one of the few family members that remains uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that HATL5 is a catalytically active serine protease that is inhibited by the two Kunitz type serine protease inhibitors, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 and 2, as well as by serpinA1. Full-length HATL5 is localized on the cell surface of cultured mammalian cells as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. HATL5 displays a relatively restricted tissue expression profile, with both transcript and protein present in the cervix, esophagus, and oral cavity. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an expression pattern where HATL5 is localized on the cell surface of differentiated epithelial cells in the stratified squamous epithelia of all three of these tissues. Interestingly, HATL5 is significantly decreased in cervical, esophageal, and head and neck carcinomas as compared to normal tissue. Analysis of cervical and esophageal cancer tissue arrays demonstrated that the squamous epithelial cells lose their expression of HATL5 protein upon malignant transformation. PMID:24498351

  16. New families of carboxyl peptidases: serine-carboxyl peptidases and glutamic peptidases.

    PubMed

    Oda, Kohei

    2012-01-01

    Peptidases or proteinases are now classified into seven families based on the nature of the catalytic residues [MEROPS-the peptidase database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk/)]. They are aspartic- (first described in 1993), cysteine- (1993), serine- (1993) metallo- (1993), threonine- (1997), glutamic- (2004) and asparagine-peptidase (2010). By using an S-PI (pepstatin Ac) as a probe, a new subfamily of serine peptidase, serine-carboxyl peptidase (sedolisin) was discovered in 2001. In addition, the sixth family of peptidase, glutamic peptidase (eqolisin) was also discovered in 2004. The former peptidase is widely distributed in nature from archea to mammals, including humans. One of these enzymes is related to a human fatal hereditable disease, Batten disease. In contrast, the distribution of the latter peptidases is limited, with most of them found in human or plant pathogenic fungi. One such enzyme was isolated from a fungal infection in an HIV-infected patient. In this review, the background of the findings, and crystal structures, catalytic mechanisms, substrates specificities and distribution of the new peptidase families are described. PMID:22016395

  17. Modeling and structural analysis of evolutionarily diverse S8 family serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Aparna; Rodger, Euan James; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mandal, Chhabinath

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteases are an abundant class of enzymes that are involved in a wide range of physiological processes and are classified into clans sharing structural homology. The active site of the subtilisin-like clan contains a catalytic triad in the order Asp, His, Ser (S8 family) or a catalytic tetrad in the order Glu, Asp and Ser (S53 family). The core structure and active site geometry of these proteases is of interest for many applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the structural properties of different S8 family serine proteases from a diverse range of taxa using molecular modeling techniques. In conjunction with 12 experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of S8 family members, our predicted structures from an archaeon, protozoan and a plant were used for analysis of the catalytic core. Amino acid sequences were obtained from the MEROPS database and submitted to the LOOPP server for threading based structure prediction. The predicted structures were refined and validated using PROCHECK, SCRWL and MODELYN. Investigation of secondary structures and electrostatic surface potential was performed using MOLMOL. Encompassing a wide range of taxa, our structural analysis provides an evolutionary perspective on S8 family serine proteases. Focusing on the common core containing the catalytic site of the enzyme, the analysis presented here is beneficial for future molecular modeling strategies and structure-based rational drug design. PMID:22125392

  18. Quantitative Correlation of Conformational Binding Enthalpy with Substrate Specificity of Serine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Birgit J; Fuchs, Julian E; Huber, Roland G; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Schauperl, Michael; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-21

    Members of the same protease family show different substrate specificity, even if they share identical folds, depending on the physiological processes they are part of. Here, we investigate the key factors for subpocket and global specificity of factor Xa, elastase, and granzyme B which despite all being serine proteases and sharing the chymotrypsin-fold show distinct substrate specificity profiles. We determined subpocket interaction potentials with GRID for static X-ray structures and an in silico generated ensemble of conformations. Subpocket interaction potentials determined for static X-ray structures turned out to be insufficient to explain serine protease specificity for all subpockets. Therefore, we generated conformational ensembles using molecular dynamics simulations. We identified representative binding site conformations using distance-based hierarchical agglomerative clustering and determined subpocket interaction potentials for each representative conformation of the binding site. Considering the differences in subpocket interaction potentials for these representative conformations as well as their abundance allowed us to quantitatively explain subpocket specificity for the nonprime side for all three example proteases on a molecular level. The methods to identify key regions determining subpocket specificity introduced in this study are directly applicable to other serine proteases, and the results provide starting points for new strategies in rational drug design. PMID:26709959

  19. A Highly Conserved Bacterial D-Serine Uptake System Links Host Metabolism and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Connolly, James P R; Gabrielsen, Mads; Goldstone, Robert J; Grinter, Rhys; Wang, Dai; Cogdell, Richard J; Walker, Daniel; Smith, David G E; Roe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of any organism to sense and respond to challenges presented in the environment is critically important for promoting or restricting colonization of specific sites. Recent work has demonstrated that the host metabolite D-serine has the ability to markedly influence the outcome of infection by repressing the type III secretion system of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, exactly how EHEC monitors environmental D-serine is not understood. In this work, we have identified two highly conserved members of the E. coli core genome, encoding an inner membrane transporter and a transcriptional regulator, which collectively help to "sense" levels of D-serine by regulating its uptake from the environment and in turn influencing global gene expression. Both proteins are required for full expression of the type III secretion system and diversely regulated prophage-encoded effector proteins demonstrating an important infection-relevant adaptation of the core genome. We propose that this system acts as a key safety net, sampling the environment for this metabolite, thereby promoting colonization of EHEC to favorable sites within the host. PMID:26727373

  20. Phosphorylation of Serine 106 in Asef2 Regulates Cell Migration and Adhesion Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asef2, a 652-amino acid protein, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that regulates cell migration and other processes via activation of Rho family GTPases, including Rac. Binding of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to Asef2 is known to induce its GEF activity; however, little is currently known about other modes of Asef2 regulation. Here, we investigated the role of phosphorylation in regulating Asef2 activity and function. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), we obtained complete coverage of all phosphorylatable residues and identified six phosphorylation sites. One of these, serine 106 (S106), was particularly intriguing as a potential regulator of Asef2 activity because of its location within the APC-binding domain. Interestingly, mutation of this serine to alanine (S106A), a non-phosphorylatable analogue, greatly diminished the ability of Asef2 to activate Rac, while a phosphomimetic mutation (serine to aspartic acid, S106D) enhanced Rac activation. Furthermore, expression of these mutants in HT1080 cells demonstrated that phosphorylation of S106 is critical for Asef2-promoted migration and for cell-matrix adhesion assembly and disassembly (adhesion turnover), which is a process that facilitates efficient migration. Collectively, our results show that phosphorylation of S106 modulates Asef2 GEF activity and Asef2-mediated cell migration and adhesion turnover. PMID:24874604

  1. Serine Protease Variants Encoded by Echis ocellatus Venom Gland cDNA: Cloning and Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, S. S.; Mothana, R. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-balushi, M. S.; Rahman, M. T.; Al-Jabri, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Envenoming by Echis saw-scaled viper is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding four groups or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive Serine protease proteins (SPs) from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus. All these SP sequences encoded the cysteine residues scaffold that form the 6-disulphide bonds responsible for the characteristic tertiary structure of venom serine proteases. All the Echis ocellatus EoSP groups showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom SPs. However, these groups also showed marked intercluster sequence conservation across them which were significantly different from that of previously published viper SPs. Because viper venom SPs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis ocellatus EoSPs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of interspecific and intergeneric sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis ocellatus EoSPs and analogous serine proteases from other viper species leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise (that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization) the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20936075

  2. Cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase regulates the metabolic partitioning of methylenetetrahydrofolate but is not essential in mice.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Amanda J; Liu, Xiaowen; Perry, Cheryll A; Flodby, Per; Allen, Robert H; Stabler, Sally P; Stover, Patrick J

    2008-09-19

    The hydroxymethyl group of serine is a primary source of tetrahydrofolate (THF)-activated one-carbon units that are required for the synthesis of purines and thymidylate and for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methylation reactions. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the reversible and THF-dependent conversion of serine to glycine and 5,10-methylene-THF. SHMT is present in eukaryotic cells as mitochondrial SHMT and cytoplasmic (cSHMT) isozymes that are encoded by distinct genes. In this study, the essentiality of cSHMT-derived THF-activated one-carbons was investigated by gene disruption in the mouse germ line. Mice lacking cSHMT are viable and fertile, demonstrating that cSHMT is not an essential source of THF-activated one-carbon units. cSHMT-deficient mice exhibit altered hepatic AdoMet levels and uracil content in DNA, validating previous in vitro studies that indicated this enzyme regulates the partitioning of methylenetetrahydrofolate between the thymidylate and homocysteine remethylation pathways. This study suggests that mitochondrial SHMT-derived one-carbon units are essential for folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm. PMID:18644786

  3. A Highly Conserved Bacterial D-Serine Uptake System Links Host Metabolism and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, James P. R.; Gabrielsen, Mads; Goldstone, Robert J.; Grinter, Rhys; Wang, Dai; Cogdell, Richard J.; Walker, Daniel; Smith, David G. E.; Roe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of any organism to sense and respond to challenges presented in the environment is critically important for promoting or restricting colonization of specific sites. Recent work has demonstrated that the host metabolite D-serine has the ability to markedly influence the outcome of infection by repressing the type III secretion system of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, exactly how EHEC monitors environmental D-serine is not understood. In this work, we have identified two highly conserved members of the E. coli core genome, encoding an inner membrane transporter and a transcriptional regulator, which collectively help to “sense” levels of D-serine by regulating its uptake from the environment and in turn influencing global gene expression. Both proteins are required for full expression of the type III secretion system and diversely regulated prophage-encoded effector proteins demonstrating an important infection-relevant adaptation of the core genome. We propose that this system acts as a key safety net, sampling the environment for this metabolite, thereby promoting colonization of EHEC to favorable sites within the host. PMID:26727373

  4. Attachment site recognition and regulation of directionality by the serine integrases.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Karen; Yuan, Peng; Perry, Kay; Sharp, Robert; Van Duyne, Gregory D

    2013-09-01

    Serine integrases catalyze the integration of bacteriophage DNA into a host genome by site-specific recombination between 'attachment sites' in the phage (attP) and the host (attB). The reaction is highly directional; the reverse excision reaction between the product attL and attR sites does not occur in the absence of a phage-encoded factor, nor does recombination occur between other pairings of attachment sites. A mechanistic understanding of how these enzymes achieve site-selectivity and directionality has been limited by a lack of structural models. Here, we report the structure of the C-terminal domains of a serine integrase bound to an attP DNA half-site. The structure leads directly to models for understanding how the integrase-bound attP and attB sites differ, why these enzymes preferentially form attP attB synaptic complexes to initiate recombination, and how attL attR recombination is prevented. In these models, different domain organizations on attP vs. attB half-sites allow attachment-site specific interactions to form between integrase subunits via an unusual protruding coiled-coil motif. These interactions are used to preferentially synapse integrase-bound attP and attB and inhibit synapsis of integrase-bound attL and attR. The results provide a structural framework for understanding, testing and engineering serine integrase function. PMID:23821671

  5. p38 MAPK regulates PKAα and CUB-serine protease in Amphibalanus amphitrite cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Him Wong, Yue; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The MKK3-p38 MAPK pathway has been reported to mediate larval settlement in Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. To clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we applied label-free proteomics to analyze changes in the proteome of cyprids treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor. The results showed that the expression levels of 80 proteins were significantly modified (p < 0.05). These differentially expressed proteins were assigned to 15 functional groups according to the KOG database and 9 pathways were significantly enriched. Further analysis revealed that p38 MAPK might regulate the energy supply and metamorphosis. Two potential regulatory proteins, CUB-serine protease and PKAα, were both down-regulated in expression. CUB-serine protease localized to postaxial seta 2 and 3, as well as the 4 subterminal sensilla in the antennule. Importantly, it was co-localized with the neuron transmitter serotonin in the sections, suggesting that the CUB-serine protease was present in the neural system. PKAα was highly expressed during the cyprid and juvenile stages, and it was co-localized with phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) to the cement gland, suggesting that PKAα might have some functions in cement glands. Overall, p38 MAPK might regulate multiple functions in A. amphitrite cyprids, including the energy supply, metamorphosis, neural system and cement glands. PMID:26434953

  6. Exposure levels of asthmatic children to allergens, endotoxins, and serine proteases in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Federico; Fernndez, Blanca; Delgado, Alexie; Fernndez, Lisa; Romn, Ayleen; Chardn, Domingo; Rodrguez-Santana, Jos; Medina, Vivian; Zavala, Diego; Bayona, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bayamn, Puerto Rico, to identify and quantify indoor allergens, serine proteases, and bacterial endotoxin present in homes of asthmatic children. A total of 126 dust samples from houses were obtained from the entire mattress and bedside floor. Most of the patients had detectable levels of mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens. Mold allergens were found only in bedside floor dust samples. Mouse allergens were not detected. Forty-two percent, 36.5%, and 1.8% of the patients demonstrated exposures to sensitizing levels of mite, Bla g 1 and cat allergens, respectively. The percentage of patients exposed to high levels of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms was 33.3% and 26.4% for mite and Bla g 1 allergens. Only dog allergen, bacterial endotoxin, elastase, and trypsin were associated with asthma symptoms. Eighty-nine percent of the asthmatic children were exposed to endotoxin concentrations greater than 100 EU/mg dust, and more than half of the patients were exposed to high levels of serine proteases. Our study indicates that indoor concentrations of allergens traditionally associated with asthma symptoms and severity may not be applicable in tropical environments and highly ventilated households. In fact, in the study population, endotoxins, dog allergen, and serine proteases may play a dominant role in the induction of asthma symptoms. PMID:15281335

  7. Purification and partial characterization of serine-metallokeratinase from a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus NRC21.

    PubMed

    Tork, Sanaa E; Shahein, Yasser E; El-Hakim, Amr E; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Aly, Magda M

    2016-05-01

    A serine metallokeratinase enzyme (30kDa) produced by a newly isolated Bacillus strain (Bacillus pumilus NRC21) cultivated under optimized conditions in medium containing chicken feather meal was purified and characterized in a set of biochemical assays. The purification was carried out using two successive chromatographic steps; cation exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and gel filtration on sephadex G-100 columns. The purified enzyme showed a specific activity of 2000units/mg protein against 170units/mg protein for crude extract with 12 fold purification. The enzymatic activity of the keratinase stimulated by (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+)), Hg(+2) had no effect, and inhibited by entire tested cations, serine and metalloproteinase inhibitors, therefore it can be considered as a serine metalloenzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified enzyme were (7.5, 8.5) and (50, 45°C) when using keratin azure and azocasein as substrates, respectively. The purified enzyme was highly stable at broad pH and temperature ranged (5-10) and (20-60°C), respectively and its thermoactivity and thermostability were enhanced in the presence of 5mMMg(+2). These results suggest that the purified keratinase may be used in several industrial applications. PMID:26802243

  8. PAK-dependent STAT5 serine phosphorylation is required for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, A; Hoelbl-Kovacic, A; Bourgeais, J; Hoefling, L; Warsch, W; Grundschober, E; Uras, I Z; Menzl, I; Putz, E M; Hoermann, G; Schuster, C; Fajmann, S; Leitner, E; Kubicek, S; Moriggl, R; Gouilleux, F; Sexl, V

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) is frequently activated in hematological malignancies and represents an essential signaling node downstream of the BCR-ABL oncogene. STAT5 can be phosphorylated at three positions, on a tyrosine and on the two serines S725 and S779. We have investigated the importance of STAT5 serine phosphorylation for BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis. In cultured bone marrow cells, expression of a STAT5 mutant lacking the S725 and S779 phosphorylation sites (STAT5SASA) prohibits transformation and induces apoptosis. Accordingly, STAT5SASA BCR-ABL+ cells display a strongly reduced leukemic potential in vivo, predominantly caused by loss of S779 phosphorylation that prevents the nuclear translocation of STAT5. Three distinct lines of evidence indicate that S779 is phosphorylated by group I p21-activated kinase (PAK). We show further that PAK-dependent serine phosphorylation of STAT5 is unaffected by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Interfering with STAT5 phosphorylation could thus be a novel therapeutic approach to target BCR-ABL-induced malignancies. PMID:24263804

  9. Inhibition of elastase and other serine proteases by heterocyclic acylating agents.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Morman, H; Mulvey, D; Jones, H; Frankshun, R; Ashe, B M

    1980-10-25

    The N-acylsaccharins and N-acylbenzoisothiazolinones form a new class of acylating inhibitors of the serine proteases with a broad spectrum of activity. However, they are unique in that they are able to differentiate between various serine proteases because of the differential stability of the presumptive acyl-enzyme formed. Furoyl saccharin was the best studied among this class of inhibitors. We report evidence that the amide bond in the heterocyclic ring of this compound is cleaved by porcine pancreatic and human leukocyte elastases and chymotrypsin, forming acyl-enzymes. Radioisotope studies indicate that the saccharin portion of furoyl saccharin is attached to these enzymes in approximately a 1:1 molar ratio with enzyme, blocking the active site serine. The acylelastases thus prepared are unusually stable to hydrolysis, with kdeacyl values at neutral pH of 2.3 x 10(-6) s-1 for porcine pancreatic elastase and 1.4 x 10(-6) s-1 for human leukocyte elastase. Trypsin appears to be inhibited by a different mechanism. These data suggest a new approach to the design of specific synthetic protease inhibitors. PMID:6776104

  10. Screening and in vitro testing of antifolate inhibitors of human cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Paiardini, Alessandro; Fiascarelli, Alessio; Rinaldo, Serena; Daidone, Frederick; Giardina, Giorgio; Koes, David R; Parroni, Alessia; Montini, Giulia; Marani, Marina; Paone, Alessio; McDermott, Lee A; Contestabile, Roberto; Cutruzzol, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells toward serine catabolism is now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), the enzyme providing one-carbon units by converting serine and tetrahydrofolate (H4 PteGlu) to glycine and 5,10-CH2 -H4 PteGlu, therefore represents a target of interest in developing new chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, 13 folate analogues under clinical evaluation or in therapeutic use were in silico screened against SHMT, ultimately identifying four antifolate agents worthy of closer evaluation. The interaction mode of SHMT with these four antifolate drugs (lometrexol, nolatrexed, raltitrexed, and methotrexate) was assessed. The mechanism of SHMT inhibition by the selected antifolate agents was investigated in vitro using the human cytosolic isozyme. The results of this study showed that lometrexol competitively inhibits SHMT with inhibition constant (Ki ) values in the low micromolar. The binding mode of lometrexol to SHMT was further investigated by molecular docking. These results thus provide insights into the mechanism of action of antifolate drugs and constitute the basis for the rational design of novel and more potent inhibitors of SHMT. PMID:25677305

  11. Non-criteria anti-phospholipid antibodies and cognitive impairment in SLE.

    PubMed

    Luggen, Michael E; Gulati, Gaurav; Zhang, Bin; Willis, Rohan A; Gonzalez, Emilio B

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cognitive impairment (CI) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is unknown. Anti-phospholipid antibodies (APL) have been implicated. The APL which have been evaluated have variably included anti-cardiolipin (ACL) antibodies, lupus anticoagulant (LAC), and antibodies to beta-2 glycoprotein I (?2GPI). Few studies have examined other APL (so-called non-criteria APL). We evaluated the association of CI with a broad spectrum of non-criteria APL. Subjects meeting SLE classification criteria were recruited from three different patient populations. Cognitive function was assessed with the Automated Neuropsychologic Assessment Metrics (ANAM), a validated computer-based assessment tool. The total throughput score (TTS = number of correct responses/time) was used as the primary outcome measure. The following APL of all three isotypes were assessed by ELISA using standardized techniques: anti-?2GPI, anti-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidyl choline (aPC), anti-phosphatidyl inositol (aPI), anti-phosphatidyl serine (aPS), anti-phosphatidyl glycerol (aPG), anti-phosphatidic acid (aPA). Fifty-seven (57) patients were evaluated. Of the 57, 12 had definite CI (>1.5 SD below the mean of an age-, sex-, and race-matched RA population). The two groups were significantly different with regard to age, ethnicity, and family income. There was no significant difference between groups with regard to the presence of any non-criteria APL. When titers of specific non-criteria APL were compared with TTS, no significant correlations were found. Using multiple linear regression and adjusting for relevant covariates including age, ethnicity, and family income, neither the presence nor the titer of any non-criteria APL significantly influenced TTS. In this cross-sectional study, non-criteria APL were not associated with CI. PMID:26563139

  12. L-Serine Treatment May Improve Neurorestoration of Rats after Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia Potentially Through Improvement of Neurorepair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Jiang, Zheng-Lin; Wang, Guo-Hua; Zhao, Guang-Wei; Ren, Tao-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Xu, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify whether treatment with L-serine can improve the brain repair and neurorestoration of rats after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). After pMCAO, the neurological functions, brain lesion volume, and cortical injury were determined. GDNF, NGF, NCAM L1, tenascin-C, and Nogo-A levels were measured. Proliferation and differentiation of the neural stem cells (NSCs) and proliferation of the microvessels in the ischemic boundary zone of the cortex were evaluated. Treatment with L-serine (168 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) began 3 h after pMCAO and was repeated every 12 h for 7 days or until the end of the experiment. L-Serine treatment: 1) reduced the lesion volume and neuronal loss; 2) improved the recovery of neurological functions; 3) elevated the expression of nerve growth-related factors; and 4) facilitated the proliferation of endogenous NSCs and microvessels activated after pMCAO and increased the number of new-born neurons. 5) D-cycloserine, an inhibitor of serine hydroxymethyltransferase, blunted the effects of L-serine on NSC proliferation, differentiation, microvascular proliferation. In conclusions, L-serine treatment in pMCAO rats can reduce brain injury and facilitate neurorestoration which is partly associated with the improvement of proliferation of NSCs and microvessels, reconstruction of neurovascular units and resultant neurorepair. The effects of L-serine on endogenous NSC proliferation and microvascular proliferation are partly mediated by the action of L-serine as a substrate for the production of one-carbon groups used for purine and pyrimidine synthesis and modulation of the expression of some nerve growth-related factors. PMID:24671106

  13. Serine 1179 Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Increases Superoxide Generation and Alters Cofactor Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Mark C.; He, Donghong; Xie, Lishi; Chen, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is responsible for maintaining systemic blood pressure, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. In addition to producing NO, eNOS can also generate superoxide (O2-.) in the absence of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Previous studies have shown that bovine eNOS serine 1179 (Serine 1177/human) phosphorylation critically modulates NO synthesis. However, the effect of serine 1179 phosphorylation on eNOS superoxide generation is unknown. Here, we used the phosphomimetic form of eNOS (S1179D) to determine the effect of S1179 phosphorylation on superoxide generating activity, and its sensitivity to regulation by BH4, Ca2+, and calmodulin (CAM). S1179D eNOS exhibited significantly increased superoxide generating activity and NADPH consumption compared to wild-type eNOS (WT eNOS). The superoxide generating activities of S1179D eNOS and WT eNOS did not differ significantly in their sensitivity to regulation by either Ca2+ or CaM. The sensitivity of the superoxide generating activity of S1179D eNOS to inhibition by BH4 was significantly reduced compared to WT eNOS. In eNOS-overexpressing 293 cells, BH4 depletion with 10mM DAHP for 48 hours followed by 50ng/ml VEGF for 30 min to phosphorylate eNOS S1179 increased ROS accumulation compared to DAHP-only treated cells. Meanwhile, MTT assay indicated that overexpression of eNOS in HEK293 cells decreased cellular viability compared to control cells at BH4 depletion condition (P<0.01). VEGF-mediated Serine 1179 phosphorylation further decreased the cellular viability in eNOS-overexpressing 293 cells (P<0.01). Our data demonstrate that eNOS serine 1179 phosphorylation, in addition to enhancing NO production, also profoundly affects superoxide generation: S1179 phosphorylation increases superoxide production while decreasing sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of BH4 on this activity. PMID:26560496

  14. Prediction and Analysis of Post-Translational Pyruvoyl Residue Modification Sites from Internal Serines in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Li, Bi-Qing; Zhang, Yuchao; Feng, Yuan-Ming; Gao, Yu-Fei; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Most of pyruvoyl-dependent proteins observed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are critical regulatory enzymes, which are primary targets of inhibitors for anti-cancer and anti-parasitic therapy. These proteins undergo an autocatalytic, intramolecular self-cleavage reaction in which a covalently bound pyruvoyl group is generated on a conserved serine residue. Traditional detections of the modified serine sites are performed by experimental approaches, which are often labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we initiated in an attempt for the computational predictions of such serine sites with Feature Selection based on a Random Forest. Since only a small number of experimentally verified pyruvoyl-modified proteins are collected in the protein database at its current version, we only used a small dataset in this study. After removing proteins with sequence identities >60%, a non-redundant dataset was generated and was used, which contained only 46 proteins, with one pyruvoyl serine site for each protein. Several types of features were considered in our method including PSSM conservation scores, disorders, secondary structures, solvent accessibilities, amino acid factors and amino acid occurrence frequencies. As a result, a pretty good performance was achieved in our dataset. The best 100.00% accuracy and 1.0000 MCC value were obtained from the training dataset, and 93.75% accuracy and 0.8441 MCC value from the testing dataset. The optimal feature set contained 9 features. Analysis of the optimal feature set indicated the important roles of some specific features in determining the pyruvoyl-group-serine sites, which were consistent with several results of earlier experimental studies. These selected features may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the post-translational self-maturation process, providing guidelines for experimental validation. Future work should be made as more pyruvoyl-modified proteins are found and the method should be evaluated on larger datasets. At last, the predicting software can be downloaded from http://www.nkbiox.com/sub/pyrupred/index.html. PMID:23805260

  15. Room temperature light emission from the low-dimensional semiconductors AZrPS{sub 6} ( A = K, Rb, Cs).

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Szarko, J. M.; Yuhas, B. D.; Malliakas, C. D.; Chen, L. X.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2010-03-29

    The new semiconducting thiophosphate compounds KZrPS{sub 6}, RbZrPS{sub 6}, and CsZrPS{sub 6} exhibit red light emission at room temperature. The materials have longer photoluminescence lifetimes than most of the inorganic chalcogenide semiconductors. They can be solution processed into thin films for potential device fabrication.

  16. Preparation of raspberry-like ZIF-8/PS composite spheres via dispersion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2015-10-14

    Raspberry-like ZIF-8/PS composite spheres are prepared via dispersion polymerization of styrene with ZIF-8 and PVP as co-stabilizers. PVP is found to be crucial in determining morphology of the final product. It helps adherence of ZIF-8 nanoparticles to PS spheres. It is found that ZIF-8 nanoparticles thus prepared are partially embedded into PS sphere surfaces, resulting in a stable raspberry-like structure. Surface coverage of ZIF-8 can reach up to ?32%. The effects of ZIF-8 content and PVP concentration on the particle size and morphology are examined in detail with the mechanisms elucidated. The raspberry-like spheres can be used as a template to grow thick ZIF-8 layers on the PS spheres through subsequent solvothermal treatment, leading to the formation of polymer-core MOF-shell structure. PMID:26332440

  17. VLA search for a radio counterpart to the superluminous supernova PS15ae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, K. D.; Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the position of the superluminous supernova PS15ae (=CSS141223-113342+004332 = MLS150211-113342+004333) with the Very Large Array on 2015 December 11.67 (UT) when the VLA was in D configuration.

  18. 4. Photocopy of circa 186265 lithograph James Queen, Artist P.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of circa 1862-65 lithograph James Queen, Artist P.S. Duval and Sons of Philadelphia, Lithographers SOUTH FRONT CIRCA 1862-65 - West Chester Young Ladies Seminary, 300 Maple Avenue, West Chester, Chester County, PA

  19. Hyperspherical hidden crossing calculation of Ps formation in low-energy e+-Na collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. J.; Shertzer, J.

    2011-05-01

    The hyperspherical hidden crossing method (HHCM) can provide important insight into scattering processes. Previously, we have used the HHCM to calculate the Ps(1s)-formation cross section in low-energy e+-H and e+-Li collisions. Here we apply the HHCM to low-energy e+-Na collisions. We use the Peach model potential and treat e+e-Na+ as an effective three-body system. We calculate the Ps(1s)-formation cross sections for 0 <= L <= 3 and compare our results with a hyperspherical close-coupling calculation. The HHCM provides an explanation for the small S-wave Ps(1s)-formation cross section. The S-wave Stückelberg phase is close to π for the three collision systems due to destructive interference between the two amplitudes that correspond to different paths leading to Ps(1s) formation.

  20. 2. P.S. Rittermann, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, WEST SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. P.S. Rittermann, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, WEST SIDE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Flammable Storage Building Submarine Mine Depot, Fort Point vicinity, Long Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-01

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39 % from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth. PMID:26785702

  2. Effects of feeding and lighting stimuli on the synthesis of ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ekelman, K.B.; Peraino, C.

    1981-07-01

    This paper compares the circadian fluctuations in the rates of ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase synthesis measured immunochemically in rats given a single 2-h daily feeding in conjunction with exposure to constant light or a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. When the 2-hr feeding was administered to rats under constant light, reciprocal circadian oscillations in ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase synthesis were observed regardless of the temporal location of the feeding interval. Ornithine aminotransferase synthesis began to increase after the feeding interval and reached a maximum 12 h later while serine dehydratase showed the opposite response. In rats maintained on both the restricted feeding regimen and a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle, however, retention of synthesis oscillations depended on the temporal location of the restricted feeding interval within the light-dark cycle. Rats fed for 2 h at the beginning of the dark phase exhibited circadian oscillations in serine dehydratase synthesis and a high nonoscillating level of ornithine aminotransferase synthesis, whereas rats fed for 2 h at the beginning of the light phase exhibited circadian oscillations in ornithine aminotransferase synthesis and a low nonoscillating level of serine dehydratase synthesis. These responses suggest the existence of meal-responsive and light-responsive regulators of ornithine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase synthesis. (JMT)

  3. Phosphorylation of SAF-A/hnRNP-U Serine 59 by Polo-Like Kinase 1 Is Required for Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Morrice, Nicholas; Britton, Sbastien; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2015-08-01

    Scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), also called heterogenous nuclear ribonuclear protein U (hnRNP-U), is phosphorylated on serine 59 by the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in response to DNA damage. Since SAF-A, DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6), which interacts with DNA-PKcs, have all been shown to have roles in mitosis, we asked whether DNA-PKcs phosphorylates SAF-A in mitosis. We show that SAF-A is phosphorylated on serine 59 in mitosis, that phosphorylation requires polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) rather than DNA-PKcs, that SAF-A interacts with PLK1 in nocodazole-treated cells, and that serine 59 is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in mitosis. Moreover, cells expressing SAF-A in which serine 59 is mutated to alanine have multiple characteristics of aberrant mitoses, including misaligned chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, polylobed nuclei, and delayed passage through mitosis. Our findings identify serine 59 of SAF-A as a new target of both PLK1 and PP2A in mitosis and reveal that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of SAF-A serine 59 by PLK1 and PP2A, respectively, are required for accurate and timely exit from mitosis. PMID:25986610

  4. Decreased levels of free D-aspartic acid in the forebrain of serine racemase (Srr) knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Horio, Mao; Ishima, Tamaki; Fujita, Yuko; Inoue, Ran; Mori, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-05-01

    d-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is synthesized from l-serine by serine racemase (SRR). A previous study of Srr knockout (Srr-KO) mice showed that levels of d-serine in forebrain regions, such as frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, but not cerebellum, of mutant mice are significantly lower than those of wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that SRR is responsible for d-serine production in the forebrain. In this study, we attempted to determine whether SRR affects the level of other amino acids in brain tissue. We found that tissue levels of d-aspartic acid in the forebrains (frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum) of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, whereas levels of d-aspartic acid in the cerebellum were not altered. Levels of d-alanine, l-alanine, l-aspartic acid, taurine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) and methionine, remained the same in frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of WT and mutant mice. Furthermore, no differences in d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity were detected in the forebrains of WT and Srr-KO mice. These results suggest that SRR and/or d-serine may be involved in the production of d-aspartic acid in mouse forebrains, although further detailed studies will be necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:23439386

  5. Loss-of-function mutation of serine racemase attenuates excitotoxicity by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyan; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, He; Chang, Yuhua; Feng, Meiling; Wu, Shengzhou

    2016-01-01

    Convincing data demonstrate that D-serine, a racemized product of serine racemase (SR), contributes to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, a line of evidence suggests that SR/D-serine contributes to retinal neurodegeneration in a diabetic retinopathy rat model and diabetic retinopathy patients. However, the connection between SR/D-serine and retinal neurodegeneration remains unclear. Herein, we report that intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) induces excitotoxicity in rodent retina; this retinal neurodegeneration was attenuated in retina carrying a loss-of-function of mutation in Srr, the gene for SR, termed Srr(ochre269) . Under the condition of NMDA injection, either posterior pole or middle - but not peripheral - retina from Srr(ochre269) mice was found to retain more retinal ganglion cells (RGC) than the counterpart from w/t (RGCs were identified with retrograde labeling). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining further demonstrated reduced RGC apoptosis from Srr(ochre269) compared to w/t mice under the condition of NMDA injection. Collectively, our studies demonstrate a pivotal role of SR/D-serine in retinal neurotoxicity. We demonstrated that loss-of-function mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase significantly attenuates excitotoxicity in retina; excitotoxicity accounts for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) demise in diabetic retinopathy (DR). We think that our findings deepen the current knowledge of the mechanisms of RGC degeneration. PMID:26485193

  6. Role for neonatal D-serine signaling: prevention of physiological and behavioral deficits in adult Pick1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nomura, J; Jaaro-Peled, H; Lewis, E; Nuez-Abades, P; Huppe-Gourgues, F; Cash-Padgett, T; Emiliani, F; Kondo, M A; Furuya, A; Landek-Salgado, M A; Ayhan, Y; Kamiya, A; Takumi, T; Huganir, R; Pletnikov, M; O'Donnell, P; Sawa, A

    2016-03-01

    NMDA glutamate receptors have key roles in brain development, function and dysfunction. Regulatory roles of D-serine in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity have been reported. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether and how neonatal deficits in NMDA-receptor-mediated neurotransmission affect adult brain functions and behavior. Likewise, the role of D-serine during development remains elusive. Here we report behavioral and electrophysiological deficits associated with the frontal cortex in Pick1 knockout mice, which show D-serine deficits in a neonatal- and forebrain-specific manner. The pathological manifestations observed in adult Pick1 mice are rescued by transient neonatal supplementation of D-serine, but not by a similar treatment in adulthood. These results indicate a role for D-serine in neurodevelopment and provide novel insights on how we interpret data of psychiatric genetics, indicating the involvement of genes associated with D-serine synthesis and degradation, as well as how we consider animal models with neonatal application of NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:26008737

  7. Phosphorylation of SAF-A/hnRNP-U Serine 59 by Polo-Like Kinase 1 Is Required for Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Morrice, Nicholas; Britton, Sébastien; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), also called heterogenous nuclear ribonuclear protein U (hnRNP-U), is phosphorylated on serine 59 by the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in response to DNA damage. Since SAF-A, DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6), which interacts with DNA-PKcs, have all been shown to have roles in mitosis, we asked whether DNA-PKcs phosphorylates SAF-A in mitosis. We show that SAF-A is phosphorylated on serine 59 in mitosis, that phosphorylation requires polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) rather than DNA-PKcs, that SAF-A interacts with PLK1 in nocodazole-treated cells, and that serine 59 is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in mitosis. Moreover, cells expressing SAF-A in which serine 59 is mutated to alanine have multiple characteristics of aberrant mitoses, including misaligned chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, polylobed nuclei, and delayed passage through mitosis. Our findings identify serine 59 of SAF-A as a new target of both PLK1 and PP2A in mitosis and reveal that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of SAF-A serine 59 by PLK1 and PP2A, respectively, are required for accurate and timely exit from mitosis. PMID:25986610

  8. Head-tail instability and microwave instability in the KEK-PS

    SciTech Connect

    Toyama, T.; Arakawa, D.; Igarashi, S.; Kishiro, J.; Koba, K.; Nakamura, E.; Takayama, K.; Yoshii, M.

    1999-12-03

    Head-tail instability and microwave instability has been studied and cured in the course of the intensity up-grade program of the KEK-PS. Experimental results, its interpretations and cures are given on the head-tail instabilities, emerging just after the acceleration start, and the microwave instability, arising after the transition energy in the 12 GeV PS main ring.

  9. Deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau in cerebellum of PS1 E280A Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Falla, Diego; Matschke, Jakob; Bernreuther, Christian; Hagel, Christian; Puig, Berta; Villegas, Andres; Garcia, Gloria; Zea, Julian; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Ferrer, Isidre; Lopera, Francisco; Glatzel, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) caused by presenilin-1 mutation E280A (PS1-E280A) presents wide clinical and neuropathological variabilities. We characterized clinically and neuropathologically PS1-E280A focusing in cerebellar involvement and compared it with early-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (EOSAD). Twelve E280A brains and 12 matched EOSAD brains were analyzed for beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau) morphology, beta-amyloid subspecies 1-40, 1-42 levels, pTau levels, and expression of stress kinases in frontal cortex and cerebellum. The data were correlated to clinical and genetic findings. We observed higher beta-amyloid load, beta-amyloid 1-42 and pTau concentrations in frontal cortex of PS1-E280A compared with EOSAD. High beta-amyloid load was found in the cerebellum of PS1-E280A and EOSAD patients. In PS1-E280A, beta-amyloid localized to the molecular and Purkinje cell layers, whereas EOSAD showed them in Purkinje and granular cell layers. Surprisingly, 11 out of 12 PS1-E280A patients showed deposition of pTau in the cerebellum. Also, seven out of 12 PS1-E280A patients presented cerebellar ataxia. We conclude that deposition of beta-amyloid in the cerebellum is prominent in early-onset AD irrespective of genetic or sporadic origin. The presence of pTau in cerebellum in PS1-E280A underscores the relevance of cerebellar involvement in AD and might be correlated to clinical phenotype. PMID:21159009

  10. Necrotic Cells Actively Attract Phagocytes through the Collaborative Action of Two Distinct PS-Exposure Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zao; Venegas, Victor; Nagaoka, Yuji; Morino, Eri; Raghavan, Prashant; Audhya, Anjon; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Zhou, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis, a kind of cell death closely associated with pathogenesis and genetic programs, is distinct from apoptosis in both morphology and mechanism. Like apoptotic cells, necrotic cells are swiftly removed from animal bodies to prevent harmful inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, gain-of-function mutations in certain ion channel subunits result in the excitotoxic necrosis of six touch neurons and their subsequent engulfment and degradation inside engulfing cells. How necrotic cells are recognized by engulfing cells is unclear. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important apoptotic-cell surface signal that attracts engulfing cells. Here we observed PS exposure on the surface of necrotic touch neurons. In addition, the phagocytic receptor CED-1 clusters around necrotic cells and promotes their engulfment. The extracellular domain of CED-1 associates with PS in vitro. We further identified a necrotic cell-specific function of CED-7, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, in promoting PS exposure. In addition to CED-7, anoctamin homolog-1 (ANOH-1), the C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase TMEM16F, plays an independent role in promoting PS exposure on necrotic cells. The combined activities from CED-7 and ANOH-1 ensure efficient exposure of PS on necrotic cells to attract their phagocytes. In addition, CED-8, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian Xk-related protein 8 also makes a contribution to necrotic cell-removal at the first larval stage. Our work indicates that cells killed by different mechanisms (necrosis or apoptosis) expose a common eat me signal to attract their phagocytic receptor(s); furthermore, unlike what was previously believed, necrotic cells actively present PS on their outer surfaces through at least two distinct molecular mechanisms rather than leaking out PS passively. PMID:26061275

  11. APP/PS1 transgenic mice treated with aluminum: an update of Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Jia, L; Jiao, X; Guo, W L; Ji, J W; Yang, H L; Niu, Q

    2012-01-01

    There is still no animal model available that can mimic all the cognitive, behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological abnormalities observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We undertook to consider the interaction between genetic factors, including amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1), and environmental factors, such as Aluminum (Al) in determining susceptibility outcomes when studying the pathogenesis of AD. In this article, we provide an AD model in APP/PS1 transgenic mice triggered by Al. The animal model was established via intracerebral ventricular microinjection of aluminum chloride once a day for 5 days in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Twenty wild type (WT) mice and 20 APP/PS1 transgenic (TG) mice were separately divided into 2 groups (control and Al group), and a stainless steel injector with stopper was used for microinjection into the left-lateral cerebral ventricle of each mouse. The Morris water maze task was used to evaluate behavioral function of learning and memory ability on the 20th day after the last injection. This AD model's brain was analyzed by: (1) amyloid beta immunohistochemical staining; (2) Tunnel staining; (3) apoptotic rates; (4) caspase-3 gene expression. Here, decrease of cognitive ability and neural cells loss were shown in APP/PS1 transgenic mice exposed to Al, which were more extensive than those in APP/PS1 TG alone and WT mice exposed to Al alone. These findings indicate that there is a close relationship between over-expression of APP and PS1 genes and Al overload. It is also suggested that APP/PS1 TG mice exposed to Al have potential value for improving AD models. PMID:22507317

  12. E-Cloud Drivent Single-Bunch Instabilities in PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Furman, M.; Penn, G.; Secondo, R.; Vay, J-L.; De Maria, R.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.

    2010-05-23

    One of the proposals under consideration for future upgrades of the LHC injector complex entails the replacement of the PS with the PS2, a longer circumference and higher energy synchrotron, with electron cloud effects representing a potentially serious limitation to the achievement of the upgrade goals. We report on ongoing numerical studies aiming at estimating the e-cloud density threshold for the occurrence of single bunch instabilities.

  13. New molecular-scale information on polystyrene dynamics in PS and PS-BaTiO3 composites from FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Olmos, D; Martn, E V; Gonzlez-Benito, J

    2014-11-28

    A new idea to understand the macromolecular motion occurring along the thermal relaxations of polystyrene (PS) and PS-barium titanate composites is proposed. Detailed analysis of PS infrared bands provides a better knowledge of the factors affecting polymer dynamics. Average spectral positions and integrated absorbance of bands in the region of C-H out-of-plane vibrations showed a continuous decrease with temperature, whereas those in the region of aliphatic and aromatic C-H stretching vibrations showed the sharpest changes with temperature. Relaxation temperatures were determined from the changes observed in the band wavenumber or area with temperature. These results were attributed to changes in the distribution of the phenyl ?-electron cloud, causing important dipole moment variations in the different vibration modes when the thermal transitions are taking place. Finally, although the presence of BaTiO3 particles does not seem to exert any specific effect on the PS dynamics in the glassy state, the Curie transition of these particles might induce a kind of confinement effect observable by FTIR. PMID:25301098

  14. Capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) assay for measurement of intra-cellular D-Serine and serine racemase activity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nagendra S.; Paul, Rajib K.; Sichler, Megan; Moaddel, Ruin; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W.

    2011-01-01

    An enantioselective capillary electrophoresis–laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) method for the analysis of D-Serine (D-Ser) in cellular matrices has been developed. The assay involves derivatization with FITC followed by CE-LIF using 0.5 mM hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin in borate buffer [80 mM, pH 9.3]. The method was able to resolve D-Ser and L-Ser with an enantioselectivity (α) of 1.03 and a Resolution (Rs) of 1.37. Linearity was established from 0.25 μM – 100.00 μM. The assay was also able to enantioselectively resolve 6 additional amino acid racemates. The method was applied to the determination of intra-cellular D-Ser concentrations in PC-12, C6, 1312N1 and HepG2 cell lines. This method was used to determine the concentration-dependent increases in D-Ser and associated EC50 values produced by L-Ser and the concentration-dependent decreases in D-Ser and associated IC50 values produced by glycine, a competitive inhibitor of serine racemase (SR). Western blot analysis determined that the PC-12 and C6 cell lines contained monomeric and dimeric forms of SR while the 1321N1 and HepG2 cells contained only the monomeric form. Although the SR dimer has been identified as the active form of the enzyme, all four of the tested cell lines expressed enzymatically active SR. PMID:22037294

  15. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K.F.; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Major characteristics of Alzheimers disease (AD) include deposits of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate A?-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of A? plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the A? plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD. PMID:25959573

  16. Relation of P-S4 interval to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Schapira, J N; Fowles, R E; Bowden, R E; Alderman, E L; Popp, R L

    1982-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the interval between P wave onset and the fourth heart sound (P-S4 interval) reflects changes in left ventricular myocardial stiffness. We made simultaneous measurements of the P-S4 or atrial electrogram to S4 (A-S4) interval and left ventricular pressure in 19 patients with coronary artery disease who were studied before and after atrial pacing. Thirteen patients developed angina accompanied by significant rises in their end-diastolic pressure and a consistent decrease in P-S4 or A-S4 interval; whereas the six patients who had atrial pacing without the development of angina had no change in end-diastolic pressure, P-S4, or A-S4 interval. The resting data showed in inverse correlation between left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and the P-S4 interval. In addition, the P-S4 interval let us discriminate between patients with normal and abnormal end-diastolic pressure (greater than 15 mmHg). Images PMID:7059403

  17. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K F; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposits of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate A?-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of A? plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the A? plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD. PMID:25959573

  18. Integrin ?PS3/??-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Nagaosa, Kaz; Mori, Toshinobu; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2013-04-12

    Integrins exert a variety of cellular functions as heterodimers of two transmembrane subunits named ? and ?. Integrin ??, a ?-subunit of Drosophila integrin, is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria. Here, we searched for an ?-subunit that forms a complex and cooperates with ??. Examinations of RNAi-treated animals suggested that ?PS3, but not any of four other ?-subunits, is required for the effective phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila embryos. The mutation of ?PS3-encoding scb, deficiency, insertion of P-element, or alteration of nucleotide sequences, brought about a reduction in the level of phagocytosis. The defect in phagocytosis by deficiency was reverted by the forced expression of scb. Furthermore, flies in which the expression of both ?PS3 and ?? was inhibited by RNAi showed a level of phagocytosis almost equal to that observed in flies with RNAi for either subunit alone. A loss of ?PS3 also decreased the activity of larval hemocytes in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, a co-immunoprecipitation analysis using a Drosophila cell line treated with a chemical cross-linker suggested a physical association between ?PS3 and ??. These results collectively indicated that integrin ?PS3/?? serves as a receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria by Drosophila phagocytes. PMID:23426364

  19. Community Perspectives Associated With the African PsA-TT (MenAfriVac) Vaccine Trials

    PubMed Central

    Idoko, Olubukola T.; Diallo, Aldiouma; Sow, Samba O.; Hodgson, Abraham; Akinsola, Adebayo; Diarra, Bou; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Ansah, Patrick Odum; Kampmann, Beate; Bouma, Enricke; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Enwere, Godwin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was established to address epidemic meningitis as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and, to that end, worked to develop a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT. Methods. Experiences in 4 clinical trial sites are described. Culturally sensitive collaborative strategies were adopted to manage acceptable communication methods, peculiarities with the consent process, participant medical issues, community care, and death. Results. The clinical trials were completed successfully through community acceptance and active community collaboration. The trials also strengthened the capacities in the participating communities, and actively worked to resolve community problems. Conclusions. The understanding and integration of sociocultural realities of communities were major assets in the conduct and acceptance of these trials. MVP succeeded in these sites and provided a sound example for future clinical studies in Africa. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRTCN78147026 (PsA-TT 002); ISRCTN87739946 (PsA-TT 003); ISRCTN82484612 (PsA-TT 004); PACTR ATMR2010030001913177 (PsA-TT 006); and PACTR201110000328305 (PsA-TT 007). PMID:26553669

  20. Preparation of pancreatic ?-cells from human iPS cells with small molecules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells obtained from patients are expected to be a useful source for cell transplantation therapy, because many patients (including those with type 1 diabetes and severe type 2 diabetes) are on waiting lists for transplantation for a long time due to the shortage of donors. At present, many concerns related to clinical application of human iPS cells have been raised, but rapid development of methods for the establishment, culture, and standardization of iPS cells will lead autologous cell therapy to be realistic sooner or later. However, establishment of a method for preparing some of desired cell types is still challenging. Regarding pancreatic ?-cells, there have been many reports about differentiation of these cells from human embryonic stem (ES)/iPS cells, but a protocol for clinical application has still not been established. Since there is clear proof that cell transplantation therapy is effective for diabetes based on the results of clinical islet transplantation, pancreatic ?-cells prepared from human iPS cells are considered likely to be effective for reducing the burden on patients. In this article, the current status of procedures for preparing pancreatic ?-cells from human ES/iPS cells, including effective use of small molecules, is summarized, and some of the problems that still need to be overcome are discussed. PMID:22722666