Science.gov

Sample records for phosphatidylcholines

  1. Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Datko, Anne H.; Mudd, S. Harvey

    1988-01-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by tissue culture preparations of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and soybean (Glycine max), and by soybean leaf discs, have been studied. Preparations were incubated with tracer concentrations of l-[3H3C]methionine and the kinetics of appearance of radioactivity in phosphomethylethanolamine, phosphodimethylethanolamine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, methylethanolamine, dimethylethanolamine, and choline followed at short incubation times. With soybean (tissue culture or leaves), an initial methylation utilizes phosphoethanolamine as substrate, forming phosphomethylethanolamine. The latter is converted to phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, which is successively methylated to phosphatidyldimethyethanolamine and to phosphatidylcholine. With carrot, again, an initial methylation is of phosphoethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occur at both the phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Both of these patterns differ qualitatively from that previously demonstrated in Lemna (SH Mudd, AH Datko 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 126-135) in which all three methylations occur at the phospho-base level. For soybean and carrot, some added contribution from initial methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine has not been excluded. These results, together with those from similar experiments carried out with water-stressed barley leaves (WD Hitz, D Rhodes, AD Hanson 1981 Plant Physiol 68: 814-822) and salinized sugarbeet leaves (AD Hanson, D Rhodes 1983 Plant Physiol 71: 692-700) suggest that in higher plants some, perhaps all, phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurs via a common committing step (conversion of phosphoethanolamine to phosphomethylethanolamine) followed by a methylation pattern which differs from plant to plant. PMID:16666397

  2. Heterogeneous catalytic transesterification of phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Rajesh Kumar; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2011-01-01

    The transesterification of phosphatidylcholine (PC) via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis was investigated for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) i.e. biodiesel. Calcium methoxide and calcium oxide were used as heterogeneous catalysts, and KOH as a homogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of phosphatidylcholine (PC)--a polar phospholipid prevalent in eukaryotic organisms. The initial reaction rate was higher for KOH (24.23 g of FAME/g of catalyst.min) than for calcium methoxide (17.06 g of FAME/g of catalyst.min) and calcium oxide (1.06 g of FAME/g of catalyst.min). PC was then mixed with soybean oil at different proportions (i.e. 10%, 30% and 50%, PC10, PC30 and PC50, respectively) which was then used as the feedstock for transesterification using calcium methoxide. When the mass fraction of PC was increased in the feedstock reaction rate also increased. Phosphorus content of the FAME layer of PC100, PC50, PC30 and PC10 was 0.081, 0.041, 0.035 and 0.028% (w/w), respectively. PMID:20832299

  3. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline.

    PubMed

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard

    2011-02-20

    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. PMID:20338739

  4. Determination of phosphatidylcholine and disaturated phosphatidylcholine content in lung surfactant by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Scarim, J; Ghanbari, H; Taylor, V; Menon, G

    1989-04-01

    A rapid isocratic method for determining the total phosphatidylcholine and disaturated phosphatidylcholine levels in lung surfactant preparations by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. The analysis was performed on a 3.9 x 300 mm mu-Porasil column with detection by refractive index. The lipids were eluted with a solvent system of chloroform-acetonitrile-methanol-water-85% phosphoric acid 650:650:500:130:2 (v/v/v/v/v). A 4.6 x 30 mm silica guard column was used in place of an injector loop which served as a sample concentrator and purifier. Phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol, all known components of lung surfactants, were eluted from the loop column and were prevented from reaching the analytical column. Sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine elute later than the phosphatidylcholines on the analytical column. The method was developed so that phosphatidylcholines elute as a single peak regardless of the fatty acid chain length (C12-C20). When the sample was first oxidized with a potassium permanganate-potassium metaperiodate solution, and potentially interfering oxidation products were removed by extraction into a basic aqueous phase, then only the disaturated phosphatidylcholines were analyzed. PMID:2754340

  5. Isoniazid interaction with phosphatidylcholine-based membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Amanda Vicente; Marengo Trindade, Paulo; Marques, Sheylla; Brum, Tainá; Harte, Etienne; Rodrigues, Marieli Oliveira; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Alves, Isabel Dantas; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Interaction between the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) and phosphatidylcholine membranes was investigated in terms of: (i) drug affinity to a lipid bilayer and (ii) drug-induced changes in the dynamic properties of liposomes, such as membrane hydration state, polar head and non-polar acyl chain order and lipid phase transition behavior. These parameters were studied by plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy (PWR), UV-visible, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. PWR measurements showed an INH membrane dissociation constant value of 0.031 μM to phosphatidylcholine bilayers. INH induced higher membrane perturbation in the plane which is perpendicular to the membrane plane. The INH saturation concentration in phosphatidylcholine liposomes was 170 μM. At this concentration, HATR-FTIR and NMR findings showed that INH may interact with the lipid polar head, increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the phosphate region and enhancing the choline motional freedom. DSC measurements showed that, at 115 μM, INH was responsible for a decrease in lipid phase transition temperature of approximately 2 °C and had no influence in the lipid enthalpy variation (ΔH). However, at 170 μM, INH induced the reduction of the ΔH by approximately 52%, suggesting that the drug may increase the distance among lipid molecules and enhance the freedom of the lipid acyl chains methylene groups. This paper provides information on the effects of INH on membrane dynamics which is important to understand liposome targeting of the drug and for the development of anti-TB pharmacologic systems that not only are less susceptible to resistance but also have low toxicity.

  6. Regulation of Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Waechter, Charles J.; Lester, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is presented which indicates that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by the methylation pathway in growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is repressed by the presence of choline in the growth medium. This result, obtained previously for glucose-grown cells, was also observed for lactate-grown cells, of which half of the phosphatidylcholine is mitochondrial. A respiration-deficient mutant of the parent wild-type strain has been studied, and its inability to form functional mitochondria cannot be due to an impaired methylation pathway, as it has been shown to incorporate 14C-CH3-methionine into all of the methylated glycerophosphatides. The incorporation rate is depressed by the inclusion of 1 mm choline in the growth medium, suggesting a regulatory effect similar to that demonstrated for the wild-type strain. The effects of choline on the glycerophospholipid composition of lactate and glucose-grown cells is presented. The repressive effects of the two related bases, mono- and dimethylethanolamine, were examined, and reduced levels of 14C-CH3-methionine incorporation were found for cells grown in the presence of these bases. The effect of choline on the methylation rates is reversible and glucosegrown cells regain the nonrepressed level of methylation activity in 60 to 80 min after removal of choline from the growth medium. Images PMID:5547992

  7. Hypolipidemic drugs are inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S; Kritchevsky, D; Baumann, W J

    1982-01-01

    Clofibric acid (CPIB) and several other systemic hypolipidemic drugs are shown to block phosphatidylcholine synthesis by inhibiting cholinephosphotransferase (ChoPTase; CDPcholine:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, EC 2.7.8.2) and particularly lysolecithin acyltransferase (LLAcylTase; acyl-CoA:1-acylglycero-3-phosphocholine O-acyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.23) of rat liver microsomes. Whereas millimolar drug concentrations are required to affect de novo lecithin synthesis catalyzed by ChoPTase, reacylation of lysolecithin by LLAcylTase is inhibited at micromolar levels. Increasing effectiveness in ChoPTase inhibition is observed in the series CPIB, SaH-42-348, tibric acid, S-321328, WY-14643, S-8527, and DH-990, with IC50 ranging from 22 mM (CPIB) to 0.3 mM (DH-990). LLAcylTase inhibition by the hypolipidemic drugs follows the same general pattern, but IC50 concentrations range from 9 mM (CPIB) to 40 microM (DH-990). The agents inhibit ChoPTase (Ki, 25-0.25 mM) and LLAcylTase (Ki, 10-0.025 mM) noncompetitively. The data suggest that inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, particularly by the LLAcylTase pathway, may be related to a drug's effectiveness in decreasing serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels by blocking lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:6294663

  8. Oxidized phosphatidylcholine formation and action in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingdong; Testai, Fernando D; Dawson, Sylvia; Kilkus, John; Dawson, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a major role in neurodegeneration. Increasing concentrations of peroxide induce neural cell death through activation of pro-apoptotic pathways. We now report that hydrogen peroxide generated sn-2 oxidized phosphatidylcholine (OxPC) in neonatal rat oligodendrocytes and that synthetic oxidized phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-(5′-oxo)valeryl-sn-glycero-3 phosphorylcholine, POVPC) also induced apoptosis in neonatal rat oligodendrocytes. POVPC activated caspases 3 and 8, and neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), but not acid sphingomyelinase. Downstream pro-apoptotic pathways activated by POVPC treatment included the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proapoptotic cascade and the degradation of phospho-Akt. Activation of NSMase occurred within 1h, was blocked by inhibitors of caspase 8, increased mainly C18 and C24:1-ceramides, and appeared to be concentrated in detergent-resistant microdomains (Rafts). We conclude that OxPC initially activates NSMase and converts sphingomyelin into ceramide, to mediate a series of downstream pro-apoptotic events in oligodendrocytes. PMID:19545281

  9. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  10. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-02-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs.

  11. The mechanism of intestinal absorption of phosphatidylcholine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Sampath; Subbaiah, Papasani V.; Ganguly, Jagannath

    1974-01-01

    1. The mechanism of absorption of phosphatidylcholine was studied in rats by injecting into the intestine phosphatidylcholine specifically labelled either in the fatty acid or in the glycerol moiety or with 32P, when considerable amounts of 1-acyl-lysophosphatidylcholine were found in the intestinal lumen. 2-([14C]Acyl)phosphatidylcholine gave markedly more radioactive unesterified fatty acids in the lumen, compared with the 1-([14C]acyl) derivative. Some of the radioactivity from either the fatty acid or the glycerol moiety of the injected phosphatidylcholine appeared in the mucosal triacylglycerols. 2. Injection of 32P-labelled phosphatidylcholine or 32P-labelled lysophosphatidylcholine led to the appearance of radioactive glycerylphosphorylcholine, glycerophosphate and Pi in the mucosa. 3. Rat mucosa was found to contain a highly active glycerylphosphorylcholine diesterase. 4. It was concluded that the dietary phosphatidylcholine is hydrolysed in the intestinal lumen by the pancreatic phospholipase A to 1-acylglycerylphosphorylcholine, which on entering the mucosal cell is partly reacylated to phosphatidylcholine, and the rest is further hydrolysed to glycerylphosphorylcholine, glycerophosphate, glycerol and Pi. The fatty acids and glycerophosphate are then reassembled to give triacylglycerols via the Kennedy (1961) pathway. PMID:4374941

  12. Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-Choline Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fagone, Paolo; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The CDP-choline pathway of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis was first described more than 50 years ago. Investigation of the CDP-choline pathway in yeast provides a basis for understanding the CDP-choline pathway in mammals. PtdCho is considered as an intermediate in a cycle of synthesis and degradation, and the activity of a CDP-choline cycle is linked to subcellular membrane lipid movement. The components of the mammalian CDP-choline pathway include choline transport, choline kinase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, and choline phosphotransferase activities. The protein isoforms and biochemical mechanisms of regulation of the pathway enzymes are related to their cell and tissue-specific functions. Regulated PtdCho turnover mediated by phospholipases or neuropathy target esterase participates in the mammalian CDP-choline cycle. Knockout mouse models define the biological functions of the CDP-choline cycle in mammalian cells and tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23010477

  13. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sribney, M; Knowles, C L; Lyman, E M

    1976-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver microsomal preparations catalysed by CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) was inhibited by a combination of ATP and CoA or ATP and pantetheine. ATP alone at high concentrations (20 mM) inhibits phosphatidylcholine formation to the extent of 70%. In the presence of 0.1 mM-CoA, ATP (2 mM) inhibits to the extent of 80% and in the presence of 1 mM-pantetheine to the extent of 90%. ADP and other nucleotide triphosphates in combination with either CoA or pantetheine are only 10-30% as effective in inhibiting phosphatidylcholine synthesis. AMP(CH2)PP [adenosine 5'-(alphabeta-methylene)triphosphate] together with CoA inhibits to the extent of 59% and with pantetheine by 48%. AMP-P(CH2)P [adenosine 5'-(betagamma-methylene)triphosphate] together with either CoA or pantetheine had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine formation. Other closely related derivatives of pantothenic acid were without effect either alone or in the presence of ATP, as were thiol compounds such as cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, dithiothreitol and glutathione. Several mechanisms by which this inhibition might take place were ruled out and it is concluded that ATP together with either CoA or pantetheine interacts reversibly with phosphatidylcholine synthetase to cause temporarily the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine formation. PMID:182154

  14. Studies on ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Butterman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A major target of ozone reactivity is the unsaturated acyl side chains of phospholipids. In this study, a model system was established to characterize some of the toxic products generated. When ozone is allowed to react with liposomes prepared from purified phosphatidylcholine, at least two types of hemolytic agents are formed. One type is rapidly produced at 0/sup 0/ in the presence or absence of EDTA. A second type is evolved during storage at 37/sup 0/ in the absence of EDTA. A number of physical and chemical characteristics of the initial hemolytic agents were found: (1) They are heat-labile and are rapidly destroyed at 37/sup 0/ at neutral pH or at 0/sup 0/ above pH 8. (2) The active substances are not volatile and are associated with the light liposomes. (3) They could be extracted into chloroform, but attempts at purification by chromatographic techniques were not successful. (4) Their activity was not associated with hydroperoxides or the majority of the TBA reactive material. The heat-labile hemolytic agents appear to contain carbonyl functional groups which can form hemiaminals or Schiff bases with amines. There appears to be two types of mechanisms which can inhibit the hemolysis induced by the heat-labile hemolytic agents. The first class, consisting of substances such as cysteine, polyamines, heptylamine, semicarbazide, and tryptophan appear to act by chemically reacting with an essential functional group in the hemolytic agent. The second class, of consisting BHT and ascorbic acid appears to quench the propagation of a free radical reaction in the membrane.

  15. Retarded release phosphatidylcholine benefits patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W; Merle, U; Zahn, A; Autschbach, F; Hinz, U; Ehehalt, R

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We examined the hypothesis of an anti-inflammatory effect of phosphatidylcholine in ulcerative colitis. Methods: A phase IIA, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was performed in 60 patients with chronic active, non steroid dependent, ulcerative colitis, with a clinical activity index (CAI) of ⩾4. Retarded release phosphatidylcholine rich phospholipids and placebo were administered at a dose of 6 g daily over three months. The primary end point was a change in CAI towards clinical remission (CAI ⩽3) or CAI improvement by ⩾50%. Secondary end points included ⩾50% changes in endoscopic activity index (EAI), histology, and quality of life scores. Results: Induction of clinical remission (CAI ⩽3) as the primary outcome variable was attained by 16 (53%) patients in the phosphatidylcholine treated group compared with three (10%) in the placebo group (p<0.00001). The rate of clinical remission and CAI improvement was 90% in the phosphatidylcholine group and only 10% in the placebo group. A median drop of seven points in the CAI score (70% improvement) was recorded in the phosphatidylcholine group compared with no change in the placebo group. Secondary end point analysis revealed concomitant drops in EAI and histology scores (p = 0.00016 and p = 0.0067 compared with placebo, respectively). Improvement in quality of life was reported by 16 of 29 evaluated patients in the phosphatidylcholine group compared with two of 30 in the placebo group (p = 0.00005). Conclusion: Retarded release oral phosphatidylcholine is effective in alleviating inflammatory activity caused by ulcerative colitis. PMID:15951544

  16. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine under possible primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Eichberg, J.; Oro, J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a primitive earth evaporating pond model, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accomplished when a reaction mixture of choline chloride and disodium phosphatidate, in the presence of cyanamide and traces of acid, was evaporated and heated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 C for 7 hours. Optimum yields of about 15% were obtained at 80 C. Phosphatidylcholine was identified by chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic degradation methods. On enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphorylcholine were formed, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave glycerophosphorylcholine. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine as the major compound was accompanied by the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine in smaller amounts. Cyanamide was found to be essential for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, and only traces of HCl, of the order of that required to convert the disodium phosphatidate to free phosphatidic acid were found necessary for the synthesis. This work suggests that phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of most biological membranes, could have been synthesized on the primitive earth.

  17. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  18. Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Koeth, Robert A.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans. METHODS We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. RESULTS Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; P<0.001). An elevated TMAO level predicted an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P<0.001), as well as in lower-risk subgroups. CONCLUSIONS The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated

  19. Thermodynamics of interdigitated phases of phosphatidylcholine in glycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, M J; Marsh, D

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the electron spin resonance spectra of phosphatidylcholines spin-labeled in the sn-2 chain at a position close to the polar region and close to the methyl terminus indicate that symmetrical saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholines with odd and even chain lengths from 13 to 20 C-atoms (and probably also 12 C-atoms) have gel phases in which the chains are interdigitated when dispersed in glycerol. The chain-length dependences of the chain-melting transition enthalpies and entropies are similar for phosphatidylcholines dispersed in glycerol and in water, but the negative end contributions are smaller for phosphatidylcholines dispersed in glycerol than for those dispersed in water: d delta Ht/dCH2 = 1.48 (1.43) kcal.mol-1, d delta St/dCH2 = 3.9 (4.0) cal.mol-1K-1, and delta H o = -12.9 (-15.0) kcal.mol-1, delta S o = -29 (-40) cal.mol-1K-1, respectively, for dispersions in glycerol (water). These differences reflect the interfacial energetics in glycerol and in water, and the different structure of the interdigitated gel phase. PMID:8534810

  20. Phosphoethanolamine Bases as Intermediates in Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis by Lemna

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the dominant methyl-containing end product formed by Lemna paucicostata, has been investigated. Methyl groups originating in methionine are rapidly utilized by intact plants to methylate phosphoethanolamine successively to the mono-, di-, and tri-methyl (i.e. phosphocholine) phosphoethanolamine derivatives. With continued labeling, radioactivity initially builds up in these compounds, then passes on, accumulating chiefly in phosphatidylcholine (34% of the total radioactivity taken up by plants labeled to isotopic equilibrium with l-[14CH3]methionine), and in lesser amounts in soluble choline (6%). Radioactivity was detected in mono- and dimethyl derivatives of free ethanolamine or phosphatidylethanolamine only in trace amounts. Pulse-chase experiments with [14CH3]choline and [3H] ethanolamine confirmed that phosphoethanolamine is rapidly methylated and that phosphocholine is converted to phosphatidylcholine. Initial rates indicate that methylation of phosphoethanolamine predominates over methylation of either phosphatidylethanolamine or free ethanolamine at least 99:1. Although more studies are needed, it is suggested this pathway may well turn out to account for most phosphatidylcholine synthesis in higher plants. Phosphomethylethanolamine and phosphodimethylethanolamine are present in low quantities during steady-state growth (18% and 6%, respectively, of the amount of phosphocholine). Radioactivity was not detected in CDP-choline, probably due to the low steady-state concentration of this nucleotide. PMID:16664979

  1. Chronopotentiometric studies of phosphatidylcholine bilayers modified by ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Naumowicz, Monika; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the effect of ergosterol on electrical capacitance and electrical resistance of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes using chronopotentiometry method. The chronopotentiometric characteristic of the bilayers depends on constant-current flow through the membranes. For low current values, no electroporation takes place and the membrane voltage rises exponentially to a constant value described by the Ohm's law. Based on these kinds of chronopotentiometric curves, a method of the membrane capacitance and the membrane resistance calculations is presented. PMID:21641920

  2. Stability of drug-carrier emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine mixtures.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Pattarino, Franco; Ignoni, Terenzio

    2002-03-01

    Lipid emulsion particles containing 10% of medium chain triglycerides were prepared using 2% w/w of a mixture 1:1 w/w of purified soya phosphatidylcholine and 2-hexanoyl phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier mixture, for use as drug carriers. The mean droplet sizes of emulsions, prepared using an Ultra Turrax or a high-pressure homogenizer, were about 288 and 158 nm, respectively, compared with 380 and 268 nm for emulsions containing lecithin, or 325 and 240 nm for those containing 6-phosphatidylcholine. The stability of the emulsions, determined by monitoring the decrease of a lipophilic marker at a specified level within the emulsion, and observing coalescence over time, was also greatly increased using the emulsifier mixture. The emulsion stability did not notably change in the presence of a model destabilizing drug, indomethacin. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin at the oil-water interface provided an increase in the stability of lipid emulsions, and this may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems. PMID:11880004

  3. Legionella dumoffii utilizes exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response. PMID:24821544

  4. Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response. PMID:24821544

  5. Phosphatidylcholine, an edible carrier for nanoencapsulation of unstable thiamine.

    PubMed

    Juveriya Fathima, Syeda; Fathima, Irum; Abhishek, Virat; Khanum, Farhath

    2016-04-15

    Lipid nanoparticles have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because of the advantage in improved absorption, bioavailability, targeted deliveries and reduction in the quantity of drugs required. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanoliposomes containing thiamine hydrochloride and study their physicochemical stability as this vitamin is highly unstable. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as an edible encapsulant. The average size of nanoliposomes was found to be 150 nm and zeta potential was -34 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 97%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size, spherical nature and smooth surface of the nanoliposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) evidenced that the nanoliposomes were stable up to 300°C. The functional groups present were determined by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the presence of vitamin was confirmed in final formulation by biochemical analysis. The crystalline nature of thiamine was analyzed by X-ray diffraction studies. Storage studies indicated that the nanoliposomes were highly stable up to 3 months at different temperatures. Thus, phosphatidylcholine can be used as carrier vehicle of nutrients especially vitamins, as it can form stable nanoliposomes with 97% encapsulation efficiency. PMID:26616989

  6. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeneng; Klipfell, Elizabeth; Bennett, Brian J.; Koeth, Robert; Levison, Bruce S.; DuGar, Brandon; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Chung, Yoon-Mi; Wu, Yuping; Schauer, Phil; Smith, Jonathan D.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics studies hold promise for discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A metabolomics approach was used to generate unbiased small molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine, namely choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and betaine, were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted up-regulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for development of both novel diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:21475195

  7. Brucella abortus Synthesizes Phosphatidylcholine from Choline Provided by the Host

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2006-01-01

    The Brucella cell envelope is characterized by the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), a common phospholipid in eukaryotes that is rare in prokaryotes. Studies on the composition of Brucella abortus 2308 phospholipids revealed that the synthesis of PC depends on the presence of choline in the culture medium, suggesting that the methylation biosynthetic pathway is not functional. Phospholipid composition of pmtA and pcs mutants indicated that in Brucella, PC synthesis occurs exclusively via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway. Transformation of Escherichia coli with an expression vector containing the B. abortus pcs homologue was sufficient for PC synthesis upon induction with IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside), while no PC formation was detected when bacteria were transformed with a vector containing pmtA. These findings imply that Brucella depends on choline provided by the host cell to form PC. We could not detect any obvious associated phenotype in the PC-deficient strain under vegetative or intracellular growth conditions in macrophages. However, the pcs mutant strain displays a reproducible virulence defect in mice, which suggests that PC is necessary to sustain a chronic infection process. PMID:16484204

  8. Brucella abortus synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from choline provided by the host.

    PubMed

    Comerci, Diego J; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego; Ugalde, Rodolfo A

    2006-03-01

    The Brucella cell envelope is characterized by the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), a common phospholipid in eukaryotes that is rare in prokaryotes. Studies on the composition of Brucella abortus 2308 phospholipids revealed that the synthesis of PC depends on the presence of choline in the culture medium, suggesting that the methylation biosynthetic pathway is not functional. Phospholipid composition of pmtA and pcs mutants indicated that in Brucella, PC synthesis occurs exclusively via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway. Transformation of Escherichia coli with an expression vector containing the B. abortus pcs homologue was sufficient for PC synthesis upon induction with IPTG (isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside), while no PC formation was detected when bacteria were transformed with a vector containing pmtA. These findings imply that Brucella depends on choline provided by the host cell to form PC. We could not detect any obvious associated phenotype in the PC-deficient strain under vegetative or intracellular growth conditions in macrophages. However, the pcs mutant strain displays a reproducible virulence defect in mice, which suggests that PC is necessary to sustain a chronic infection process. PMID:16484204

  9. Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine: A Remarkable Exception to Tocopherol s Membrane Presence

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Williams, Justin; Kinnun, Justin A.; Kucerka, Norbert; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Wassall, Stephen; Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Using data obtained from different physical techniques (i.e., neutron diffraction, NMR and UV spectroscopy), we present evidence which explains some of the conflicting and inexplicable data found in the literature regarding -tocopherol s (aToc s) behavior in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (di-14:0PC) bilayers. Without exception, the data point to aToc s active chromanol moiety residing deep in the hydrophobic core of di-14:0PC bilayers, a location that is in stark contrast to aToc s location in other PC bilayers. Our result is a clear example of the importance of lipid species diversity in biological membranes and importantly, it suggests that measurements of aToc s oxidation kinetics, and its associated byproducts observed in di-14:0PC bilayers, should be reexamined, this time taking into account its noncanonical location in this bilayer.

  10. Interesterification of phosphatidylcholine with lipases in organic media.

    PubMed

    Svensson, I; Adlercreutz, P; Mattiasson, B

    1990-06-01

    Lipases were investigated with respect to their ability to catalyse the incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine (PC) by interesterification reactions. The enzymes were dried onto solid support materials and the conversions were carried out in water-saturated toluene. Three lipases (two fungal and one plant enzyme) had the desired activity; immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme) was the most active enzyme. The Lipozyme-catalysed interesterification was selective for the sn-1 position of PC and during 48 h of reaction around 50% of the fatty acids in this position were replaced with heptadecanoic acid, a fatty acid which was practically absent in the original phospholipid. Due to adsorption on the support material and the competing hydrolysis reaction the total amount of PC in the reaction solution decreased to about 40% of the original amount. Higher interesterification rates were obtained with free fatty acids as acyl donors than with fatty acid esters. PMID:1366637

  11. Antibiotic-loaded phosphatidylcholine inhibits staphylococcal bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jessica Amber; Beenken, Karen E; Skinner, Robert A; Meeker, Daniel G; Smeltzer, Mark S; Haggard, Warren O; Troxel, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To test antibiotic-loaded coating for efficacy in reducing bacterial biofilm and development of osteomyelitis in an orthopaedic model of implant infection. METHODS Phosphatidylcholine coatings loaded with 25% vancomycin were applied to washed and sterilized titanium wires 20 mm in length. A 10 mm segment was removed from rabbit radius (total = 9; 5 coated, 4 uncoated), and the segment was injected with 1 × 106 colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1 strain). Titanium wires were inserted through the intramedullary canal of the removed segment and into the proximal radial segment and the segment was placed back into the defect. After 7 d, limbs were removed, X-rayed, swabbed for tissue contamination. Wires were removed and processed to determine attached CFUs. Tissue was swabbed and streaked on agar plates to determine bacteriological score. RESULTS Antibiotic-loaded coatings resulted in significantly reduced biofilm formation (4.7 fold reduction in CFUs; P < 0.001) on titanium wires and reduced bacteriological score in surrounding tissue (4.0 ± 0 for uncoated, 1.25 ± 0.5 for coated; P = 0.01). Swelling and pus formation was evident in uncoated controls at the 7 d time point both visually and radiographically, but not in antibiotic-loaded coatings. CONCLUSION Active antibiotic was released from coated implants and significantly reduced signs of osteomyelitic symptoms. Implant coatings were well tolerated in bone. Further studies with additional control groups and longer time periods are warranted. Antibiotic-loaded phosphatidylcholine coatings applied at the point of care could prevent implant-associated infection in orthopaedic defects. PMID:27622146

  12. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. • diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. • Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. • This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  13. Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by vasopressin and angiotensin in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, S; Varela, I; Mato, J M

    1982-01-01

    The addition of 1 microM-vasopressin or -angiotensin to isolated rat hepatocytes induced a fast transient inhibition of the rate of incorporation of [Me-3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine. The cationophore A23187 induced a similar inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The addition of micromolar Ca2+ to rat liver microsomes inhibited the activity of CDP-choline: 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. This inhibition is due a decrease in the Vmax. of the enzyme without affecting the Km for CDP-choline. It is concluded that Ca2+ regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver. PMID:6818955

  14. Activity of phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves with mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Julienne, M; Vergnolle, C; Kader, J C

    1981-09-01

    A low-molecular-weight protein catalysing the transfer of phosphatidylcholine from liposomes to mitochondria and chloroplasts has been isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) by chromatography on Sephadex G-75. PMID:7325986

  15. Nuclear Phosphatidylcholine and Sphingomyelin Metabolism of Thyroid Cells Changes during Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    PubMed Central

    Albi, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Samuela; Villani, Maristella; Perrella, Giuseppina

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine metabolism is involved in the response to ultraviolet radiation treatment in different ways related to the physiological state of cells. To evaluate the effects of low levels of radiation from the stratosphere on thyroid cells, proliferating and quiescent FRTL-5 cells were flown in a stratospheric balloon (BIRBA mission). After recovery, the activity of neutral sphingomyelinase, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, sphingomyelin synthase, and reverse sphingomyelin synthase was assayed in purified nuclei and the nuclei-free fraction. In proliferating FRTL-5, space radiation stimulate nuclear neutral sphingomyelinase and reverse sphingomyelin synthase activity, whereas phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase were inhibited, thus inducing sphingomyelin degradation and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. This effect was lower in quiescent cells. The possible role of nuclear lipid metabolism in the thyroid damage induced by space radiations is discussed. PMID:20011661

  16. Increased levels of a particular phosphatidylcholine species in senescent human dermal fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Naru, Eiji; Takanezawa, Yasukazu; Kobayashi, Misako; Misaki, Yuko; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Arakane, Kumi

    2008-08-01

    Plasma membranes are essential components of living cells, and phospholipids are major components of cellular membranes. Here, we used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to investigate changes in the membrane phospholipid content that occur in association with aging. Our results indicate that the levels of a particular species of phosphatidylcholine comprised of stearic acid and arachidonic acid increased with age. To determine the reason for the increased levels of this particular phosphatidylcholine, we examined the effect of highly unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, on cellular aging. Applied arachidonic acid was incorporated into phosphatidylcholine molecules, but neither arachidonic acid nor other related unsaturated fatty acids had any effect. We conclude that increased levels of this distinctive phosphatidylcholine are a result of in vitro senescence. PMID:18667023

  17. Interaction of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mady, Mohsen M.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2011-06-01

    Insulin, a peptide that has been used for decades in the treatment of diabetes, has well-defined properties and delivery requirements. Liposomes, which are lipid bilayer vesicles, have gained increasing attention as drug carriers which reduce the toxicity and increase the pharmacological activity of various drugs. The molecular interaction between (uncharged lipid) dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin has been characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The characteristic protein absorption band peaks, Amide I (at about 1660 cm-1) and Amide II band (at about 1546 cm-1) are potentially reduced in the liposome insulin complex. Wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements showed that the association of insulin with DPPC lipid of liposomes still maintains the characteristic DPPC diffraction peaks with almost no change in relative intensities or change in peak positions. The absence of any shift in protein peak positions after insulin being associated with DPPC liposomes indicates that insulin is successfully forming complex with DPPC liposomes with possibly no pronounced alterations in the structure of insulin molecule.

  18. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by human lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Takeshi; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of phospholipids and proteins lining the alveolar walls of the lung. It reduces surface tension in the alveoli, and is critical for normal respiration. Pulmonary surfactant phospholipids consist mainly of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Although the phospholipid composition of pulmonary surfactant is well known, the enzyme(s) involved in its biosynthesis have remained obscure. We previously reported the cloning of murine lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (mLPCAT1) as a potential biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. mLPCAT1 exhibits lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase (LPGAT) activities, generating PC and PG, respectively. However, the enzymatic activity of human LPCAT1 (hLPCAT1) remains controversial. We report here that hLPCAT1 possesses LPCAT and LPGAT activities. The activity of hLPCAT1 was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, indicating the importance of some cysteine residue(s) for the catalysis. We found a conserved cysteine (Cys(211)) in hLPCAT1 that is crucial for its activity. Evolutionary analyses of the close homologs of LPCAT1 suggest that it appeared before the evolution of teleosts and indicate that LPCAT1 may have evolved along with the lung to facilitate respiration. hLPCAT1 mRNA is highly expressed in the human lung. We propose that hLPCAT1 is the biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. PMID:19383981

  19. Origins of extreme boundary lubrication by phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Dror, Yael; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles have been shown to have remarkable boundary lubricating properties under physiologically-high pressures. Here we carry out a systematic study, using a surface force balance, of the normal and shear (frictional) forces between two opposing surfaces bearing different PC vesicles across water, to elucidate the origin of these properties. Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs, diameters < 100 nm) of the symmetric saturated diacyl PCs DMPC (C(14)), DPPC (C(16)) and DSPC (C(18)) attached to mica surfaces were studied in their solid-ordered (SO) phase on the surface. Overall liposome lubrication ability improves markedly with increasing acyl chain length, and correlates strongly with the liposomes' structural integrity on the substrate surface: DSPC-SUVs were stable on the surface, and provided extremely efficient lubrication (friction coefficient μ ≈ 10(-4)) at room temperature at pressures up to at least 18 MPa. DMPC-SUVs ruptured following adsorption, providing poor high-pressure lubrication, while DPPC-SUVs behavior was intermediate between the two. These results can be well understood in terms of the hydration-lubrication paradigm, but suggest that an earlier conjecture, that highly-efficient lubrication by PC-SUVs depended simply on their being in the SO rather than in the liquid-disordered phase, should be more nuanced. Our results indicate that the resistance of the SUVs to mechanical deformation and rupture is the dominant factor in determining their overall boundary lubrication efficiency in our system. PMID:23623226

  20. Biliary phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine profiles in sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Annika; Ehehalt, Robert; Lehmann, Wolf-Dieter; Erben, Gerhard; Weiss, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Yvonne; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Stiehl, Adolf; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Sauer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze phospholipid profiles in intrahepatic bile from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). METHODS: Intrahepatic bile specimens collected via endoscopic retrograde cholangiography from 41 patients were analyzed. Fourteen of these patients were diagnosed with PSC, 10 with SSC, 11 with choledocholithiasis or no identifiable biliary disease, and 6 with cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Bile acid, cholesterol, protein, and bilirubin contents as well as pancreas lipase activity in bile were determined by biochemical methods. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species were quantified using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Bile from all the examined patient groups showed a remarkably similar PC and LPC species composition, with only minor statistical differences. Total biliary PC concentrations were highest in controls (8030 ± 1843 μmol/L) and lowest in patients with CCC (1969 ± 981 μmol/L) (P = 0.005, controls vs SSC and CCC, respectively, P < 0.05). LPC contents in bile were overall low (4.2% ± 1.8%). Biliary LPC/PC ratios and ratios of biliary PC to bilirubin, PC to cholesterol, PC to protein, and PC to bile acids showed no intergroup differences. CONCLUSION: PC and LPC profiles being similar in patients with or without sclerosing cholangitis, these phospholipids are likely not of major pathogenetic importance in this disease group. PMID:24023488

  1. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  2. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and insulin release in rat islets of Langerhans

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Turnover of phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been demonstrated to play a role in glucose stimulation of insulin release by pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The activity of the islet CDP-choline pathway of PC synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of radiolabeled choline or {sup 32}PO{sub 4} into PC, phosphorylcholine and CDP-choline. Concurrently, insulin release was measured by radioimmunoassay to correlate insulin release and PC synthesis. Glucose concentrations greater than 8.5 mM stimulated CDP-choline pathway activity. However, measurement of PC lipid phosphorus tended to decrease, suggesting that stimulation of the CDP-choline pathway was a means of replenishing PC pools diminished by hydrolysis of PC. Inhibition of glucose oxidation by mannoheptulose or incubations under hypoxic conditions prevented stimulation of the CDP-choline pathway, while inhibition of phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) and secretion by the removal of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} potentiated the stimulation seen with glucose.

  3. Chlorophyll a triplet-state ESR in frozen phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromitsu, I.; Kevan, L.

    1988-05-19

    Photoexcited chlorophyll a (Chla) triplet state in rapidly frozen egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) vesicles is investigated at 77 K by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using light intensity modulation. The electron spin polarization (ESP) intensity is stronger for 0.2 mM Chla than for 1.0 mM Chla. The absolute values of the zero field splitting parameter, D, are 283 (+/-1) x 10/sup -4/ and 276 (+/-2) x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -1/, and the average depopulation rates of the triplet state are 0.671 +/- 0.052 and 1.054 +/- 0.036 ms/sup -1/ for 0.2 mM Chla and 1.0 mM Chla, respectively. This difference can be consistently attributed to faster triplet-state migration between adjacent Chla's at the higher 1.0 mM Chla concentration. A characteristic migration time of 2.6 ms is obtained. The ESP pattern of the Chla triplet state in the frozen EPC vesicles resembles that in polycrystals more than that in glasses. This suggests that the local environment around Chla in the vesicles is more structured than in glasses.

  4. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  5. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  6. Accelerated interleaflet transport of phosphatidylcholine molecules in membranes under deformation.

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, R M; Waugh, R E

    1996-01-01

    Biological membranes are lamellar structures composed of two leaflets capable of supporting different mechanical stresses. Stress differences between leaflets were generated during micromechanical experiments in which long thin tubes of lipid (tethers) were formed from the surfaces of giant phospholipid vesicles. A recent dynamic analysis of this experiment predicts the relaxation of local differences in leaflet stress by lateral slip between the leaflets. Differential stress may also relax by interleaflet transport of lipid molecules ("flip-flop"). In this report, we extend the former analysis to include interleaflet lipid transport. We show that transmembrane lipid flux will evidence itself as a linear increase in tether length with time after a step reduction in membrane tension. Multiple measurements were performed on 24 different vesicles composed of stearoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine plus 3% dinitrophenol-linked di-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine. These tethers all exhibited a linear phase of growth with a mean value of the rate of interlayer permeation, cp = 0.009 s-1. This corresponds to a half-time of approximately 8 min for mechanically driven interleaflet transport. This value is found to be consistent with longer times obtained for chemically driven transport if the lipids cross the membrane via transient, localized defects in the bilayer. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 PMID:8874013

  7. Susceptibility for hydroperoxide formation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y; Shibata, T; Ueki, T; Miyazawa, T

    1995-06-01

    To compare the peroxidative susceptibilities of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in liposomes, multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were prepared with equimolar L-alpha-dilinoleoyl PC (DLPC) and L-alpha-dilinoleoyl PE (DLPE), and with soya PC and soya PE having a uniform constituent fatty acids. The hydroperoxide formation at 37 degrees C in the presence of a water-soluble radical initiator was examined by chemiluminescence-high-performance liquid chromatography (CL-HPLC), and the effect of heterogeneous distribution of PC and PE on peroxidation was investigated. No difference was found between the hydroperoxidation of PC and PE in MLVs systems, except that soya PC was more susceptible to peroxidation than soya PE in the L-alpha-dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC)-based liposomes. No correlation was found between the amount of phospholipids distributed in the external leaflet of MLVs and hydroperoxide formation. This result suggested that the unsaturation of constituent fatty acids in phospholipids is more important than the difference in the polar head group of phospholipids regarding their peroxidizabilities in liposomes. PMID:7472672

  8. The labeling of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine in newborn and adult sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.; Nathanielsz, P.W.

    1981-08-01

    The labeling of the saturated phosphatidylcholine from surfactant with radiolabeled palmitic acid was characterized in seven newborn and seven adult sheep using a repetitive sampling technique. Each animal had a small cannula placed surgically in the trachea. Following the intravenous injection of (3H) palmitic acid, surfactant samples in saline were recovered from the distal airways of each animal with fine plastic catheters over a period of 10 days. The change in specific activity of the saturated phosphatidylcholine (cpm/mumol) was used to define the kinetics of secretion and then disappearance of the labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine. Labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine accumulated in a linear fashion without an apparent initial delay for 27 hr in adult and 44 hr in newborn sheep. The labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine then decayed with mean apparent biological half-life values of 45 hr and 54 hr in adult and newborn sheep, respectively. However, these half-life estimates are compromised by the long secretory phase of the labeling curves. The characteristics of the labeling of surfactant saturated phosphatidylcholine in sheep may be more representative of surfactant metabolism in large mammals than previous studies in small rodents.

  9. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  10. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia. PMID:27366754

  11. Toxicity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines in cultured human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Jaritz, Hannah; Streith, Ingo; Zenzmaier, Elfriede; Köfeler, Harald; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Schaider, Helmut; Hermetter, Albin

    2015-07-01

    The oxidized phospholipids (oxPL) 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) are generated from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine under conditions of oxidative stress. These oxPL are components of oxidized low density lipoprotein. They are cytotoxic in cells of the arterial wall thus playing an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The toxic lipid effects include inflammation and under sustained exposure apoptosis. The aim of this study was to find out whether such toxic effects, especially apoptosis, are also elicited by oxPL in melanocytic cells in order to assess their potential for therapeutic intervention. FACS analysis after staining with fluorescent markers was performed to identify the mode of lipid-induced cell death. Activation of sphingomyelinase which generates apoptotic ceramide was measured using an established fluorescence assay. Ceramide profiles were determined by mass spectrometry. We found that 50μM POVPC induce cell death in human melanoma cells isolated from different stages of tumor progression but affect primary human melanocytes to a much lesser extent. In contrast, 50μM PGPC was only apoptotic in two out of four cell lines used in this study. The toxicity of both compounds was associated with efficient lipid uptake into the tumor cells and activation of acid sphingomyelinase. In several but not all melanoma cell lines used in this study, activation of the sphingomyelin degrading enzyme correlated with an increase in the concentration of the apoptotic mediator ceramide. The individual patterns of the newly formed ceramide species were also cell line-specific. PGPC and POVPC may be considered potential drug candidates for topical skin cancer treatment. They are toxic in malignant cells. The respective oxidized phospholipids are naturally formed in the body and resistance to these compounds is not likely to occur

  12. Intermolecular interactions of lysobisphosphatidic acid with phosphatidylcholine in mixed bilayers.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Juha M; Söderlund, Tim; Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Säily, Matti; Eriksson, Ove; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2005-01-01

    Lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) can be regarded to represent a unique derivative of phosphatidylglycerol. This lipid is highly enriched in late endosomes where it can comprise up to 10-15 mol% of all lipids and in these membranes, LBPA appears to be segregated into microdomains. We studied the thermotropic behavior of pure dioleoyl-LBPA mono- and bilayers using Langmuir-lipid monolayers, electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. LBPA formed metastable, liquid-expanded monolayers at an air/buffer interface, and its compression isotherms lacked any indication for structural phase transitions. Neat LBPA formed multilamellar vesicles with no structural transitions or phase transitions between 10 and 80 degrees C at a pH range of 3.0-7.4. We then proceeded to study mixed LBPA/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers by DSC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporating increasing amounts of LBPA (up to X(LBPA) (molar fraction)=0.10) decreased the co-operativity of the main transition for DPPC, and a decrease in the main phase transition as well as pretransition temperature of DPPC was observed yet with no effect on the enthalpy of this transition. In keeping with the DSC data for DPPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)/LBPA mixed bilayers were more fluid, and no evidence for lateral phase segregation was observed. These results were confirmed using fluorescence microscopy of Langmuir-lipid films composed of POPC and LBPA up to X(LBPA)=0.50 with no evidence for lateral phase separation. As late endosomes are eminently acidic, we examined the effect of lowering pH on lateral organization of mixed PC/LBPA bilayers by DSC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Even at pH 3.0, we find no evidence of LBPA-induced microdomain formation at LBPA contents found in cellular organelles. PMID:15589226

  13. Structure and properties of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Sripada, P K; Shipley, G G

    1990-05-01

    The structural and thermotropic properties of the hydrated mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs), C(8):C(18)-PC and C(10):C(18)-PC, have been studied by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. For fully hydrated C(8):C(18)-PC, the reversible chain melting transition is observed at 9.9 degrees C (delta H = 7.3 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction at 0 degrees C (below the chain melting transition) shows a small bilayer repeat distance, d = 51.0 A, and a sharp, symmetric wide-angle reflection at 4.1 A, characteristic of a mixed interdigitated bilayer gel phase [see McIntosh, T. J., Simon, S. A., Ellington, J. C., Jr., & Porter, N. A. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 4038-4044; Hui, S. W., Mason, J. T., & Huang, C. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 5570-5577]. At 30 degrees C (above the chain melting transition), a diffuse band is observed at 4.5 A characteristic of an L alpha phase but with an increased bilayer periodicity, d = 61 A. Both the calculated lipid bilayer thickness (d1) and that determined directly from electron density profiles (dp-p) show unusual increases as a consequence of chain melting. In contrast, fully hydrated C(10):C(18)-PC shows an asymmetric endothermic transition at 11.8 degrees C. Below the chain melting transition, two lamellar phases are present, corresponding to coexisting interdigitated (d = 52.3 A) and noninterdigitated (d = 62.5 A) bilayer gel phases. The relative amounts of these phases depend upon the low-temperature incubation and/or hydration conditions, suggesting conversions, albeit kinetically complex, between metastable, and stable phases. The different behavior of C(8):C(18)-PC and C(10):C(18)-PC, as well as their positional isomers, is rationalized in terms of the molecular conformation of PC. PMID:2361142

  14. Alterations in phosphatidylcholine synthesis are associated with taxol resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbara, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    A taxol resistant variant (J7/TAX-50) of the murine macrophage-like cell line J774.2 has been developed in vitro. The LD/sub 50/ of taxol for the resistant cells is 800-fold greater than that for the parental cell line. The J7/TAX-50 cells display phenotypic traits which are associated with multidrug resistance. J7/TAX-50 is unstably resistant and must be maintained in the presence of taxol. Cells grown in the absence of taxol for 30 days revert to drug sensitivity, and the membrane phosphoglycoprotein is lost. In contrast, the return to a normal level of drug accumulation is prolonged and requires over 8 months of growth in the absence of taxol. To characterize further the parental, resistant and revertant cell lines, the major lipids have been analyzed by 2D-chromatography and HPLC. The steady-state level of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in J7/TAX-50 is greater than in the parental or revertant cell lines. Pulse-chase studies performed with /sup 14/C-choline or /sup 32/P-orthophosphate demonstrated an increase in the turnover of PC in J7/TAX-50. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the composition of the major phospholipids indicated that fatty acids attached to the sn1- and 2-positions of PC are the same in the resistant and parental cell lines. These studies suggest that an increased level of PC in the membrane may be related to drug resistance and responsible for the prolonged decrease in steady-state drug association in J7/TAX-50 grown in the absence of taxol.

  15. Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Winther, Bjørn; Hoem, Nils; Berge, Kjetil; Reubsaet, Léon

    2011-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the phospholipids in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba, an emerging source for human nutritional supplements. The study was carried out in order to map the species of the choline-containing phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and lyso-phosphatidylcholine. In addition, the prevalent phosphatidylcholine class was quantified and the results compared with prior analysis. The qualification was performed with separation on a reverse phase chromatography column, while the quantification was obtained with class separation on a normal phase chromatography column. An Orbitrap system was used for the detection, and pulsed-Q dissociation fragmentation was utilized for the identification of the species. An asymmetrical exclusion list was applied for detection of phospholipid species of lower concentration, significantly improving the number of species observed. A total of 69 choline-containing phospholipids were detected, whereof 60 phosphatidylcholine substances, among others seven with probable omega-3 fatty acids in both sn-1 and sn-2. The phosphatidylcholine concentration was estimated to be 34 ± 5 g/100 g oil (n = 5). These results confirm the complexity of the phospholipid composition of krill oil, and the presence of long chained, heavily unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:20848234

  16. Effects of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine degradation on cyclodextrin-mediated cholesterol efflux in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ohvo, H; Olsio, C; Slotte, J P

    1997-11-15

    The hydrolysis of plasma membrane sphingomyelin is known to dramatically alter cellular cholesterol homeostasis in different ways, whereas the degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine has much less or no effects on cell cholesterol homeostasis [Pörn, Ares, Slotte, J. Lipid Res. 34 (1993) 1385-1392]. In this study, we used an efficient extracellular cholesterol acceptor (cyclodextrin) and determined the extent of cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts in which plasma membrane sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine was degraded. Treatment of cells with sphingomyelinase reduced the cell sphingomyelin content by about 76% (about 13 nmol SM degraded), and dramatically increased the desorption of [3H]cholesterol from the plasma membrane to 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The corresponding hydrolysis of cell surface phosphatidylcholine (about 12% reduction of the cellular phosphatidylcholine content, corresponding to about 12 nmol degraded PC) had almost no effect on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux. The stimulatory effect of sphingomyelin degradation on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux was reversible, since rates of [3H]cholesterol efflux dropped back to control levels when cells (in this case baby hamster kidney cells) were allowed to restore their sphingomyelin content by re-synthesis in the absence of sphingomyelinase. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that plasma membrane sphingomyelin markedly affected the rate of cholesterol transfer between cells and an extracellular acceptor (i.e., cyclodextrin), whereas the effect of phosphatidylcholine on cholesterol efflux was much smaller. PMID:9421186

  17. Evidence for superlattice arrangements in fluid phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K H; Ruonala, M; Virtanen, J; Somerharju, P

    1997-01-01

    Recently, evidence for cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules to adapt superlattice arrangements in fluid lipid bilayers has been presented. Whether superlattice arrangements exist in other biologically relevant lipid membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PC, is still speculative. In this study, we have examined the physical properties of fluid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PE (POPE) binary mixtures as a function of the POPE mole fraction (X(PE)) using fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. At 30 degrees C, i.e., above the Tm of POPE and POPC, deviations, or dips, as well as local data scattering in the excimer-to-monomer fluorescence intensity ratio of intramolecular excimer forming dipyrenylphosphatidylcholine probe in POPE/POPC mixtures were detected at X(PE) approximately 0.04, 0.11, 0.16, 0.26, 0.33, 0.51, 0.66, 0.75, 0.82, 0.91, and 0.94. The above critical values of X(PE) coincide (within +/-0.03) with the critical mole fractions X(HX,PE) or X(R,PE) predicted by a headgroup superlattice model, which assumes that the lipid headgroups form hexagonal or rectangular superlattice, respectively, in the bilayer. Other spectroscopic data, generalized polarization of Laurdan and infrared carbonyl and phosphate stretching frequency, were also collected. Similar agreements between some of the observed critical values of X(PE) from these data and the X(HX,PE) or X(R,PE) values were also found. However, all techniques yielded critical values of X(PE) (e.g., 0.42 and 0.58) that cannot be explained by the present headgroup superlattice model. The effective cross-sectional area of the PE headgroup is smaller than that of the acyl chains. Hence, the relief of "packing frustration" of PE in the presence of PC (larger headgroup than PE) may be one of the major mechanisms in driving the PE and PC components to superlattice-like lateral distributions in the bilayer. We propose that headgroup superlattices may

  18. The interaction of phosphatidylcholine bilayers with Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Goñi, F M; Urbaneja, M A; Arrondo, J L; Alonso, A; Durrani, A A; Chapman, D

    1986-11-01

    The interaction of multilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has been studied under equilibrium conditions, specially in the sub-lytic range of surfactant concentrations. Equilibrium was achieved in less than 24 h. Estimations of detergent binding to bilayers, using [3H]Triton X-100, indicate that the amphiphile is incorporated even at very low concentrations (below its critical micellar concentration); a dramatic increase in the amount of bound Triton X-100 occurs at detergent concentrations just below those producing membrane solubilization. Solubilization occurs at phospholipid/detergent molar ratios near 0.65 irrespective of lipid concentration. The perturbation produced by the surfactant in the phospholipid bilayer has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, NMR and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. At low detergent concentration (lipid/detergent molar ratios above 3), a reduction in 2H-NMR quadrupolar splitting occurs, suggesting a decrease in the static order of the acyl chains; the same effect is detected by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the form of blue shifts of the methylene stretching vibration bands. Simultaneously, the enthalpy variation of the main phospholipid phase transition is decreased by about a third with respect to its value in the pure lipid/water system. For phospholipid/detergent molar ratios between 3 and 1, the decrease in lipid static order does not proceed any further; rather an increase in fluidity is observed, characterized by a marked decrease in the midpoint transition temperature of the gel-to-fluid phospholipid transition. At the same time an isotropic component is apparent in both 31P-NMR and 2H-NMR spectra, and a new low-temperature endotherm is detected in differential scanning calorimetric traces. When phospholipid and Triton X-100 are present at equimolar ratios some bilayer structure persists, as judged from calorimetric observations, but NMR reveals

  19. Properties of ganglioside GM1 in phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Reed, R A; Shipley, G G

    1996-03-01

    Gangliosides have been shown to function as cell surface receptors, as well as participating in cell growth, differentiation, and transformation. In spite of their multiple biological functions, relatively little is known about their structure and physical properties in membrane systems. The thermotropic and structural properties of ganglioside GM1 alone and in a binary system with 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. By DSC hydrated GM1 undergoes a broad endothermic transition TM = 26 degrees C (delta H = 1.7 kcal/mol GM1). X-ray diffraction below (-2 degrees C) and above (51 degrees C) this transition indicates a micellar structure with changes occurring only in the wide angle region of the diffraction pattern (relatively sharp reflection at 1/4.12 A-1 at -2 degrees C; more diffuse reflection at 1/4.41 A-1 at 51 degrees C). In hydrated binary mixtures with DPPC, incorporation of GM1 (0-30 mol%; zone 1) decreases the enthalpy of the DPPC pretransition at low molar compositions while increasing the TM of both the pre- and main transitions (limiting values, 39 and 44 degrees C, respectively). X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of a single bilayer gel phase in zone 1 that can undergo chain melting to an L alpha bilayer phase. A detailed hydration study of GM1 (5.7 mol %)/DPPC indicated a conversion of the DPPC bilayer gel phase to an infinite swelling system in zone 1 due to the presence of the negatively charged sialic acid moiety of GM1. At 30-61 mol % GM1 (zone 2), two calorimetric transitions are observed at 44 and 47 degrees C, suggesting the presence of two phases. The lower transition reflects the bilayer gel --> L alpha transition (zone 1), whereas the upper transition appears to be a consequence of the formation of a nonbilayer, micellar or hexagonal phase, although the structure of this phase has not been defined by x-ray diffraction. At > 61 mol % GM

  20. A Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Mitochondrial Structural Abnormalities Caused by Defective De Novo Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Ohkuma, Aya; Talim, Beril; Karahashi, Minako; Koumura, Tomoko; Aoyama, Chieko; Kurihara, Mana; Quinlivan, Ros; Sewry, Caroline; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Goto, Kanako; Koksal, Burcu; Kale, Gulsev; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Noguchi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Nonaka, Ikuya; Sher, Roger B.; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasuhito; Cox, Gregory A.; Topaloglu, Haluk; Nishino, Ichizo

    2011-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of inherited muscle diseases characterized clinically by muscle weakness and hypotonia in early infancy. A number of genes harboring causative mutations have been identified, but several cases of congenital muscular dystrophy remain molecularly unresolved. We examined 15 individuals with a congenital muscular dystrophy characterized by early-onset muscle wasting, mental retardation, and peculiar enlarged mitochondria that are prevalent toward the periphery of the fibers but are sparse in the center on muscle biopsy, and we have identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding choline kinase beta (CHKB). This is the first enzymatic step in a biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotes. In muscle of three affected individuals with nonsense mutations, choline kinase activities were undetectable, and phosphatidylcholine levels were decreased. We identified the human disease caused by disruption of a phospholipid de novo biosynthetic pathway, demonstrating the pivotal role of phosphatidylcholine in muscle and brain. PMID:21665002

  1. Structure and Function of Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP)/StarD2

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno,K.; Wu, M.; Scapa, E.; Roderick, S.; Cohen, D.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a highly specific soluble lipid binding protein that transfers phosphatidylcholine between membranes in vitro. PC-TP is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related transfer (START) domain superfamily. Although its biochemical properties and structure are well characterized, the functions of PC-TP in vivo remain incompletely understood. Studies of mice with homozygous disruption of the Pctp gene have largely refuted the hypotheses that this protein participates in the hepatocellular selection and transport of biliary phospholipids, in the production of lung surfactant, in leukotriene biosynthesis and in cellular phosphatidylcholine metabolism. Nevertheless, Pctp-/- mice exhibit interesting defects in lipid homeostasis, the understanding of which should elucidate the biological functions of PC-TP.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphatidylcholine Analogues Containing Monoterpene Acids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Niezgoda, Natalia; Gładkowski, Witold; Czarnecka, Marta; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of novel phosphatidylcholines with geranic and citronellic acids in sn-1 and sn-2 positions is described. The structured phospholipids were obtained in high yields (59–87%) and evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines of different origin: MV4-11, A-549, MCF-7, LOVO, LOVO/DX, HepG2 and also towards non-cancer cell line BALB/3T3 (normal mice fibroblasts). The phosphatidylcholines modified with monoterpene acid showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity than free monoterpene acids. The highest activity was observed for the terpene-phospholipids containing the isoprenoid acids in sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid in sn-2. PMID:27310666

  3. Arsenic-Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar.

    PubMed

    Viczek, Sandra A; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-04-18

    A new group of arsenolipids based on cell-membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic-containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic-containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non-arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids. PMID:26996517

  4. Unsaturated phosphatidylcholines lining on the surface of cartilage and its possible physiological roles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Crawford, Ross W; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence has strongly indicated that surface-active phospholipid (SAPL), or surfactant, lines the surface of cartilage and serves as a lubricating agent. Previous clinical study showed that a saturated phosphatidylcholine (SPC), dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), was effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, however recent studies suggested that the dominant SAPL species at some sites outside the lung are not SPC, rather, are unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (USPC). Some of these USPC have been proven to be good boundary lubricants by our previous study, implicating their possible important physiological roles in joint if their existence can be confirmed. So far, no study has been conducted to identify the whole molecule species of different phosphatidylcholine (PC) classes on the surface of cartilage. In this study we identified the dominant PC molecule species on the surface of cartilage. We also confirmed that some of these PC species possess a property of semipermeability. Methods HPLC was used to analyse the PC profile of bovine cartilage samples and comparisons of DPPC and USPC were carried out through semipermeability tests. Results It was confirmed that USPC are the dominant SAPL species on the surface of cartilage. In particular, they are Dilinoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC), Palmitoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, (PLPC), Palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and Stearoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (SLPC). The relative content of DPPC (a SPC) was only 8%. Two USPC, PLPC and POPC, were capable of generating osmotic pressure that is equivalent to that by DPPC. Conclusion The results from the current study confirm vigorously that USPC is the endogenous species inside the joint as against DPPC thereby confirming once again that USPC, and not SPC, characterizes the PC species distribution at non-lung sites of the body. USPC not only has better anti-friction and lubrication properties than DPPC, they also possess a level of

  5. Arsenic‐Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar

    PubMed Central

    Viczek, Sandra A.; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new group of arsenolipids based on cell‐membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic‐containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic‐containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non‐arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids.

  6. Arsenic‐Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar

    PubMed Central

    Viczek, Sandra A.; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new group of arsenolipids based on cell‐membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic‐containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic‐containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non‐arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids. PMID:26996517

  7. Thermodynamic, thermomechanical, and structural properties of a hydrated asymmetric phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, T; Caffrey, M

    1993-01-01

    1-Behenyl-2-lauryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (22/12 PC) belongs to a unique group of phospholipids in which the molecule has one acyl chain almost twice as long as the other. The temperature-composition phase diagram for this lipid in the range of 25-65 degrees C, and 0 to 84.3% (w/w) water has been constructed by using the isoplethal method in the heating direction and x-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure characterization. At water contents between 10.3 and 34% (w/w) and at temperatures below 43 degrees C, a single mixed interdigitated lamellar gel phase (Lm beta, [symbol: see text]) of the type described by Hui et al. (1984. Biochemistry. 23:5570-5577) and McIntosh et al. (1984. Biochemistry. 23:4038-4044) was found. A second phase consisting of bulk aqueous solution coexists with the Lm beta phase at hydration levels above 34% (w/w) water in the temperature range between 25 and 43 degrees C. Above 43 degrees C, a partially interdigitated lamellar liquid crystalline (Lp alpha) phase ([symbol: see text]) is seen in the water concentration range extending from 0 to 84.3% (w/w). The pure Lp alpha phase is found below 43% (w/w) water, while coexistence of the Lp alpha phase and the bulk aqueous solution is observed above this water concentration which marks the hydration boundary. Interestingly, the latter boundary for both Lm beta and Lp alpha phases is nearly vertical in the temperature range studied. Furthermore, the lamellar chain-melting transition temperature appears to be relatively insensitive to hydration in the range 0-85% (w/w) water. We have confirmed the identify of the Lm beta phase by constructing a 5.7-A resolution electron density profile on oriented samples by the swelling method. Temperature-induced chain melting effects an increase in lipid bilayer thickness suggesting that the Lp alpha phase has chains packed in the partially as opposed to the mixed interdigitated configuration. Unlike the symmetric phosphatidylcholines a

  8. Determination of Oxidized Phosphatidylcholines by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Pia; Pötz, Sandra; Brunner, Martina; Trötzmüller, Martin; Fauland, Alexander; Triebl, Alexander; Hartler, Jürgen; Lankmayr, Ernst; Köfeler, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach for analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines by an Orbitrap Fourier Transform mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. This method depends on three selectivity criteria for separation and identification: retention time, exact mass at a resolution of 100,000 and collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra in a linear ion trap. The process of chromatography development showed the best separation properties with a silica-based Kinetex column. This type of chromatography was able to separate all major lipid classes expected in mammalian samples, yielding increased sensitivity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines over reversed phase chromatography. Identification of molecular species was achieved by exact mass on intact molecular ions and CID tandem mass spectra containing characteristic fragments. Due to a lack of commercially available standards, method development was performed with copper induced oxidation products of palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine, which resulted in a plethora of lipid species oxidized at the arachidonoyl moiety. Validation of the method was done with copper oxidized human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) prepared by ultracentrifugation. In these LDL samples we could identify 46 oxidized molecular phosphatidylcholine species out of 99 possible candidates. PMID:25874761

  9. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim in carrying out this analysis, was to assess the predictive value of plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) DHA content, DHA intake, and fish intake for the risk of developing dementia in the Framingham Heart Study. A cohort of 899 subjects free of dementia was followed to assess the onset of incid...

  10. The stereochemical configuration of lysosomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine: comparison with lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Joutti, A; Renkonen, O

    1979-02-01

    Lysosomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were isolated from liver of rats treated with Triton WR 1339 and from cultured BHK-cells. Stereochemical analysis proved that these lipids, in contrast to the lysosomal lysobisphosphatidic acid, were derivatives of sn-glycero-3-phosphate. PMID:438662

  11. Biosynthetic preparation of selectively deuterated phosphatidylcholine in genetically modified Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Selma; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Schiller, Jürgen; Marek, Magdalena; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Arleth, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes and one of the most commonly used phospholipids for reconstitution of membrane proteins into carrier systems such as lipid vesicles, micelles and nanodiscs. Selectively deuterated versions of this lipid have many applications, especially in structural studies using techniques such as NMR, neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering. Here we present a comprehensive study of selective deuteration of phosphatidylcholine through biosynthesis in a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli. By carefully tuning the deuteration level in E. coli growth media and varying the deuteration of supplemented carbon sources, we show that it is possible to achieve a controlled deuteration for three distinct parts of the PC lipid molecule, namely the (a) lipid head group, (b) glycerol backbone and (c) fatty acyl tail. This biosynthetic approach paves the way for the synthesis of specifically deuterated, physiologically relevant phospholipid species which remain difficult to obtain through standard chemical synthesis. PMID:25301578

  12. Chains, Sheets and Droplets: Assemblies of Hydrophobic Gold Nanocrystals with Saturated Phosphatidylcholine Lipid and Squalene

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Michael R.; Bosoy, Christian; Yu, Yixuan; Korgel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Assemblies of saturated 1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine lipid and hydrophobic dodecanethiol-capped 1.8 nm diameter gold nanocrystals were studied as a function of lipid chain length and the addition of the naturally-occurring oil, squalene. The gold nanocrystals formed various lipid-stabilized agglomerates, sometimes fusing with lipid vesicle bilayers. The nanocrystal assembly structure depended on the hydrocarbon chain length of the lipid fatty acids. Lipid with the shortest fatty acid length studied, dilauroyl-phosphatidylcholine, created extended chains of gold nanocrystals. Lipid with slightly longer fatty acid chains created planar sheets of nanocrystals. Further increases of the fatty acid chain length led to spherical agglomerates. The inclusion of squalene led to lipid- and nanocrystal-coated oil droplets. PMID:23033891

  13. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and ethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Prud'homme, M.P.; Moore, T.S. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by castor bean endosperm have been studied. Endosperm halves were incubated with tracer concentrations of (2-{sup 14}C) ethanolamine or ({sup 14}C)S-adenosyl-L-methionine for 10 or 30 minutes, respectively. The kinetics of appearance were followed in methyl- and dimethylethanolamine, choline, and their phospho-, CDP-, and phosphatidyl-derivatives. Methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine rapidly labeled the three methylated-ethanolamine derivatives. Radioactivity then decreased in these compounds and accumulated in phosphatidylcholine. The initial methylation utilized ethanolamine as a substrate to form methyl-ethanolamine, which was partially converted to dimethyl-ethanolamine, choline, and phosphomethylethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occurred at both phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Experiments with ethanolamine confirmed these results.

  14. ESR studies on the orientation of cholesteryl ester in phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed

    Grover, A K; Forrest, B J; Buchinski, R K; Cushley, R J

    1979-01-19

    The alignment of cholesteryl esters in multilayer phosphatidylcholine membranes was investigated using two spin-labelled cholesteryl esters: 10 : 3 ester (I) and 1 : 14 ester (II). The nitroxide label of I is aligned in the membrane with a very large angle of tilt (47 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees) with respect to the normal to the membrane surface; II does not show such a tilt. I gives spectra corresponding to immobilized label while II gives nearly isotropic spectra. Ascorbate treatment of the multilayers shows that the labels in I and II are not present at the phosphatidylcholine-water interphase. The data supports a 'horseshoe' configuration for the cholesteryl ester in the bilayer, with both the fatty acid chain and the cholesteryl moiety extending deep into the hydrophobic region of the membrane and with the ester linkage near the surface. PMID:215228

  15. Altered levels of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins in peritoneal fluid from ovarian endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vouk, Katja; Ribič-Pucelj, Martina; Adamski, Jerzy; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a complex, polygenic, and estrogen-dependent disease that affects 6% to 10% of women of reproductive age, and 30% to 50% of women with infertility and/or pelvic pain. Surgical diagnosis of endometriosis is still the gold standard, as there are currently no diagnostic biomarkers available. Due to the invasive diagnostics, it can take up to 11 years before affected women are diagnosed and receive the appropriate treatment. We performed a targeted metabolomics study to search for potential semi-invasive biomarkers in peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients. Our case-control study comprised 29 ovarian endometriosis patients and 36 healthy control women. The 148 metabolites included acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, which were quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The strength of association between the metabolites and the metabolite ratios and disease was assessed using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The best combination of biomarkers was then selected by performing step-wise logistic regression. Our analysis reveals significantly decreased concentrations of 10 metabolites, of carnitine and acylcarnitines (C0, C8:1, C6C4:1 DC, C10:1), phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C38:3, PC aa C38:4, PC aa C40:4, PC aa C40:5), and sphingomyelins (SM C16:1, SM C18:1), and 125 significantly altered metabolite ratios in patients versus control women. The best model includes two ratios: a carnitine to a phosphatidylcholine (C0/PC ae C36:0); and between two phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C30:0/PC ae C32:2). When adjusted for age, this provides sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 94.4%, with AUC of 0.944. Our study supports the importance of carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin metabolites in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and confirms the potential for the combination of individual metabolite ratios to provide biomarkers for semi-invasive diagnostics. PMID:26921767

  16. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy. PMID:27418568

  17. PARTITIONING OF PERFLUOROOCTANOATE INTO PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE BILAYERS IS CHAIN LENGTH-INDEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Bothun, Geoffrey D.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The chain length dependence of the interaction of PFOA, a persistent environmental contaminant, with dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) was investigated using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). PFOA caused a linear depression of the main phase transition temperature Tm while increasing the width of the phase transition of all three phosphatidylcholines. Although PFOA’s effect on the on Tm and the transition width decreased in the order DMPC > DPPC > DSPC, its relative effect on the phase behavior was largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine. PFOA caused swelling of DMPC but not DPPC and DSPC liposomes at 37°C in the DLS experiments, which suggests that PFOA partitions more readily into bilayers in the fluid phase. These findings suggest that PFOA’s effect on the phase behavior of phosphatidylcholines depends on the cooperativity and state (i.e., gel versus liquid phase) of the membrane. DLS experiments are also consistent with partial liposome solubilization at PFOA/lipid molar ratios > 1, which suggests the formation of mixed PFOA-lipid micelles. PMID:20096277

  18. X-ray characterization of self-assembled long-chain phosphatidylcholine/bile salt/silica mesostructured films with nanoscale homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Darren R; Garcia, Fred L; Jiang, Zhang; Strzalka, Joseph; Wang, Jin; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2011-02-14

    A bile salt (sodium taurodeoxycholate, NaTDC) was used to prevent phase separation between silica and lipid in self-assembled long-chain diacyl phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) films. Phase diagrams for NaTDC/didecanoyl phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) and NaTDC/egg phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) films were investigated through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at a synchrotron source. PMID:21135947

  19. Cholesterol in condensed and fluid phosphatidylcholine monolayers studied by epifluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, L A; Nag, K; Davis, P J; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effect of cholesterol on monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1 -palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) at 21 +/- 2 degrees C using 1 mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2-1, 3-benzoxadizole-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl]phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) as a fluorophore. Up to 30 mol% cholesterol in DPPC monolayers decreased the amounts of probe-excluded liquid-condensed (LC) phase at all surface pressures (pi), but did not effect the monolayers of POPC, which remained in the liquid-expanded (LE) phase at all pi. At low pi (2-5 mN/m), 10 mol% or more cholesterol in DPPC induced a lateral phase separation into dark probe-excluded and light probe-rich regions. In POPC monolayers, phase separation was observed at low pi when > or =40 mol% or more cholesterol was present. The lateral phase separation observed with increased cholesterol concentrations in these lipid monolayers may be a result of the segregation of cholesterol-rich domains in ordered fluid phases that preferentially exclude the fluorescent probe. With increasing pi, monolayers could be transformed from a heterogeneous dark and light appearance into a homogeneous fluorescent phase, in a manner that was dependent on pi and cholesterol content. The packing density of the acyl chains may be a determinant in the interaction of cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine (PC), because the transformations in monolayer surface texture were observed in phospholipid (PL)/sterol mixtures having similar molecular areas. At high pi (41 mN/m), elongated crystal-like structures were observed in monolayers containing 80-100 mol% cholesterol, and these structures grew in size when the monolayers were compressed after collapse. This observation could be associated with the segregation and crystallization of cholesterol after monolayer collapse. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9168032

  20. Preparation of betulinic acid nanoemulsions stabilized by ω-3 enriched phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Garduño, A; Ochoa Flores, A A; Serrano-Niño, J C; Martínez-Sanchez, C E; Beristain, C I; García, H S

    2015-05-01

    Bioactive compounds such as ω-3 fatty acids and terpenes, have been associated with beneficial health effects; however, their solubility in the gastrointestinal tract and its bioavailability in the body are low. Nanoemulsions offer a viable alternative to disperse lipophilic compounds and improve their dissolution, permeation, absorption and bioavailability. Enzyme modified phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ω-3 fatty acids was used as emulsifier to stabilize oil-in-water nanoemulsions generated using ultrasound device. These systems were used as carriers of betulinic acid, which has reported anti-carcinogenic activity. Phospholipase-catalyzed modification of PC allowed the incorporation of 50 mol% of ω-3 fatty acids. Formation variables such as oil type and ultrasound amplitude had effects on nanoemulsion characteristics. Incorporation of betulinic acid affected globule size; however, betulinic acid nanoemulsions below 200 nm could be prepared. The conditions under which betulinic acid nanoemulsions were obtained using the modified phosphatidylcholine with the smaller globule size (91 nm) were 10% PC, 25% glycerol, medium chain oil and 30% amplitude for 12 min in the sonicator. Storage temperature had an effect on the stability of the nanoemulsions, at 5°C we observed the smallest growth in globule size. The use of olive oil decreased the globule size growth during storage of the nanoemulsion stabilized with modified phosphatidylcholine, although globule size obtained was greater than 200 nm. Medium pH had a significant effect on the nanoemulsions; alkaline pH values improved storage stability. These results provide useful information for using this type of carrier system on the formulation of products in the pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:25572417

  1. A Presurgical Study of Oral Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine in Patients with Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Puccio, Antonella; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    Silybin-phosphatidylcholine is an orally bioavailable complex of silybin, a polyphenolic flavonolignan derived from milk thistle, endowed with potential anticancer activity in preclinical models. The purpose of this window of opportunity trial was to determine, for the first time in early breast cancer patients, the breast tissue distribution of silybin. Twelve breast cancer patients received silybin-phosphatidylcholine, 2.8 g daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. Silybin levels were measured before (SIL) and after (TOT-SIL) enzymatic hydrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS in biologic samples (plasma, urine, breast cancer, and surrounding normal tissue). Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. All patients were fully compliant and completed the treatment program. No toxicity was observed. SIL and TOT-SIL were undetectable in baseline samples. Despite a high between-subject variability, repeated administration of Siliphos achieved levels of TOT-SIL of 31,121 to 7,654 ng/mL in the plasma and up to 1,375 ng/g in breast cancer tissue. SIL concentrations ranged from 10,861 to 1,818 ng/mL in plasma and up to 177 ng/g in breast cancer tissue. Median TOT-SIL concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (P = 0.018). No significant change in either blood levels of IGF-I and nitric oxide or Ki-67 in tumors was noted. Silybin-phosphatidylcholine, taken orally, can deliver high blood concentrations of silybin, which selectively accumulates in breast tumor tissue. These findings provide the basis for a future phase II biomarker trial in breast cancer prevention. PMID:26526990

  2. Metabolism and cytotoxic effects of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuuri; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Tatewaki, Naoto; Mizuochi, Shunsuke; Ito, Junya; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nishida, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-03-20

    In this study, we investigated cellular uptake and metabolism of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and then evaluated whether PCOOH or its metabolites cause pathophysiological effects such as cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Although we found that most PCOOH was reduced to PC hydroxide in HepG2 cells, the remaining PCOOH caused cytotoxic effects that may be mediated through an unusual apoptosis pathway. These results will enhance our fundamental understanding of how PCOOH, which is present in oxidized low density lipoproteins, is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25704087

  3. The interaction of fetuin with phosphatidylcholine monolayers. Characterization of a lipoprotein membrane system suitable for the attachment of myxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Tiffany, J. M.; Blough, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. An artificial membrane system was formed by spreading at air/water and oil/water interfaces, by using phosphatidylcholine and the glycoprotein fetuin (mol.wt. 48400). 2. The plot of increase of interfacial pressure against amount of protein added beneath a monomolecular film of phosphatidylcholine showed two discontinuities, corresponding to the completion of two distinct layers of protein: (a) largely denatured and closely associated with the polar head groups of phosphatidylcholine, possibly with penetration of non-polar protein groups between the phosphatidylcholine molecules and (b) an additional adsorbed layer of substantially native fetuin in either a close-packed or open-lattice array. A more compactly organized membrane was apparently formed at pH7.4 with 1mm-Mg2+ in the aqueous phase than without Mg2+; at 15mm-Mg2+, more random adsorption of protein appeared to take place. Qualitatively similar results were obtained at pH5.1 with 1mm-Mg2+. Closer initial packing of the phosphatidylcholine layer decreased both the magnitude of the interfacial pressure change and the amounts of protein bound in the two layers. 3. The amount of N-acetylneuraminic acid released by neuraminidase (EC 3.2.1.18) in the subphase was measured at pH5.1; a mean distribution of 9.7×1013 residues/cm2 was calculated for the completed second protein layer. PMID:5420053

  4. Seasonal variation of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides in blood of sweet smelt Plecoglossus altivelis.

    PubMed

    Kaewsrithong, J; Ushio, H; Ohshima, T

    2001-08-01

    Sweet smelt was reared at two fishery experimental stations for 5 months from June to October. Every 2 weeks blood was collected from the caudal vessels and, subsequently, the phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide contents and the fatty acid compositions in the blood were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The seasonal variation of the contents of accumulated hydroperoxides and fatty acids in the sweet smelt blood were observed in both experimental stations. Sweet smelt started performance of cucumber-like or watermelon-like aroma in the middle of July and the aroma was enhanced in August. The content of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides and the amount of total fatty acid in the fish blood, in terms of possible precursors of volatile compounds, were also extremely high in the same period. According to lipid peroxidation mechanisms, the strong characteristic aroma of sweet smelt during July to August might be due to the high contents of accumulated lipid hydroperoxides and polyunsaturated fatty acids in their tissues. PMID:11470442

  5. Lipidomic profiling in Crohn's disease: Abnormalities in phosphatidylinositols, with preservation of ceramide, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine composition

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Gavin W.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Han, Xianlin; Koster, Grielof; Bielawski, Jacek; Goss, Victoria; Smith, Philip J.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Vega, Roser; Bloom, Stuart L.; Walker, Ann P.; Postle, Anthony D.; Segal, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition largely affecting the terminal ileum and large bowel. A contributing cause is the failure of an adequate acute inflammatory response as a result of impaired secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. This defective secretion arises from aberrant vesicle trafficking, misdirecting the cytokines to lysosomal degradation. Aberrant intestinal permeability is also well-established in Crohn's disease. Both the disordered vesicle trafficking and increased bowel permeability could result from abnormal lipid composition. We thus measured the sphingo- and phospholipid composition of macrophages, using mass spectrometry and stable isotope labelling approaches. Stimulation of macrophages with heat-killed Escherichia coli resulted in three main changes; a significant reduction in the amount of individual ceramide species, an altered composition of phosphatidylcholine, and an increased rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in macrophages. These changes were observed in macrophages from both healthy control individuals and patients with Crohn's disease. The only difference detected between control and Crohn's disease macrophages was a reduced proportion of newly-synthesised phosphatidylinositol 16:0/18:1 over a defined time period. Shotgun lipidomics analysis of macroscopically non-inflamed ileal biopsies showed a significant decrease in this same lipid species with overall preservation of sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol composition. PMID:22728312

  6. Mitogenic Effects of Phosphatidylcholine Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gándola, Yamila B.; Pérez, Sebastián E.; Irene, Pablo E.; Sotelo, Ana I.; Miquet, Johanna G.; Corradi, Gerardo R.; Carlucci, Adriana M.; Gonzalez, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Lecithins, mainly composed of the phospholipids phosphatidylcholines (PC), have many different uses in the pharmaceutical and clinical field. PC are involved in structural and biological functions as membrane trafficking processes and cellular signaling. Considering the increasing applications of lecithin-based nanosystems for the delivery of therapeutic agents, the aim of the present work was to determine the effects of phosphatidylcholine nanoparticles over breast cancer cellular proliferation and signaling. PC dispersions at 0.01 and 0.1% (w/v) prepared in buffer pH 7.0 and 5.0 were studied in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Neutral 0.1% PC-derived nanoparticles induced the activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, increased cell viability and induced a 1.2 fold raise in proliferation. These biological effects correlated with the increase of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) content and its altered cellular localization. Results suggest that nanoparticles derived from PC dispersion prepared in buffer pH 7.0 may induce physicochemical changes in the plasma membrane of cancer cells which may affect EGFR cellular localization and/or activity, increasing activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway and inducing proliferation. Results from the present study suggest that possible biological effects of delivery systems based on lecithin nanoparticles should be taken into account in pharmaceutical formulation design. PMID:24772432

  7. Refined OPLS all-atom force field for saturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers at full hydration.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Arkadiusz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Cramariuc, Oana; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    We report parametrization of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the framework of the Optimized Parameters for Liquid Simulations all-atom (OPLS-AA) force field. We chose DPPC as it is one of the most studied phospholipid species and thus has plenty of experimental data necessary for model validation, and it is also one of the highly important and abundant lipid types, e.g., in lung surfactant. Overall, PCs have not been previously parametrized in the OPLS-AA force field; thus, there is a need to derive its bonding and nonbonding parameters for both the polar and nonpolar parts of the molecule. In the present study, we determined the parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties and in the acyl chains, as well the partial atomic charges. In these calculations, we used three methods: (1) Hartree-Fock (HF), (2) second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and (3) density functional theory (DFT). We also tested the effect of the polar environment by using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and for acyl chains the van der Waals parameters were also adjusted. In effect, six parameter sets were generated and tested on a DPPC bilayer. Out of these six sets, only one was found to be able to satisfactorily reproduce experimental data for the lipid bilayer. The successful DPPC model was obtained from MP2 calculations in an implicit polar environment (PCM). PMID:24745688

  8. Diacylglycerol production induced by growth hormone in Ob1771 preadipocytes arises from phosphatidylcholine breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Catalioto, R.M.; Ailhaud, G.; Negrel, R. )

    1990-12-31

    Growth Hormone has recently been shown to stimulate the formation of diacylglycerol in Ob1771 mouse preadipocyte cells without increasing inositol lipid turnover. Addition of growth hormone to Ob1771 cells prelabelled with ({sup 3}H)glycerol or ({sup 3}H)choline led to a rapid, transient and stoechiometric formation of labelled diacylglycerol and phosphocholine, respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the level of choline and phosphatidic acid whereas the release of water-soluble metabolites in ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine prelabelled cells exposed to growth hormone was hardly detectable. Stimulation by growth hormone of cells prelabelled with (2-palmitoyl 9, 10 ({sup 3}H))phosphatidylcholine also induced the production of labelled diacyglycerol. Pertussis toxin abolished both diacylglycerol and phosphocholine formation induced by growth hormone. It is concluded that growth hormone mediates diacylglycerol production in Ob1771 cells by means of phosphatidylcholine breakdown involving a phospholipase C which is likely coupled to the growth hormone receptor via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein.

  9. Persistence of phase coexistence in disaturated phosphatidylcholine monolayers at high surface pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, J M; Putz, G; Hall, S B

    1999-01-01

    Prior reports that the coexistence of the liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condensed (LC) phases in phospholipid monolayers terminates in a critical point have been compromised by experimental difficulties with Langmuir troughs at high surface pressures and temperatures. The studies reported here used the continuous interface of a captive bubble to minimize these problems during measurements of the phase behavior for monolayers containing the phosphatidylcholines with the four different possible combinations of palmitoyl and/or myristoyl acyl residues. Isothermal compression produced surface pressure-area curves for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that were indistinguishable from previously published data obtained with Langmuir troughs. During isobaric heating, a steep increase in molecular area corresponding to the main LC-LE phase transition persisted for all four compounds to 45 mN/m, at which collapse of the LE phase first occurred. No other discontinuities to suggest other phase transitions were apparent. Isobars for DPPC at higher pressures were complicated by collapse of the monolayer, but continued to show evidence up to 65 mN/m for at least the onset of the LC-LE transition. The persistence of the main phase transition to high surface pressures suggests that a critical point for these monolayers of disaturated phospholipids is either nonexistent or inaccessible at an air-water interface. PMID:10585934

  10. Persistence of phase coexistence in disaturated phosphatidylcholine monolayers at high surface pressures.

    PubMed

    Crane, J M; Putz, G; Hall, S B

    1999-12-01

    Prior reports that the coexistence of the liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condensed (LC) phases in phospholipid monolayers terminates in a critical point have been compromised by experimental difficulties with Langmuir troughs at high surface pressures and temperatures. The studies reported here used the continuous interface of a captive bubble to minimize these problems during measurements of the phase behavior for monolayers containing the phosphatidylcholines with the four different possible combinations of palmitoyl and/or myristoyl acyl residues. Isothermal compression produced surface pressure-area curves for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that were indistinguishable from previously published data obtained with Langmuir troughs. During isobaric heating, a steep increase in molecular area corresponding to the main LC-LE phase transition persisted for all four compounds to 45 mN/m, at which collapse of the LE phase first occurred. No other discontinuities to suggest other phase transitions were apparent. Isobars for DPPC at higher pressures were complicated by collapse of the monolayer, but continued to show evidence up to 65 mN/m for at least the onset of the LC-LE transition. The persistence of the main phase transition to high surface pressures suggests that a critical point for these monolayers of disaturated phospholipids is either nonexistent or inaccessible at an air-water interface. PMID:10585934

  11. Physical and photophysical characterization of a BODIPY phosphatidylcholine as a membrane probe.

    PubMed Central

    Dahim, Mohammed; Mizuno, Nancy K; Li, Xin-Min; Momsen, William E; Momsen, Maureen M; Brockman, Howard L

    2002-01-01

    Lipids containing the dimethyl BODIPY fluorophore are used in cell biology because their fluorescence properties change with fluorophore concentration (C.-S. Chen, O. C. Martin, and R. E. Pagano. 1997. Biophys J. 72:37-50). The miscibility and steady-state fluorescence behavior of one such lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PBPC), have been characterized in mixtures with 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC). PBPC packs similarly to phosphatidylcholines having a cis-unsaturated acyl chain and mixes nearly ideally with SOPC, apparently without fluorophore-fluorophore aggregation. Increasing PBPC mole fraction from 0.0 to 1.0 in SOPC membranes changes the emission characteristics of the probe in a continuous manner. Analysis of these changes shows that emission from the excited dimethyl BODIPY monomer self quenches with a critical radius of 25.9 A. Fluorophores sufficiently close (< or =13.7 A) at the time of excitation can form an excited dimer, emission from which depends strongly on total lipid packing density. Overall, the data show that PBPC is a reasonable physical substitute for other phosphatidylcholines in fluid membranes. Knowledge of PBPC fluorescence in lipid monolayers has been exploited to determine the two-dimensional concentration of SOPC in unilamellar, bilayer membranes. PMID:12202376

  12. Effect of lipid structure on the dipole potential of phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R J

    1997-07-25

    A fluorescent ratio method utilizing styrylpyridinium dyes has recently been suggested for the measurement of the membrane dipole potential. Up to now only qualititative measurements have been possible. Here the fluorescence excitation ratio of the dye di-8-ANEPPS has been measured in lipid vesicles composed of a range of saturated and unsaturated phosphatidylcholines. It has been found that the fluorescence ratio is inversely proportional to the surface area occupied by the lipid in its fully hydrated state. This finding allows, by extra- and interpolation, the packing density to be estimated of phosphatidylcholines for which X-ray crystallographic data are not yet available. Comparison of the fluorescence data with literature data of the dipole potential from electrical measurements on monolayers and bilayers allows a calibration curve to be constructed, so that a quantitative determination of the dipole potential using di-8-ANEPPS is possible. It has been found that the value of the dipole potential decreases with increasing unsaturation and, in the case of unsaturated lipids, with increasing length of the hydrocarbon chains. This effect can be explained by the effects of chain packing on the spacing between the headgroups. In addition to the effects of lipid structure on membrane fluidity, these measurements demonstrate the possibility of a direct electrical mechanism for lipid regulation of protein function, in particular of ion transport proteins. PMID:9271269

  13. Gastrointestinal safety and therapeutic efficacy of parenterally administered phosphatidylcholine-associated indomethacin in rodent model systems

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, LM; Romero, JJ; Dial, EJ

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is limited in its enteral or parenteral use by side effects of gastroduodenal bleeding and ulceration. We have investigated the ability of phosphatidylcholine associated with indomethacin to form a therapeutically effective drug (INDO-PC) with reduced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for parenteral use. Experimental approach Rats were treated acutely by intravenous or chronically with subcutaneous injection of vehicle, indomethacin or INDO-PC using three related protocols. We then evaluated the following properties of these parenterally administered test drugs: (i) GI toxicity (luminal and faecal haemoglobin; intestinal perforations and adhesions; and haematocrit); (ii) bioavailability (plasma indomethacin); and (iii) therapeutic efficacy (analgesia from sensitivity to pressure; anti-inflammatory from ankle thickness; cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition from synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 concentration) in rats with adjuvant-induced joint inflammation. Key results Acute and chronic dosing with INDO-PC produced less GI bleeding and intestinal injury than indomethacin alone, whereas the bioavailability, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and COX inhibitory activity of INDO-PC were comparable to indomethacin. Conclusions and implications The chemical association of phosphatidylcholine with indomethacin appears to markedly reduce the GI toxicity of the NSAID while providing equivalent therapeutic efficacy in a parenteral INDO-PC formulation. PMID:19366347

  14. Structural Characterization of Unsaturated Phosphatidylcholines Using Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hugh I.; Kim, Hyungjun; Pang, Eric S.; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beegle, Luther W.; Loo, Joseph A.; Goddard, William A.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    A number of phosphatidylcholine (PC) cations spanning a mass range of 400 to 1000 Da are investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). A high correlation between mass and mobility is demonstrated with saturated phosphatidylcholine cations in N2. A significant deviation from this mass-mobility correlation line is observed for the unsaturated PC cation. We found that the double bond in the acyl chain causes a 5% reduction in drift time. The drift time is reduced at a rate of ~1% for each additional double bond. Theoretical collision cross sections of PC cations exhibit good agreement with experimentally evaluated values. Collision cross sections are determined using the recently derived relationship between mobility and drift time in TWIMS stacked ring ion guide (SRIG) and compared to estimate collision cross-sections using empiric calibration method. Computational analysis was performed using the modified trajectory (TJ) method with nonspherical N2 molecules as the drift gas. The difference between estimated collision cross-sections and theoretical collision cross-sections of PC cations is related to the sensitivity of the PC cation collision cross-sections to the details of the ion-neutral interactions. The origin of the observed correlation and deviation between mass and mobility of PC cations is discussed in terms of the structural rigidity of these molecules using molecular dynamic simulations. PMID:19764704

  15. The use of zeta potential as a tool to study phase transitions in binary phosphatidylcholines mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Disalvo, E A; Morini, M A

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the zeta potential (ZP) is proposed as a tool to analyze the thermotropic behavior of unilamellar liposomes prepared from binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in the absence or presence of ions in aqueous suspensions. Since the lipid phase transition influences the surface potential of the liposome reflecting a sharp change in the ZP during the transition, it is proposed as a screening method for transition temperatures in complex systems, given its high sensitivity and small amount of sample required, that is, 70% less than that required in the use of conventional calorimeters. The sensitivity is also reflected in the pre-transition detection in the presence of ions. Plots of phase boundaries for these mixed-lipid vesicles were constructed by plotting the delimiting temperatures of both main phase transition and pre-transition vs. the lipid composition of the vesicle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, although subject to uncertainties in interpretation due to broad bands in lipid mixtures, allowed the validation of the temperature dependence of the ZP method for determining the phase transition and pre-transition temperatures. The system chosen was dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DPPC), the most common combination in biological membranes. This work may be considered as a starting point for further research into more complex lipid mixtures with functional biological importance. PMID:26954086

  16. A new crystalline phase of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monohydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fringeli, U P

    1981-01-01

    A new phase transition of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monohydrate from the "biaxial" phase to a crystalline phase (C phase) has been found at 71 degrees C by means of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy. The transition is characterized by drastic conformational changes in the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety, which led on the one hand to an alignment of the turn near the ester group in the hydrocarbon chain at glycerol C(2) position. On the other hand a uniform conformation of the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety is found to be typical for the C phase, in contrast to nonuniform head group conformations of DPPC in other regions of the DPPC/water phase diagram investigated so far. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6894555

  17. Direct interaction between cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines in hydrated membranes revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Quaroni, Luca

    2007-11-01

    By using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and curve fitting we have examined temperature dependence and composition dependence of the shape of the carbonyl band in phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol model membranes. Membranes were hydrated either in excess water or in excess deuterated water. The studied binary mixtures exhibit different lipid phases at appropriate temperature and amount of cholesterol, among them also the so-called liquid-ordered phase. The results confirm that cholesterol has a significant indirect influence on the carbonyl band through conformational and hydration effects. This influence was interpreted in view of the known temperature composition phase diagrams for inspected binary mixtures. In addition, direct interaction was observed, which could point to the presence of hydrogen bond between cholesterol and carbonyl group. This direct interaction, though weak, might play at least a partial role in the stabilization of cholesterol-rich lipid domains in model and biological membranes. PMID:17662974

  18. Formation of drug-bearing vesicles in mixed colloids of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelm, R.P.; Mang, J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Schteingart, C.; Alkan-Onyuksel, H.; Ayd, S.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used small-angle neutron scattering to study drug interactions with mixed colloids of bile salt and phosphatidylcholine. Because the mixed colloids form liposomes spontaneously, this system is a model for drug-bile interactions that are important in understanding the efficacy of oral drug formulations and in advanced applications for liposome drug delivery systems. The authors studied particle formation in incorporation of enzymatic products formed in the gut and the effects of cholesteric drugs and taxol on vesicle formation. The studies show that particle morphology is not affected by inclusion of most cholesteric drugs and taxol, and is not affected by incorporation of the products of enzymatic action. The findings suggest that particle form is important for the physiological function of bile and they are beginning to show which drugs affect liposome formation.

  19. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in phosphatidylcholine host bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, F C; Ojcius, D M; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations and surface potential measurements have been used to determine the intrinsic pKa values of both the carboxyl and amino groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in mixed vesicles of PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC), and also of the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mixed PE-PC vesicles. The pKa of the carboxyl group of PS in liposomes with different PS/PC lipid ratios measured by the two different methods is 3.6 +/- 0.1, and the pKa of its amino group is 9.8 +/- 0.1. The pKa of the amino group of PE in PE-PC vesicles, determined solely by surface potential measurements, is 9.6 +/- 0.1. These pKa values are independent of the aqueous phase ionic strength and of the effect of the liposome's surface potential due to the presence of these partially charged lipids. PMID:3955180

  20. Lyso-phosphatidylcholine is a signal in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Drissner, David; Kunze, Gernot; Callewaert, Nico; Gehrig, Peter; Tamasloukht, M'barek; Boller, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Amrhein, Nikolaus; Bucher, Marcel

    2007-10-12

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis represents the most widely distributed mutualistic root symbiosis. We report that root extracts of mycorrhizal plants contain a lipophilic signal capable of inducing the phosphate transporter genes StPT3 and StPT4 of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), genes that are specifically induced in roots colonized by AM fungi. The same signal caused rapid extracellular alkalinization in suspension-cultured tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cells and induction of the mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporter gene LePT4 in these cells. The active principle was characterized as the lysolipid lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) via a combination of gene expression studies, alkalinization assays in cell cultures, and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. Our results highlight the importance of lysophospholipids as signals in plants and in particular in the AM symbiosis. PMID:17932296

  1. On the nature of hydrogen bonding between the phosphatidylcholine head group and water and dimethylsulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Lawrence, M. Jayne; McLain, Sylvia E.; Lorenz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to provide a detailed investigation of the hydrogen bond networks around the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group in 1,2-dipropionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in pure water, 10 mol.% and 30 mol.% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions. Specifically, it is observed that DMSO replaces those water molecules that are within the first solvation shell of the choline, phosphate and ester groups of the PC head group, but are not hydrogen-bonded to the group. The effect of the presence of DMSO on the hydrogen bond network around the PC head groups of the lipid changes with the concentration of DMSO. In comparison to the hydrogen bond network observed in the pure water system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules increases slightly for the 10 mol.% DMSO system, while, in the 30 mol.% DMSO system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules decreases.

  2. Histological changes after treatment for localized fat deposits with phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Min; Oh, Han-Jin

    2013-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and sodium deoxycholate (DC) injections have been used cosmetically to reduce localized fat, but to date, few studies have addressed the histological effect of human fat tissue following injections of PPC and DC. We injected PPC and DC mixed with normal saline into the patient's abdominal area. Examinations of postinjection tissue revealed marked changes within the subcutaneous fat. We observed important microscopic evidence of substitution of fat by fibrosis, marked inflammatory infiltration with microabscess formation in the dermis, and septal and lobular panniculitis with thick fibrous septa. Fat necrosis with microcalcification and cyst formation were observed in the subcutaneous fat. Fibroid necrosis with extravasation was noted in the small vessels around fat necrosis. Therefore, careful use of PPC and DC is recommended when patients want to cosmetically reduce localized fat. PMID:23992167

  3. Soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomes as model membranes to study lipid peroxidation photoinduced by pterin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrés H; Catalá, Ángel; Vignoni, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized pterins, efficient photosensitizers under UVA irradiation, accumulate in the skin of patients suffering from vitiligo, a chronic depigmentation disorder. Soybean phosphatidylcholine (SoyPC) liposomes were employed as model membranes to investigate if pterin (Ptr), the parent compound of oxidized pterins, is able to photoinduced lipid peroxidation. Size exclusion chromatography and dialysis experiments showed that Ptr is not encapsulated inside the liposomes and the lipid membrane is permeable to this compound. The formation of conjugated dienes and trienes, upon UVA irradiation, was followed by absorption at 234 and 270 nm, respectively. The photoproducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and oxygenation of SoyPC was demonstrated. In addition, analysis of MS/MS spectra suggested the formation hydroperoxides. Finally, the biological implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26551322

  4. Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

  5. RAPESEED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HYDROLYSIS TO PHOSPHATIDIC ACID USING PLANT EXTRACTS WITH PHOPSPHOLIPASE D.

    PubMed

    Pasker, Beata; Sosada, Marian; Fraś, Paweł; Boryczka, Monika; Górecki, Michał; Zych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. For that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. PA is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. PA may be easily prepared by hydrolysis of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), using cabbage phospholipase D (PLD). Hydrolytic activity of purified by us PLD extracts from cabbage towards rapeseed phosphatidylcholine (RPC) was investigated. Hydrolysis was carried out in the biphasic system (water/diethyl ether) at pH 6,5 and temp 30°C. Influence of enzymatic extracts from three cabbage varieties, reaction time, Ca2+ concentration and enzyme extracts/PC ratio, on activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed phosphatidic acid (RPA) formation were examined. Our study shows that the PLD extracts from savoy cabbage (PLDsc), white cabbage (PLDwc) and brussels sprouts (PLDbs) used in experiments exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed RPA with different yield. The highest activity towards RPC shows PLD extract from PLDsc with the RPC conversion degree to RPA (90%) was observed at 120 mM Ca2+ concentration, reaction time 60 min and ratio of PLD extract to RPC 6 : 1 (w/w). Our study shows that purified by us PLDsc extracts exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC giving new RPA with satisfying conversion degree for use in pharmacy, cosmetics and as a standard in analytical chemistry. PMID:26642684

  6. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Huang, Justin S; James, Kurtis T; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5 ± 8.2 and 23.3 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50 μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5 ± 9.3 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm with penetration also limited to 50 μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30 μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1 ± 6.2 and 15.8 ± 6.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09 ± 0.14 in the liver, 0.74 ± 0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43 ± 0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43 ± 0.07 in the liver, 0.30 ± 0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20 ± 0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in

  7. Macro-ripple phase formation in bilayers composed of galactosylceramide and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Anderson, W H; Kulkarni, V S

    1995-01-01

    As determined by freeze fracture electron microscopy, increasing levels of bovine brain galactosylceramide (GalCer) altered the surface structure of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers by inducing a striking "macro-ripple" phase in the larger, multilamellar lipid vesicles at GalCer mole fractions between 0.4 and 0.8. The term "macro-ripple" phase was used to distinguish it from the P beta' ripple phase observed in saturated, symmetric-chain length phosphatidylcholines. Whereas the P beta' ripple phase displays two types of corrugations, one with a wavelength of 12-15 nm and the other with a wavelength of 25-35 nm, the macro-ripple phase occurring in GalCer/POPC dispersions was of one type with a wavelength of 100-110 nm. Also, in contrast to the extended linear arrays of adjacent ripples observed in the P beta' ripple phase, the macro-ripple phase of GalCer/POPC dispersions was interrupted frequently by packing defects resulting from double dislocations and various disclinations and, thus, appeared to be continuously twisting and turning. Control experiments verified that the macro-ripple phase was not an artifact of incomplete lipid mixing or demixing during preparation. Three different methods of lipid mixing were compared: a spray method of rapid solvent evaporation, a sublimation method of solvent removal, and solvent removal using a rotary evaporation apparatus. Control experiments also revealed that the macro-ripple phase was observed regardless of whether lipid specimens were prepared by either ultra-rapid or manual plunge freezing methods as well as either in the presence or absence of the cryo-protectant glycerol. The macro-ripple phase was always observed in mixtures that were fully annealed by incubation above the main thermal transition of both POPC and bovine brain GalCer before rapid freezing. If the GalCer mixed with POPC contained only nonhydroxy acyl chains or only 2-hydroxy acyl chains, then the occurrence of macro

  8. Deuterium magnetic resonance study of the gel and liquid crystalline phases of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J H

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium magnetic resonance is applied to the study of the liquid crystalline and gel phases, and of the phase transition, of a multilamellar dispersion of chain perdeuterated (d62)-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/H2O. Analysis of the deuterium spectra in terms of the moments of the spectra allows one to make quantitative statements concerning the distribution of quadrupolar splittings even in complicated situations, e.g., when using perdeuterated sampled or when there are mixed phases. This analysis indicates that d62-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine in excess H2O undergoes a sharp phase transition (with a width of less than 1 degree C) at approximately 37 degrees C and that there appears to be hysteresis in the phase transition of approximately 1 degree C. In the lamellar liquid crystalline phase above 37 degrees C the spectra show a number of well-resolved features whose quadrupolar splittings can be followed as the temperature is varied. The gel phase near 20 degrees C possesses a very broad, almost featureless spectrum that does not seem to support a model of the gel phase wherein the hydrocarbon chains are fully extended in the all-trans conformation. At temperatures near 0 degrees C the spectra clearly indicate that a large fraction of the lipid molecules cease the rotation about their long axes, giving a spectrum more characteristic of a rigid or solid sample. These results give a picture of the gel phase as a phase characterized by considerable hydrocarbon chain disorder near 20 degrees C and becoming a more solid-like phase near 0 degrees C. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, has been measured at 20 degrees C in the gel phase, and at 37 and 45 degrees C in the liquid crystalline phase. The values of T1 obtained for each of the resolvable peaks in the spectrum at 37 degrees C are compared to the values (for each peak) of T2e, the decay time of the quadrupolar echo, obtained at the same temperature. These results are discussed in terms of a simple two

  9. Different modes of interaction of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B in phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, A; Casals, C; Keough, K M; Pérez-Gil, J

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) has been incorporated into vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) by two different procedures to characterize the dependence of lipid-protein interactions on the method of reconstitution. In method A the protein was dissolved in a small volume of either methanol or 60% (v/v) acetonitrile and injected into an aqueous phase containing phospholipid vesicles. In method B the vesicles were prepared by injection of a mixture of phospholipid and SP-B dissolved in methanol or aqueous acetonitrile. Both methods of reconstitution led to the extensive interaction of SP-B with PC bilayers as demonstrated by co-migration during centrifugation, marked protection against proteolysis, change in the fluorescence emission intensity of SP-B, and protection of SP-B tryptophan fluorescence from quenching by acrylamide. SP-B promoted the rapid adsorption of DPPC on an air/liquid interface irrespective of the method of protein reconstitution. However, the interfacial adsorption activity of SP-B reconstituted by method B remained stable for hours, but that of SP-B prepared by method A decreased with time. Electron microscopy showed that the injection of SP-B into an aqueous phase containing PC or DPPC vesicles (method A) induced a rapid aggregation of vesicles. By contrast, a much longer time was required for detecting vesicle aggregation when the protein was reconstituted by co-injection of SP-B and phospholipids (method B). The presence of 5% (w/w) SP-B in DPPC bilayers prepared by method B broadened the differential scanning calorimetry thermogram and decreased the enthalpy of the transition. In contrast, the injection of SP-B into preformed DPPC vesicles (method A) did not influence the gel-to-liquid phase transition of DPPC bilayers. Taken together, these results indicate that the mode and extent of interaction of SP-B with surfactant phospholipids depends on the conditions of

  10. In Vivo Effect of Pneumonia on Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Facco, Maddalena; Nespeca, Matteo; Simonato, Manuela; Isak, Ilena; Verlato, Giovanna; Ciambra, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Chiara; Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Cogo, Paola E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia in newborns often leads to surfactant deficiency or dysfunction, as surfactant is inactivated or its production/turnover impaired. No data are available in vivo in humans on the mechanism of surfactant depletion in neonatal pneumonia. We studied the kinetics of surfactant's major component, disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), in neonatal pneumonia, and we compared our findings with those obtained from control newborn lungs. Methods We studied thirty-one term or near-term newborns (gestational age 39.7±1.7 weeks, birth weight 3185±529 g) requiring mechanical ventilation. Fifteen newborns had pneumonia, while 16 newborns were on mechanical ventilation but had no lung disease. Infants received an intratracheal dose of 13C labeled dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine at the study start. We measured the amount and the isotopic enrichment of DSPC-palmitate from serial tracheal aspirates by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively, and we calculated the DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) from the isotopic enrichment curves of surfactant DSPC-palmitate. Results The mean DSPC amount obtained from all tracheal aspirates did not differ between the two groups. DSPC HL was 12.7 (6.5–20.2) h and 25.6 (17.9–60.6) h in infants with pneumonia compared with control infants (p = 0.003). DSPC PS was 14.1 (6.6–30.9) mg/kg in infants with pneumonia and 34.1 (25.6–65.0) mg/kg in controls, p = 0.042. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as a marker of lung inflammation, was 1322 (531–2821) mU/ml of Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) and 371(174–1080) mU/ml ELF in infants with pneumonia and in controls, p = 0.047. In infants with pneumonia, DSPC PS and HL significantly and inversely correlated with mean Oxygenation Index (OI) during the study (DSPC PS vs. OI R = −0.710, p = 0.004 and HL vs. OI R = −0.525, p = 0.044, respectively). Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time in vivo in

  11. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    England, Christopher G.; Huang, Justin S.; James, Kurtis T.; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5±8.2 and 23.3±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5±9.3 particles/100μm2 within 10μm with penetration also limited to 50μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1±6.2 and 15.8±6.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09±0.14 in the liver, 0.74±0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43±0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43±0.07 in the liver, 0.30±0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20±0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in pancreatic tumors with the goal to improve

  12. Characteristics of the mass transfer of phosphatidylcholine during its sorption on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyaeva, L. A.; Karpov, S. I.; Belanova, N. A.; Roessner, F.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetic parameters of sorption of phosphatidylcholine on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 are considered. It is noted that the possibility of both the diffusion and adsorption rate limitations of the process should be taken into account in the description of the kinetics of sorption of non-polar fat-soluble physiologically active compounds (PACs) from hexane solutions onto mesoporous materials of MCM- 41 type. The adequacy of using the Boyd diffusion model and the Lagergren, Ho and McKay, and Elovich models to describe the kinetics of sorption of phosphatidylcholine on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 is shown. The contributions from diffusion limitation (internal and external) and the rate of the chemical step of adsorption to the overall rate of the sorption process are determined. It is found that the sorption of the phospholipid is a mixed diffusion process.

  13. Particle size interconversion of human low density lipoproteins during incubation of plasma with phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh, Z.; Nichols, A.V.

    1982-09-30

    Incubation of plasma (37/sup 0/C, 6hr) in the presence of increasing amounts of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, above a threshold concentration, results in an increase in particle diameter of LDL relative to that from nonincubated plasma. With further PC addition, the major peak of LDL in the gradient gel electrophoretic pattern is transformed, first, into a bimodal and, subsequently, into a single peak distribution. PC-induced interconversion of LDL requires factor(s) in the d > 1.20 g/ml fraction and, at PC concentrations below approximately 2 mg/ml, is not inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Plasma incubation with increasing PC levels also leads to characteristic particle size transformations in HDL/sub 3/ species, with the transformation products ultimately converging to form a single peak pattern within the HDL/sub 2a/ size interval. In certain subjects, incubation of plasma, in the absence of added PC, shifts the particle size distribution of LDL towards smaller species; this can be prevented by addition of PC. We propose that incubation-induced shifts of LDL towards larger or smaller species result from changes in phospholipid (PL) content of LDL.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine resynthesis from components of internalized phospholipids in rat granular pneumocytes in primary culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.B.

    1986-05-01

    Uptake, degradation and reutilization of surfactant phospholipids was investigated by incubating granular pneumocytes in primary culture with 0.2 mM liposomal phosphatidylcholine containing (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline labeled dipalmitoyl PC. Trypsin-resistant cell associated liposome radioactivity in PC declined steadily with time of incubation to 50% of total radioactivity by 140 min. In the water soluble fraction, most of the radioactivity was present in glycerophosphorylcholine which increased steadily to 13% of total cell associated radioactivity. While the proportion of radioactivity in choline remained unchanged, it increased with time in CDP-choline and phosphorylcholine suggesting reutilization of choline for PC resynthesis. In lamellar bodies isolated from these cells, less than 10% of PC label was present in unsaturated PC. In the microsomal fraction the label in unsaturated PC at 21 min was 56% of total PC which increased to 71% by 140 min of incubation with liposomes (slope = 0.19%/min; r = 0.67) suggesting metabolic reutilization of dipalmitoyl PC in this compartment. These observations indicate that granular pneumocytes degrade internalized PC and resynthesize PC de novo from degradation products.

  15. Influence of the composition of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine based microemulsions on the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Ettl, Hanna; Holper, Evelyn; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-11-20

    Although microemulsions are one of the most promising dermal carrier systems, their clinical use is limited due to their skin irritation potential. Therefore, microemulsions based on naturally derived monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) were developed. The influence of the water, oil and surfactant content on dermal delivery of flufenamic acid was systematically investigated for the first time. A water-rich microemulsion led to significantly higher in vitro skin penetration of flufenamic acid compared to other microemulsions. The superiority of the water-rich microemulsion over a marketed flufenamic acid containing formulation was additionally confirmed. Differences in drug delivery could be explained by alterations of the microemulsions after application. Evaporation of isopropanol led to crystal-like structures of MAPL on the skin surface from the surfactant- or oleic acid-rich microemulsions. In contrast, the formation of this additional barrier was hindered in case of the water-rich microemulsion. The skin penetration of MAPL was additionally analyzed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments, where MAPL itself penetrated only into the initial layers of the stratum corneum, independent of the microemulsion composition. Since a surfactant must penetrate the skin to cause irritation, MAPL can be presumed as a skin-friendly emulsifier with the ability to stabilize pharmaceutically acceptable microemulsions. PMID:25178824

  16. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on surface interactions and lubrication by hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Jahn, Sabrina; Goldberg, Ronit; Klein, Jacob

    2014-11-10

    Glucosamine sulfate (GAS) is a charged monosaccharide molecule that is widely used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, a joint disease related to friction and lubrication of articular cartilage. Using a surface force balance, we examine the effect of GAS on normal and, particularly, on shear (frictional) interactions between surfaces in an aqueous environment coated with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), or liposomes, of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC). We examine the effect of GAS solution, pure water, and salt solution (0.15 M NaNO3) both inside and outside the vesicles. Cryoscanning electron microscopy shows a closely packed layer of liposomes whose morphology is affected only slightly by GAS. HSPC-SUVs with encapsulated GAS are stable upon shear at high compressions (>100 atm) and provide very good lubrication when immersed both in pure water and physiological-level salt solutions (in the latter case, the liposomes are exceptionally stable and lubricious up to >400 atm). The low friction is attributed to several parameters based on the hydration lubrication mechanism. PMID:25244425

  17. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the CO and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CO groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  18. Sequestration of bovine seminal plasma proteins by different assemblies of phosphatidylcholine: A new technical approach.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; van Leeuwen-Ibarrola, J; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Anton, M; Tainturier, D

    2016-04-01

    Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, the main proteins from bovine seminal plasma, are known to partially intercalate into the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane and bind to choline-containing lipids being present therein. This insertion generates a negative effect on semen quality after cryopreservation by inducing an early-stage capacitation of spermatozoa. The assumption of surface properties exhibited by BSP proteins was checked by tensiometry measurements: BSP proteins are highly surface active. This suggests that BSP proteins can reach the interface covered by phospholipids not only by interactions between one and each other but also due to their own surface activity. The insertion of BSP proteins into the lipid domains outer leaflet of spermatozoa was reproduced on a biomimetic system such as Langmuir monolayers. The insertion of BSP proteins can be performed in the compressible fluid domains which contain choline-bearing lipids. Monolayer films were used as well to study the complexation of BSP proteins by two phospholipid assemblies: low density lipoprotein (LDLs) from egg yolk or liposomes produced from egg phospholipids. Irrespective of the phospholipid structure (lipoprotein or liposome), BSP was hindered to alter the structure of the membrane. Only the overall ratio BSP proteins:phosphatidylcholine was important. The difference between the two sequestering agents lies on their surface properties: LDL have a strong tendency to merge with the outer layer whereas liposomes mainly remain in the bulk on the same time scale. PMID:26628332

  19. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-23

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  20. Production of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine by bonito muscle lysophosphatidylcholine/transacylase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kaoru; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Matsuura, Fumito; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Koike, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 1,3-bis[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex, a novel phosphate-capture molecule. However, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl species could not be detected. Next, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC synthesis by the cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/transacylase was examined using endogenous LPC from bonito muscle, in which the 2-docosahexaenoyl species is abundant. The LPC/transacylase synthesized 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC as the most abundant molecular species. For further characterization, the LPC/transacylase was purified to homogeneity from the 100,000 x g supernatant of bonito muscle. The isolated LPC/transacylase is a labile glycoprotein with molecular mass of 52 kDa including a 5-kDa sugar moiety. The LPC/transacylase showed a PC synthesis (transacylase activity) below and above the critical micelle concentration of substrate LPC, and fatty acid release (lysophospholipase activity) was always smaller than the transacylase activity, even with a monomeric substrate. These results suggest that the LPC/transacylase is responsible for the synthesis of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC. PMID:15625317

  1. Comparative Experimental and Computational Study of Monoalkyl Chain Phosphatidylcholine-Containing Thermoresponsive Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Kleopatra; Sideratou, Zili; Thanassoulas, Angelos; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2016-06-23

    Liposomes containing lysophospholipids are intensively studied as drug delivery systems that are stable at normal body temperature but exhibit fast release of their drug load at slightly elevated temperatures. In this study, the stability and release properties of dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine (DPPC)-based liposomes incorporating the commonly used lysophosphatidylocholine (lyso-PC), and a series of monoalkyl chain ether-linked phosphatidylcholine, i.e., the biologically relevant monoalkyl chain platelet activating factor (PAF) and its derivatives lyso-PAF and methyl-PAF, were investigated. To this end a series of PEGylated small unilamellar liposomes with DPPC:monoalkyl lipid compositions of 5% and 10% molar ratio were prepared and compared with regard to stability (37 °C) and release properties at elevated temperatures (38-43 °C). All systems were characterized with respect to size distribution, ζ-potential, and phase transition characteristics. The presence of ether-lipids endows liposomes with superior (∼10% increase) release properties at 5% incorporation compared to lyso-PC, while at 10% molar ratio the formulations do not differ significantly, the release being close to 90%. The findings are supported by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that suggest a correlation between the enhanced permeability and increased penetration of water molecules within the bilayers with density fluctuations resulting from the increased area-per-lipid and the disorder of the lysolipids alkyl chains. PMID:27280363

  2. Immobilized phospholipase A1-catalyzed modification of phosphatidylcholine with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, TingTing; No, Da Som; Kim, Byung Hee; Garcia, Hugo S; Kim, Yangha; Kim, In-Hwan

    2014-08-15

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA)-enriched phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully produced with fatty acid from fish oil and PC from soybean by immobilized phospholipase A1-catalyzed acidolysis. Detailed studies of immobilization were carried out, and Lewatit VP OC 1600 was selected as a carrier for preparation of immobilized phospholipase A1, which was used for modification of PC by acidolysis. For acidolysis of PC with n-3 PUFA, the effects of several parameters, namely, water content, temperature, and enzyme loading on the reaction time course were investigated to determine optimum conditions. The optimum water content, temperature, and enzyme loading were 1.0%, 55 °C, and 20%, respectively. The highest incorporation (57.4 mol%) of n-3 PUFA into PC was obtained at 24h and the yield of PC was 16.7 mol%. The yield of PC increased significantly by application of vacuum, even though a slight decrease of n-3 PUFA incorporation was observed. PMID:24679762

  3. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on fluidity and phase transition of phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with multifunctional properties have shown great promise in theranostics. The aim of our work was to compare the effects of SPIONs on the fluidity and phase transition of the liposomal membranes prepared with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids. In order to study if the surface modification of SPIONs has any influence on these membrane properties, we have used four types of differently functionalized SPIONs, such as: plain SPIONs (primary size was shown to bê11 nm), silica-coated SPIONs, SPIONs coated with silica and functionalized with positively charged amino groups or negatively charged carboxyl groups (the primary size of all the surface-modified SPIONs was ~20 nm). Small unilamellar vesicles prepared with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids and multilamellar vesicles prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids were encapsulated or incubated with the plain and surface-modified SPIONs to determine the fluidity and phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids, respectively. Fluorescent anisotropy and differential scanning calorimetric measurements of the liposomes that were either encapsulated or incubated with the suspension of SPIONs did not show a significant difference in the lipid ordering and fluidity; though the encapsulated SPIONs showed a slightly increased effect on the fluidity of the model membranes in comparison with the incubated SPIONs. This indicates the low potential of the SPIONs to interact with the nontargeted cell membranes, which is a desirable factor for in vivo applications. PMID:26491286

  4. A lysophosphatidic acid analogue is revealed as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Geneviéve; Granci, Virginie; Rogalle, Pierre; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Wilson, Michéle; Klaébé, Alain; Tercé, François; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Gaits, Frédérique

    2002-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that cross-desensitization experiments performed with the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogues (R)- and (S)-N-palmitoyl-norleucinol 1-phosphate (PNPAs) inhibited LPA-induced platelet aggregation without any stereospecificity. Here we report opposite biological effects of the two enantiomers on mitogenesis of IMR-90 fibroblasts in relation to their respective metabolism. (R)PNPA was proliferative, while (S)PNPA induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis at the last step of the CDP-choline pathway controlled by cholinephosphotransferase. This effect was not direct but required dephosphorylation of PNPAs by ecto-lipid phosphate phosphatase before cellular uptake of the generated N-palmitoyl-norleucinols (PNOHs). Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase by the derivative (S)PNOH was confirmed by an in vitro assay. (S)PNPA proapoptotic effects led us to clarify the mechanism linking cholinephosphotransferase inhibition to apoptosis. Three proapoptotic responses were observed: the activation of caspase-3, the production of ceramides from newly synthesized pools (as demonstrated by the inhibitor Fumonisin B1) and finally the activation of stress-activated protein kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2, as a result of ceramide increase. Thus our data demonstrate that synthetic analogues of LPA might display stereospecific effects leading to apoptosis independently of classical LPA-activated pathways. PMID:12197836

  5. Fluid Phase Lipid Areas and Bilayer Thicknesses of Commonly Used Phosphatidylcholines as a Function of Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.

  6. Phosphatidylcholine enrichment with medium chain fatty acids by immobilized phospholipase A(1) -catalyzed acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Angélica A; Hernández-Becerra, Josafat A; Cavazos-Garduño, Adriana; García, Hugo S; Vernon-Carter, Eduardo J

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipids are a biologically and industrially important class of compounds whose physical properties can be improved for diverse applications by substitution of medium-chain fatty acids for their native fatty acid chains. In this study, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) by acidolysis with phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1) ) immobilized on Duolite A568. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of the molar ratio of substrates (PC to free MCFAs), enzyme loading, and reaction temperature on the incorporation of free MCFAs into PC and on PC recovery. Enzyme loading and molar ratio of substrates contributed positively, but temperature negatively, to the incorporation of free MCFAs into PC. Increases in enzyme loading and the molar ratio of PC to free MCFAs led to increased incorporation of the latter into the former, but increased temperature had the opposite effect. By contrast, an increase in enzyme loading led to decreased PC recovery. Increased temperature had also a negative effect on PC recovery. Optimal conditions for maximum incorporation and PC recovery were molar ratio of PC to free MCFAs of 1:16, enzyme loading of 16%, and 50°C. Under these conditions, the incorporation of free MCFAs was 41% and the PC recovery was 53%. PMID:23074091

  7. Intermediate structures in the cholate-phosphatidylcholine vesicle-micelle transition

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Anne; Vinson, Phillip K.; Kaplun, Alon; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    1991-01-01

    The vesicle-micelle transition of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sodium cholate was described by comparing cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) images of the structures formed to the associated turbidity changes. These experiments were designed to identify the morphology of the intermediates between vesicles and small spheroidal mixed micelles. With increasing cholate concentration, the vesicular structures changed size and more multilamellar vesicles were seen. Between the apparent upper and lower phase boundaries, three structures were observed: open vesicles, large bilayer sheets (twenty to several hundred nanometers in diameter), and long (150-300 nm) flexible cylindrical micelles. The cylindrical micelles evolved from the edges of the bilayer sheets. At higher relative cholate concentration, the phase boundary was sharply defined by optical clarification of the egg PC-cholate mixtures. Cryo-TEM revealed only small spheroidal mixed micelles at this transition. These results provide the first direct evidence of the structural pathway or of molecular intermediates between a lamellar and a micellar state. Understanding these specific intermediates and the transitions between them is essential to developing reconstitution protocols and properly analyzing either activity or structural data obtained from cholate-dispersed membrane proteins. ImagesFIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5 PMID:19431813

  8. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  9. Revealing Transient Interactions between Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C and Phosphatidylcholine--Rich Lipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boqian; He, Tao; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Roberts, Mary; Gershenson, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes transiently interact with target membranes. Previous fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments showed that Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC specifically binds to phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich membranes and preferentially interacts with unilamellar vesicles that show larger curvature. Mutagenesis studies combined with FCS measurements of binding affinity highlighted the importance of interfacial PI-PLC tyrosines in the PC specificity. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PI-PLC performed in the presence of a PC membrane indicate these tyrosines are involved in specific cation-pi interactions with choline headgroups. To further understand those transient interactions between PI-PLC and PC-rich vesicles, we monitor single fluorescently labeled PI-PLC proteins as they cycle on and off surface-tethered small unilamellar vesicles using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. The residence times on vesicles along with vesicle size information, based on vesicle fluorescence intensity, reveal the time scales of PI-PLC membrane interactions as well as the curvature dependence. The PC specificity and the vesicle curvature dependence of this PI-PLC/membrane interaction provide insight into how the interface modulates protein-membrane interactions. This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health (R01GM060418).

  10. Physicochemical properties of structured phosphatidylcholine in drug carrier lipid emulsions for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Emi; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2008-03-15

    Drug carrier emulsions were prepared with structured phosphatidylcholine (PC-LM) which has both a long hydrocarbon chain and a medium hydrocarbon chain, and the characteristics of PC-LM as an emulsifier were investigated by measuring the creaming ratio, the surface tension of the emulsion system, and the mean particle size and zeta potential of the oil droplets in emulsions. The emulsion prepared with PC-LM as an emulsifier kept the condition and the ratio of separation was lower than those with purified egg yolk lecithin (PEL). The mean particle size of the emulsion prepared with PC-LM was smaller than that with PEL when using only sonication, approximately 250 nm. When using a high-pressure homogenizer after sonication, the mean emulsion size with PC-LM was also smaller than with PEL, approximately 150 nm. The surface tension of the various emulsions and the zeta potential of the emulsion droplets were measured to investigate the stability of the systems. In emulsions with PC-LM or PEL, the surface tension as an index of stability increased as the pressure of the homogenizer increased. Moreover, the zeta potential of the emulsion droplets prepared with PC-LM also increased with an increase in pressure of the homogenizer. As a result, it was found that the drug carrier emulsion prepared with PC-LM had significant advantages in terms of stability and mean diameter. We considered it could be used for the preparations of nanoparticle dispersion systems in drug delivery systems. PMID:17988839

  11. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Danielle B.; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation – a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  12. Asymmetric 1-Alkyl-2-acyl Phosphatidylcholine: a Helper Lipid for Enhanced Non-viral Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhaohua; Li, Weijun; Szoka, Francis C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationally designed asymmetrical alkylacyl phosphatidylcholines (APC) have been synthesized and evaluated as helper lipids for non-viral gene delivery. A long aliphatic chain (C22~C24) was introduced at the 1-position of glycerol backbone, a branched lipid chain (C18) at the 2-position, and a phosphocholine head group at the 3-position. The fusogenicity of APC depends on the length and degree of saturation of the alkyl chain. Cationic lipids were formulated with APC as either lipoplexes or nanolipoparticles, and evaluated for their stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. APC mediated high in vitro transfection efficiency, and had low cytotoxicity. Small nanolipoparticles (less than 100 nm) can be obtained with APC by applying as low as 0.1% PEG-lipid. Our study extends the type of helper lipids that are suitable for gene transfer and points the way to improve non-viral nucleic acid delivery system other than the traditional cationic lipids optimization. This work is supported by NIH grant EB003008. PMID:21718766

  13. Phosphatidylcholine embedded microemulsions: physical properties and improved Caco-2 cell permeability.

    PubMed

    Spernath, Aviram; Aserin, Abraham; Ziserman, Lior; Danino, Dganit; Garti, Nissim

    2007-06-22

    The present study evaluates the effect of a solubilized model drug, diclofenac sodium salt (diclofenac), in our unique new U-type microemulsion system embedded with phosphatidylcholine (PC) in terms of microstructure transformations, physical properties of the system (viscosity, electrical conductivity), droplet sizes and shapes, and nucleation and growth of the droplets. The physical properties are correlated to the permeability of diclofenac through Caco-2 monolayer cells. The major findings reported are: (1) systems that are rich in surfactant and contain minimal oil phase form a microemulsion that enables high solubilization of diclofenac (20 wt.% diclofenac in the oil and surfactant concentrate can be fully diluted with water); (2) PC presence at the interface does not affect the size of the O/W droplets, while the presence of diclofenac at the interface decreases the O/W droplet size by an average of 50%; (3) diclofenac seems to increase incorporation of PC into the W/O interface; (4) diclofenac affects the physical properties of the microemulsion increasing the viscosity of the W/O microemulsion system and completely changing the conductivity profile of the system upon water dilution; (5) cryo-TEM images indicate that above 70 wt.% water the droplets are spherical; (6) diclofenac permeability through Caco-2 monolayer cells increases when PC is embedded into the interface. PMID:17475359

  14. Iron Ion and Iron Hydroxide Adsorption to Charge-Neutral Phosphatidylcholine Templates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Feng, Shuren; San Emeterio, Josue; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-08-01

    Surface-sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques reveal significant adsorption of iron ions and iron-hydroxide (Fe(III)) complexes to a charge-neutral zwitterionic template of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The PC template is formed by a Langmuir monolayer of dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC) that is spread on the surface of 2 to 40 μM FeCl3 solutions at physiological levels of KCl (100 mM). At 40 μM of Fe(III) as many as ∼3 iron atoms are associated with each PC group. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a significant disruption in the in-plane ordering of DPPC molecules upon iron adsorption. The binding of iron-hydroxide complexes to a neutral PC surface is yet another example of nonelectrostatic, presumably covalent bonding to a charge-neutral organic template. The strong binding and the disruption of in-plane lipid structure has biological implications on the integrity of PC-derived lipid membranes, including those based on sphingomyelin. PMID:27409514

  15. Interactions of tamoxifen with distearoyl phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles: FTIR and DSC studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Sahin, Ipek; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2014-09-01

    Interactions of a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen (TAM), with distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) were investigated as a function of drug concentration (1-15 mol%) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectroscopy results show that increasing TAM concentrations (except 1 mol%) increased the wavenumbers of the CH2 stretching modes, implying an disordering effect for DSPC MLVs both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The bandwidth values of the CH2 stretchings except for 1 mol% increased when TAM concentrations increased for DSPC liposomes, indicating an increase in the dynamics of liposomes. The Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands were analyzed to study interactions of TAM with head groups of lipids. As the concentrations of TAM increased, dehydration occurred around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. The DSC studies on thermal properties of DSPC lipids indicate that TAM eliminated the pre transition, shifted the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve of the liposomes.

  16. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-08-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the (/sup 3/H)PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine.

  17. Exogenous fatty acids affect CDP-choline pathway to increase phosphatidylcholine synthesis in granular pneumocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Gullo, J.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in rat granular pneumocytes isolated by tryptic digestion of lungs and maintained in primary culture for 24 h was investigated by following effects of exogenous fatty acids on (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline incorporation into PC and disaturated PC (DSPC). At 0.1 mM choline, the rate of choline incorporation into PC and DSPC was 440 +/- and 380 +/- 50 pmol/h/ug Pi (mean +/- SE, n=3-5), respectively, and was linear for up to 3 h. PC synthesis was significantly increased by 0.1 mM each of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acid. However, synthesis of DSPC was increased only by palmitic acid and this increase was prevented by addition of oleic acid suggesting lack of effect on the remodeling pathway. Pulse-chase experiments with choline in absence or presence of palmitic or oleic acid showed that the label declined in choline phosphate and increased in PC more rapidly in presence of either of the fatty acids, suggesting rapid conversion of choline phosphate to PC. Microsomal choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity in cells preincubated without or with palmitic acid for 3 h was 0.81 +/- 0.07 and 1.81 +/- 0.09 nmol choline phosphate converted/min/mg protein (n=4). These results suggest that in granular pneumocytes, exogenous fatty acids modulate PC synthesis by increasing choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity.

  18. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  19. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on fluidity and phase transition of phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with multifunctional properties have shown great promise in theranostics. The aim of our work was to compare the effects of SPIONs on the fluidity and phase transition of the liposomal membranes prepared with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids. In order to study if the surface modification of SPIONs has any influence on these membrane properties, we have used four types of differently functionalized SPIONs, such as: plain SPIONs (primary size was shown to bê11 nm), silica-coated SPIONs, SPIONs coated with silica and functionalized with positively charged amino groups or negatively charged carboxyl groups (the primary size of all the surface-modified SPIONs was ~20 nm). Small unilamellar vesicles prepared with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids and multilamellar vesicles prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids were encapsulated or incubated with the plain and surface-modified SPIONs to determine the fluidity and phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids, respectively. Fluorescent anisotropy and differential scanning calorimetric measurements of the liposomes that were either encapsulated or incubated with the suspension of SPIONs did not show a significant difference in the lipid ordering and fluidity; though the encapsulated SPIONs showed a slightly increased effect on the fluidity of the model membranes in comparison with the incubated SPIONs. This indicates the low potential of the SPIONs to interact with the nontargeted cell membranes, which is a desirable factor for in vivo applications. PMID:26491286

  20. Detection and characterization of phosphatidylcholine in various strains of the genus Chlamydomonas (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenta; Mori, Natsumi; Sato, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    The laboratory strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been reported to contain no phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is considered to be replaced by another zwitterionic lipid, diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS). According to the recently published classification, the strains belonged to the subgroup Reinhardtinia. Screening for PC in 13 selected strains of Chlamydomonas in the NIES Algal Collection, which are different in habitats and belong to different phylogenetic subgroups in the genus, revealed the presence of PC in four strains: a strain in the subgroup Polytominia, and three strains in Reinhardtinia. PC was not detected in three other strains of Reinhardtinia analyzed. The presence/absence of PC was not related to the phylogenetic relationship based on 18S rRNA. DGTS was detected in all the strains analyzed. The rare isomer of linolenic acid, 18:3(5,9,12), which has been found in the DGTS of C. reinhardtii, was found in the PC of the two strains and in the DGTS of the five strains. The occurrence of this fatty acid seems limited to a branch of Reinhardtinia. Acquisition and loss of PC in various strains of Chlamydomonas are discussed from the viewpoint of evolution of PC biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24947506

  1. Nuclear-localized CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis required for lipid droplet biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, Adam J.; Arsenault, Daniel J.; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2015-01-01

    The reversible association of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) with membranes regulates the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the CDP-choline (Kennedy) pathway. Based on results with insect CCT homologues, translocation of nuclear CCTα onto cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) is proposed to stimulate the synthesis of PC that is required for LD biogenesis and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage. We examined whether this regulatory mechanism applied to LD biogenesis in mammalian cells. During 3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, CCTα expression and PC synthesis was induced. In 3T3-L1 cells, CCTα translocated from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope and cytosol but did not associate with LDs. The enzyme also remained in the nucleus during human adipocyte differentiation. RNAi silencing in 3T3-L1 cells showed that CCTα regulated LD size but did not affect TAG storage or adipogenesis. LD biogenesis in nonadipocyte cell lines treated with oleate also promoted CCTα translocation to the nuclear envelope and/or cytoplasm but not LDs. In rat intestinal epithelial cells, CCTα silencing increased LD size, but LD number and TAG deposition were decreased due to oleate-induced cytotoxicity. We conclude that CCTα increases PC synthesis for LD biogenesis by translocation to the nuclear envelope and not cytoplasmic LDs. PMID:26108622

  2. Interactions between Adsorbed Hydrogenated Soy Phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) Vesicles at Physiologically High Pressures and Salt Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ronit; Schroeder, Avi; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Klein, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Using a surface force balance, we measured normal and shear interactions as a function of surface separation between layers of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) adsorbed from dispersion at physiologically high salt concentrations (0.15 M NaNO3). Cryo-scanning electron microscopy shows that each surface is coated by a close-packed HSPC-SUV layer with an overlayer of liposomes on top. A clear attractive interaction between the liposome layers is seen upon approach and separation, followed by a steric repulsion upon further compression. The shear forces reveal low friction coefficients (μ = 0.008–0.0006) up to contact pressures of at least 6 MPa, comparable to those observed in the major joints. The spread in μ-values may be qualitatively accounted for by different local liposome structure at different contact points, suggesting that the intrinsic friction of the HSPC-SUV layers at this salt concentration is closer to the lower limit (μ = ∼0.0006). This low friction is attributed to the hydration lubrication mechanism arising from rubbing of the hydrated phosphocholine-headgroup layers exposed at the outer surface of each liposome, and provides support for the conjecture that phospholipids may play a significant role in biological lubrication. PMID:21575574

  3. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-02-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  4. Spectroscopic and morphological studies on interaction between gold nanoparticle and liposome constructed with phosphatidylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, C.; Tsuji, T.; Matsuo, K.; Nomoto, T.; Kutluk, G.; Sawada, M.; Ogawa, S.; Yoshida, T.; Yagi, S.

    2015-03-01

    The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) colloidal solution and the phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome aqueous solution are fabricated by the solution plasma method and the extrusion procedure, respectively. When the Au NPs colloidal solution and the PC liposome aqueous solution are mixed, considering the TEM image, we think that the Au NPs firstly are covered with the PC molecules, which do not contribute to form the PC liposome, and subsequently the Au NPs covered with the PC adsorb on the PC liposome surface. We propose that the PC molecule adsorbs on the Au sheet surface at the methyl group of N-CH3 and the oxygen atoms of P-O, P=O, C-O and C=O bonds, because each peak intensity of N, O and P K-edges NEXAFS spectra for the PC/Au sheet is reduced in comparison with that for the PC multilayer. Furthermore, the Au NPs covered with PC seem to be aggregated each other through the hydrophobic groups of PC on Au NPs.

  5. Melittin-Induced Lipid Extraction Modulated by the Methylation Level of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroups.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Alexandre; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-01-19

    Protein- and peptide-induced lipid extraction from membranes is a critical process for many biological events, including reverse cholesterol transport and sperm capacitation. In this work, we examine whether such processes could display specificity for some lipid species. Melittin, the main component of dry bee venom, was used as a model amphipathic α-helical peptide. We specifically determined the modulation of melittin-induced lipid extraction from membranes by the change of the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were demethylated either by substitution with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or chemically by using mono- and dimethylated PE. It is shown that demethylation reduces the association of melittin with membranes, likely because of the resulting tighter chain packing of the phospholipids, which reduces the capacity of the membranes to accommodate inserted melittin. This reduced binding of the peptide is accompanied by an inhibition of the lipid extraction caused by melittin. We demonstrate that melittin selectively extracts PC from PC/PE membranes. This selectivity is proposed to be a consequence of a PE depletion in the surroundings of bound melittin to minimize disruption of the interphospholipid interactions. The resulting PC-enriched vicinity of melittin would be responsible for the observed formation of PC-enriched lipid/peptide particles resulting from the lipid efflux. These findings reveal that modulating the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups is a simple way to control the specificity of lipid extraction from membranes by peptides/proteins and thereby modulate the lipid composition of the membranes. PMID:26789763

  6. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A.; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  7. Continuous Equilibration of Phosphatidylcholine and Its Precursors between Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    de Kroon, Anton I.P.M.; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Vromans, Tom A.M; de Kruijff, Ben

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized in the ER and transported to mitochondria via an unknown mechanism. The transport of PC synthesized by the triple methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine was investigated by pulsing yeast spheroplasts with l-[methyl-3H]methionine, followed by a chase with unlabeled methionine and subcellular fractionation. During the pulse, increasing amounts of PC and its mono- and dimethylated precursors (PMME and PDME, respectively) appear in similar proportions in both microsomes and mitochondria, with the extent of incorporation in microsomes being twice that in mitochondria. During the chase, the [3H]-methyl label from the precursors accumulates into PC with similar kinetics in both organelles. The results demonstrate that transport of methylated phospholipids from ER to mitochondria is 1) coupled to synthesis, 2) not selective for PC, 3) at least as fast as the fastest step in the methylation of PE, and 4) bidirectional for PMME and PDME. The interorganellar equilibration of methylated phospholipids was reconstituted in vitro and did not depend on ongoing methylation, cytosolic factors, ATP, and energization of the mitochondria, although energization could accelerate the reaction. The exchange of methylated phospholipids was reduced after pretreating both microsomes and mitochondria with trypsin, indicating the involvement of membrane proteins from both organelles. PMID:12802081

  8. Phosphatidylcholine protects neurons from toxic effects of amyloid β-protein in culture.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mihee; Hattori, Toshihide; Abdullah, Mohammad; Gong, Jian-Sheng; Yamane, Tsuneo; Michikawa, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is the major component of extracellular plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that the interaction of Aβ with membrane cholesterol is essential for Aβ to exert neurotoxicity; however, the effect of phospholipids, another major membrane lipid component, on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity remains unclarified. Here we report the protective effect of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on primary cultured neurons against Aβ1-42-induced damage. Aβ1-42 caused neuronal death as demonstrated by lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) release, which was completely prevented by a pretreatment with PC in a dose-dependent manner. PC containing unsaturated long-chain acyl groups, 1,2-dioleoyl-PC (DOPC), also prevented neuronal death caused by Aβ1-42. The oleic acid ethyl-ester (OAEE) partially prevented Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. Neurons that were pretreated with DOPC or OAEE for 24h, washed out, and exposed to Aβ1-42 in the absence of either of these reagents, were still resistant to Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, treatment with phosphotidylserine (PS) or docosahexaenoic acid etyl-ester (DHAEE) had no protective effect on neurons against Aβ1-42-induced damage. These results suggest that the control of cellular PC content, not PS content, may prove useful in the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27086970

  9. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM > FT > PFF > PCF > IFP > CFVP > FNT ⩾ DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R2 = 0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  10. Effect of integral membrane proteins on the lateral mobility of plastoquinone in phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Mary F.; Whitmarsh, John

    1990-01-01

    Pyrene fluorescence quenching by plastoquinone was used to estimate the rate of plastoquinone lateral diffusion in soybean phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes containing the following integral membrane proteins: gramicidin D, spinach cytochrome bf complex, spinach cytochrome f, reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, and beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The measured plastoquinone lateral diffusion coefficient varied between 1 and 3 · 10-7 cm2 s-1 in control liposomes that lacked protein. When proteins were added, these values decreased: a 10-fold decrease was observed when 16-26% of the membrane surface area was occupied by protein for all the proteins but gramicidin. The larger protein complexes (cytochrome bf, Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, cytochrome bc1, and cytochrome oxidase), whose hydrophobic volumes were 15-20 times as large as that of cytochrome f and the gramicidin transmembrane dimer, were 15-20 times as effective in decreasing the lateral-diffusion coefficient over the range of concentrations studied. These proteins had a much stronger effect than that observed for bacteriorhodopsin in fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements. The effect of high-protein concentrations in gramicidin proteoliposomes was in close agreement with fluorescence photobleaching measurements. The results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models of lateral mobility as a function of integral membrane concentration. PMID:19431774

  11. Import of Lyso-Phosphatidylcholine into Chloroplasts Likely at the Origin of Eukaryotic Plastidial Lipids1

    PubMed Central

    Mongrand, Sébastien; Cassagne, Claude; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Plastids rely on the import of extraplastidial precursor for the synthesis of their own lipids. This key phenomenon in the formation of plastidial phosphatidylcholine (PC) and of the most abundant lipids on earth, namely galactolipids, is poorly understood. Various suggestions have been made on the nature of the precursor molecule(s) transferred to plastids, but despite general agreement that PC or a close metabolite plays a central role, there is no clear-cut answer to this question because of a lack of conclusive experimental data. We therefore designed experiments to discriminate between a transfer of PC, 1-acylglycero phosphorylcholine (lyso-PC), or glycerophosphorylcholine. After pulse-chase experiments with glycerol and acetate, plastids of leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings were purified. The labels of the glycerol moiety and the sn-1- and sn-2-bound fatty acids of plastidial lipids were determined and compared with those associated with the extraplastidial PC. After import, plastid lipids contained the glycerol moiety and the fatty acids esterified to the sn-1 position originating from the extraplastidial PC; no import of sn-2-bound fatty acid was detected. These results rule out a transfer of PC or glycerophosphorylcholine, and are totally explained by an import of lyso-PC molecules used subsequently as precursor for the synthesis of eukaryotic plastid lipids. PMID:10712548

  12. The role of phosphatidylcholine in fatty acid exchange and desaturation in Brassica napus L. leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J P; Imperial, V; Khan, M U; Hodson, J N

    2000-01-01

    The role of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in fatty acid exchange and desaturation was examined and compared with that of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) in Brassica napus leaves using (14)C-labelling in vivo. Data are presented which indicate that in the chloroplast newly formed saturated (palmitic acid, 16:0) and monounsaturated (oleic acid, 18:1) fatty acid is incorporated into MGDG and desaturated in situ. In the non-plastidic compartments, however, newly formed fatty acid is exchanged with polyunsaturated fatty acid in PC, the probable major site of subsequent desaturation. The unsaturated fatty acid is released to the acyl-CoA pool, which is then used to synthesize diacylglycerol (DAG) containing a high level of unsaturated fatty acid. This highly unsaturated DAG may be the source for the biosynthesis of other cellular glycerolipids. The generally accepted pathway in which PC is synthesized from molecular species of DAG containing 16:0 and 18:1 followed by desaturation of the 18:1 to linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids is questioned. PMID:10861220

  13. Insights into the requirement of phosphatidylcholine synthesis for liver function in mice.

    PubMed

    Noga, Anna A; Vance, Dennis E

    2003-10-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is made in the liver by the CDP-choline pathway and via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC. Unexpectedly, hepatic apolipoprotein B-100 secretion is inhibited in male, but not female, Pemt-/- mice (Noga, A. A., Y. Zhao, and D. E. Vance. 2002. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 42358-42365; Noga, A. A., and D. E. Vance. 2003. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 21851-21859). To gain further insight into this process, we compared PC metabolism in male and female mice fed chow or a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC) diet. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that twice as much PEMT2 was present in livers from female compared with male mice. In contrast, assays of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase from livers of Pemt+/+ mice demonstrated more active cytidylyltransferase in male than in female mice. Secretion of PEMT-derived PC into lipoproteins was examined in vivo by injection of mice with [methyl-3H]methionine in the presence of Triton WR1339. The PEMT-derived PC shifts to smaller-sized particles in response to a HF/HC diet, but only in male mice. Secretion of PEMT-derived PC into bile was enhanced in mice fed a HF/HC diet. These results demonstrate that the synthesis and targeting of PC produced by the PEMT pathway in the livers of mice differs in a gender- and diet-specific manner. PMID:12837848

  14. Formation and stability of the dispersed particles composed of retinyl palmitate and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Asai, Y; Watanabe, S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an intravenous formulation composed of retinyl palmitate (RP) for the treatment of cancer. RP was dispersed with soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) using sonication and the dispersal mechanism was evaluated by characterizing the dispersed particles using dynamic light-scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and surface monolayer techniques. The dispersions in the RP mole fraction range of 0.1-0.8 were stable at room temperature for 3 days. A limited amount of RP was incorporated into PC bilayer membranes (approximately 3 mol%). The excess RP separated from the PC bilayers was stabilized as emulsion particles by the PC surface monolayer. When the PC content was less than the solubility in RP, the PC monolayer did not completely cover the hydrophobic RP particle surfaces and separation into oil/water occurred. The miscibility between RP and PC and the lipid composition were critically important for the stability of the dispersed particles (coexistence of emulsion particles [surface monolayer of PC + core of RP] with vesicular particles [bilayer]) of the lipid mixtures. PMID:10669916

  15. Interaction of the cationic form of amphiphilic drugs with phosphatidylcholine model membranes. Competition with lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Westman, J; Eriksson, L E; Ehrenberg, A

    1984-01-01

    Model membranes (liposomes) of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine were exposed to the charged (cationic) form of amphiphilic drugs (procaine, tetracaine, metroprolol, alprenolol and propranolol). Drug analysis by ultraviolet light absorption of the bulk solution after centrifugation separation was used to determine the amount of drug bound to the membranes. Microelectrophoresis was employed to measure the change in the zeta-potential after drug adsorption. Binding constants were derived by simulating the experimental curves with a theoretical model which considers the electrostatic effects (Gouy-Chapman theory). Analogous experiments were carried out for the adsorption of Eu3+. Metal analysis was made by three different methods. Good agreement between the centrifugation and electrophoresis experiments was obtained for reasonable positions of the plane of shear relative to the positional plane of the bound ions. Displacement of Eu3+ from vesicles upon addition of drug cations was followed by 31P-NMR. The competition experiments were numerically simulated. The Eu3+ binding was assumed to obey a mass action type equilibrium, whereas the drug binding was described by a Henry's law partition. The binding constants for the drugs in the competition experiments followed the same order as in the absence of Eu3+. However, the numerical values had to be reduced. The effect of anions was studied. PMID:17005132

  16. Effect of chain length on physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of cationic vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholines and dialkyldimethylammonium bromides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of cationic vesicles that were prepared from two phosphatidylcholines and three dialkyldimethylammonium bromides (DXDAB) with differing in dialkyl chain lengths, ranging from 2-C(14) to 2-C(18), by measuring particle size and zeta potential. The dependence of particle size, zeta potential and short-storage stability of mixed phosphatidylcholine/DXDAB vesicles on the chain length and composition were also elucidated. Transmission electron microscopy analysis verified that vesicles were formed as a phosphatidylcholine film to which DXDAB was added in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.4). Furthermore, the toxicity to the human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC25) cells that were incubated with these vesicles, evaluated by a cell viability assay, increased with the percentage of DXDAB that was incorporated and was inversely proportional to the chain length of DXDAB. The morphological features (round shape, chromatin condensation and apoptosis bodies) and results of flow cytometry analysis (increased sub-G(1) fraction) confirmed the induction of apoptosis in HaCaT and SCC25 cells by cationic vesicles. Apoptosis caused by cationic vesicles without the addition of any drugs was observed for the first time in HaCaT and SCC25 cells. The results of this investigation suggest that cytotoxicity is related to the zeta potential of the cationic vesicles. PMID:19428352

  17. Lysophosphatidylcholine metabolism to 1,2-diacylglycerol in lymphoblasts: Involvement of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, J.; Wright, T.M.; Hoffman, R.D.; Liao, F.; Symer, D.E.; Shin, H.S. )

    1989-04-04

    The authors have previously described the chemoattraction of lymphoblasts by lysophosphatidylcholine. In studying the mechanism of chemoattraction it was found that lysophosphatidylcholine was metabolized to 1,2-diacylglycerol by the lymphoblastic cell line 6C3HED. One route of metabolism involves the acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholine with subsequent hydrolysis to 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphocholine by the action of phospholipase C. The increase in cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol was established by metabolic experiments using ({sup 14}C)glycerol-labeled lysophosphatidylcholine and by mass measurements of 1,2-diacylglycerol. The presence of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C was confirmed in 6C3HED cell homogenates. In intact cells, lysophosphatidylcholine induced a pattern of protein phosphorylation similar to those of 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, two known activators of protein kinase C. This pathway of lysophosphatidylcholine metabolism, which involves a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C, may be important in the activation of protein kinase C independent of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  18. A Phase I Dose-Finding Study of Silybin Phosphatidylcholine (Milk Thistle) in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Abby B.; Narayan, Rupa; Rodriguez, Rosa; Goyal, Abhishek; Jacobson, Judith S.; Kelly, Kara; Ladas, Elena; Lunghofer, Paul J.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Flaig, Thomas W.; Tsai, Wei Yann; Wu, David P. H.; Lee, Valerie; Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose per day of silybin phosphatidylcholine (Siliphos) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic dysfunction. Experimental Design Patients with advanced HCC not eligible for other therapies based on poor hepatic function were enrolled in a phase I study of silybin phosphatidylcholine. A standard phase I design was used with 4 planned cohorts, dose escalating from 2, 4, 8, to 12 g per day in divided doses for 12 weeks. Results Three participants enrolled in this single institution trial. All enrolled subjects consumed 2 g per day of study agent in divided doses. Serum concentrations of silibinin and silibinin glucuronide increased within 1 to 3 weeks. In all 3 patients, liver function abnormalities and tumor marker α-fetoprotein progressed, but after day 56 the third patient showed some improvement in liver function abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers. All 3 participants died within 23 to 69 days of enrolling into the trial, likely from hepatic failure, but it could not be ruled out that deaths were possibly due to the study drug. Conclusion Short-term administration of silybin phosphatidylcholine in patients with advanced HCC resulted in detectable increases in silibinin and its metabolite, silibinin glucuronide. The maximum tolerated dose could not be established. Since patients died soon after enrollment, this patient population may have been too ill to benefit from an intervention designed to improve liver function tests. PMID:23757319

  19. Structural Determinants of Drug Partitioning in Surrogates of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer Strata

    PubMed Central

    Lukacova, Viera; Natesan, Senthil; Peng, Ming; Tandlich, Roman; Wang, Zhanbin; Lynch, Sandra; Subramaniam, Rajesh; Balaz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of drug concentrations in bilayer headgroups, core, and at the interface between them is a prerequisite for quantitative modeling of drug interactions with many membrane-bound transporters, metabolizing enzymes and receptors, which have the binding sites located in the bilayer. This knowledge also helps understand the rates of trans-bilayer transport because balanced interactions of drugs with the bilayer strata lead to high rates, while excessive affinities for any stratum cause a slowdown. Experimental determination of bilayer location is so tedious and costly that the data are only available for some fifty compounds. To extrapolate these valuable results to more compounds at a higher throughput, surrogate phases have been used to obtain correlates of the drug affinities for individual strata. We introduced a novel system, consisting of a diacetyl phosphatidylcholine (DAcPC) solution with the water content of the fluid bilayer as the headgroup surrogate and n-hexadecane (C16) representing the core. The C16/DAcPC partition coefficients were measured for 113 selected compounds, containing structural fragments that are frequently occurring in approved drugs. The data were deconvoluted into the ClogP-based fragment solvation characteristics and processed using a solvatochromic correlation. Increased H-bond donor ability and excess molar refractivity of compounds promote solvation in the DAcPC phase as compared to bulk water, contrary to H-bond acceptor ability, dipolarity/polarizability, and volume. The results show that aromates have more balanced distribution in bilayer strata, and thus faster trans-bilayer transport, than similar alkanes. This observation is in accordance with the frequent occurrence of aromatic rings in approved drugs and with the role of rigidity of drug molecules in promoting intestinal absorption. Bilayer locations, predicted using the C16/DAcPC system, are in excellent agreement with available experimental data, in contrast to

  20. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  1. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) and lamins alter nuclear membrane structure without affecting phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D

    2011-06-01

    CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. Lipid activation of CCTα results in its translocation to the nuclear envelope and expansion of an intranuclear membrane network termed the nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) by a mechanism involving membrane deformation. Nuclear lamins are also required for stability and proliferation of the NR, but whether this unique structure, or the nuclear lamina in general, is required for PC synthesis is not known. To examine this relationship, the nuclear lamina was depleted by RNAi or disrupted by expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) mutant lamin A (progerin), and the effect on CCTα and choline metabolism was analyzed. siRNA-mediated silencing of lamin A/C or lamin B1 in CHO cells to diminish the NR had no effect on PC synthesis, while double knockdown non-specifically inhibited the pathway. Confirming this minor role in PC synthesis, only 10% of transiently overexpressed choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase was detected in the NR. In CHO cells, CCTα was nucleoplasmic and co-localized with GFP-progerin in nuclear folds and invaginations; however, HGPS fibroblasts displayed an abnormal distribution of CCTα in the cytoplasm and nuclear envelope that was accompanied by a 2-fold reduction in PC synthesis. In spite of its altered localization, choline-labeling experiments showed that CCT activity was unaffected, and inhibition of PC synthesis was traced to reduced activity of a hemicholinium-sensitive choline transporter. We conclude that CCTα and lamins specifically cooperate to form the NR, but the overall structure of the nuclear envelope has a minimal impact on CCT activity and PC synthesis. PMID:21504799

  2. In vitro evidence that phosphatidylcholine protects against indomethacin/bile acid-induced injury to cells

    PubMed Central

    Dial, Elizabeth J.; Dawson, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Indomethacin is a powerful analgesic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), but is limited in use by its primary side effect to cause gastrointestinal bleeding and serious injury. One factor important for exacerbating NSAID injury is the presence of bile acids, which may interact with indomethacin to form toxic mixed micelles in the gut. The development of a safer gastrointestinal formulation of indomethacin that is chemically complexed with phosphatidylcholine (PC-indomethacin) may offer an improved therapeutic agent, particularly in the presence of bile acid, but its potential protective mechanism is incompletely understood. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were tested for injury with indomethacin (alone and plus various bile acids) compared with PC-indomethacin (alone and plus bile acids). To explore a role for bile acid uptake into cells as a requirement for NSAID injury, studies were performed using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). Indomethacin, but not PC-indomethacin, was directly and dose-dependently injurious to IEC-6 cells. Similarly, the combination of any bile acid plus indomethacin, but not PC-indomethacin, induced cell injury. The expression of ASBT had a modest effect on the acute cytotoxicity of indomethacin in the presence of some conjugated bile acids. Complexing PC with indomethacin protected against the acute intestinal epithelial injury caused by indomethacin regardless of the presence of bile acids. The presence of luminal bile acid, but not its carrier-mediated uptake into the enterocyte, is required for acute indomethacin-induced cell injury. It is likely that initial cell damage induced by indomethacin occurs at or near the cell membrane, an effect exacerbated by bile acids and attenuated by PC. PMID:25477376

  3. Phosphatidylinositol induces fluid phase formation and packing defects in phosphatidylcholine model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Aaron; Pisal, Dipak S.; Doty, Amy; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes consisted of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been utilized as delivery vehicle for drugs and proteins. In the present work, we studied the effect of soy PI on physical properties of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes such as phase state of lipid bilayer, lipid packing and phase properties using multiple orthogonal biophysical techniques. The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamino naphthalene (Laurdan) fluorescence studies showed that presence of PI induces the formation of fluid phases in DMPC. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature dependent fluorescence anisotropy measurements, and generalized polarization values for Laurdan showed that the presence of as low as 10 mol% of PI induces substantial broadening and shift to lower temperature of phase transition of DMPC. The fluorescence emission intensity of DPH labeled, PI containing DMPC lipid bilayer decreased possibly due to deeper penetration of water molecules in lipid bilayer. In order to further delineate the effect of PI on the physico chemical properties of DMPC is due to either significant hydrophobic mismatch between the acyl chains of the DMPC and that of soy PI or due to the inositol head group, we systematically replaced soy PI with PC species of similar acyl chain composition (DPPC and 18:2 (Cis) PC) or with diacylglycerol (DAG) respectively. The anisotropy of PC membrane containing soy PI showed largest fluidity change compared to other compositions. The data suggests that addition of PI alters structure and dynamics of DMPC bilayer in that it promotes deeper water penetration in the bilayer, induces fluid phase characteristics and causes lipid packing defects that involve its inositol head group. PMID:22024173

  4. Do cinnamylideneacetophenones have antioxidant properties and a protective effect toward the oxidation of phosphatidylcholines?

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduarda M P; Melo, Tânia; Sousa, Bebiana C; Resende, Diana I S P; Magalhães, Luís M; Segundo, Marcela A; Silva, Artur M S; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2016-10-01

    Cinnamylideneacetophenones (CA) are an important group of α,β,γ,δ-diunsaturated ketones that have been widely used in a variety of synthetic transformations. Biological studies concerning these compounds are scarce and refer mainly to antiviral and antibacterial evaluations. Curcumin (CR), a natural polyphenol, is a yellow pigment extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, which is one of the major spices used in the Indian culinary. It has been reported that CR has cancer chemopreventive properties in a range of animal models of chemical carcinogenesis, along with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Inspired by the biological activity shown by CR and their structural resemblance with CA, it was considered to study the ability of the latter molecules to inhibit lipid oxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical (Fenton reaction) by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) using phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes as a model of cell membrane. Compound 4, holding a methylated hydroxy group in the position R(2), and CR showed similar effects in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. In the presence of 7, the extension of oxidation was higher than the one verified in all other compounds. Other methodologies, namely DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays, were performed to complement and clarify the results attained by oxidation of PC monitored by ESI-MS and to evaluate the antioxidant profile of compounds. For both assays, compound 7 showed to be rather efficient due to its specific structure. This derivative can form a quite stable allylic radical by abstraction of a hydrogen atom which accounts for these results. PMID:27267003

  5. Mass Spectrometric Analyses of Phosphatidylcholines in Alkali-Exposed Corneal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Ashley M.; Hua, Hong-Uyen; Coggin, Andrew D.; Gugiu, Bogdan G.; Lam, Byron L.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aims were to determine whether exposure to sodium hydroxide results in predictable changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) in corneal tissue and if PC profile changes correlate to exposure duration. PCs are major components of the cell membrane lipid bilayer and are often involved in biological processes such as signaling. Methods. Enucleated porcine (n = 140) and cadaver human eyes (n = 20) were exposed to water (control) and 11 M NaOH. The corneas were excised and lipids were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method with suitable modifications. Class-specific lipid identification was carried out using a ratiometric lipid standard on a TSQ Quantum Access Max mass spectrometer. Protein amounts were determined using Bradford assays. Results. Control and alkali-treated corneas showed reproducible PC spectra for both porcine and human corneas. Over 200 PCs were identified for human and porcine control and each experimental time point. Several PC species (m/z values) consequent upon alkali exposure could not be ascribed to a recorded PC species. Control and treated groups showed 41 and 29 common species among them for porcine and human corneas, respectively. The unique PC species peaked at 12 minutes and at 30 minutes for human and porcine corneas followed by a decline consistent with an interplay of alkali penetration and hydrolyses at various time points. Conclusions. Alkali exposure dramatically changes the PC profile of cornea. Our data are consistent with penetration and hydrolysis as stochastic contributors to changes in PCs due to exposure to alkali for a finite duration and amount. PMID:22956606

  6. Cubic Phases in Phosphatidylcholine-Cholesterol Mixtures: Cholesterol as Membrane 'Fusogen'

    SciTech Connect

    Tenchov, Boris G.; MacDonald, Robert C.; Siegel, David P.

    2010-01-18

    X-ray diffraction reveals that mixtures of some unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with cholesterol (Chol) readily form inverted bicontinuous cubic phases that are stable under physiological conditions. This effect was studied in most detail for dioleoyl PC/Chol mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1 and 3:7. Facile formation of Im3m and Pn3m phases with lattice constants of 30-50nm and 25-30nm, respectively, took place in phosphate-buffered saline, in sucrose solution, and in water near the temperature of the L{alpha}HII transition of the mixtures, as well as during cooling of the HII phase. Once formed, the cubic phases displayed an ability to supercool and replace the initial L{sub {alpha}} phase over a broad range of physiological temperatures. Conversion into stable cubic phases was also observed for mixtures of Chol with dilinoleoyl PC but not for mixtures with palmitoyl-linoleoyl PC or palmitoyl-oleoyl PC, for which only transient cubic traces were recorded at elevated temperatures. A saturated, branched-chain PC, diphytanoyl PC, also displayed a cubic phase in mixture with Chol. Unlike the PEs, the membrane PCs are intrinsically nonfusogenic lipids: in excess water they only form lamellar phases and not any of the inverted phases on their own. Thus, the finding that Chol induces cubic phases in mixtures with unsaturated PCs may have important implications for its role in fusion. In ternary mixtures, saturated PCs and sphingomyelin are known to separate into liquid-ordered domains along with Chol. Our results thus suggest that unsaturated PCs, which are excluded from these domains, could form fusogenic domains with Chol. Such a dual role of Chol may explain the seemingly paradoxical ability of cell membranes to simultaneously form rigid, low-curvature raft-like patches while still being able to undergo facile membrane fusion.

  7. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  8. Metabolic and Structural Effects of Phosphatidylcholine and Deoxycholate Injections on Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel; Boswell, Craig Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (PC-DC) injections are a popular nonsurgical method to eliminate unwanted fat. The safety and efficacy of this approach is uncertain. Objective: The authors evaluate the effects of PC-DC treatments on body composition, adipocyte function, and mechanisms responsible for fat loss. Methods: This randomized, open-label study enrolled 13 women with a body mass index (BMI) ≤30 kg/m2 and lower abdominal subcutaneous fat suitable for small-volume liposuction. Patients were randomized by the final digit of their Social Security numbers and received between 2 and 4 PC-DC treatments, spaced 8 weeks apart. One side below the umbilicus was injected with PC-DC. The contralateral, control side received no treatment. Adipose tissue biopsies were performed on the treated side at baseline, 1 week after the first treatment, and 8 weeks after the final treatment. The primary outcome was change in adipose tissue thickness at baseline and 8 weeks after the final treatment. Results: Seven women completed the study. Treatment with PC-DC significantly reduced the thickness of the anterior subcutaneous abdominal fat (P = .004). Adipose tissue showed rapid increases in crown-like structures, macrophage infiltration, and reduced expression of leptin, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose tissue triglyceride lipase, and CD36. Plasma C-reactive protein, lipid profile, and plasma glucose concentrations were unchanged. Conclusions: PC-DC injections can effectively reduce abdominal fat volume and thickness by inducing adipocyte necrosis. These treatments do not appear to increase circulating markers of inflammation or affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:23439063

  9. Phosphatidylcholine kinetics in neonatal rat lungs and the effects of rhuKGF and betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Gesche, Jens; Raith, Marco; Poets, Christian F

    2016-05-15

    Surfactant, synthesized by type II pneumocytes (PN-II), mainly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) and is essential to prevent neonatal respiratory distress. Furthermore, PC is essential to lung tissue growth and maintenance as a membrane component. Recent findings suggest that the lung contributes to systemic lipid homeostasis via PC export through ABC-A1 transporter expression. Hence it is important to consider pharmacological interventions in neonatal lung PC metabolism with respect to such export. Five-day-old rats were treated with carrier (control), intraperitoneal betamethasone, subcutaneous recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rhuKGF), or their combination for 48 h. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg [D9-methyl]choline chloride 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h before death at day 7, and lung lavage fluid (LLF) and tissue were harvested. Endogenous PC, D9-labeled PC species, and their water-soluble precursors (D9-)choline and (D9-)phosphocholine were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Treatment increased secreted and tissue PC pools but did not change equilibrium composition of PC species in LLF. However, all treatments increased specific surfactant components in tissue. In control rats, peak D9-PC in lavaged lung was reached after 3 h and was decreased at 6 h. Only 13% of this net loss in lavaged lung was found in LLF. Such decrease was not present in lungs treated with betamethasone and/or with rhuKGF. D9-PC loss at 3-6 h and PC synthesis calculated from D9 enrichment of phosphocholine indicated that daily synthesis rate is higher than total pool size. We conclude that lung tissue contributes to systemic PC homeostasis in neonatal rats, which is altered by glucocorticoid and rhuKGF treatment. PMID:26944086

  10. Effect of unsaturation on the chain order of phosphatidylcholines in a dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Separovic, F; Gawrisch, K

    1996-01-01

    The properties of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) having a perdeuterated stearic acid, 18:0d35, in the sn-1 position and the fatty acid 18:0, 18:1 omega 9, 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, 20:4 omega 6, 20:5 omega 3, or 22:6 omega 3 at the sn-2 position were investigated in a matrix of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) by 2H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. At a mole ratio of DOPE/PC = 5:1, the lipids form liquid crystalline lamellar phases below 40 degrees C and coexisting lamellar, inverse hexagonal (Hll), and cubic phases at higher temperatures. The sn-1 chain of the PCs in a DOPE matrix is appreciably more ordered than in pure PCs, corresponding to an increase in the hydrophobic bilayer thickness of approximately 1 A. Distearoylphosphatidylcholine in the DOPE matrix has a higher sn-1 chain order than the unsaturated PCs. We observed distinct differences in the lipid order of upper and lower sections of the hydrocarbon chains caused by changes of temperature, unsaturation, headgroups, and ethanol. Unsaturation lowers chain order, mostly in the lower third of the hydrocarbon chains. By contrast, the increase in chain order caused by the DOPE matrix and the decrease in order with increasing temperature have a constant magnitude for the upper two-thirds of the chain and are smaller for the lower third. Addition of 2 M ethanol reduced order parameters, in effect reversing the increase in chain order caused by the DOPE matrix. PMID:8804610

  11. Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C and Sphingomyelinase Activities in Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus Group

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantsev, A. P.; Kalnin, K. V.; Osorio, M.; Leppla, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is nonhemolytic, even though it is closely related to the highly hemolytic Bacillus cereus. Hemolysis by B. cereus results largely from the action of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and sphingomyelinase (SPH), encoded by the plc and sph genes, respectively. In B. cereus, these genes are organized in an operon regulated by the global regulator PlcR. B. anthracis contains a highly similar cereolysin operon, but it is transcriptionally silent because the B. anthracis PlcR is truncated at the C terminus. Here we report the cloning, expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of PC-PLC and SPH from B. cereus and B. anthracis. We also investigated the effects of expressing PlcR on the expression of plc and sph. In B. cereus, PlcR was found to be a positive regulator of plc but a negative regulator of sph. Replacement of the B. cereus plcR gene by its truncated orthologue from B. anthracis eliminated the activities of both PC-PLC and SPH, whereas introduction into B. anthracis of the B. cereus plcR gene with its own promoter did not activate cereolysin expression. Hemolytic activity was detected in B. anthracis strains containing the B. cereus plcR gene on a multicopy plasmid under control of the strong B. anthracis protective antigen gene promoter or in a strain carrying a multicopy plasmid containing the entire B. cereus plc-sph operon. Slight hemolysis and PC-PLC activation were found when PlcR-producing B. anthracis strains were grown under anaerobic-plus-CO2 or especially under aerobic-plus-CO2 conditions. Unmodified parental B. anthracis strains did not demonstrate obvious hemolysis under the same conditions. PMID:14573681

  12. A strategy for solubilizing delipidated apolipoprotein with lysophosphatidylcholine and reconstitution with phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawooya, J.K.; Wells, M.A.; Law, J.H. )

    1989-08-08

    The apolipoproteins of insect lipophorin were dissociated in guanidinium chloride and isolated by gel permeation chromatography. Over 98% of the total lipid in lipophorin was associated with apolipophorin I (apoLp-I), thus suggesting this apolipoprotein to be the lipid binding component of the particle. ApoLp-I was delipidated with ethanol/ether and solubilized in buffer that contained radioactive lysophosphatidylcholine (({sup 3}H)LPC) above the critical micellar concentration. Sonic irradiation of radioactive phosphatidylcholine (({sup 14}C)PC) with ({sup 3}H)LPC-solubilized apoLp-I at a molar ratio of 318 resulted in reconstituted lipophorin I (RLp-I). ({sup 3}H)LPC was bound to fatty acid free bovine serum albumin and was separated from RLp-I by density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel permeation chromatography. Negatively stained RLp-I particles were quasispherical with an average radius of 55{angstrom}, and their overall morphology and secondary structure were similar to those of native hemolymph lipophorin. The RLp-I particle had a {rho} = 1.137 g/mL, a M{sub r} {approx} 5.2 x 10{sup 5}, and a ({sup 14}C)PC:apoLp-I molar ratio of 308. From the compositional analysis, molecular size, trypsinization, and lipolysis with phospholipase A{sub 2}, the authors concluded that each RLp-I particle contained one molecule of apoLp-I and a monomolecular layer of ({sup 14}C)PC. When injected into the hemolymph of adult moths in vivo, RLp-I was loaded with lipid, as judged by a decrease in its density both in the presence and in the absence of adipokinetic hormone. The similarities in morphology and immunology of RLp-I and native lipophorin, together with the ability of RLp-I to load lipid, suggest that reconstituted lipophorins may serve as models to probe lipophorin structure and function.

  13. Hepatoprotectant Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Increasing Phosphatidylcholine Levels as a Potential Therapy of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chamulitrat, Walee; Zhang, Wujuan; Xu, Weihong; Pathil, Anita; Setchell, Kenneth; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    It has been long known that hepatic synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is depressed during acute such as carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Anti-hepatotoxic properties of PC as liposomes have been recognized for treatment of acute liver damage. Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) is a known hepatoprotectant in stabilizing cellular membrane. For therapeutic management of liver injury, we coupled UDCA with a phospholipid known as ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE). UDCA-LPE has been shown to first-in-class hepatoprotectant being superior to UDCA or PC. It inhibits mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, elicits survival signaling pathway, and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes. We herein report that a unique contribution of UDCA-LPE in increasing concentrations of PC in vitro and in vivo. UDCA-LPE-treated hepatocytes contained significantly increased PC levels. UDCA-LPE underwent the hydrolysis to LPE which was not the precursor of the increased PC. The levels of PC in the liver and blood were increased rapidly after intraperitoneally administration UDCA-LPE, and were found to be sustained even after 24 h. Among PC synthesis genes tested, UDCA-LPE treatment of mouse hepatocytes increased transcription of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 which is an enzyme catalyzing phosphatidic acid to generate intermediates for PC synthesis. Thus, UDCA-LPE as a hepatoprotectant was able to induce synthesis of protective PC which would supplement for the loss of PC occurring during acute liver injury. This property has placed UDCA-LPE as a candidate agent for therapy of acute hepatotoxicity such as acetaminophen poisoning. PMID:22363296

  14. Effects of phosphatidylcholine on the topical bioavailability of corticosteroids assessed by the human skin blanching assay.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Martin, G P; Marriott, C

    1988-12-01

    A non-occluded multiple application skin blanching assay has been used to determine the effect of applied phosphatidylcholine (PC) on the bioavailability of corticosteroids. One forearm of each of ten volunteers was treated twice daily for one week with PC presented as a liposomal suspension in Sørensen's (pH 5.0) phosphate buffer (2.5 mg PC/0.5 mL) while the other arm was treated with 0.5 mL of phosphate buffer. For the following two weeks this treatment regimen was continued but in addition, each of four corticosteroid formulations (containing (i) hydrocortisone 0.1%, (ii) clobetasone butyrate 0.05%, (iii) betamethasone 0.1% and (iv) clobetasol propionate, 0.05%) was applied to sites on both arms. 5 +/- 1 mg of each cream was applied twice daily to the sites on day 1, then once daily for a further four days; after two days of no application, the protocol was repeated. Estimation of pallor was usually made four times daily. At the end of the second week of corticosteroid application the blanching response to all four formulations on the PC treated arms was significantly higher than on the buffer treated arm. Tachyphylaxis to the applied corticosteroids was markedly less apparent on the lipid-treated arms. It is proposed that the applied phospholipid either supplements the lipid content of the skin or provides a thin film in intimate epidermal contact. Such a film may promote hydration of the stratum corneum and also provide an environment into which corticosteroids initially partition before a subsequent, more controlled, release to the underlying tissue. PMID:2907573

  15. The mitigating effects of phosphatidylcholines on bile salt- and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced membrane damage.

    PubMed

    el-Hariri, L M; Marriott, C; Martin, G P

    1992-08-01

    The effects, at pH 7.0, of a series of 0.2 mM phosphatidylcholines (PC), namely dicaproyl-PC (DCPC), didecanoyl-PC (DDPC), dilauroyl-PC (DLaPC), dimyristoyl-PC (DMPC), dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC), dioleoyl-PC (DOPC) and dilinoleoyl-PC (DLPC) and a series of 0.2 mM fatty acid salts (namely sodium myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate and linoleate) upon the erythrocyte haemolysis induced by 2 mM sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC) were determined. The influence of egg PC and dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) concentration upon the haemolysis induced by 1.4 mM sodium deoxycholate (SDC), 2 mM STDC and 0.1 mM lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were also established. A bile salt:egg PC mole ratio of 0.5 virtually abolished the haemolysis induced by SDC and STDC, whereas the same ratio of LPC:egg PC only reduced haemolysis from 65 to 40% (maximum haemolysis). DHDP had no effect on the haemolytic action of SDC or STDC. The salts of the fatty acids were non-haemolytic, and when mixed with STDC did not affect the level of haemolysis induced by the bile salt. In contrast, DDPC and DLaPC enhanced the haemolysis of STDC and DCPC had no effect, whereas DMPC, DPPC, DSPC, DOPC, DLPC and egg PC all reduced haemolysis. Maximum reduction was determined for DMPC and egg PC. The mixed micelle preparation temperature (either room or 60 degrees C) and temperature of incubation (either 20 degrees C for 30 min or 37 degrees C for 5 min) had only minor effects on the net haemolysis induced by STDC. These findings may be of significance in understanding the aetiology of certain gastrointestinal diseases and in determining whether mixed bile salt micelles have a role as drug penetration enhancers. PMID:1359088

  16. An approximate model and empirical energy function for solute interactions with a water-phosphatidylcholine interface.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, C R; Schwonek, J P

    1993-01-01

    An empirical model of a liquid crystalline (L alpha phase) phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer interface is presented along with a function which calculates the position-dependent energy of associated solutes. The model approximates the interface as a gradual two-step transition, the first step being from an aqueous phase to a phase of reduced polarity, but which maintains a high enough concentration of water and/or polar head group moieties to satisfy the hydrogen bond-forming potential of the solute. The second transition is from the hydrogen bonding/low polarity region to an effectively anhydrous hydrocarbon phase. The "interfacial energies" of solutes within this variable medium are calculated based upon atomic positions and atomic parameters describing general polarity and hydrogen bond donor/acceptor propensities. This function was tested for its ability to reproduce experimental water-solvent partitioning energies and water-bilayer partitioning data. In both cases, the experimental data was reproduced fairly well. Energy minimizations carried out on beta-hexyl glucopyranoside led to identification of a global minimum for the interface-associated glycolipid which exhibited glycosidic torsion angles in agreement with prior results (Hare, B.J., K.P. Howard, and J.H. Prestegard. 1993. Biophys. J. 64:392-398). Molecular dynamics simulations carried out upon this same molecule within the simulated interface led to results which were consistent with a number of experimentally based conclusions from previous work, but failed to quantitatively reproduce an available NMR quadrupolar/dipolar coupling data set (Sanders, C.R., and J.H. Prestegard. 1991. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113:1987-1996). The proposed model and functions are readily incorporated into computational energy modeling algorithms and may prove useful in future studies of membrane-associated molecules. PMID:8241401

  17. Toward Atomistic Resolution Structure of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup and Glycerol Backbone at Different Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Botan, Alexandru; Favela-Rosales, Fernando; Fuchs, Patrick F J; Javanainen, Matti; Kanduč, Matej; Kulig, Waldemar; Lamberg, Antti; Loison, Claire; Lyubartsev, Alexander; Miettinen, Markus S; Monticelli, Luca; Määttä, Jukka; Ollila, O H Samuli; Retegan, Marius; Róg, Tomasz; Santuz, Hubert; Tynkkynen, Joona

    2015-12-10

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of biological membranes. Despite a vast amount of very accurate experimental data, the atomistic resolution structures sampled by the glycerol backbone and choline headgroup in phoshatidylcholine bilayers are not known. Atomistic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have the potential to resolve the structures, and to give an arrestingly intuitive interpretation of the experimental data, but only if the simulations reproduce the data within experimental accuracy. In the present work, we simulated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers with 13 different atomistic models, and compared simulations with NMR experiments in terms of the highly structurally sensitive C-H bond vector order parameters. Focusing on the glycerol backbone and choline headgroups, we showed that the order parameter comparison can be used to judge the atomistic resolution structural accuracy of the models. Accurate models, in turn, allow molecular dynamics simulations to be used as an interpretation tool that translates these NMR data into a dynamic three-dimensional representation of biomolecules in biologically relevant conditions. In addition to lipid bilayers in fully hydrated conditions, we reviewed previous experimental data for dehydrated bilayers and cholesterol-containing bilayers, and interpreted them with simulations. Although none of the existing models reached experimental accuracy, by critically comparing them we were able to distill relevant chemical information: (1) increase of choline order parameters indicates the P-N vector tilting more parallel to the membrane, and (2) cholesterol induces only minor changes to the PC (glycerol backbone) structure. This work has been done as a fully open collaboration, using nmrlipids.blogspot.fi as a communication platform; all the scientific contributions were made publicly on this blog. During the open research process, the repository holding our simulation trajectories and files ( https

  18. Toward Atomistic Resolution Structure of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup and Glycerol Backbone at Different Ambient Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of biological membranes. Despite a vast amount of very accurate experimental data, the atomistic resolution structures sampled by the glycerol backbone and choline headgroup in phoshatidylcholine bilayers are not known. Atomistic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have the potential to resolve the structures, and to give an arrestingly intuitive interpretation of the experimental data, but only if the simulations reproduce the data within experimental accuracy. In the present work, we simulated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers with 13 different atomistic models, and compared simulations with NMR experiments in terms of the highly structurally sensitive C–H bond vector order parameters. Focusing on the glycerol backbone and choline headgroups, we showed that the order parameter comparison can be used to judge the atomistic resolution structural accuracy of the models. Accurate models, in turn, allow molecular dynamics simulations to be used as an interpretation tool that translates these NMR data into a dynamic three-dimensional representation of biomolecules in biologically relevant conditions. In addition to lipid bilayers in fully hydrated conditions, we reviewed previous experimental data for dehydrated bilayers and cholesterol-containing bilayers, and interpreted them with simulations. Although none of the existing models reached experimental accuracy, by critically comparing them we were able to distill relevant chemical information: (1) increase of choline order parameters indicates the P–N vector tilting more parallel to the membrane, and (2) cholesterol induces only minor changes to the PC (glycerol backbone) structure. This work has been done as a fully open collaboration, using nmrlipids.blogspot.fi as a communication platform; all the scientific contributions were made publicly on this blog. During the open research process, the repository holding our simulation trajectories and files (https

  19. In vivo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat brain via the phospholipid methylation pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakher, Michael; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was examined. (H-3)methyl)methionine was infused i.c.v., by indwelling cannula, and brain samples were taken 0.5-18 h thereafter and assayed for (H-3)PC, as well as for its biosynthetic intermediates (H-3)phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine ((H-3)PMME) and (H-3)phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine ((H-3)PDME), and for (H-3)lysophosphatidylcholine ((H-3)LPC) and S-(H-3)adenosylmethionine ((H-3)SAM). Most of the (H-3)PC (79-94 percent) was present ipsilateral to the infusion site; indicating that the radioactivity in the (H-3)PC was primarily of intracerebral origin, and not taken up from the blood. Moreover, only very low levels of (H-3)PC were attained in brains of animals receiving (H-3)methionine i.p. and these levels were symmetrically distributed. (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME turned over with apparent half-lives of 2.2 h and 2.4 h. In contrast, the accumulation of brain (H-3)PC was biphasic, suggesting the existence of two pools, the more labile of which turned over rapidly (t(sub 1/2) = 5 h) and was formed for as long as (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME are present in the brain, and another, which was distinguishable only at 18 h after the (H-3)methionine infusion. (The latter pool may have been synthesized from (H-3)choline that was released via the hydrolysis of some of the brain (H-3)PC previously formed by the methylation of PE.) Subcellular fractionation of brain tissue obtained after in vivo labelling with (H-3)methionine revealed that mitochondrial PC had the highest specific radioactivity (dpm per micromol total lipid phosphorus), and myelin the least. These observations affirm that rat brain does synthesize PC in vivo by methylating PE, and the technique provides an experimental system which may be useful for examining the physiological regulation of this process.

  20. Influence of different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine on cholesterol transport from lipoprotein recombinants in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, R.; Patton, G.M.; Atkinson, D.; Robins, S.J.

    1987-06-05

    Studies were performed to determine to what extent phosphatidylcholines (PCs) of different composition influence the turnover of lipoprotein cholesterol. Lipoprotein recombinants with the composition and structure of spherical high density lipoproteins (HDL-R) were prepared with apoproteins, /sup 14/C-labeled unesterified cholesterol (UC), a (3H)cholesteryl ester (CE), and one of four single molecular species of PC. PCs were selected to include relatively hydrophilic species (16:1-16:1 and 16:0-18:2 PCs) and relatively hydrophobic species (18:0-18:2 and 20:1-20:1 PCs). PCs were also selected to include molecules with novel acyl group pairs (16:1-16:1 and 20:1-20:1 PCs) that would permit the whole molecule to be traced during its clearance from the serum. Rats were injected with HDL-R as an intravenous bolus, and serum, liver, and bile samples were obtained for up to 2 h. The clearance from the serum of each PC was monoexponential with the two most hydrophilic species much more rapidly cleared than either of the two less hydrophilic species. Clearance of specific PCs was not accompanied by PC remodeling (i.e. transacylations), and in the main could not be attributed to the action of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). In incubations designed to simulate in vivo conditions, no more than 15% of the disappearance of 16:1-16:1 PC, one of the most rapidly cleared PCs, was due to the action of LCAT. With 20:1-20:1 PC, one of the least rapidly cleared PCs, no LCAT activity could be detected. The clearance of radiolabeled UC was multiexponential and closely corresponded to the rate of disappearance of each PC. The clearance of radiolabeled CE was linear and, in contrast to UC, was the same with the administration of different PCs. Uptake of radiolabeled UC by the liver and excretion of radiolabeled UC into bile took place in parallel and corresponded to the rapidity of turnover of UC (and PCs) in the serum.

  1. Measurement of Lung Phosphatidylcholines in Exhaled Breath Particles by a Convenient Collection Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Sandqvist, Sören; Beck, Olof

    2015-11-17

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of four phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in human exhaled breath particles. Analytes were conveniently collected on an electrostatic polymer filter and extracted with methanol prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultraperformance liquid chromatographic ethylene bridged hybrid phenyl column using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol containing 4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% ammonia. The mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Detection limits for PC 16:0/16:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), PC 16:0/18:1, PC 16:0/18:2, and PC 18:0/18:2 were <0.01 ng/filter. Method recoveries at concentration levels of 0.1 and 10 ng/filter were 100-110% and 101-121%, respectively. Acceptable precision with coefficients of variation <20% and accuracies of 100% ± 20% were achieved. Identification of the individual PCs was performed on the basis of two product ions with correct ion ratios and chromatographic retention times. The highest amount in exhaled breath was found for DPPC with median concentration 1.14 ng/filter (range 0.6-21 ng/filter), and median molar ratios of DPPC/PC (16:0/18:1) of 1.98 (range 0.48-2.75). A different pattern with lower molar ratio (∼0.15) was found for oral fluid. The most significant element of this study was to use a precolumn in the LC system and to collecting exhaled particles in an electret polymer filter. Due to chromatographic interference by background contamination, an isolator column (PFC kit) was installed in between eluent mixer and injector to reduce contamination. This is the first LC/MS study where the method was successfully applied to analyze PCs in human exhaled breath by using a simple and convenient collection procedure. PMID:26505278

  2. Structure and thermotropic properties of 1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Duclos, R I; Shipley, G G

    1994-05-01

    The structural and thermotropic properties of 1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-phosphatidylcholine (C(18):C(2)-PC) were studied as a function of hydration. A combination of differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the phase behavior of C(18):C(2)-PC. At low hydration (e.g., 20% H2O), the differential scanning calorimetry heating curve shows a single reversible endothermic transition at 44.6 degrees C with transition enthalpy delta H = 6.4 kcal/mol. The x-ray diffraction pattern at -8 degrees C shows a lamellar structure with a small bilayer periodicity d = 46.3 A and two wide angle reflections at 4.3 and 3.95 A, characteristic of a tilted chain, L beta' bilayer gel structure. Above the main transition temperature, a liquid crystalline L alpha phase is observed with d = 53.3 A. Electron density profiles at 20% hydration suggest that C(18):C(2)-PC forms a fully interdigitated bilayer at -8 degrees C and a noninterdigitated, liquid crystalline phase above its transition temperature (T > Tm). Between 30 and 50% hydration, on heating C(18):C(2)-PC converts from a highly ordered, fully interdigitated gel phase (L beta') to a less ordered, interdigitated gel phase (L beta), which on further heating converts to a noninterdigitated liquid crystalline L alpha phase. However, the fully hydrated (> 60% H2O) C(18):C(2)-PC, after incubation at 0 degrees C, displays three endothermic transitions at 8.9 degrees C (transition I, delta H = 1.6 kcal/mol), 18.0 degrees C (transition II), and 20.1 degrees C (transition III, delta HII+III = 4.8 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction at -8 degrees C again showed a lamellar gel phase (L beta') with a small periodicity d = 52.3 A. At 14 degrees C a less ordered, lamellar gel phase (L beta) is observed with d = 60.5 A. However, above the transition III, a broad, diffuse reflection is observed at approximately 39 A, consistent with the presence of a micellar phase. The following scheme is proposed for

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces lateral segregation of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylcholine in reconstituted membranes.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Jorge J; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2005-01-11

    Purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) protein was reconstituted into synthetic lipid membranes having known effects on receptor function in the presence and absence of cholesterol (Chol). The phase behavior of a lipid system (DPPC/DOPC) possessing a known lipid phase profile and favoring nonfunctional, desensitized AChR was compared with that of a lipid system (POPA/POPC) containing the anionic phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA), which stabilizes the functional resting form of the AChR. Fluorescence quenching of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) extrinsic fluorescence and AChR intrinsic fluorescence by a nitroxide spin-labeled phospholipid showed that the AChR diminishes the degree of DPH quenching and promotes DPPC lateral segregation into an ordered lipid domain, an effect that was potentiated by Chol. Fluorescence anisotropy of the probe DPH increased in the presence of AChR or Chol and also made apparent shifts to higher values in the transition temperature of the lipid system in the presence of Chol and/or AChR. The values were highest when both Chol and AChR were present, further reinforcing the view that their effect on lipid segregation is additive. These results can be accounted for by the increase in the size of quencher-free, ordered lipid domains induced by AChR and/or Chol. Pyrene phosphatidylcholine (PyPC) excimer (E) formation was strongly reduced owing to the restricted diffusion of the probe induced by the AChR protein. The analysis of Forster energy transfer (FRET) from the protein to DPH further indicates that AChR partitions preferentially into these ordered lipid microdomains, enriched in saturated lipid (DPPC or POPA), which segregate from liquid phase-enriched DOPC or POPC domains. Taken together, the results suggest that the AChR organizes its immediate microenvironment in the form of microdomains with higher lateral packing density and rigidity. The relative size of such microdomains depends not only on the phospholipid polar headgroup

  4. Lipid raft components cholesterol and sphingomyelin increase H+/OH− permeability of phosphatidylcholine membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gensure, Rebekah H.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Hill, Warren G.

    2006-01-01

    H+/OH− permeation through lipid bilayers occurs at anomalously high rates and the determinants of proton flux through membranes are poorly understood. Since all life depends on proton gradients, it is important to develop a greater understanding of proton leak phenomena. We have used stopped-flow fluorimetry to probe the influence of two lipid raft components, chol (cholesterol) and SM (sphingomyelin), on H+/OH− and water permeability. Increasing the concentrations of both lipids in POPC (palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine) liposomes decreased water permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that correlated with increased lipid order. Surprisingly, proton flux was increased by increasing the concentration of chol and SM. The chol effect was complex with molar concentrations of 17.9, 33 and 45.7% giving 2.8-fold (P<0.01), 2.2-fold (P<0.001) and 5.1-fold (P<0.001) increases in H+/OH− permeability from a baseline of 2.4×10−2 cm/s. SM at 10 mole% effected a 2.8-fold increase (P<0.01), whereas 20 and 30 mole% enhanced permeability by 3.6-fold (P<0.05) and 4.1-fold respectively (P<0.05). Supplementing membranes containing chol with SM did not enhance H+/OH− permeability. Of interest was the finding that chol addition to soya-bean lipids decreased H+/OH− permeability, consistent with an earlier report [Ira and Krishnamoorthy (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1484–1488]. We speculate that the presence of proton carriers in crude lipid extracts might contribute to this result. We conclude that (i) chol and SM specifically and independently increase rates of proton permeation in POPC bilayers, (ii) domains enriched in these lipids or domain interfaces may represent regions with high H+/OH− conductivity, (iii) H+/OH− fluxes are not governed by lipid order and (iv) chol can inhibit or promote H+/OH− permeability depending on the total lipid environment. Theories of proton permeation are discussed in the light of these results. PMID

  5. An albumin-associated PLA2-like activity inactivates surfactant phosphatidylcholine secreted from fetal type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Damas, Jolanta E; Cake, Max H

    2011-12-01

    Type II pneumocytes are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, which reduces surface tension in lung alveoli, thus decreasing their tendency to collapse during expiration. For this effect to be sustained, the integrity of the surface-active components of surfactant must be maintained. This study has shown that, when cultured type II pneumocytes are exposed to lipoprotein-free serum (LFS), the level of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) in the secreted surfactant phospholipids is markedly elevated with a concomitant decline in the level of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This effect is the result of hydrolysis of surfactant PC by a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-like activity present within serum. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and preparative electrophoresis of human LFS have shown that this PLA(2)-like activity coelutes with albumin and is biochemically distinct from the secretory form of PLA(2). Furthermore, specific inhibitors of PLA(2) such as p-bromophenacyl bromide, aristolochic acid, and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone do not inhibit this activity of serum. Commercially purified human serum albumin fraction V and recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) are almost as effective as LFS in enhancing the level of lyso-PC in the media. The latter finding implies that rHSA directly generates lyso-PC from secreted PC and suggests that this PLA(2)-like activity may be an intrinsic attribute of albumin. PMID:21908590

  6. Tb3+ and Ca2+ binding to phosphatidylcholine. A study comparing data from optical, NMR, and infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed Central

    Petersheim, M; Halladay, H N; Blodnieks, J

    1989-01-01

    The paramagnetic and luminescent lanthanides are unique probes of cation-phospholipid interactions. Their spectroscopic properties provide the means to characterize and monitor complexes formed with lipids in ways not possible with biochemically more interesting cations, such as Ca2+. In this work, Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes are described using the luminescence properties of Tb3+, the effect of its paramagnetism on the 31P NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the lipid, and changes in the infrared spectrum of the lipid induced by the cation. There are two Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes with very different coordination environments, as evidenced by changes in the optical excitation spectrum of the lanthanide. The NMR experiments indicate that the two complexes differ in the number of phosphate groups directly coordinating Tb3+. Tb3+ binding induces changes in the phosphodiester infrared bands that are most consistent with bidentate chelation of Tb3+ by each phosphate, whereas Ca2+-induced changes are more consistent with monodentate coordination. The significance of this discrepancy is discussed. PMID:2790138

  7. Production of structured phosphatidylcholine with high content of DHA/EPA by immobilized phospholipase A₁-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Jia-Feng; Yang, Bo; Li, Dao-Ming; Wang, Yong-Hua; Wang, Wei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of structured phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by transesterification of DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters with PC using immobilized phospholipsase A1 (PLA1) in solvent-free medium. Firstly, liquid PLA1 was immobilized on resin D380, and it was found that a pH of 5 and a support/PLA1 ratio (w/v) of 1:3 were the best conditions for the adsorption. Secondly, the immobilized PLA1 was used to catalyze transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. The maximal incorporation of DHA and EPA achieved was 30.7% for 24 h of reaction at 55 °C using a substrate mass ratio (PC/ethyl esters) of 1:6, an immobilized PLA1 loading of 15% and water dosage of 1.25%. Then the reaction mixture was analyzed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The composition of reaction product included 16.5% PC, 26.3% 2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC), 31.4% 1-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC), and 25.8% sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (GPC). PMID:25170810

  8. Phosphatidylcholine covalently linked to a methacrylate-based monolith as a biomimetic stationary phase for capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Carrasco-Correa, Enrique Javier; Planeta, Josef; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2015-07-10

    In this study a strategy to immobilize phospholipids onto a polymer-based stationary phase is described. Methacrylate-based monoliths in capillary format (150×0.1mm) were modified by soybean phosphatidylcholine through 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide coupling to obtain stationary phases suitable to mimic cell surface membranes. The covalent coupling reaction involves the phosphate group in phospholipids; therefore, the described methodology is suitable for all types of phospholipids. Immobilization of soy bean phosphatidylcholine on the monolith was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the fatty alcohol profile, generated upon reductive cleavage of the fatty acyl side chains of the phospholipid on the monolith surface with lithium aluminium hydride. The prepared stationary phases were evaluated through studies on the retention of low-molar mass model analytes including neutral, acidic, and basic compounds. Liquid chromatographic studies confirmed predominant hydrophobic interactions between the analytes and the synthesized stationary phase; however, electrostatic interactions contributed to the retention as well. The synthesized columns showed high stability even with fully aqueous mobile phases such as Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution. PMID:26024990

  9. Plasma lyso-phosphatidylcholine concentration is decreased in cancer patients with weight loss and activated inflammatory status

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lenka A; Arends, Jann; Hodina, Arwen K; Unger, Clemens; Massing, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been observed that ras-transformed cell lines in culture have a higher phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis rate as well as higher PC-degradation rate (increased PC-turnover) than normal cells. In correspondence to these findings, the concentrations of the PC-degradation product lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) in cancer patients were found to be decreased. Our objective was the systematic investigation of the relationship between LPC and inflammatory and nutritional parameters in cancer patients. Therefore, plasma LPC concentrations were assessed in 59 cancer patients and related to nutritional and inflammatory parameters. To determine LPC in blood plasma we developed and validated a HPTLC method. Results Average plasma LPC concentration was 207 ± 59 μM which corresponds to the lower limit of the reported range in healthy subjects. No correlation between LPC and age, performance status, body mass index (BMI) or fat mass could be seen. However, LPC correlated inversely with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and whole blood hydrogen peroxides (HPO). Further, a negative correlation could be observed between LPC and whole body extra cellular fluid volume (ECF) as well as with relative change in body weight since cancer diagnosis. Conclusion In conclusion, LPC concentrations were decreased in cancer patients. LPC plasma concentrations correlated with weight loss and inflammatory parameters and, therefore, might be a general indicator of severity of malignant disease. PMID:17623088

  10. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholines in ozone-exposed alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung: is glycerolphosphate acyltransferase a rate-limiting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Haagsman, H.P.; Schuurmans, E.A.; Batenburg, J.J.; van Golde, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. The rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by type II cells, monitored by the incorporation of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline, was impaired by ozone at concentrations that did not affect other cellular parameters. The enzymes choline kinase and cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase were not susceptible to inactivation by ozone at concentrations at which the activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase was decreased. The enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase increased after ozone exposure. The specific activity of choline kinase in the cytosolic fraction of type II cells was fivefold that in whole lung. The metabolism of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline was studied as a function of the choline concentration. Maximal rates of phosphatidylcholine synthesis were already attained at a concentration of 20 microM choline. Exposure of type II cells to ozone did not affect the recovery of label from (Me-/sup 14/C)choline in choline phosphate and CDP choline. However, the maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis decreased after ozone exposure, which indicates that the decreased apparent activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase limits the supply of diacylglycerols and thereby the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. If the flux through the diacylglycerol pathway was stimulated by the addition of palmitic acid, a higher maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis was observed. The uptake of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline and the recovery of label in CDPcholine were not altered by the addition of different concentrations of palmitate. It is concluded that type II cells take up choline very efficiently, probably due to the high specific activity of choline kinase. At low choline concentrations the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis is determined by the supply of CDPcholine.

  11. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  12. The Comparison of The Effects of Silybin and Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine on Viability and ESR Expression in Human Breast Cancer T47D Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Narges; Motamed, Nasrin; Paylakhi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Silybin is a polyphenol with anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. The poor bioavailability of some polyphenols can be improved by binding to phosphatidylcholine. In recent years, studies have been conducted to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of silybin. We studied the effect of silybin and silybin-phosphatidylcholine on ESR1 and ESR2 gene expression and viability in the T47D breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide test (MTT test) was used to determine doses for cell treatment, and the gene expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT- PCR). Results Significant dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibitory effects of silybin and silybin-phosphatidylcholine along with ESR1 down-regulation were observed in T47D cells. In contrast to ESR1, the T47D cell line showed negligible ESR2 expression. Conclusion This study suggests that silybin and silybin-phosphatidylcholine down-regulate ESR1 in ER+breast cancers. Results also show that in the T47D cell line, silybindown-regulation of ESR1 compared with silybin. PMID:24611152

  13. Glycerosomes: Use of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine mixture and its effect on vesicle features and diclofenac skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Manca, Maria Letizia; Cencetti, Claudia; Matricardi, Pietro; Castangia, Ines; Zaru, Marco; Sales, Octavio Diez; Nacher, Amparo; Valenti, Donatella; Maccioni, Anna Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-09-10

    In this work, diclofenac was encapsulated, as sodium salt, in glycerosomes containing 10, 20 or 30% of glycerol in the water phase with the aim to ameliorate its topical efficacy. Taking into account previous findings, glycerosome formulation was modified, in terms of economic suitability, using a cheap and commercially available mixture of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (P90H). P90H glycerosomes were spherical and multilamellar; photon correlation spectroscopy showed that obtained vesicles were ∼131nm, slightly larger and more polydispersed than those made with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) but, surprisingly, they were able to ameliorate the local delivery of diclofenac, which was improved with respect to previous findings, in particular using glycerosomes containing high amount of glycerol (20 and 30%). Finally, this drug delivery system showed a high in vitro biocompatibility toward human keratinocytes. PMID:27418567

  14. The Equilibria of Diosgenin-Phosphatidylcholine and Diosgenin-Cholesterol in Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Katarzyna; Jastrzebska, Izabella; Petelska, Aneta Dorota

    2016-08-01

    Diosgenin (Dio) has shown many treatment properties, but the most important property is cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated monolayers of Dio, cholesterol (Ch), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) at the air/water interface. The measurements were carried with a Langmuir Teflon trough and a Nima 9000 tensiometer program. The surface tension values of pure and mixed monolayers were used to calculate π-A isotherms and determine molecular surface areas. We were able to demonstrate the formation of complexes between Dio and PC and Dio and Ch molecules also. We considered the equilibrium between individual components and the formed complexes. In addition, we established that diosgenin and the lipids formed highly stable 1:1 complexes. PMID:27350149

  15. A phosphatidylcholine hyaluronic acid chitin–nanofibrils complex for a fast skin remodeling and a rejuvenating look

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco; Palombo, Paolo; Palombo, Marco; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Cardillo, Antonio; Svolacchia, Fabiano; Guevara, Luis; Mezzana, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging. Objective We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin. Methods Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients. Results In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging. PMID:23293530

  16. PIEZO1 gene mutation in a Japanese family with hereditary high phosphatidylcholine hemolytic anemia and hemochromatosis-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sugihara, Takashi; Okuno, Yusuke; Wang, Xinan; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kita, Shinya; Oe, Keishi; Sueyoshi, Atsushi; Usui, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji; Kanno, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) or dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) [OMIM 194380], in which PIEZO1 gene mutation has recently been identified, is difficult to diagnose. We report here the discovery of a PIEZO1 gene mutation in a Japanese family (father, daughter, and son) who were previously diagnosed with hereditary high phosphatidylcholine hemolytic anemia (HPCHA). All of the affected family members had non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia associated with severe hemochromatosis-related diabetes mellitus. Although the causative correlation between HPCHA and PIEZO1-gene mutated HX/DHS remains to be clarified, our findings raise an important question as to whether any of the HPCHA cases previously diagnosed in Japan may have in fact been the form of hemolytic anemia known as HX/DHS with PIEZO1 gene mutation. PMID:26971963

  17. Beta-adrenergic control of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation in hepatocytes from juvenile, adult and adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Cao, D; Alvarez Chiva, V; Mato, J M

    1983-01-01

    Changes in isoprenaline-sensitive phospholipid methyltransferase were studied in hepatocytes isolated from juvenile, mature and adrenalectomized rats. Isoprenaline produced greater stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats than in mature animals. Similarly, isoprenaline stimulated phospholipid methyltransferase in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats but had no effect in mature animals. Isoprenaline-mediated activation of phospholipid methyltransferase in adrenalectomized rats was time- and dose-dependent. In hepatocytes isolated from adrenalectomized rats incubated with [Me-3H]methionine or [3H]-ethanolamine the addition of isoprenaline increased the amount of radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. The activation by isoprenaline of phospholipid methyltransferase was abolished by the beta-blocker propranolol and by insulin. These results indicate that rat liver the occupation of functional beta-receptors causes a stimulation of phospholipid methylation. It is suggested that, as reported previously, cyclic AMP activates phospholipid methyltransferase. PMID:6320796

  18. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine: an improved method without using the cadmium chloride complex of sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Iwasaki, Hitomi; Ueda, Kaori; Takizawa, Ryoko; Naito, Hideko; Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro

    2005-10-01

    An improved safe method that does not contaminate the environment with cadmium chloride, a toxic heavy metal salt, was developed for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC was synthesized from sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC) and fatty acid in one step under mild conditions without the use of cadmium chloride. GPC was prepared from egg yolk PC and adsorbed by kieselguhr in a Teflon vessel. The GPC on kieselguhr was acylated with fatty acid in the presence of two reagents, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide for synthesis of fatty acid anhydride and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as an acylating catalyst, at 30 degrees C overnight. The PC thus produced was purified by silica gel column chromatography. The yield of dioleoyl PC was 90% based on the starting material, GPC. PMID:16054615

  19. Insights about α-tocopherol and Trolox interaction with phosphatidylcholine monolayers under peroxidation conditions through Brewster angle microscopy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carla M; Pinheiro, Marina; Lúcio, Marlene; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Camacho, Luis; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette; Segundo, Marcela A

    2013-11-01

    Membranes are major targets to oxidative damage, particularly due to lipid oxidation, which has been associated to aging. The role, efficacy and membrane interaction of antioxidants is still unclear, requiring further understanding of molecular interaction. Hence, the objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between antioxidants (α-tocopherol and its aqueous soluble analog Trolox) and the monolayer formed by phosphatidylcholine molecules at air/liquid interface upon peroxidation conditions, promoted by peroxyl radicals from thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) (AAPH). The interaction with three different monolayers, containing (i) 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), (ii) DDPC+α-linolenic acid, or (iii) egg yolk l-α-phosphatidylcholine (EPC), was ascertain by surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) isotherms and by monitoring monolayer features through Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The interaction of antioxidants with DPPC monolayers was confirmed by modifications on DPPC domain shape for α-tocopherol and through the maintenance of typical multilobed domain shape during an extended surface pressure interval for Trolox. Under peroxidation conditions, BAM images showed a clear interaction between components of AAPH subphase with the monolayer through changes on DPPC domain shape and appearance of white dots, located mainly at the frontier between the condensed and expanded liquid phases. White branched structures were also observed whenever both α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol were present, indicating the segregation of these components within the monolayer, which is highly significant in biological systems. For EPC monolayers, no information from BAM was obtained but π-A isotherms confirmed the existence of the same interactions observed within the other two monolayers. PMID:23907050

  20. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong . E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

    2006-10-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

  1. Physisorbed o-carborane onto lyso-phosphatidylcholine-functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes: a potential carrier system for the therapeutic delivery of boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannopoulos, S. N.; Zouganelis, G. D.; Nurmohamed, S.; Smith, J. R.; Bouropoulos, N.; Calabrese, G.; Fatouros, D. G.; Tsibouklis, J.

    2010-02-01

    A combination of data from ICP-MS, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements and gel electorphoresis studies has shown that o-carborane may be immobilized on stable aqueous dispersions of lyso-phosphatidylcholine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes, which in turn indicates the potential of such structures for deployment as carrier vehicles in boron neutron capture therapy.

  2. Effects of ethanol and diclofenac on the organization of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles and their ability as skin carriers.

    PubMed

    Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Matricardi, Pietro; Catalán-Latorre, Ana; Nácher, Amparo; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol and/or diclofenac on vesicle bilayer structure have been studied. Liposomes with hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and two different concentrations of diclofenac sodium (5 and 10 mg/ml) were obtained. In addition, ethanol was mixed in the water phase at different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 % v/v) to obtain ethosomes. To characterize vesicles, rehological analysis were carried out to investigate the intervesicle interactions, while bilayer structure was evaluated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the ethanol and/or diclofenac concentration-dependent ability to improve diclofenac skin delivery was evaluated in vitro. The addition of 20 % ethanol and/or diclofenac led to solid-like ethosome dispersion due to the formation of a new intervesicle structure, as previously found in transcutol containing vesicle dispersions. However, when using 5-10 % of ethanol the induction to form vesicle interconnections was less evident but the simultaneous presence of the drug at the highest concentration facilitated this phenomenon. Ethosomes containing the highest amount of both, drug (10 mg/ml) and ethanol (20 % v/v), improved the drug deposition in the skin strata and in the receptor fluid up to 1.5-fold, relative to liposomes. Moreover this solid-like formulation can easily overcome drawbacks of traditional liquid liposome formulations which undergo a substantial loss at the application site. PMID:25716021

  3. Separation and purification of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from soybean degummed oil residues by using solvent extraction and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weinong; He, Haibo; Feng, Yuqi; Da, Shilu

    2003-12-25

    Natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were separated and purified from soybean degummed oil residues in this work. Crude PC and PE were first separated from degummed oil residues by extraction with 95% ethanol, and then the crude PC and PE were used as raw materials to prepare high purity PC and PE by using column chromatography of silica gel (100-200 mesh) with different eluents and elution modes. The high purity PC (content > 90%) was obtained from the crude PC by using isocratic elution with methanol as eluent. Compared with the methods reported by using isocratic elution with mixed solvents as eluent or gradient elution, the procedure proposed exhibits low cost and industry potentialities because of some advantages, such as operation simplicity, cheap equipment and solvent to be recovered easily. The purity of the PE product prepared from the crude PE was more than 75%. The gradient elution was preferable to isocratic elution for reducing the elution time and eluent consumption when to prepare PE from the crude PE. The effects of loading amount and the flow-rate on separation efficiency were also investigated. For obtaining high separation efficiency, the loading amount should be less than 2.0 g crude PC or PE/100 g silica gel, and the flow-rate should be controlled under 4 ml/min for crude PC and 3 ml/min for crude PE, respectively. PMID:14643513

  4. Phospholipase A1-catalyzed hydrolysis of soy phosphatidylcholine to prepare l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine in organic-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize the preparation of L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine (l-α-GPC) via phospholipase A1 (Lecitase Ultra)-catalyzed hydrolysis of soy phosphatidylcholine (PC). The reaction was performed in n-hexane-water biphasic media in a stirred batch reactor, and modeling and optimization were conducted using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to completely hydrolyze PC to L-α-GPC were: temperature, 50 °C; reaction time, 30 h; water content, 69 g/100 g of PC weight; and enzyme loading, 13 g/100 g of PC weight. The optimal n-hexane-to-water ratio in the medium was 5.8:1 (v/v), and 21.3g of PC was treated as the substrate in 100 mL of the medium. L-α-GPC with purity 99.3 g/100 g was obtained from the reaction products after diethyl ether extraction and silica column chromatography. These findings suggest that the use of n-hexane-water media increases the productivity of l-α-GPC compared to the aqueous media used in enzymatic reaction systems in other published studies. PMID:26212962

  5. Relaxation dynamics of the gel to liquid-crystalline transition of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Effects of chainlength and vesicle size.

    PubMed

    van Osdol, W W; Johnson, M L; Ye, Q; Biltonen, R L

    1991-04-01

    The relaxation kinetics of the gel to liquid-crystalline transition of five phosphatidylcholine (DC14PC to DC18PC) bilayer dispersions have been investigated using volume perturbation calorimetry, a steady-state technique which subjects a sample to sinusoidal changes in volume. Temperature and pressure responses to the volume perturbation are measured to monitor the relaxation to a new equilibrium position. The amplitude demodulation and phase shift of these observables are analyzed with respect to the perturbation frequency to yield relaxation times and amplitudes. In the limit of low perturbation frequency, the temperature and pressure responses are proportional to the equilibrium excess heat capacity and bulk modulus, respectively. At all temperatures, the thermal response data are consistent with a single primary relaxation process of the lipid. The less accurate bulk modulus data exhibit two relaxation times, but it is not clear whether they reflect lipid processes or are characteristic of the instrument. The observed thermal relaxation behavior of all multilamellar vesicles are quantitatively similar. The relaxation times vary from approximately 50 ms to 4 s, with a pronounced maximum at a temperature just greater than Tm, the temperature of the excess heat capacity maximum. Large unilamellar vesicles also exhibit a single relaxation process, but without a pronounced maximum in the relaxation time. Their relaxation time is approximately 80 ms over most of the transition range. PMID:2065185

  6. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Dugall, Mark; Pellegrini, Luciano; Ledda, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Togni, Stefano; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    In a previous three-month study of Meriva, a proprietary curcumin-phosphatidylcholine phytosome complex, decreased joint pain and improvement in joint function were observed in 50 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Since OA is a chronic condition requiring prolonged treatment, the long-term efficacy and safety of Meriva were investigated in a longer (eight months) study involving 100 OA patients. The clinical end points (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC] score, Karnofsky Performance Scale Index, and treadmill walking performance) were complemented by the evaluation of a series of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L], soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]). This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis. PMID:21194249

  7. Absence of Membrane Phosphatidylcholine Does Not Affect Virulence and Stress Tolerance Phenotypes in the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Adel A.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    During growth in presence of choline, both laboratory and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC), and PC makes up ∼4% of the total membrane phospholipid content. In all the strains tested, PC synthesis occurred only when choline is provided exogenously. Mutants defective in synthesis of PC were generated in the strain backgrounds PAO1 and PA14. Minimum inhibitory concentration studies testing sensitivity of PC-deficient strains towards various antibiotics and cationic antimicrobial peptides revealed no differences as compared to wild-type strains. Mutants incapable of synthesizing PC were also found to be unaffected in motility and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, colonization of biotic surfaces and virulence in a mouse infection model. A global phenotypic microarray was further used to identify conditions wherein membrane PC may play a role of in P. aeruginosa. No culture conditions were identified wherein wild-type and PC-deficient mutants showed phenotypic differences. Membrane PC may serve a highly specific role during P. aeruginosa interactions with its eukaryotic hosts based on all the clinical strains tested retaining the ability to synthesize it during availability of choline. PMID:22363496

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Phosphatidylcholine Improves Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ23-35-Induced Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mei-Hua; Yang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Han, Hailin; Wang, Jia; Wang, Guo-Du; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Zhiqin

    2016-01-01

    Both Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been shown to halt the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. This study aimed to investigate the role of DHA-containing PC (DHA-PC) in the improvement of Aβ25-35-induced cognitive deficits in rats. Aβ25-35-induced AD rats were treated for 30 days with DHA-PC, which was extracted from Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis spawns. Cognitive improvement of the AD rats was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM). The results demonstrated that DHA-PC could improve the learning and memory abilities of AD rats in a dose-dependent pattern. Further analyses showed that expression of phosphorylated tau decreased, and the neuronal morphology recovered in brains of DHA-PC-treated AD rats, as compared with mock-treated AD rats. In addition, DHAPC treatment increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in the cortex and hippocampus of AD rats. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-PC is able to improve the cognitive deficits in AD rats, probably through decreasing the phosphorylation of tau in the cortex and hippocampus CA1 area, and increasing the GSH-Px and SOD activities in the brain of AD rats. PMID:26268328

  9. A spiked tissue-based approach for quantification of phosphatidylcholines in brain section by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Jadoul, Laure; Longuespée, Rémi; Noël, Agnès; De Pauw, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    In the last few years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been successfully used to study the distribution of lipids within tissue sections. However, few efforts have been made to acquire reliable quantitative data regarding the localized concentrations of these molecules. Here we propose an approach based on brain homogenates for the quantification of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in brain section by MALDI MSI. Homogenates were spiked with a range of PC(16:0 d31/18:1) concentrations. Sections from homogenates and intact brain were simultaneously prepared before being analyzed by MALDI MSI using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) analyzer. Standard curves were generated from the signal intensity of the different PC(16:0 d31/18:1) ionic species ([M+H](+), [M+Na](+) and [M+K](+)) detected from the homogenate sections. Localized quantitative data were finally extracted by correlating the standard curves with the signal intensities of endogenous PC (especially PC(16:0/18:1)) ionic species detected on different areas of the brain section. They were consistent with quantitative values found in the literature. This work introduces a new method to take directly into account biological matrix effects for the quantification of lipids as well as other endogenous compounds, in tissue sections by MALDI MSI. PMID:25326885

  10. Phosphatidylcholine is essential for efficient functioning of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gut2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rijken, Pieter J; De Kruijff, Ben; De Kroon, Anton I P M

    2007-01-01

    Gut2, the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was previously shown to become preferentially labelled with photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine (PC), pointing to a functional relation between these molecules. In the present study we analyzed whether Gut2 functioning depends on the PC content of yeast cells, using PC biosynthetic mutants in which the PC content was lowered. PC depletion was found to reduce growth on glycerol and to increase glycerol excretion, both indicating that PC is needed for optimal Gut2 functioning in vivo. Using several in vitro approaches the nature of the dependence of Gut2 functioning on cellular PC contents was investigated. The results of these experiments suggest that it is unlikely that the effects observed in vivo are due to changes in cellular Gut2 content, in specific activity of Gut2 in isolated mitochondria, or in the membrane association of Gut2, upon lowering the PC level. The in vivo effects are more likely an indirect result of PC depletion-induced changes in the cellular context in which Gut2 functions, that are not manifested in the in vitro systems used. PMID:17520483

  11. INSIGHT INTO NSAID-INDUCED MEMBRANE ALTERATIONS, PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPEUTICS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERACTION OF NSAIDS WITH PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Zhou, Yong; Jayaraman, Vasanthi; Doyen, Janice R.; O’Neil, Roger G.; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Volk, David E.; Gorenstein, David G.; Boggara, Mohan Babu; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2012-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most widely consumed pharmaceuticals, yet both the mechanisms involved in their therapeutic actions and side-effects, notably gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration/bleeding, have not been clearly defined. In this study, we have used a number of biochemical, structural, computational and biological systems including; Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, and cell culture using a specific fluorescent membrane probe, to demonstrate that NSAIDs have a strong affinity to form ionic and hydrophobic associations with zwitterionic phospholipids, and specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC), that are reversible and non-covalent in nature. We propose that the pH-dependent partition of these potent anti-inflammatory drugs into the phospholipid bilayer, and possibly extracellular mono/multilayers present on the luminal interface of the mucus gel layer, may result in profound changes in the hydrophobicity, fluidity, permeability, biomechanical properties and stability of these membranes and barriers. These changes may not only provide an explanation of how NSAIDs induce surface injury to the GI mucosa as a component in the pathogenic mechanism leading to peptic ulceration and bleeding, but potentially an explanation for a number of (COX-independent) biological actions of this family of pharmaceuticals. This insight also has proven useful in the design and development of a novel class of PC-associated NSAIDs that have reduced GI toxicity while maintaining their essential therapeutic efficacy to inhibit pain and inflammation. PMID:22521764

  12. Comparative Study of EPA-enriched Phosphatidylcholine and EPA-enriched Phosphatidylserine on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Miaomiao; Du, Lei; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that EPA enriched PLs have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Our previous study has demonstrated that the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of EPA-PL were superior to DHA-PL. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylserine (EPA-PS) on lipid metabolism in mice. Both 2% dietary EPA-PC and EPA-PS significantly improved serum and hepatic lipid levels in mice. The HDL-c level in mice on EPA-PC diet was significantly higher than the other two groups. The level of DHA in hepatic TG and PL were significantly increased in both EPA-PC and EPA-PS fed groups (98.3 and 117.8%, respectively; p < 0.05). Notably, the proportion of DHA in EPA-PS group was significantly higher than the EPA-PC group. EPA-PC and EPA-PS suppressed hepatic SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis and activated PPARα mediated fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. These data are the first to indicate that EPA-PS has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. PMID:27321119

  13. Increase of Oleic Acid Content in Phosphatidylcholine through Lipase-catalyzed Interesterification: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guolong; Yang, Lihui

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain phosphatidylcholine (PC) with higher amount of oleic acid, the interesterification between soybean PC and Camellia oleifera oil (COO) rich in oleic acid catalyzed by lipase was studied in hexane. For this aim three commercially available immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TLIM and Lipozyme RMIM) were assayed and Novozym 435 was finally selected for further optimization. The effects of the factors, such as PC concentration, substrate ratio, water amount, lipase dosage and temperature, on the oleic acid content in PC and PC recovery during the interesterification were investigated. The conditions of the interesterification were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were as follows: lipase dosage 13 % (based on the mass of PC and COO), reaction temperature 55°C, water amount 5% (based on the mass of PC), reaction time 8 h, PC concentration 0.3g/mL (PC/hexane), PC-to-COO ratio 1:3 (acyl groups in PC/acyl groups in COO, mol/mol). Under these conditions, oleic acid content and PC recovery were 40.8 ± 0.5% and 69.0 ± 2.8%, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the regression models were adequate for predicting the interesterifiction. The orders of reaction variables affecting on oleic acid content and PC recovery were water amount > reaction time > lipase dosage > reaction temperature, and water amount > reaction temperature > lipase dosage > reaction time, respectively. PMID:25891113

  14. Histopathological and ultra-structural characterization of local neuromuscular damage induced by repeated phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate injection.

    PubMed

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; El Sabaa, Bassma; Yosry, Emad; El-Saghir, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate (PC/DC) combination is frequently used for injection lipolysis in body contouring and size reduction of subcutaneous lipomas. Nonetheless, studies that assess possible injurious effects of PC/DC combination on tissues at injection sites are inadequate. The current work attempts to evaluate the effects of repeated PC/DC injection on skeletal muscles and neural tissues at the injection site. For this purpose, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, 10 rats each, and injected percutaneously via either normal saline (control group) or PC/DC (treated group) in the groin area for 4 consecutive days. Biopsies were harvested on the 4(th) day for histopathological studies. The results of the present work demonstrated that repeated injection of PC/DC caused neural damage and intense inflammation at the injection site leading to skeletal muscle degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis. Electron microscopic examination of the neural tissues in the injected area showed intra-neural fibroblasts, deposition of intra-neural collagen fibers and marked myelin degeneration. In addition, PC/DC injection caused thickening of intra-neural blood vessel walls and evident endo-neural mast cells. The current data highlight the attendant risk of neuromuscular injury associated with repeated PC/DC injection during the treatment of undesirable fat deposits and lipomas. PMID:26404917

  15. Effects of linoleic acid position in phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol addition on their rates of peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mazari, Azzedine; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    Unilamellar liposomes of phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-sn-PC (PLPC), 1-linoleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-sn-PC (LPPC), and a 1:1 mixture of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-sn-PC and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-PC (DLPC/DPPC), were peroxidized by the addition of a water-soluble 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and of a lipid-soluble 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (MeOAMVN). LPPC liposomes showed the lowest oxidizability and kinetic chain-length values on AAPH-initiated peroxidation. On MeOAMVN-initiated peroxidation, PLPC liposomes with their lower peroxidation kinetic values were more stable than LPPC or DLPC/DPPC liposomes. The incorporation of cholesterol into the liposomes induced dose-dependent inhibition of PLPC and of LPPC peroxidation, while its effect was less important for the DLPC/DPPC liposomes. Our results indicate that the sn-position of unsaturated acyl chains and the cholesterol content are important modulating factors in the oxidizability of membrane phospholipids. PMID:20460733

  16. Large effect of membrane tension on the fluid–solid phase transitions of two-component phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Santore, Maria M.

    2014-01-01

    Model phospholipid membranes and vesicles have long provided insight into the nature of confined materials and membranes while also providing a platform for drug delivery. The rich thermodynamic behavior and interesting domain shapes in these membranes have previously been mapped in extensive studies that vary temperature and composition; however, the thermodynamic impact of tension on bilayers has been restricted to recent reports of subtly reduced fluid–fluid transition temperatures. In two-component phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)], we report a dramatic influence of tension on the fluid–solid transition and resulting phases: At fixed composition, systematic variations in tension produce differently shaped solid domains (striped or irregular hexagons), shift fluid–solid transition temperatures, and produce a triple-point–like intersection of coexistence curves at elevated tensions, about 3 mN/m for 30% DOPC/70% DPPC. Tension therefore represents a potential switch of microstructure in responsive engineered materials; it is an important morphology-determining variable in confined systems, and, in biological membranes, it may provide a means to regulate dynamic structure. PMID:24344297

  17. Binding of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids to phosphatidylcholine vesicles and alveolar macrophages: relationship between binding affinity and antifibrogenic potential of these drugs.

    PubMed

    Ma, J K; Mo, C G; Malanga, C J; Ma, J Y; Castranova, V

    1991-01-01

    A group of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids has been shown to exhibit various degrees of effectiveness in preventing silica-induced fibrosis in animal models. The objective of the present study was to characterize the binding of several of these alkaloids to phosphatidylcholine vesicles and rat alveolar macrophages using fluorometric and equilibrium dialysis methods, respectively. The lipid binding affinity of these alkaloids was found to depend upon several structural factors including hydrophobic substitutions, chiral configurations, and double oxygen bridge-restricted confirmation of the benzylisoquinoline moieties. Tetrandrine, which is a highly effective agent in preventing fibrosis, showed strong binding to both lipid vesicles and alveolar macrophages. In contrast, certain analogues of tetrandrine such as curine and tubocurine, which have little or no effect on silicosis, exhibited only weak binding to lipid vesicles and almost no binding to cells. The moderate binding affinity of fangchinoline to vesicles and cells corresponded to a moderate effectiveness of the compound as an antifibrogenic agent. Methoxyadiantifoline, an alkaloid of unknown antifibrogenic potential, also exhibited high binding affinities for lipid and cells. In conclusion, the results of these studies indicate that alveolar macrophages exhibit large binding capacities for certain members of this class of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. A positive correlation was observed between binding affinity to alveolar macrophages and the reported antifibrotic potency of these compounds. These data also suggest that the ability of these drugs to interact with alveolar macrophages may be a key step in inhibition of the progression of silica-induced pulmonary disease. PMID:1663032

  18. Structural differences in aqueous dispersions of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and phosphatidylcholine upon varying their molar fractions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Y

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of dispersed particles composed of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) and phospholipid. TA was dispersed with soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) using sonication and the dispersal mechanism was evaluated by characterizing the dispersed particles using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy and surface layer techniques. The dispersions in the TA mole fraction range of 0.1-0.7 were stable at room temperature for 3 days. A limited amount of TA was incorporated into PC bilayer membranes (approximately 5 mol%). The excess TA separated from the PC bilayers was stabilized as emulsion particles by the PC surface monolayer. When the PC content was less than the solubility in TA (mole fraction of TA: more than 0.8), the PC monolayer did not completely cover the hydrophobic TA particle surfaces. In the case, the particle size increased drastically andseparation into oil and water occurred. The miscibility between TA and PC and the lipid composition were critically important for the stability of the dispersed particles (coexistence of emulsion particles [surface monolayer of PC + core of TA] with vesicular particles [bilayer]) of the lipid mixtures. PMID:15587585

  19. Cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein A-I phosphatidylcholine complexes is inhibited by ethanol: role of apolipoprotein structure and cooperative interaction of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Avdulov, N A; Chochina, S V; Igbavboa, U; Wood, W G

    2000-08-29

    There is a substantial body of evidence showing that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One of the factors thought to contribute to this reduction in risk is an increase in the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) correlated with alcohol consumption. However, HDL levels are elevated in heavy drinkers, but their risk of vascular disease is greater compared with that of moderate drinkers. Ethanol at concentrations observed in heavy drinkers and alcoholics may directly act on HDL and apolipoproteins and in turn modify cholesterol efflux. In this paper, we show that ethanol significantly inhibited cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to HDL and to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) complexed with phosphatidylcholine (PC). Ethanol significantly inhibited binding of PC to apoA-I, inhibited incorporation of cholesterol only when apoA-I contained PC, and did not alter incorporation of cholesterol into HDL. ApoA-I structure was altered by ethanol as monitored by steady-state fluorescence polarization of tryptophan residues. The absence of ethanol effects on incorporation of cholesterol into HDL versus inhibition of cholesterol incorporation into the apoA-I-PC complex suggests that the effects of ethanol on cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL involve interaction with the cell surface and that efflux mediated by the apoA-I-PC complex is a combination of aqueous diffusion and contact with the cell surface. In addition, effects of ethanol on apoA-I suggest that pre-beta-HDL or lipid-free apoA-I may be more perturbed by ethanol than mature HDL, and such effects may be pathophysiological with respect to the process of reverse cholesterol transport in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. PMID:10956052

  20. Interfacial Recognition of Acetylcholine by an Amphiphilic p-Sulfonatocalix[8]arene Derivative Incorporated into Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Takashi; Fujii, Fumihiko; Ooi, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Dodecyl ether derivatives 1-3 of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene were incorporated into dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles, and their binding abilities for acetylcholine (ACh) were examined by using steady-state fluorescence/fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). For the detection of ACh binding to the DMPC vesicles containing 5 mol % of 1-3, competitive fluorophore displacement experiments were performed, where rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) was used as a fluorescent guest. The addition of Rh6G to the DMPC vesicles containing 3 resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G with an increase of its fluorescence anisotropy, indicating that Rh6G binds to the DMPC-3 vesicles. In the case of DMPC-1 and DMPC-2 vesicles, significant changes in the fluorescence spectra of Rh6G were not observed. When ACh was added to the DMPC-3 vesicles in the presence of Rh6G ([3]/[Rh6G]=100), the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G increased with a decrease in its fluorescence anisotropy. From the analysis of fluorescence titration data, the association constants were determined to be 7.1×105 M-1 for Rh6G-3 complex and 1.1×102 M-1 for ACh-3 complex at the DMPC-3 vesicles. To get a direct evidence for the binding of Rh6G and its displacement by ACh at the DMPC-3 vesicles, diffusion times of the Rh6G were measured by using FCS. Binding selectivity of the DMPC-3 vesicles for ACh, choline, GABA, l-aspartic acid,l-glutamic acid, l-arginine, l-lysine, l-histamine and ammonium chloride was also evaluated using FCS.

  1. Effect of Cholesterol on the Interaction of Cytochrome P450 Substrate Drug Chlorzoxazone with the Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ayumi; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-19

    Many drugs are oxidized by membrane protein cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes during their metabolism process. CYPs are located mainly in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. Recent studies have suggested that CYP substrate drugs first bind the lipid bilayers of ER membranes and then the drugs reach the active site of CYP by way of an access channel. The entrance of the channel is located in the hydrophobic regions of the lipid bilayers. One of the features of the ER membrane is a cholesterol content that is lower than those of other biomembranes. In this study, the cholesterol concentration dependence of the interaction of a CYP substrate drug, chlorzoxazone (CZX), with model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol was examined via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Experimental results indicated that CZX can bind to pure PC bilayers in the absence of cholesterol and that, by contrast, a high cholesterol concentration (30-50 mol %) tends to prevent CZX from binding to PC bilayers. Interestingly, the effect of cholesterol on the binding and insertion of CZX was biphasic. In the case of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers containing 5-10 mol % cholesterol, the CZX's binding and penetration into the bilayer were found to be greater than those with pure POPC bilayers. The concentration of 5-10 mol % nearly corresponds to the cholesterol concentration of ER membranes. The low cholesterol contents (12-20 mol %) of ER membranes might be the most suitable for the CYP drug metabolism process in ER membranes. PMID:27347790

  2. GLTP-fold interaction with planar phosphatidylcholine surfaces is synergistically stimulated by phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylethanolamine[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Xiuhong; Momsen, William E.; Malakhov, Dmitry A.; Boldyrev, Ivan A.; Momsen, Maureen M.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Brockman, Howard L.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2013-01-01

    Among amphitropic proteins, human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) forms a structurally-unique fold that translocates on/off membranes to specifically transfer glycolipids. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers with curvature-induced packing stress stimulate much faster glycolipid intervesicular transfer than nonstressed PC bilayers raising questions about planar cytosol-facing biomembranes being viable sites for GLTP interaction. Herein, GLTP-mediated desorption kinetics of fluorescent glycolipid (tetramethyl-boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-label) from lipid monolayers are assessed using a novel microfluidics-based surface balance that monitors lipid lateral packing while simultaneously acquiring surface fluorescence data. At biomembrane-like packing (30–35 mN/m), GLTP uptake of BODIPY-glycolipid from POPC monolayers was nearly nonexistent but could be induced by reducing surface pressure to mirror packing in curvature-stressed bilayers. In contrast, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) matrices supported robust BODIPY-glycolipid uptake by GLTP at both high and low surface pressures. Unexpectedly, negatively-charged cytosol-facing lipids, i.e., phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, also supported BODIPY-glycolipid uptake by GLTP at high surface pressure. Remarkably, including both 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (5 mol%) and POPE (15 mol%) in POPC synergistically activated GLTP at high surface pressure. Our study shows that matrix lipid headgroup composition, rather than molecular packing per se, is a key regulator of GLTP-fold function while demonstrating the novel capabilities of the microfluidics-based film balance for investigating protein-membrane interfacial interactions. PMID:23369752

  3. The Effect of Phosphatidylcholine and Deoxycholate Compound Injections to the Localized Adipose Tissue: An Experimental Study with a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Yongjoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and deoxycholate (DCA) compound has been recently used for the purpose of partial lipolysis and is valued for its efficacy and lower invasiveness compared to liposuction and dermolipectomy used previously. In this article, the authors discuss the efficacy of the PPC dissolved in DCA via an experimental rat study model, along with suggesting a useful animal experimental model for the study of adipose tissue and lipolysis. Methods Bilateral inguinal fat pads of an experimental rat were elevated with the deep inferior epigastric vessel as the sole vascular pedicle. Normal saline was injected on one side as a control group and a PPC and DCA compound was injected on the other side. After 4 days, the rats were euthanized for microscopic tissue examination. The pathology was scored by a semiquantitative system in 4 categories: normal fat amount, fat necrosis, inflammatory activity, and stage of fibrosis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test powered by SPSS packet program was used for statistical analysis and to determine significance. Results Microscopic examination was performed on the obtained samples, and the experimental data of all four categories showed significant histologic differences compared to the control group. All of the data also showed statistical significance by the Wilcoxon signedrank test (P<0.01). Conclusions In the inguinal fat pad rat model, the control group and the experimental group had a differed significantly in the amount of normal fat tissue, inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. We recommend the rat inguinal fat pad model used in this study, as it is likely to be useful in related research. PMID:23094238

  4. Relationships between membrane water molecules and Patman equilibration kinetics at temperatures far above the phosphatidylcholine melting point.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Bell, Thomas A; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Askew, Caitlin; Franchino, Hannabeth; Hirsche, Kelsey; Kemsley, Linea; Melchor, Stephanie; Moulton, Emma; Schwab, Morgan; Nelson, Jennifer; Bell, John D

    2015-04-01

    The naphthalene-based fluorescent probes Patman and Laurdan detect bilayer polarity at the level of the phospholipid glycerol backbone. This polarity increases with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase of phosphatidylcholines and was observed even 90°C above the melting temperature. This study explores mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. Measurements of probe anisotropy and experiments conducted at 1M NaCl or KCl (to reduce water permittivity) revealed that this effect represents interactions of water molecules with the probes without proportional increases in probe mobility. Furthermore, comparison of emission spectra to Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the increased polarity represents elevation in probe access to water molecules rather than increased mobility of relevant bilayer waters. Equilibration of these probes with the membrane involves at least two steps which were distinguished by the membrane microenvironment reported by the probe. The difference in those microenvironments also changed with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase in that the equilibrium state was less polar than the initial environment detected by Patman at temperatures near the melting point, more polar at higher temperatures, and again less polar as temperature was raised further. Laurdan also displayed this level of complexity during equilibration, although the relationship to temperature differed quantitatively from that experienced by Patman. This kinetic approach provides a novel way to study in molecular detail basic principles of what happens to the membrane environment around an individual amphipathic molecule as it penetrates the bilayer. Moreover, it provides evidence of unexpected and interesting membrane behaviors far from the phase transition. PMID:25559316

  5. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P < 0.05), with total PC and PE positively relating to insulin sensitivity (both P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle PC:PE ratio was elevated in T2D compared with OB and ATH (P < 0.05), tended to be elevated in OB vs. ATH (P = 0.07), and was inversely related to insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. PMID:27032901

  6. Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, Carmela; Andreone, Pietro; Brisc, Ciprian; Brisc, Michaela Cristina; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Chiaramonte, Maria; Cursaro, Carmela; Danila, Mirela; de Sio, Ilario; Floreani, Annarosa; Freni, Maria Antonietta; Grieco, Antonio; Groppo, Marzia; Lazzari, Roberta; Lobello, Salvatore; Lorefice, Elisabetta; Margotti, Marzia; Miele, Luca; Milani, Stefano; Okolicsanyi, Lajos; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero; Saltarelli, Patrizia; Smedile, Antonina; Somalvico, Francesco; Spadaro, Aldo; Sporea, Ioan; Sorrentino, Paolo; Vecchione, Raffaela; Tuccillo, Concetta; Del Vecchio Blanco, Camillo; Federico, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    The only currently recommended treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is lifestyle modification. Preliminary studies of silybin showed beneficial effects on liver function. Realsil (RA) comprises the silybin phytosome complex (silybin plus phosphatidylcholine) coformulated with vitamin E. We report on a multicenter, phase III, double-blind clinical trial to assess RA in patients with histologically documented NAFLD. Patients were randomized 1:1 to RA or placebo (P) orally twice daily for 12 months. Prespecified primary outcomes were improvement over time in clinical condition, normalization of liver enzyme plasma levels, and improvement of ultrasonographic liver steatosis, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and quality of life. Secondary outcomes were improvement in liver histologic score and/or decrease in NAFLD score without worsening of fibrosis and plasma changes in cytokines, ferritin, and liver fibrosis markers. We treated 179 patients with NAFLD; 36 were also HCV positive. Forty-one patients were prematurely withdrawn and 138 patients analyzed per protocol (69 per group). Baseline patient characteristics were generally well balanced between groups, except for steatosis, portal infiltration, and fibrosis. Adverse events (AEs) were generally transient and included diarrhea, dysgeusia, and pruritus; no serious AEs were recorded. Patients receiving RA but not P showed significant improvements in liver enzyme plasma levels, HOMA, and liver histology. Body mass index normalized in 15% of RA patients (2.1% with P). HCV-positive patients in the RA but not the P group showed improvements in fibrogenesis markers. This is the first study to systematically assess silybin in NAFLD patients. Treatment with RA but not P for 12 months was associated with improvement in liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and liver histology, without increases in body weight. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:22343419

  7. Regioisomers of phosphatidylcholine containing DHA and their potential to deliver DHA to the brain: role of phospholipase specificities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2013-07-01

    Because neurons cannot synthesize docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary supplement of DHA in the form of phospholipids is recommended for maintaining proper brain functions. A model for delivering dietary sn-2-DHA phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) to the brain involves phospholipase A2 based deacylation/reacylation cycle followed by delivery of DHA through high-density lipoproteins that bind to the brain capillary endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous study demonstrated preference of endothelial lipase (EL) for PtdCho species that contain sn-2-DHA, resulting in production of sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho that is preferentially taken up by the brain. However, since CoA-dependent reacylation of lysoPtdCho with DHA at the sn-2 position is not favored in vivo, we proposed that sn-1-DHA PtdCho in the diet may be a superior source of DHA for the brain. To test this hypothesis, DHA PtdCho regioisomers were prepared, and their hydrolysis by physiologically relevant phospholipases was determined. The data presented here show that: (1) group X secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) is about threefold more active than group V sPLA2 in releasing sn-2 fatty acids from DHA regioisomers, and (2) EL shows its specificity for DHA PtdCho species in a concentration independent manner, suggesting that the enzyme could play a major role in generating free sn-1-DHA or/and sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho from the regioisomers in the BBB. We propose that PtdCho species containing sn-1-DHA may have the advantages of both "preserving" DHA in deacylation/reacylation cycle and releasing free DHA in the BBB for uptake by the brain. PMID:23604781

  8. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine in monolayers deposited on mercury electrodes.

    PubMed Central

    Moncelli, M R; Becucci, L; Guidelli, R

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic pKa values of the phosphate groups of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and of the phosphate and carboxyl groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in self-organized monolayers deposited on a hanging mercury drop electrode were determined by a novel procedure based on measurements of the differential capacity C of this lipid-coated electrode. In view of the Gouy-Chapman theory, plots of 1/C at constant bulk pH and variable KCl concentration against the reciprocal of the calculated diffuse-layer capacity Cd,0 at zero charge exhibit slopes that decrease from an almost unit value to vanishingly low values as the absolute value of the charge density on the lipid increases from zero to approximately 2 microC cm-2. The intrinsic pKa values so determined are 0.5 for PE and 0.8 for PC. The plots of 1/C against 1/Cd,0 for pure PS exhibit slopes that pass from zero to a maximum value and then back to zero as pH is varied from 7.5 to 3, indicating that the charge density of the lipid film passes from slight negative to slight positive values over this pH range. An explanation for this anomalous behavior, which is ascribed to the phosphate group of PS, is provided. Interdispersion of PS and PC molecules in the film decreases the "formal" pKa value of the latter group by about three orders of magnitude. PMID:8075331

  9. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines suggest oxidative stress in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Najdekr, Lukáš; Gardlo, Alžběta; Mádrová, Lucie; Friedecký, David; Janečková, Hana; Correa, Elon S; Goodacre, Royston; Adam, Tomáš

    2015-07-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism encompass a large group of diseases caused by enzyme deficiencies and are therefore amenable to metabolomics investigations. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a defect in β-oxidation of fatty acids, and is one of the most well understood disorders. We report here the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based untargeted metabolomics and targeted flow injection analysis-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-TMS) that lead to discovery of novel compounds of oxidative stress. Dry blood spots of controls (n=25) and patient samples (n=25) were extracted by methanol/water (1/1, v/v) and these supernatants were analyzed by LC-MS method with detection by an Orbitrap Elite MS. Data were processed by XCMS and CAMERA followed by dimension reduction methods. Patients were clearly distinguished from controls in PCA. S-plot derived from OPLS-DA indicated that medium-chain acylcarnitines (octanoyl, decenoyl and decanoyl carnitines) as well as three phosphatidylcholines (PC(16:0,9:0(COOH))), PC(18:0,5:0(COOH)) and PC(16:0,8:0(COOH)) were important metabolites for differentiation between patients and healthy controls. In order to biologically validate these discriminatory molecules as indicators for oxidative stress, a second cohort of individuals were analyzed, including MCADD (n=25) and control (n=250) samples. These were measured by a modified newborn screening method using FIA-TMS (API 4000) in MRM mode. Calculated p-values for PC(16:0,9:0(COOH)), PC(18:0,5:0(COOH)) and PC(16:0,8:0(COOH)) were 1.927×10(-14), 2.391×10(-15) and 3.354×10(-15) respectively. These elevated oxidized phospholipids indeed show an increased presence of oxidative stress in MCADD patients as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. PMID:25882409

  10. Hydration lubrication and shear-induced self-healing of lipid bilayer boundary lubricants in phosphatidylcholine dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Zhu, Linyi; Klein, Jacob

    2016-03-14

    Measurements of normal and shear (frictional) forces between mica surfaces across small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) dispersions of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids DMPC (14:0), DPPC (16:0) and DSPC (18:0) and POPC (16:0, 18:1), at physiologically high pressures, are reported. We have previously studied the normal and shear forces between two opposing surfaces bearing PC vesicles across pure water and showed that liposome lubrication ability improved with increasing acyl chain length, and correlated strongly with the SUV structural integrity on the substrate surface (DSPC > DPPC > DMPC). In the current study, surprisingly, we discovered that this trend is reversed when the measurements are conducted in SUV dispersions, instead of pure water. In their corresponding SUV dispersion, DMPC SUVs ruptured and formed bilayers, which were able to provide reversible and reproducible lubrication with extremely low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures of 70-90 atm. Similarly, POPC SUVs also formed bilayers which exhibited low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures as high as 160 atm. DPPC and DSPC SUVs also provided good lubrication, but with slightly higher friction coefficients (μ = 10(-3)-10(-4)). We believe these differences originate from fast self-healing of the softer surface layers (which are in their liquid disordered phase, POPC, or close to it, DMPC), which renders the robustness of the DPPC or DSPC (both in their solid ordered phase) less important in these conditions. Under these circumstances, the enhanced hydration of the less densely packed POPC and DMPC surface layers is now believed to play an important role, and allows enhanced lubrication via the hydration lubrication mechanism. Our findings may have implications for the understanding of complex biological systems such us biolubrication of synovial joints. PMID:26861851

  11. Does Whole-Body Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy Affect Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics?

    PubMed Central

    Nespeca, Matteo; Giorgetti, Chiara; Nobile, Stefano; Ferrini, Ilaria; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether Whole-Body Hypothermia (WBH) affects pulmonary function. In vitro studies, at relatively low temperatures, suggest that hypothermia may induce significant changes to the surfactant composition. The effect of WBH on surfactant kinetics in newborn infants is unknown. We studied in vivo kinetics of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in asphyxiated newborns during WBH and in normothermic controls (NTC) with no or mild asphyxia. Both groups presented no clinically apparent lung disease. Methods Twenty-seven term or near term newborns requiring mechanical ventilation were studied (GA 38.6±2.2 wks). Fifteen during WBH and twelve NTC. All infants received an intra-tracheal dose of 13C labelled DSPC and tracheal aspirate were performed. DSPC amount, DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) were calculated. Results DSPC amount in tracheal aspirates was 0.42 [0.22–0.54] and 0.36 [0.10–0.58] mg/ml in WBH and NTC respectively (p = 0.578). DSPC HL was 24.9 [15.7–52.5] and 25.3 [15.8–59.3] h (p = 0.733) and DSPC PS was 53.2 [29.4–91.6] and 40.2 [29.8–64.6] mg/kg (p = 0.598) in WBH and NTC respectively. Conclusions WBH does not alter DSPC HL and PS in newborn infants with no clinical apparent lung disease. PMID:27070307

  12. Synthesis of DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine by immobilized phospholipase A1: effect of water addition and vacuum condition.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Weifei; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully synthesized by immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-catalyzed transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters in a solvent-free system. Effects of reaction temperature, water addition and substrate mass ratio on the incorporation of DHA/EPA were evaluated using response surface methods (RSM). Water addition had most significant effect on the incorporation. Reaction temperature and substrate mass ratio, however, had no significant effect on the incorporation. The maximal incorporation was 19.09 % (24 h) under the following conditions: temperature 55.7 °C, water addition 1.1 wt % and substrate mass ratio (ethyl esters/PC) 6.8:1. Furthermore, effects of water addition (from 0 to 1.25 wt %) on DHA/EPA incorporation and the composition of products were further investigated. The immobilized PLA1 was more active when water addition was above 0.5 wt %. By monitoring the reaction processes with different water addition, a possible reaction scheme was proposed for transesterification of PC with DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. In summary, PC and sn2-lysophosphatidylocholine (LPC) were predominant in the mixtures at early stages of reaction, whereas sn1-LPC and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) predominant at later stages. The vacuum employed after 24 h significantly increased the incorporation of DHA/EPA and the composition of PC, and the highest incorporation (30.31 %) of DHA/EPA was obtained at 72 h and the yield of PC was 47.2 %. PMID:27108109

  13. General base catalysis by the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus: the role of Glu4 and Asp55.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Hergenrother, P J

    1998-04-21

    To assess what roles the active site residues Glu4 and Asp55 of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus (PLCBc) might play in binding and catalysis, selected mutants were prepared through site-directed mutagenesis of the plc gene. The mutants were then expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as fusion proteins with the maltose binding protein (MBP). Kinetic analysis showed that mutations at Glu4 had only modest effects on the catalytic activity, whereas those at Asp55 led to proteins whose values for kcat/KM were 10(4)-10(6) times less than that of the wild-type enzyme. The modest decrease in catalytic activity and the pH-dependent profile of the E4L mutant strongly suggest that glutamic acid at position 4 is not the general base in the PLCBc-catalyzed reaction. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that Glu4 is primarily involved in substrate binding, perhaps by electrostatic stabilization of the positive charge of the choline moiety of the phosphatidylcholine substrate. Examination of X-ray crystallographic data of PLCBc and its various complexes reveals that the carboxylate side chain of Asp55 is positioned such that it could activate a water for nucleophilic attack on the substrate or serve as a ligand for Zn1. However, the involvement of the side chain of Asp55 as an important Zn1 ligand is not consistent with the atomic absorption and thermostability data obtained for the D55L mutant, which are virtually identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. The large reduction in the measured kcat/KM of the D55E, D55N, and D55L mutants of PLCBc indicates that Asp55 plays a critical role in catalysis and likely serves as the general base in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by PLCBc. PMID:9548962

  14. Activation of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C in Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Impact on MRS-Detected Choline Metabolic Profile and Perspectives for Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Podo, Franca; Paris, Luisa; Cecchetti, Serena; Spadaro, Francesca; Abalsamo, Laura; Ramoni, Carlo; Ricci, Alessandro; Pisanu, Maria Elena; Sardanelli, Francesco; Canese, Rossella; Iorio, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the aberrant phosphatidylcholine cycle in cancer cells plays in favor of the use of metabolic imaging in oncology and opens the way for designing new targeted therapies. The anomalous choline metabolic profile detected in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging provides molecular signatures of tumor progression and response to therapy. The increased level of intracellular phosphocholine (PCho) typically detected in cancer cells is mainly attributed to upregulation of choline kinase, responsible for choline phosphorylation in the biosynthetic Kennedy pathway, but can also be partly produced by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This hydrolytic enzyme, known for implications in bacterial infection and in plant survival to hostile environmental conditions, is reported to be activated in mitogen- and oncogene-induced phosphatidylcholine cycles in mammalian cells, with effects on cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cell proliferation. Recent investigations showed that PC-PLC activation could account for 20–50% of the intracellular PCho production in ovarian and breast cancer cells of different subtypes. Enzyme activation was associated with PC-PLC protein overexpression and subcellular redistribution in these cancer cells compared with non-tumoral counterparts. Moreover, PC-PLC coimmunoprecipitated with the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR in HER2-overexpressing breast and ovarian cancer cells, while pharmacological PC-PLC inhibition resulted into long-lasting HER2 downregulation, retarded receptor re-expression on plasma membrane and antiproliferative effects. This body of evidence points to PC-PLC as a potential target for newly designed therapies, whose effects can be preclinically and clinically monitored by metabolic imaging methods. PMID:27532027

  15. Activation of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C in Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Impact on MRS-Detected Choline Metabolic Profile and Perspectives for Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Podo, Franca; Paris, Luisa; Cecchetti, Serena; Spadaro, Francesca; Abalsamo, Laura; Ramoni, Carlo; Ricci, Alessandro; Pisanu, Maria Elena; Sardanelli, Francesco; Canese, Rossella; Iorio, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the aberrant phosphatidylcholine cycle in cancer cells plays in favor of the use of metabolic imaging in oncology and opens the way for designing new targeted therapies. The anomalous choline metabolic profile detected in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging provides molecular signatures of tumor progression and response to therapy. The increased level of intracellular phosphocholine (PCho) typically detected in cancer cells is mainly attributed to upregulation of choline kinase, responsible for choline phosphorylation in the biosynthetic Kennedy pathway, but can also be partly produced by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This hydrolytic enzyme, known for implications in bacterial infection and in plant survival to hostile environmental conditions, is reported to be activated in mitogen- and oncogene-induced phosphatidylcholine cycles in mammalian cells, with effects on cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cell proliferation. Recent investigations showed that PC-PLC activation could account for 20-50% of the intracellular PCho production in ovarian and breast cancer cells of different subtypes. Enzyme activation was associated with PC-PLC protein overexpression and subcellular redistribution in these cancer cells compared with non-tumoral counterparts. Moreover, PC-PLC coimmunoprecipitated with the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR in HER2-overexpressing breast and ovarian cancer cells, while pharmacological PC-PLC inhibition resulted into long-lasting HER2 downregulation, retarded receptor re-expression on plasma membrane and antiproliferative effects. This body of evidence points to PC-PLC as a potential target for newly designed therapies, whose effects can be preclinically and clinically monitored by metabolic imaging methods. PMID:27532027

  16. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC induces a prolonged

  17. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Y; Suzuki, H

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6 (n-3)] ethyl ester (EE) and egg-phosphatidylcholine (PC) on maze-learning ability in young and old mice was studied. Male Crj:CD-1 mice aged either 3 wk or 14 mo were fed a diet containing 2 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 3 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE Group), 5 g egg-PC/100 g diet (egg-PC Group), 1 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 2.5 g egg-PC/100 g diet plus 1.5 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE + egg-PC Group) or 5 g palm oil/100 g diet (Control Group) for 5 mo. Maze-learning ability was assessed 4 mo after the start of the experiment. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured in three trials every 4 d. In trial 2 of young mice, performed on d 4 after the first trial, the DHA-EE group required less (P < 0.05) time to reach the maze exit and DHA-EE and egg-PC groups strayed (P < 0.05) into blind alleys fewer times than the control group. In trial 2 of old mice, the DHA-EE, egg-PC and DHA-EE + egg-PC groups needed less (P < 0.05) time to find the exit and spent a fewer (P < 0.05) number of times in blind alleys than did the control group. The DHA-EE, DHA-EE + egg-PC and egg-PC groups strayed into blind alleys fewer times than the control group in trial 3 of old mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the intake of DHA-EE and the egg-PC diet effectively enhances maze-learning ability and brain functions in old mice. PMID:10827221

  18. Increased palmitoyl-myristoyl-phosphatidylcholine in neonatal rat surfactant is lung specific and correlates with oral myristic acid supply.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Pynn, Christopher J; Gille, Christian; Stichtenoth, Guido; Stoll, Dieter; Schleicher, Erwin; Poets, Christian F

    2011-08-01

    Surfactant predominantly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, together with phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, neutral lipids, and surfactant proteins-A to -D. Together, dipalmitoyl-PC (PC16:0/16:0), palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC (PC16:0/14:0), and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC (PC16:0/16:1) make up 75-80% of mammalian surfactant PC, the proportions of which vary during development and in chronic lung diseases. PC16:0/14:0, which exerts specific effects on macrophage differentiation in vitro, increases in surfactant during alveolarization (at the expense of PC16:0/16:0), a prenatal event in humans but postnatal in rats. The mechanisms responsible and the significance of this reversible increase are, however, not understood. We hypothesized that, in rats, myristic acid (C14:0) enriched milk is key to lung-specific PC16:0/14:0 increases in surfactant. We found that surfactant PC16:0/14:0 in suckling rats correlates with C14:0 concentration in plasma chylomicrons and lung tissue triglycerides, and that PC16:0/14:0 fractions reflect exogenous C14:0 supply. Significantly, C14:0 was increased neither in plasma PC, nor in liver triglycerides, free fatty acids, or PC. Lauric acid was also abundant in triglycerides, but was not incorporated into surfactant PC. Comparing a C14:0-rich milk diet with a C14:0-poor carbohydrate diet revealed increased C14:0 and decreased C16:0 in plasma and lung triglycerides, respectively. PC16:0/14:0 enrichment at the expense of PC16:0/16:0 did not impair surfactant surface tension function. However, the PC profile of the alveolar macrophages from the milk-fed animals changed from PC16:0/16:0 rich to PC16:0/14:0 rich. This was accompanied by reduced reactive oxygen species production. We propose that nutritional supply with C14:0 and its lung-specific enrichment may contribute to decreased reactive oxygen species production during alveolarization. PMID:21636561

  19. Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Interferes with Proliferation and Survival of Tumor Initiating Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Renata; Mercurio, Laura; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Miotti, Silvia; Iorio, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), the enzyme involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, has not yet been explored in tumor initiating cells (TICs). We investigated PC-PLC expression and effects of PC-PLC inhibition in two adherent (AD) squamous carcinoma cell lines (A431 and CaSki), with different proliferative and stemness potential, and in TIC-enriched floating spheres (SPH) originated from them. Results Compared with immortalized non-tumoral keratinocytes (HaCaT) A431-AD cells showed 2.5-fold higher PC-PLC activity, nuclear localization of a 66-kDa PC-PLC isoform, but a similar distribution of the enzyme on plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic compartments. Compared with A431-AD, A431-SPH cells showed about 2.8-fold lower PC-PLC protein and activity levels, but similar nuclear content. Exposure of adherent cells to the PC-PLC inhibitor D609 (48h) induced a 50% reduction of cell proliferation at doses comprised between 33 and 50 μg/ml, without inducing any relevant cytotoxic effect (cell viability 95±5%). In A431-SPH and CaSki-SPH D609 induced both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at about 20 to 30-fold lower doses (IC50 ranging between 1.2 and 1.6 μg/ml). Furthermore, D609 treatment of A431-AD and CaSki-AD cells affected the sphere-forming efficiency, which dropped in both cells, and induced down-modulation of stem-related markers mRNA levels (Oct4, Nestin, Nanog and ALDH1 in A431; Nestin and ALDH1 in CaSki cells). Conclusions These data suggest that the inhibition of PC-PLC activity may represent a new therapeutic approach to selectively target the most aggressive and tumor promoting sub-population of floating spheres originated from squamous cancer cells possessing different proliferative and stemness potential. PMID:26402860

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5′-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPARα response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPARα to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPARα to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease. PMID:24122873

  1. Increased arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine is associated with reactive microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmin; Omura, Takao; Masaki, Noritaka; Arima, Hideyuki; Banno, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Ayako; Hanada, Mitsuru; Takei, Shiro; Matsushita, Shoko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) triggers cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord. However, little is known about how the polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylcholines (PUFA-PCs) are regulated in the spinal cord after PNI and the association of PUFA-PCs with the non-neuronal cells within in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we found that arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine (AA-PC), [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+), was significantly increased in the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection, and the increased expression of [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+) spatiotemporally resembled the increase of reactive microglia and the astrocytes. From the lipidomics point of view, we conclude that [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+) could be the main phospholipid in the spinal cord influenced by PNI, and the regulation of specific phospholipid molecule in the CNS after PNI is associated with the reactive microglia and astrocytes. PMID:27210057

  2. Increased arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine is associated with reactive microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongmin; Omura, Takao; Masaki, Noritaka; Arima, Hideyuki; Banno, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Ayako; Hanada, Mitsuru; Takei, Shiro; Matsushita, Shoko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) triggers cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord. However, little is known about how the polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylcholines (PUFA-PCs) are regulated in the spinal cord after PNI and the association of PUFA-PCs with the non-neuronal cells within in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we found that arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine (AA-PC), [PC(16:0/20:4)+K]+, was significantly increased in the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection, and the increased expression of [PC(16:0/20:4)+K]+ spatiotemporally resembled the increase of reactive microglia and the astrocytes. From the lipidomics point of view, we conclude that [PC(16:0/20:4)+K]+ could be the main phospholipid in the spinal cord influenced by PNI, and the regulation of specific phospholipid molecule in the CNS after PNI is associated with the reactive microglia and astrocytes. PMID:27210057

  3. Gene cloning, structural gene and promoter identification, and active assay of the phosphatidylcholine synthase of Pseudomonas sp. strain 593.

    PubMed

    He, Huoguang; Wu, Bin; Xiong, Min; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenhua; Wang, Xingguo

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain 593, a soil bacterium, is able to use exogenous choline to synthesize phosphatidylcholine via phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs). A 2020 bp DNA fragment that hybridized to a Pcs probe was cloned. This fragment contained a large open reading frame (ORF) with two potential ATG start sites that would encode for 293 and 231 amino acid proteins. Fragments containing the two ORFs encoded Pcs when they were inserted into the expression vector pET23a and expressed under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) pLysS. However, when the two ORFs were inserted into the cloning vector pMD18-T and expressed without control of the plasmid promoter in E. coli DH5α, only the larger clone exhibited Pcs activity. This suggested that the larger fragment contained a native promoter driving expression of the smaller ORF. A promoter activity assay, in which DNA fragments were inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pCB182 and β-galactosidase activity of E. coli transformants was tested, demonstrated that a promoter is indeed present in the DNA region. All results together indicate that the 696 bp ORF, not the larger 897 bp ORF, encodes the Pcs in Pseudomonas sp. strain 593 and carries a promoter in front of its 5' terminus. PMID:21939372

  4. Reductive metabolism of carbon tetrachloride by human cytochromes P-450 reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles: mass spectral identification of trichloromethyl radical bound to dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Trudell, J R; Bösterling, B; Trevor, A J

    1982-01-01

    It has been proposed that covalent binding of reactive metabolites to liver membrane constituents may be responsible for the hepatoxicity of carbon tetrachloride. This study demonstrates that trichloromethyl free radical is the major reductive metabolite of carbon tetrachloride by cytochrome P-450 and that this free radical is capable of binding to double bonds of fatty acyl chains of the phospholipids in the membrane surrounding cytochrome P-450. The structural identification of the reactive free radical metabolite and the product of its addition to phospholipids was accomplished by use of a reconstituted system of human cytochromes P-450, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, and cytochrome b5 in phospholipid vesicles. The reconstituted vesicles contained a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and egg phosphatidylethanolamine that served as both structural components and targets for trichloromethyl free radical binding. After incubation of these vesicles under a N2 atmosphere in the presence of NADPH with 14CCl4, the phospholipids were extracted and then separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine fraction was transesterified and the resulting single 14C-labeled fatty acid methyl ester was purified by reverse-phase chromatography. Desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas as well as desorption electron-impact mass spectrometry permitted identification of the molecular structure as a mixture of 9- and 10-(trichloromethyl)stearate methyl esters. PMID:6953422

  5. A new study of the bacterial lipidome: HPTLC-MALDI-TOF imaging enlightening the presence of phosphatidylcholine in airborne Pseudomonas fluorescens MFAF76a.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Tatiana; Merlet-Machour, Nadine; Chapelle, Manuel; Preterre, David; Dionnet, Frédéric; Feuilloley, Marc; Orange, Nicole; Duclairoir Poc, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Lipids are major functional components of bacterial cells that play fundamental roles in bacterial metabolism and the barrier function between cells and the environment. In an effort to investigate the bacterial lipidome, we adopted a protocol using MALDI-TOF MS imaging coupled to HPTLC to screen a large number of phospholipid classes in a short span of time. With this method, phospholipids of airborne Pseudomonas fluorescens MFAF76a were visualized and identified in sample extracts (measurement accuracy below 0.1 Da, phospholipid identification by means of four characteristic fragment peaks). Via this technique, the P. fluorescens lipidome was shown to comprise three major lipid classes: phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The protocol described herein is simple, rapid and effective for screening of bacterial phospholipid classes. The remarkable presence of a eukaryotic phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, was observed in P. fluorescens MFAF76a. This lipid is known to play a role in bacteria-host interactions and had not been known to be found in P. fluorescens cells. PMID:25478686

  6. Effects of solvents interacting favorably with hydrophilic segments of the membrane surface of phosphatidylcholine on their gel-phase membranes in water.

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Kinoshita, K; Furuike, S; Yamazaki, M

    1999-10-25

    We have investigated the effects of two kinds of solvents forming the lamellar liquid-crystalline (L(alpha)) phase in phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes in neat condition, such as formamide and 1,3-propanediol, on phase behaviors of multilamellar vesicle (MLV) of DPPC (DPPC-MLV). These solvents induced the interdigitated gel (L(beta)I) phase in DPPC-MLV in excess water above their critical concentrations. Solubility measurement indicates that these solvents interact favorably with the hydrophilic segment of the PC membrane but interact unfavorably with the alkyl chains. Based on these results, we propose the mechanism of the induction of the L(beta)I phase by these solvents. PMID:17030334

  7. The pharmacological modulation of [3H]-disaturated phosphatidylcholine overflow from perifused lung slices of adult rats: a new method for the study of lung surfactant secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gilfillan, A. M.; Hollingsworth, M.; Jones, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Lung slices from adult rats incubated in [methyl-3H]-choline chloride formed [3H]-disaturated phosphatidylcholine ( [3H]-DSPC) which was used as an index of lung surfactant. The slices were perifused after 3 h incubation in [methyl-3H]-choline chloride and the overflow of [3H]-DSPC, as a rate coefficient, was used as a measure of surfactant secretion. The basal overflow of [3H]-DSPC rapidly declined over the first 30 min of perifusion and then declined slowly. Salbutamol induced a prolonged, and sometimes delayed, increase in [3H]-DSPC overflow, which was reduced by (+/-)-propranolol. Potassium chloride produced an immediate, and usually transient, increase in [3H]-DSPC overflow which was not modified by atropine or (+/-)-propranolol. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate, but not phenylephrine, also increased [3H]-DSPC overflow. This method can measure the magnitude and time-course of lung surfactant secretion induced by drugs. PMID:6689133

  8. Localization of Fatty Acyl and Double Bond Positions in Phosphatidylcholines Using a Dual Stage CID Fragmentation Coupled with Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Perez, Jose; Roddy, Thomas P.; Nibbering, Nico M. M.; Shah, Vinit; McLaren, David G.; Previs, Stephen; Attygalle, Athula B.; Herath, Kithsiri; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Mitnaul, Lyndon; Hubbard, Brian K.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Johns, Douglas G.; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    A high content molecular fragmentation for the analysis of phosphatidylcholines (PC) was achieved utilizing a two-stage [trap (first generation fragmentation) and transfer (second generation fragmentation)] collision-induced dissociation (CID) in combination with travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). The novel aspects of this work reside in the fact that a TWIMS arrangement was used to obtain a high level structural information including location of fatty acyl substituents and double bonds for PCs in plasma, and the presence of alkali metal adduct ions such as [M + Li]+ was not required to obtain double bond positions. Elemental compositions for fragment ions were confirmed by accurate mass measurements. A very specific first generation fragment ion m/z 577 (M-phosphoryl choline) from the PC [16:0/18:1 (9Z)] was produced, which by further CID generated acylium ions containing either the fatty acyl 16:0 (C15H31CO+, m/z 239) or 18:1 (9Z) (C17H33CO+, m/z 265) substituent. Subsequent water loss from these acylium ions was key in producing hydrocarbon fragment ions mainly from the α-proximal position of the carbonyl group such as the hydrocarbon ion m/z 67 (+H2C-HC = CH-CH = CH2). Formation of these ions was of important significance for determining double bonds in the fatty acyl chains. In addition to this, and with the aid of 13C labeled lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) 18:1 (9Z) in the ω-position (methyl) TAP fragmentation produced the ion at m/z 57. And was proven to be derived from the α-proximal (carboxylate) or distant ω-position (methyl) in the LPC.

  9. Dioctanoylglycerol stimulates accumulation of [methyl-14C]choline and its incorporation into acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine in a human cholinergic neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, B. E.; Richardson, U. I.; Nitsch, R. M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diacylglycerol, stimulated [14C]choline uptake in cultured human neuroblastoma (LA-N-2) cells. As this effect has not, to our knowledge, been reported before, it was of interest to characterize it in more detail. In the presence of 500 microM dioctanoylglycerol the levels of [14C]choline attained during a 2 hour labeling period were elevated by 78 +/- 12%, while [14C]acetylcholine and long fatty acyl chain [14C]phosphatidylcholine levels increased by 26 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 5%, respectively (mean +/- S.E.M.). Total (long chain plus dioctanoyl-) [14C]phosphatidylcholine was increased by 198 +/- 33%. Kinetic analysis showed that dioctanoylglycerol reduced the apparent Km for choline uptake to 56 +/- 9% of control (n = 4). The Vmax was not significantly altered. The stimulation of [14C]choline accumulation by dioctanoylglycerol was not dependent on protein kinase C activation; the effect was not mimicked by phorbol ester or by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and was not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine, or by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The effect of dioctanoylglycerol was slightly (but not significantly) reduced by EGTA and strongly inhibited by the cell-permeant calcium chelator bis(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester. Although these results implicate elevated intracellular calcium in the response, dioctanoylglycerol did not increase phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in LA-N-2 cells, and its effect was not inhibited by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 (which blocks the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, a known stimulator of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Novel Lysophospholipid Acyltransferase PLAT1 of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b Responsible for Generation of Palmitate-Docosahexaenoate-Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylethanolamine

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nutahara, Eri; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Taguchi, Ryo; Doi, Kosaku; Honda, Daiske; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), have been reported to play roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The major source of DHA is fish oils but a recent increase in the global demand of DHA and decrease in fish stocks require a substitute. Thraustochytrids, unicellular marine protists belonging to the Chromista kingdom, can synthesize large amounts of DHA, and, thus, are expected to be an alternative to fish oils. DHA is found in the acyl chain(s) of phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols in thraustochytrids; however, how thraustochytrids incorporate DHA into phospholipids remains unknown. We report here a novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase (PLAT1), which is responsible for the generation of DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in thraustochytrids. The PLAT1 gene, which was isolated from the genomic DNA of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the FLAG-tagged recombinant enzyme was characterized after purification with anti-FLAG affinity gel. PLAT1 shows wide specificity for donor substrates as well as acceptor substrates in vitro, i.e, the enzyme can adopt lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol as acceptor substrates, and 15:0/16:0-CoA and DHA-CoA as donor substrates. In contrast to the in vitro experiment, only lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activities were decreased in plat1-knockout mutants, resulting in a decrease of 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylcholine (PC) [PC(38∶6)] and 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PE(38∶6)], which are two major DHA-containing phospholipids in A. limacinum F26-b. However, the amounts of other phospholipid species including DHA-DHA-PC [PC(44∶12)] and DHA-DHA-PE [PE(44∶12)] were almost the same in plat-knockout mutants and the wild-type. These results indicate that PLAT1 is the

  11. Novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase PLAT1 of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b responsible for generation of palmitate-docosahexaenoate-phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Abe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nutahara, Eri; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Taguchi, Ryo; Doi, Kosaku; Honda, Daiske; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), have been reported to play roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The major source of DHA is fish oils but a recent increase in the global demand of DHA and decrease in fish stocks require a substitute. Thraustochytrids, unicellular marine protists belonging to the Chromista kingdom, can synthesize large amounts of DHA, and, thus, are expected to be an alternative to fish oils. DHA is found in the acyl chain(s) of phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols in thraustochytrids; however, how thraustochytrids incorporate DHA into phospholipids remains unknown. We report here a novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase (PLAT1), which is responsible for the generation of DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in thraustochytrids. The PLAT1 gene, which was isolated from the genomic DNA of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the FLAG-tagged recombinant enzyme was characterized after purification with anti-FLAG affinity gel. PLAT1 shows wide specificity for donor substrates as well as acceptor substrates in vitro, i.e, the enzyme can adopt lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol as acceptor substrates, and 15:0/16:0-CoA and DHA-CoA as donor substrates. In contrast to the in vitro experiment, only lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activities were decreased in plat1-knockout mutants, resulting in a decrease of 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylcholine (PC) [PC(38:6)] and 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PE(38:6)], which are two major DHA-containing phospholipids in A. limacinum F26-b. However, the amounts of other phospholipid species including DHA-DHA-PC [PC(44:12)] and DHA-DHA-PE [PE(44:12)] were almost the same in plat-knockout mutants and the wild-type. These results indicate that PLAT1 is the enzyme

  12. 2H nuclear magnetic resonance order parameter profiles suggest a change of molecular shape for phosphatidylcholines containing a polyunsaturated acyl chain.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, L. L.; Peter, S. A.; Sinnwell, T. M.; Gawrisch, K.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-state 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the orientational order parameter profiles for a series of phosphatidylcholines with perdeuterated stearic acid, 18:0d35, in position sn-1 and 18:1 omega 9, 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, 20:4 omega 6, 20:5 omega 3, or 22:6 omega 3 in position sn-2. The main phase transition temperatures were derived from a first moment analysis, and order parameter profiles of sn-1 chains were calculated from dePaked nuclear magnetic resonance powder patterns. Comparison of the profiles at 37 degrees C showed that unsaturation causes an inhomogenous disordering along the sn-1 chain. Increasing sn-2 chain unsaturation from one to six double bonds resulted in a 1.6-kHz decrease in quadrupolar splittings of the sn-1 chain in the upper half of the chain (or plateau region) and maximum splitting difference of 4.4 kHz at methylene carbon 14. The change in chain order corresponds to a decrease in the 18:0 chain length of 0.4 +/- 0.2 A with 18:2 omega 6 versus 18:1 omega 9 in position sn-2. Fatty acids containing three or more double bonds in sn-2 showed a decrease in sn-1 chain length of 0.7 +/- 0.2 A compared with 18:1 omega 9. The chain length of all lipids decreased with increasing temperature. Highly unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (three or more double bonds in sn-2) had shorter sn-1 chains, but the chain length was somewhat less sensitive to temperature. The profiles reveal that the sn-1 chain exhibits a selective increase in motional freedom in a region located toward the bottom half of the chain as sn-2 unsaturation is increased. This corresponds to an area increase around carbon atom number 14 that is three to four times greater than the increase for the top part of the chain. A similar asymmetric decrease in order, largest toward the methyl end of the chain, was observed when 1 -palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine goes from a lamellar to an inverse hexagonal (H,,) phase. This is consistent with a

  13. Metastability and polymorphism in the gel phase of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-SN-phosphatidylcholine. A Fourier transform infrared study of the subtransition.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D G; Mantsch, H H

    1982-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the metastability of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) at temperatures near 0 degrees C. It was found that when DPPC is incubated at 2 degrees C for three days the two-dimensional acyl chain packing changes from one resulting in spectra typical of an orthorhombic subcell to one resembling that found in triclinically packed acyl systems. This transition proceeds in two stages. The first step, requiring less than one day, approximates first-order kinetics; the second stage proceeds with second- or higher-order kinetics. Comparison of spectra recorded at -36 degrees C with and without prior incubation at 2 degrees C shows that there are two stable low temperature forms of DPPC; that is, DPPC is metastable only within a narrow temperature range. A study of the thermotropic behavior in the range 0-45 degrees C shows that the subtransition near 15 degrees C is a transition from the alternate form to one with orthorhombic characteristics. Spectral changes at the pretransition and the main phase transition demonstrate that there are differences in behavior that are related to the thermal history of the sample. PMID:6896464

  14. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. PMID:25112873

  15. Remodeling of host phosphatidylcholine by Chlamydia acyltransferase is regulated by acyl-CoA binding protein ACBD6 associated with lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Soupene, Eric; Wang, Derek; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis invades cells as an infectious elementary body (EB). The EB is internalized into a vacuole that is hidden from the host defense mechanism, and is modified to sustain the development of the replicative reticulate body (RB). Inside this parasitophorous compartment, called the inclusion, the pathogen survives supported by an active exchange of nutrients and proteins with the host cell. We show that host lipids are scavenged and modified into bacterial-specific lipids by the action of a shared human-bacterial acylation mechanism. The bacterial acylating enzymes for the essential lipids 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and 1-acyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine were identified as CT453 and CT775, respectively. Bacterial CT775 was found to be associated with lipid droplets (LDs). During the development of C. trachomatis, the human acyl-CoA carrier hACBD6 was recruited to cytosolic LDs and translocated into the inclusion. hACBD6 protein modulated the activity of CT775 in an acyl-CoA dependent fashion and sustained the activity of the bacterial acyltransferase by buffering the concentration of acyl-CoAs. We propose that disruption of the binding activity of the acyl-CoA carrier might represent a new drug-target to prevent growth of C. trachomatis. PMID:25604091

  16. Mitochondrially-targeted bacterial phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase sustained phosphatidylcholine synthesis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δpem1 Δpem2 double mutant without exogenous choline supply.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Mizuike, Aya; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-09-01

    In eukaryotic cells, phospholipids are synthesized exclusively in the defined organelles specific for each phospholipid species. To explain the reason for this compartmental specificity in the case of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis, we constructed and characterized a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that lacked endogenous phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methyltransferases but had a recombinant PE methyltransferase from Acetobacter aceti, which was fused with a mitochondrial targeting signal from yeast Pet100p and a 3×HA epitope tag. This fusion protein, which we named as mitopmt, was determined to be localized to the mitochondria by fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. The expression of mitopmt suppressed the choline auxotrophy of a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2 (pem1Δpem2Δ) and enabled it to synthesize PC in the absence of choline. This growth suppression was observed even if the Kennedy pathway was inactivated by the repression of PCT1 encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, suggesting that PC synthesized in the mitochondria is distributed to other organelles without going through the salvage pathway. The pem1Δpem2Δ strain deleted for PSD1 encoding the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase was able to grow because of the expression of mitopmt in the presence of ethanolamine, implying that PE from other organelles, probably from the ER, was converted to PC by mitopmt. These results suggest that PC could move out of the mitochondria, and raise the possibility that its movement is not under strict directional limitations. PMID:24832487

  17. Two-ligand priming mechanism for potentiated phosphoinositide synthesis is an evolutionarily conserved feature of Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine exchange proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Ghosh, Ratna; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Lönnfors, Max; Somerharju, Pentti; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2016-07-15

    Lipid signaling, particularly phosphoinositide signaling, plays a key role in regulating the extreme polarized membrane growth that drives root hair development in plants. The Arabidopsis AtSFH1 gene encodes a two-domain protein with an amino-terminal Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) domain linked to a carboxy-terminal nodulin domain. AtSfh1 is critical for promoting the spatially highly organized phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate signaling program required for establishment and maintenance of polarized root hair growth. Here we demonstrate that, like the yeast Sec14, the AtSfh1 PITP domain requires both its phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)- and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)-binding properties to stimulate PtdIns-4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P] synthesis. Moreover, we show that both phospholipid-binding activities are essential for AtSfh1 activity in supporting polarized root hair growth. Finally, we report genetic and biochemical evidence that the two-ligand mechanism for potentiation of PtdIns 4-OH kinase activity is a broadly conserved feature of plant Sec14-nodulin proteins, and that this strategy appeared only late in plant evolution. Taken together, the data indicate that the PtdIns/PtdCho-exchange mechanism for stimulated PtdIns(4)P synthesis either arose independently during evolution in yeast and in higher plants, or a suitable genetic module was introduced to higher plants from a fungal source and subsequently exploited by them. PMID:27193303

  18. Differential effects of pertussis toxin on insulin-stimulated phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and glycerolipid synthesis de novo. Studies in BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Standaert, M.L.; Nair, G.P.; Farese, R.V. )

    1991-04-02

    Insulin-induced increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) have been suggested to result from stimulation of de novo phosphatidic acid (PA) synthesis and phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis. Presently, the authors found that insulin decreased PC levels of BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes by approximately 10-25% within 30 s. These decreases were rapidly reversed in both cell types, apparently because of increased PC synthesis de novo. In BC3H-1 myocytes, pertussis toxin inhibited PC resynthesis and insulin effects on the pathway of de novo PA-DAG-PC synthesis, as evidenced by changes in ({sup 3}H)glycerol incorporation, but did not inhibit insulin-stimulated PC hydrolysis. Pertussis toxin also blocked the later, but not the initial, increase in DAG production in the myocytes. Phorbol esters activated PC hydrolysis in both myocytes and adipocytes, but insulin-induced stimulation of PC hydrolysis was not dependent upon activation of PKC, since this hydrolysis was not inhibited by 500 {mu}M sangivamycin, an effective PKC inhibitor. The results indicate that insulin increases DAG by pertussis toxin sensitive and insensitive (PC hydrolysis) mechanisms, which are mechanistically separate, but functionally interdependent and integrated. PC hydrolysis may contribute importantly to initial increases in DAG, but later sustained increases are apparently largely dependent on insulin-induced stimulation of the pathway of de novo phospholipid synthesis.

  19. X-ray diffraction study of lipid bilayer membranes interacting with amphiphilic helical peptides: diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine with alamethicin at low concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; He, K; Ludtke, S J; Huang, H W

    1995-01-01

    A variety of amphiphilic helical peptides have been shown to exhibit a transition from adsorbing parallel to a membrane surface at low concentrations to inserting perpendicularly into the membrane at high concentrations. Furthermore, this transition has been correlated to the peptides' cytolytic activities. X-ray lamellar diffraction of diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine-alamethicin mixtures revealed the changes of the bilayer structure with alamethicin concentration. In particular, the bilayer thickness decreases with increasing peptide concentration in proportion to the peptide-lipid molar ratio from as low as 1:150 to 1:47; the latter is near the threshold of the critical concentration for insertion. From the decreases of the bilayer thickness, one can calculate the cross sectional expansions of the lipid chains. For all of the peptide concentrations studied, the area expansion of the chain region for each adsorbed peptide is a constant 280 +/- 20 A2, which is approximately the cross sectional area of an adsorbed alamethicin. This implies that the peptide is adsorbed at the interface of the hydrocarbon region, separating the lipid headgroups laterally. Interestingly, the chain disorder caused by a peptide adsorption tends to spread over a large area, as much as 100 A in diameter. The theoretical basis of the long range nature of bilayer deformation is discussed. PMID:7647240

  20. Decreased level of phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4) in multiple myeloma cells compared to plasma cells: a single-cell MALDI-IMS approach.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Amir; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Takei, Shiro; Fukano, Hana; Romero-Perez, Gustavo A; Tajima, Shogo; Yao, Ikuko; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Lipid metabolic changes under diseased conditions, particularly in solid tumors, are attracting increased attention. However, in non-solid tumors, including most hematopoietic tumors, lipid analyses are scarce. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder arising from bone marrow, and the lipid status of MM cells has not been reported yet. In this study, we analyzed flow cytometry-sorted single MM cells and normal plasma cells (NPCs) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), a two-dimensional label-free mass spectrometry technique for biomolecular analysis, to obtain specific lipid information. We isolated 1.31-5.77% of MM cells and 0.03-0.24% of NPCs using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Analysis of purified cells using MALDI-IMS at the single-cell level revealed that the peak intensity and ion signals of phosphatidylcholine [PC (16:0/20:4) + H](+) at m/z 782.5 were significantly decreased in MM cells compared to NPCs. By examining particular cell populations rather than cell mixtures, our method can become a suitable tool for the analysis of rare cell populations at the single-cell level and advance the understanding of MM progression. PMID:25957845

  1. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species.

    PubMed

    Le Grandois, Julie; Marchioni, Eric; Zhao, Minjie; Giuffrida, Francesca; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise

    2009-07-22

    This study is a contribution to the exploration of natural phospholipid (PL) sources rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with nutritional interest. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were purified from total lipid extracts of different food matrices, and their molecular species were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)). Fragmentation of lithiated adducts allowed for the identification of fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone. Soy PC was particularly rich in species containing essential fatty acids, such as (18:2-18:2)PC (34.0%), (16:0-18:2)PC (20.8%), and (18:1-18:2)PC (16.3%). PC from animal sources (ox liver and egg yolk) contained major molecular species, such as (16:0-18:2)PC, (16:0-18:1)PC, (18:0-18:2)PC, or (18:0-18:1)PC. Finally, marine source (krill oil), which was particularly rich in (16:0-20:5)PC and (16:0-22:6)PC, appeared to be an interesting potential source for food supplementation with LC-PUFA-PLs, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PMID:19545117

  2. Binding and inhibition studies on lipocortins using phosphatidylcholine vesicles and phospholipase A2 from snake venom, pancreas, and a macrophage-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, F F; Lister, M D; Dennis, E A

    1990-04-01

    Studies are reported on the inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from porcine pancreas, cobra (Naja naja) venom, and the P388D1 macrophage-like cell line by human recombinant lipocortin I and bovine lung calpactin I. Membrane vesicles prepared from 1-stearoyl,2-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC) and other PCs were utilized as substrate. Binding studies using sucrose flotation gradients showed that both lipocortin I and calpactin I bind to these vesicles although less tightly than to vesicles prepared from anionic phospholipids or fatty acids. Binding to PC was somewhat enhanced by Ca2+. Inhibition of cobra venom PLA2 was not observed when PC vesicles were used as substrate but was when dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine was used. Both the pancreatic and macrophage enzymes were inhibited when acting on PC. Interestingly, the inhibition of the macrophage enzyme toward PC depended on the fatty acid attached to the sn-2 position of PC with arachidonate greater than oleate greater than palmitate. Inhibition was also highest at low [PC]; these inhibition results can be explained by the "substrate depletion model" (Davidson, F. F., Dennis, E. A., Powell, M., and Glenney, J. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1698-1705). Experimental and theoretical considerations suggest that the in vitro inhibition by lipocortins of this macrophage PLA2 from a cell that makes lipocortin and is active in prostaglandin production is due to effects on substrate availability rather than direct inhibition. PMID:2138608

  3. Phosphatidylcholine passes through lateral tight junctions for paracellular transport to the apical side of the polarized intestinal tumor cell-line CaCo2.

    PubMed

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Staffer, Simone; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Wannhoff, Andreas; Bach, Margund; Gauss, Annika

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in intestinal mucus, indicative of a specific transport system across the mucosal epithelium to the intestinal lumen. To elucidate this transport mechanism, we employed a transwell tissue culture system with polarized CaCo2 cells. It was shown that PC could not substantially be internalized by the cells. However, after basal application of increasing PC concentrations, an apical transport of 47.1±6.3nmolh(-1)mMPC(-1) was observed. Equilibrium distribution studies with PC applied in equal concentrations to the basal and apical compartments showed a 1.5-fold accumulation on the expense of basal PC. Disruption of tight junctions (TJ) by acetaldehyde or PPARγ inhibitors or by treatment with siRNA to TJ proteins suppressed paracellular transport by at least 50%. Transport was specific for the choline containing the phospholipids PC, lysoPC and sphingomyelin. We showed that translocation is driven by an electrochemical gradient generated by apical accumulation of Cl(-) and HCO3(-) through CFTR. Pretreatment with siRNA to mucin 3 which anchors in the apical plasma membrane of mucosal cells inhibited the final step of luminal PC secretion. PC accumulates in intestinal mucus using a paracellular, apically directed transport route across TJs. PMID:27365309

  4. Phosphate Starvation in Fungi Induces the Replacement of Phosphatidylcholine with the Phosphorus-Free Betaine Lipid Diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-Trimethylhomoserine

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Surabhi; Bertrand, Helmut; Benning, Christoph; Voelker, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) is a phosphorus-free betaine-lipid analog of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesized by many soil bacteria, algae, and nonvascular plants. Synthesis of DGTS and other phosphorus-free lipids in bacteria occurs in response to phosphorus (P) deprivation and results in the replacement of phospholipids by nonphosphorous lipids. The genes encoding DGTS biosynthetic enzymes have previously been identified and characterized in bacteria and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We now report that many fungal genomes, including those of plant and animal pathogens, encode the enzymatic machinery for DGTS biosynthesis, and that fungi synthesize DGTS during P limitation. This finding demonstrates that replacement of phospholipids by nonphosphorous lipids is a strategy used in divergent eukaryotic lineages for the conservation of P under P-limiting conditions. Mutants of Neurospora crassa were used to show that DGTS synthase encoded by the BTA1 gene is solely responsible for DGTS biosynthesis and is under the control of the fungal phosphorus deprivation regulon, mediated by the NUC-1/Pho4p transcription factor. Furthermore, we describe the rational reengineering of lipid metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such that PtdCho is completely replaced by DGTS, and demonstrate that essential processes of membrane biogenesis and organelle assembly are functional and support growth in the engineered strain. PMID:24728191

  5. Adverse hepatic and cardiac responses to rosiglitazone in a new mouse model of type 2 diabetes: relation to dysregulated phosphatidylcholine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huei-Ju; Lin, Yiming; Chen, Yuqing E; Vance, Dennis E; Leiter, Edward H

    2006-07-01

    Given the heterogeneous nature of metabolic dysfunctions associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), a single pharmaceutical cannot be expected to provide complication-free therapy in all patients. Thiazolidinediones (TZD) increase insulin sensitivity, reduce blood glucose and improve cardiovascular parameters. However, in addition to increasing fat mass, TZD have the potential in certain individuals to exacerbate underlying hepatosteatosis and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Pharmacogenetics should allow patient selection to maximize therapy and minimize risk. To this end, we have combined two genetically diverse inbred strains, NON/Lt and NZO/Lt, to produce a "negative heterosis" increasing the frequency of T2D in F1 males. As in humans with T2D, treatment of diabetic and hyperlipemic F1 males with rosiglitazone (Rosi), an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor (PPARgamma), reverses these disease phenotypes. However, the hybrid genome perturbed both major pathways for phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in the liver, and effected remarkable alterations in the composition of cardiolipin in heart mitochondria. These metabolic defects severely exacerbated an underlying hepatosteatosis and increased levels of the adipokine, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a risk factor for cardiovascular events. This model system demonstrates how the power of mouse genetics can be used to identify the metabolic signatures of individuals who may be prone to drug side effects. PMID:16750656

  6. Response to “Comment on ‘Structural Determinants of Drug Partitioning in Surrogates of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer Strata’”

    PubMed Central

    Balaz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We used the solvatochromic correlation to explain the influence of characteristics of studied compounds on the partition coefficients (P) measured using n-hexadecane (C16) and the novel headgroup surrogate (diacetyl phosphatidylcholine - DAcPC), and compare them with those in other systems, including the C16/water (W) system. The comment analyzes, why our correlation for the C16/W system has the standard deviation (SD) higher than that published previously. The main reason is that in our, much smaller, data set the measured P values are complemented by the P values predicted by a reliable, unrelated method. We believe that this approach is acceptable for the aforementioned comparison. We did not use just experimental values, as suggested in the comment, because the solvatochromic correlation, although exhibiting 35 % reduction in the SD, was accompanied by a sign change of one of the regression coefficients. The recommended use of special solvatochromic solute characteristics for a few compounds, and replacement of a predicted PC16/W value by the experimental value resulted in improved correlations. The observed differences between our correlation and those published in the comment and in a previous paper do not affect our main conclusions regarding the solvation of solutes in the surrogates (DAcPC and C16) of intrabilayer strata. PMID:25812003

  7. Chronic treatment with a precursor of cellular phosphatidylcholine ameliorates morphological and behavioral effects of aging in the mouse [correction of rat] hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Crespo, D; Megias, M; Fernandez-Viadero, C; Verduga, R

    2004-06-01

    Normal aging is commonly associated with a decline in memory, mainly for that related with newly acquired information. The hippocampal formation (HF) is a brain region that has been implicated in this dysfunction. Within the HF there are several cellular types, such as pyramidal cells, granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and astrocytes. CDP-choline is a well-known intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid essential for neuronal membrane preservation and function; thus, this compound would attenuate the process of neuronal aging. To test this, three groups of male mice were used in this study. An adult 12-month-old group (ACG), a 24-month-old (OCG), and an old experimental group (OEG) were administered orally a solution of CDP-choline (150 mg/kg per day) from 12 up to 24 months. Experimental observations suggest that CDP-choline has a positive effect on memory (reference errors were attenuated), and hippocampal morphology resembled that of younger animals. PMID:15246991

  8. The yeast phospholipid N-methyltransferases catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine preferentially convert di-C16:1 substrates both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boumann, Henry A; Chin, Patrick T K; Heck, Albert J R; De Kruijff, Ben; De Kroon, Anton I P M

    2004-09-24

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is an important and abundant structural component of the membranes of eukaryotic cells. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the primary route for the biosynthesis of PC consists of three consecutive methylation steps of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the phospholipid N-methyltransferases Cho2p and Opi3p. To investigate how these biosynthetic enzymes contribute to the composition of the PC species profile, the precursor-product relationships between PE and newly synthesized PC were determined at the level of the molecular species by using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope labeling. In vivo labeling of yeast cells for 10 min with [methyl-D3]methionine revealed the preferential methylation of di-C16:1 PE over a range of PE species compositions. A similar preferential conversion of di-C16:1 PE to PC was found in vitro upon incubating isolated microsomes with S-adenosyl[methyl-D3]methionine. Yeast opi3 and cho2 deletion strains were used to distinguish between the substrate selectivities of Cho2p and Opi3p, respectively. Both biosynthetic enzymes were found to participate in the speciesselective methylation with Cho2p contributing the most. The combined results indicate that the selective methylation of PE species by the methyltransferases plays an important role in shaping the steady-state profile of PC molecular species in yeast. PMID:15258140

  9. Depletion of Phosphatidylcholine in Yeast Induces Shortening and Increased Saturation of the Lipid Acyl Chains: Evidence for Regulation of Intrinsic Membrane Curvature in a Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Boumann, Henry A.; Gubbens, Jacob; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Oh, Chan-Seok; Martin, Charles E.; Heck, Albert J.R.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Henry, Susan A.; de Kruijff, Ben; de Kroon, Anton I.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    To study the consequences of depleting the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), exponentially growing cells of a yeast cho2opi3 double deletion mutant were transferred from medium containing choline to choline-free medium. Cell growth did not cease until the PC level had dropped below 2% of total phospholipids after four to five generations. Increasing contents of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol made up for the loss of PC. During PC depletion, the remaining PC was subject to acyl chain remodeling with monounsaturated species replacing diunsaturated species, as shown by mass spectrometry. The remodeling of PC did not require turnover by the SPO14-encoded phospholipase D. The changes in the PC species profile were found to reflect an overall shift in the cellular acyl chain composition that exhibited a 40% increase in the ratio of C16 over C18 acyl chains, and a 10% increase in the degree of saturation. The shift was stronger in the phospholipid than in the neutral lipid fraction and strongest in the species profile of PE. The shortening and increased saturation of the PE acyl chains were shown to decrease the nonbilayer propensity of PE. The results point to a regulatory mechanism in yeast that maintains intrinsic membrane curvature in an optimal range. PMID:16339082

  10. The selective utilization of substrates in vivo by the phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes Ept1p and Cpt1p in yeast.

    PubMed

    Boumann, Henry A; de Kruijff, Ben; Heck, Albert J R; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2004-07-01

    In yeast, the aminoalcohol phosphotransferases Ept1p and Cpt1p catalyze the final steps in the CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline routes leading to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. To determine how these enzymes contribute to the molecular species profiles of PE and PC in vivo, wild-type, cpt1Delta, and ept1Delta cells were pulse labeled with deuterated ethanolamine and choline. Analysis of newly synthesized PE and PC using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that PE and PC produced by Ept1p and Cpt1p have different species compositions, demonstrating that the enzymes consume distinct sets of diacylglycerol species in vivo. Using the characteristic phospholipid species profiles produced by Ept1p and Cpt1p as molecular fingerprints, it was also shown that in vivo CDP-monomethylethanolamine is preferentially used as substrate by Ept1p, whereas CDP-dimethylethanolamine and CDP-propanolamine are converted by Cpt1p. PMID:15225629

  11. Depletion of phosphatidylcholine in yeast induces shortening and increased saturation of the lipid acyl chains: evidence for regulation of intrinsic membrane curvature in a eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Boumann, Henry A; Gubbens, Jacob; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Oh, Chan-Seok; Martin, Charles E; Heck, Albert J R; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Henry, Susan A; de Kruijff, Ben; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2006-02-01

    To study the consequences of depleting the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), exponentially growing cells of a yeast cho2opi3 double deletion mutant were transferred from medium containing choline to choline-free medium. Cell growth did not cease until the PC level had dropped below 2% of total phospholipids after four to five generations. Increasing contents of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol made up for the loss of PC. During PC depletion, the remaining PC was subject to acyl chain remodeling with monounsaturated species replacing diunsaturated species, as shown by mass spectrometry. The remodeling of PC did not require turnover by the SPO14-encoded phospholipase D. The changes in the PC species profile were found to reflect an overall shift in the cellular acyl chain composition that exhibited a 40% increase in the ratio of C16 over C18 acyl chains, and a 10% increase in the degree of saturation. The shift was stronger in the phospholipid than in the neutral lipid fraction and strongest in the species profile of PE. The shortening and increased saturation of the PE acyl chains were shown to decrease the nonbilayer propensity of PE. The results point to a regulatory mechanism in yeast that maintains intrinsic membrane curvature in an optimal range. PMID:16339082

  12. Binding interaction of differently charged fluorescent probes with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the effect of β-cyclodextrin on the lipid-probe complexes: A fluorometric investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Barnali; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of cationic phenosafranin (PSF), anionic 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and non-ionic nile red (NR) have been studied with the zwitterionic phospholipid, egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC). The study reveals discernible binding interactions of the three fluorescent probes with the EYPC lipid vesicle. Once the binding of the probes with the lipid is established, the effect of cyclic oligosaccharide, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), on these lipid bound probes has been investigated. Different fluorometric techniques suggest that addition of β-CD to the probe-lipid complexes leads to the release of the probes from the lipid medium through the formation of probe-β-CD inclusion complexes. A competitive binding of the probes between β-cyclodextrin and the lipid is ascribed to be responsible for the effect. This provides an easy avenue for the removal of the probe molecules from the lipid environment. Extension of this work with drug molecules in cell membranes is expected to give rise to a strategy for the removal of adsorbed drugs from the cell membranes by the use of non-toxic β-cyclodextrin.

  13. Zirconium phosphatidylcholine-based nanocapsules as an in vivo degradable drug delivery system of MAP30, a momordica anti-HIV protein.

    PubMed

    Caizhen, Guo; Yan, Gao; Ronron, Chang; Lirong, Yang; Panpan, Chu; Xuemei, Hu; Yuanbiao, Qiao; Qingshan, Li

    2015-04-10

    An essential in vivo drug delivery system of a momordica anti-HIV protein, MAP30, was developed through encapsulating in chemically synthesized matrices of zirconium egg- and soy-phosphatidylcholines, abbreviated to Zr/EPC and Zr/SPC, respectively. Matrices were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry studies. Zr/EPC granule at an approximate diameter of 69.43±7.78 nm was a less efficient encapsulator than the granule of Zr/SPC. Interlayer spacing of the matrices encapsulating MAP30 increased from 8.8 and 9.7 Å to 7.4 and 7.9 nm, respectively. In vivo kinetics on degradation and protein release was performed by analyzing the serum sampling of intravenously injected SPF chickens. The first order and biphasic variations were obtained for in vivo kinetics using equilibrium dialysis. Antimicrobial and anti-HIV assays yielded greatly decreased MIC50 and EC50 values of nanoformulated MAP30. An acute toxicity of MAP30 encapsulated in Zr/EPC occurred at a single intravenous dose above 14.24 mg/kg bw in NIH/KM/ICR mice. The folding of MAP30 from Zr/EPC sustained in vivo chickens for more than 8 days in high performance liquid chromatography assays. These matrices could protect MAP30 efficiently with strong structure retention, lowered toxicity and prolonged in vivo life. PMID:25681721

  14. Accumulation of lipid in rat liver was induced by vitamin B₆ deficiency and was ameliorated by supplemental phosphatidylcholine in the diet.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Erina; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA), choline, or phosphatidylcholine (PC) in ameliorating the lipid accumulation in rat liver that is induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency. In Experiment 1, male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, or PGA-, choline-, or PC-supplemented (10 mg, 4 g, and 6.3 g/kg of diet, respectively) B6-deficient diet containing l-methionine at 9 g/kg of diet for 35 days. In Experiment 2, rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, or PC-supplemented (at 3.15, 6.3, or 12.6 g PC/kg of diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 days. Choline or PC supplementation ameliorated liver lipid deposition and returned plasma lipids to normal. Judging from these results, it appeared that B6 deficiency decreased the synthesis of PC in the liver, thereby decreasing the secretion of very low-density lipoproteins, and in consequence producing lipid accumulation in the liver and reductions of plasma lipids. PMID:25775923

  15. Inhibition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine synthesis by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside is independent of AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, René L; Lingrell, Susanne; Dyck, Jason R B; Vance, Dennis E

    2007-02-16

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAr), a commonly used indirect activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibits phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in freshly isolated hepatocytes. In all nucleated mammalian cells, PC is synthesized from choline via the Kennedy (CDP-choline) pathway. The purpose of our study was to provide direct evidence that AMPK regulates phospholipid biosynthesis and to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which AMPK inhibits hepatic PC synthesis. Incubations of hepatocytes with AICAr resulted in a dose-dependent activation of AMPK and inhibition of PC biosynthesis. Surprisingly, adenoviral delivery of constitutively active AMPK did not alter PC biosynthesis. In addition, expression of dominant negative mutants of AMPK was unable to block the AICAr-dependent inhibition of PC biosynthesis, indicating that AICAr was acting independently of AMPK activation. Determination of aqueous intermediates of the CDP-choline pathway indicated that choline kinase, the first enzyme in the pathway, was inhibited by AICAr administration. Flux through the CDP-choline pathway was directly correlated to the level of intracellular ATP concentrations. Therefore, it is possible that inhibition of PC biosynthesis is another process by which the cell can reduce ATP consumption in times of energetic stress. However, unlike cholesterol and triacylglycerol biosynthesis, PC production is not regulated by AMPK. PMID:17179149

  16. Trimethylation Enhancement Using (13)C-Diazomethane ((13)C-TrEnDi): Increased Sensitivity and Selectivity of Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylcholine, and Phosphatidylserine Lipids Derived from Complex Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Canez, Carlos R; Shields, Samuel W J; Bugno, Magdalena; Wasslen, Karl V; Weinert, Hillary P; Willmore, William G; Manthorpe, Jeffrey M; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-19

    Significant sensitivity enhancements in the tandem mass spectrometry-based analysis of complex mixtures of several phospholipid classes has been achieved via (13)C-TrEnDi. (13)C-TrEnDi-modified phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids extracted from HeLa cells demonstrated greater sensitivity via precursor ion scans (PISs) than their unmodified counterparts. Sphingomyelin (SM) species exhibited neither an increased nor decreased sensitivity following modification. The use of isotopically labeled diazomethane enabled the distinction of modified PE and modified PC species that would yield isobaric species with unlabeled diazomethane. (13)C-TrEnDi created a PE-exclusive PIS of m/z 202.1, two PS-exclusive PISs of m/z 148.1 and m/z 261.1, and a PIS of m/z 199.1 for PC species (observed at odd m/z values) and SM species (observed at even m/z values). The standardized average area increase after TrEnDi modification was 10.72-fold for PE species, 2.36-fold for PC, and 1.05-fold for SM species. The sensitivity increase of PS species was not quantifiable, as there were no unmodified PS species identified prior to derivatization. (13)C-TrEnDi allowed for the identification of 4 PE and 7 PS species as well as the identification and quantitation of an additional 4 PE and 4 PS species that were below the limit of detection (LoD) prior to modification. (13)C-TrEnDi also pushed 24 PE and 6 PC lipids over the limit of quantitation (LoQ) that prior to modification were above the LoD only. PMID:27275841

  17. Simultaneous detection of phosphatidylcholines and glycerolipids using matrix-enhanced surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry with sputter-deposited platinum film.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Issey; Ihozaki, Taisuke; Hamada, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Murakami, Tatsuya; Miyazato, Akio; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows for the simultaneous detection and imaging of several molecules in brain tissue. However, the detection of glycerolipids such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in brain tissues is hindered in MALDI-IMS because of the ion suppression effect from excessive ion yields of phosphatidylcholine (PC). In this study, we describe an approach that employs a homogeneously deposited metal nanoparticle layer (or film) for the detection of glycerolipids in rat brain tissue sections using IMS. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation IMS with sputter-deposited Pt film (Pt-SALDI-IMS) for lipid analysis was performed as a solvent-free and organic matrix-free method. Pt-SALDI produced a homogenous layer of nanoparticles over the surface of the rat brain tissue section. Highly selective detection of lipids was possible by MALDI-IMS and Pt-SALDI-IMS; MALDI-IMS detected the dominant ion peak of PC in the tissue section, and there were no ion peaks representing glycerolipids such as DAG and TAG. In contrast, Pt-SALDI-IMS allowed the detection of these glycerolipids, but not PC. Therefore, using a hybrid method combining MALDI and Pt-SALDI (i.e., matrix-enhanced [ME]-Pt-SALDI-IMS), we achieved the simultaneous detection of PC, PE and DAG in rat brain tissue sections, and the sensitivity for the detection of these molecules was better than that of MALDI-IMS or Pt-SALDI alone. The present simple ME-Pt-SALDI approach for the simultaneous detection of PC and DAG using two matrices (sputter-deposited Pt film and DHB matrix) would be useful in imaging analyses of biological tissue sections. PMID:26505771

  18. Monitoring of monooctanoylphosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Vikbjerg, Anders F; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-05-18

    Thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML type: L, long-chain fatty acids; M, medium-chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid. It was found that the structured PC fractionated into two to three distinct bands on both plate thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These three bands represented PC of the LL type, ML type, and MM type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage, reaction temperature, solvent amount, reaction time, and substrate ratio (caprylic acid/PC, mol/mol) on formation of ML-type PC in a batch reactor with Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase as the catalyst. The formation of ML-type PC was dependent on all parameters examined except for the substrate ratio. The ML-type PC content increased with increasing enzyme dosage, reaction temperature, solvent amount, and reaction time. The substrate ratio had no significant effect on the formation of ML-type PC within the tested range (3-15 mol/mol). The formation of MM-type PC was observed in some experiments, indicating that acyl migration is taking place during reaction since the lipase is claimed to be 1,3-specific. The TLC-FID method offers a simple and cheap technique for elucidation of product and byproduct formation during enzyme-catalyzed reactions for production of phospholipids containing mixtures of long- and medium-chain fatty acids. PMID:15884820

  19. A Small Phospholipase A2-α from Castor Catalyzes the Removal of Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Phosphatidylcholine in Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bayon, Shen; Chen, Guanqun; Weselake, Randall J.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid, an industrially useful hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), only accumulates to high levels in the triacylglycerol fraction of castor (Ricinus communis) endosperm, even though it is synthesized on the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) from an oleoyl ester. The acyl chains of PC undergo intense remodeling through the process of acyl editing. The identities of the proteins involved in this process, however, are unknown. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is thought to be involved in the acyl-editing process. We show here a role for RcsPLA2α in the acyl editing of HFA esterified to PC. RcsPLA2α was identified by its high relative expression in the castor endosperm transcriptome. Coexpression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds of RcsPLA2α with the castor fatty acid hydroxylase RcFAH12 led to a dramatic decrease in seed HFA content when compared with RcFAH12 expression alone in both PC and the neutral lipid fraction. The low-HFA trait was heritable and gene dosage dependent, with hemizygous lines showing intermediate HFA levels. The low seed HFA levels suggested that RcsPLA2α functions in vivo as a PLA2 with HFA specificity. Activity assays with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) microsomes showed a high specificity of RcsPLA2α for ricinoleic acid, superior to that of the endogenous Arabidopsis PLA2α. These results point to RcsPLA2α as a phospholipase involved in acyl editing, adapted to specifically removing HFA from membrane lipids in seeds. PMID:25667315

  20. Effect of the silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (IdB 1016) on the development of mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, Mauro; Papalini, Francesca; Orlando, Fiorenza; Pierpaoli, Sara; Donnini, Alessia; Morazzoni, Paolo; Riva, Antonella; Smorlesi, Arianna

    2007-03-01

    Silybin, a main component of the milk thistle of Silybum marianum, has been reported to possess anticancer activity. We investigated the effects of IdB 1016, a complex of silybin with phosphatidylcholine, on the development of mammary tumors appearing spontaneously in HER-2/neu transgenic mice. The mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of IdB 1016 were evaluated by studying the apoptosis, senescent-like growth arrest, intratumoral leukocyte infiltrate, and the expression of HER-2/neu and p53 in tumoral mammary glands from transgenic mice and in human breast SKBR3 tumor cells. The administration of IdB 1016 delayed the development of spontaneous mammary tumors, reduced the number and size of mammary tumor masses, and diminished lung metastasization in HER-2/neu transgenic mice. In tumoral mammary glands from IdB 1016-treated mice, a down-regulation of HER-2/neu gene expression was associated with an increased senescent-like growth arrest of tumor cells, and an increased infiltrate of neutrophils, CD4, and CD8 T cells. Both senescent-like growth arrest and apoptosis were significantly increased and were associated with a reduced p185(HER-2/neu) protein and an increased p53 mRNA in SKBR3 in vitro treated with IdB 1016 in comparison with control cells. The results show the antitumor effect of IdB 1016 in the development of spontaneous mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice. The effect of IdB 1016 might be related to the down-regulation of HER-2/neu expression and the induction of senescent-like growth arrest and apoptosis through a p53-mediated pathway in tumor cells. PMID:17332330

  1. Loss of Ypk1, the yeast homolog to the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase, accelerates phospholipase B1-mediated phosphatidylcholine deacylation.

    PubMed

    Surlow, Beth A; Cooley, Benjamin M; Needham, Patrick G; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Patton-Vogt, Jana

    2014-11-01

    Ypk1, the yeast homolog of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1), affects diverse cellular activities, including sphingolipid homeostasis. We now report that Ypk1 also impacts the turnover of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Pulse-chase radiolabeling reveals that a ypk1Δ mutant exhibits increased PC deacylation and glycerophosphocholine production compared with wild type yeast. Deletion of PLB1, a gene encoding a B-type phospholipase that hydrolyzes PC, in a ypk1Δ mutant curtails the increased PC deacylation. In contrast to previous data, we find that Plb1 resides in the ER and in the medium. Consistent with a link between Ypk1 and Plb1, the levels of both Plb1 protein and PLB1 message are elevated in a ypk1Δ strain compared with wild type yeast. Furthermore, deletion of PLB1 in a ypk1Δ mutant exacerbates phenotypes associated with loss of YPK1, including slowed growth and sensitivity to cell wall perturbation, suggesting that increased Plb1 activity buffers against the loss of Ypk1. Because Plb1 lacks a consensus phosphorylation site for Ypk1, we probed other processes under the control of Ypk1 that might be linked to PC turnover. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the drug myriocin or through utilization of a lcb1-100 mutant results in increased PLB1 expression. Furthermore, we discovered that the increase in PLB1 expression observed upon inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis or loss of Ypk1 is under the control of the Crz1 transcription factor. Taken together, these results suggest a functional interaction between Ypk1 and Plb1 in which altered sphingolipid metabolism up-regulates PLB1 expression via Crz1. PMID:25258318

  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus. PMID:24168893

  3. Hexadecylphosphocholine inhibits phosphatidylcholine synthesis via both the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine and CDP-choline pathways in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-López, José M; Carrasco, María P; Segovia, Josefa L; Marco, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    We reported in a recent publication that hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC), a lysophospholipid analogue, reduces cell proliferation in HepG2 cells and at the same time inhibits the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) via CDP-choline by acting upon CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT). We describe here the results of our study into the influence of HePC on other biosynthetic pathways of glycerolipids. HePC clearly decreased the incorporation of the exogenous precursor [1,2,3-3H]glycerol into PC and phosphatidylserine (PS) whilst increasing that of the neutral lipids diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG). Interestingly, the uptake of L-[3-3H]serine into PS and other phospholipids remained unchanged by HePC and neither was the activity of either PS synthase or PS decarboxylase altered, demonstrating that the biosynthesis of PS is unaffected by HePC. We also analyzed the water-soluble intermediates and final product of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway and found that HePC caused an increase in the incorporation of [1,2-14C]ethanolamine into CDP-ethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and a decrease in ethanolamine phosphate, which might be interpreted in terms of a stimulation of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase activity. Since PE can be methylated to give PC, we studied this process further and observed that HePC decreased the synthesis of PC from PE by inhibiting the PE N-methyltransferase activity. These results constitute the first experimental evidence that the inhibition of the synthesis of PC via CDP-choline by HePC is not counterbalanced by any increase in its formation via methylation. On the contrary, in the presence of HePC both pathways seem to contribute jointly to a decrease in the overall synthesis of PC in HepG2 cells. PMID:14592540

  4. Influence of Phosphatidylcholine and Calcium on Self-Association and Bile Salt Mixed Micellar Binding of the Natural Bile Pigment, Bilirubin Ditaurate.

    PubMed

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-11-17

    Recently [Neubrand, M. W., et al. (2015) Biochemistry 54, 1542-1557], we determined a concentration-dependent monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium in aqueous bilirubin ditaurate (BDT) solutions and explored the nature of high-affinity binding of BDT monomers with monomers and micelles of the common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). We now investigate, employing complementary physicochemical methods, including fluorescence emission spectrophotometry and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the influence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the predominant phospholipid of bile and calcium, the major divalent biliary cation, on these self-interactions and heterointeractions. We have used short-chain, lyso and long-chain PC species as models and contrasted our results with those of parallel studies employing unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as the fully charged dianion. Both bile pigments interacted with the zwitterionic headgroup of short-chain lecithins, forming water-soluble (BDT) and insoluble ion-pair complexes (UCB), respectively. Upon micelle formation, BDT monomers apparently remained at the headgroup mantle of short-chain PCs, but the ion pairs with UCB became internalized within the micelle's hydrophobic core. BDT interacted with the headgroups of unilamellar egg yolk (EY) PC vesicles; however, with the simultaneous addition of CaCl2, a reversible aggregation took place, but not vesicle fusion. With mixed EYPC/BS micelles, BDT became bound to the hydrophilic surface (as with simple BS micelles), and in turn, both BDT and BS bound calcium, but not other divalent cations. The calcium complexation of BDT and BS was enhanced strongly with increases in micellar EYPC, suggesting calcium-mediated cross-bridging of hydrophilic headgroups at the micelle's surface. Therefore, the physicochemical binding of BDT to BS in an artificial bile medium is influenced not only by BS species and concentration but also by long-chain PCs and calcium ions that exert a specific rather

  5. Solvent effect on phosphatidylcholine headgroup dynamics as revealed by the energetics and dynamics of two gel-state bilayer headgroup structures at subzero temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, C. H.; Wu, W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The packing and dynamics of lipid bilayers at the phosphocholine headgroup region within the temperature range of -40 to -110 degrees C have been investigated by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of selectively deuterium-labeled H2O/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers. Two coexisting signals with 2H NMR quadrupolar, splittings of 36.1 and 9.3 (or smaller) kHz were detected from the -CD3 of choline methyl group. These two signals have been assigned to two coexisting gel-state headgroup structures with fast rotational motion of -CD3 and -N(CD3)3 group, respectively, with a threefold symmetry. The largest quadrupolar splitting of the NMR signal detected from the -CD2 of C alpha and C beta methylene segment was found to be 115.2 kHz, which is 10% lower than its static value of 128.2 kHz. Thus, there are extensive motions of the entire choline group of gel-state phosphatidylcholine bilayers even at a subzero temperature of -110 degrees C. These results strongly support the previous suggestion (E. J. Dufourc, C. Mayer, J. Stohrer, G. Althoff, and G. Kothe, 1992, Biophys. J. 61:42-57) that 31P chemical shift tensor elements of DMPC determined under similar conditions are not the rigid static values. The free energy difference between the two gel-state headgroup structures was determined to be 26.3 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for fully hydrated bilayers. Furthermore, two structures with similar free energy difference were also detected for "frozen" phosphorylcholine chloride solution in a control experiment, leading to the conclusion that the two structures may be governed solely by the energetics of fully hydrated phosphocholine headgroup. The intermolecular interactions among lipids, however, stabilize the static headgroup structure as evidenced by the apparently lower free energy difference between the two structures for partially hydrated lipid bilayers. Evidence is also presented to suggest that one of the headgroup structures with

  6. Nonideal mixing and phase separation in phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidic acid mixtures as a function of acyl chain length and pH.

    PubMed Central

    Garidel, P; Johann, C; Blume, A

    1997-01-01

    The miscibilities of phosphatidic acids (PAs) and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different chain lengths (n = 14, 16) at pH 4, pH 7, and pH 12 were examined by differential scanning calorimetry. Simulation of heat capacity curves was performed using a new approach that incorporates changes of cooperativity of the transition in addition to nonideal mixing in the gel and the liquid-crystalline phase as a function of composition. From the simulations of the heat capacity curves, first estimates for the nonideality parameters for nonideal mixing as a function of composition were obtained, and phase diagrams were constructed using temperatures for onset and end of melting, which were corrected for the broadening effect caused by a decrease in cooperativity. In all cases the composition dependence of the nonideality parameters indicated nonsymmetrical mixing behavior. The phase diagrams were therefore further refined by simulations of the coexistence curves using a four-parameter approximation to account for nonideal and nonsymmetrical mixing in the gel and the liquid-crystalline phase. The mixing behavior was studied at three different pH values to investigate how changes in headgroup charge of the PA influences the miscibility. The experiments showed that at pH 7, where the PA component is negatively charged, the nonideality parameters are in most cases negative, indicating that electrostatic effects favor a mixing of the two components. Partial protonation of the PA component at pH 4 leads to strong changes in miscibility; the nonideality parameters for the liquid-crystalline phase are now in most cases positive, indicating clustering of like molecules. The phase diagram for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid:1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine mixtures at pH 4 indicates that a fluid-fluid immiscibility is likely. The results show that a decrease in ionization of PAs can induce large changes in mixing behavior. This occurs because of a

  7. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus: probing the role of the active site Glu146.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Spaller, M R; Hergenrother, P J

    1996-10-01

    A series of site-specific mutants of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus (PLCBc) was prepared in which the glutamic acid residue at position 146 was replaced with glutamine, aspartic acid, histidine, and leucine to elucidate what role Glu146 might play in catalysis. An expression system for the native enzyme in Escherichia coli was first developed to provide PLCBc that was fused via an intervening factor Xa protease recognition sequence at its N-terminus to maltose binding protein (MBP). This MBP-PLCBc fusion protein was isolated at levels of 50-70 mg/L of culture; selective trypsin digestion of the MBP-PLCBc fusion protein followed by chromatographic purification yielded recombinant PLCBc at levels of ca. 10 mg/L. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mutagenesis on the PLCBc gene (plc) was then used to replace the Glu146 codon with those for glutamine (E146Q), aspartic acid (E146D), histidine (E146H), and leucine (E146L). The catalytic efficiency of the E146Q mutant was 1.6% that of native PLCBc, while the other mutants each possessed activities of 0.2-0.3% of the wild type. The kcat/Km vs pH profiles for both E146Q and native PLCBc have ascending acidic limbs, suggesting that Glu146 does not serve as the general base in the hydrolysis reaction. As measured by circular dichroism, all of the mutant proteins contained less helical structure and underwent denaturation at lower temperatures than the wild type in the order: wild type > E146Q > E146D approximately E146H approximately E146L. Atomic absorption analyses indicated that the mutant proteins also exhibited lower Zn2+ content than the wild type. Thus, the Glu146 residue in PLCBc stabilizes the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme and serves as a critical ligand for Zn2, but it does not appear to have any specific catalytic role. PMID:8841144

  8. Multiple sources of 1,2-diacylglycerol in isolated rat pancreatic acini stimulated by cholecystokinin. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, T.; Williams, J.A. )

    1989-09-05

    Changes in the cellular content of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) in isolated rat pancreatic acini in response to agonist stimulation were studied using a sensitive mass assay. When acini were stimulated by 10 nM COOH-terminal cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK8), the increase in DAG was biphasic, consisting of an early peak at 5 s and a second, larger, gradual increase that was maximal by 15 min. The basal level of DAG in acini was 1.04 nmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 1.24 nmol/mg of protein at 5 s and 2.76 nmol/mg of protein at 30 min. In comparison, the increase in DAG stimulated by 30 pM CCK8, a submaximal concentration for amylase release, was monophasic, increasing without an early peak but sustained to 60 min. Other Ca2+-mobilizing secretagogues such as carbamylcholine and bombesin increased DAG in acini, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide, which acts to increase cAMP, had no effect. Phorbol ester and Ca2+ ionophore also stimulated DAG production. Analysis of the mass level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1,4,5-IP3) showed that the generation of 1,4,5-IP3 stimulated by 10 nM CCK8 peaked at 5 s, a finding consistent with the early peak of DAG. The basal level was 4.7 pmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 144.6 pmol/mg of protein at 5 s by 10 nM CCK8. The levels of 1,4,5-IP3 then returned toward basal in contrast to the gradual and sustained increase of DAG. The dose dependencies of 1,4,5-IP3 and DAG formation at 5 s with respect to CCK8 were almost identical. This suggests that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis is a major source of the early increase in DAG but not of the sustained increase in DAG. Therefore, a possible contribution of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis to DAG formation was examined utilizing acini prelabeled with (3H)choline. CCK8 (1 nM) maximally increased (3H)choline metabolite release by 133% of control at 30 min.

  9. High pressure 2H-NMR study of the order and dynamics of selectively deuterated dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine in multilamellar aqueous dispersions.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X.; Jonas, A.; Jonas, J.

    1995-01-01

    High pressure 2H multipulse NMR techniques were used to investigate the effects of pressure on the structure and dynamics of selectively deuterated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar aqueous dispersions. The samples were deuterated on both chains at positions 2, 9, or 13. The deuterium lineshapes, the spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, and the spin-spin relaxation times, T2, were measured as a function of pressure from 1 bar to 5 kbar at 50 degrees C for the three deuterated DPPC samples. This pressure range permitted us to explore the phase behavior of DPPC from the liquid-crystalline (LC) phase through various gel phases such as the Gel I (P beta), Gel II (L beta), Gel III, Gel X, and the interdigitated, Gel i, gel phase. Pressure had an ordering effect on all chain segments both in the LC phase and various high pressure gel phases as indicated by the increase in SCD bond order parameter and the first moment, M1, with pressure. Compared with the adjacent gel phases, the Gel i phase had the highest order. Also, in all gel phases the carbon-9 segment of the chains had the most restricted motions in contrast to the LC phase, where the carbon-2 segment was the most restricted. In the LC phase, T1 and T2 values for all segments decreased with pressure, indicative of the fast correlation time regime. Similarly, T1 decreased with pressure in the Gel I and the interdigitated Gel i gel phases but changed to the slow correlation time regime at the Gel i/Gel II phase transition. For T2, which reflects slow motions, the transition to the slow correlation time regime occurred already at LC/Gel I phase transition. Considering the various motions which contribute to relaxation, the behavior of T1 and T2 in the Gel 11 through Gel X phases showing discontinuities and slope changes at the phase transitions was, as expected, quite complex.In addition we found a straight line relationship for T-1 vs. S2D, and T-1 vs. S2CD for the deuterons in the 9

  10. Changes of Phosphatidylcholine and Fatty Acids in Germ Cells during Testicular Maturation in Three Developmental Male Morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Chansela, Piyachat; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Sroyraya, Morakot; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J.; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Testis maturation, germ cell development and function of sperm, are related to lipid composition. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) play a key role in the structure and function of testes. As well, increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for male fertility. This study is the first report to show the composition and distribution of PCs and total fatty acids (FAs) in three groups of seminiferous tubules (STs) classified by cellular associations [i.e., A (STs with mostly early germ cells), B (STs with mostly spermatids), and C (STs with spermatozoa)], in three morphotypes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, [i.e., small male (SM), orange claw male (OC), and blue claw male (BC)]. Thin layer chromatography exhibited levels of PCs reaching maxima in STs of group B. Imaging mass spectrometry showed remarkably high signals corresponding to PC (16:0/18:1), PC (18:0/18:2), PC (18:2/20:5), and PC (16:0/22:6) in STs of groups A and B. Moreover, most signals were detected in the early developing cells and the intertubular area, but not at the area containing spermatozoa. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the major FAs present in the testes were composed of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:1, 20:2, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6. The testes of OC contained the greatest amounts of these FAs while the testes of BC contained the least amounts of these FAs, and there was more EPA (20:5) in the testes of SM and OC than those in the BC. The increasing amounts of FAs in the SM and OC indicate that they are important for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. This knowledge will be useful in formulating diets containing PUFA and HUFA for prawn broodstocks in order to improve testis development, and lead to increased male fecundity. PMID:25781176

  11. Muscarinic stimulation of SK-N-BE(2) human neuroblastoma cells elicits phosphoinositide and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis: relationship to diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, L; Limatola, C; Frati, L; Luly, P; Spinedi, A

    1993-01-01

    Muscarinic stimulation of the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2) elicits hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and produces a rapid and sustained elevation of diacylglycerol (DG) mass. PtdIns(4,5)P2 cleavage by phospholipase C (PLC) occurred immediately after carbachol (CCh) addition, and phosphoinositide hydrolysis was then sustained for at least 5 min. Cell stimulation, after extensive PtdCho labelling by long-term [3H]choline administration, resulted in an enhanced release of [3H]phosphocholine (PCho) into the external medium; enhanced [3H]PCho release, which occurred with a 15 s delay with respect to CCh addition, was particularly pronounced within the first minute of stimulation and proved to be caused by PtdCho-specific PLC activation. In fact, when cells were exposed to [3H]choline for a short period, to extensively label the intracellular PCho pool but not PtdCho, stimulation did not result in an enhanced release of [3H]PCho into the medium. PtdCho-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activation was documented by the accumulation of [3H]phosphatidylethanol in cells prelabelled with [3H]myristic acid and stimulated in the presence of 1% (v/v) ethanol; this metabolic pathway, however, proved to be a minor one leading to generation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) during cell stimulation, whereas DG production by the sequential action of PtdCho-specific PLD and PtdOH phosphohydrolase was not observed. Studies on cells which were double-labelled with [3H]myristic acid and [14C]arachidonic acid indicated that within 15 s of stimulation DG is uniquely derived from PtdIns(4,5)P2, whereas PtdCho is the major source at later times. Evidence is provided that rapid and selective conversion of phosphoinositide-derived DG into PtdOH may play an important role in determining the temporal accumulation profile of DG from the above-mentioned sources. PMID:8380986

  12. Phosphatidylcholine Specific PLC-Induced Dysregulation of Gap Junctions, a Robust Cellular Response to Environmental Toxicants, and Prevention by Resveratrol in a Rat Liver Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Sovadinova, Iva; Babica, Pavel; Böke, Hatice; Kumar, Esha; Wilke, Andrew; Park, Joon-Suk; Trosko, James E.; Upham, Brad L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with different pathologies, including cancer; however, molecular mechanisms regulating GJIC are not fully understood. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanisms of GJIC-dysregulation have been well-established, however recent discoveries have implicated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) in the regulation of GJIC. What is not known is how prevalent these two signaling mechanisms are in toxicant/toxin-induced dysregulation of GJIC, and do toxicants/toxins work through either signaling mechanisms or both, or through alternative signaling mechanisms. Different chemical toxicants were used to assess whether they dysregulate GJIC via MEK or PC-PLC, or both Mek and PC-PLC, or through other signaling pathways, using a pluripotent rat liver epithelial oval-cell line, WB-F344. Epidermal growth factor, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 and lindane regulated GJIC through a MEK1/2-dependent mechanism that was independent of PC-PLC; whereas PAHs, DDT, PCB 153, dicumylperoxide and perfluorodecanoic acid inhibited GJIC through PC-PLC independent of Mek. Dysregulation of GJIC by perfluorooctanoic acid and R59022 required both MEK1/2 and PC-PLC; while benzoylperoxide, arachidonic acid, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1-monolaurin, pentachlorophenol and alachlor required neither MEK1/2 nor PC-PLC. Resveratrol prevented dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that acted either through MEK1/2 or PC-PLC. Except for alachlor, resveratrol did not prevent dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that worked through PC-PLC-independent and MEK1/2-independent pathways, which indicated at least two other, yet unidentified, pathways that are involved in the regulation of GJIC. In conclusion: the dysregulation of GJIC is a contributing factor to the cancer process; however the underlying mechanisms by which gap

  13. Partition coefficient of a surfactant between aggregates and solution: application to the micelle-vesicle transition of egg phosphatidylcholine and octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

    PubMed Central

    Paternostre, M; Meyer, O; Grabielle-Madelmont, C; Lesieur, S; Ghanam, M; Ollivon, M

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the solubilization of egg phosphatidylcholine containing 10% (M/M) of egg phosphatidic acid unilamellar vesicles by the nonionic detergent, octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, has been investigated at both molecular and supramolecular levels by using fluorescence and turbidity measurements. In the lamellar region of the transition, the solubilization process has been shown to be first a function of the initial size before reaching an equilibrium aggregation state at the end of this region (the onset of the micellization process). The analysis during the solubilization process of the evolution of both the fluorescence energy transfer between N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (NBD-PE) and N-(lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (Rho-PE) and the fluorescence of 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminoaphtalene (Laurdan) has allowed us to determine the evolution of the detergent partitioning between the aqueous and the lipidic phases, i.e., the evolution of the molar fraction of OG in the aggregates (XOG/Lip) with its monomeric detergent concentration in equilibrium ([OG]H2O), throughout the vesicle-to-micelle transition without isolating the aqueous medium from the aggregates. The curve described by XOG/Lip versus [OG]H2O shows that the partition coefficient of OG is changing throughout the solubilization process. From this curve, which tends to a value of 1/(critical micellar concentration), five different domains have been delimited: two in the lamellar part of the transition (for 0 < [OG]H2O < 15.6 mM), one in the micellization part, and finally two in the pure micellar region (for 16.5 < [OG]H2O < 21 mM). The first domain in the lamellar part of the transition is characterized by a continuous variation of the partition coefficient. In the second domain, a linear relation relates XOG/Lip and [OG]H2O, indicating the existence of a biphasic domain for which the detergent presents a constant partition coefficient of 18

  14. Interaction of n-octyl β,D-glucopyranoside with giant magnetic-fluid-loaded phosphatidylcholine vesicles: direct visualization of membrane curvature fluctuations as a function of surfactant partitioning between water and lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Cabuil, Valérie; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2010-10-01

    The present study deals with the morphological modifications of giant dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles (DOPC GUVs) induced by the nonionic surfactant n-octyl β,D-glucopyranoside at sublytic levels, i.e., in the first steps of the vesicle-to-micelle transition process, when surfactant inserts into the vesicle bilayer without disruption. Experimental conditions were perfected to exactly control the surfactant bilayer composition of the vesicles, in line with former work focused on the mechanical properties of the membrane of magnetic-fluid-loaded DOPC GUVs submitted to a magnetic field. The purpose here was to systematically examine, in the absence of any external mechanical constraint, the dynamics of giant vesicle shape and membrane deformations as a function of surfactant partitioning between the aqueous phase and the lipid membrane, beforehand established by turbidity measurements from small unilamellar vesicles. PMID:20825201

  15. Phosphatidylcholines and -ethanolamines can be easily mistaken in phospholipid mixtures: a negative ion MALDI-TOF MS study with 9-aminoacridine as matrix and egg yolk as selected example.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Beate; Bischoff, Annabell; Süss, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin; Schürenberg, Martin; Suckau, Detlev; Schiller, Jürgen

    2009-12-01

    Phospholipids (PL) are increasingly analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). As in the case of polar molecules, however, the careful selection of the matrix is crucial for optimum results. 9-Aminoacridine (9-AA) was recently suggested as the matrix of choice to analyze PL mixtures because of (a) the improved sensitivity and (b) the reduction of suppression effects compared to other matrices. However, the distinction of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the negative ion mode is obscured as PC is also detectable as -CH3+ ion if 9-AA is used as matrix. This may result in the erroneous assignment of PC as a PE species. Using an organic extract from hen egg yolk as example it will be shown that the contribution of PC must be taken into consideration if the negative ion mass spectra are used to evaluate the fatty acyl compositions of PE mixtures. 9-AA can as well be used in hyphenated thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-MALDI-TOF MS where PC and PE are chromatographically well separated for unequivocal assignments. PMID:19690837

  16. Very high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine liposomes: partitioning and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, A I; Smirnova, T I; Morse, P D

    1995-01-01

    Partitioning and molecular dynamics of 2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperedine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) nitroxide radicals in large unilamellar liposomes (LUV) composed from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine were investigated by using very high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Experiments carried out at a microwave frequency of 94.3 GHz completely resolved the TEMPO EPR spectrum in the aqueous and hydrocarbon phases. An accurate computer simulation method combined with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization was used to analyze the TEMPO EPR spectra in both phases. Spectral parameters extracted from the simulations gave the actual partitioning of the TEMPO probe between the LUV hydrocarbon and aqueous phases and allowed analysis of picosecond rotational dynamics of the probe in the LUV hydrocarbon phase. In very high frequency EPR experiments, phase transitions in the LUV-TEMPO system were observed as sharp changes in both partitioning and rotational correlation times of the TEMPO probe. The phase transition temperatures (40.5 +/- 0.2 and 32.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C) are in agreement with previously reported differential scanning microcalorimetry data. Spectral line widths were analyzed by using existing theoretical expressions for motionally narrowed nitroxide spectra. It was found that the motion of the small, nearly spherical, TEMPO probe can be well described by anisotropic Brownian diffusion in isotropic media and is not restricted by the much larger hydrocarbon chains existing in ripple structure (P beta') or fluid bilayer structure (L alpha) phases. PMID:7647239

  17. Novel self-assembled nano-tubular mixed micelles of Pluronics P123, Pluronic F127 and phosphatidylcholine for oral delivery of nimodipine: In vitro characterization, ex vivo transport and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Basalious, Emad B; Shamma, Rehab N

    2015-09-30

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major cause of death in patients suffering from stroke. Nimodipine (NM) is the only FDA-approved drug for treating SAH-induced vasospasm. However, NM suffers from poor oral bioavailability (5-13%) due to its low aqueous solubility, extensive first pass metabolism and short elimination half-life (1-2h). The objective of this study was to develop NM-loaded Pluronic/phosphatidylcholine/polysorbate 80 mixed micelles (PPPMM) that can solubilize NM in aqueous media even after dilution, prolong its circulation time, improve its bioavailability and eventually help in targeting it to the brain tissue. PPPMM formulations were prepared using the thin film hydration technique, and evaluated for drug payload, solubilization efficiency (SE), micellar size, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ex vivo transport through rat intestine. The selected NM-loaded PPPMM, containing PC to Pluronics(®) molar ratio of 75:25, showed a drug payload, SE, micellar size and zeta potential of 1.06 ± 0.03 mg/mL, 99.2 ± 2.01%, 571.5 ± 11.87 nm and -31.2 ± 0.06 mv, respectively. The selected formulation had a much larger hydrophobic core volume for solubilization of NM and exhibited the highest NM transport. TEM micrographs illustrated the formation of highly flexible nano-tubular mixed micelles (NTMM). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study showed greater bioavailability of NM in plasma (232%) and brain (208%) of rats from NM-loaded PPPMM compared to that of the drug solution due to the efficiency of flexible NTMM to enhance absorption of NM from the intestinal mucosa. The significant increase in drug solubility, enhanced drug absorption and the long circulation time of the NTMM could be promising to improve oral and parenteral delivery of NM. PMID:26241752

  18. Adsorption of egg phosphatidylcholine to an air/water and triolein/water bubble interface: use of the 2-dimensional phase rule to estimate the surface composition of a phospholipid/triolein/water surface as a function of surface pressure.

    PubMed

    Mitsche, Matthew A; Wang, Libo; Small, Donald M

    2010-03-11

    Phospholipid monolayers play a critical role in the structure and stabilization of biological interfaces, including all membranes, the alveoli of the lungs, fat droplets in adipose tissue, and lipoproteins. The behavior of phospholipids in bilayers and at an air-water interface is well understood. However, the study of phospholipids at oil-water interfaces is limited due to technical challenges. In this study, egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) was deposited from small unilamellar vesicles onto a bubble of either air or triolein (TO) formed in a low-salt buffer. The surface tension (gamma) was measured using a drop tensiometer. We observed that EPC binds irreversibly to both interfaces and at equilibrium exerts approximately 12 and 15 mN/m of pressure (Pi) at an air and TO interface, respectively. After EPC was bound to the interface, the unbound EPC was washed out of the cuvette, and the surface was compressed to study the Pi/area relationship. To determine the surface concentration (Gamma), which cannot be measured directly, compression isotherms from a Langmuir trough and drop tensiometer were compared. The air-water interfaces had identical characteristics using both techniques; thus, Gamma on the bubble can be determined by overlaying the two isotherms. Both TO and EPC are surface-active, so in a mixed TO/EPC monolayer, both molecules will be exposed to water. Since TO is less surface-active than EPC, as Pi increases, the TO is progressively ejected. To understand the Pi/area isotherm of EPC on a TO bubble, a variety of TO-EPC mixtures were spread at the air-water interface. The isotherms show an abrupt break in the curve caused by the ejection of TO from the monolayer into a new bulk phase. By overlaying the compression isotherm above the ejection point with a TO bubble compression isotherm, Gamma can be estimated. This allows determination of Gamma of EPC on a TO bubble as a function of Pi. PMID:20151713

  19. Phospholipase C inhibitors and prostaglandins differentially regulate phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat renal papilla. Evidence of compartmental regulation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase and CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tomé, María del Carmen; Speziale, Emir H S; Sterin-Speziale, Norma B

    2002-07-11

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in mammalian cell membranes. Several lines of evidence support that PC homeostasis is preserved by the equilibrium between PC biosynthetic enzymes and phospholipases catabolic activities. We have previously shown that papillary synthesis of PC depends on prostaglandins (PGs) that modulate biosynthetic enzymes. In papillary tissue, under bradikynin stimulus, arachidonic acid (AA) mobilization (the substrate for PG synthesis) requires a previous phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Thus, in the present work, we study the possible involvement of PLC in PC biosynthesis and its relationship with PG biosynthetic pathway on the maintenance of phospholipid renewal in papillary membranes; we also evaluated the relevance of CDP-choline pathway enzymes compartmentalization. To this end, neomycin, U-73122 and dibutiryl cyclic AMP, reported as PLC inhibitors, were used to study PC synthesis in rat renal papilla. All the PLC inhibitors assayed impaired PC synthesis. PG synthesis was also blocked by PLC inhibitors without affecting cyclooxygenase activity, indicating a metabolic connection between both pathways. However, we found that PC biosynthesis decrease in the presence of PLC inhibitors was not a consequence of PG decreased synthesis, suggesting that basal PLC activity and PGs exert their effect on different targets of PC biosynthetic pathway. The study of PC biosynthetic enzymes showed that PLC inhibitors affect CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) activity while PGD(2) operates on CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (CPT), both activities associated to papillary enriched-nuclei fraction. The present results suggest that renal papillary PC synthesis is a highly regulated process under basal conditions. Such regulation might occur at least at two different levels of the CDP-choline pathway: on the one hand, PLC operates on CCT activity; on the other, while PGs regulate CPT activity. PMID

  20. Identification of isobaric lyso-phosphatidylcholines in lipid extracts of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Granafei, Sara; Losito, Ilario; Palmisano, Francesco; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2015-08-01

    The numerous and varied biological roles of phosphatidylcholines (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) have fueled a great demand for technologies that enable rapid, in-depth structural examination of these lipids in foodstuffs. Here, we describe the capabilities of a newly configured combination of high-efficiency liquid chromatography and high-resolution/accuracy Fourier-transform mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-FTMS), designed for lipidomics applications that require the identification of PC in their lyso forms. The devised strategy, involving a separation by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) on spherical, fused-core ultrapure silica particles (2.7 μm) of a narrow-bore column (2.1 mm i.d.), enabled the identification of as many as 71 LPC species in the lipid extracts of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets. In this way, LPC as proton (43) and sodium (28) adducts, i.e., [M + H](+) and [M + Na](+) ions (with M representing the zwitterionic form), were identified. In several cases, the extremely high (sub-ppm) mass accuracy and the high chromatographic efficiency available with the adopted instrumentation enabled the distinction of isobaric and closely eluting LPC species. Informative tandem mass spectra, based on high-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD), were also obtained, thus distinguishing regioisomeric LPC species (i.e., LPC differing only for the location of the residual side chain on the glycerol backbone) and between proton and sodium adducts. Graphical Abstract Extracted Ion Current chromatogram (XIC) obtained for the m/z value 568.339, showing the presence of two regioisomeric Lysophosphatidylcholines. The corresponding high collisional energy tandem MS spectra, obtained using a HCD cell, are shown as insets. PMID:25935670

  1. Preservation of the native structure and function of Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum: solubilization and reconstitution by new short-chain phospholipid detergent 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, B D; Rowe, E S

    1997-07-15

    The properties of Ca2+-ATPase purified and reconstituted from rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has been studied in comparison with the preparations obtained by the commonly used detergent poly(oxyethylene)8-lauryl ether (C12E8) and the bile salt detergents cholate and deoxycholate. 1,2-Diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) has been shown to be excellent for solubilizing a wide variety of membrane proteins [Kessi, Poiree, Wehrli, Bachofen, Semenza and Hauser (1994) Biochemistry 33, 10825-10836]. The DHPC method consistently gave higher yields of purified Ca2+-ATPase with a greater specific activity than the methods with C12E8, cholate, or deoxycholate. DHPC and C12E8 were superior to cholate and deoxycholate in active enzyme yields and specific activity. DHPC-solubilized Ca2+-ATPase purified on a density gradient retained the E1Ca-E1(*)Ca conformational transition, whereas the enzyme from the C12E8 purification did not retain this transition. The coupling of Ca2+ transported to ATP hydrolysed in the DHPC-purified enzyme was maximal and matched the values obtained with native SR, whereas the coupling was much lower for the C12E8-purified enzyme. The specific activity of Ca2+-ATPase reconstituted into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with DHPC was up to 2-fold greater than that achieved with C12E8, and is comparable to that measured in the native SR. Finally, the dissociation of Ca2+-ATPase into monomers by DHPC preserved the ATPase activity, whereas similar dissociation by C12E8 gave only one-sixth the activity of that obtained with DHPC. These studies show that the Ca2+-ATPase solubilized, purified and reconstituted with DHPC is superior to that obtained with C12E8 in significant ways, making it a preparation suitable for detailed studies on the mechanism of ion transport and the role of protein-lipid interactions in the function of membrane proteins. PMID:9230138

  2. Preservation of the native structure and function of Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum: solubilization and reconstitution by new short-chain phospholipid detergent 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, B D; Rowe, E S

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ca2+-ATPase purified and reconstituted from rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has been studied in comparison with the preparations obtained by the commonly used detergent poly(oxyethylene)8-lauryl ether (C12E8) and the bile salt detergents cholate and deoxycholate. 1,2-Diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) has been shown to be excellent for solubilizing a wide variety of membrane proteins [Kessi, Poiree, Wehrli, Bachofen, Semenza and Hauser (1994) Biochemistry 33, 10825-10836]. The DHPC method consistently gave higher yields of purified Ca2+-ATPase with a greater specific activity than the methods with C12E8, cholate, or deoxycholate. DHPC and C12E8 were superior to cholate and deoxycholate in active enzyme yields and specific activity. DHPC-solubilized Ca2+-ATPase purified on a density gradient retained the E1Ca-E1(*)Ca conformational transition, whereas the enzyme from the C12E8 purification did not retain this transition. The coupling of Ca2+ transported to ATP hydrolysed in the DHPC-purified enzyme was maximal and matched the values obtained with native SR, whereas the coupling was much lower for the C12E8-purified enzyme. The specific activity of Ca2+-ATPase reconstituted into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with DHPC was up to 2-fold greater than that achieved with C12E8, and is comparable to that measured in the native SR. Finally, the dissociation of Ca2+-ATPase into monomers by DHPC preserved the ATPase activity, whereas similar dissociation by C12E8 gave only one-sixth the activity of that obtained with DHPC. These studies show that the Ca2+-ATPase solubilized, purified and reconstituted with DHPC is superior to that obtained with C12E8 in significant ways, making it a preparation suitable for detailed studies on the mechanism of ion transport and the role of protein-lipid interactions in the function of membrane proteins. PMID:9230138

  3. Decrease in Sphingomyelin (d18:1/16:0) in Stem Villi and Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4) in Terminal Villi of Human Term Placentas with Pathohistological Maternal Malperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Kaori; Masaki, Noritaka; Kohmura-Kobayashi, Yukiko; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Itoh, Hiroaki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Placental villi play pivotal roles in feto-maternal transportation and phospholipids constitute a major part of the villous membrane. We have been developing and optimizing an imaging system based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based mass spectrometer, which provides clear two-dimensional molecular distribution patterns using highly sensitive mass spectrometry from mixtures of ions generated on tissue surfaces. We recently applied this technology to normal human uncomplicated term placentas and detected the specific distribution of sphingomyelin (SM) (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0/20:4) in terminal villi. In the present study, we applied this technology to nine placentas with maternal or fetal complications, and determined whether a relationship existed between these specific distribution patterns of phospholipid molecules and the six representative pathological findings of placentas, i.e., villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), thrombus, atherosis, chorioamnionitis (CAM), immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi. In two placentas with the first and second largest total number of positive pathological findings, i.e., five and three positive findings, the specific distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi and PC (16:0/20:4) in terminal villi disappeared. The common pathological findings in these two placentas were atherosis, immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi, suggesting the possible involvement of the underperfusion of maternal blood into the intervillous space. On the other hand, the number of pathological findings were two or less in the seven other placentas, in which no specific relationships were observed between the differential expression patterns of these two phospholipids in stem and terminal villi and the pathological findings of the placentas; however, the specific distribution pattern of SM (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi disappeared in four placentas

  4. Laser light scattering evidence for a common wormlike growth structure of mixed micelles in bile salt- and straight-chain detergent-phosphatidylcholine aqueous systems: relevance to the micellar structure of bile.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D E; Thurston, G M; Chamberlin, R A; Benedek, G B; Carey, M C

    1998-10-20

    We employed quasielastic and static light scattering to measure apparent values of the mean hydrodynamic radii (Rh)app, molecular weights (Mapp), and radii of gyration (Rg)app in solutions containing mixed micelles composed of bile salts (cholate and taurochenodeoxycholate, both cholanoyl derivatives) and the glycoacyl chain detergent, octyl glucoside, with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) as functions of total lipid concentration (0.1-10 g/dL), EYPC/detergent molar ratio (0-1.2), and ionic strength (0.15-0.4 M NaCl) at 20 degreesC and 1 atm. As the mixed micellar phase boundaries were approached by dilution, (Rh)app, Mapp, and (Rg)app values increased markedly by up to 20-fold. For each micellar system, the scaling ratios (Rh)app/Mapp1/2 and (Rg)app/(Rh)app remained essentially constant at 0.018 nm/(g/mol)1/2 and 1.5 (dimensionless), respectively, despite large variations in total lipid concentration, detergent molecular species, and ionic strength. Refined data analysis is inconsistent with a flat "mixed-disc" model for bile salt-EYPC micelles [Mazer, N. A., Benedek, G. B., and Carey, M. C. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 601] and octyl glucoside-EYPC micelles principally because the numerical value of (Rh)app/Mapp1/2 corresponds to a hypothetical disk thickness of approximately 1 nm, which is 4-fold smaller than the bimolecular width of EYPC molecules, and for a disk, (Rg)app/(Rh)app ratios should be close to 1 at low total lipid concentrations. Assuming disc-shaped micelles, we show that intermicellar excluded volume interactions would have only a minor effect on Mapp and cannot account for the unrealistic disk thickness. Instead, locally cylindrical, semiflexible wormlike micelles of diameter d = 4 nm and persistence length xip = 17 nm in solution are compatible with the observed (Rh)app/Mapp1/2 and (Rg)app/(Rh)app values when intermicellar excluded-volume interactions are considered. With EYPC/taurochenodeoxycholate = 0.6 and EYPC/cholate = 1.0 in 0.15 M Na

  5. Melittin binding to mixed phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Beschiaschvili, G.; Seelig, J. )

    1990-01-09

    The binding of bee venom melittin to negatively charged unilamellar vesicles and planar lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) was studied with circular dichroism and deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The melittin binding isotherm was measured for small unilamellar vesicles containing 10 or 20 mol % POPG. Due to electrostatic attraction, binding of the positively charged melittin was much enhanced as compared to the binding to neutral lipid vesicles. However, after correction for electrostatic effects by means of the Gouy-Chapman theory, all melittin binding isotherms could be described by a partition Kp = (4.5 +/- 0.6) x 10(4) M-1. It was estimated that about 50% of the total melittin surface was embedded in a hydrophobic environment. The melittin partition constant for small unilamellar vesicles was by a factor of 20 larger than that of planar bilayers and attests to the tighter lipid packing in the nonsonicated bilayers. Deuterium NMR studies were performed with coarse lipid dispersions. Binding of melittin to POPC/POPG (80/20 mol/mol) membranes caused systematic changes in the conformation of the phosphocholine and phosphoglycerol head groups which were ascribed to the influence of electrostatic charge on the choline dipole. While the negative charge of phosphatidylglycerol moved the N+ end of the choline -P-N+ dipole toward the bilayer interior, the binding of melittin reversed this effect and rotated the N+ end toward the aqueous phase. No specific melittin-POPG complexes could be detected. The phosphoglycerol head group was less affected by melittin binding than its choline counterpart.

  6. Alignment and defect structures in oriented phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, S A; Pershan, P S

    1979-01-01

    The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691

  7. Conversion of Phosphatidylcholine to PPosphatidylglycerol with phospholipase D and Glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PtdGly) is a relatively rare phospholipid that is useful in lubricant applications. Recently glycerol has become available in large quantities as a byproduct of biodiesel production, allowing for the economical synthesis of PtdGly. The conversion of readily available phosphat...

  8. A nuclear-receptor-dependent phosphatidylcholine pathway with antidiabetic effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unu...

  9. Bilayer properties of hydroxytyrosol- and tyrosol-phosphatidylcholine lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are the phytochemicals abundantly found in olive oil. Transphosphatidylation of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol with dioleoylphosphocholine resulted in phospholipids with antioxidant properties. The ability of these phyto-phospholipids to form liposomes and supported bilayers w...

  10. Detection of phase separation in fluid phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylcholine mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hinderliter, A K; Huang, J; Feigenson, G W

    1994-11-01

    The nonideal mixing of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine, (16:0, 18:1)PS, and 1,2-didodecenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (12:1, 12:1)PC, in fluid lamellar model membranes was studied by measuring binding of aqueous Ca2+ ions and by x-ray diffraction. A region of two-phase coexistence was found by invariance of the aqueous concentration and by the appearance of two sets of lamellar spacings. The phases were identified as fluid from the diffuse x-ray diffraction in the wide-angle region. The width of the two-phase coexistence region was greater at higher ionic strength. In 800 mM KCl, the phase boundaries were at PS mole fraction 0.5 and 0.8. In 100 mM KCl, the phase boundaries were at PS mole fraction 0.52 and 0.62. Monte Carlo simulations of the lateral distributions of these PS/PC mixtures show pronounced clustering of the lipids. PMID:7858127

  11. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Laychock, S.G.

    1986-03-01

    Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreata were incubated with (/sup 14/C)choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDP choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDPcholine pathway. Recovery of (/sup 14/C)PC in islet membranes was time-related, and stimulated by glucose (17mM) during 60 min. The rate of PC synthesis was constant during 60 min with glucose stimulation. In contrast, the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (2 mM) reduced the recovery of (/sup 14/C)choline in PC, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (5 mM) did not significantly affect (/sup 14/C)PC recovery. Incubation of islets in Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium enhanced glucose-stimulated recovery of (/sup 14/C)choline-labeled PC due to the inhibition of phospholipase and phospholipid hydrolysis. Inhibition of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase with 5-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine (SIBA) reduced (/sup 14/C)PC levels and insulin release in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with SIBA also reduced Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity in islet microsomes. Quantitation of membrane PC showed that glucose stimulation did not alter islet P levels. Thus, islet PC biosynthesis is linked to glucose stimulation and contributes to the maintenance of PC levels in membranes undergoing exocytosis and phospholipid hydrolysis. Adequate PC levels support Ca/sup 2 +/ pump activity and secretory mechanisms.

  12. DL- and PO-phosphatidylcholines as a promising learning and memory enhancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the water maze test, oral administration with 1,2-dilynoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) alone or DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) plus 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the prolonged acquisition latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine, with more efficient effect than (POPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) alone, arachidonic acid (AA)(5 mg/kg) alone, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(5 mg/kg) alone, or 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleil-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (PLPhtSer)(5 mg/kg) alone. POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) alone or DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) plus POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) also significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine, but otherwise no significant effect was obtained with DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) alone, AA (5 mg/kg) alone, DHA (5 mg/kg) alone, or PLPhtSer (5 mg/kg) alone. Oral co-administration with DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) and POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the acquisition latency for rats untreated with scopolamine as compared with the latency for administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG), DLPhtCho alone at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, or POPhtCho alone at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, while no efficient effect on the retention latency was obtained. To assess the effect of DLPhtCho and POPhtCho on cognitive functions for humans, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test was performed in subjects with cognitive disorders (the average MMSE score, 15). Oral co-intake with DLPhtCho (50 mg) and POPhtCho (45 mg) once after breakfast everyday raised the score to over 20, corresponding to normal cognitive functions, throughout 5 months after intake, and the increase in the score was significantly greater than that for oral intake with DLPhtCho (100 mg/day) alone or POPhtCho (90 mg/kg) alone. Taken together, the results of the present study show that co-intake with DLPhtCho and POPhtCho could enhance learning and memory ability and improve cognitive disorders for both the animals and humans with a promising efficacy. PMID:21272376

  13. Kinetics of the lamellar gel-fluid transition in phosphatidylcholine membranes in the presence of sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Lenné, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary

    2014-09-24

    Phase diagrams are presented for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence of sugars (sucrose) over a wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The phase information presented here, determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), is shown to be consistent with previous results achieved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques show a significant effect of sucrose concentration on the phase behaviour of this phospholipid bilayer. An experimental investigation into the effect of sugars on the kinetic behaviour of the gel to fluid transition is also presented showing that increasing the sugar content appears to slightly increase the rate at which the transition occurs.

  14. Apolipophorin III interaction with model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Michael H; Wan, Chung-Ping Leon; Weers, Paul M M; Prenner, Elmar J

    2009-10-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) from Locusta migratoria was employed as a model apolipoprotein to gain insight into binding interactions with lipid vesicles. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the binding interaction of apoLp-III with liposomes composed of mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and sphingomyelin (SM). Association of apoLp-III with multilamellar liposomes occurred over a temperature range around the liquid crystalline phase transition (L(alpha)). Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained from changes in the lipid phase transition upon addition of apoLp-III. Eleven ratios of DMPC and SM were tested from pure DMPC to pure SM. Broadness of the phase transition (T(1/2)), melting temperature of the phase transition (T(m)) and enthalpy were used to determine the relative binding affinity to the liposomes. Multilamellar vesicles composed of 40% DMPC and 60% SM showed the greatest interaction with apoLp-III, indicated by large T(1/2) values. Pure DMPC showed the weakest interaction and liposomes with lower percentage of DMPC retained domains of pure DMPC, even upon apoLp-III binding indicating demixing of liposome lipids. Addition of apoLp-III to rehydrated liposomes was compared to codissolved trials, in which lipids were rehydrated in the presence of protein, forcing the protein to interact with the lipid system. Similar trends between the codissolved and non-codissolved trials were observed, indicating a similar binding affinity except for pure DMPC. These results suggested that surface defects due to non-ideal packing that occur at the phase transition temperature of the lipid mixtures are responsible for apolipoprotein-lipid interaction in DMPC/SM liposomes. PMID:19647717

  15. Interaction of prenylated chalcones and flavanones from common hop with phosphatidylcholine model membranes.

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Olga; Gąsiorowska, Justyna; Petrus, Joanna; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława; Michalak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Common hop (Humulus lupulus) constitutes a source of numerous prenylated chalcones such as xanthohumol (XH) and flavanones such as 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and isoxanthohumol (IXH). Range of their biological activities includes estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activities. The aim of the present work was to characterize the influence of prenylated polyphenols on model 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) membranes by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fluorescence and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopies. All studied compounds intercalated into DPPC bilayers and decreased its melting temperature as recorded by DSC, Laurdan and Prodan fluorescence, and ATR-FTIR. Polyphenols interacted mainly with glycerol backbone and acyl chain region of membrane. Magnitude of the induced effect correlated both with lipophilicity and molecular shape of the studied compounds. Elbow-shaped 8-PN and IXH were locked at polar-apolar region with their prenyl chains penetrating into hydrophobic part of the bilayer, while relatively planar XH molecule adopted linear shape that resulted in its deeper insertion into hydrophobic region. Additionally, by means of DSC and Laurdan fluorescence IXH was demonstrated to induce lateral phase separation in DPPC bilayers in gel-like state. It was assumed that IXH-rich and IXH-poor microdomains appeared within membrane. Present work constitutes the first experimental report describing interactions of prenylated hop polyphenols with phospholipid model membranes. PMID:24060562

  16. Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A fluorescence and calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio, M.; Nunes, C.; Gaspar, D.; Gołębska, K.; Wisniewski, M.; Lima, J. L. F. C.; Brezesinski, G.; Reis, S.

    2009-03-01

    NSAIDs are the most prescribed drugs for inflammation, and their use is associated with severe gastrointestinal toxicity. This work focuses on the interaction of NSAIDs with membranes, specifically, on their ability to affect the lipid dynamic properties, since this may explain the compromising effects on the integrity of gastric barrier. Studies covered the assessment of drug-membrane/water partition coefficient and location by derivative spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching techniques and effects on membrane biophysics by DSC. Results indicate that the NSAIDs studied have membrane destabilizing effects, which could be transposed to similar effects in the stomach's phospholipid layer justifying their toxicity.

  17. Hydrostatic pressure-induced conformational changes in phosphatidylcholine headgroups: a 2H NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Bonev, B B; Morrow, M R

    1995-01-01

    The effects of pressure and temperature on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine headgroup conformations were examined using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance. Isothermal compression was found to produce a decrease in the choline alpha deuteron quadrupole splitting and increases in the choline beta and gamma deuteron quadrupole splittings. A similar counterdirectional change, seen in the presence of positive surface charge, has been attributed to tilting of the headgroup away from the bilayer surface in response to the torque exerted on the phosphocholine dipole by positive surface charges. The direction of the change in headgroup deuteron quadrupole splitting is consistent with the pressure-induced reduction in area per lipid in the liquid crystalline phase, which can be inferred from the ordering of phospholipid acyl chains under comparable conditions. The temperature dependences of the headgroup deuteron quadrupole splittings were also examined. It was found that at elevated pressure, the alpha splitting was insensitive to temperature, whereas the beta and gamma splittings decreased. The response of the beta deuteron splitting to temperature was found to be weaker at elevated pressure than at ambient pressure. PMID:8527666

  18. Hydrostatic pressure-induced conformational changes in phosphatidylcholine headgroups: a 2H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Bonev, B B; Morrow, M R

    1995-08-01

    The effects of pressure and temperature on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine headgroup conformations were examined using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance. Isothermal compression was found to produce a decrease in the choline alpha deuteron quadrupole splitting and increases in the choline beta and gamma deuteron quadrupole splittings. A similar counterdirectional change, seen in the presence of positive surface charge, has been attributed to tilting of the headgroup away from the bilayer surface in response to the torque exerted on the phosphocholine dipole by positive surface charges. The direction of the change in headgroup deuteron quadrupole splitting is consistent with the pressure-induced reduction in area per lipid in the liquid crystalline phase, which can be inferred from the ordering of phospholipid acyl chains under comparable conditions. The temperature dependences of the headgroup deuteron quadrupole splittings were also examined. It was found that at elevated pressure, the alpha splitting was insensitive to temperature, whereas the beta and gamma splittings decreased. The response of the beta deuteron splitting to temperature was found to be weaker at elevated pressure than at ambient pressure. PMID:8527666

  19. Cis and trans unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Waldemar; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Róg, T

    2016-02-01

    Trans unsaturated lipids are uncommon in nature. In the human diet, they occur as natural products of ruminal bacteria or from industrial food processing like hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Consumption of trans unsaturated lipids has been shown to have a negative influence on human health; in particular, the risk of cardiovascular disease is higher when the amount of trans unsaturated lipids in the diet is elevated. In this study, we first performed quantum mechanical calculations to specifically and accurately parameterize cis and trans mono-unsaturated lipids and subsequently validated the newly derived parameter set. Then, we carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of lipid bilayers composed of cis or trans unsaturated lipids with and without cholesterol. Our results show that trans mono-unsaturated chains are more flexible than cis mono-unsaturated chains due to lower barriers for rotation around the single bonds next to the trans double bond than those next to the cis double bond. In effect, interactions between cholesterol and trans unsaturated chains are stronger than cis unsaturated chains, which results in a higher ordering effect of cholesterol in trans unsaturated bilayers. PMID:26187855

  20. Lipid flip-flop in binary membranes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Krystal L; Conboy, John C

    2013-12-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of lipid flip-flop in bilayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DPPS) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) were studied using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The kinetics of DSPC and DPPS flip-flop were examined as a function of temperature and bilayer composition. The rate of DSPC flip-flop did not exhibit any significant dependence on bilayer composition while the rate of DPPS flip-flop was inversely dependent on the mole fraction of DPPS. The transition-state thermodynamics for DSPC and DPPS lipids in these mixed bilayers were determined in order to identify the energetic impact of the phosphatidylserine headgroup on lipid flip-flop. The thermodynamics for the DSPC component remained statistically identical to bilayers composed entirely of DSPC. The activation energy for the DPPS component showed a linear correlation with the mole fraction of DPPS for all bilayer compositions. The enthalpy and entropy for DPPS flip-flop did not increase linearly with the fraction of DPPS but did directly correlate with the molecular area. The DPPS component also exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation which suggests that lipid hydration may play a significant role in membrane dynamics. PMID:24200035

  1. Phosphatidylcholine-supplemented Extender Improves the Fertility of Turkey Semen Stored In Vitro for 24 Hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been long recognized that the ability to store turkey semen for 24h in vitro without a significant loss in fertility upon insemination would benefit the commercial turkey industry. We investigated a novel approach to circumvent the loss of phospholipids from the turkey sperm membrane in the ...

  2. Interactions of sialic acid with phosphatidylcholine liposomes studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Timoszyk, Anna; Latanowicz, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex systems which have attracted scientific interest for a long time and for various reasons. The sialic acid-liposome interactions at the molecular level depend on their hydro-lipophilic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of conformation of the phospholipid (1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and sialic acid (2,8-(N-acetylneuraminic acid)) molecules and the type of interactions induced by the sialic acid molecules on membrane-like systems (liposomes) by 2D NMR (TOCSY, HETCOR, ROESY). The nature of the interaction of sialic acid with the model membrane depends on the structure of the phospholipid headgroups and the hydration of membrane. In ROESY spectra was observed the absence of dipole-dipole couplings within the choline head, between headgroups and glycerol, and between glycerol and fatty acid chains. It indicates an increase of the membrane dynamics in the presence of sialic acid. Moreover, the conformation of sialic acid molecule is changed in the presence of liposomes, which depends on stereochemistry of the chemical groups of the carbon atoms C7 and C8, and oxygen O8. The observed differences between the ROESY spectra of free and liposome bound sialic acid may be a consequence of a changed orientation of the pyranose ring from trans to gauche in the presence of liposomes. The sialic acid penetrate into the phospholipid bilayer to a sufficient depth to allow the dipole interaction. The present result that the correlation signal was found only between the methyl protons from the acetyl group of sialic acid and the methylene tail of phospholipid molecule in the ROESY spectrum indicates that the opposite end of the sialic acid molecule stays in the aqueous phase without interacting with membrane molecules. PMID:24364043

  3. Nanoscale Packing Differences in Sphingomyelin and Phosphatidylcholine Revealed by BODIPY Fluorescence in Monolayers: Physiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidycholines (PC) with two saturated acyl chains (e.g., dipalmitoyl) mimic natural sphingomyelin (SM) by promoting raft formation in model membranes. However, sphingoid-based lipids, such as SM, rather than saturated-chain PCs have been implicated as key components of lipid rafts in biomembranes. These observations raise questions about the physical packing properties of the phase states that can be formed by these two major plasma membrane lipids with identical phosphocholine headgroups. To investigate, we developed a monolayer platform capable of monitoring changes in surface fluorescence by acquiring multiple spectra during measurement of a lipid force–area isotherm. We relied on the concentration-dependent emission changes of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-labeled PC to detect nanoscale alterations in lipid packing and phase state induced by monolayer lateral compression. The BODIPY-PC probe contained an indacene ring with four symmetrically located methyl (Me) substituents to enhance localization to the lipid hydrocarbon region. Surface fluorescence spectra indicated changes in miscibility even when force–area isotherms showed no deviation from ideal mixing behavior in the surface pressure versus cross-sectional molecular area response. We detected slightly better mixing of Me4-BODIPY-8-PC with the fluid-like, liquid expanded phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC compared to N-oleoyl-SM. Remarkably, in the gel-like, liquid condensed phase, Me4-BODIPY-8-PC mixed better with N-palmitoyl-SM than dipalmitoyl-PC, suggesting naturally abundant SMs with saturated acyl chains form gel-like lipid phase(s) with enhanced ability to accommodate deeply embedded components compared to dipalmitoyl-PC gel phase. The findings reveal a fundamental difference in the lateral packing properties of SM and PC that occurs even when their acyl chains match. PMID:24564829

  4. Structure and dynamics of melittin in lysomyristoyl phosphatidylcholine micelles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, P; Fisher, P J; Prendergast, F G; Kemple, M D

    1996-01-01

    Mixed micelles of the 26-residue, lytic peptide melittin (MLT) and 1-myristoyl-2-hydroxyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (MMPC) in aqueous solution at 25 degrees C were investigated by (13)C- and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy. (13)C alpha chemical shifts of isotopically labeled synthetic MLT revealed that MLT in the micelle is predominantly alpha-helical and that the peptide secondary structure is stable from pH 4 to pH 11. Although the helical transformation of MLT as determined from NMR is evident at lipid:peptide molar ratios as low as 1:2, tryptophan fluorescence measurements demonstrate that well-defined micellar complexes do not predominate until lipid:peptide ratios exceed 30:1. (31)P linewidth measurements indicate that the interaction between phosphate ions in solution and cationic groups on MLT is pH dependent, and that the phosphoryl group of MMPC senses a constant charge, most likely +2, on MLT from pH 4 to pH 10. (13)C-NMR relaxation data, analyzed using the model-free formalism, show that the peptide backbone of MLT is partially, but not completely, immobilized in the mixed micelles. Specifically, order parameters (S(2)) of C alpha-H vectors averaged 0.7 and were somewhat larger for residues in the N-terminal half of the molecule. The amino terminal glycine had essentially the same range of motion as the backbone carbons. Likewise, order parameters for the trp side chain were similar to those found for the peptide C alpha moieties, as was verified by trp fluorescence anisotropy decay data. In contrast, the motion of the lysine side chains was less restricted, the average S(2) values for the C epsilon-H vectors being 0.19, 0.30, and 0.44 for lys-7, 21, and 23, respectively, for MLT in the mixed micelles. Values of the effective correlation time of the local motion tau e were in the motional narrowing limit and usually longer for side-chain atoms than for those in the backbone. The dynamics were independent of pH from pH 4 to pH 9, but at pH 11 the correlation time for the rotational motion of the mixed micelles as a whole increased from 10 ns to 16 ns, and S(2) for the lys side chains increased. Overall it appears that the MLT helix lies near the surface of the micelle at low to neutral pH, but at higher pH its orientation changes, accompanied by deeper penetration of the lysine side chains into the micelle interior. It is apparent, however, that the MLT-lipid interaction is not dependent on deprotonation of any of the titratable cationic groups in the peptide in the pH 4-10 range, and that there is substantial backbone and side-chain mobility in micelle-bound MLT. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:9172746

  5. [Spectrophotometric study of the interaction between rhenium complexes and phosphatidylcholine during liposome formation].

    PubMed

    Shtemenko, O V; Zeleniuk, M A; Shtemenko, N I; Verbyts'ka, Ia S

    2002-01-01

    The electron absorption spectra of halogenides and halogencarboxylate complex compounds of rhenium (III) having cluster structure with phosphatydilcholine and their lyposome forms were investigated. Some results which evidence for the interaction of these compounds with phosphatydilcholine were obtained. The possible mechanism of this interaction is discussed. PMID:12924020

  6. Interactions and dynamics of two extended conformation adapting phosphatidylcholines in model biomembranes.

    PubMed

    Amirkavei, Mooud; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2016-02-01

    In order to obtain molecular level insight into the biophysics of the apoptosis promoting phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC) we studied its partitioning into different lipid phases by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). To aid the interpretation of these data for PazePC, we additionally characterized by both ITC and fluorescence spectroscopy the fluorescent phospholipid analog 1-palmitoyl-2-{6-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl}-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-C6-PC), which similarly to PazePC can adopt extended conformation in lipid bilayers. With the NBD-hexanoyl chain reversing its direction and extending into the aqueous space out of the bilayer, 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD) becomes accessible to the water soluble dithionite, which reduces to non-fluorescent product. Our results suggest that these phospholipid derivatives first partition and penetrate into the outer bilayer leaflet of liquid disordered phase liposomes composed of unsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). Upon increase up to 2 mol% PazePC and NBD-C6-PC of the overall content, flip-flop from the outer into the inner bilayer leaflet commences. Interestingly, the presence of 40 mol% cholesterol in POPC liposomes did not abrogate the partitioning of PazePC into the liquid ordered phase. In contrast, only insignificant partitioning of PazePC and NBD-C6-PC into sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes was evident, highlighting a specific membrane permeability barrier function of this particular lipid composition against oxidatively truncated PazePC, thus emphasizing the importance of detailed characterization of the biophysical properties of membranes found in different cellular organelles, in terms of providing barriers for lipid-mediated cellular signals in processes such as apoptosis. Our data suggest NBD-C6-PC to represent useful fluorescent probe to study the cellular dynamics of oxidized phospholipid species, such as PazePC. PMID:26656184

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope observation of the phosphatidylserine domains in the phosphatidylcholine monolayer.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Yamada, Taro; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kawai, Maki

    2015-05-19

    A mixed monolayer of 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DHPS) and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) on an 1-octanethiol-modified gold substrate was visualized on the nanometer scale using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in aqueous solution. DHPS clusters were evident as spotty domains. STM enabled us to distinguish DHPS molecules from DHPC molecules depending on their electronic structures. The signal of the DHPS domains was abolished by neutralization with Ca(2+). The addition of the PS + Ca(2+)-binding protein of annexin V to the Ca(2+)-treated monolayer gave a number of spots corresponding to a single annexin V molecule. PMID:25913903

  8. Different pathways of degradation of SP-A and saturated phosphatidylcholine by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Baritussio, A; Alberti, A; Armanini, D; Meloni, F; Bruttomesso, D

    2000-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages degrade surfactant protein (SP) A and saturated phosphatidycholine [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)]. To clarify this process, using rabbit alveolar macrophages, we analyzed the effect of drugs known to affect phagocytosis, pinocytosis, clathrin-mediated uptake, caveolae, the cytoskeleton, lysosomal pH, protein kinase C, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) on the degradation of SP-A and DPPC. We found the following: 1) SP-A binds to the plasma membrane, is rapidly internalized, and then moves toward degradative compartments. Uptake could be clathrin mediated, whereas phagocytosis, pinocytosis, or the use of caveolae are less likely. An intact cytoskeleton and an acidic milieu are necessary for the degradation of SP-A. 2) Stimulation of protein kinase C increases the degradation of SP-A. 3) PI3K influences the degradation of SP-A by regulating both the speed of internalization and subsequent intracellular steps, but its inhibition does not prevent SP-A from reaching the lysosomal compartment. 4) The degradation of DPPC is unaffected by most of the treatments able to influence the degradation of SP-A. Thus it appears that DPPC is degraded by alveolar macrophages through mechanisms very different from those utilized for the degradation of SP-A. PMID:10893207

  9. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines in membrane-level cellular signaling: from biophysics to physiology and molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Volinsky, Roman; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2013-06-01

    The oxidation of lipids has been shown to impact virtually all cellular processes. The paradigm has been that this involvement is due to interference with the functions of membrane-associated proteins. It is only recently that methodological advances in molecular-level detection and identification have begun to provide insights into oxidative lipid modification and its involvement in cell signaling as well as in major diseases and inflammation. Extensive evidence suggests a correlation between lipid peroxidation and degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, as well as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite the obvious relevance of understanding the molecular basis of the above ailments, the exact modes of action of oxidized lipids have remained elusive. In this minireview, we summarize recent findings on the biophysical characteristics of biomembranes following oxidative derivatization of their lipids, and how these altered properties are involved in both physiological processes and major pathological conditions. Lipid-bearing, oxidatively truncated and functionalized acyl chains are known to modify membrane bulk physical properties, such as thermal phase behavior, bilayer thickness, hydration and polarity profiles, as manifest in the altered structural dynamics of lipid bilayers, leading to augmented membrane permeability, fast lipid transbilayer diffusion (flip-flop), loss of lipid asymmetry (scrambling) and phase segregation (the formation of 'rafts'). These changes, together with the generated reactive lipid derivatives, can be further expected to interfere with lipid-protein interactions, influencing metabolic pathways, causing inflammation, the execution phase in apoptosis and initiating pathological processes. PMID:23506295

  10. Molecular organization in striated domains induced by transmembrane alpha-helical peptides in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Emma; Ganchev, Dragomir N; Snel, Margot M E; Ridder, Anja N J A; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Chupin, Vladimir; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Killian, J Antoinette; de Kruijff, Ben

    2005-01-11

    Transmembrane (TM) alpha-helical peptides with neutral flanking residues such as tryptophan form highly ordered striated domains when incorporated in gel-state 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers and inspected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) (1). In this study, we analyze the molecular organization of these striated domains using AFM, photo-cross-linking, fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction techniques on different functionalized TM peptides. The results demonstrate that the striated domains consist of linear arrays of single TM peptides with a dominantly antiparallel organization in which the peptides interact with each other and with lipids. The peptide arrays are regularly spaced by +/-8.5 nm and are separated by somewhat perturbed gel-state lipids with hexagonally organized acyl chains, which have lost their tilt. This system provides an example of how domains of peptides and lipids can be formed in membranes as a result of a combination of specific peptide-peptide and peptide-lipid interactions. PMID:15628840

  11. Detailed comparison of deuterium quadrupole profiles between sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomokazu; Kinoshita, Masanao; Murata, Michio; Matsumori, Nobuaki

    2014-02-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains rich in sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). The essential question is why natural lipid rafts prefer SM rather than saturated diacyl glycerophosphocholine, although both form ordered membranes with Chol in model systems. Hence in this study, we synthesized site-specifically deuterated 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines that match the acyl chain length of stearoyl-SM (SSM), and compared their deuterium quadrupole coupling profiles in detail. The results suggest a deeper distribution of Chol in the SSM membranes, a lower entropic penalty upon accommodation of Chol in SSM membranes, and a higher thermal stability of acyl-chain orders in the SSM-Chol bilayers than in the 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-Chol system at various Chol concentrations. The entropy effect and thermal stability should render SM a more preferred raft constituent than saturated diacyl glycerophosphocholine. Our data also demonstrate that the selective and comprehensive deuteration strategy is indispensable for accurate comparison of order profiles. PMID:24507603

  12. The thermotropic behavior of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers. A Fourier transform infrared study of specifically labeled lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D G; Casal, H L; Mantsch, H H; Boulanger, Y; Smith, I C

    1981-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the thermotropic behavior of hydrated multibilayers of specifically deuterated derivatives of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. It is shown that throughout the gel phase there is little or no conformational disorder introduced into the acyl chains. The pretransition effect is greatest in the central segments of the acyl chains, demonstrating that the interchain interactions are more pronounced in this region than in the center of the bilayer and suggesting the presence, in the gel phase, of a "plateau" in the strength of the interchain interactions. As the temperature is reduced, the rate of rotation of the terminal methyl group decreases steadily; below 0 degree C the conformation is rigid on the infrared time scale. PMID:6894878

  13. The phase behavior of mixed aqueous dispersions of dipalmitoyl derivatives of phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol.

    PubMed Central

    López-García, F; Villalaín, J; Gómez-Fernández, J C; Quinn, P J

    1994-01-01

    The phases and transition sequences for aqueous dispersions of mixtures of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol (1,2-DPG) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic x-ray diffraction, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results have been used to construct a dynamic phase diagram of the binary mixture as a function of temperature over the range 20 degrees-90 degrees C. It is concluded that DPPC and 1,2-DPG form two complexes in the gel phase, the first one with a DPPC/1,2-DPG molar ratio of 55:45 and the second one at a molar ratio of approximately 1:2, defining three different regions in the phase diagram. Two eutectic points are postulated to occur: one at a very low 1,2-DPG concentration and the other at a 1,2-DPG concentration slightly higher than 66 mol%. At temperatures higher than the transition temperature, lamellar phases were predominant at low 1,2-DPG concentrations, but nonlamellar phases were found to be predominant at high proportions of 1,2-DPG. A very important aspect of these DPPC/1,2-DPG mixtures was that, in the gel phase, they showed a ripple structure, as seen by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and consistent with the high lamellar repeat spacings seen by x-ray diffraction. Ripple phase characteristics were also found in the fluid lamellar phases occurring at concentrations up to 35.6 mol% of 1,2-DPG. Evidence was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the dehydration of the lipid-water interface induced by the presence of 1,2-DPG. The biological significance of the presence of diacylglycerol in membrane lipid domains is discussed. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8075333

  14. Reactivity of soybean lipoxygenase-1 to linoleic acid entrapped in phosphatidylcholine vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Nishiyama, J; Kuninori, T

    1998-08-01

    The linoleic acids embedded in the SUVs of soy-PC, DMPC, and DPPC served as substrate for soybean lipoxygenase-1 (L-1). The initial velocity of the catalytic reaction and the concentration of the substrate showed a hyperbolic relation. The Km values of L-1 for the linoleic acids in soy-PC, DMPC, and DPPC vesicles were 0.07, 0.09, and 0.11 mM, respectively, being comparable with that for Tween-20 micellar linoleic acid. Soy-PC and DMPC competitively inhibited the enzyme with Ki values of 0.20 and 0.13 mM, respectively, whereas DPPC had no effect. DSC analysis revealed the phase separation of linoleic acid and DPPC in vesicles in the temperature range in which the enzyme reaction was carried out. This may account for the lack of inhibitory effect of DPPC on the enzyme. From the temperature dependence of the specific activity of the enzyme, the Ea values of the catalytic reaction were estimated to be 26.7 and 35.3 kJ.mol-1 for soy-PC and DPPC vesicles, respectively. For linoleic acid-DMPC vesicles, a two-phase temperature dependence of the activity across the transition temperature of the mixed vesicles was suggested. PMID:9685717

  15. Sphingomyelin/Phosphatidylcholine/Cholesterol Phase Diagram: Boundaries and Composition of Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Fedorov, Aleksandre; Prieto, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The ternary system palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM)/palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)/cholesterol is used to model lipid rafts. The phase behavior of the three binary systems PSM/POPC, PSM/cholesterol, and POPC/cholesterol is first experimentally determined. Phase coexistence boundaries are then determined for ternary mixtures at room temperature (23°C) and the ternary phase diagram at that temperature is obtained. From the diagram at 23°C and the binary phase diagrams, a reasonable expectation is drawn for the ternary phase diagram at 37°C. Several photophysical methodologies are employed that do not involve detergent extraction, in addition to literature data (e.g., differential scanning calorimetry) and thermodynamic rules. For the ternary phase diagrams, some tie-lines are calculated, including the one that contains the PSM/POPC/ cholesterol 1:1:1 mixture, which is often used in model raft studies. The diagrams here described are used to rationalize literature results, some of them apparently discrepant, and to discuss lipid rafts within the framework of liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered phase coexistence. PMID:14507704

  16. A model of orientational ordering in phosphatidylcholine bilayers based on conformational analysis of the glycerol backbone region.

    PubMed Central

    Strenk, L M; Westerman, P W; Doane, J W

    1985-01-01

    Molecular and conformational ordering in aqueous multilamellar suspensions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) have been examined by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (2H NMR) in the liquid crystalline (L alpha) phase. Motionally averaged quadrupolar splittings vQ from six sites in the vicinity of the glycerol backbone have been analyzed by a molecular frame and order matrix approach in which the usual assumption of a freely-rotating molecule is not invoked. By assuming a relatively rigid glycerol backbone region, the six vQ values are found to be consistent with a conformation of the glycerol backbone that is almost identical to that of one of the two structures in crystalline DMPC dihydrate (Pearson, R. H., and I. Pascher, 1979, Nature (Lond.) 281: 499-501). The orientation of the most-ordered axis of the DMPC molecule is found to be tilted at an angle of 27 +/- 2 degrees with respect to the long axis of the sn-1 chain in its extended all trans conformation. The ordering of the most ordered molecular axis with respect to the bilayer normal is expressed by an order parameter of Szz approximately equal to 0.6 +/- 0.1, consistent with values in analogous thermotropic liquid crystals. PMID:4074836

  17. Comprehensive characterization of temperature- and pressure-induced bilayer phase transitions for saturated phosphatidylcholines containing longer chain homologs.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masaki; Endo, Takuya; Yano, Takahiro; Tamai, Nobutake; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Matsuki, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Complete elucidation of the phase behavior of phospholipid bilayers requires information on the subtransition from the lamellar crystal (Lc) phase to the gel phase. However, for bilayers of saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (CnPCs), especially longer chain homologs, equilibration in the Lc phase is known to be very slow. In this study, bilayer phase transitions of three CnPCs with longer acyl chains, C19PC, C20PC and C21PC, were observed by differential scanning calorimetry under atmospheric pressure and by light-transmittance measurements under high pressure. Using lipid samples treated by thermal annealing enabled the observation of the sub-, pre- and main transitions of the C19PC and C20PC bilayers under atmospheric pressure. Only the pre- and main transitions could be observed for the C21PC bilayer due to very slow kinetics of the Lc phase formation for lipids with long acyl chains. The temperature and pressure phase diagrams constructed and phase-transitions quantities (enthalpy, entropy and volume changes) evaluated for these bilayers were compared with one another and with those of bilayers of the CnPC homologs examined in previous studies. These results allowed us (1) to clarify the temperature- and pressure-dependent phase sequence and phase stability of the CnPC (n=12-22) bilayers as a function of the hydrophobicity of the molecules, (2) to prove the presence of a shorter and a longer limit (n=13 and 21) in the acyl chain length for the pressure-induced bilayer interdigitation and (3) to reveal the chain-length dependence of the thermodynamic quantities of the subtransitions including the volume change. PMID:25779604

  18. Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by methionine without lowering homocysteine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely believed to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate ...

  19. A Permeability Study of O2 and the Trace Amine p-Tyramine through Model Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Bryan W.; Berry, Mark D.; Gray, C. G.; Tomberli, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We study here the permeability of the hydrophobic O2 molecule through a model DPPC bilayer at 323K and 350K, and of the trace amine p-tyramine through PC bilayers at 310K. The tyramine results are compared to previous experimental work at 298K. Nonequilibrium work methods were used in conjunction to simultaneously obtain both the potential of mean force (PMF) and the position dependent transmembrane diffusion coefficient, D(z), from the simulations. These in turn were used to calculate the permeability coefficient, P, through the inhomogeneous solubility-diffusion model. The results for O2 are consistent with previous simulations, and agree with experimentally measured P values for PC bilayers. A temperature dependence in the permeability of O2 through DPPC was obtained, with P decreasing at higher temperatures. Two relevant species of p-tyramine were simulated, from which the PMF and D(z) were calculated. The charged species had a large energetic barrier to crossing the bilayer of ~ 21 kcal/mol, while the uncharged, deprotonated species had a much lower barrier of ~ 7 kcal/mol. The effective in silico permeability for p-tyramine was calculated by applying three approximations, all of which gave nearly identical results (presented here as a function of the pKa). As the permeability value calculated from simulation was highly dependent on the pKa of the amine group, a further pKa study was performed that also varied the fraction of the uncharged and zwitterionic p-tyramine species. Using the experimental P value together with the simulated results, we were able to label the phenolic group as responsible for the pKa1 and the amine for the pKa2, that together represent all of the experimentally measured pKa values for p-tyramine. This agrees with older experimental results, in contrast to more recent work that has suggested there is a strong ambiguity in the pKa values. PMID:26086933

  20. Mechanical stability and lubrication by phosphatidylcholine boundary layers in the vesicular and in the extended lamellar phases.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Dror, Yael; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    The lubrication properties of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) extended supported bilayers were studied and compared to those of surface-attached DSPC small unilamellar vesicles (liposomes) in order to elucidate the effect of phospholipid geometrical packaging on the lubrication and mechanical properties of these boundary layers. The topography and response to the nanoindentation of bilayer- and liposome-covered surfaces were studied by an atomic force microscope (AFM). In parallel, normal and shear (frictional) forces between two opposing surfaces bearing DSPC vesicles/bilayers across water were studied with the surface force balance (SFB). A correlation between nanomechanical performance in the AFM and stability and lubrication in the SFB was observed. Bilayers were readily punctured by the AFM tip and exhibited substantial hysteresis between approach and retraction curves, whereas liposomes were not punctured and exhibited purely elastic behavior. At the same time, SFB measurements showed that bilayers are less stable and less efficient lubricants compared to liposomes. Bilayers provided efficient lubrication with very low friction coefficients, 0.002-0.008 up to pressures of more then 50 atm. However, bilayers were less robust and tended to detach from the surface as a result of shear, leading to high friction for subsequent approaches at the same contact position. In contrast, liposomes showed reversible and reproducible behavior under shear and compression, exhibiting ultralow friction coefficients of μ ≈ 10(-4) for pressures as high as 180 atm. This is attributed to the increased mechanical stability of the self-closed, closely packed liposomes, which we believe results from the more defect-free nature of the finitely sized vesicles. PMID:24708462

  1. Effects of imidazolium-based ionic surfactants on the size and dynamics of phosphatidylcholine bilayers with saturated and unsaturated chains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwankyu

    2015-07-01

    Imidazolium-based ionic surfactants of different sizes were simulated with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers. Regardless of the phospholipid type, larger surfactants at higher concentrations more significantly insert into the bilayer and increase the bilayer-surface size, in agreement with experiments and previous simulations. Insertion of surfactants only slightly decreases the bilayer thickness, as also observed in experiments. Although the surfactant insertion and its effect on the bilayer size and thickness are similar in different types of bilayers, the volume fractions of surfactants in the bilayer are higher for DMPC bilayers than for POPC and DOPC bilayers. In particular, ionic surfactants with four hydrocarbons yield their volume fractions of 4.6% and 8.7%, respectively, in POPC and DMPC bilayers, in quantitative agreement with experimental values of ∼5% and ∼10%. Also, the inserted surfactants increase the lateral diffusivity of the bilayer, which depends on the bilayer type. These findings indicate that although the surfactant insertion does not depend on the bilayer type, the effects of surfactants on the volume fraction and bilayer dynamics occur more significantly in the DMPC bilayer because of the smaller area per lipid and shorter saturated tails, which helps explain the experimental observations regarding different volume fractions of surfactants in POPC and DMPC bilayers. PMID:26055631

  2. Molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in rat lung surfactant and different pools of pneumocytes type II.

    PubMed Central

    Schlame, M; Casals, C; Rüstow, B; Rabe, H; Kunze, D

    1988-01-01

    It is not yet completely understood how a cell is able to export specific phospholipids, like dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (dipalmitoyl-PC), which is secreted by pneumocytes type II, into pulmonary surfactant. The acyl species composition of [3H]PC which was synthesized in type II cells in the presence of [2-3H]glycerol resembled the species composition of PC localized in intracellular pneumocyte membranes. This species pattern was different from the pattern of PC of lamellar bodies, i.e., intracellularly stored surfactant, by a higher proportion of dipalmitoyl-PC mainly at expense of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC. Lamellar body PC in turn showed the same species distribution as surfactant PC. The data suggest that subcellular compartmentation and/or intracellular transfer of PC destined to storage in lamellar bodies, but not secretion of lamellar bodies, involves an enrichment of dipalmitoyl-PC and a depletion of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC. In contrast, the acyl species pattern of phosphatidylglycerol does not seem to undergo gross changes on the path from synthesis to secretion. PMID:3421943

  3. Characterization of mixed monolayers of phosphatidylcholine and a dicationic gemini surfactant SS-1 with a langmuir balance: effects of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Matti, V; Säily, J; Ryhänen, S J; Holopainen, J M; Borocci, S; Mancini, G; Kinnunen, P K

    2001-01-01

    Monolayers of a cationic gemini surfactant, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(N-hexadecyl-N;N-dimethyl-ammonium)butane dibromide (abbreviated as SS-1) and its mixtures with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were studied using a Langmuir balance. More specifically, we measured the force-area (pi-A) curves and determined the elastic area compressibility modulus (C) as a function of lateral packing pressure and the mole fraction of the cationic lipid (X(SS-1)), with and without DNA in the subphase. Both SS-1 and POPC exhibited smooth compression isotherms, indicating their monolayers to be in the liquid expanded state. Even low contents (X(SS-1) < 0.05) of SS-1 in a POPC monolayer condensed the film dramatically, up to 20% at 30 mN/m. This effect is suggested to reflect reorientation of the P(-)-N(+) dipole of the POPC headgroup. Accordingly, the magnitude of the condensing effect diminishes with X(SS-1) and is not observed for mixed films of dioleoylglycerol and SS-1. Reorientation of the P(-)-N(+) dipole is further supported by the pronounced increase in monolayer dipole potential psi due to SS-1. The presence of DNA in the subphase affected the mixed POPC/SS-1 monolayers differently depending on the constituent lipid stoichiometry as well as on the DNA/SS-1 charge ratio. At a DNA concentration of 0.63 microM (in base pairs) condensation of neat POPC monolayers was evident, and this effect remained up to X(SS-1) < 0.5, corresponding to DNA/SS-1 charge ratio of 1.25. An expansion due to DNA, evident as an increase in DeltaA/molecule, was observed at X(SS-1) > 0.5. At a higher concentration of DNA (1.88 microM base pairs) in the subphase corresponding to DNA/SS-1 charge ratio of 3.75 at X(SS-1) = 0.5, condensation was observed at all values of X(SS-1). PMID:11566784

  4. The ratio of phosphatidylcholines to lysophosphatidylcholines in plasma differentiates healthy controls from patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Klavins, Kristaps; Koal, Therese; Dallmann, Guido; Marksteiner, Josef; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolomic processes have been identified as being strongly linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, lipid metabolites appear to be highly useful as diagnostic substrates for the diagnosis of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in plasma. Methods We analyzed plasma samples from controls (n = 35), MCI (n = 33), and AD patients (n = 43) using the AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit (Biocrates Life Sciences), which included quantitative analysis of 40 acylcarnitines, 21 amino acids, 19 biogenic amines, 15 sphingolipids, 90 glycerophospholipids, and sum of hexoses. Results We found that individual lipid metabolites can differentiate controls from MCI and AD with relevant significance. However, the ratio between PC aa C34:4 and lysoPC a C18:2 differentiates controls from MCI (P = .0000007) and from AD (P = .0000009) with greater significance. Conclusions The results provide evidence that the ratio of these two lipid metabolites is useful for diagnosing MCI and AD with an accuracy of 82%–85%. PMID:26744734

  5. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Makiko; Hiraoki, Toshifumi; Kimura, Kunie; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and τ values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  6. Chlorinated and brominated phosphatidylcholines are generated under the influence of the Fenton reagent at low pH-a MALDI-TOF MS study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianqing; Teuber, Kristin; Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Lipid (phospholipid) oxidation is an increasingly important research topic due to the significant physiological relevance. The Fenton reaction, i.e. the transition metal catalyzed decomposition of H(2)O(2) is frequently used to generate hydroxyl radicals (HO*). Lipids with unsaturated fatty acyl residues are primarily converted by HO* radicals into peroxides. In contrast, chloro- and bromohydrins as well as dihalogenides are formed by the addition of HOCl or HOBr to the olefinic groups of the fatty acyl residues of lipids or under the influence of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) from Cl(-) and H(2)O(2). We will show here by using MALDI-TOF MS for product analysis that halogenated products may also be generated in the presence of the Fenton reagent, if either FeCl(2) or FeBr(2) is used. In the presence of FeSO(4), however, peroxides are exclusively generated. It will also be shown that the generation of halogen-containing products is a competing reaction with the cleavage of the double bond under generation of the corresponding aldehyde or carboxylic acid that is favored at prolonged incubation times and at elevated pH. PMID:20932962

  7. Phase separation in phosphatidylcholine membrane caused by the presence of a pyrimidine analogue of fluphenazine with high anti-multidrug-resistance activity.

    PubMed

    Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Swiątek, Piotr; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Zawilska, Patrycja; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Malinka, Wiesław; Köhler, Gottfried

    2014-04-01

    Phenothiazine compounds are known as effective inhibitors of a multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. This group consists of many important substances used in human medicine such as antipsychotic drugs in the case of fluphenazine (FPh) or chlorpromazine (CPZ). Fluphenazine was on the World Health Organization (WHO) list of Essential Medicines of 2009, and its new pyrimidine analog (FPh-prm) presented in this work has been documented to have a high anti-MDR activity. In order to discover the character of alterations of the lipid bilayer structure caused by the presence of FPh-prm inside the lipid membrane, which is responsible for the essential increase of an anti-MDR activity of FPh-prm, microcalorimetric (differential scanning calorimetry), Laurdan fluorescence, (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were used for dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes mixed with a different concentration of amine analogue. It was stated that the formation of domains with different content of FPh-prm/DPPC can be a reason for the membrane-related mechanism of chemoprevention associated with the inhibition of the outward transport of anticancer drugs by the glycoprotein P (Pgp) in cancer cells by the pyrimidine analog of FPh. To our best knowledge, this report is the first to show the bilayer structure of domains formed by incomplete miscibility of fluphenazine-related compounds and phospholipid molecules. Our results provide a sound basis for the design of future modifications of anti-MDR drugs by providing very effective inhibitors of the pump activity of Pgp. PMID:24601791

  8. Membrane burdens of chlorinated benzenes lower the main phase transition temperature in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles: Implications for toxicity by narcotic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Wezel, A.P. van; Cornelissen, G.; Miltenburg, J.K. van; Opperhuizen, A.

    1996-02-01

    In the membrane of an organism that dies due to exposure to narcotic chemicals, the main phase transition temperature (T{sub tr}) of the phospholipids is decreased and the fluidity is increased. The decrease in T{sub tr} depends on the molar concentration of narcotics in the membrane (membrane burden) and is irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the chemicals. If membrane-water partition coefficients, exposure concentrations, and the amount of lipid in the system are known, membrane burdens of narcotic chemicals can be calculated and compared to membrane burdens that yield toxicity. The partition coefficients of a series of chlorobenzenes between phospholipid vesicles and water (K{sub mw}) were measured at different temperatures in a new experimental set-up. K{sub mw}`s were higher in the liquid-crystalline phase than in the gel phase. Partitioning into the el phase was entropy driven, partitioning into the liquid-crystalline phase was driven by entropy and enthalpy. The fluidity change in phospholipid vesicles, after accumulation of chlorobenzenes, was measured from the change in T{sub tr}. The membrane burdens of various chlorobenzenes needed for a lowering of T{sub tr} were comparable (e.g., 20--60 mmol/kg for a decrease of 1.0 C). The membrane burden needed in vivo for lethality by narcotic chemicals such as chlorobenzenes was calculated to be 40--160 mmol/kg membrane. By combining the in vivo and in vitro data, it can be concluded that in organisms that die due to exposure to narcotic chemicals, the fluidity of the membrane is increased.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of the evolution of hydrophobic defects in one monolayer of a phosphatidylcholine bilayer: relevance for membrane fusion mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Tieleman, D Peter; Bentz, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of the phospholipid bilayer underlies the permeability barrier function of the biological membrane. Tears or defects that expose water to the acyl chains are spontaneously healed by lipid lateral diffusion. However, mechanical barriers, e.g., protein aggregates held in place, could sustain hydrophobic defects. Such defects have been postulated to occur in processes such as membrane fusion. This gives rise to a new question in bilayer structure: What do the lipids do in the absence of lipid lateral diffusion to minimize the free energy of a hydrophobic defect? As a first step to understand this rather fundamental question about bilayer structure, we performed molecular dynamic simulations of up to 10 ns of a planar bilayer from which lipids have been deleted randomly from one monolayer. In one set of simulations, approximately one-half of the lipids in the defect monolayer were restrained to form a mechanical barrier. In the second set, lipids were free to diffuse around. The question was simply whether the defects caused by removing a lipid would aggregate together, forming a large hydrophobic cavity, or whether the membrane would adjust in another way. When there are no mechanical barriers, the lipids in the defect monolayer simply spread out and thin with little effect on the other intact monolayer. In the presence of a mechanical barrier, the behavior of the lipids depends on the size of the defect. When 3 of 64 lipids are removed, the remaining lipids adjust the lower one-half of their chains, but the headgroup structure changes little and the intact monolayer is unaffected. When 6 to 12 lipids are removed, the defect monolayer thins, lipid disorder increases, and lipids from the intact monolayer move toward the defect monolayer. Whereas this is a highly simplified model of a fusion site, this engagement of the intact monolayer into the fusion defect is strikingly consistent with recent results for influenza hemagglutinin mediated fusion. PMID:12202375

  10. Effect of Lyso-phosphatidylcholine and Schnurri-3 on Osteogenic Transdifferentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells to Calcifying Vascular Cells in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando; Vickers, Kasey C.; Sam Lee, Jae; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; Morrisett, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background In vitro cell culture is a widely used technique for investigating a range of processes such as stem cell behavior, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and drug discovery. Conventional cell culture is performed in Petri dishes or flasks where cells typically attach to a flat glass or plastic surface as a cell monolayer. However, 2D cell mono-layers do not provide a satisfactory representation of in vivo conditions. A 3D culture could be a much better system for representing the conditions that prevail in vivo. Methods and results To simulate 3D conditions, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were loaded with gold–polyvmer–iron oxide hydrogel, enabling levitation of the cells by using spatially varying magnetic fields. These magnetically levitated 3D cultures appeared as freely suspended, clustered cells which proliferated 3–4 times faster than cells in conventional 2D cultures. When the levitated cells were treated with 10 nM lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), for 3 days, cell clusters exhibited translucent extensions/rods 60–80 µm wide and 200–250 µm long. When 0.5 µg/µl Schnurri-3 was added to the culture containing LPC, these extensions were smaller or absent. When excited with 590–650 nm light, these extensions emitted intrinsic fluorescence at >667 nm. When the 3D cultures were treated with a fluorescent probe specific for calcium hydroxyapatite (FITC-HABP-19), the cell extensions/rods emitted intensely at 518 nm, the λmax for FITC emission. Pellets of cells treated with LPC were more enriched in calcium, phosphate, and glycosaminogly-cans than cells treated with LPC and Schnurri-3. Conclusions In 3D cultures, VSMCs grow more rapidly and form larger calcification clusters than cells in 2D cultures. Transdifferentiation of VSMC into calcifying vascular cells is enhanced by LPC and attenuated by Schnurri-3. General significance The formation of calcified structures in 3D VSMC cultures suggests that similar structures may be formed in vivo. PMID:23500015

  11. PMP1 18-38, a yeast plasma membrane protein fragment, binds phosphatidylserine from bilayer mixtures with phosphatidylcholine: a (2)H-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Roux, M; Beswick, V; Coïc, Y M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Sanson, A; Neumann, J M

    2000-11-01

    PMP1 is a 38-residue plasma membrane protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that regulates the activity of the H(+)-ATPase. The cytoplasmic domain conformation results in a specific interfacial distribution of five basic side chains, thought to strongly interact with anionic phospholipids. We have used the PMP1 18-38 fragment to carry out a deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H-NMR) study for investigating the interactions between the PMP1 cytoplasmic domain and phosphatidylserines. For this purpose, mixed bilayers of 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (POPS) were used as model membranes (POPC/POPS 5:1, m/m). Spectra of headgroup- and chain-deuterated POPC and POPS phospholipids, POPC-d4, POPC-d31, POPS-d3, and POPS-d31, were recorded at different temperatures and for various concentrations of the PMP1 fragment. Data obtained from POPS deuterons revealed the formation of specific peptide-POPS complexes giving rise to a slow exchange between free and bound PS lipids, scarcely observed in solid-state NMR studies of lipid-peptide/protein interactions. The stoichiometry of the complex (8 POPS per peptide) was determined and its significance is discussed. The data obtained with headgroup-deuterated POPC were rationalized with a model that integrates the electrostatic perturbation induced by the cationic peptide on the negatively charged membrane interface, and a "spacer" effect due to the intercalation of POPS/PMP1f complexes between choline headgroups. PMID:11053135

  12. PMP1 18-38, a yeast plasma membrane protein fragment, binds phosphatidylserine from bilayer mixtures with phosphatidylcholine: a (2)H-NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Roux, M; Beswick, V; Coïc, Y M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Sanson, A; Neumann, J M

    2000-01-01

    PMP1 is a 38-residue plasma membrane protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that regulates the activity of the H(+)-ATPase. The cytoplasmic domain conformation results in a specific interfacial distribution of five basic side chains, thought to strongly interact with anionic phospholipids. We have used the PMP1 18-38 fragment to carry out a deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H-NMR) study for investigating the interactions between the PMP1 cytoplasmic domain and phosphatidylserines. For this purpose, mixed bilayers of 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (POPS) were used as model membranes (POPC/POPS 5:1, m/m). Spectra of headgroup- and chain-deuterated POPC and POPS phospholipids, POPC-d4, POPC-d31, POPS-d3, and POPS-d31, were recorded at different temperatures and for various concentrations of the PMP1 fragment. Data obtained from POPS deuterons revealed the formation of specific peptide-POPS complexes giving rise to a slow exchange between free and bound PS lipids, scarcely observed in solid-state NMR studies of lipid-peptide/protein interactions. The stoichiometry of the complex (8 POPS per peptide) was determined and its significance is discussed. The data obtained with headgroup-deuterated POPC were rationalized with a model that integrates the electrostatic perturbation induced by the cationic peptide on the negatively charged membrane interface, and a "spacer" effect due to the intercalation of POPS/PMP1f complexes between choline headgroups. PMID:11053135

  13. Ca sup 2+ , Mg sup 2+ , Li sup + , Na sup + , and K sup + distributions in the headgroup region of binary membranes of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine as seen by deuterium NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Roux, M.; Bloom, M. )

    1990-07-31

    The binding of calcium, magnesium, lithium, potassium, and sodium to membrane bilayers of 5 to 1 (M/M) 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl- 2-oleoylphosphatidylserine (POPS) was investigated by using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (2H NMR). Both lipids were deuteriated on their polar headgroups, and spectra were obtained at 25 degrees C in the liquid-crystalline phase as a function of salt concentration. The spectra obtained with calcium were correlated with 45CaCl2 binding studies to determine the effective membrane-bound calcium at low calcium binding, up to 0.78 calcium per POPS. Deuterium quadrupolar splittings of both POPC and POPS headgroups were shown to be very sensitive to calcium binding. The behavior of these two headgroups over a wide range of CaCl2 concentrations suggests that Ca2+ binding occurs in at least two steps, the first step being achieved with 0.5 M CaCl2, with a stoichiometry of 0.5 Ca2+ per POPS. Correlations of the deuterium Ca2+ binding data with related data obtained after incorporation of a cationic integral peptide showed that the effects of these two cationic molecules of the POPS headgroup are qualitatively similar, and provided further support for two-step Ca2+ binding to the POPC/POPS 5:1 membranes. The corresponding data obtained with magnesium, lithium, and potassium indicate that these cations interact with both the choline and serine headgroups. The amplitudes of headgroup perturbations could be partly correlated to the relative affinities of the metallic cations for the lipid membrane. The two-step binding described with Ca2+ appears to be relevant to the Mg2+ data, and in certain limits to the Li+ data. The data were interpreted in terms of conformational changes of the lipid headgroups induced by an electric field due to the charges of the membrane-bound metallic cations.

  14. Free Energy for the Permeation of Na+ and Cl− Ions and Their Ion-Pair through a Zwitterionic Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayer by Umbrella Integration with Harmonic Fourier Beads

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of ion permeation across lipid bilayers is key to controlling osmotic pressure and developing new ways of delivering charged, drug-like molecules inside cells. Recent reports suggest ion-pairing as the mechanism to lower the free energy barrier for the ion permeation in disagreement with predictions from the simple electrostatic models. In this paper we quantify the effect of ion-pairing or charge quenching on the permeation of Na+ and Cl− ions across DMPC lipid bilayer by computing the corresponding potentials of mean force (PMFs) using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the free energy barrier to permeation reduces in the order Na+−Cl− ion-pair (27.6 kcal/mol) > Cl− (23.6 kcal/mol) > Na+ (21.9 kcal/mol). Furthermore, with the help of these PMFs we derive the change in the binding free energy between the Na+ and Cl− with respect to that in water as a function of the bilayer permeation depth. Despite the fact that the bilayer boosts the Na+−Cl− ion binding free energy by as high as 17.9 kcal/mol near its center, ion-pairing between such hydrophilic ions as Na+ and Cl− does not assist their permeation. However, based on a simple thermodynamic cycle, we suggest that ion-pairing between ions of opposite charge and solvent philicity could enhance ion permeation. Comparison of the computed permeation barriers for Na+ and Cl− ions with available experimental data supports this notion. This work establishes general computational methodology to address ion-pairing in fluid anisotropic media and details the ion permeation mechanism on atomic level. PMID:19146415

  15. Radiotracer Evidence Implicating Phosphoryl and Phosphatidyl Bases as Intermediates in Betaine Synthesis by Water-Stressed Barley Leaves 12

    PubMed Central

    Hitz, William D.; Rhodes, David; Hanson, Andrew D.

    1981-01-01

    In barley, glycine betaine is a metabolic end product accumulated by wilted leaves; betaine accumulation involves acceleration of de novo synthesis from serine, via ethanolamine, N-methylethanolamines, choline, and betaine aldehyde (Hanson, Scott 1980 Plant Physiol 66: 342-348). Because in animals and microorganisms the N-methylation of ethanolamine involves phosphatide intermediates, and because in barley, wilting markedly increases the rate of methylation of ethanolamine to choline, the labeling of phosphatides was followed after supplying [14C]ethanolamine to attached leaf blades of turgid and wilted barley plants. The kinetics of labeling of phosphatidylcholine and betaine showed that phosphatidylcholine became labeled 2.5-fold faster in wilted than in turgid leaves, and that after short incubations, phosphatidylcholine was always more heavily labeled than betaine. In pulse-chase experiments with wilted leaves, label from [14C]ethanolamine continued to accumulate in betaine as it was being lost from phosphatidylcholine. When [14C]monomethylethanolamine was supplied to wilted leaves, phosphatidylcholine was initially more heavily labeled than betaine. These results are qualitatively consistent with a precursor-to-product relationship between phosphatidylcholine and betaine. The following experiments, in which tracer amounts of [14C]ethanolamine or [14C]formate were supplied to wilted barley leaves, implicated phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in the methylation steps between ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Label from both [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate entered phosphorylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine very rapidly; these phosphoryl bases were the most heavily labeled products at 15 to 30 minutes after label addition and lost label rapidly as the fed 14C-labeled precursor was depleted. Phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were also significantly labeled from [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate at early

  16. Sleep deprivation predisposes liver to oxidative stress and phospholipid damage: a quantitative molecular imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2008-01-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with an increased rate of various metabolic disturbances, which may be related to oxidative stress and consequent lipid peroxidation. Since hepatic phosphatidylcholine plays an important role in metabolic regulation, the aim of the present study was to determine phosphatidylcholine expression in the liver following total sleep deprivation. To determine the effects of total sleep deprivation, we used adult rats implanted for polygraphic recording. Phosphatidylcholine expression was examined molecularly by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, along with biochemical solid-phase extraction. The parameters of oxidative stress were investigated by evaluating the hepatic malondialdehyde levels as well as heat shock protein 25 immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In normal rats, the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry spectra revealed specific peaks (m/z 184 and 224) that could be identified as molecular ions for phosphatidylcholine. However, following total sleep deprivation, the signals for phosphatidylcholine were significantly reduced to nearly one-third of the normal values. The results of solid-phase extraction also revealed that the phosphatidylcholine concentration was noticeably decreased, from 15.7 µmol g–1 to 9.4 µmol g–1, after total sleep deprivation. By contrast, the biomarkers for oxidative stress were drastically up-regulated in the total sleep deprivation-treated rats as compared with the normal ones (4.03 vs. 1.58 nmol mg–1 for malondialdehyde levels, and 17.1 vs. 6.7 as well as 1.8 vs. 0.7 for heat shock protein 25 immunoblotting and immunoreactivity, respectively). Given that phosphatidylcholine is the most prominent component of all plasma lipoproteins, decreased expression of hepatic phosphatidylcholine following total sleep deprivation may be attributed to the enhanced oxidative stress and the subsequent lipid peroxidation, which would play an important role in the formation

  17. Peculiarities of data interpretation upon direct tissue analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chagovets, Vtaliy; Kononikhin, Aleksey; Starodubtseva, Nataliia; Kostyukevich, Yury; Popov, Igor; Frankevich, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The importance of high-resolution mass spectrometry for the correct data interpretation of a direct tissue analysis is demonstrated with an example of its clinical application for an endometriosis study. Multivariate analysis of the data discovers lipid species differentially expressed in different tissues under investigation. High-resolution mass spectrometry allows unambiguous separation of peaks with close masses that correspond to proton and sodium adducts of phosphatidylcholines and to phosphatidylcholines differing in double bond number. PMID:27553733

  18. Choline, Its Potential Role in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and the Case for Human and Bacterial Genes.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Jill L; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Properzi, Catherine; Oddo, Josephine-Lee; Adams, Leon A

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the impact of poor hepatic choline/phosphatidylcholine availability in promoting the steatosis characteristic of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently advanced and possibly relates to phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine concentrations in various, membranes as well as cholesterol dysregulation. A role for choline/phosphatidylcholine availability in the progression of NAFLD to liver injury and serious hepatic consequences in some individuals requires further elucidation. There are many reasons for poor choline/phosphatidylcholine availability in the liver, including low intake, estrogen status, and genetic polymorphisms affecting, in particular, the pathway for hepatic de novo phosphatidylcholine synthesis. In addition to free choline, phosphatidylcholine has been identified as a substrate for trimethylamine production by certain intestinal bacteria, thereby reducing host choline bioavailability and providing an additional link to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease faced by those with NAFLD. Thus human choline requirements are highly individualized and biomarkers of choline status derived from metabolomics studies are required to predict those at risk of NAFLD induced by choline deficiency and to provide a basis for human intervention trials. PMID:26773011

  19. Lipidomic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals unusual polar lipids†

    PubMed Central

    Welti, Ruth; Mui, Ernie; Sparks, Alexis; Wernimont, Sarah; Isaac, Giorgis; Kirisits, Michael; Roth, Mary; Roberts, Craig W.; Botté, Cyrille; Maréchal, Eric; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the polar lipids of Toxoplasma gondii by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provides a detailed picture of the lipid molecular species of this parasitic protozoan. Most notably, T. gondii contains a relatively high level, estimated to about 2% of the total polar lipid, of ceramide phosphoethanolamine. The ceramide phosphoethanolamine has a fatty amide profile with only 16- and 18-carbon species. Compared with the host fibroblasts in which it was grown, T. gondii also has higher levels of phosphatidylcholine, but lower levels of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylserine. Analysis at the molecular species level indicated that T. gondii has greater amounts of shorter-chain fatty acid in its polar lipid molecular species than the host fibroblasts. Shorter-chain fatty acids with a combined total of 30 or fewer acyl carbons make up 21% of Toxoplasma’s, but only 3% of the host’s, diacyl phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, diacyl phosphatidylcholine with two saturated acyl chains with 12, 14, or 16 carbons make up over 11% of parasite phosphatidylcholine, but less than 3% of the host phosphatidylcholine molecular species. The distinctive T. gondii tachyzoite lipid profile may be particularly suited to the function of parasitic membranes and the interaction of the parasite with the host cell and the host’s immune system. Combined with T. gondii genomic data, these lipidomic data will assist in elucidation of metabolic pathways for lipid biosynthesis in this important human pathogen. PMID:17988103

  20. Enhancement by cytidine of membrane phospholipid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    G-Coviella, I. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Cytidine, as cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline, is a major precursor in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relationships between extracellular levels of cytidine, the conversion of [14C]choline to [14C]phosphatidylcholine, and the net syntheses of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine by PC12 cells. The rate at which cytidine (as [3H]cytidine) was incorporated into the PC12 cells followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 5 microM; Vmax = 12 x 10(-3) mmol/mg of protein/min) when the cytidine concentrations in the medium were below 50 microM; at higher concentrations, intracellular [3H]cytidine nucleotide levels increased linearly. Once inside the cell, cytidine was converted mainly into cytidine triphosphate. In pulse-chase experiments, addition of cytidine to the medium caused a time- and dose-dependent increase (by up to 30%) in the incorporation of [14C]choline into membrane [14C]-phosphatidylcholine. When the PC12 cells were supplemented with both cytidine and choline for 14 h, small but significant elevations (p less than 0.05) were observed in their absolute contents of membrane phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine, all increasing by 10-15% relative to their levels in cells incubated with choline alone. Exogenous cytidine, acting via cytidine triphosphate, can thus affect the synthesis and levels of cell membrane phospholipids.

  1. Metabolic disturbances in plasma as biomarkers for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mei-Ling; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Chiung-Mei

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD), caused by expanded CAG repeats encoding a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein, presents with a predominant degeneration of neurons in the striatum and cortex. Although a few studies have identified substantial metabolite alterations in plasma, the picture of plasma metabolomics of HD has not been clearly depicted yet. Using a global metabolomics screening for plasma from 15 HD patients and 17 controls, HD patient group was separated from the control group by a panel of metabolites belonging to carnitine, amino acid and phosphatidylcholine species. The quantification of 184 related metabolites (including carnitine, amino acid and phosphatidylcholine species) in 29 HD patients, 9 presymptomatic HD carriers and 44 controls further showed one up-regulated (glycine) and 9 down-regulated metabolites (taurine, serotonin, valine, isoleucine, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C36:0 and C34:0 and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C20:3). To understand the biosynthetic alterations of phosphatidylcholine in HD, we examined the expression levels and activities of a panel of key enzymes responsible for phosphatidylcholine metabolism. The results showed down-regulation of PCYT1A and increased activity of phospholipase A2 in HD leukocytes. These metabolic profiles strongly indicate that disturbed metabolism is involved in pathogenesis of HD and provide clue for the development of novel treatment strategies for HD. PMID:27133422

  2. Partial volumes of cholesterol and monounsaturated diacylphosphatidylcholines in mixed bilayers.

    PubMed

    Gallová, J; Klacsová, M; Devínsky, F; Balgavý, P

    2015-09-01

    Dispersions of multilamellar liposomes prepared from monounsaturated diacylphosphatidylcholines having 18-24 carbons and from varying amounts of cholesterol were studied by densitometry. Ideal mixing of the studied phosphatidylcholines with cholesterol in the fluid phase was observed. The temperature dependence of partial volumes of both phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol was determined. A slight decrease in the partial volume of cholesterol with the lengthening of the acyl chain of the host phosphatidylcholine was observed. By measuring the density of multilamellar liposomes of dinervonoylposphatidylcholine and cholesterol below the main phase transition temperature, the phase boundary between the solid ordered phase and the area of coexistence of the solid ordered and liquid ordered phases was detected. PMID:26100454

  3. Filamentous Fungi with High Cytosolic Phospholipid Transfer Activity in the Presence of Exogenous Phospholipid

    PubMed Central

    Record, Eric; Lesage, Laurence; Cahagnier, Bernard; Marion, Didier; Asther, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    The phospholipid transfer activity of cell extracts from 15 filamentous fungus strains grown on a medium containing phospholipids as the carbon source was measured by a fluorescence assay. This assay was based on the transfer of pyrene-labeled phosphatidylcholines forming the donor vesicles to acceptor vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholines. The highest phosphatidylcholine transfer activity was obtained with cell extracts from Aspergillus oryzae. The presence of exogenous phospholipids in the culture medium of A. oryzae was shown to increase markedly the activity of phospholipid transfer as well as the pool of exocellular proteins during the primary phase of growth. Modifications in the biochemical marker activities of cellular organelles were observed: succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial marker; inosine diphosphatase, a Golgi system marker; and cytochrome c oxidoreductase, an endoplasmic reticulum marker, were increased 7.3-, 2-, and 22-fold, respectively, when A. oryzae was grown in the presence of phospholipids. PMID:16349388

  4. Metabolomics Reveals Altered Lipid Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Anitha, Mallappa; Smith, Philip B; Chiaro, Christopher R; Maan, Meenu; Chaudhury, Koel; Patterson, Andrew D

    2016-08-01

    Endometriosis is a common chronic estrogen-dependent gynecological disease affecting 10% of women in their reproductive age. It is characterized by proliferation of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. In the present study, we used mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to investigate the alterations in serum lipid profiles of mice induced with endometriosis. We identified several dysregulated lipids such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamines, and triglycerides and show that triglycerides may be due to a general inflammatory condition in the peritoneum. We also show that in addition to phosphatidylcholine alteration, there is also an effect in the ratio of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine in serum of mice induced with the disease and that this change may be due to increased expression of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene. The study provides new insight into the etiology of endometriosis. PMID:27246581

  5. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    PubMed

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. PMID:26566569

  6. Plasmodium falciparum CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase possesses two functional catalytic domains and is inhibited by a CDP-choline analog selected from a virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Contet, Alicia; Pihan, Emilie; Lavigne, Marina; Wengelnik, Kai; Maheshwari, Sweta; Vial, Henri; Douguet, Dominique; Cerdan, Rachel

    2015-04-13

    Phosphatidylcholine is the major lipid component of the malaria parasite membranes and is required for parasite multiplication in human erythrocytes. Plasmodium falciparum CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (PfCCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathway and thus considered as a potential antimalarial target. In contrast to its mammalian orthologs, PfCCT contains a duplicated catalytic domain. Here, we show that both domains are catalytically active with similar kinetic parameters. A virtual screening strategy allowed the identification of a drug-size molecule competitively inhibiting the enzyme. This compound also prevented phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in parasites and exerted an antimalarial effect. This study constitutes the first step towards a rationalized design of future new antimalarial agents targeting PfCCT. PMID:25771858

  7. Biochemical signal transmitted by Fc gamma receptors: phospholipase A2 activity of Fc gamma 2b receptor of murine macrophage cell line P388D1.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, T; Saito-Taki, T; Sadasivan, R; Nitta, T

    1982-01-01

    The detergent lysate of the P388D1 macrophage cell line was subjected to affinity chromatography on two different media, Sepharose coupled to heat-aggregated human IgG (IgG-Sepharose) and Sepharose coupled to the phosphatidylcholine analog rac-1-(9-carboxyl)nonyl-2-hexadecylglycero-3-phosphocholine (PC-Sepharose). Both IgG- and phosphatidylcholine-binding proteins were further purified by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and isoelectric focusing in the presence of 6 M urea. The isolated IgG-binding proteins specifically bound to IgG2a, but not to IgG2b, whereas the isolated phosphatidylcholine-binding proteins specifically bound to IgG2b but not to IgG2a. Phosphatidylcholine-binding proteins possessed a typical phospholipase A2 activity (phosphatide 2-acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4), which was maximal (10 mumol/min per mg of protein) at pH 9.5, depended on Ca2+, and was specific for cleavage of fatty acid from the C-2 position of the glycerol backbone of phosphatidylcholine. The noted enzymatic activity was augmented 4-fold by preincubating phosphatidylcholine-binding proteins with heat-aggregated murine IgG2b but not with IgG2a. IgG-binding proteins, on the other hand, are devoid of any detectable phospholipase A2 activity. Thus, the functional significance of Fc gamma 2b receptor of P388D1 macrophage cell line would be the generation of phospholipase A2 activity at the cell surface upon specific binding to Fc gamma 2b fragment. PMID:6804944

  8. Folate intake and the MTHFR C677T genotype influence choline status in young Mexican American women☆

    PubMed Central

    Abratte, Christian M.; Wang, Wei; Li, Rui; Moriarty, David J.; Caudill, Marie A.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported a relationship between folate status, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C→T variant and disease risk. Although folate and choline metabolism are inter-related, only limited data are available on the relationship between choline and folate status in humans. This study sought to examine the influences of folate intake and the MTHFR 677C→T variant on choline status. Mexican-American women (n =43; 14 CC, 12 CT and 17 TT) consumed 135 μg/day as dietary folate equivalents (DFE) for 7 weeks followed by randomization to 400 or 800 μg DFE/day for 7 weeks. Throughout the study, total choline intake remained unchanged at ∼350 mg/day. Plasma concentrations of betaine, choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were measured via LC-MS/MS for Weeks 0, 7 and 14. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin declined ( P=.001, P=.009, respectively) in response to folate restriction and increased ( P=.08, P=.029, respectively) in response to folate treatment. The increase in phosphatidylcholine occurred in response to 800 ( P=.03) not 400 ( P=.85) μg DFE/day (week×folate interaction, P=.017). The response of phosphatidylcholine to folate intake appeared to be influenced by MTHFR C677T genotype. The decline in phosphatidylcholine during folate restriction occurred primarily in women with the CC or CT genotype and not in the TT genotype (week×genotype interaction, P=.089). Moreover, when examined independent of folate status, phosphatidylcholine was higher ( P <.05) in the TT genotype relative to the CT genotype. These data suggest that folate intake and the MTHFR C677T genotype influence choline status in humans. PMID:17588738

  9. Guanine deaminase inhibitor from rat liver. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Sitaramayya, A; Kumar, K S; Krishnan, P S

    1974-01-01

    1. An inhibitor of cytoplasmic guanine deaminase of rat liver was isolated from liver ;heavy mitochondrial' fraction after freezing and thawing and treatment with Triton X-100. 2. Submitochondrial fractionation revealed that the inhibitor was localized in the outer-membrane fraction. 3. The method of purification of inhibitor, involving precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, its precipitability by trichloroacetic acid and the pattern of absorption in the u.v. indicated that the inhibitor was a protein. In confirmation, tryptic digestion of the isolated material resulted in destruction of the inhibitor activity. The inhibitor was stable to acid, but labile to heat. 4. The isolated inhibitor required phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) for activity. Phosphatidylcholine also partially protected the inhibitor against heat inactivation. 5. When detergent treatment was omitted, the inhibitor activity of frozen mitochondria was precipitated by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) in a fully active form without supplementation with phosphatidylcholine, indicating that Triton X-100 ruptured the linkage between inhibitor and lipid. 6. A reconstituted sample of inhibitor-phosphatidylcholine complex was precipitated in a fully active form by dialysis against 2-mercaptoethanol, but treatment of the precipitate with NaCl yielded an extract which was inactive unless supplemented with fresh phosphatidylcholine. 7. We interpret the results as evidence that the inhibitor was present in vivo as a lipoprotein and that once the complex was dissociated by the action of detergent and the protein precipitated, there was an absolute need for exogenous phosphatidylcholine for its activity. The manner in which inhibitor associated with the outer membrane of rat liver mitochondria might regulate the activity of the enzyme in the supernatant has been suggested. PMID:4821397

  10. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    García Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, José M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [García Gil, Alonso, Sánchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740–748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  11. Studies on precellular evolution - The encapsulation of polyribonucleotides by liposomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Santiago, J. C.; Wong, C.; Lazcano, A.

    1986-01-01

    Liposomes have been suggested as possible models of precellular systems formed in the early Archean earth from lipids of nonenzymatic origin. Since it is generally accepted that RNA molecules preceded double-stranded DNA molecules as genetic material, the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides within liposomes (made from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine) was studied. Quantitative determinations show that approximately 50 percent of the available lipids form liposomes, and that up to 5 percent of the polyribonucleotides can be entrapped by them. Also studied was the encapsulation of polyribonucleotides in the presence of urea and cyanamide and of Zn(2+) and Pb(2+).

  12. Purification and photoaffinity labelling of lipid methyltransferase from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, M A; Alemany, S; Varela, I; Marin Cao, D; Mato, J M

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme that catalyses the three-step methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine as well as the methylation of fatty acids and that uses S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor has been purified about 200-fold from rat liver. Irradiation of the purified enzyme with a short-wavelength u.v. light in the presence of [methyl-3H]8-azido-S-adenosylmethionine followed by electrophoresis results in the incorporation of radioactivity into a single protein band of about 25 kDa. It is concluded that a single catalytic subunit catalyses the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine and fatty acid methylation. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6497846

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Nuclear Isoform of Drosophila melanogaster CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) catalyzes the conversion of phosphocholine and cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) to CDP-choline for the eventual synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The enzyme is regulated by reversible association with cellular membranes, with the rate of catalysis in...

  14. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 – 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery. PMID:25961911

  15. Toxic effects of cadmium on the developing rat lung. II. Glycogen and phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Daston, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    Maternal exposure to Cd reduces lung weight and alters pulmonary surfactant accumulation in the fetus. This may lead to respiratory distress and death postnatally. In this study, the effects of maternal Cd administration on additional biochemical parameters of the fetal lung were investigated. Pregnant rats were given sc injections of 8 mg/kg CdCl/sub 2/ on d 12-15 of gestation and sacrificed throughout late gestation. Fetal lungs were examined for protein, DNA, and glycogen. Incorporation of choline into total and disaturated phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were measured in fetal lung slices. The DNA content of the treated lungs was reduced, but the protein/DNA ratio was not altered. Thus the reduced lung weight was due to hypoplasia, not hypotrophy. Incorporation of choline into pulmonary sphingomyelin was not altered by the treatment. Choline incorporation into both total and disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the most important surfactant component, was reduced on the final days of gestation. Glycogen was reduced in both absolute quantity and cellular concentration in lungs of treated fetuses. Glucose derived from glycogen is a major metabolic substrate in the fetal lung and probably contributes greatly to phospholipid synthesis. The reduction in glucose concentration in lungs of treated fetuses may be a factor in the diminished synthesis of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine before birth. Prenatal Cd exposure causes pulmonary hypoplasia; reduces the amount of glycogen present in the fetal lung; and diminishes the rate of synthesis of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine.

  16. Intracellular distribution of fluorescent probes delivered by vesicles of different lipidic composition.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Maria; Isola, Raffaella; Falchi, Angela Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2007-06-15

    In order to study mechanisms involved in liposome-cell interaction, this work attempted to assess the influence of vesicle composition on the delivery of liposomal content to Hela cells. In particular, to evaluate pH-sensitive properties and cell interaction of the prepared liposomes, the lipid formulations contained cholesterol (Chol) and they were varied by using phosphatidylcholines with different purity degree: soy lecithin (SL; 80% phosphatidylcholine), a commercial mixture of soy phosphatidylcholine (P90; 90% phosphatidylcholine) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC; 99% of purity). A second series of liposomes also contained stearylamine (SA). Dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV) were prepared and then sonicated to decrease vesicle size. Vesicle-cell interactions and liposomal uptake were examined by fluorescence microscopy using carboxyfluorescein (CF) and phosphatidylethanolamine-dioleoyl-sulforhodamine B (Rho-PE) as fluorescent markers. Fluorescence dequenching assay was used to study the influence of pH on CF release from the liposomal formulations. Liposome adhesion on the cell surface and internalization were strongly dependent on vesicle bilayer composition. SA vesicles were not endocytosed. DPPC/Chol liposomes were endocytosed but did not release their fluorescent content into the cytosol. SL/Chol and P90/Chol formulations displayed a diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence of liposomal marker. PMID:17339103

  17. Comparative analysis of oestrogen and raloxifene effects on the phospholipid composition of high density lipoproteins in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Piperi, C; Kalofoutis, C; Papapanagiotou, A; Skenderi, C; Kalofoutis, A

    2004-01-01

    The beneficial effect of selective oestrogen receptor modulators such as raloxifene in cardiovascular disease may be mediated partly by favourable changes in the phospholipid composition of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. In Group A (oestrogen alone) HDL2 phosphatidylcholine increased (P<0.001), while there was a decrease in HDL2 phosphatidylinositol (P<0.05) and HDL2 phosphatidylethanolamine (P<0.05) compared to controls (baseline). In the same group, HDL3 phosphatidylcholine increased (P<0.001) and HDL3 phosphatidylethanolamine decreased (P<0.01). In Group B (raloxifene) HDL2 phosphatidylcholine increased (P<0.001) as well as HDL2 diphosphatidylglycerol (P<0.01) while there were decreases in HDL2 sphingomyelin (P<0.01) and HDL2 phosphatidylethanolamine (P<0.05). In the same group, an increase in HDL3 phosphatidylcholine (P<0.001) and a reduction in HDL3 phosphatidylinositol (P<0.05) were observed as well as a decrease in HDL3 phosphatidylethanolamine (P<0.01) and HDL3 diphosphatidylglycerol (P<0.05). The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:14675982

  18. Plant acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) have different specificities in their forward and reverse reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles inacyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for se...

  19. TOXIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CHLOROFORM IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were incubated (1.5-16 hr) with various concentrations of CC14 (<0.5 mM) and/or CHCl3 (<2.5 mM). gent dependent alterations in hepatocyte functions were assessed by measuring (1) [3H]choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (endopla...

  20. Synthetic phospholipids as specific substrates for plasma endothelial lipase.

    PubMed

    Papillon, Julien P N; Pan, Meihui; Brousseau, Margaret E; Gilchrist, Mark A; Lou, Changgang; Singh, Alok K; Stawicki, Todd; Thompson, James E

    2016-08-01

    We designed and prepared synthetic phospholipids that generate lyso-phosphatidylcholine products with a unique mass for convenient detection by LC-MS in complex biological matrices. We demonstrated that compound 4, formulated either as a Triton X-100 emulsion or incorporated in synthetic HDL particles can serve as a substrate for plasma EL with useful specificity. PMID:27344207

  1. Topologies, structures and parameter files for lipid simulations in GROMACS with the OPLS-aa force field: DPPC, POPC, DOPC, PEPC, and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Waldemar; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Róg, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    In this data article we provide topologies and force field parameters files for molecular dynamics simulations of lipids in the OPLS-aa force field using the GROMACS package. This is the first systematic parameterization of lipid molecules in this force field. Topologies are provided for four phosphatidylcholines: saturated DPPC, mono-cis unsaturated POPC and DOPC, and mono-trans unsaturated PEPC. Parameterization of the phosphatidylcholines was achieved in two steps: first, we supplemented the OPLS force field parameters for DPPC with new parameters for torsion angles and van der Waals parameters for the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the acyl chains, as well as new partial atomic charges and parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties [1]. Next, we derived parameters for the cis and trans double bonds and the neighboring them single bonds [2]. Additionally, we provide GROMACS input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp), which are strongly recommended to be used with these lipids models. The data are associated with the research article "Cis and trans unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers: a molecular dynamics simulation study" [2] and provided as supporting materials. PMID:26568975

  2. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  3. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-05-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 - 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery.

  4. LOCALLY SYNTHESIZED PHOSPHATIDYCHOLINE, BUT NOT PROTEIN, UNDERGOES RAPID RETROGRADE AXONAL TRANSPORT IN THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retrograde axonal transport of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the sciatic nerve has been demonstrated only after injection of lipid precursors into the cell body regions (Armstrong et al. 1985). icroinjection of [methyl-3H]choline into the sciatic nerve results in extensive incorpor...

  5. Use of phosphadtidylcholine to improve the function of turkey semen stored at 4 °C for 24 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been long recognized that the ability to store turkey semen for 24h in vitro without a significant loss in fertility upon insemination would benefit the commercial turkey industry. We investigated the use of exogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) to (1) prevent the loss of phospholipids from the...

  6. Self injection of lipase--an extreme case for regulation in non-surgical cosmetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Khoo, A A K-A; Branford, O A; Javaid, M

    2010-01-01

    Mesotherapy or subcutaneous fat dissolution for cosmetic purposes has been described using phosphatidylcholine. A literature search found no reports of the use of lipase for mesotherapy. Substances for cosmetic mesotherapy are not licensed for use in the United Kingdom. We report a case of self injection using lipase obtained from the internet. PMID:19269909

  7. An insertion mutation in ABCB4 is associated with gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The only known physiologic function of the ABCB4 gene product is translocation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) across the hepatocyte plasma membrane into biliary canaliculi. In people, mutations of the ABCB4 gene produce several disease syndromes involving the biliary system including intrahepatic chol...

  8. [Effect of betamethasone on the lipid composition of pulmonary surfactant, ependymal cells and lung tissue after surgical procedures on the thorax of dogs].

    PubMed

    Ledwozyw, A; Jabłonka, S; Kadziołka, W; Komar, E

    1986-01-01

    The lipid composition of pulmonary surfactant, ependymal cells and pulmonary tissue after surgery on the thorax in dogs was determined. 24 hrs after removal of one lung, in the other one there occurred changes in the quantity of respective classes of phospholipids of the pulmonary surfactant, manifesting themselves by a considerable drop in the amount of phosphatidylcholine (by 25%), phosphatidylethylamine (by 47%), phosphatidylglycerol (by 98%) and phosphatidylcholine: sphingomyelin ratio (by 63%), as well as by a rise in the amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (by 83%), phosphatidylserine (by 54%) and sphingomyelin (by 25%). In dogs receiving betamethasone in the post-operative period the changes were less intense: the amount of phosphatidylcholine decreased by 15%, phosphatidylethanolamine by 29%, phosphatidylglycerol by 94% and phosphatidylcholine: sphingomyelin ratio by 63%. The amount of lysophosphatidylcholine increased by 26.7%, phosphatidylserine by 29.1% and sphingomyelin by 22.2%. Similar changes were observed in the phospholipids of lining cells, while changes in the composition of phospholipids of pulmonary tissue in most cases appeared insignificant. Insignificant, too, were changes in the composition of neutral lipids of the tissular fractions examined. The described changes in dogs not receiving betamethasone correspond to those found in man in the course of acute respiratory insufficiency syndrome. Betamethasone was found to exert a protective effect on the phospholipids of pulmonary surfactant, soothing the biochemical changes brought about by surgical removal of one lung. PMID:3325943

  9. Nutritional aspects of β-carotene and resveratrol antioxidant synergism in giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Jing; Liang, Ran; Fu, Li-Min; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-07-25

    Giant unilamellar vesicles of soy phosphatidylcholine are found to undergo budding when sensitized with chlorophyll a ([phosphatidylcholine] : [chlorophyll a] = 1500 : 1) under light irradiation (400-440 nm, 16 mW mm(-2)). 'Entropy' as a dimensionless image heterogeneity measurement is found to increase linearly with time during an initial budding process. For β-carotene addition ([phosphatidylcholine] : [β-carotene] = 500 : 1), a lag phase of 23 s is observed, followed by a budding process at an initial rate lowered by a factor of 3.8, whereas resveratrol ([phosphatidylcholine] : [resveratrol] = 500 : 1) has little if any protective effect against budding. However, resveratrol, when combined with β-carotene, is found to further reduce the initial budding rate by a total factor of 4.7, exhibiting synergistic antioxidation effects. It is also interesting that β-carotene alone determines the lag phase for the initiation of budding, while resveratrol supports β-carotene in reducing the rate of the budding process following the lag phase; however, it alone has no observable effect on the lag phase. Resveratrol is suggested to regenerate β-carotene following its sacrificial protection of unsaturated lipids from oxidative stress, modeling the synergistic effects in cell membranes by combinations of dietary antioxidants. PMID:24867711

  10. Evidence for a relationship between bovine erythrocyte lipid membrane peculiarities and immune pressure from ruminal ciliates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erythrocytes of bovines and other ruminants have a strikingly anomalous phospholipid composition, with low or absent phosphatidylcholine (PC) together with high sphingomyelin (SM) content. Here, we report the presence in normal bovine serum of high levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies of IgM isoty...

  11. Regulation by guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate of phospholipid methylation during chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, S; García Gil, M; Mato, J M

    1980-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, the chemoattractant cyclic AMP activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, giving a brief up to 10-fold increase in the intracellular cyclic GMP content. The addition of physiological cyclic GMP concentrations to a homogenate of D. discoideum cells markedly increased the incorporation of the 3H-labeled methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine into mono- and dimethylated phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Lipid methylation was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, which inhibits transmethylation. When whole cells prelabeled with L-[methyl-3H]methionine were exposed to cyclic AMP, a rapid transient increase in the amount of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine was observed. The time course of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine formation agrees with its being mediated by the intracellular increase in cyclic GMP originating during chemotactic stimulation. Addition of the 8-Br derivative of cyclic GMP to whole cells also increased the levels of labeled phosphatidylcholine. It is therefore likely that cyclic GMP contributes to chemotaxis by regulating membrane function via phospholipid methylation. PMID:6261233

  12. Comparison of oleic acid metabolism in the soybean (Glycine max (L. ) Merr. ) genotypes Williams and A5, a mutant with decreased linoleic acid in the seed

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    The metabolism of oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) was examined in developing seed from two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes: Williams, a standard cultivar and A5, a mutant containing nearly twice the oleic acid (18:1) content of Williams. The in vitro rates of esterification of oleoyl-CoA to lysophosphatides by acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase was similar in both genotypes and lysophosphatidyl-ethanolamine was a poor substrate. Crude extracts desaturated exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine at 14% of the rate achieved with (1-/sup 14/C)oleoyl-CoA, and 50 micromolar lysophosphaatidylcholine. The desaturase enzyme also required NADH for full activity. Extracts from Williams contained 1.5-fold more oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase activity, on a fresh weight basis, than did A5 and appeared to have a similar affinity for oleoyl-CoA. There was 1.2- to 1.9-fold more linoleic acid (18:2) in phosphatidylcholine from Williams than from A5, measured at two stages of development, but both genotypes had a similar distribution of fatty acids in the one and two positions. Phosphatidylethanolamine in A5 contained relatively more linoleic acid (18:2) in the one position than did Williams. The increased oleic acid (18:1) content in A5 appeared to be a result of decreased rates of 18:1 desaturation of oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine in this genotype.

  13. Cholesterol exchange as a function of cholesterol/phospholipid mole ratios.

    PubMed Central

    Poznansky, M J; Czekanski, S

    1979-01-01

    The activation energy (Ea) for cholesterol exchange between dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles and erythrocyte 'ghosts' is measured as a function of molar percentage of cholesterol in both donor and acceptor membranes. A sharp increase in Ea occurs (from 39.9kJ/mol to 84kJ/mol) when the molar percentage of cholesterol decreases from 30 to 20%. PMID:444215

  14. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

  15. Biophysical bases of human plasma lipoprotein polydispersity: role of surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh, Z.

    1984-11-01

    Metabolic depletion of the core of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via lipolysis results in the production of polydisperse species of particles within the density range of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Modifications of surface properties of plasma LDL may further contribute to LDL polydispersity. In this dissertation, we study the interactions with LDL of models of lipolysis-related surface products (i.e., phosphatidylcholine vesicles (PCV) and discoidal complexes (DC) of apoprotein AI and phosphatidylcholine) and examine the influence on such interactions of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and other relevant plasma components (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), albumin, lysolecithin (LPC)). Based on the studies obtained in this dissertation LDL surface modification may contribute to LDL polydispersity. Since HDL is a major acceptor of PL, formation of surface-modified LDL (e.g., PL-enriched, larged LDL) in vivo would depend on LDL/HDL weight ratio in plasma. 140 references, 50 figures, 15 tables.

  16. Enhancement of melatonin photostability by encapsulation in lipospheres.

    PubMed

    Tursilli, Rosanna; Casolari, Alberto; Iannuccelli, Valentina; Scalia, Santo

    2006-03-01

    The effect of lipid microparticle carrier systems on the light-induced degradation of melatonin was investigated. Microspheres loaded with melatonin were prepared using tristearin or tripalmitin as the lipid material and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine or polysorbate 60 as the emulsifier. The obtained lipid microspheres were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Free or microencapsulated melatonin was incorporated in a model cream formulation (oil-in-water emulsion) and irradiated with a solar simulator. The extent of photodegradation was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The photolysis experiments demonstrated that the light-induced decomposition of melatonin was markedly decreased by encapsulation into lipid microspheres based on tristearin and phosphatidylcholine (the extent of degradation was 19.6% for unencapsulated melatonin compared to 5.6% for the melatonin-loaded microparticles). Therefore, incorporation in lipid microparticles can be considered an effective system to enhance the photostability of melatonin. PMID:16242283

  17. Effect of acute thioacetamide administration on rat brain phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, J.; Aylagas, H.; Miro-Obradors, M.J.; Arce, C.; Palacios-Alaiz, E.; Cascales, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Brain phospholipid composition and the ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate incorporation into brain phospholipids of control and rats treated for 3 days with thioacetamide were studied. Brain phospholipid content, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid did not show any significant change by the effect of thioacetamide. In contrast, thioacetamide induced a significant decrease in the levels of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. After 75 minutes of intraperitoneal label injection, specific radioactivity of all the above phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine significantly increased. After 13 hours of isotope administration the specific radioactivity of almost all studied phospholipid classes was elevated, except for phosphatidic acid, the specific radioactivity of which did not change and for diphosphatidylglycerol which showed a decrease in specific radioactivity. These results suggest that under thioacetamide treatment brain phospholipids undergo metabolic transformations that may contribute to the hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

  18. A microanalytical study of the surfaces of normal, delipidized, and artificially "resurfaced" articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kehinde Quasim; Motta, Nunzio; Pawlak, Zenon; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2012-01-01

    The surface amorphous layer of articular cartilage is of primary importance to its load-bearing and lubrication function. This lipid-filled layer is degraded/disrupted or eliminated when cartilage degenerates due to diseases. This article examines further the characteristic of this surface overlay using a combination of microscopy and imaging methods to evaluate the hypothesis that the surface of articular cartilage can be repaired by exposing degraded cartilage to aqueous synthetic lipid mixtures. The preliminary results demonstrate that it is possible to create a new surface layer of phospholipids on the surface of cartilage following artificial lipid removal, but such a layer does not possess enough mechanical strength for physiological function when created with either unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine or saturated dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine component of joint lipid composition alone. We conclude that this may be due to low structural cohesivity, inadequate time of exposure, and the mix/content of lipid in the incubation environment. PMID:22141914

  19. Antigen-and ionophore-stimulated synthesis of platelet-activating factor by the cloned mast cell line, MC9

    SciTech Connect

    Musch, M.W.; Billah, M.M.; Siegel, M.I.

    1987-05-14

    MC9 mast cells stimulated by a soluble (calcium ionophore A23187) or by an Fc epsilon-receptor agonist (IgE plus hapten) produce platelet activating factor (PAF). MC9 cells incorporate either exogenous (/sup 3/H)acetic acid or (/sup 3/H)lyso-PAF into PAF. PAF was identified by mobility on thin layer chromatography, platelet aggregatory activity inhibitable by known PAF antagonists, and by enzymatic modification. Quantified by aggregation of rabbit platelets, MC9 cells produce 6 pmoles PAF/10(6) cells. MC9 cells express acetyltransferase activity of 0.19 nmole/5 min-mg protein. Analysis of MC9 phospholipids by HPLC showed that MC9 cells contain large amounts of phosphatidylcholine (82 nmoles/10(7) cells) but contain little ether-linked phosphatidylcholine (4 nmoles/10(7) cells).

  20. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  1. Increased phospholipase A2 and decreased lysophospholipase activity in the small intestinal mucosa after ischaemia and revascularisation.

    PubMed Central

    Otamiri, T; Franzén, L; Lindmark, D; Tagesson, C

    1987-01-01

    The influence of ischaemia and revascularisation on lipid peroxidation and phospholipid metabolism in the rat small intestinal mucosa was investigated. Two hours of total ischaemia followed by five minutes of revascularisation caused not only accumulation of malondialdehyde in the mucosa, but also increased activity of phospholipase A2, decreased activity of lysophospholipase, and increased ratio between lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine. Pretreatment with the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, quinacrine, prevented the increases in mucosal phospholipase A2 activity and lysophosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylcholine ratio after ischaemia and morphological examinations revealed that the mucosa was then also protected against ischaemic injury. These findings point to the possibility that activation of phospholipase A2 and accumulation of lysophosphoglycerides could be involved in mediating the mucosal injury caused by small intestinal ischaemia. Images Fig. 7 PMID:3428670

  2. Lateral diffusion of specific antibodies bound to lipid monolayers on alkylated substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, S; Seul, M; McConnell, H M

    1986-01-01

    We have measured the lateral mobility of fluoresceinated monoclonal IgG antibodies bound specifically to a spin label lipid hapten in phospholipid monolayers supported on alkylated silicon oxide surfaces. Dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers containing 5 mol% of the lipid hapten were transferred by conventional Langmuir-Blodgett techniques onto substrates alkylated with hydrocarbon chains containing 10, 16, and 18 carbon atoms. We show that the diffusion of the bound antibodies depends on their lateral density, the composition of the lipid monolayer, and the nature of lipid coupling to hydrocarbon chains on the alkylated substrate. Antibody diffusion coefficients at low antibody densities are within a factor of 2 of those displayed by the lipid hapten in the absence of the bound antibody. High antibody densities result in reduced antibody mobility, but the lateral diffusion of unbound lipids is unaffected. Images PMID:3006037

  3. The dependence of the lipid bilayer membrane: buffer partition coefficient of pentobarbitone on pH and lipid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, K W; Yu, S C

    1977-01-01

    1 The membrane/buffer partition coefficient of [14C]-pentobarbitone has been determined as a function of the lipid composition of bilayer membranes. 2 A new technique based on ultrafiltration gave comparable results to conventional techniques but required less time for equilbration. 3 The membrane/buffer coefficient was independent of pentobarbitone concentration in the range studies. 4 The apparent partition coefficient varied with pH and was a linear function of the degree of dissociation of pentobarbition. 5 Both the charged and uncharged forms of pentobarbitone partitioned into the membrane, the latter to a much greater extent than the former. 6 At low pH the highest partition coefficient observed was in egg phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. 7 Incorporation of cholesterol or phosphatidic acid into phosphatidylcholine membranes greatly reduced the partition coefficient. 8 High pressures do not greatly change these partition coefficients. PMID:21013

  4. Action of Polymyxin B on Bacterial Membranes: Phosphatidylglycerol- and Cardiolipin-Induced Susceptibility to Polymyxin B in Acholeplasma laidlawii B

    PubMed Central

    Teuber, Michael; Bader, Johann

    1976-01-01

    To identify the polymyxin receptor molecules in the membranes of living microorganisms, fusion of intact Acholeplasma laidlawii B with lipid vesicles was investigated according to the procedure of Grant and McConnell (1973). The naturally polymyxin-resistant A. laidlawii B was treated with phospholipid vesicles prepared from purified phospholipids of the polymyxin-susceptible Salmonella typhimurium G30. A. laidlawii B absorbed between 15 and 45% of its own lipid content of the added tritium-labeled phospholipids without loss of viability. Association with the acidic components phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin produced a 10- to 30-fold increase in polymyxin susceptibility, which was not obtained with egg-phosphatidylcholine and mixed phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles. The polymyxin-sensitized cells bound 12 times more radioactive antibiotic than resistant cells. The phosphatidylglycerol-induced susceptibility was abolished by serum fraction V (Cohn) proteins. PMID:176930

  5. Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jonathan B; Scoffield, Jessica; Woolnough, Jessica L; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes life-long chronic infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung by utilizing various adaptation strategies. Some of these strategies include altering metabolic pathways to utilize readily available nutrients present in the host environment. The airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphatidylcholine, a major component of lung surfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade phosphatidylcholine to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of usable carbon sources in the CF lung. In this study, we show that some CF-adapted P. aeruginosa isolates utilize glycerol more efficiently as a carbon source than nonadapted isolates. Furthermore, a mutation in a gene required for glycerol utilization impacts the production of several virulence factors in both acute and chronic isolates of P. aeruginosa. Taken together, the results suggest that interference with this metabolic pathway may have potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:25409940

  6. Supramolecular synergy in the boundary lubrication of synovial joints

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J.; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration–lubrication mechanism. PMID:25754223

  7. Alcohol binding to liposomes by 2H NMR and radiolabel binding assays: does partitioning describe binding?

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, A K; Eryomin, V A; Taraschi, T F; Janes, N

    1996-01-01

    Implicit within the concept of membrane-buffer partition coefficients of solutes is a nonspecific solvation mechanism of solute binding. However, (2)H NMR studies of the binding of (2)H(6)-ethanol and [1-(2)H(2)] n-hexanol to phosphatidylcholine vesicles have been interpreted as evidence for two distinct alcohol binding modes. One binding mode was reported to be at the membrane surface. The second mode was reported to be within the bilayer interior. An examination of the (2)H NMR binding studies, together with direct radiolabel binding assays, shows that other interpretations of the data are more plausible. The results are entirely consistent with partitioning (nonspecific binding) as the sole mode of alcohol binding to liposomes, in accord with our previous thermodynamic interpretation of alcohol action in phosphatidylcholine liposomes. PMID:9172754

  8. Supramolecular synergy in the boundary lubrication of synovial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J.; Klein, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration-lubrication mechanism.

  9. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  10. Photocrosslinking and click chemistry enable the specific detection of proteins interacting with phospholipids at the membrane interface.

    PubMed

    Gubbens, Jacob; Ruijter, Eelco; de Fays, Laurence E V; Damen, J Mirjam A; de Kruijff, Ben; Slijper, Monique; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2009-01-30

    New lipid analogs mimicking the abundant membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine were developed to photocrosslink proteins interacting with phospholipid headgroups at the membrane interface. In addition to either a phenylazide or benzophenone photoactivatable moiety attached to the headgroup, the lipid analogs contained azides attached as baits to the acyl chains. After photocrosslinking in situ in the biomembrane, these baits were used for the attachment of a fluorescent tetramethylrhodamine-alkyne conjugate or a biotin-alkyne conjugate using click chemistry, allowing for the selective detection and purification of crosslink products, respectively. Proteins crosslinked to the lipid analogs in inner mitochondrial membranes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were detected and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. Established interaction partners of phosphatidylcholine were found, as well as known integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins, and proteins that were not previously considered mitochondrial inner membrane proteins. PMID:19171301

  11. Controlled release mechanisms of spontaneously forming unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2008-06-01

    Spontaneously forming small unilamellar vesicles (SULVs) are easy to prepare and show great promise for use in delivering therapeutic payloads. We report of SULVs made up of the ternary phospholipid mixture, dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dihexanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and dimyristoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), which have been characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These low-polydispersity (0.14-0.19) SULVs range in size (i.e., radius) from 110 to 215 A and are capable of entrapping, and subsequently releasing, hydrophilic molecules (e.g., fluorescent dyes and quenchers) in a controlled fashion over two different temperature ranges. The low-temperature release mechanism involves the SULVs transforming into discoidal micelles, with an onset temperature (T(o)) of ~32 degrees C, while the high-temperature release mechanism is more gradual, presumably the result of defects formed through the continuous dissolution of DHPC into solution. Both of these mechanisms differ from other, previously reported thermosensitive liposomes. PMID:18394425

  12. Micellar lipid composition profoundly affects LXR-dependent cholesterol transport across CaCo2 cells.

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Groen, Albert K; van Erpecum, Karel J; Vrins, Carlos; van der Velde, Astrid E; Portincasa, Piero; Palasciano, Giuseppe; van Berge Henegouwen, Gerard P; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Morgano, Annalisa; Moschetta, Antonio

    2009-04-17

    Intraluminal phospholipids affect micellar solubilization and absorption of cholesterol. We here study cholesterol transport from taurocholate-phospholipid-cholesterol micelles to CaCo2 cells, and associated effects on ABC-A1 mediated cholesterol efflux. Micellar incorporation of egg-yolk-phosphatidylcholine markedly increased apical retention of the sterol with decreased expression of ABC-A1, an effect that is prevented by synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) or retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists. On the other hand, incorporation of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) increased ABC-A1-HDL-dependent basolateral cholesterol efflux, an effect that is abated when LXR is silenced. Thus, the modulation of cholesterol metabolism via intraluminal phospholipids is related to the activity of the oxysterol nuclear receptor LXR. PMID:19303409

  13. Novel insights on interactions between folate and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Robin P; Kelly, Karen B; Al Rajabi, Ala; Jacobs, René L

    2014-01-01

    Folate is an essential B vitamin required for the maintenance of AdoMet-dependent methylation. The liver is responsible for many methylation reactions that are used for post-translational modification of proteins, methylation of DNA, and the synthesis of hormones, creatine, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine. Conditions where methylation capacity is compromised, including folate deficiency, are associated with impaired phosphatidylcholine synthesis resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. In addition, folate intake and folate status have been associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we provide insight on the relationship between folate and lipid metabolism, and an outlook for the future of lipid-related folate research. PMID:24353111

  14. Lipids in Grape Roots in Relation to Chloride Transport 1

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Pieter J. C.

    1968-01-01

    A comparison was made between the lipids of the roots of 5 grape rootstocks which differ markedly in the extent to which they permit chloride accumulation in leaves. Monogalactose diglyceride concentration was directly related to chloride accumulation in the leaves of the 5 rootstocks. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were inversely related to chloride accumulation. The variety with the highest chloride accumulation contained an unusually small amount of sterols. A striking negative correlation between content of lignoceric acid and chloride accumulation was observed. The lignoceric acid concentration ranged from 11.9% in the rootstock with the lowest chloride accumulation to 0.8% in the rootstock with the highest chloride accumulation. This fatty acid was found mainly in the phosphatidylcholine and the phosphatidylethanolamine lipid fractions. PMID:16656921

  15. Solute effects on the colloidal and phase behavior of lipid bilayer membranes: ethanol-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Vierl, U; Löbbecke, L; Nagel, N; Cevc, G

    1994-01-01

    By means of the scanning differential calorimetry, x-ray diffractometry, and the dynamic light scattering, we have systematically studied the phase and packing properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles or multibilayers in the presence of ethanol. We have also determined the partial ternary phase diagram of such dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/water/ethanol mixtures. The directly measured variability of the structural bilayer parameters implies that ethanol binding to the phospholipid bilayers increases the lateral as well as the transverse repulsion between the lipid molecules. This enlarges the hydrocarbon tilt (by up to 23 degrees) and molecular area (by < or = 40%). Ethanol-phospholid association also broadens the interface and, thus, promotes lipid headgroup solvation. This results in excessive swelling (by 130%) of the phosphatidylcholine bilayers in aqueous ethanol solutions. Lateral bilayer expansion, moreover, provokes a successive interdigitation of the hydrocarbon chains in the systems with bulk ethanol concentrations of 0.4-1.2 M. The hydrocarbon packing density as well as the propensity for the formation of lamellar gel phases simultaneously increase. The pretransition temperature of phosphatidylcholine bilayers is more sensitive to the addition of alcohol (initial shift: delta Tp = 22 degrees C/mol) than the subtransition temperature (delta Ts reversible 5 degrees C/mol), whereas the chain-melting phase transition temperature is even less affected (delta Tm = 1.8 degrees C/mol). After an initial decrease of 3 degrees for the bulk ethanol concentrations below 1.2 M, the Tm value increases by 2.5 degrees above this limiting concentration. The gel-phase phosphatidylcholine membranes below Tm are fully interdigitated above this limiting concentration. The chain tilt on the fringe of full chain interdigitation is zero and increases with higher ethanol concentrations. Above Tm, some of the lipid molecules are solubilized by the bound ethanol

  16. Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish1234

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Young, Stephen; Wang, Laura; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake. Objective: We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids). Results: A dose response (P < 0.05) was observed for EPA and DHA in all pools except for red blood cell EPA (P = 0.057). EPA and DHA measures in plasma phosphatidylcholine and platelets were best for the discrimination between different intakes (P < 0.0001). The rate of incorporation varied between sample types, with the time to maximal incorporation ranging from days (plasma phosphatidylcholine) to months (mononuclear cells) to >12 mo (adipose tissue). Conclusions: Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN48398526. PMID:22932281

  17. Dissolution media simulating the intralumenal composition of the small intestine: physiological issues and practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Vertzoni, Maria; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Kostewicz, Edmund; Stippler, Erika; Leuner, Christian; Nicolaides, Eleftheria; Dressman, Jennifer; Reppas, Christos

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to test various aspects of dissolution media simulating the intralumenal composition of the small intestine, including the suitability of the osmolality-adjusting agents and of the buffers, the substitution of crude sodium taurocholate (from ox bile) for pure sodium taurocholate and the substitution of partially hydrolysed soybean phosphatidylcholine for egg phosphatidylcholine. It was concluded that biorelevant media should contain sodium as the major cation species to better reflect the physiology. However, the use of non-physiologically relevant buffers is inevitable, especially for simulation of the fed state in the small intestine. The buffers used may affect the solubility product of weakly basic compounds with pK(a)(s) higher than about 5, the solubility of extremely highly lipophilic compounds due to salting in/out properties of the anion of the buffer and the stability of the dissolving compound. It is prudent in relevant situations to run an additional dissolution test in a modified fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) (or fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF), where applicable) containing alternative buffer species. Although a mixture of bile salts is physiologically more relevant than pure sodium taurocholate, this issue seems to be of practical importance in only a few cases. Adequate simulations in these cases will probably require the use of a number of pure substances and could substantially increase the cost of the test. Finally, unless the drug is extremely lipophilic (ca. logP> 5), egg phosphatidylcholine can be substituted by partially hydrolysed soybean phosphatidylcholine. PMID:15099440

  18. Photopolymerization of Dienoyl Lipids Creates Planar Supported Poly(lipid) Membranes with Retained Fluidity.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Kristina S; Jones, Ian W; Keogh, John P; Smith, Christopher M; Griffin, Kaitlyn R; Xu, Juhua; Comi, Troy J; Hall, H K; Saavedra, S Scott

    2016-02-16

    Polymerization of substrate-supported bilayers composed of dienoylphosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids is known to greatly enhance their chemical and mechanical stability; however, the effects of polymerization on membrane fluidity have not been investigated. Here planar supported lipid bilayers (PSLBs) composed of dienoyl PCs on glass substrates were examined to assess the degree to which UV-initiated polymerization affects lateral lipid mobility. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to measure the diffusion coefficients (D) and mobile fractions of rhodamine-DOPE in unpolymerized and polymerized PSLBs composed of bis-sorbyl phosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC), mono-sorbyl-phosphatidylcholine (mono-SorbPC), bis-dienoyl-phosphatidylcholine (bis-DenPC), and mono-dienoyl phosphatidylcholine (mono-DenPC). Polymerization was performed in both the Lα and Lβ phase for each lipid. In all cases, polymerization reduced membrane fluidity; however, measurable lateral diffusion was retained which is attributed to a low degree of polymerization. The D values for sorbyl lipids were less than those of the denoyl lipids; this may be a consequence of the distal location of polymerizable group in the sorbyl lipids which may facilitate interleaflet bonding. The D values measured after polymerization were 0.1-0.8 of those measured before polymerization, a range that corresponds to fluidity intermediate between that of a Lα phase and a Lβ phase. This D range is comparable to ratios of D values reported for liquid-disordered (Ld) and liquid-ordered (Lo) lipid phases and indicates that the effect of UV polymerization on lateral diffusion in a dienoyl PSLB is similar to the transition from a Ld phase to a Lo phase. The partial retention of fluidity in UV-polymerized PSLBs, their enhanced stability, and the activity of incorporated transmembrane proteins and peptides is discussed. PMID:26794208

  19. New BODIPY lipid probes for fluorescence studies of membranes

    PubMed Central

    Momsen, Maureen M.; Brockman, Howard L.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.

    2007-01-01

    Many fluorescent lipid probes tend to loop back to the membrane interface when attached to a lipid acyl chain rather than embedding deeply into the bilayer. To achieve maximum embedding of BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) fluorophore into the bilayer apolar region, a series of sn-2 acyl-labeled phosphatidylcholines was synthesized bearing 4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-8-yl (Me4-BODIPY-8) at the end of C3-, C5-, C7-, or C9-acyl. A strategy was used of symmetrically dispersing the methyl groups at BODIPY ring positions 1, 3, 5, and 7 to decrease fluorophore polarity. Iodide quenching of the phosphatidylcholine probes in bilayer vesicles confirmed that the Me4-BODIPY-8 fluorophore was embedded in the bilayer. Parallax analysis of Me4-BODIPY-8 fluorescence quenching by phosphatidylcholines containing iodide at different positions along the sn-2 acyl chain indicated that the penetration depth of Me4-BODIPY-8 into the bilayer was determined by the length of the linking acyl chain. Evaluation using monolayers showed minimal perturbation of <10 mol% probe in fluid-phase and cholesterol-enriched phosphatidylcholine. Spectral characterization in monolayers and bilayers confirmed the retention of many features of other BODIPY derivatives (i.e., absorption and emission wavelength maxima near 498 nm and ∼506−515 nm) but also showed the absence of the 620−630 nm peak associated with BODIPY dimer fluorescence and the presence of a 570 nm emission shoulder at high Me4-BODIPY-8 surface concentrations. We conclude that the new probes should have versatile utility in membrane studies, especially when precise location of the reporter group is needed.—Boldyrev, I. A., X. Zhai, M. M. Momsen, H. L. Brockman, R. E. Brown, and J. G. Molotkovsky. New BODIPY lipid probes for fluorescence studies of membranes. PMID:17416929

  20. [Phospholipids metabolism disorders in acute stroke].

    PubMed

    Solovieva, E Yu; Farrahova, K I; Karneev, A N; Chipova, D T

    2016-01-01

    The disturbances of cerebral circulation results in the violation of phospholipid metabolism. Activation of lipid peroxidation and protein kinase C and release of intracellular calcium leads to disruption of the homeostasis of phosphatidylcholine. The use of cytidine-5-diphosphocholine, which is used as an intermediate compound in the biosynthesis of phospholipids of the cell membrane, helps to stabilize cell membranes, and reduce the formation of free radicals. PMID:27045147

  1. Cisplatin nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    de Kroon, Anton I P M; Staffhorst, Rutger W H M; Kruijff, Ben de; Burger, Koert N J

    2005-01-01

    Cisplatin nanocapsules represent a novel lipid formulation of the anticancer drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), in which nanoprecipitates of cisplatin are covered by a phospholipid bilayer coat consisting of an equimolar mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine. Cisplatin nanocapsules are characterized by an unprecedented cisplatin-to-lipid molar ratio and exhibit strongly improved cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro compared with the free drug. Here, methods for preparing and characterizing cisplatin nanocapsules are reported. PMID:15721377

  2. Phase diagrams of lipid mixtures relevant to the study of membrane rafts

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia; Bagatolli, Luis A.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Marsh, Derek; Prieto, Manuel; Thewalt, Jenifer L.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews the phase properties of phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol mixtures, that are often used as models for membrane “raft” microdomains. The available data based on X-ray, microscopic and spectroscopic observations, surface pressure and calorimetric measurements, and detergent solubilization assays, are critically evaluated and rationalized in terms of triangular phase diagrams. The remaining uncertainties are discussed specifically and separately from the data on which a consensus appears to exist. PMID:18952002

  3. The interaction of saccharides with lipid bilayer vesicles: stabilization during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Strauss, G; Schurtenberger, P; Hauser, H

    1986-06-13

    The fusion of small unilamellar vesicles of phosphatidylcholines during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying/rehydration, and the suppression of fusion under these conditions by various saccharides, was investigated by gel filtration on Sepharose 4B, quasielastic light scattering, high-resolution 1H-NMR, ESR spin labeling, and differential scanning calorimetry. Freeze-thawing and freeze-drying of aqueous small unilamellar vesicle suspensions in the presence of sufficient sucrose had no significant effect on the average size and size distribution of small unilamellar vesicles. In the presence of sucrose the structural integrity and the permeability properties of the phosphatidylcholine bilayers were retained during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. A comparison of the stabilizing effect of sucrose with that of trehalose and glucose showed that the stabilization is not sugar-specific but is a general property of saccharides. The fraction of small unilamellar vesicles recovered after freeze-thawing depended on the saccharide/phosphatidylcholine molar ratio. The mechanism of the cryoprotective effect involves binding of the sugar to the phospholipid polar group, probably through hydrogen bonding. PMID:3011090

  4. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine A.; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  5. Composition, structure and substrate properties of reconstituted discoidal HDL with apolipoprotein A-I and cholesteryl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergunov, Alexander D.; Shabrova, Elena V.; Dobretsov, Gennady E.

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the influence of lipid unsaturation and neutral lipid on the maturation of high density lipoproteins, the discoidal complexes of apoA-I, phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl ester (CE) were prepared. Saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and unsaturated palmitoyllinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (PLPC), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), and fluorescent probe cholesteryl 1-pyrenedecanoate (CPD) that forms in a diffusion- and concentration-dependent manner short-lived dimer of unexcited and excited molecules (excimer) were used. The apoA-I/DPPC/CPD complexes were heterogeneous by size, composition and probe location. CPD molecules incorporated more efficiently into larger complexes and accumulated in a central part of the discs. The apoA-I/POPC(PLPC)/CPD were also heterogeneous, however, probe molecules distributed preferentially into smaller complexes and accumulated at disc periphery. The kinetics of CPD transfer by recombinant cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to human plasma LDL is well described by two-exponential decay, the fast component with a shorter transfer time being more populated in PLPC compared to DPPC complexes. The presence of CE molecules in discoidal HDL results in particle heterogeneity. ApoA-I influences the CETP activity modulating the properties of apolipoprotein-phospholipid interface. This may include CE molecules accumulation in the boundary lipid in unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and cluster formation in the bulk bilayer in saturated phosphatidylcholine.

  6. Cholesterol in unusual places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučerka, N.; Nieh, M. P.; Marquardt, D.; Harroun, T. A.; Wassail, S. R.; Katsaras, J.

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted "upright" position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  7. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

  8. Phospholipase D activation mediates cobalamin-induced downregulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 gene and increase in sensitivity to vinblastine in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Marguerite, Véronique; Gkikopoulou, Effrosyni; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Merten, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Failure of cancer chemotherapy due to multidrug resistance is often associated with altered Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression. Cobalamin is the cofactor of methionine synthase, a key enzyme of the methionine cycle which synthesizes methionine, the precursor of cell S-adenosyl-methionine synthesis. We previously showed that cobalamin was able to down-regulate Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression. Herein we report that this effect occurs through cobalamin-activation of phospholipase D activity in HepG2 cells. Cobalamin-induced down-regulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression was similar to that induced by the phospholipase D activator oleic acid and was negatively modulated by the phospholipase D inhibitor n-butanol. Cobalamin increased cell S-adenosyl-methionine content, which is the substrate for phosphatidylethanolamine-methyltransferase-dependent phosphatidylcholine production. We showed that cobalamin-induced increase in cell phosphatidylcholine production was phosphatidylethanolamine-methyltransferase-dependent. Oleic acid-dependent activation of phospholipase D was accompanied by an increased sensitivity to vinblastine of HepG2 cells while n-butanol enhanced the resistance of the cells to vinblastine. These data indicate that cobalamin mediates down-regulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression through increased S-adenosyl-methionine and phosphatidylcholine productions and phospholipase D activation. This points out phospholipase D as a potential target to down-regulate Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression for improving chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:23032700

  9. Phospholipase activity of Mycobacterium leprae harvested from experimentally infected armadillo tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, P R; Ratledge, C

    1991-01-01

    Three types of phospholipase activity--phospholipase A1, A2, and lysophospholipase--were detected in Mycobacterium leprae harvested from armadillo tissue at about 25% of the specific activity found in a slowly growing mycobacterium, Mycobacterium microti, which was grown in medium to optimize its phospholipase activity. The highest activity found was lysophospholipase, which released fatty acid from 2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine. Phospholipase activity was detected by using phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Differences in relative activities with these three types of substrate distinguished phospholipase activity in M. leprae extracts from armadillo liver extracts. Furthermore, retention of activity in M. leprae after NaOH treatment showed that the activity associated with M. leprae was not host derived. The specific activity of phospholipase was 20 times higher in extracts of M. leprae than in intact M. leprae organisms. Diazotization, a treatment which abolishes activities of surface enzymes exposed to the environment by the formation of covalent azide bonds with exposed amino groups, did not affect M. leprae's phospholipase activity, with one exception: release of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylcholine, which was partially inhibited. Phenolic glycolipid I, the major excreted amphipathic lipid of M. leprae, inhibited phospholipase activity, including release of arachidonic acid, for both M. leprae- and armadillo-derived activity. PMID:1855994

  10. A fluorescence study of A23187 interaction with phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Puskin, J.S.; Vistnes, A.I.; Coene, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence of the ionophore A23187 has been monitored in suspensions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles. Both the protonated form of A23187 and the Ca/sup 2 +/ complex exhibit fluorescence enhancement when extracted into a hydrophobic environment. Measurements of fluorescence intensity versus lipid concentration were thus used to establish lower limits to the lipid/water partition coefficients. Values obtained in this way were greater than or equal to50 ml water/mg phosphatidylcholine. Quenching of A23187 fluorescence by the spin labels 5NMS (methyl ester of 5-nitroxyl stearate), 12NMS, 16NMS, and TEMPO stearamide in EYPC and DPPC vesicles was also investigated. In EYPC all the labels yielded fairly linear Stern-Volmer plots, with TEMPO stearamide quenching about half as strong as the other probes. Quenching in DPPC was generally much stronger than in EYPC, but 12 NMS and 16NMS gave hyperbolic Stern-Volmer plots, apparently due to clustering of the labels. In all the cases the protonated form of A23187 was quenched approximately twice as efficiently as the Ca/sup 2 +/ complex, possibly due to a longer fluorescence lifetime for the former. Calculations based on measured spectral properties were performed which indicate that the Forster transfer mechanism extends the nitroxides' quenching range to approximately 10 angstrom.

  11. Synthesis, liposomal formulation and thermal effects on phospholipid bilayers of leuprolide.

    PubMed

    Saroglou, V; Hatziantoniou, S; Smyrniotakis, M; Kyrikou, I; Mavromoustakos, T; Zompra, A; Magafa, V; Cordopatis, P; Demetzos, C

    2006-01-01

    A novel liposomal formulation was developed for the encapsulation of the oligopeptide leuprolide (GlpHisTrpSerTyr-D-LeuLeuArgProNHEt), a potent analogue of gonadotropin releasing hormone used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, endometriosis and precocious puberty. Leuprolide was synthesized using solid phase methodology on a {3-[(ethyl-Fmoc-amino)-methyl]-1-indol-1-yl}-acetyl AM resin and Fmoc/tBu chemistry. The new liposomal formulation, called 'liposomes in liposomes' is composed of egg phosphatidylcholine:dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol in a molar ratio of 98.91:1.09 (internal liposomes) and egg phosphatidylcholine:dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol:cholesterol in a molar ratio of 68.71:0.76:30.53 (external liposomes). It offers high encapsulation efficiency (73.8% for leuprolide); it can provide new delivery characteristics and it may have possible advantages in future applications regarding the encapsulation and delivery of bioactive peptides to target tissues. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics (size distribution and zeta-potential) of the liposomal formulations and the thermal effects on leuprolide in model lipidic bilayers composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the dynamic effects of leuprolide in an egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol system were examined using solid state 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. PMID:15942935

  12. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Cells Isolated from Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Leland G.; Mason, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    It is unclear what factors control the secretion of pulmonary surface active material from alveolar type II cells in vivo. Other workers have suggested that cholinergic stimuli, adrenergic stimuli, and prostaglandins may all stimulate secretion. We isolated type II cells from the lungs of rats by treatment with elastase, discontinuous density centrifugation, and adherence in primary culture. β-Adrenergic agonists, but not cholinergic agonists, caused an increase in the release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the major component of surface-active material, from type II cells in culture. The β-adrenergic effect was stereo-selective, (−)-isoproterenol being 50 times more potent than (+)-isoproterenol. Terbutaline, 10 μM, a noncatecholamine β-2 adrenergic agonist, caused a release of 2.0±0.5 (mean±SD) times the basal release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine in 3 h; the concentration of terbutaline causing half maximal stimulation was 800 nM. The terbutaline effect was blocked by propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (calculated Kd = 6 nM), but not by phentolamine, an α-adrenergic antagonist. Isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and 8-Br cyclic AMP, but not 8-Br cyclic guanosine monophosphate, also stimulated release. We conclude that type II cells secrete disaturated phosphatidylcholine in response to treatment with adrenergic stimulation. PMID:34631

  13. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  14. High coverage fluid-phase floating lipid bilayers supported by ω-thiolipid self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Arwel V; Holt, Stephen A; Daulton, Emma; Soliakov, Andrei; Charlton, Timothy R; Roser, Steven J; Lakey, Jeremy H

    2014-09-01

    Large area lipid bilayers, on solid surfaces, are useful in physical studies of biological membranes. It is advantageous to minimize the interactions of these bilayers with the substrate and this can be achieved via the formation of a floating supported bilayer (FSB) upon either a surface bound phospholipid bilayer or monolayer. The FSB's independence is enabled by the continuous water layer (greater than 15 Å) that remains between the two. However, previous FSBs have had limited stability and low density. Here, we demonstrate by surface plasmon resonance and neutron reflectivity, the formation of a complete self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold surfaces by a synthetic phosphatidylcholine bearing a thiol group at the end of one fatty acyl chain. Furthermore, a very dense FSB (more than 96%) of saturated phosphatidylcholine can be formed on this SAM by sequential Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer procedures. Neutron reflectivity used both isotopic and magnetic contrast to enhance the accuracy of the data fits. This system offers the means to study transmembrane proteins, membrane potential effects (using the gold as an electrode) and even model bacterial outer membranes. Using unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, which have previously failed to form stable FSBs, we achieved a coverage of 73%. PMID:25030385

  15. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the effects of proteins and polypeptides on hydrocarbon chain order in model membrane systems

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, E.; Gilmore, R.; Glaser, M.; Gutowsky, H. S.; Hshung, J. C.; Kang, S. Y.; King, Tsoo E.; Meadows, M.; Rice, D.

    1978-01-01

    Deuterium Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been obtained of 1-myristoyl 2-(14,14,14-trideutero)myristoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers at 34.1 MHz by using the quadrupole echo pulse technique. Thereby, we have investigated the effects upon the deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers of the following proteins and polypeptides: gramicidin A, bacteriophage f1 coat protein, beef brain myelin proteolipid apoprotein, cytochrome b5, and cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.9.3.1). Above Tc, the transition temperature between the gel and liquid crystal phases, the quadrupole splitting of the deuterium-labeled methyl group is reduced or collapsed in the presence of protein or polypeptide. No evidence has been found for ordered “boundary lipid.” Below Tc, the spectra show that the hydrocarbon chains are prevented from crystallizing by the protein (or polypeptide) incorporated in the membrane. Similar disordering effects above Tc are also seen when an unsaturated lipid, 1-(16,16,16-trideutero)palmitoyl 2-palmitoleyl phosphatidylcholine is complexed with cytochrome oxidase. PMID:16592570

  16. Phospholipid association with the bovine cardiac mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Montgomery, R I; Spach, P I; Cunningham, C C

    1985-01-01

    The association of different phospholipids with a lipid-depleted oligomycin-sensitive ATPase from bovine cardiac mitochondria [Serrano, Kanner & Racker (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 2453-2461] has been examined using three approaches. First, reconstitution of the ATPase with different synthetic diacyl phospholipids resulted in a 2-10-fold stimulation of ATPase specific activity depending upon the particular phospholipid employed. The phospholipid headgroup region displayed the following order of ATPase reactivation potential: dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol greater than dioleoylphosphatidic acid greater than dioleoylphosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, the ATPase showed higher levels of specific activity when reconstituted with dioleoyl phospholipid derivatives compared with dimyristoyl derivatives. Second, examination of the phospholipid remaining associated with the lipid-depleted ATPase upon purification showed that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were present. No relative enrichment of any of these phospholipids (compared with their distribution in submitochondrial particles) was noted. Therefore, no preferential association between the ATPase and any one phospholipid could be found in the mitochondrial ATPase. Third, the sodium cholate-mediated phospholipid exchange procedure was employed for studying the phospholipid requirements of the ATPase. Replacement of about 50% of the mitochondrial phospholipid remaining with the lipid-depleted ATPase could be achieved utilizing either synthetic phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylcholine. Examination of the displaced mitochondrial phospholipid showed that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were replaced with equal facility. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3156584

  17. The role of blood cell membrane lipids on the mode of action of HIV-1 fusion inhibitor sifuvirtide

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, Pedro M.; Freitas, Teresa; Castanho, Miguel A.R.B.; Santos, Nuno C.

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Sifuvirtide interacts with erythrocyte and lymphocyte membrane in a concentration dependent manner by decreasing its dipole potential. {yields} Dipole potential variations in lipid vesicles show sifuvirtide's lipid selectivity towards saturated phosphatidylcholines. {yields} This peptide-membrane interaction may direct the drug towards raft-like membrane domains where the receptors used by HIV are located, facilitating its inhibitory action. -- Abstract: Sifuvirtide is a gp41 based peptide that inhibits HIV-1 fusion with the host cells and is currently under clinical trials. Previous studies showed that sifuvirtide partitions preferably to saturated phosphatidylcholine lipid membranes, instead of fluid-phase lipid vesicles. We extended the study to the interaction of the peptide with circulating blood cells, by using the dipole potential sensitive probe di-8-ANEPPS. Sifuvirtide decreased the dipole potential of erythrocyte and lymphocyte membranes in a concentration dependent manner, demonstrating its interaction. Also, the lipid selectivity of the peptide towards more rigid phosphatidylcholines was confirmed based on the dipole potential variations. Overall, the interaction of the peptide with the cell membranes is a contribution of different lipid preferences that presumably directs the peptide towards raft-like domains where the receptors are located, facilitating the reach of the peptide to its molecular target, the gp41 in its pre-fusion conformation.

  18. The metabolic responses to hepatitis B virus infection shed new light on pathogenesis and targets for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongde; Zhu, Wandi; Zhang, Leike; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Guo, Lin; Chen, Xinwen; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), is strongly associated with hepatitis, fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we characterize the metabolic features of host cells infected with the virus using systems biological approach. The results show that HBV replication induces systematic metabolic alterations in host cells. HBV infection up-regulates the biosynthesis of hexosamine and phosphatidylcholine by activating glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) and choline kinase alpha (CHKA) respectively, which were reported for the first time for HBV infection. Importantly suppressing hexosamine biosynthesis and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis can inhibit HBV replication and expression. In addition, HBV induces oxidative stress and stimulates central carbon metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Our results also indicate that HBV associated hepatocellular carcinoma could be attributed to GFAT1 activated hexosamine biosynthesis and CHKA activated phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. This study provides further insights into the pathogenesis of HBV-induced diseases, and sheds new light on drug target for treating HBV infection. PMID:25672227

  19. Conformation of gramicidin A channel in phospholipid vesicles: a 13C and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, S; Wallace, B A; Blout, E R; Morrow, J S; Veatch, W

    1979-01-01

    We have determined the conformation of the channel-forming polypeptide antibiotic gramicidin A in phosphatidylcholine vesicles by using 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy. The models previously proposed for the conformation of the dimer channel differ in the surface localization of the NH2 and COOH termini. We have incorporated specific 13C and 19F nuclei at both the NH2, and COOH termini of gramicidin and have used 13C and 19F chemical shifts and spin lattice relaxation time measurements to determine the accessibility of these labels to three paramagnetic NMR probes--two in aqueous solution and one attached to the phosphatidylcholine fatty acid chain9 all of our results indicate that the COOH terminus of gramicidin in the channel is located near the surface of the membrane and the NH2 terminus is buried deep within the lipid bilayer. These findings strongly favor an NH2-terminal to NH2-terminal helical dimer as the major conformation for the gramicidin channel in phosphatidylcholine vesicles. PMID:92025

  20. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:26074238

  1. Direct detection of singlet oxygen generated by UVA irradiation in human cells and skin.

    PubMed

    Baier, Jürgen; Maisch, Tim; Maier, Max; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    UVA light produces deleterious biological effects in which singlet oxygen plays a major role. These effects comprise a significant risk of carcinogenesis in the skin and cataract formation of the eye lens. Singlet oxygen is generated by UVA light absorption in endogenous molecules present in the cells. To elucidate the primary processes and sources of singlet oxygen in tissue, it is a major goal to uncover the hidden process of singlet oxygen generation, in particular in living tissue. When exposing keratinocytes or human skin in vivo to UVA laser light (355 nm) at 6 J/cm2, we measured the luminescence of singlet oxygen at 1,270 nm. This is a positive and direct proof of singlet oxygen generation in cells and skin by UVA light. Moreover, a clear signal of singlet oxygen luminescence was detected in phosphatidylcholine suspensions (water or ethanol) irradiated by UVA. Oxidized products of phosphatidylcholine are the likely chromophores because phosphatidylcholine itself does not absorb at 355 nm. The signal intensity was reduced by mannitol or super oxide dismutase. Additionally, the monochromatic UVA irradiation at 355 nm leads to upregulation of the key cytokine IL-12. This affects the balance of UV radiation on the immune system, which is comparable to effects of broadband UVA irradiation. PMID:17363921

  2. A comparative study of diffusive and osmotic water permeation across bilayers composed of phospholipids with different head groups and fatty acyl chains.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, M; Blume, A

    1995-01-01

    Osmotic and diffusive water permeability coefficients Pf and Pd were measured for lipid vesicles of 100-250 nm diameter composed of a variety of phospholipids with different head groups and fatty acyl chains. Two different methods were applied: the H2O/D2O exchange technique for diffusive water flow, and the osmotic technique for water flux driven by an osmotic gradient. For phosphatidylcholines in the liquid-crystalline state at 70 degrees C, permeability constants Pd between 3.0 and 5.2.10(-4) cm/s and ratios Pf/Pd 7 and 23 were observed. The observation of a permeability maximum in the phase transition region and the fact that osmotically driven water flux is higher than diffusive water exchange suggest that water is diffusing through small transient pores arising from density fluctuations in the bilayers. The Pd values depend on the nature of the head group, on the chemical structure of the chains, and on the type of chain linkage. In the case of charged lipids, the ionic strength of the solution has a strong influence. For phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and ether phosphatidylcholines, permeability constants Pd were considerably lower (2-4.10(-6) cm/s at 70 degrees C). For liquid-crystalline phosphatidylcholines, a strong reduction of Pd after addition of ethanol was observed (2-4.10(-6) cm/s at 70 degrees C). The experimental values are discussed in connection with different permeation models. PMID:7756562

  3. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine A; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  4. Identification of Altered Metabolomic Profiles Following a Panchakarma-based Ayurvedic Intervention in Healthy Subjects: The Self-Directed Biological Transformation Initiative (SBTI)

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Christine Tara; Lucas, Joseph; John-Williams, Lisa St.; Thompson, J. Will; Moseley, M. Arthur; Patel, Sheila; Peterson, Scott N.; Porter, Valencia; Schadt, Eric E.; Mills, Paul J.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Chopra, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The effects of integrative medicine practices such as meditation and Ayurveda on human physiology are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify altered metabolomic profiles following an Ayurveda-based intervention. In the experimental group, 65 healthy male and female subjects participated in a 6-day Panchakarma-based Ayurvedic intervention which included herbs, vegetarian diet, meditation, yoga, and massage. A set of 12 plasma phosphatidylcholines decreased (adjusted p < 0.01) post-intervention in the experimental (n = 65) compared to control group (n = 54) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing; within these compounds, the phosphatidylcholine with the greatest decrease in abundance was PC ae C36:4 (delta = −0.34). Application of a 10% FDR revealed an additional 57 metabolites that were differentially abundant between groups. Pathway analysis suggests that the intervention results in changes in metabolites across many pathways such as phospholipid biosynthesis, choline metabolism, and lipoprotein metabolism. The observed plasma metabolomic alterations may reflect a Panchakarma-induced modulation of metabotypes. Panchakarma promoted statistically significant changes in plasma levels of phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and others in just 6 days. Forthcoming studies that integrate metabolomics with genomic, microbiome and physiological parameters may facilitate a broader systems-level understanding and mechanistic insights into these integrative practices that are employed to promote health and well-being. PMID:27611967

  5. Lipid substrate specificity of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase of Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    The ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila forms about 60% of its phosphatidylcholine by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine with S-adenosylmethionine using the enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Analogues of ethanolamine or of ethanolamine phosphate are incorporated into the phospholipids of Tetrahymena when cells are cultured in their presence. These compounds, 3-amino-1-propanol, 2-aminoethylphosphonate, 3-aminopropylphosphonate and N,N-dimethylaminoethylphosphonate replace from 50 to 75% of the ethanolamine phosphate in phosphatidylethanolamine. However, analysis of the phospholipids of lipid-altered Tetrahymena showed that none of the phosphatidylethanolamine analogues had been converted to the corresponding phosphatidylcholine analogue. No incorration of (/sup 14/C-CH/sub 3/)methionine into the phosphatidylcholine analogues could be demonstrated in vivo, nor was label from (/sup 3/H-CH/sub 3/)S-adenosylmethionine incorporated in virto. Thus, only phosphatidylethanolamine and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives have been found to be substrates for the phosphatidylethanoiamine N-methyltransferase. The enzyme therefore requires a phospholipid substrate containing an ester linkage between the alkylamine and phosphorus, with the amino group required to be ..beta.. to the alcohol.

  6. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2[S

    PubMed Central

    Oninla, Vincent O.; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O.; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747–1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion. PMID:25339683

  7. Investigating the Structure of Multicomponent Gel-Phase Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Hartkamp, Remco; Moore, Timothy C; Iacovella, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael A; Bulsara, Pallav A; Moore, David J; McCabe, Clare

    2016-08-23

    Single- and multicomponent lipid bilayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), isostearyl isostearate, and heptadecanoyl heptadecanoate in the gel phase are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the structural properties of multicomponent bilayers can deviate strongly from the structures of their single-component counterparts. Specifically, the lipid mixtures are shown to adopt a compact packing by offsetting the positioning depths at which different lipid species are located in the bilayer. This packing mechanism affects the area per lipid, the bilayer height, and the chain tilt angles and has important consequences for other bilayer properties, such as interfacial hydrogen bonding and bilayer permeability. In particular, the simulations suggest that bilayers containing isostearyl isostearate or heptadecanoyl heptadecanoate are less permeable than pure 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine or DSPC bilayers. Furthermore, hydrogen-bond analysis shows that the residence times of lipid-water hydrogen bonds depend strongly on the bilayer composition, with longer residence times for bilayers that have a higher DSPC content. The findings illustrate and explain the fundamental differences between the properties of single- and multicomponent bilayers. PMID:27558724

  8. Production of limit size nanoliposomal systems with potential utility as ultra-small drug delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Zhigaltsev, Igor V; Tam, Ying K; Leung, Alex K K; Cullis, Pieter R

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies from this group have shown that limit size lipid-based systems - defined as the smallest achievable aggregates compatible with the packing properties of their molecular constituents - can be efficiently produced using rapid microfluidic mixing technique. In this work, it is shown that similar procedures can be employed for the production of homogeneously sized unilamellar vesicular systems of 30-40 nm size range. These vesicles can be remotely loaded with the protonable drug doxorubicin and exhibit adequate drug retention properties in vitro and in vivo. In particular, it is demonstrated that whereas sub-40 nm lipid nanoparticle (LNP) systems consisting entirely of long-chain saturated phosphatidylcholines cannot be produced, the presence of such lipids may have a beneficial effect on the retention properties of limit size systems consisting of mixed lipid components. Specifically, a 33-nm diameter doxorubicin-loaded LNP system composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and PEGylated lipid (DSPE-PEG2000) demonstrated adequate, stable drug retention in the circulation, with a half-life for drug release of ∼12 h. These results indicate that microfluidic mixing is the technique of choice for the production of bilayer LNP systems with sizes less than 50 nm that could lead to development of a novel class of ultra-small drug delivery vehicles. PMID:25856305

  9. High coverage fluid-phase floating lipid bilayers supported by ω-thiolipid self-assembled monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Arwel V.; Holt, Stephen A.; Daulton, Emma; Soliakov, Andrei; Charlton, Timothy R.; Roser, Steven J.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-01-01

    Large area lipid bilayers, on solid surfaces, are useful in physical studies of biological membranes. It is advantageous to minimize the interactions of these bilayers with the substrate and this can be achieved via the formation of a floating supported bilayer (FSB) upon either a surface bound phospholipid bilayer or monolayer. The FSB's independence is enabled by the continuous water layer (greater than 15 Å) that remains between the two. However, previous FSBs have had limited stability and low density. Here, we demonstrate by surface plasmon resonance and neutron reflectivity, the formation of a complete self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold surfaces by a synthetic phosphatidylcholine bearing a thiol group at the end of one fatty acyl chain. Furthermore, a very dense FSB (more than 96%) of saturated phosphatidylcholine can be formed on this SAM by sequential Langmuir–Blodgett and Langmuir–Schaefer procedures. Neutron reflectivity used both isotopic and magnetic contrast to enhance the accuracy of the data fits. This system offers the means to study transmembrane proteins, membrane potential effects (using the gold as an electrode) and even model bacterial outer membranes. Using unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, which have previously failed to form stable FSBs, we achieved a coverage of 73%. PMID:25030385

  10. Identification of Altered Metabolomic Profiles Following a Panchakarma-based Ayurvedic Intervention in Healthy Subjects: The Self-Directed Biological Transformation Initiative (SBTI).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Christine Tara; Lucas, Joseph; John-Williams, Lisa St; Thompson, J Will; Moseley, M Arthur; Patel, Sheila; Peterson, Scott N; Porter, Valencia; Schadt, Eric E; Mills, Paul J; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Chopra, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The effects of integrative medicine practices such as meditation and Ayurveda on human physiology are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify altered metabolomic profiles following an Ayurveda-based intervention. In the experimental group, 65 healthy male and female subjects participated in a 6-day Panchakarma-based Ayurvedic intervention which included herbs, vegetarian diet, meditation, yoga, and massage. A set of 12 plasma phosphatidylcholines decreased (adjusted p < 0.01) post-intervention in the experimental (n = 65) compared to control group (n = 54) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing; within these compounds, the phosphatidylcholine with the greatest decrease in abundance was PC ae C36:4 (delta = -0.34). Application of a 10% FDR revealed an additional 57 metabolites that were differentially abundant between groups. Pathway analysis suggests that the intervention results in changes in metabolites across many pathways such as phospholipid biosynthesis, choline metabolism, and lipoprotein metabolism. The observed plasma metabolomic alterations may reflect a Panchakarma-induced modulation of metabotypes. Panchakarma promoted statistically significant changes in plasma levels of phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and others in just 6 days. Forthcoming studies that integrate metabolomics with genomic, microbiome and physiological parameters may facilitate a broader systems-level understanding and mechanistic insights into these integrative practices that are employed to promote health and well-being. PMID:27611967

  11. Characterization of 3D Voronoi Tessellation Nearest Neighbor Lipid Shells Provides Atomistic Lipid Disruption Profile of Protein Containing Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Sara Y.; Duong, Hai V.; Compton, Campbell; Vaughn, Mark W.; Nguyen, Hoa; Cheng, Kwan H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying protein-induced lipid disruptions at the atomistic level is a challenging problem in membrane biophysics. Here we propose a novel 3D Voronoi tessellation nearest-atom-neighbor shell method to classify and characterize lipid domains into discrete concentric lipid shells surrounding membrane proteins in structurally heterogeneous lipid membranes. This method needs only the coordinates of the system and is independent of force fields and simulation conditions. As a proof-of-principle, we use this multiple lipid shell method to analyze the lipid disruption profiles of three simulated membrane systems: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, and beta-amyloid/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol. We observed different atomic volume disruption mechanisms due to cholesterol and beta-amyloid Additionally, several lipid fractional groups and lipid-interfacial water did not converge to their control values with increasing distance or shell order from the protein. This volume divergent behavior was confirmed by bilayer thickness and chain orientational order calculations. Our method can also be used to analyze high-resolution structural experimental data. PMID:25637891

  12. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  13. A novel and simple type of liposome carrier for recombinant interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Kanaoka, E; Takahashi, K; Yoshikawa, T; Jizomoto, H; Nishihara, Y; Hirano, K

    2001-03-01

    The strong interaction between recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) and liposome was characterized and its possible application to drug-delivery control considered. The liposomes were prepared with egg phosphatidylcholine, distearoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG), dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol or distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Small and hydrophobic liposomes were selected, which were composed of saturated and long-fatty-acid-chain phospholipids. When the composition and the mixture ratio of IL-2 and the liposomewere optimized, morethan 95% ofthe lyophilized IL-2 (Imunace, 350000 JRU) was adsorbed consistently onto the DSPC-DSPG liposome (molar ratio, 10:1; 25 micromol mL(-1); 30 nm in size). Merely mixing IL-2 lyophilized with liposome suspension is convenient pharmaceutically. After intravenous administration to mice, liposomal IL-2 was eliminated half as slowly from the systemic circulation as free IL-2, with more than 13 and 18 times more IL-2 being delivered to the liver and spleen, respectively. After subcutaneous administration of liposomal IL-2 to mice, the mean residence time of IL-2 in the systemic circulation was 8 times that of free IL-2. These results show that IL-2 consistently adsorbs onto the surface of liposomes after optimization of its composition and mixing ratio. Intravenous and subcutaneous administration to mice demonstrates the gradual release of IL-2. Further trials are warranted using these liposomes. PMID:11291744

  14. Model and cell membrane partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate is independent of the lipid chain length.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Ludewig, Gabriele; Wang, Kai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2010-03-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse health effects in humans and animals by interacting with and disturbing of the normal properties of biological lipid assemblies. To gain further insights into these interactions, we investigated the effect of PFOS potassium salt on dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) model membranes using fluorescence anisotropy measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and on the cell membrane of HL-60 human leukemia cells and freshly isolated rat alveolar macrophages using fluorescence anisotropy measurements. PFOS produced a concentration-dependent decrease of the main phase transition temperature (T(m)) and an increased peak width (DeltaT(w)) in both the fluorescence anisotropy and the DSC experiments, with a rank order DMPC>DPPC>DSPC. PFOS caused a fluidization of the gel phase of all phosphatidylcholines investigated, but had the opposite effect on the liquid-crystalline phase. The apparent partition coefficients of PFOS between the phosphatidylcholine bilayer and the bulk aqueous phase were largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine chain length and ranged from 4.4x10(4) to 8.8x10(4). PFOS also significantly increased the fluidity of membranes of cells. These findings suggest that PFOS readily partitions into lipid assemblies, independent of their composition, and may cause adverse biological effects by altering their fluidity in a manner that depends on the membrane cooperativity and state (e.g., gel versus liquid-crystalline phase) of the lipid assembly. PMID:19932010

  15. Hydration and Lateral Organization in Phospholipid Bilayers Containing Sphingomyelin: A 2H-NMR Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinbauer, Bernhard; Mehnert, Thomas; Beyer, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial properties of lipid bilayers were studied by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with emphasis on a comparison between phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Spectral resolution and sensitivity was improved by macroscopic membrane alignment. The motionally averaged quadrupolar interaction of interlamellar deuterium oxide was employed to probe the interfacial polarity of the membranes. The D2O quadrupolar splittings indicated that the sphingomyelin lipid-water interface is less polar above the phase transition temperature Tm than below Tm. The opposite behavior was found in phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Macroscopically aligned sphingomyelin bilayers also furnished 2H-signals from the amide residue and from the hydroxyl group of the sphingosine moiety. The rate of water-hydroxyl deuteron exchange could be measured, whereas the exchange of the amide deuteron was too slow for the inversion-transfer technique employed, suggesting that the amide residue is involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Order parameter profiles in mixtures of sphingomyelin and chain-perdeuterated phosphatidylcholine revealed an ordering effect as a result of the highly saturated chains of the sphingolipids. The temperature dependence of the 2H quadrupolar splittings was indicative of lateral phase separation in the mixed systems. The results are discussed with regard to interfacial structure and lateral organization in sphingomyelin-containing biomembranes. PMID:12885648

  16. MODEL AND CELL MEMBRANE PARTITIONING OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE LIPID CHAIN LENGTH

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Ludewig, Gabriele; Wang, Kai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse health effects in humans and animals by interacting with and disturbing of the normal properties of biological lipid assemblies. To gain further insights into these interactions, we investigated the effect of PFOS potassium salt on dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) model membranes using fluorescence anisotropy measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and on the cell membrane of HL-60 human leukemia cells and freshly isolated rat alveolar macrophages using fluorescence anisotropy measurements. PFOS caused a concentration-dependent decrease of the main phase transition temperature (Tm) and an increased peak width (ΔTw) in both the fluorescence anisotropy and the DSC experiments, with a rank order DMPC > DPPC > DSPC. PFOS caused a fluidization of the gel phase of all phosphatidylcholines investigated, but had the opposite effect on the liquid crystalline phase. The apparent partition coefficients of PFOS between the phosphatidylcholine bilayer and the bulk aqueous phase were largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine chain length and ranged from 4.4 × 104 to 8.8 × 104. PFOS also significantly increased the fluidity of membranes of cells. These findings suggest that PFOS readily partitions into lipid assemblies, independent of their composition, and may cause adverse biological effects by altering their fluidity in a manner that depends on the membrane cooperativity and state (e.g., gel versus liquid crystalline phase) of the lipid assembly. PMID:19932010

  17. Integration of Cytokine Biology and Lipid Metabolism in Stroke**

    PubMed Central

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Dempsey, R.; Hatcher, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokines regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and are pleiotropic, redundant and multifunctional. Expression of most cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1α/ß, is very low in normal brain. Metabolism of lipids is of particular interest due to their high concentration in the brain. Inflammatory response after stroke suggests that cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 α/ß, IL-6), affect the phospholipid metabolism and subsequent production of eicosanoids, ceramide, and ROS that may potentiate brain injury. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are source for lipid messengers. Sphingomyelin synthase serves as a bridge between metabolism of glycerolipids and sphingolipids. TNF-α and IL-1 α/ß can induce phospholipases (A2, C, and D) and sphingomyelinases, and concomitantly proteolyse phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin synthesizing enzymes. Together, these alterations contribute to loss of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin after stroke that can be attenuated by inhibiting TNF-α or IL-1 α/ß signaling. Inflammatory responses are instrumental in the formation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Secretory PLA2 IIA is found in human atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in initiation, progression and maturation of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for stroke. Lipoprotein-PLA2, part of apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL, plays a role in vascular inflammation and coronary endothelial dysfunction. Cytokine antagonism attenuated secretory PLA2 IIA actions, suggesting cytokine-lipid integration studies will lead to new concepts contributing to bench-to-bedside transition for stroke therapy. PMID:17981627

  18. Associations of anthropometric markers with serum metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach: results of the EPIC-potsdam study

    PubMed Central

    Bachlechner, U; Floegel, A; Steffen, A; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The metabolic consequences of type of body shape need further exploration. Whereas accumulation of body mass in the abdominal area is a well-established metabolic risk factor, accumulation in the gluteofemoral area is controversially debated. We evaluated the associations of anthropometric markers of overall body mass and body shape with 127 serum metabolites within a sub-sample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. Subjects/Methods: The cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 2270 participants, randomly drawn from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. Metabolites were measured by targeted metabolomics. To select metabolites related with both waist circumference (WC) (abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat) and hip circumference (HC) (gluteofemoral fat, muscles and bone structure) correlations (r) with body mass index (BMI) as aggregating marker of body mass (lean and fat mass) were calculated. Relations with body shape were assessed by median metabolite concentrations across tertiles of WC and HC, mutually adjusted to each other. Results: Correlations revealed 23 metabolites related to BMI (r⩾I0.20 I). Metabolites showing relations with BMI were showing similar relations with HC adjusted WC (WCHC). In contrast, relations with WC adjusted HC (HCWC) were less concordant with relations of BMI and WCHC. In both sexes, metabolites with concordant relations regarding WCHC and HCWC included tyrosine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C38:3, C38:4, lyso-phosphatidylcholine C18:1, C18:2 and sphingomyelin C18:1; metabolites with opposite relations included isoleucine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C42:0, acyl–alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:3, C42:4, C42:5, C44:4 and C44:6. Metabolites specifically related to HCWC included acyl–alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:2, C36:2, C38:2 and C40:4, and were solely observed in men. Other metabolites were related to WCHC only. Conclusions: The study revealed specific metabolic

  19. Phospholipid exchange reactions within the liver cell

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, W. C.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Isolated rat liver mitochondria do not synthesize labelled phosphatidylcholine from CDP-[14C]choline or any phospholipid other than phosphatidic acid from [32P]phosphate. The minimal labelling of phosphatidylcholine and other phosphoglycerides can be attributed to microsomal contamination. However, when mitochondria and microsomes are incubated together with [32P]phosphate, the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine of the reisolated mitochondria become labelled, suggesting a transfer of phospholipids between the two fractions. 2. When liver microsomes or mitochondria containing labelled phosphatidylcholine are independently incubated with the opposite un-labelled fraction, there is a substantial and rapid exchange of the phospholipid between the two membranes. Exchange of phosphatidylinositol also occurs rapidly, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid exchange only slowly. There is no corresponding transfer of marker enzymes. The transfer of phosphatidylcholine does not occur at 0°, and there is no requirement for added substrate, ATP or Mg2+, but the omission of a heat-labile supernatant fraction markedly decreases the exchange. 3. After intravenous injection of [32P]phosphate, short-period labelling experiments of the individual phospholipids of rat liver microsomes and mitochondria in vivo give no evidence for a similar exchange process. However, the incubation of isolated microsomes and mitochondria with [32P]phosphate also fails on reisolation of the fractions to demonstrate a precursor–product relationship between the individual phospholipids of the two membranes. 4. The intraperitoneal injection of [32P]phosphate results in a far greater proportion of the dose entering the liver than does intravenous administration. After intraperitoneal administration of [32P]phosphate the specific radioactivities of the individual phospholipids are in the order microsomes > outer mitochondrial membrane > inner

  20. The choline-depleted type II pneumonocyte. A model for investigating the synthesis of surfactant lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Anceschi, M M; Di Renzo, G C; Venincasa, M D; Bleasdale, J E

    1984-01-01

    When type II pneumonocytes from adult rats were maintained in a medium that lacked choline, the incorporation of [14C]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine was not greatly diminished during the period that the cells displayed characteristics of type II pneumonocytes. Cells that were maintained in choline-free medium that contained choline oxidase and catalase, however, became depleted of choline and subsequent synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by these cells was responsive to choline in the extracellular medium. Incorporation of [14C]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine by choline-depleted cells was stimulated maximally (approx. 6-fold) by extracellular choline at a concentration (0.05 mM) that also supported the greatest incorporation into phosphatidylglycerol. The incorporation of [14C]glycerol into other glycerophospholipids by choline-depleted cells was not increased by extracellular choline. When cells were incubated in the presence of [3H]cytidine, the choline-dependent stimulation of the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol was accompanied by an increased recovery of [3H]CMP. This increased recovery of [3H]CMP reflected an increase in the intracellular amount of CMP from 48 +/- 9 to 76 +/- 16 pmol/10(6) cells. Choline-depleted cells that were exposed to [3H]choline contained [3H]CDP-choline as the principal water-soluble choline derivative. As the extracellular concentration of choline was increase, however, the amount of 3H in phosphocholine greatly exceeded that in all other water-soluble derivatives. Choline-depletion of cells resulted in an increase in the specific activity of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase in cell homogenates (from 0.40 +/- 0.15 to 1.31 +/- 0.20 nmol X min-1 X mg of protein-1). These data are indicative that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine is integrated with that of phosphatidylglycerol and are consistent with the proposed involvement of CMP in this integration. The choline-depleted type II pneumonocyte

  1. Omega-3 phospholipids from fish suppress hepatic steatosis by integrated inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in dietary obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Medrikova, Dasa; van Schothorst, Evert M; Pavlisova, Jana; Kuda, Ondrej; Hensler, Michal; Bardova, Kristina; Flachs, Pavel; Stankova, Barbora; Vecka, Marek; Tvrzicka, Eva; Zak, Ales; Keijer, Jaap; Kopecky, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. Recent meta-analysis suggested omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA and EPA to decrease liver fat in NAFLD patients. Antiinflammatory, hypolipidemic, and insulin-sensitizing effects ofDHA/EPA depend on their lipid form, with marine phospholipids showing better efficacy than fish oils. We characterized the mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of DHA/EPA phospholipids, alone or combined with an antidiabetic drug, on hepatosteatosis. C57BL/6N mice were fed for 7 weeks an obesogenic high-fat diet (cHF) or cHF-based interventions: (i) cHF supplemented with phosphatidylcholine-rich concentrate from herring (replacing 10% of dietary lipids; PC), (ii) cHF containing rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg diet; R), or (iii) PC + R. Metabolic analyses, hepatic gene expression and lipidome profiling were performed. Results showed that PC and PC + R prevented cHlF-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance, while all interventions reduced abdominal fat and plasma triacylglycerols. PC and PC + R also lowered hepatic and plasma cholesterol and reduced hepatosteatosis. Microarray analysis revealed integrated downregulation of hepatic lipogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways by PC, while R-induced lipogenesis was fully counteracted in PC + R Gene expression changes in PC and PC + R were associated with preferential enrichment of hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions by DHA/EPA. The complex downregulation of hepatic lipogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes and the antisteatotic effects were unique to DHA/EPA-containing phospholipids, since they were absent in mice fed soy-derived phosphatidylcholine. Thus, inhibition of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis associated with potent antisteatotic effects in the liver in response to DHA/EPA-containing phospholipids support their use in NAFLD prevention and treatment. PMID:24295779

  2. Identification of Serum Metabolites Associated With Incident Hypertension in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Stefan; Floegel, Anna; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Metabolomics is a promising tool to gain new insights into early metabolic alterations preceding the development of hypertension in humans. We therefore aimed to identify metabolites associated with incident hypertension using measured data of serum metabolites of the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Targeted metabolic profiling was conducted on serum blood samples of a randomly drawn EPIC-Potsdam subcohort consisting of 135 cases and 981 noncases of incident hypertension, all of them being free of hypertension and not on antihypertensive therapy at the time of blood sampling. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years. A validated set of 127 metabolites was statistically analyzed with a random survival forest backward selection algorithm to identify predictive metabolites of incident hypertension taking into account important epidemiological hypertension risk markers. Six metabolites were identified to be most predictive for the development of hypertension. Higher concentrations of serine, glycine, and acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines C42:4 and C44:3 tended to be associated with higher and diacyl-phosphatidylcholines C38:4 and C38:3 with lower predicted 10-year hypertension-free survival, although visualization by partial plots revealed some nonlinearity in the above associations. The identified metabolites improved prediction of incident hypertension when used together with known risk markers of hypertension. In conclusion, these findings indicate that metabolic alterations occur early in the development of hypertension. However, these alterations are confined to a few members of the amino acid or phosphatidylcholine metabolism, respectively. PMID:27245178

  3. Determination of the rate of rapid lipid transfer induced by poly(ethylene glycol) using the SLM Fourier transform phase and modulation spectrofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Burgess, S W; Wu, J R; Swift, K; Lentz, B R

    1991-06-01

    Rate constants were determined for the transfer of the fluorescent lipid probe 1-palmitoyl-2-[[2-[4-(6-phenyl-trans-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenyl]ethyl] oxy]carbonyl]-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPHpPC) between large, unilamellar extrusion vesicles composed either of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or of DPPC mixed with a small amount (0.5 mol%) of lyso phosphatidylcholine (Lyso PC). Transfer of the lipid probe in the presence of varying concentrations of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was monitored using the SLM 48000-MHF Multi-Harmonic Fourier Transform phase and modulation spectrofluorometer to collect multifrequency phase and modulation fluorescence data sets on a subsecond time scale. The unique ability of this instrument to yield accurate fluorescence lifetime data on this time scale allowed transfer to be detected in terms of a time-dependent change in the fluorescent lifetime distribution associated with the lipid-like DPHpPC probe. This probe demonstrates two short fluoresence decay times (ca. 1.1-1.4 and 4.3-4.8 ns) in a probe-rich environment but a single long lifetime (ca. 7 ns) in a probe-poor environment. A simple two-state model for initial lipid transfer was used to analyze the multifrequency data sets collected over a 4-s time frame to obtain the time rate of change of the concentrations of donor and acceptor probe populations following rapid mixing of vesicles with PEG. The ability to measure fluorescence lifetimes on this time scale has allowed us to show that the of rate of lipid transfer increased dramatically at 35% PEG in both fusing and nonfusing vesicle systems. These results are interpreted in terms of a distinct interbilayer structure associated with intimate bilayer contact induced by high and potentially fusogenic concentrations of PEG. PMID:24242960

  4. Extraction of Phospholipids from Human Erythrocyte Membranes by Hemoglobin Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Brunauer, Linda S; Chen, James Y; Koontz, M Zachary; Davis, Kathryn K; O'Brien, Laura E; Wright, Emily M; Huestis, Wray H

    2016-06-01

    This investigation examines oxidation conditions under which hemoglobin extracts membrane phospholipid from erythrocytes and model membranes. In erythrocytes made echinocytic with exogenous phospholipid, addition of hemoglobin oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or Vitamin C (conditions that result in the formation of significant quantities of choleglobin), but not ferricyanide (which produces predominantly methemoglobin), induced dose-dependent shape reversion to less echinocytic forms, consistent with extraction of phospholipids from the exofacial side of the membrane. Erythrocytes preloaded with radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine or NBD-labeled phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid, exhibited greatest extraction of radiolabel or fluorescence signal with exogenous hemoglobin oxidized via H2O2 or Vitamin C, but not ferricyanide. However, with NBD-phosphatidylserine (a preferential inner monolayer intercalator), significantly less extraction of labeled lipid occurred with oxidized hemoglobin prepared under all three oxidizing conditions. In dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes containing radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine, subsequent addition of hemoglobin oxidized with H2O2 or Vitamin C extracted radiolabeled lipid with significantly greater efficiency than ferricyanide-treated hemoglobin, with enhanced extraction detectable at levels approaching physiological plasma oxidant concentrations. Radiolabeled lipid extraction was comparable for phospholipids containing saturated acyl chains between 12 and 18 carbons but diminished significantly for oleoyl-containing phospholipids. Hemoglobin dimerization occurred at very low levels with H2O2 treatment, and even lower levels with Vitamin C treatment, and thus did not correlate to the high efficiency and consistent levels of lipid extraction observed with these treatments. These findings indicate that choleglobin extracts lipids from cell

  5. Comparative evaluation of proliposomes and self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of nisoldipine.

    PubMed

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Rueda, Javier; Wang, Zhijun; Betageri, Guru V

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was to develop proliposomal formulation and self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for a poorly bioavailable drug, nisoldipine and to compare their in vivo pharmacokinetics. Proliposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using different lipids such as Soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Hydrogenated Soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol sodium (DMPG), Distearyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), and Cholesterol in various ratios. SMEDDS formulations were prepared using varying concentrations of Capmul MCM, Labrasol, Cremophor EL and Tween 80. Both proliposomes and SMEDDS were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability and in vivo pharmacokinetics. In vitro drug release was carried out in purified water using USP type II dissolution apparatus. In vitro drug permeation was studied using parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) and everted rat intestinal perfusion techniques. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Among the different formulations, proliposomes with drug:DMPC:cholesterol in the ratio of 1:2:0.5 and SMEDDS with Capmul MCM (13.04% w/w), Labrasol (36.96% w/w), Cremophor EL (34.78% w/w) and Tween 80 (15.22% w/w) demonstrated the desired particle size and zeta potential. Enhanced drug release was observed with proliposomes and SMEDDS compared to pure nisoldipine in purified water after 1h. Nisoldipine permeability across PAMPA and everted rat intestinal perfusion models was significantly higher with proliposomes and SMEDDS. Following single oral administration of proliposomes and SMEDDS, a relative bioavailability of 301.11% and 239.87% respectively, was achieved compared to pure nisoldipine suspension. PMID:27041124

  6. Subcellular localization of yeast Sec14 homologues and their involvement in regulation of phospholipid turnover.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Martina; Oskolkova, Olga V; Holic, Roman; Brezná, Barbara; Pichler, Harald; Zágorsek, Milos; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Paltauf, Fritz; Daum, Günther; Griac, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Sec14p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in protein secretion and regulation of lipid synthesis and turnover in vivo, but acts as a phosphatidylinositol-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in vitro. In this work, the five homologues of Sec14p, Sfh1p-Sfh5p, were subjected to biochemical and cell biological analysis to get a better view of their physiological role. We show that overexpression of SFH2 and SFH4 suppressed the sec14 growth defect in a more and SFH1 in a less efficient way, whereas overexpression of SFH3 and SFH5 did not complement sec14. Using C-terminal yEGFP fusions, Sfh2p, Sfh4p and Sfh5p are mainly localized to the cytosol and microsomes similar to Sec14p. Sfh1p was detected in the nucleus and Sfh3p in lipid particles and in microsomes. In contrast to Sec14p, which inhibits phospholipase D1 (Pld1p), overproduction of Sfh2p and Sfh4p resulted in the activation of Pld1p-mediated phosphatidylcholine turnover. Interestingly, Sec14p and the two homologues Sfh2p and Sfh4p downregulate phospholipase B1 (Plb1p)-mediated turnover of phosphatidylcholine in vivo. In summary, Sfh2p and Sfh4p are the Sec14p homologues with the most pronounced functional similarity to Sec14p, whereas the other Sfh proteins appear to be functionally less related to Sec14p. PMID:12869188

  7. The tegumental surface membranes of Schistosoma mansoni are enriched in parasite-specific phospholipid species.

    PubMed

    Retra, Kim; deWalick, Saskia; Schmitz, Marion; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Brouwers, Jos F H M; van Hellemond, Jaap J

    2015-08-01

    The complex surface structure of adult Schistosoma mansoni, the tegument, is essential for survival of the parasite. This tegument is syncytial and is covered by two closely-apposed lipid bilayers that form the interactive surface with the host. In order to identify parasite-specific phospholipids present in the tegument, the species compositions of the major glycerophospholipid classes, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, including lysophospholipid species, were analysed in adult S. mansoni worms, isolated tegumental membranes and hamster blood cells. It was shown that there are large differences in species composition in all four phospholipid classes between the membranes of S. mansoni and those of the host blood cells. The species compositions of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were strikingly different in the tegument compared with the whole worm. The tegumental membranes are especially enriched in lysophospholipids, predominantly eicosenoic acid (20:1)-containing lyso-phosphatidylserine and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine species. Furthermore, the tegument was strongly enriched in phosphatidylcholine that contained 5-octadecenoic acid, an unusual fatty acid that is not present in the host. As we have shown previously that lysophospholipids from schistosomes affect the parasite-host interaction, excretion of these tegument-specific phospholipid species was examined in vitro and in vivo. Our experiments demonstrated that these lysophospholipids are not significantly secreted during in vitro incubations and are not detectable in peripheral blood of infected hosts. However, these analyses demonstrated a substantial decrease in PI content of blood plasma from schistosome-infected hamsters, which might indicate that schistosomes influence exosome formation by the host. PMID:25975668

  8. Phospholipase B activity and organophosphorus compound toxicity in cultured neural cells

    SciTech Connect

    Read, David J.; Langford, Lynda; Barbour, Helen R.; Forshaw, Philip J.; Glynn, Paul . E-mail: pg8@le.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OP) such as phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) and mipafox (MPX) which cause delayed neuropathy, inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE), while OPs such as paraoxon (PXN) react more readily with acetylcholinesterase. In yeast and mammalian cell lines, NTE has been shown to have phospholipase B (PLB) activity which deacylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine to glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) and can be detected by metabolic labeling with [{sup 14}C]choline. Here we investigated PLB activity in primary cultures of mouse neural cells. In cortical and cerebellar granule neurons and astrocytes, [{sup 14}C]GroPCho labeling was inhibited by PSP and MPX: phenyl dipentylphosphinate (PDPP), a non-neuropathic NTE inhibitor, was more potent, while PXN, was substantially less so. In all three cell types, conversion of [{sup 14}C]phosphatidylcholine to [{sup 14}C]GroPCho over 24 h was relatively small (2.3-14%). Consequently, even with > 80% inhibition of [{sup 14}C]GroPCho production, increased [{sup 14}C]phosphatidylcholine was not detected. At concentrations of 1-10 {mu}M, only PSP was cytotoxic to cortical and cerebellar granule neurons after 24-h exposure. Moreover, dramatic changes in glial cell morphology were induced by PSP, but not PDPP or MPX, with rapid (2-3 h) rounding up of astrocytes and of Schwann cells in cultures of dissociated mouse dorsal root ganglia. We conclude that PLB activity is present in a variety of cultured mouse neural cell types but that acute loss of this activity is not cytotoxic. Conversely, the rapid toxic effects of PSP in vitro suggest that a serine hydrolase distinct from NTE is required continuously by neurons and glia.

  9. Fatty acids of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, J T; Brandt, M E; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1994-01-01

    A fundamental ultrastructural feature shared by the spirochetal pathogens Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) and Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agents of venereal syphilis and Lyme disease, respectively, is that their most abundant membrane proteins contain covalently attached fatty acids. In this study, we identified the fatty acids covalently bound to lipoproteins of B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum and examined potential acyl donors to these molecules. Palmitate was the predominant fatty acid of both B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum lipoproteins. T. pallidum lipoproteins also contained substantial amounts of stearate, a fatty acid not typically prevalent in prokaryotic lipoproteins. In both spirochetes, the fatty acids of cellular lipids differed from those of their respective lipoproteins. To characterize phospholipids in these organisms, spirochetes were metabolically labeled with [3H]palmitate or [3H]oleate; B. burgdorferi contained only phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine, while T. pallidum contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and cardiolipin. Although palmitate predominated in the lipoproteins, there were no apparent differences in the incorporation of these two fatty acids into phospholipids (putative acyl donors). Phospholipase A1 and A2 digestion of phosphatidylcholine from B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum labeled with either [3H]palmitate or [3H]oleate also revealed that neither fatty acid was incorporated preferentially into the 1 and 2 positions (potential acyl donor sites) of the glycerol backbone. The combined findings suggest that fatty acid utilization during lipoprotein synthesis is determined largely by the fatty acid specificities of the lipoprotein acyl transferases. These findings also provide the basis for ongoing efforts to elucidate the relationship between lipoprotein acylation and the physiological functions and inflammatory

  10. Atomic Force Microscopic Analysis of the Effect of Lipid Composition on Liposome Membrane Rigidity.

    PubMed

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-06-21

    Mechanical rigidity of the liposome membrane is often defined by the membrane bending modulus and is one of the determinants of liposome stability, but the quantitative experimental data are still limited to a few kinds of liposomes. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to investigate the membrane bending moduli of liposomes by immobilizing them on bovine serum albumin-coated glass in aqueous medium. The following lipids were used for liposome preparation: egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, cholesterol, and N-(carbonylmethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) 2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. By using liposomes of various compositions, we showed that the thermodynamic phase state of the membrane rather than the electric potential or liposome surface modification with poly(ethylene glycol) is the predominant determinant of the bending modulus, which decreased in the following order: solid ordered > liquid ordered > liquid disordered. By using the generalized polarization value of the Laurdan fluorescent probe, we investigated membrane rigidity in terms of membrane fluidity. Atomic force microscopic analysis was superior to the Laurdan method, especially in evaluating the membrane rigidity of liposomes containing hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Positively charged liposomes with a large bending modulus were taken up by cells more efficiently than those with a small bending modulus. These findings offer a quantitative method of analyzing the membrane rigidity of nanosized liposomes with different lipid compositions and will contribute to the control of liposome stability and cellular uptake efficiency of liposomal formulations intended for clinical use. PMID:27232007

  11. Effects of analogues of ethanolamine and choline on phospholipid metabolism in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Björn

    1977-01-01

    1. Analogues of ethanolamine and choline were incubated with different labelled precursors of phospholipids and isolated hepatocytes and the effects on phospholipid synthesis were studied. 2. 2-Aminopropan-1-ol and 2-aminobutan-1-ol were the most efficient inhibitors of [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into phospholipids, whereas the incorporation of [3H]choline was inhibited most extensively by NN-diethylethanolamine and NN-dimethylethanolamine. 3. When the analogues were incubated with [3H]glycerol and hepatocytes, the appearance of 3H in unnatural phospholipids indicated that they were incorporated, at least in part, via CDP-derivatives. The distribution of [3H]glycerol among molecular species of phospholipids containing 2-aminopropan-1-ol and 1-aminopropan-2-ol was the same as in phosphatidylethanolamine. In other phospholipid analogues the distribution of 3H was more similar to that in phosphatidylcholine. 4. NN-Diethylethanolamine stimulated both the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine and the incorporation of [Me-14C]methionine into phospholipids. Other N-alkyl- or NN-dialkyl-ethanolamines also stimulated [14C]methionine incorporation, but inhibited the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine. This indicates that phosphatidyl-NN-diethylethanolamine is a poor methyl acceptor, in contrast with other N-alkylated phosphatidylethanolamines. 5. These results on the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in intact cells are discussed with respect to the possible control points. They also provide guidelines for future experiments on the manipulation of phospholipid polar-headgroup composition in primary cultures of hepatocytes. PMID:606244

  12. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  13. Two ABCB4 point mutations of strategic NBD-motifs do not prevent protein targeting to the plasma membrane but promote MDR3 dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Degiorgio, Dario; Corsetto, Paola A; Rizzo, Angela M; Colombo, Carla; Seia, Manuela; Costantino, Lucy; Montorfano, Gigliola; Tomaiuolo, Rossella; Bordo, Domenico; Sansanelli, Serena; Li, Min; Tavian, Daniela; Rastaldi, Maria P; Coviello, Domenico A

    2014-05-01

    The ABCB4 gene encodes for MDR3, a protein that translocates phosphatidylcholine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the hepatocanalicular membrane; its deficiency favors the formation of 'toxic bile'. Several forms of hepatobiliary diseases have been associated with ABCB4 mutations, but the detrimental effects of most mutations on the encoded protein needs to be clarified. Among subjects with cholangiopathies who were screened for mutations in ABCB4 by direct sequencing, we identified the new mutation p.(L481R) in three brothers. According to our model of tertiary structure, this mutation affects the Q-loop, whereas the p.(Y403H) mutation, that we already described in two other families, involves the A-loop. This study was aimed at analyzing the functional relevance of these two ABCB4 mutations: MDR3 expression and lipid content in the culture supernatant were evaluated in cell lines stably transfected with the ABCB4 wild-type clone and corresponding mutants. No differences of expression were observed between wild-type and mutant gene products. Instead, both mutations caused a reduction of phosphatidylcholine secretion compared with the wild-type transfected cell lines. On the contrary, cholesterol (Chol) release, after 1 and 3 mM sodium taurocholate stimulation, was higher in the mutant-transfected cell lines than that in the wild-type and was particularly enhanced in cells transfected with the p.Y403H-construct.In summary, our data show that both mutations do not seem to affect protein expression, but are able to reduce the efflux of phosphatidylcholine associated with increase of Chol, thereby promoting the formation of toxic bile. PMID:24045840

  14. Range of the solvation pressure between lipid membranes: dependence on the packing density of solvent molecules.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, T J; Magid, A D; Simon, S A

    1989-09-19

    Well-ordered multilamellar arrays of liquid-crystalline phosphatidylcholine and equimolar phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol bilayers have been formed in the nonaqueous solvents formamide and 1,3-propanediol. The organization of these bilayers and the interactions between apposing bilayer surfaces have been investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis of liposomes compressed by applied osmotic pressures up to 6 X 10(7) dyn/cm2 (60 atm). The structure of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers in these solvents is quite different than in water, with the bilayer thickness being largest in water, 3 A narrower in formamide, and 6 A narrower in 1,3-propanediol. The incorporation of equimolar cholesterol increases the thickness of EPC bilayers immersed in each solvent, by over 10 A in the case of 1,3-propanediol. The osmotic pressures of various concentrations of the neutral polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) dissolved in formamide or 1,3-propanediol have been measured with a custom-built membrane osmometer. These measurements are used to obtain the distance dependence of the repulsive solvation pressure between apposing bilayer surfaces. For each solvent, the solvation pressure decreases exponentially with distance between bilayer surfaces. However, for both EPC and EPC-cholesterol bilayers, the decay length and magnitude of this repulsive pressure strongly depend on the solvent. The decay length for EPC bilayers in water, formamide, and 1,3-propanediol is found to be 1.7, 2.4, and 2.6 A, respectively, whereas the decay length for equimolar EPC-cholesterol bilayers in water, formamide, and 1,3-propanediol is found to be 2.1, 2.9, and 3.1 A, respectively. These data indicate that the decay length is inversely proportional to the cube root of the number of solvent molecules per unit volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2611220

  15. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Improved Oral Bioavailability of Valsartan: Proliposomes Versus Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Wang, Zhijun; Betageri, Guru V

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop proliposomes and self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for a poorly bioavailable drug, valsartan, and to compare their in vivo pharmacokinetics. Proliposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration method using different lipids such as soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), distearyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol sodium (DMPG) and cholesterol in various ratios. SNEDDS formulations were prepared using varying concentrations of capmul MCM, labrafil M 2125, and Tween 80. Both proliposomes and SNEDDS were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics. In vitro drug release was carried out in purified water and 0.1 N HCl using USP type II dissolution apparatus. In vitro drug permeation was studied using parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) and everted rat intestinal permeation techniques. Among the formulations, the proliposomes with drug/DMPG/cholesterol in the ratio of 1:1:0.5 and SNEDDS with capmul MCM (16.0% w/w), labrafil M 2125 (64.0% w/w), and Tween 80 (18.0% w/w) showed the desired particle size and zeta potential. Enhanced drug release was observed with proliposomes and SNEDDS as compared to pure valsartan. Valsartan permeability across PAMPA and everted rat intestinal permeation models was significantly higher with proliposomes and SNEDDS. Following single oral administration of proliposomes and SNEDDS, a relative bioavailability of 202.36 and 196.87%, respectively, was achieved compared to pure valsartan suspension. The study results indicated that both proliposomes and SNEDDS formulations are comparable in improving the oral bioavailability of valsartan. PMID:26381913

  16. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  17. Curcumin derivatives promote Schwann cell differentiation and improve neuropathy in R98C CMT1B mice.

    PubMed

    Patzkó, Agnes; Bai, Yunhong; Saporta, Mario A; Katona, István; Wu, Xingyao; Vizzuso, Domenica; Feltri, M Laura; Wang, Suola; Dillon, Lisa M; Kamholz, John; Kirschner, Daniel; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Shy, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B is caused by mutations in myelin protein zero. R98C mice, an authentic model of early onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B, develop neuropathy in part becaus