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Sample records for phosphatidylcholines

  1. Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Datko, Anne H.; Mudd, S. Harvey

    1988-01-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by tissue culture preparations of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and soybean (Glycine max), and by soybean leaf discs, have been studied. Preparations were incubated with tracer concentrations of l-[3H3C]methionine and the kinetics of appearance of radioactivity in phosphomethylethanolamine, phosphodimethylethanolamine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, methylethanolamine, dimethylethanolamine, and choline followed at short incubation times. With soybean (tissue culture or leaves), an initial methylation utilizes phosphoethanolamine as substrate, forming phosphomethylethanolamine. The latter is converted to phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, which is successively methylated to phosphatidyldimethyethanolamine and to phosphatidylcholine. With carrot, again, an initial methylation is of phosphoethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occur at both the phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Both of these patterns differ qualitatively from that previously demonstrated in Lemna (SH Mudd, AH Datko 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 126-135) in which all three methylations occur at the phospho-base level. For soybean and carrot, some added contribution from initial methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine has not been excluded. These results, together with those from similar experiments carried out with water-stressed barley leaves (WD Hitz, D Rhodes, AD Hanson 1981 Plant Physiol 68: 814-822) and salinized sugarbeet leaves (AD Hanson, D Rhodes 1983 Plant Physiol 71: 692-700) suggest that in higher plants some, perhaps all, phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurs via a common committing step (conversion of phosphoethanolamine to phosphomethylethanolamine) followed by a methylation pattern which differs from plant to plant. PMID:16666397

  2. Heterogeneous catalytic transesterification of phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Rajesh Kumar; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2011-01-01

    The transesterification of phosphatidylcholine (PC) via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis was investigated for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) i.e. biodiesel. Calcium methoxide and calcium oxide were used as heterogeneous catalysts, and KOH as a homogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of phosphatidylcholine (PC)--a polar phospholipid prevalent in eukaryotic organisms. The initial reaction rate was higher for KOH (24.23 g of FAME/g of catalyst.min) than for calcium methoxide (17.06 g of FAME/g of catalyst.min) and calcium oxide (1.06 g of FAME/g of catalyst.min). PC was then mixed with soybean oil at different proportions (i.e. 10%, 30% and 50%, PC10, PC30 and PC50, respectively) which was then used as the feedstock for transesterification using calcium methoxide. When the mass fraction of PC was increased in the feedstock reaction rate also increased. Phosphorus content of the FAME layer of PC100, PC50, PC30 and PC10 was 0.081, 0.041, 0.035 and 0.028% (w/w), respectively. PMID:20832299

  3. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline.

    PubMed

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard

    2011-02-20

    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. PMID:20338739

  4. Determination of phosphatidylcholine and disaturated phosphatidylcholine content in lung surfactant by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Scarim, J; Ghanbari, H; Taylor, V; Menon, G

    1989-04-01

    A rapid isocratic method for determining the total phosphatidylcholine and disaturated phosphatidylcholine levels in lung surfactant preparations by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. The analysis was performed on a 3.9 x 300 mm mu-Porasil column with detection by refractive index. The lipids were eluted with a solvent system of chloroform-acetonitrile-methanol-water-85% phosphoric acid 650:650:500:130:2 (v/v/v/v/v). A 4.6 x 30 mm silica guard column was used in place of an injector loop which served as a sample concentrator and purifier. Phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol, all known components of lung surfactants, were eluted from the loop column and were prevented from reaching the analytical column. Sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine elute later than the phosphatidylcholines on the analytical column. The method was developed so that phosphatidylcholines elute as a single peak regardless of the fatty acid chain length (C12-C20). When the sample was first oxidized with a potassium permanganate-potassium metaperiodate solution, and potentially interfering oxidation products were removed by extraction into a basic aqueous phase, then only the disaturated phosphatidylcholines were analyzed. PMID:2754340

  5. Isoniazid interaction with phosphatidylcholine-based membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Amanda Vicente; Marengo Trindade, Paulo; Marques, Sheylla; Brum, Tainá; Harte, Etienne; Rodrigues, Marieli Oliveira; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Alves, Isabel Dantas; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Interaction between the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) and phosphatidylcholine membranes was investigated in terms of: (i) drug affinity to a lipid bilayer and (ii) drug-induced changes in the dynamic properties of liposomes, such as membrane hydration state, polar head and non-polar acyl chain order and lipid phase transition behavior. These parameters were studied by plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy (PWR), UV-visible, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. PWR measurements showed an INH membrane dissociation constant value of 0.031 μM to phosphatidylcholine bilayers. INH induced higher membrane perturbation in the plane which is perpendicular to the membrane plane. The INH saturation concentration in phosphatidylcholine liposomes was 170 μM. At this concentration, HATR-FTIR and NMR findings showed that INH may interact with the lipid polar head, increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the phosphate region and enhancing the choline motional freedom. DSC measurements showed that, at 115 μM, INH was responsible for a decrease in lipid phase transition temperature of approximately 2 °C and had no influence in the lipid enthalpy variation (ΔH). However, at 170 μM, INH induced the reduction of the ΔH by approximately 52%, suggesting that the drug may increase the distance among lipid molecules and enhance the freedom of the lipid acyl chains methylene groups. This paper provides information on the effects of INH on membrane dynamics which is important to understand liposome targeting of the drug and for the development of anti-TB pharmacologic systems that not only are less susceptible to resistance but also have low toxicity.

  6. Regulation of Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Waechter, Charles J.; Lester, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is presented which indicates that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by the methylation pathway in growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is repressed by the presence of choline in the growth medium. This result, obtained previously for glucose-grown cells, was also observed for lactate-grown cells, of which half of the phosphatidylcholine is mitochondrial. A respiration-deficient mutant of the parent wild-type strain has been studied, and its inability to form functional mitochondria cannot be due to an impaired methylation pathway, as it has been shown to incorporate 14C-CH3-methionine into all of the methylated glycerophosphatides. The incorporation rate is depressed by the inclusion of 1 mm choline in the growth medium, suggesting a regulatory effect similar to that demonstrated for the wild-type strain. The effects of choline on the glycerophospholipid composition of lactate and glucose-grown cells is presented. The repressive effects of the two related bases, mono- and dimethylethanolamine, were examined, and reduced levels of 14C-CH3-methionine incorporation were found for cells grown in the presence of these bases. The effect of choline on the methylation rates is reversible and glucosegrown cells regain the nonrepressed level of methylation activity in 60 to 80 min after removal of choline from the growth medium. Images PMID:5547992

  7. Hypolipidemic drugs are inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S; Kritchevsky, D; Baumann, W J

    1982-01-01

    Clofibric acid (CPIB) and several other systemic hypolipidemic drugs are shown to block phosphatidylcholine synthesis by inhibiting cholinephosphotransferase (ChoPTase; CDPcholine:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, EC 2.7.8.2) and particularly lysolecithin acyltransferase (LLAcylTase; acyl-CoA:1-acylglycero-3-phosphocholine O-acyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.23) of rat liver microsomes. Whereas millimolar drug concentrations are required to affect de novo lecithin synthesis catalyzed by ChoPTase, reacylation of lysolecithin by LLAcylTase is inhibited at micromolar levels. Increasing effectiveness in ChoPTase inhibition is observed in the series CPIB, SaH-42-348, tibric acid, S-321328, WY-14643, S-8527, and DH-990, with IC50 ranging from 22 mM (CPIB) to 0.3 mM (DH-990). LLAcylTase inhibition by the hypolipidemic drugs follows the same general pattern, but IC50 concentrations range from 9 mM (CPIB) to 40 microM (DH-990). The agents inhibit ChoPTase (Ki, 25-0.25 mM) and LLAcylTase (Ki, 10-0.025 mM) noncompetitively. The data suggest that inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, particularly by the LLAcylTase pathway, may be related to a drug's effectiveness in decreasing serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels by blocking lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:6294663

  8. Oxidized phosphatidylcholine formation and action in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingdong; Testai, Fernando D; Dawson, Sylvia; Kilkus, John; Dawson, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a major role in neurodegeneration. Increasing concentrations of peroxide induce neural cell death through activation of pro-apoptotic pathways. We now report that hydrogen peroxide generated sn-2 oxidized phosphatidylcholine (OxPC) in neonatal rat oligodendrocytes and that synthetic oxidized phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-(5′-oxo)valeryl-sn-glycero-3 phosphorylcholine, POVPC) also induced apoptosis in neonatal rat oligodendrocytes. POVPC activated caspases 3 and 8, and neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), but not acid sphingomyelinase. Downstream pro-apoptotic pathways activated by POVPC treatment included the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proapoptotic cascade and the degradation of phospho-Akt. Activation of NSMase occurred within 1h, was blocked by inhibitors of caspase 8, increased mainly C18 and C24:1-ceramides, and appeared to be concentrated in detergent-resistant microdomains (Rafts). We conclude that OxPC initially activates NSMase and converts sphingomyelin into ceramide, to mediate a series of downstream pro-apoptotic events in oligodendrocytes. PMID:19545281

  9. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  10. The mechanism of intestinal absorption of phosphatidylcholine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Sampath; Subbaiah, Papasani V.; Ganguly, Jagannath

    1974-01-01

    1. The mechanism of absorption of phosphatidylcholine was studied in rats by injecting into the intestine phosphatidylcholine specifically labelled either in the fatty acid or in the glycerol moiety or with 32P, when considerable amounts of 1-acyl-lysophosphatidylcholine were found in the intestinal lumen. 2-([14C]Acyl)phosphatidylcholine gave markedly more radioactive unesterified fatty acids in the lumen, compared with the 1-([14C]acyl) derivative. Some of the radioactivity from either the fatty acid or the glycerol moiety of the injected phosphatidylcholine appeared in the mucosal triacylglycerols. 2. Injection of 32P-labelled phosphatidylcholine or 32P-labelled lysophosphatidylcholine led to the appearance of radioactive glycerylphosphorylcholine, glycerophosphate and Pi in the mucosa. 3. Rat mucosa was found to contain a highly active glycerylphosphorylcholine diesterase. 4. It was concluded that the dietary phosphatidylcholine is hydrolysed in the intestinal lumen by the pancreatic phospholipase A to 1-acylglycerylphosphorylcholine, which on entering the mucosal cell is partly reacylated to phosphatidylcholine, and the rest is further hydrolysed to glycerylphosphorylcholine, glycerophosphate, glycerol and Pi. The fatty acids and glycerophosphate are then reassembled to give triacylglycerols via the Kennedy (1961) pathway. PMID:4374941

  11. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-02-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs.

  12. Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-Choline Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fagone, Paolo; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The CDP-choline pathway of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis was first described more than 50 years ago. Investigation of the CDP-choline pathway in yeast provides a basis for understanding the CDP-choline pathway in mammals. PtdCho is considered as an intermediate in a cycle of synthesis and degradation, and the activity of a CDP-choline cycle is linked to subcellular membrane lipid movement. The components of the mammalian CDP-choline pathway include choline transport, choline kinase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, and choline phosphotransferase activities. The protein isoforms and biochemical mechanisms of regulation of the pathway enzymes are related to their cell and tissue-specific functions. Regulated PtdCho turnover mediated by phospholipases or neuropathy target esterase participates in the mammalian CDP-choline cycle. Knockout mouse models define the biological functions of the CDP-choline cycle in mammalian cells and tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23010477

  13. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sribney, M; Knowles, C L; Lyman, E M

    1976-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver microsomal preparations catalysed by CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) was inhibited by a combination of ATP and CoA or ATP and pantetheine. ATP alone at high concentrations (20 mM) inhibits phosphatidylcholine formation to the extent of 70%. In the presence of 0.1 mM-CoA, ATP (2 mM) inhibits to the extent of 80% and in the presence of 1 mM-pantetheine to the extent of 90%. ADP and other nucleotide triphosphates in combination with either CoA or pantetheine are only 10-30% as effective in inhibiting phosphatidylcholine synthesis. AMP(CH2)PP [adenosine 5'-(alphabeta-methylene)triphosphate] together with CoA inhibits to the extent of 59% and with pantetheine by 48%. AMP-P(CH2)P [adenosine 5'-(betagamma-methylene)triphosphate] together with either CoA or pantetheine had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine formation. Other closely related derivatives of pantothenic acid were without effect either alone or in the presence of ATP, as were thiol compounds such as cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, dithiothreitol and glutathione. Several mechanisms by which this inhibition might take place were ruled out and it is concluded that ATP together with either CoA or pantetheine interacts reversibly with phosphatidylcholine synthetase to cause temporarily the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine formation. PMID:182154

  14. Studies on ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Butterman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A major target of ozone reactivity is the unsaturated acyl side chains of phospholipids. In this study, a model system was established to characterize some of the toxic products generated. When ozone is allowed to react with liposomes prepared from purified phosphatidylcholine, at least two types of hemolytic agents are formed. One type is rapidly produced at 0/sup 0/ in the presence or absence of EDTA. A second type is evolved during storage at 37/sup 0/ in the absence of EDTA. A number of physical and chemical characteristics of the initial hemolytic agents were found: (1) They are heat-labile and are rapidly destroyed at 37/sup 0/ at neutral pH or at 0/sup 0/ above pH 8. (2) The active substances are not volatile and are associated with the light liposomes. (3) They could be extracted into chloroform, but attempts at purification by chromatographic techniques were not successful. (4) Their activity was not associated with hydroperoxides or the majority of the TBA reactive material. The heat-labile hemolytic agents appear to contain carbonyl functional groups which can form hemiaminals or Schiff bases with amines. There appears to be two types of mechanisms which can inhibit the hemolysis induced by the heat-labile hemolytic agents. The first class, consisting of substances such as cysteine, polyamines, heptylamine, semicarbazide, and tryptophan appear to act by chemically reacting with an essential functional group in the hemolytic agent. The second class, of consisting BHT and ascorbic acid appears to quench the propagation of a free radical reaction in the membrane.

  15. Retarded release phosphatidylcholine benefits patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W; Merle, U; Zahn, A; Autschbach, F; Hinz, U; Ehehalt, R

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We examined the hypothesis of an anti-inflammatory effect of phosphatidylcholine in ulcerative colitis. Methods: A phase IIA, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was performed in 60 patients with chronic active, non steroid dependent, ulcerative colitis, with a clinical activity index (CAI) of ⩾4. Retarded release phosphatidylcholine rich phospholipids and placebo were administered at a dose of 6 g daily over three months. The primary end point was a change in CAI towards clinical remission (CAI ⩽3) or CAI improvement by ⩾50%. Secondary end points included ⩾50% changes in endoscopic activity index (EAI), histology, and quality of life scores. Results: Induction of clinical remission (CAI ⩽3) as the primary outcome variable was attained by 16 (53%) patients in the phosphatidylcholine treated group compared with three (10%) in the placebo group (p<0.00001). The rate of clinical remission and CAI improvement was 90% in the phosphatidylcholine group and only 10% in the placebo group. A median drop of seven points in the CAI score (70% improvement) was recorded in the phosphatidylcholine group compared with no change in the placebo group. Secondary end point analysis revealed concomitant drops in EAI and histology scores (p = 0.00016 and p = 0.0067 compared with placebo, respectively). Improvement in quality of life was reported by 16 of 29 evaluated patients in the phosphatidylcholine group compared with two of 30 in the placebo group (p = 0.00005). Conclusion: Retarded release oral phosphatidylcholine is effective in alleviating inflammatory activity caused by ulcerative colitis. PMID:15951544

  16. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine under possible primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Eichberg, J.; Oro, J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a primitive earth evaporating pond model, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accomplished when a reaction mixture of choline chloride and disodium phosphatidate, in the presence of cyanamide and traces of acid, was evaporated and heated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 C for 7 hours. Optimum yields of about 15% were obtained at 80 C. Phosphatidylcholine was identified by chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic degradation methods. On enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphorylcholine were formed, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave glycerophosphorylcholine. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine as the major compound was accompanied by the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine in smaller amounts. Cyanamide was found to be essential for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, and only traces of HCl, of the order of that required to convert the disodium phosphatidate to free phosphatidic acid were found necessary for the synthesis. This work suggests that phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of most biological membranes, could have been synthesized on the primitive earth.

  17. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  18. Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Koeth, Robert A.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans. METHODS We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. RESULTS Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; P<0.001). An elevated TMAO level predicted an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P<0.001), as well as in lower-risk subgroups. CONCLUSIONS The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated

  19. Thermodynamics of interdigitated phases of phosphatidylcholine in glycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, M J; Marsh, D

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the electron spin resonance spectra of phosphatidylcholines spin-labeled in the sn-2 chain at a position close to the polar region and close to the methyl terminus indicate that symmetrical saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholines with odd and even chain lengths from 13 to 20 C-atoms (and probably also 12 C-atoms) have gel phases in which the chains are interdigitated when dispersed in glycerol. The chain-length dependences of the chain-melting transition enthalpies and entropies are similar for phosphatidylcholines dispersed in glycerol and in water, but the negative end contributions are smaller for phosphatidylcholines dispersed in glycerol than for those dispersed in water: d delta Ht/dCH2 = 1.48 (1.43) kcal.mol-1, d delta St/dCH2 = 3.9 (4.0) cal.mol-1K-1, and delta H o = -12.9 (-15.0) kcal.mol-1, delta S o = -29 (-40) cal.mol-1K-1, respectively, for dispersions in glycerol (water). These differences reflect the interfacial energetics in glycerol and in water, and the different structure of the interdigitated gel phase. PMID:8534810

  20. Phosphoethanolamine Bases as Intermediates in Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis by Lemna

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the dominant methyl-containing end product formed by Lemna paucicostata, has been investigated. Methyl groups originating in methionine are rapidly utilized by intact plants to methylate phosphoethanolamine successively to the mono-, di-, and tri-methyl (i.e. phosphocholine) phosphoethanolamine derivatives. With continued labeling, radioactivity initially builds up in these compounds, then passes on, accumulating chiefly in phosphatidylcholine (34% of the total radioactivity taken up by plants labeled to isotopic equilibrium with l-[14CH3]methionine), and in lesser amounts in soluble choline (6%). Radioactivity was detected in mono- and dimethyl derivatives of free ethanolamine or phosphatidylethanolamine only in trace amounts. Pulse-chase experiments with [14CH3]choline and [3H] ethanolamine confirmed that phosphoethanolamine is rapidly methylated and that phosphocholine is converted to phosphatidylcholine. Initial rates indicate that methylation of phosphoethanolamine predominates over methylation of either phosphatidylethanolamine or free ethanolamine at least 99:1. Although more studies are needed, it is suggested this pathway may well turn out to account for most phosphatidylcholine synthesis in higher plants. Phosphomethylethanolamine and phosphodimethylethanolamine are present in low quantities during steady-state growth (18% and 6%, respectively, of the amount of phosphocholine). Radioactivity was not detected in CDP-choline, probably due to the low steady-state concentration of this nucleotide. PMID:16664979

  1. Chronopotentiometric studies of phosphatidylcholine bilayers modified by ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Naumowicz, Monika; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the effect of ergosterol on electrical capacitance and electrical resistance of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes using chronopotentiometry method. The chronopotentiometric characteristic of the bilayers depends on constant-current flow through the membranes. For low current values, no electroporation takes place and the membrane voltage rises exponentially to a constant value described by the Ohm's law. Based on these kinds of chronopotentiometric curves, a method of the membrane capacitance and the membrane resistance calculations is presented. PMID:21641920

  2. Stability of drug-carrier emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine mixtures.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Pattarino, Franco; Ignoni, Terenzio

    2002-03-01

    Lipid emulsion particles containing 10% of medium chain triglycerides were prepared using 2% w/w of a mixture 1:1 w/w of purified soya phosphatidylcholine and 2-hexanoyl phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier mixture, for use as drug carriers. The mean droplet sizes of emulsions, prepared using an Ultra Turrax or a high-pressure homogenizer, were about 288 and 158 nm, respectively, compared with 380 and 268 nm for emulsions containing lecithin, or 325 and 240 nm for those containing 6-phosphatidylcholine. The stability of the emulsions, determined by monitoring the decrease of a lipophilic marker at a specified level within the emulsion, and observing coalescence over time, was also greatly increased using the emulsifier mixture. The emulsion stability did not notably change in the presence of a model destabilizing drug, indomethacin. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin at the oil-water interface provided an increase in the stability of lipid emulsions, and this may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems. PMID:11880004

  3. Legionella dumoffii utilizes exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response. PMID:24821544

  4. Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response. PMID:24821544

  5. Phosphatidylcholine, an edible carrier for nanoencapsulation of unstable thiamine.

    PubMed

    Juveriya Fathima, Syeda; Fathima, Irum; Abhishek, Virat; Khanum, Farhath

    2016-04-15

    Lipid nanoparticles have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because of the advantage in improved absorption, bioavailability, targeted deliveries and reduction in the quantity of drugs required. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanoliposomes containing thiamine hydrochloride and study their physicochemical stability as this vitamin is highly unstable. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as an edible encapsulant. The average size of nanoliposomes was found to be 150 nm and zeta potential was -34 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 97%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size, spherical nature and smooth surface of the nanoliposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) evidenced that the nanoliposomes were stable up to 300°C. The functional groups present were determined by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the presence of vitamin was confirmed in final formulation by biochemical analysis. The crystalline nature of thiamine was analyzed by X-ray diffraction studies. Storage studies indicated that the nanoliposomes were highly stable up to 3 months at different temperatures. Thus, phosphatidylcholine can be used as carrier vehicle of nutrients especially vitamins, as it can form stable nanoliposomes with 97% encapsulation efficiency. PMID:26616989

  6. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeneng; Klipfell, Elizabeth; Bennett, Brian J.; Koeth, Robert; Levison, Bruce S.; DuGar, Brandon; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Chung, Yoon-Mi; Wu, Yuping; Schauer, Phil; Smith, Jonathan D.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics studies hold promise for discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A metabolomics approach was used to generate unbiased small molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine, namely choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and betaine, were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted up-regulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for development of both novel diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:21475195

  7. Brucella abortus Synthesizes Phosphatidylcholine from Choline Provided by the Host

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2006-01-01

    The Brucella cell envelope is characterized by the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), a common phospholipid in eukaryotes that is rare in prokaryotes. Studies on the composition of Brucella abortus 2308 phospholipids revealed that the synthesis of PC depends on the presence of choline in the culture medium, suggesting that the methylation biosynthetic pathway is not functional. Phospholipid composition of pmtA and pcs mutants indicated that in Brucella, PC synthesis occurs exclusively via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway. Transformation of Escherichia coli with an expression vector containing the B. abortus pcs homologue was sufficient for PC synthesis upon induction with IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside), while no PC formation was detected when bacteria were transformed with a vector containing pmtA. These findings imply that Brucella depends on choline provided by the host cell to form PC. We could not detect any obvious associated phenotype in the PC-deficient strain under vegetative or intracellular growth conditions in macrophages. However, the pcs mutant strain displays a reproducible virulence defect in mice, which suggests that PC is necessary to sustain a chronic infection process. PMID:16484204

  8. Brucella abortus synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from choline provided by the host.

    PubMed

    Comerci, Diego J; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego; Ugalde, Rodolfo A

    2006-03-01

    The Brucella cell envelope is characterized by the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), a common phospholipid in eukaryotes that is rare in prokaryotes. Studies on the composition of Brucella abortus 2308 phospholipids revealed that the synthesis of PC depends on the presence of choline in the culture medium, suggesting that the methylation biosynthetic pathway is not functional. Phospholipid composition of pmtA and pcs mutants indicated that in Brucella, PC synthesis occurs exclusively via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway. Transformation of Escherichia coli with an expression vector containing the B. abortus pcs homologue was sufficient for PC synthesis upon induction with IPTG (isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside), while no PC formation was detected when bacteria were transformed with a vector containing pmtA. These findings imply that Brucella depends on choline provided by the host cell to form PC. We could not detect any obvious associated phenotype in the PC-deficient strain under vegetative or intracellular growth conditions in macrophages. However, the pcs mutant strain displays a reproducible virulence defect in mice, which suggests that PC is necessary to sustain a chronic infection process. PMID:16484204

  9. Interesterification of phosphatidylcholine with lipases in organic media.

    PubMed

    Svensson, I; Adlercreutz, P; Mattiasson, B

    1990-06-01

    Lipases were investigated with respect to their ability to catalyse the incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine (PC) by interesterification reactions. The enzymes were dried onto solid support materials and the conversions were carried out in water-saturated toluene. Three lipases (two fungal and one plant enzyme) had the desired activity; immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme) was the most active enzyme. The Lipozyme-catalysed interesterification was selective for the sn-1 position of PC and during 48 h of reaction around 50% of the fatty acids in this position were replaced with heptadecanoic acid, a fatty acid which was practically absent in the original phospholipid. Due to adsorption on the support material and the competing hydrolysis reaction the total amount of PC in the reaction solution decreased to about 40% of the original amount. Higher interesterification rates were obtained with free fatty acids as acyl donors than with fatty acid esters. PMID:1366637

  10. Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine: A Remarkable Exception to Tocopherol s Membrane Presence

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Williams, Justin; Kinnun, Justin A.; Kucerka, Norbert; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Wassall, Stephen; Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Using data obtained from different physical techniques (i.e., neutron diffraction, NMR and UV spectroscopy), we present evidence which explains some of the conflicting and inexplicable data found in the literature regarding -tocopherol s (aToc s) behavior in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (di-14:0PC) bilayers. Without exception, the data point to aToc s active chromanol moiety residing deep in the hydrophobic core of di-14:0PC bilayers, a location that is in stark contrast to aToc s location in other PC bilayers. Our result is a clear example of the importance of lipid species diversity in biological membranes and importantly, it suggests that measurements of aToc s oxidation kinetics, and its associated byproducts observed in di-14:0PC bilayers, should be reexamined, this time taking into account its noncanonical location in this bilayer.

  11. Antibiotic-loaded phosphatidylcholine inhibits staphylococcal bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jessica Amber; Beenken, Karen E; Skinner, Robert A; Meeker, Daniel G; Smeltzer, Mark S; Haggard, Warren O; Troxel, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To test antibiotic-loaded coating for efficacy in reducing bacterial biofilm and development of osteomyelitis in an orthopaedic model of implant infection. METHODS Phosphatidylcholine coatings loaded with 25% vancomycin were applied to washed and sterilized titanium wires 20 mm in length. A 10 mm segment was removed from rabbit radius (total = 9; 5 coated, 4 uncoated), and the segment was injected with 1 × 106 colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1 strain). Titanium wires were inserted through the intramedullary canal of the removed segment and into the proximal radial segment and the segment was placed back into the defect. After 7 d, limbs were removed, X-rayed, swabbed for tissue contamination. Wires were removed and processed to determine attached CFUs. Tissue was swabbed and streaked on agar plates to determine bacteriological score. RESULTS Antibiotic-loaded coatings resulted in significantly reduced biofilm formation (4.7 fold reduction in CFUs; P < 0.001) on titanium wires and reduced bacteriological score in surrounding tissue (4.0 ± 0 for uncoated, 1.25 ± 0.5 for coated; P = 0.01). Swelling and pus formation was evident in uncoated controls at the 7 d time point both visually and radiographically, but not in antibiotic-loaded coatings. CONCLUSION Active antibiotic was released from coated implants and significantly reduced signs of osteomyelitic symptoms. Implant coatings were well tolerated in bone. Further studies with additional control groups and longer time periods are warranted. Antibiotic-loaded phosphatidylcholine coatings applied at the point of care could prevent implant-associated infection in orthopaedic defects. PMID:27622146

  12. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. • diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. • Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. • This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  13. Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by vasopressin and angiotensin in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, S; Varela, I; Mato, J M

    1982-01-01

    The addition of 1 microM-vasopressin or -angiotensin to isolated rat hepatocytes induced a fast transient inhibition of the rate of incorporation of [Me-3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine. The cationophore A23187 induced a similar inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The addition of micromolar Ca2+ to rat liver microsomes inhibited the activity of CDP-choline: 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. This inhibition is due a decrease in the Vmax. of the enzyme without affecting the Km for CDP-choline. It is concluded that Ca2+ regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver. PMID:6818955

  14. Activity of phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves with mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Julienne, M; Vergnolle, C; Kader, J C

    1981-09-01

    A low-molecular-weight protein catalysing the transfer of phosphatidylcholine from liposomes to mitochondria and chloroplasts has been isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) by chromatography on Sephadex G-75. PMID:7325986

  15. Nuclear Phosphatidylcholine and Sphingomyelin Metabolism of Thyroid Cells Changes during Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    PubMed Central

    Albi, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Samuela; Villani, Maristella; Perrella, Giuseppina

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine metabolism is involved in the response to ultraviolet radiation treatment in different ways related to the physiological state of cells. To evaluate the effects of low levels of radiation from the stratosphere on thyroid cells, proliferating and quiescent FRTL-5 cells were flown in a stratospheric balloon (BIRBA mission). After recovery, the activity of neutral sphingomyelinase, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, sphingomyelin synthase, and reverse sphingomyelin synthase was assayed in purified nuclei and the nuclei-free fraction. In proliferating FRTL-5, space radiation stimulate nuclear neutral sphingomyelinase and reverse sphingomyelin synthase activity, whereas phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase were inhibited, thus inducing sphingomyelin degradation and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. This effect was lower in quiescent cells. The possible role of nuclear lipid metabolism in the thyroid damage induced by space radiations is discussed. PMID:20011661

  16. Increased levels of a particular phosphatidylcholine species in senescent human dermal fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Naru, Eiji; Takanezawa, Yasukazu; Kobayashi, Misako; Misaki, Yuko; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Arakane, Kumi

    2008-08-01

    Plasma membranes are essential components of living cells, and phospholipids are major components of cellular membranes. Here, we used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to investigate changes in the membrane phospholipid content that occur in association with aging. Our results indicate that the levels of a particular species of phosphatidylcholine comprised of stearic acid and arachidonic acid increased with age. To determine the reason for the increased levels of this particular phosphatidylcholine, we examined the effect of highly unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, on cellular aging. Applied arachidonic acid was incorporated into phosphatidylcholine molecules, but neither arachidonic acid nor other related unsaturated fatty acids had any effect. We conclude that increased levels of this distinctive phosphatidylcholine are a result of in vitro senescence. PMID:18667023

  17. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and insulin release in rat islets of Langerhans

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Turnover of phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been demonstrated to play a role in glucose stimulation of insulin release by pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The activity of the islet CDP-choline pathway of PC synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of radiolabeled choline or {sup 32}PO{sub 4} into PC, phosphorylcholine and CDP-choline. Concurrently, insulin release was measured by radioimmunoassay to correlate insulin release and PC synthesis. Glucose concentrations greater than 8.5 mM stimulated CDP-choline pathway activity. However, measurement of PC lipid phosphorus tended to decrease, suggesting that stimulation of the CDP-choline pathway was a means of replenishing PC pools diminished by hydrolysis of PC. Inhibition of glucose oxidation by mannoheptulose or incubations under hypoxic conditions prevented stimulation of the CDP-choline pathway, while inhibition of phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) and secretion by the removal of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} potentiated the stimulation seen with glucose.

  18. Chlorophyll a triplet-state ESR in frozen phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromitsu, I.; Kevan, L.

    1988-05-19

    Photoexcited chlorophyll a (Chla) triplet state in rapidly frozen egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) vesicles is investigated at 77 K by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using light intensity modulation. The electron spin polarization (ESP) intensity is stronger for 0.2 mM Chla than for 1.0 mM Chla. The absolute values of the zero field splitting parameter, D, are 283 (+/-1) x 10/sup -4/ and 276 (+/-2) x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -1/, and the average depopulation rates of the triplet state are 0.671 +/- 0.052 and 1.054 +/- 0.036 ms/sup -1/ for 0.2 mM Chla and 1.0 mM Chla, respectively. This difference can be consistently attributed to faster triplet-state migration between adjacent Chla's at the higher 1.0 mM Chla concentration. A characteristic migration time of 2.6 ms is obtained. The ESP pattern of the Chla triplet state in the frozen EPC vesicles resembles that in polycrystals more than that in glasses. This suggests that the local environment around Chla in the vesicles is more structured than in glasses.

  19. Interaction of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mady, Mohsen M.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2011-06-01

    Insulin, a peptide that has been used for decades in the treatment of diabetes, has well-defined properties and delivery requirements. Liposomes, which are lipid bilayer vesicles, have gained increasing attention as drug carriers which reduce the toxicity and increase the pharmacological activity of various drugs. The molecular interaction between (uncharged lipid) dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes and insulin has been characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The characteristic protein absorption band peaks, Amide I (at about 1660 cm-1) and Amide II band (at about 1546 cm-1) are potentially reduced in the liposome insulin complex. Wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements showed that the association of insulin with DPPC lipid of liposomes still maintains the characteristic DPPC diffraction peaks with almost no change in relative intensities or change in peak positions. The absence of any shift in protein peak positions after insulin being associated with DPPC liposomes indicates that insulin is successfully forming complex with DPPC liposomes with possibly no pronounced alterations in the structure of insulin molecule.

  20. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by human lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Takeshi; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of phospholipids and proteins lining the alveolar walls of the lung. It reduces surface tension in the alveoli, and is critical for normal respiration. Pulmonary surfactant phospholipids consist mainly of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Although the phospholipid composition of pulmonary surfactant is well known, the enzyme(s) involved in its biosynthesis have remained obscure. We previously reported the cloning of murine lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (mLPCAT1) as a potential biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. mLPCAT1 exhibits lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase (LPGAT) activities, generating PC and PG, respectively. However, the enzymatic activity of human LPCAT1 (hLPCAT1) remains controversial. We report here that hLPCAT1 possesses LPCAT and LPGAT activities. The activity of hLPCAT1 was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, indicating the importance of some cysteine residue(s) for the catalysis. We found a conserved cysteine (Cys(211)) in hLPCAT1 that is crucial for its activity. Evolutionary analyses of the close homologs of LPCAT1 suggest that it appeared before the evolution of teleosts and indicate that LPCAT1 may have evolved along with the lung to facilitate respiration. hLPCAT1 mRNA is highly expressed in the human lung. We propose that hLPCAT1 is the biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. PMID:19383981

  1. Origins of extreme boundary lubrication by phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Dror, Yael; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles have been shown to have remarkable boundary lubricating properties under physiologically-high pressures. Here we carry out a systematic study, using a surface force balance, of the normal and shear (frictional) forces between two opposing surfaces bearing different PC vesicles across water, to elucidate the origin of these properties. Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs, diameters < 100 nm) of the symmetric saturated diacyl PCs DMPC (C(14)), DPPC (C(16)) and DSPC (C(18)) attached to mica surfaces were studied in their solid-ordered (SO) phase on the surface. Overall liposome lubrication ability improves markedly with increasing acyl chain length, and correlates strongly with the liposomes' structural integrity on the substrate surface: DSPC-SUVs were stable on the surface, and provided extremely efficient lubrication (friction coefficient μ ≈ 10(-4)) at room temperature at pressures up to at least 18 MPa. DMPC-SUVs ruptured following adsorption, providing poor high-pressure lubrication, while DPPC-SUVs behavior was intermediate between the two. These results can be well understood in terms of the hydration-lubrication paradigm, but suggest that an earlier conjecture, that highly-efficient lubrication by PC-SUVs depended simply on their being in the SO rather than in the liquid-disordered phase, should be more nuanced. Our results indicate that the resistance of the SUVs to mechanical deformation and rupture is the dominant factor in determining their overall boundary lubrication efficiency in our system. PMID:23623226

  2. Biliary phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine profiles in sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Annika; Ehehalt, Robert; Lehmann, Wolf-Dieter; Erben, Gerhard; Weiss, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Yvonne; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Stiehl, Adolf; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Sauer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze phospholipid profiles in intrahepatic bile from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). METHODS: Intrahepatic bile specimens collected via endoscopic retrograde cholangiography from 41 patients were analyzed. Fourteen of these patients were diagnosed with PSC, 10 with SSC, 11 with choledocholithiasis or no identifiable biliary disease, and 6 with cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Bile acid, cholesterol, protein, and bilirubin contents as well as pancreas lipase activity in bile were determined by biochemical methods. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species were quantified using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Bile from all the examined patient groups showed a remarkably similar PC and LPC species composition, with only minor statistical differences. Total biliary PC concentrations were highest in controls (8030 ± 1843 μmol/L) and lowest in patients with CCC (1969 ± 981 μmol/L) (P = 0.005, controls vs SSC and CCC, respectively, P < 0.05). LPC contents in bile were overall low (4.2% ± 1.8%). Biliary LPC/PC ratios and ratios of biliary PC to bilirubin, PC to cholesterol, PC to protein, and PC to bile acids showed no intergroup differences. CONCLUSION: PC and LPC profiles being similar in patients with or without sclerosing cholangitis, these phospholipids are likely not of major pathogenetic importance in this disease group. PMID:24023488

  3. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  4. Accelerated interleaflet transport of phosphatidylcholine molecules in membranes under deformation.

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, R M; Waugh, R E

    1996-01-01

    Biological membranes are lamellar structures composed of two leaflets capable of supporting different mechanical stresses. Stress differences between leaflets were generated during micromechanical experiments in which long thin tubes of lipid (tethers) were formed from the surfaces of giant phospholipid vesicles. A recent dynamic analysis of this experiment predicts the relaxation of local differences in leaflet stress by lateral slip between the leaflets. Differential stress may also relax by interleaflet transport of lipid molecules ("flip-flop"). In this report, we extend the former analysis to include interleaflet lipid transport. We show that transmembrane lipid flux will evidence itself as a linear increase in tether length with time after a step reduction in membrane tension. Multiple measurements were performed on 24 different vesicles composed of stearoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine plus 3% dinitrophenol-linked di-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine. These tethers all exhibited a linear phase of growth with a mean value of the rate of interlayer permeation, cp = 0.009 s-1. This corresponds to a half-time of approximately 8 min for mechanically driven interleaflet transport. This value is found to be consistent with longer times obtained for chemically driven transport if the lipids cross the membrane via transient, localized defects in the bilayer. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 PMID:8874013

  5. Susceptibility for hydroperoxide formation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y; Shibata, T; Ueki, T; Miyazawa, T

    1995-06-01

    To compare the peroxidative susceptibilities of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in liposomes, multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were prepared with equimolar L-alpha-dilinoleoyl PC (DLPC) and L-alpha-dilinoleoyl PE (DLPE), and with soya PC and soya PE having a uniform constituent fatty acids. The hydroperoxide formation at 37 degrees C in the presence of a water-soluble radical initiator was examined by chemiluminescence-high-performance liquid chromatography (CL-HPLC), and the effect of heterogeneous distribution of PC and PE on peroxidation was investigated. No difference was found between the hydroperoxidation of PC and PE in MLVs systems, except that soya PC was more susceptible to peroxidation than soya PE in the L-alpha-dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC)-based liposomes. No correlation was found between the amount of phospholipids distributed in the external leaflet of MLVs and hydroperoxide formation. This result suggested that the unsaturation of constituent fatty acids in phospholipids is more important than the difference in the polar head group of phospholipids regarding their peroxidizabilities in liposomes. PMID:7472672

  6. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  7. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  8. The labeling of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine in newborn and adult sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.; Nathanielsz, P.W.

    1981-08-01

    The labeling of the saturated phosphatidylcholine from surfactant with radiolabeled palmitic acid was characterized in seven newborn and seven adult sheep using a repetitive sampling technique. Each animal had a small cannula placed surgically in the trachea. Following the intravenous injection of (3H) palmitic acid, surfactant samples in saline were recovered from the distal airways of each animal with fine plastic catheters over a period of 10 days. The change in specific activity of the saturated phosphatidylcholine (cpm/mumol) was used to define the kinetics of secretion and then disappearance of the labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine. Labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine accumulated in a linear fashion without an apparent initial delay for 27 hr in adult and 44 hr in newborn sheep. The labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine then decayed with mean apparent biological half-life values of 45 hr and 54 hr in adult and newborn sheep, respectively. However, these half-life estimates are compromised by the long secretory phase of the labeling curves. The characteristics of the labeling of surfactant saturated phosphatidylcholine in sheep may be more representative of surfactant metabolism in large mammals than previous studies in small rodents.

  9. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  10. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia. PMID:27366754

  11. Intermolecular interactions of lysobisphosphatidic acid with phosphatidylcholine in mixed bilayers.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Juha M; Söderlund, Tim; Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Säily, Matti; Eriksson, Ove; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2005-01-01

    Lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) can be regarded to represent a unique derivative of phosphatidylglycerol. This lipid is highly enriched in late endosomes where it can comprise up to 10-15 mol% of all lipids and in these membranes, LBPA appears to be segregated into microdomains. We studied the thermotropic behavior of pure dioleoyl-LBPA mono- and bilayers using Langmuir-lipid monolayers, electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. LBPA formed metastable, liquid-expanded monolayers at an air/buffer interface, and its compression isotherms lacked any indication for structural phase transitions. Neat LBPA formed multilamellar vesicles with no structural transitions or phase transitions between 10 and 80 degrees C at a pH range of 3.0-7.4. We then proceeded to study mixed LBPA/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers by DSC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporating increasing amounts of LBPA (up to X(LBPA) (molar fraction)=0.10) decreased the co-operativity of the main transition for DPPC, and a decrease in the main phase transition as well as pretransition temperature of DPPC was observed yet with no effect on the enthalpy of this transition. In keeping with the DSC data for DPPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)/LBPA mixed bilayers were more fluid, and no evidence for lateral phase segregation was observed. These results were confirmed using fluorescence microscopy of Langmuir-lipid films composed of POPC and LBPA up to X(LBPA)=0.50 with no evidence for lateral phase separation. As late endosomes are eminently acidic, we examined the effect of lowering pH on lateral organization of mixed PC/LBPA bilayers by DSC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Even at pH 3.0, we find no evidence of LBPA-induced microdomain formation at LBPA contents found in cellular organelles. PMID:15589226

  12. Toxicity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines in cultured human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Jaritz, Hannah; Streith, Ingo; Zenzmaier, Elfriede; Köfeler, Harald; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Schaider, Helmut; Hermetter, Albin

    2015-07-01

    The oxidized phospholipids (oxPL) 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) are generated from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine under conditions of oxidative stress. These oxPL are components of oxidized low density lipoprotein. They are cytotoxic in cells of the arterial wall thus playing an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The toxic lipid effects include inflammation and under sustained exposure apoptosis. The aim of this study was to find out whether such toxic effects, especially apoptosis, are also elicited by oxPL in melanocytic cells in order to assess their potential for therapeutic intervention. FACS analysis after staining with fluorescent markers was performed to identify the mode of lipid-induced cell death. Activation of sphingomyelinase which generates apoptotic ceramide was measured using an established fluorescence assay. Ceramide profiles were determined by mass spectrometry. We found that 50μM POVPC induce cell death in human melanoma cells isolated from different stages of tumor progression but affect primary human melanocytes to a much lesser extent. In contrast, 50μM PGPC was only apoptotic in two out of four cell lines used in this study. The toxicity of both compounds was associated with efficient lipid uptake into the tumor cells and activation of acid sphingomyelinase. In several but not all melanoma cell lines used in this study, activation of the sphingomyelin degrading enzyme correlated with an increase in the concentration of the apoptotic mediator ceramide. The individual patterns of the newly formed ceramide species were also cell line-specific. PGPC and POVPC may be considered potential drug candidates for topical skin cancer treatment. They are toxic in malignant cells. The respective oxidized phospholipids are naturally formed in the body and resistance to these compounds is not likely to occur

  13. Structure and properties of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Sripada, P K; Shipley, G G

    1990-05-01

    The structural and thermotropic properties of the hydrated mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs), C(8):C(18)-PC and C(10):C(18)-PC, have been studied by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. For fully hydrated C(8):C(18)-PC, the reversible chain melting transition is observed at 9.9 degrees C (delta H = 7.3 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction at 0 degrees C (below the chain melting transition) shows a small bilayer repeat distance, d = 51.0 A, and a sharp, symmetric wide-angle reflection at 4.1 A, characteristic of a mixed interdigitated bilayer gel phase [see McIntosh, T. J., Simon, S. A., Ellington, J. C., Jr., & Porter, N. A. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 4038-4044; Hui, S. W., Mason, J. T., & Huang, C. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 5570-5577]. At 30 degrees C (above the chain melting transition), a diffuse band is observed at 4.5 A characteristic of an L alpha phase but with an increased bilayer periodicity, d = 61 A. Both the calculated lipid bilayer thickness (d1) and that determined directly from electron density profiles (dp-p) show unusual increases as a consequence of chain melting. In contrast, fully hydrated C(10):C(18)-PC shows an asymmetric endothermic transition at 11.8 degrees C. Below the chain melting transition, two lamellar phases are present, corresponding to coexisting interdigitated (d = 52.3 A) and noninterdigitated (d = 62.5 A) bilayer gel phases. The relative amounts of these phases depend upon the low-temperature incubation and/or hydration conditions, suggesting conversions, albeit kinetically complex, between metastable, and stable phases. The different behavior of C(8):C(18)-PC and C(10):C(18)-PC, as well as their positional isomers, is rationalized in terms of the molecular conformation of PC. PMID:2361142

  14. Alterations in phosphatidylcholine synthesis are associated with taxol resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbara, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    A taxol resistant variant (J7/TAX-50) of the murine macrophage-like cell line J774.2 has been developed in vitro. The LD/sub 50/ of taxol for the resistant cells is 800-fold greater than that for the parental cell line. The J7/TAX-50 cells display phenotypic traits which are associated with multidrug resistance. J7/TAX-50 is unstably resistant and must be maintained in the presence of taxol. Cells grown in the absence of taxol for 30 days revert to drug sensitivity, and the membrane phosphoglycoprotein is lost. In contrast, the return to a normal level of drug accumulation is prolonged and requires over 8 months of growth in the absence of taxol. To characterize further the parental, resistant and revertant cell lines, the major lipids have been analyzed by 2D-chromatography and HPLC. The steady-state level of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in J7/TAX-50 is greater than in the parental or revertant cell lines. Pulse-chase studies performed with /sup 14/C-choline or /sup 32/P-orthophosphate demonstrated an increase in the turnover of PC in J7/TAX-50. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the composition of the major phospholipids indicated that fatty acids attached to the sn1- and 2-positions of PC are the same in the resistant and parental cell lines. These studies suggest that an increased level of PC in the membrane may be related to drug resistance and responsible for the prolonged decrease in steady-state drug association in J7/TAX-50 grown in the absence of taxol.

  15. Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Winther, Bjørn; Hoem, Nils; Berge, Kjetil; Reubsaet, Léon

    2011-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the phospholipids in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba, an emerging source for human nutritional supplements. The study was carried out in order to map the species of the choline-containing phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and lyso-phosphatidylcholine. In addition, the prevalent phosphatidylcholine class was quantified and the results compared with prior analysis. The qualification was performed with separation on a reverse phase chromatography column, while the quantification was obtained with class separation on a normal phase chromatography column. An Orbitrap system was used for the detection, and pulsed-Q dissociation fragmentation was utilized for the identification of the species. An asymmetrical exclusion list was applied for detection of phospholipid species of lower concentration, significantly improving the number of species observed. A total of 69 choline-containing phospholipids were detected, whereof 60 phosphatidylcholine substances, among others seven with probable omega-3 fatty acids in both sn-1 and sn-2. The phosphatidylcholine concentration was estimated to be 34 ± 5 g/100 g oil (n = 5). These results confirm the complexity of the phospholipid composition of krill oil, and the presence of long chained, heavily unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:20848234

  16. Effects of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine degradation on cyclodextrin-mediated cholesterol efflux in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ohvo, H; Olsio, C; Slotte, J P

    1997-11-15

    The hydrolysis of plasma membrane sphingomyelin is known to dramatically alter cellular cholesterol homeostasis in different ways, whereas the degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine has much less or no effects on cell cholesterol homeostasis [Pörn, Ares, Slotte, J. Lipid Res. 34 (1993) 1385-1392]. In this study, we used an efficient extracellular cholesterol acceptor (cyclodextrin) and determined the extent of cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts in which plasma membrane sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine was degraded. Treatment of cells with sphingomyelinase reduced the cell sphingomyelin content by about 76% (about 13 nmol SM degraded), and dramatically increased the desorption of [3H]cholesterol from the plasma membrane to 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The corresponding hydrolysis of cell surface phosphatidylcholine (about 12% reduction of the cellular phosphatidylcholine content, corresponding to about 12 nmol degraded PC) had almost no effect on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux. The stimulatory effect of sphingomyelin degradation on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux was reversible, since rates of [3H]cholesterol efflux dropped back to control levels when cells (in this case baby hamster kidney cells) were allowed to restore their sphingomyelin content by re-synthesis in the absence of sphingomyelinase. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that plasma membrane sphingomyelin markedly affected the rate of cholesterol transfer between cells and an extracellular acceptor (i.e., cyclodextrin), whereas the effect of phosphatidylcholine on cholesterol efflux was much smaller. PMID:9421186

  17. Evidence for superlattice arrangements in fluid phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K H; Ruonala, M; Virtanen, J; Somerharju, P

    1997-01-01

    Recently, evidence for cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules to adapt superlattice arrangements in fluid lipid bilayers has been presented. Whether superlattice arrangements exist in other biologically relevant lipid membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PC, is still speculative. In this study, we have examined the physical properties of fluid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PE (POPE) binary mixtures as a function of the POPE mole fraction (X(PE)) using fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. At 30 degrees C, i.e., above the Tm of POPE and POPC, deviations, or dips, as well as local data scattering in the excimer-to-monomer fluorescence intensity ratio of intramolecular excimer forming dipyrenylphosphatidylcholine probe in POPE/POPC mixtures were detected at X(PE) approximately 0.04, 0.11, 0.16, 0.26, 0.33, 0.51, 0.66, 0.75, 0.82, 0.91, and 0.94. The above critical values of X(PE) coincide (within +/-0.03) with the critical mole fractions X(HX,PE) or X(R,PE) predicted by a headgroup superlattice model, which assumes that the lipid headgroups form hexagonal or rectangular superlattice, respectively, in the bilayer. Other spectroscopic data, generalized polarization of Laurdan and infrared carbonyl and phosphate stretching frequency, were also collected. Similar agreements between some of the observed critical values of X(PE) from these data and the X(HX,PE) or X(R,PE) values were also found. However, all techniques yielded critical values of X(PE) (e.g., 0.42 and 0.58) that cannot be explained by the present headgroup superlattice model. The effective cross-sectional area of the PE headgroup is smaller than that of the acyl chains. Hence, the relief of "packing frustration" of PE in the presence of PC (larger headgroup than PE) may be one of the major mechanisms in driving the PE and PC components to superlattice-like lateral distributions in the bilayer. We propose that headgroup superlattices may

  18. Properties of ganglioside GM1 in phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Reed, R A; Shipley, G G

    1996-03-01

    Gangliosides have been shown to function as cell surface receptors, as well as participating in cell growth, differentiation, and transformation. In spite of their multiple biological functions, relatively little is known about their structure and physical properties in membrane systems. The thermotropic and structural properties of ganglioside GM1 alone and in a binary system with 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. By DSC hydrated GM1 undergoes a broad endothermic transition TM = 26 degrees C (delta H = 1.7 kcal/mol GM1). X-ray diffraction below (-2 degrees C) and above (51 degrees C) this transition indicates a micellar structure with changes occurring only in the wide angle region of the diffraction pattern (relatively sharp reflection at 1/4.12 A-1 at -2 degrees C; more diffuse reflection at 1/4.41 A-1 at 51 degrees C). In hydrated binary mixtures with DPPC, incorporation of GM1 (0-30 mol%; zone 1) decreases the enthalpy of the DPPC pretransition at low molar compositions while increasing the TM of both the pre- and main transitions (limiting values, 39 and 44 degrees C, respectively). X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of a single bilayer gel phase in zone 1 that can undergo chain melting to an L alpha bilayer phase. A detailed hydration study of GM1 (5.7 mol %)/DPPC indicated a conversion of the DPPC bilayer gel phase to an infinite swelling system in zone 1 due to the presence of the negatively charged sialic acid moiety of GM1. At 30-61 mol % GM1 (zone 2), two calorimetric transitions are observed at 44 and 47 degrees C, suggesting the presence of two phases. The lower transition reflects the bilayer gel --> L alpha transition (zone 1), whereas the upper transition appears to be a consequence of the formation of a nonbilayer, micellar or hexagonal phase, although the structure of this phase has not been defined by x-ray diffraction. At > 61 mol % GM

  19. The interaction of phosphatidylcholine bilayers with Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Goñi, F M; Urbaneja, M A; Arrondo, J L; Alonso, A; Durrani, A A; Chapman, D

    1986-11-01

    The interaction of multilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has been studied under equilibrium conditions, specially in the sub-lytic range of surfactant concentrations. Equilibrium was achieved in less than 24 h. Estimations of detergent binding to bilayers, using [3H]Triton X-100, indicate that the amphiphile is incorporated even at very low concentrations (below its critical micellar concentration); a dramatic increase in the amount of bound Triton X-100 occurs at detergent concentrations just below those producing membrane solubilization. Solubilization occurs at phospholipid/detergent molar ratios near 0.65 irrespective of lipid concentration. The perturbation produced by the surfactant in the phospholipid bilayer has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, NMR and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. At low detergent concentration (lipid/detergent molar ratios above 3), a reduction in 2H-NMR quadrupolar splitting occurs, suggesting a decrease in the static order of the acyl chains; the same effect is detected by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the form of blue shifts of the methylene stretching vibration bands. Simultaneously, the enthalpy variation of the main phospholipid phase transition is decreased by about a third with respect to its value in the pure lipid/water system. For phospholipid/detergent molar ratios between 3 and 1, the decrease in lipid static order does not proceed any further; rather an increase in fluidity is observed, characterized by a marked decrease in the midpoint transition temperature of the gel-to-fluid phospholipid transition. At the same time an isotropic component is apparent in both 31P-NMR and 2H-NMR spectra, and a new low-temperature endotherm is detected in differential scanning calorimetric traces. When phospholipid and Triton X-100 are present at equimolar ratios some bilayer structure persists, as judged from calorimetric observations, but NMR reveals

  20. A Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Mitochondrial Structural Abnormalities Caused by Defective De Novo Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Ohkuma, Aya; Talim, Beril; Karahashi, Minako; Koumura, Tomoko; Aoyama, Chieko; Kurihara, Mana; Quinlivan, Ros; Sewry, Caroline; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Goto, Kanako; Koksal, Burcu; Kale, Gulsev; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Noguchi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Nonaka, Ikuya; Sher, Roger B.; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasuhito; Cox, Gregory A.; Topaloglu, Haluk; Nishino, Ichizo

    2011-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of inherited muscle diseases characterized clinically by muscle weakness and hypotonia in early infancy. A number of genes harboring causative mutations have been identified, but several cases of congenital muscular dystrophy remain molecularly unresolved. We examined 15 individuals with a congenital muscular dystrophy characterized by early-onset muscle wasting, mental retardation, and peculiar enlarged mitochondria that are prevalent toward the periphery of the fibers but are sparse in the center on muscle biopsy, and we have identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding choline kinase beta (CHKB). This is the first enzymatic step in a biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotes. In muscle of three affected individuals with nonsense mutations, choline kinase activities were undetectable, and phosphatidylcholine levels were decreased. We identified the human disease caused by disruption of a phospholipid de novo biosynthetic pathway, demonstrating the pivotal role of phosphatidylcholine in muscle and brain. PMID:21665002

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphatidylcholine Analogues Containing Monoterpene Acids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Niezgoda, Natalia; Gładkowski, Witold; Czarnecka, Marta; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of novel phosphatidylcholines with geranic and citronellic acids in sn-1 and sn-2 positions is described. The structured phospholipids were obtained in high yields (59–87%) and evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines of different origin: MV4-11, A-549, MCF-7, LOVO, LOVO/DX, HepG2 and also towards non-cancer cell line BALB/3T3 (normal mice fibroblasts). The phosphatidylcholines modified with monoterpene acid showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity than free monoterpene acids. The highest activity was observed for the terpene-phospholipids containing the isoprenoid acids in sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid in sn-2. PMID:27310666

  2. Structure and Function of Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP)/StarD2

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno,K.; Wu, M.; Scapa, E.; Roderick, S.; Cohen, D.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a highly specific soluble lipid binding protein that transfers phosphatidylcholine between membranes in vitro. PC-TP is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related transfer (START) domain superfamily. Although its biochemical properties and structure are well characterized, the functions of PC-TP in vivo remain incompletely understood. Studies of mice with homozygous disruption of the Pctp gene have largely refuted the hypotheses that this protein participates in the hepatocellular selection and transport of biliary phospholipids, in the production of lung surfactant, in leukotriene biosynthesis and in cellular phosphatidylcholine metabolism. Nevertheless, Pctp-/- mice exhibit interesting defects in lipid homeostasis, the understanding of which should elucidate the biological functions of PC-TP.

  3. Arsenic‐Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar

    PubMed Central

    Viczek, Sandra A.; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new group of arsenolipids based on cell‐membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic‐containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic‐containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non‐arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids. PMID:26996517

  4. Unsaturated phosphatidylcholines lining on the surface of cartilage and its possible physiological roles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Crawford, Ross W; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence has strongly indicated that surface-active phospholipid (SAPL), or surfactant, lines the surface of cartilage and serves as a lubricating agent. Previous clinical study showed that a saturated phosphatidylcholine (SPC), dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), was effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, however recent studies suggested that the dominant SAPL species at some sites outside the lung are not SPC, rather, are unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (USPC). Some of these USPC have been proven to be good boundary lubricants by our previous study, implicating their possible important physiological roles in joint if their existence can be confirmed. So far, no study has been conducted to identify the whole molecule species of different phosphatidylcholine (PC) classes on the surface of cartilage. In this study we identified the dominant PC molecule species on the surface of cartilage. We also confirmed that some of these PC species possess a property of semipermeability. Methods HPLC was used to analyse the PC profile of bovine cartilage samples and comparisons of DPPC and USPC were carried out through semipermeability tests. Results It was confirmed that USPC are the dominant SAPL species on the surface of cartilage. In particular, they are Dilinoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC), Palmitoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, (PLPC), Palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and Stearoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (SLPC). The relative content of DPPC (a SPC) was only 8%. Two USPC, PLPC and POPC, were capable of generating osmotic pressure that is equivalent to that by DPPC. Conclusion The results from the current study confirm vigorously that USPC is the endogenous species inside the joint as against DPPC thereby confirming once again that USPC, and not SPC, characterizes the PC species distribution at non-lung sites of the body. USPC not only has better anti-friction and lubrication properties than DPPC, they also possess a level of

  5. Arsenic-Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar.

    PubMed

    Viczek, Sandra A; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-04-18

    A new group of arsenolipids based on cell-membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic-containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic-containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non-arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids. PMID:26996517

  6. Arsenic‐Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar

    PubMed Central

    Viczek, Sandra A.; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new group of arsenolipids based on cell‐membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic‐containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic‐containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non‐arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids.

  7. Thermodynamic, thermomechanical, and structural properties of a hydrated asymmetric phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, T; Caffrey, M

    1993-01-01

    1-Behenyl-2-lauryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (22/12 PC) belongs to a unique group of phospholipids in which the molecule has one acyl chain almost twice as long as the other. The temperature-composition phase diagram for this lipid in the range of 25-65 degrees C, and 0 to 84.3% (w/w) water has been constructed by using the isoplethal method in the heating direction and x-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure characterization. At water contents between 10.3 and 34% (w/w) and at temperatures below 43 degrees C, a single mixed interdigitated lamellar gel phase (Lm beta, [symbol: see text]) of the type described by Hui et al. (1984. Biochemistry. 23:5570-5577) and McIntosh et al. (1984. Biochemistry. 23:4038-4044) was found. A second phase consisting of bulk aqueous solution coexists with the Lm beta phase at hydration levels above 34% (w/w) water in the temperature range between 25 and 43 degrees C. Above 43 degrees C, a partially interdigitated lamellar liquid crystalline (Lp alpha) phase ([symbol: see text]) is seen in the water concentration range extending from 0 to 84.3% (w/w). The pure Lp alpha phase is found below 43% (w/w) water, while coexistence of the Lp alpha phase and the bulk aqueous solution is observed above this water concentration which marks the hydration boundary. Interestingly, the latter boundary for both Lm beta and Lp alpha phases is nearly vertical in the temperature range studied. Furthermore, the lamellar chain-melting transition temperature appears to be relatively insensitive to hydration in the range 0-85% (w/w) water. We have confirmed the identify of the Lm beta phase by constructing a 5.7-A resolution electron density profile on oriented samples by the swelling method. Temperature-induced chain melting effects an increase in lipid bilayer thickness suggesting that the Lp alpha phase has chains packed in the partially as opposed to the mixed interdigitated configuration. Unlike the symmetric phosphatidylcholines a

  8. Determination of Oxidized Phosphatidylcholines by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Pia; Pötz, Sandra; Brunner, Martina; Trötzmüller, Martin; Fauland, Alexander; Triebl, Alexander; Hartler, Jürgen; Lankmayr, Ernst; Köfeler, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach for analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines by an Orbitrap Fourier Transform mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. This method depends on three selectivity criteria for separation and identification: retention time, exact mass at a resolution of 100,000 and collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra in a linear ion trap. The process of chromatography development showed the best separation properties with a silica-based Kinetex column. This type of chromatography was able to separate all major lipid classes expected in mammalian samples, yielding increased sensitivity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines over reversed phase chromatography. Identification of molecular species was achieved by exact mass on intact molecular ions and CID tandem mass spectra containing characteristic fragments. Due to a lack of commercially available standards, method development was performed with copper induced oxidation products of palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine, which resulted in a plethora of lipid species oxidized at the arachidonoyl moiety. Validation of the method was done with copper oxidized human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) prepared by ultracentrifugation. In these LDL samples we could identify 46 oxidized molecular phosphatidylcholine species out of 99 possible candidates. PMID:25874761

  9. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim in carrying out this analysis, was to assess the predictive value of plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) DHA content, DHA intake, and fish intake for the risk of developing dementia in the Framingham Heart Study. A cohort of 899 subjects free of dementia was followed to assess the onset of incid...

  10. The stereochemical configuration of lysosomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine: comparison with lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Joutti, A; Renkonen, O

    1979-02-01

    Lysosomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were isolated from liver of rats treated with Triton WR 1339 and from cultured BHK-cells. Stereochemical analysis proved that these lipids, in contrast to the lysosomal lysobisphosphatidic acid, were derivatives of sn-glycero-3-phosphate. PMID:438662

  11. Chains, Sheets and Droplets: Assemblies of Hydrophobic Gold Nanocrystals with Saturated Phosphatidylcholine Lipid and Squalene

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Michael R.; Bosoy, Christian; Yu, Yixuan; Korgel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Assemblies of saturated 1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine lipid and hydrophobic dodecanethiol-capped 1.8 nm diameter gold nanocrystals were studied as a function of lipid chain length and the addition of the naturally-occurring oil, squalene. The gold nanocrystals formed various lipid-stabilized agglomerates, sometimes fusing with lipid vesicle bilayers. The nanocrystal assembly structure depended on the hydrocarbon chain length of the lipid fatty acids. Lipid with the shortest fatty acid length studied, dilauroyl-phosphatidylcholine, created extended chains of gold nanocrystals. Lipid with slightly longer fatty acid chains created planar sheets of nanocrystals. Further increases of the fatty acid chain length led to spherical agglomerates. The inclusion of squalene led to lipid- and nanocrystal-coated oil droplets. PMID:23033891

  12. Biosynthetic preparation of selectively deuterated phosphatidylcholine in genetically modified Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Selma; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Schiller, Jürgen; Marek, Magdalena; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Arleth, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes and one of the most commonly used phospholipids for reconstitution of membrane proteins into carrier systems such as lipid vesicles, micelles and nanodiscs. Selectively deuterated versions of this lipid have many applications, especially in structural studies using techniques such as NMR, neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering. Here we present a comprehensive study of selective deuteration of phosphatidylcholine through biosynthesis in a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli. By carefully tuning the deuteration level in E. coli growth media and varying the deuteration of supplemented carbon sources, we show that it is possible to achieve a controlled deuteration for three distinct parts of the PC lipid molecule, namely the (a) lipid head group, (b) glycerol backbone and (c) fatty acyl tail. This biosynthetic approach paves the way for the synthesis of specifically deuterated, physiologically relevant phospholipid species which remain difficult to obtain through standard chemical synthesis. PMID:25301578

  13. ESR studies on the orientation of cholesteryl ester in phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed

    Grover, A K; Forrest, B J; Buchinski, R K; Cushley, R J

    1979-01-19

    The alignment of cholesteryl esters in multilayer phosphatidylcholine membranes was investigated using two spin-labelled cholesteryl esters: 10 : 3 ester (I) and 1 : 14 ester (II). The nitroxide label of I is aligned in the membrane with a very large angle of tilt (47 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees) with respect to the normal to the membrane surface; II does not show such a tilt. I gives spectra corresponding to immobilized label while II gives nearly isotropic spectra. Ascorbate treatment of the multilayers shows that the labels in I and II are not present at the phosphatidylcholine-water interphase. The data supports a 'horseshoe' configuration for the cholesteryl ester in the bilayer, with both the fatty acid chain and the cholesteryl moiety extending deep into the hydrophobic region of the membrane and with the ester linkage near the surface. PMID:215228

  14. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and ethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Prud'homme, M.P.; Moore, T.S. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by castor bean endosperm have been studied. Endosperm halves were incubated with tracer concentrations of (2-{sup 14}C) ethanolamine or ({sup 14}C)S-adenosyl-L-methionine for 10 or 30 minutes, respectively. The kinetics of appearance were followed in methyl- and dimethylethanolamine, choline, and their phospho-, CDP-, and phosphatidyl-derivatives. Methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine rapidly labeled the three methylated-ethanolamine derivatives. Radioactivity then decreased in these compounds and accumulated in phosphatidylcholine. The initial methylation utilized ethanolamine as a substrate to form methyl-ethanolamine, which was partially converted to dimethyl-ethanolamine, choline, and phosphomethylethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occurred at both phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Experiments with ethanolamine confirmed these results.

  15. Altered levels of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins in peritoneal fluid from ovarian endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vouk, Katja; Ribič-Pucelj, Martina; Adamski, Jerzy; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a complex, polygenic, and estrogen-dependent disease that affects 6% to 10% of women of reproductive age, and 30% to 50% of women with infertility and/or pelvic pain. Surgical diagnosis of endometriosis is still the gold standard, as there are currently no diagnostic biomarkers available. Due to the invasive diagnostics, it can take up to 11 years before affected women are diagnosed and receive the appropriate treatment. We performed a targeted metabolomics study to search for potential semi-invasive biomarkers in peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients. Our case-control study comprised 29 ovarian endometriosis patients and 36 healthy control women. The 148 metabolites included acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, which were quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The strength of association between the metabolites and the metabolite ratios and disease was assessed using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The best combination of biomarkers was then selected by performing step-wise logistic regression. Our analysis reveals significantly decreased concentrations of 10 metabolites, of carnitine and acylcarnitines (C0, C8:1, C6C4:1 DC, C10:1), phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C38:3, PC aa C38:4, PC aa C40:4, PC aa C40:5), and sphingomyelins (SM C16:1, SM C18:1), and 125 significantly altered metabolite ratios in patients versus control women. The best model includes two ratios: a carnitine to a phosphatidylcholine (C0/PC ae C36:0); and between two phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C30:0/PC ae C32:2). When adjusted for age, this provides sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 94.4%, with AUC of 0.944. Our study supports the importance of carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin metabolites in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and confirms the potential for the combination of individual metabolite ratios to provide biomarkers for semi-invasive diagnostics. PMID:26921767

  16. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy. PMID:27418568

  17. PARTITIONING OF PERFLUOROOCTANOATE INTO PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE BILAYERS IS CHAIN LENGTH-INDEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Bothun, Geoffrey D.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The chain length dependence of the interaction of PFOA, a persistent environmental contaminant, with dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) was investigated using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). PFOA caused a linear depression of the main phase transition temperature Tm while increasing the width of the phase transition of all three phosphatidylcholines. Although PFOA’s effect on the on Tm and the transition width decreased in the order DMPC > DPPC > DSPC, its relative effect on the phase behavior was largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine. PFOA caused swelling of DMPC but not DPPC and DSPC liposomes at 37°C in the DLS experiments, which suggests that PFOA partitions more readily into bilayers in the fluid phase. These findings suggest that PFOA’s effect on the phase behavior of phosphatidylcholines depends on the cooperativity and state (i.e., gel versus liquid phase) of the membrane. DLS experiments are also consistent with partial liposome solubilization at PFOA/lipid molar ratios > 1, which suggests the formation of mixed PFOA-lipid micelles. PMID:20096277

  18. X-ray characterization of self-assembled long-chain phosphatidylcholine/bile salt/silica mesostructured films with nanoscale homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Darren R; Garcia, Fred L; Jiang, Zhang; Strzalka, Joseph; Wang, Jin; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2011-02-14

    A bile salt (sodium taurodeoxycholate, NaTDC) was used to prevent phase separation between silica and lipid in self-assembled long-chain diacyl phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) films. Phase diagrams for NaTDC/didecanoyl phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) and NaTDC/egg phosphatidylcholine/SiO(2) films were investigated through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at a synchrotron source. PMID:21135947

  19. A Presurgical Study of Oral Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine in Patients with Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Puccio, Antonella; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    Silybin-phosphatidylcholine is an orally bioavailable complex of silybin, a polyphenolic flavonolignan derived from milk thistle, endowed with potential anticancer activity in preclinical models. The purpose of this window of opportunity trial was to determine, for the first time in early breast cancer patients, the breast tissue distribution of silybin. Twelve breast cancer patients received silybin-phosphatidylcholine, 2.8 g daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. Silybin levels were measured before (SIL) and after (TOT-SIL) enzymatic hydrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS in biologic samples (plasma, urine, breast cancer, and surrounding normal tissue). Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. All patients were fully compliant and completed the treatment program. No toxicity was observed. SIL and TOT-SIL were undetectable in baseline samples. Despite a high between-subject variability, repeated administration of Siliphos achieved levels of TOT-SIL of 31,121 to 7,654 ng/mL in the plasma and up to 1,375 ng/g in breast cancer tissue. SIL concentrations ranged from 10,861 to 1,818 ng/mL in plasma and up to 177 ng/g in breast cancer tissue. Median TOT-SIL concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (P = 0.018). No significant change in either blood levels of IGF-I and nitric oxide or Ki-67 in tumors was noted. Silybin-phosphatidylcholine, taken orally, can deliver high blood concentrations of silybin, which selectively accumulates in breast tumor tissue. These findings provide the basis for a future phase II biomarker trial in breast cancer prevention. PMID:26526990

  20. Cholesterol in condensed and fluid phosphatidylcholine monolayers studied by epifluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, L A; Nag, K; Davis, P J; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effect of cholesterol on monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1 -palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) at 21 +/- 2 degrees C using 1 mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2-1, 3-benzoxadizole-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl]phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) as a fluorophore. Up to 30 mol% cholesterol in DPPC monolayers decreased the amounts of probe-excluded liquid-condensed (LC) phase at all surface pressures (pi), but did not effect the monolayers of POPC, which remained in the liquid-expanded (LE) phase at all pi. At low pi (2-5 mN/m), 10 mol% or more cholesterol in DPPC induced a lateral phase separation into dark probe-excluded and light probe-rich regions. In POPC monolayers, phase separation was observed at low pi when > or =40 mol% or more cholesterol was present. The lateral phase separation observed with increased cholesterol concentrations in these lipid monolayers may be a result of the segregation of cholesterol-rich domains in ordered fluid phases that preferentially exclude the fluorescent probe. With increasing pi, monolayers could be transformed from a heterogeneous dark and light appearance into a homogeneous fluorescent phase, in a manner that was dependent on pi and cholesterol content. The packing density of the acyl chains may be a determinant in the interaction of cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine (PC), because the transformations in monolayer surface texture were observed in phospholipid (PL)/sterol mixtures having similar molecular areas. At high pi (41 mN/m), elongated crystal-like structures were observed in monolayers containing 80-100 mol% cholesterol, and these structures grew in size when the monolayers were compressed after collapse. This observation could be associated with the segregation and crystallization of cholesterol after monolayer collapse. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9168032

  1. Preparation of betulinic acid nanoemulsions stabilized by ω-3 enriched phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Garduño, A; Ochoa Flores, A A; Serrano-Niño, J C; Martínez-Sanchez, C E; Beristain, C I; García, H S

    2015-05-01

    Bioactive compounds such as ω-3 fatty acids and terpenes, have been associated with beneficial health effects; however, their solubility in the gastrointestinal tract and its bioavailability in the body are low. Nanoemulsions offer a viable alternative to disperse lipophilic compounds and improve their dissolution, permeation, absorption and bioavailability. Enzyme modified phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ω-3 fatty acids was used as emulsifier to stabilize oil-in-water nanoemulsions generated using ultrasound device. These systems were used as carriers of betulinic acid, which has reported anti-carcinogenic activity. Phospholipase-catalyzed modification of PC allowed the incorporation of 50 mol% of ω-3 fatty acids. Formation variables such as oil type and ultrasound amplitude had effects on nanoemulsion characteristics. Incorporation of betulinic acid affected globule size; however, betulinic acid nanoemulsions below 200 nm could be prepared. The conditions under which betulinic acid nanoemulsions were obtained using the modified phosphatidylcholine with the smaller globule size (91 nm) were 10% PC, 25% glycerol, medium chain oil and 30% amplitude for 12 min in the sonicator. Storage temperature had an effect on the stability of the nanoemulsions, at 5°C we observed the smallest growth in globule size. The use of olive oil decreased the globule size growth during storage of the nanoemulsion stabilized with modified phosphatidylcholine, although globule size obtained was greater than 200 nm. Medium pH had a significant effect on the nanoemulsions; alkaline pH values improved storage stability. These results provide useful information for using this type of carrier system on the formulation of products in the pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:25572417

  2. Metabolism and cytotoxic effects of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuuri; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Tatewaki, Naoto; Mizuochi, Shunsuke; Ito, Junya; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nishida, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-03-20

    In this study, we investigated cellular uptake and metabolism of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and then evaluated whether PCOOH or its metabolites cause pathophysiological effects such as cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Although we found that most PCOOH was reduced to PC hydroxide in HepG2 cells, the remaining PCOOH caused cytotoxic effects that may be mediated through an unusual apoptosis pathway. These results will enhance our fundamental understanding of how PCOOH, which is present in oxidized low density lipoproteins, is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25704087

  3. The interaction of fetuin with phosphatidylcholine monolayers. Characterization of a lipoprotein membrane system suitable for the attachment of myxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Tiffany, J. M.; Blough, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. An artificial membrane system was formed by spreading at air/water and oil/water interfaces, by using phosphatidylcholine and the glycoprotein fetuin (mol.wt. 48400). 2. The plot of increase of interfacial pressure against amount of protein added beneath a monomolecular film of phosphatidylcholine showed two discontinuities, corresponding to the completion of two distinct layers of protein: (a) largely denatured and closely associated with the polar head groups of phosphatidylcholine, possibly with penetration of non-polar protein groups between the phosphatidylcholine molecules and (b) an additional adsorbed layer of substantially native fetuin in either a close-packed or open-lattice array. A more compactly organized membrane was apparently formed at pH7.4 with 1mm-Mg2+ in the aqueous phase than without Mg2+; at 15mm-Mg2+, more random adsorption of protein appeared to take place. Qualitatively similar results were obtained at pH5.1 with 1mm-Mg2+. Closer initial packing of the phosphatidylcholine layer decreased both the magnitude of the interfacial pressure change and the amounts of protein bound in the two layers. 3. The amount of N-acetylneuraminic acid released by neuraminidase (EC 3.2.1.18) in the subphase was measured at pH5.1; a mean distribution of 9.7×1013 residues/cm2 was calculated for the completed second protein layer. PMID:5420053

  4. Diacylglycerol production induced by growth hormone in Ob1771 preadipocytes arises from phosphatidylcholine breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Catalioto, R.M.; Ailhaud, G.; Negrel, R. )

    1990-12-31

    Growth Hormone has recently been shown to stimulate the formation of diacylglycerol in Ob1771 mouse preadipocyte cells without increasing inositol lipid turnover. Addition of growth hormone to Ob1771 cells prelabelled with ({sup 3}H)glycerol or ({sup 3}H)choline led to a rapid, transient and stoechiometric formation of labelled diacylglycerol and phosphocholine, respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the level of choline and phosphatidic acid whereas the release of water-soluble metabolites in ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine prelabelled cells exposed to growth hormone was hardly detectable. Stimulation by growth hormone of cells prelabelled with (2-palmitoyl 9, 10 ({sup 3}H))phosphatidylcholine also induced the production of labelled diacyglycerol. Pertussis toxin abolished both diacylglycerol and phosphocholine formation induced by growth hormone. It is concluded that growth hormone mediates diacylglycerol production in Ob1771 cells by means of phosphatidylcholine breakdown involving a phospholipase C which is likely coupled to the growth hormone receptor via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein.

  5. Persistence of phase coexistence in disaturated phosphatidylcholine monolayers at high surface pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, J M; Putz, G; Hall, S B

    1999-01-01

    Prior reports that the coexistence of the liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condensed (LC) phases in phospholipid monolayers terminates in a critical point have been compromised by experimental difficulties with Langmuir troughs at high surface pressures and temperatures. The studies reported here used the continuous interface of a captive bubble to minimize these problems during measurements of the phase behavior for monolayers containing the phosphatidylcholines with the four different possible combinations of palmitoyl and/or myristoyl acyl residues. Isothermal compression produced surface pressure-area curves for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that were indistinguishable from previously published data obtained with Langmuir troughs. During isobaric heating, a steep increase in molecular area corresponding to the main LC-LE phase transition persisted for all four compounds to 45 mN/m, at which collapse of the LE phase first occurred. No other discontinuities to suggest other phase transitions were apparent. Isobars for DPPC at higher pressures were complicated by collapse of the monolayer, but continued to show evidence up to 65 mN/m for at least the onset of the LC-LE transition. The persistence of the main phase transition to high surface pressures suggests that a critical point for these monolayers of disaturated phospholipids is either nonexistent or inaccessible at an air-water interface. PMID:10585934

  6. Persistence of phase coexistence in disaturated phosphatidylcholine monolayers at high surface pressures.

    PubMed

    Crane, J M; Putz, G; Hall, S B

    1999-12-01

    Prior reports that the coexistence of the liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condensed (LC) phases in phospholipid monolayers terminates in a critical point have been compromised by experimental difficulties with Langmuir troughs at high surface pressures and temperatures. The studies reported here used the continuous interface of a captive bubble to minimize these problems during measurements of the phase behavior for monolayers containing the phosphatidylcholines with the four different possible combinations of palmitoyl and/or myristoyl acyl residues. Isothermal compression produced surface pressure-area curves for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that were indistinguishable from previously published data obtained with Langmuir troughs. During isobaric heating, a steep increase in molecular area corresponding to the main LC-LE phase transition persisted for all four compounds to 45 mN/m, at which collapse of the LE phase first occurred. No other discontinuities to suggest other phase transitions were apparent. Isobars for DPPC at higher pressures were complicated by collapse of the monolayer, but continued to show evidence up to 65 mN/m for at least the onset of the LC-LE transition. The persistence of the main phase transition to high surface pressures suggests that a critical point for these monolayers of disaturated phospholipids is either nonexistent or inaccessible at an air-water interface. PMID:10585934

  7. Physical and photophysical characterization of a BODIPY phosphatidylcholine as a membrane probe.

    PubMed Central

    Dahim, Mohammed; Mizuno, Nancy K; Li, Xin-Min; Momsen, William E; Momsen, Maureen M; Brockman, Howard L

    2002-01-01

    Lipids containing the dimethyl BODIPY fluorophore are used in cell biology because their fluorescence properties change with fluorophore concentration (C.-S. Chen, O. C. Martin, and R. E. Pagano. 1997. Biophys J. 72:37-50). The miscibility and steady-state fluorescence behavior of one such lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PBPC), have been characterized in mixtures with 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC). PBPC packs similarly to phosphatidylcholines having a cis-unsaturated acyl chain and mixes nearly ideally with SOPC, apparently without fluorophore-fluorophore aggregation. Increasing PBPC mole fraction from 0.0 to 1.0 in SOPC membranes changes the emission characteristics of the probe in a continuous manner. Analysis of these changes shows that emission from the excited dimethyl BODIPY monomer self quenches with a critical radius of 25.9 A. Fluorophores sufficiently close (< or =13.7 A) at the time of excitation can form an excited dimer, emission from which depends strongly on total lipid packing density. Overall, the data show that PBPC is a reasonable physical substitute for other phosphatidylcholines in fluid membranes. Knowledge of PBPC fluorescence in lipid monolayers has been exploited to determine the two-dimensional concentration of SOPC in unilamellar, bilayer membranes. PMID:12202376

  8. Seasonal variation of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides in blood of sweet smelt Plecoglossus altivelis.

    PubMed

    Kaewsrithong, J; Ushio, H; Ohshima, T

    2001-08-01

    Sweet smelt was reared at two fishery experimental stations for 5 months from June to October. Every 2 weeks blood was collected from the caudal vessels and, subsequently, the phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide contents and the fatty acid compositions in the blood were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The seasonal variation of the contents of accumulated hydroperoxides and fatty acids in the sweet smelt blood were observed in both experimental stations. Sweet smelt started performance of cucumber-like or watermelon-like aroma in the middle of July and the aroma was enhanced in August. The content of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides and the amount of total fatty acid in the fish blood, in terms of possible precursors of volatile compounds, were also extremely high in the same period. According to lipid peroxidation mechanisms, the strong characteristic aroma of sweet smelt during July to August might be due to the high contents of accumulated lipid hydroperoxides and polyunsaturated fatty acids in their tissues. PMID:11470442

  9. Lipidomic profiling in Crohn's disease: Abnormalities in phosphatidylinositols, with preservation of ceramide, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine composition

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Gavin W.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Han, Xianlin; Koster, Grielof; Bielawski, Jacek; Goss, Victoria; Smith, Philip J.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Vega, Roser; Bloom, Stuart L.; Walker, Ann P.; Postle, Anthony D.; Segal, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition largely affecting the terminal ileum and large bowel. A contributing cause is the failure of an adequate acute inflammatory response as a result of impaired secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. This defective secretion arises from aberrant vesicle trafficking, misdirecting the cytokines to lysosomal degradation. Aberrant intestinal permeability is also well-established in Crohn's disease. Both the disordered vesicle trafficking and increased bowel permeability could result from abnormal lipid composition. We thus measured the sphingo- and phospholipid composition of macrophages, using mass spectrometry and stable isotope labelling approaches. Stimulation of macrophages with heat-killed Escherichia coli resulted in three main changes; a significant reduction in the amount of individual ceramide species, an altered composition of phosphatidylcholine, and an increased rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in macrophages. These changes were observed in macrophages from both healthy control individuals and patients with Crohn's disease. The only difference detected between control and Crohn's disease macrophages was a reduced proportion of newly-synthesised phosphatidylinositol 16:0/18:1 over a defined time period. Shotgun lipidomics analysis of macroscopically non-inflamed ileal biopsies showed a significant decrease in this same lipid species with overall preservation of sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol composition. PMID:22728312

  10. Mitogenic Effects of Phosphatidylcholine Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gándola, Yamila B.; Pérez, Sebastián E.; Irene, Pablo E.; Sotelo, Ana I.; Miquet, Johanna G.; Corradi, Gerardo R.; Carlucci, Adriana M.; Gonzalez, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Lecithins, mainly composed of the phospholipids phosphatidylcholines (PC), have many different uses in the pharmaceutical and clinical field. PC are involved in structural and biological functions as membrane trafficking processes and cellular signaling. Considering the increasing applications of lecithin-based nanosystems for the delivery of therapeutic agents, the aim of the present work was to determine the effects of phosphatidylcholine nanoparticles over breast cancer cellular proliferation and signaling. PC dispersions at 0.01 and 0.1% (w/v) prepared in buffer pH 7.0 and 5.0 were studied in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Neutral 0.1% PC-derived nanoparticles induced the activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, increased cell viability and induced a 1.2 fold raise in proliferation. These biological effects correlated with the increase of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) content and its altered cellular localization. Results suggest that nanoparticles derived from PC dispersion prepared in buffer pH 7.0 may induce physicochemical changes in the plasma membrane of cancer cells which may affect EGFR cellular localization and/or activity, increasing activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway and inducing proliferation. Results from the present study suggest that possible biological effects of delivery systems based on lecithin nanoparticles should be taken into account in pharmaceutical formulation design. PMID:24772432

  11. Refined OPLS all-atom force field for saturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers at full hydration.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Arkadiusz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Cramariuc, Oana; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    We report parametrization of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the framework of the Optimized Parameters for Liquid Simulations all-atom (OPLS-AA) force field. We chose DPPC as it is one of the most studied phospholipid species and thus has plenty of experimental data necessary for model validation, and it is also one of the highly important and abundant lipid types, e.g., in lung surfactant. Overall, PCs have not been previously parametrized in the OPLS-AA force field; thus, there is a need to derive its bonding and nonbonding parameters for both the polar and nonpolar parts of the molecule. In the present study, we determined the parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties and in the acyl chains, as well the partial atomic charges. In these calculations, we used three methods: (1) Hartree-Fock (HF), (2) second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and (3) density functional theory (DFT). We also tested the effect of the polar environment by using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and for acyl chains the van der Waals parameters were also adjusted. In effect, six parameter sets were generated and tested on a DPPC bilayer. Out of these six sets, only one was found to be able to satisfactorily reproduce experimental data for the lipid bilayer. The successful DPPC model was obtained from MP2 calculations in an implicit polar environment (PCM). PMID:24745688

  12. Structural Characterization of Unsaturated Phosphatidylcholines Using Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hugh I.; Kim, Hyungjun; Pang, Eric S.; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beegle, Luther W.; Loo, Joseph A.; Goddard, William A.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    A number of phosphatidylcholine (PC) cations spanning a mass range of 400 to 1000 Da are investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). A high correlation between mass and mobility is demonstrated with saturated phosphatidylcholine cations in N2. A significant deviation from this mass-mobility correlation line is observed for the unsaturated PC cation. We found that the double bond in the acyl chain causes a 5% reduction in drift time. The drift time is reduced at a rate of ~1% for each additional double bond. Theoretical collision cross sections of PC cations exhibit good agreement with experimentally evaluated values. Collision cross sections are determined using the recently derived relationship between mobility and drift time in TWIMS stacked ring ion guide (SRIG) and compared to estimate collision cross-sections using empiric calibration method. Computational analysis was performed using the modified trajectory (TJ) method with nonspherical N2 molecules as the drift gas. The difference between estimated collision cross-sections and theoretical collision cross-sections of PC cations is related to the sensitivity of the PC cation collision cross-sections to the details of the ion-neutral interactions. The origin of the observed correlation and deviation between mass and mobility of PC cations is discussed in terms of the structural rigidity of these molecules using molecular dynamic simulations. PMID:19764704

  13. Effect of lipid structure on the dipole potential of phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R J

    1997-07-25

    A fluorescent ratio method utilizing styrylpyridinium dyes has recently been suggested for the measurement of the membrane dipole potential. Up to now only qualititative measurements have been possible. Here the fluorescence excitation ratio of the dye di-8-ANEPPS has been measured in lipid vesicles composed of a range of saturated and unsaturated phosphatidylcholines. It has been found that the fluorescence ratio is inversely proportional to the surface area occupied by the lipid in its fully hydrated state. This finding allows, by extra- and interpolation, the packing density to be estimated of phosphatidylcholines for which X-ray crystallographic data are not yet available. Comparison of the fluorescence data with literature data of the dipole potential from electrical measurements on monolayers and bilayers allows a calibration curve to be constructed, so that a quantitative determination of the dipole potential using di-8-ANEPPS is possible. It has been found that the value of the dipole potential decreases with increasing unsaturation and, in the case of unsaturated lipids, with increasing length of the hydrocarbon chains. This effect can be explained by the effects of chain packing on the spacing between the headgroups. In addition to the effects of lipid structure on membrane fluidity, these measurements demonstrate the possibility of a direct electrical mechanism for lipid regulation of protein function, in particular of ion transport proteins. PMID:9271269

  14. Gastrointestinal safety and therapeutic efficacy of parenterally administered phosphatidylcholine-associated indomethacin in rodent model systems

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, LM; Romero, JJ; Dial, EJ

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is limited in its enteral or parenteral use by side effects of gastroduodenal bleeding and ulceration. We have investigated the ability of phosphatidylcholine associated with indomethacin to form a therapeutically effective drug (INDO-PC) with reduced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for parenteral use. Experimental approach Rats were treated acutely by intravenous or chronically with subcutaneous injection of vehicle, indomethacin or INDO-PC using three related protocols. We then evaluated the following properties of these parenterally administered test drugs: (i) GI toxicity (luminal and faecal haemoglobin; intestinal perforations and adhesions; and haematocrit); (ii) bioavailability (plasma indomethacin); and (iii) therapeutic efficacy (analgesia from sensitivity to pressure; anti-inflammatory from ankle thickness; cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition from synovial fluid prostaglandin E2 concentration) in rats with adjuvant-induced joint inflammation. Key results Acute and chronic dosing with INDO-PC produced less GI bleeding and intestinal injury than indomethacin alone, whereas the bioavailability, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and COX inhibitory activity of INDO-PC were comparable to indomethacin. Conclusions and implications The chemical association of phosphatidylcholine with indomethacin appears to markedly reduce the GI toxicity of the NSAID while providing equivalent therapeutic efficacy in a parenteral INDO-PC formulation. PMID:19366347

  15. The use of zeta potential as a tool to study phase transitions in binary phosphatidylcholines mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Disalvo, E A; Morini, M A

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the zeta potential (ZP) is proposed as a tool to analyze the thermotropic behavior of unilamellar liposomes prepared from binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in the absence or presence of ions in aqueous suspensions. Since the lipid phase transition influences the surface potential of the liposome reflecting a sharp change in the ZP during the transition, it is proposed as a screening method for transition temperatures in complex systems, given its high sensitivity and small amount of sample required, that is, 70% less than that required in the use of conventional calorimeters. The sensitivity is also reflected in the pre-transition detection in the presence of ions. Plots of phase boundaries for these mixed-lipid vesicles were constructed by plotting the delimiting temperatures of both main phase transition and pre-transition vs. the lipid composition of the vesicle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, although subject to uncertainties in interpretation due to broad bands in lipid mixtures, allowed the validation of the temperature dependence of the ZP method for determining the phase transition and pre-transition temperatures. The system chosen was dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DPPC), the most common combination in biological membranes. This work may be considered as a starting point for further research into more complex lipid mixtures with functional biological importance. PMID:26954086

  16. On the nature of hydrogen bonding between the phosphatidylcholine head group and water and dimethylsulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Lawrence, M. Jayne; McLain, Sylvia E.; Lorenz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to provide a detailed investigation of the hydrogen bond networks around the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group in 1,2-dipropionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in pure water, 10 mol.% and 30 mol.% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions. Specifically, it is observed that DMSO replaces those water molecules that are within the first solvation shell of the choline, phosphate and ester groups of the PC head group, but are not hydrogen-bonded to the group. The effect of the presence of DMSO on the hydrogen bond network around the PC head groups of the lipid changes with the concentration of DMSO. In comparison to the hydrogen bond network observed in the pure water system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules increases slightly for the 10 mol.% DMSO system, while, in the 30 mol.% DMSO system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules decreases.

  17. Histological changes after treatment for localized fat deposits with phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Min; Oh, Han-Jin

    2013-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and sodium deoxycholate (DC) injections have been used cosmetically to reduce localized fat, but to date, few studies have addressed the histological effect of human fat tissue following injections of PPC and DC. We injected PPC and DC mixed with normal saline into the patient's abdominal area. Examinations of postinjection tissue revealed marked changes within the subcutaneous fat. We observed important microscopic evidence of substitution of fat by fibrosis, marked inflammatory infiltration with microabscess formation in the dermis, and septal and lobular panniculitis with thick fibrous septa. Fat necrosis with microcalcification and cyst formation were observed in the subcutaneous fat. Fibroid necrosis with extravasation was noted in the small vessels around fat necrosis. Therefore, careful use of PPC and DC is recommended when patients want to cosmetically reduce localized fat. PMID:23992167

  18. A new crystalline phase of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monohydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fringeli, U P

    1981-01-01

    A new phase transition of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monohydrate from the "biaxial" phase to a crystalline phase (C phase) has been found at 71 degrees C by means of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy. The transition is characterized by drastic conformational changes in the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety, which led on the one hand to an alignment of the turn near the ester group in the hydrocarbon chain at glycerol C(2) position. On the other hand a uniform conformation of the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety is found to be typical for the C phase, in contrast to nonuniform head group conformations of DPPC in other regions of the DPPC/water phase diagram investigated so far. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6894555

  19. Direct interaction between cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines in hydrated membranes revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Quaroni, Luca

    2007-11-01

    By using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and curve fitting we have examined temperature dependence and composition dependence of the shape of the carbonyl band in phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol model membranes. Membranes were hydrated either in excess water or in excess deuterated water. The studied binary mixtures exhibit different lipid phases at appropriate temperature and amount of cholesterol, among them also the so-called liquid-ordered phase. The results confirm that cholesterol has a significant indirect influence on the carbonyl band through conformational and hydration effects. This influence was interpreted in view of the known temperature composition phase diagrams for inspected binary mixtures. In addition, direct interaction was observed, which could point to the presence of hydrogen bond between cholesterol and carbonyl group. This direct interaction, though weak, might play at least a partial role in the stabilization of cholesterol-rich lipid domains in model and biological membranes. PMID:17662974

  20. Formation of drug-bearing vesicles in mixed colloids of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelm, R.P.; Mang, J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Schteingart, C.; Alkan-Onyuksel, H.; Ayd, S.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used small-angle neutron scattering to study drug interactions with mixed colloids of bile salt and phosphatidylcholine. Because the mixed colloids form liposomes spontaneously, this system is a model for drug-bile interactions that are important in understanding the efficacy of oral drug formulations and in advanced applications for liposome drug delivery systems. The authors studied particle formation in incorporation of enzymatic products formed in the gut and the effects of cholesteric drugs and taxol on vesicle formation. The studies show that particle morphology is not affected by inclusion of most cholesteric drugs and taxol, and is not affected by incorporation of the products of enzymatic action. The findings suggest that particle form is important for the physiological function of bile and they are beginning to show which drugs affect liposome formation.

  1. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in phosphatidylcholine host bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, F C; Ojcius, D M; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations and surface potential measurements have been used to determine the intrinsic pKa values of both the carboxyl and amino groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in mixed vesicles of PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC), and also of the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mixed PE-PC vesicles. The pKa of the carboxyl group of PS in liposomes with different PS/PC lipid ratios measured by the two different methods is 3.6 +/- 0.1, and the pKa of its amino group is 9.8 +/- 0.1. The pKa of the amino group of PE in PE-PC vesicles, determined solely by surface potential measurements, is 9.6 +/- 0.1. These pKa values are independent of the aqueous phase ionic strength and of the effect of the liposome's surface potential due to the presence of these partially charged lipids. PMID:3955180

  2. Lyso-phosphatidylcholine is a signal in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Drissner, David; Kunze, Gernot; Callewaert, Nico; Gehrig, Peter; Tamasloukht, M'barek; Boller, Thomas; Felix, Georg; Amrhein, Nikolaus; Bucher, Marcel

    2007-10-12

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis represents the most widely distributed mutualistic root symbiosis. We report that root extracts of mycorrhizal plants contain a lipophilic signal capable of inducing the phosphate transporter genes StPT3 and StPT4 of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), genes that are specifically induced in roots colonized by AM fungi. The same signal caused rapid extracellular alkalinization in suspension-cultured tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cells and induction of the mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporter gene LePT4 in these cells. The active principle was characterized as the lysolipid lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) via a combination of gene expression studies, alkalinization assays in cell cultures, and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses. Our results highlight the importance of lysophospholipids as signals in plants and in particular in the AM symbiosis. PMID:17932296

  3. Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

  4. Soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomes as model membranes to study lipid peroxidation photoinduced by pterin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrés H; Catalá, Ángel; Vignoni, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized pterins, efficient photosensitizers under UVA irradiation, accumulate in the skin of patients suffering from vitiligo, a chronic depigmentation disorder. Soybean phosphatidylcholine (SoyPC) liposomes were employed as model membranes to investigate if pterin (Ptr), the parent compound of oxidized pterins, is able to photoinduced lipid peroxidation. Size exclusion chromatography and dialysis experiments showed that Ptr is not encapsulated inside the liposomes and the lipid membrane is permeable to this compound. The formation of conjugated dienes and trienes, upon UVA irradiation, was followed by absorption at 234 and 270 nm, respectively. The photoproducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and oxygenation of SoyPC was demonstrated. In addition, analysis of MS/MS spectra suggested the formation hydroperoxides. Finally, the biological implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26551322

  5. RAPESEED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HYDROLYSIS TO PHOSPHATIDIC ACID USING PLANT EXTRACTS WITH PHOPSPHOLIPASE D.

    PubMed

    Pasker, Beata; Sosada, Marian; Fraś, Paweł; Boryczka, Monika; Górecki, Michał; Zych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. For that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. PA is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. PA may be easily prepared by hydrolysis of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), using cabbage phospholipase D (PLD). Hydrolytic activity of purified by us PLD extracts from cabbage towards rapeseed phosphatidylcholine (RPC) was investigated. Hydrolysis was carried out in the biphasic system (water/diethyl ether) at pH 6,5 and temp 30°C. Influence of enzymatic extracts from three cabbage varieties, reaction time, Ca2+ concentration and enzyme extracts/PC ratio, on activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed phosphatidic acid (RPA) formation were examined. Our study shows that the PLD extracts from savoy cabbage (PLDsc), white cabbage (PLDwc) and brussels sprouts (PLDbs) used in experiments exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed RPA with different yield. The highest activity towards RPC shows PLD extract from PLDsc with the RPC conversion degree to RPA (90%) was observed at 120 mM Ca2+ concentration, reaction time 60 min and ratio of PLD extract to RPC 6 : 1 (w/w). Our study shows that purified by us PLDsc extracts exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC giving new RPA with satisfying conversion degree for use in pharmacy, cosmetics and as a standard in analytical chemistry. PMID:26642684

  6. In Vivo Effect of Pneumonia on Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Facco, Maddalena; Nespeca, Matteo; Simonato, Manuela; Isak, Ilena; Verlato, Giovanna; Ciambra, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Chiara; Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Cogo, Paola E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia in newborns often leads to surfactant deficiency or dysfunction, as surfactant is inactivated or its production/turnover impaired. No data are available in vivo in humans on the mechanism of surfactant depletion in neonatal pneumonia. We studied the kinetics of surfactant's major component, disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), in neonatal pneumonia, and we compared our findings with those obtained from control newborn lungs. Methods We studied thirty-one term or near-term newborns (gestational age 39.7±1.7 weeks, birth weight 3185±529 g) requiring mechanical ventilation. Fifteen newborns had pneumonia, while 16 newborns were on mechanical ventilation but had no lung disease. Infants received an intratracheal dose of 13C labeled dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine at the study start. We measured the amount and the isotopic enrichment of DSPC-palmitate from serial tracheal aspirates by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively, and we calculated the DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) from the isotopic enrichment curves of surfactant DSPC-palmitate. Results The mean DSPC amount obtained from all tracheal aspirates did not differ between the two groups. DSPC HL was 12.7 (6.5–20.2) h and 25.6 (17.9–60.6) h in infants with pneumonia compared with control infants (p = 0.003). DSPC PS was 14.1 (6.6–30.9) mg/kg in infants with pneumonia and 34.1 (25.6–65.0) mg/kg in controls, p = 0.042. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as a marker of lung inflammation, was 1322 (531–2821) mU/ml of Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) and 371(174–1080) mU/ml ELF in infants with pneumonia and in controls, p = 0.047. In infants with pneumonia, DSPC PS and HL significantly and inversely correlated with mean Oxygenation Index (OI) during the study (DSPC PS vs. OI R = −0.710, p = 0.004 and HL vs. OI R = −0.525, p = 0.044, respectively). Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time in vivo in

  7. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    England, Christopher G.; Huang, Justin S.; James, Kurtis T.; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5±8.2 and 23.3±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5±9.3 particles/100μm2 within 10μm with penetration also limited to 50μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1±6.2 and 15.8±6.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09±0.14 in the liver, 0.74±0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43±0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43±0.07 in the liver, 0.30±0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20±0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in pancreatic tumors with the goal to improve

  8. Different modes of interaction of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B in phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, A; Casals, C; Keough, K M; Pérez-Gil, J

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) has been incorporated into vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) by two different procedures to characterize the dependence of lipid-protein interactions on the method of reconstitution. In method A the protein was dissolved in a small volume of either methanol or 60% (v/v) acetonitrile and injected into an aqueous phase containing phospholipid vesicles. In method B the vesicles were prepared by injection of a mixture of phospholipid and SP-B dissolved in methanol or aqueous acetonitrile. Both methods of reconstitution led to the extensive interaction of SP-B with PC bilayers as demonstrated by co-migration during centrifugation, marked protection against proteolysis, change in the fluorescence emission intensity of SP-B, and protection of SP-B tryptophan fluorescence from quenching by acrylamide. SP-B promoted the rapid adsorption of DPPC on an air/liquid interface irrespective of the method of protein reconstitution. However, the interfacial adsorption activity of SP-B reconstituted by method B remained stable for hours, but that of SP-B prepared by method A decreased with time. Electron microscopy showed that the injection of SP-B into an aqueous phase containing PC or DPPC vesicles (method A) induced a rapid aggregation of vesicles. By contrast, a much longer time was required for detecting vesicle aggregation when the protein was reconstituted by co-injection of SP-B and phospholipids (method B). The presence of 5% (w/w) SP-B in DPPC bilayers prepared by method B broadened the differential scanning calorimetry thermogram and decreased the enthalpy of the transition. In contrast, the injection of SP-B into preformed DPPC vesicles (method A) did not influence the gel-to-liquid phase transition of DPPC bilayers. Taken together, these results indicate that the mode and extent of interaction of SP-B with surfactant phospholipids depends on the conditions of

  9. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Huang, Justin S; James, Kurtis T; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5 ± 8.2 and 23.3 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50 μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5 ± 9.3 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm with penetration also limited to 50 μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30 μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1 ± 6.2 and 15.8 ± 6.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09 ± 0.14 in the liver, 0.74 ± 0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43 ± 0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43 ± 0.07 in the liver, 0.30 ± 0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20 ± 0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in

  10. Macro-ripple phase formation in bilayers composed of galactosylceramide and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Anderson, W H; Kulkarni, V S

    1995-01-01

    As determined by freeze fracture electron microscopy, increasing levels of bovine brain galactosylceramide (GalCer) altered the surface structure of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers by inducing a striking "macro-ripple" phase in the larger, multilamellar lipid vesicles at GalCer mole fractions between 0.4 and 0.8. The term "macro-ripple" phase was used to distinguish it from the P beta' ripple phase observed in saturated, symmetric-chain length phosphatidylcholines. Whereas the P beta' ripple phase displays two types of corrugations, one with a wavelength of 12-15 nm and the other with a wavelength of 25-35 nm, the macro-ripple phase occurring in GalCer/POPC dispersions was of one type with a wavelength of 100-110 nm. Also, in contrast to the extended linear arrays of adjacent ripples observed in the P beta' ripple phase, the macro-ripple phase of GalCer/POPC dispersions was interrupted frequently by packing defects resulting from double dislocations and various disclinations and, thus, appeared to be continuously twisting and turning. Control experiments verified that the macro-ripple phase was not an artifact of incomplete lipid mixing or demixing during preparation. Three different methods of lipid mixing were compared: a spray method of rapid solvent evaporation, a sublimation method of solvent removal, and solvent removal using a rotary evaporation apparatus. Control experiments also revealed that the macro-ripple phase was observed regardless of whether lipid specimens were prepared by either ultra-rapid or manual plunge freezing methods as well as either in the presence or absence of the cryo-protectant glycerol. The macro-ripple phase was always observed in mixtures that were fully annealed by incubation above the main thermal transition of both POPC and bovine brain GalCer before rapid freezing. If the GalCer mixed with POPC contained only nonhydroxy acyl chains or only 2-hydroxy acyl chains, then the occurrence of macro

  11. Deuterium magnetic resonance study of the gel and liquid crystalline phases of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J H

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium magnetic resonance is applied to the study of the liquid crystalline and gel phases, and of the phase transition, of a multilamellar dispersion of chain perdeuterated (d62)-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/H2O. Analysis of the deuterium spectra in terms of the moments of the spectra allows one to make quantitative statements concerning the distribution of quadrupolar splittings even in complicated situations, e.g., when using perdeuterated sampled or when there are mixed phases. This analysis indicates that d62-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine in excess H2O undergoes a sharp phase transition (with a width of less than 1 degree C) at approximately 37 degrees C and that there appears to be hysteresis in the phase transition of approximately 1 degree C. In the lamellar liquid crystalline phase above 37 degrees C the spectra show a number of well-resolved features whose quadrupolar splittings can be followed as the temperature is varied. The gel phase near 20 degrees C possesses a very broad, almost featureless spectrum that does not seem to support a model of the gel phase wherein the hydrocarbon chains are fully extended in the all-trans conformation. At temperatures near 0 degrees C the spectra clearly indicate that a large fraction of the lipid molecules cease the rotation about their long axes, giving a spectrum more characteristic of a rigid or solid sample. These results give a picture of the gel phase as a phase characterized by considerable hydrocarbon chain disorder near 20 degrees C and becoming a more solid-like phase near 0 degrees C. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, has been measured at 20 degrees C in the gel phase, and at 37 and 45 degrees C in the liquid crystalline phase. The values of T1 obtained for each of the resolvable peaks in the spectrum at 37 degrees C are compared to the values (for each peak) of T2e, the decay time of the quadrupolar echo, obtained at the same temperature. These results are discussed in terms of a simple two

  12. Characteristics of the mass transfer of phosphatidylcholine during its sorption on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyaeva, L. A.; Karpov, S. I.; Belanova, N. A.; Roessner, F.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetic parameters of sorption of phosphatidylcholine on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 are considered. It is noted that the possibility of both the diffusion and adsorption rate limitations of the process should be taken into account in the description of the kinetics of sorption of non-polar fat-soluble physiologically active compounds (PACs) from hexane solutions onto mesoporous materials of MCM- 41 type. The adequacy of using the Boyd diffusion model and the Lagergren, Ho and McKay, and Elovich models to describe the kinetics of sorption of phosphatidylcholine on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 is shown. The contributions from diffusion limitation (internal and external) and the rate of the chemical step of adsorption to the overall rate of the sorption process are determined. It is found that the sorption of the phospholipid is a mixed diffusion process.

  13. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A.; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  14. Asymmetric 1-Alkyl-2-acyl Phosphatidylcholine: a Helper Lipid for Enhanced Non-viral Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhaohua; Li, Weijun; Szoka, Francis C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationally designed asymmetrical alkylacyl phosphatidylcholines (APC) have been synthesized and evaluated as helper lipids for non-viral gene delivery. A long aliphatic chain (C22~C24) was introduced at the 1-position of glycerol backbone, a branched lipid chain (C18) at the 2-position, and a phosphocholine head group at the 3-position. The fusogenicity of APC depends on the length and degree of saturation of the alkyl chain. Cationic lipids were formulated with APC as either lipoplexes or nanolipoparticles, and evaluated for their stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. APC mediated high in vitro transfection efficiency, and had low cytotoxicity. Small nanolipoparticles (less than 100 nm) can be obtained with APC by applying as low as 0.1% PEG-lipid. Our study extends the type of helper lipids that are suitable for gene transfer and points the way to improve non-viral nucleic acid delivery system other than the traditional cationic lipids optimization. This work is supported by NIH grant EB003008. PMID:21718766

  15. Phosphatidylcholine embedded microemulsions: physical properties and improved Caco-2 cell permeability.

    PubMed

    Spernath, Aviram; Aserin, Abraham; Ziserman, Lior; Danino, Dganit; Garti, Nissim

    2007-06-22

    The present study evaluates the effect of a solubilized model drug, diclofenac sodium salt (diclofenac), in our unique new U-type microemulsion system embedded with phosphatidylcholine (PC) in terms of microstructure transformations, physical properties of the system (viscosity, electrical conductivity), droplet sizes and shapes, and nucleation and growth of the droplets. The physical properties are correlated to the permeability of diclofenac through Caco-2 monolayer cells. The major findings reported are: (1) systems that are rich in surfactant and contain minimal oil phase form a microemulsion that enables high solubilization of diclofenac (20 wt.% diclofenac in the oil and surfactant concentrate can be fully diluted with water); (2) PC presence at the interface does not affect the size of the O/W droplets, while the presence of diclofenac at the interface decreases the O/W droplet size by an average of 50%; (3) diclofenac seems to increase incorporation of PC into the W/O interface; (4) diclofenac affects the physical properties of the microemulsion increasing the viscosity of the W/O microemulsion system and completely changing the conductivity profile of the system upon water dilution; (5) cryo-TEM images indicate that above 70 wt.% water the droplets are spherical; (6) diclofenac permeability through Caco-2 monolayer cells increases when PC is embedded into the interface. PMID:17475359

  16. Iron Ion and Iron Hydroxide Adsorption to Charge-Neutral Phosphatidylcholine Templates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Feng, Shuren; San Emeterio, Josue; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-08-01

    Surface-sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques reveal significant adsorption of iron ions and iron-hydroxide (Fe(III)) complexes to a charge-neutral zwitterionic template of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The PC template is formed by a Langmuir monolayer of dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC) that is spread on the surface of 2 to 40 μM FeCl3 solutions at physiological levels of KCl (100 mM). At 40 μM of Fe(III) as many as ∼3 iron atoms are associated with each PC group. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a significant disruption in the in-plane ordering of DPPC molecules upon iron adsorption. The binding of iron-hydroxide complexes to a neutral PC surface is yet another example of nonelectrostatic, presumably covalent bonding to a charge-neutral organic template. The strong binding and the disruption of in-plane lipid structure has biological implications on the integrity of PC-derived lipid membranes, including those based on sphingomyelin. PMID:27409514

  17. Interactions of tamoxifen with distearoyl phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles: FTIR and DSC studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Sahin, Ipek; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2014-09-01

    Interactions of a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen (TAM), with distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) were investigated as a function of drug concentration (1-15 mol%) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectroscopy results show that increasing TAM concentrations (except 1 mol%) increased the wavenumbers of the CH2 stretching modes, implying an disordering effect for DSPC MLVs both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The bandwidth values of the CH2 stretchings except for 1 mol% increased when TAM concentrations increased for DSPC liposomes, indicating an increase in the dynamics of liposomes. The Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands were analyzed to study interactions of TAM with head groups of lipids. As the concentrations of TAM increased, dehydration occurred around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. The DSC studies on thermal properties of DSPC lipids indicate that TAM eliminated the pre transition, shifted the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve of the liposomes.

  18. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-08-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the (/sup 3/H)PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine.

  19. Exogenous fatty acids affect CDP-choline pathway to increase phosphatidylcholine synthesis in granular pneumocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Gullo, J.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in rat granular pneumocytes isolated by tryptic digestion of lungs and maintained in primary culture for 24 h was investigated by following effects of exogenous fatty acids on (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline incorporation into PC and disaturated PC (DSPC). At 0.1 mM choline, the rate of choline incorporation into PC and DSPC was 440 +/- and 380 +/- 50 pmol/h/ug Pi (mean +/- SE, n=3-5), respectively, and was linear for up to 3 h. PC synthesis was significantly increased by 0.1 mM each of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acid. However, synthesis of DSPC was increased only by palmitic acid and this increase was prevented by addition of oleic acid suggesting lack of effect on the remodeling pathway. Pulse-chase experiments with choline in absence or presence of palmitic or oleic acid showed that the label declined in choline phosphate and increased in PC more rapidly in presence of either of the fatty acids, suggesting rapid conversion of choline phosphate to PC. Microsomal choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity in cells preincubated without or with palmitic acid for 3 h was 0.81 +/- 0.07 and 1.81 +/- 0.09 nmol choline phosphate converted/min/mg protein (n=4). These results suggest that in granular pneumocytes, exogenous fatty acids modulate PC synthesis by increasing choline phosphate cytidyltransferase activity.

  20. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  1. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on fluidity and phase transition of phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with multifunctional properties have shown great promise in theranostics. The aim of our work was to compare the effects of SPIONs on the fluidity and phase transition of the liposomal membranes prepared with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids. In order to study if the surface modification of SPIONs has any influence on these membrane properties, we have used four types of differently functionalized SPIONs, such as: plain SPIONs (primary size was shown to bê11 nm), silica-coated SPIONs, SPIONs coated with silica and functionalized with positively charged amino groups or negatively charged carboxyl groups (the primary size of all the surface-modified SPIONs was ~20 nm). Small unilamellar vesicles prepared with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids and multilamellar vesicles prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids were encapsulated or incubated with the plain and surface-modified SPIONs to determine the fluidity and phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids, respectively. Fluorescent anisotropy and differential scanning calorimetric measurements of the liposomes that were either encapsulated or incubated with the suspension of SPIONs did not show a significant difference in the lipid ordering and fluidity; though the encapsulated SPIONs showed a slightly increased effect on the fluidity of the model membranes in comparison with the incubated SPIONs. This indicates the low potential of the SPIONs to interact with the nontargeted cell membranes, which is a desirable factor for in vivo applications. PMID:26491286

  2. Detection and characterization of phosphatidylcholine in various strains of the genus Chlamydomonas (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenta; Mori, Natsumi; Sato, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    The laboratory strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been reported to contain no phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is considered to be replaced by another zwitterionic lipid, diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS). According to the recently published classification, the strains belonged to the subgroup Reinhardtinia. Screening for PC in 13 selected strains of Chlamydomonas in the NIES Algal Collection, which are different in habitats and belong to different phylogenetic subgroups in the genus, revealed the presence of PC in four strains: a strain in the subgroup Polytominia, and three strains in Reinhardtinia. PC was not detected in three other strains of Reinhardtinia analyzed. The presence/absence of PC was not related to the phylogenetic relationship based on 18S rRNA. DGTS was detected in all the strains analyzed. The rare isomer of linolenic acid, 18:3(5,9,12), which has been found in the DGTS of C. reinhardtii, was found in the PC of the two strains and in the DGTS of the five strains. The occurrence of this fatty acid seems limited to a branch of Reinhardtinia. Acquisition and loss of PC in various strains of Chlamydomonas are discussed from the viewpoint of evolution of PC biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24947506

  3. Nuclear-localized CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis required for lipid droplet biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, Adam J.; Arsenault, Daniel J.; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2015-01-01

    The reversible association of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) with membranes regulates the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the CDP-choline (Kennedy) pathway. Based on results with insect CCT homologues, translocation of nuclear CCTα onto cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) is proposed to stimulate the synthesis of PC that is required for LD biogenesis and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage. We examined whether this regulatory mechanism applied to LD biogenesis in mammalian cells. During 3T3-L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, CCTα expression and PC synthesis was induced. In 3T3-L1 cells, CCTα translocated from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope and cytosol but did not associate with LDs. The enzyme also remained in the nucleus during human adipocyte differentiation. RNAi silencing in 3T3-L1 cells showed that CCTα regulated LD size but did not affect TAG storage or adipogenesis. LD biogenesis in nonadipocyte cell lines treated with oleate also promoted CCTα translocation to the nuclear envelope and/or cytoplasm but not LDs. In rat intestinal epithelial cells, CCTα silencing increased LD size, but LD number and TAG deposition were decreased due to oleate-induced cytotoxicity. We conclude that CCTα increases PC synthesis for LD biogenesis by translocation to the nuclear envelope and not cytoplasmic LDs. PMID:26108622

  4. Import of Lyso-Phosphatidylcholine into Chloroplasts Likely at the Origin of Eukaryotic Plastidial Lipids1

    PubMed Central

    Mongrand, Sébastien; Cassagne, Claude; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Plastids rely on the import of extraplastidial precursor for the synthesis of their own lipids. This key phenomenon in the formation of plastidial phosphatidylcholine (PC) and of the most abundant lipids on earth, namely galactolipids, is poorly understood. Various suggestions have been made on the nature of the precursor molecule(s) transferred to plastids, but despite general agreement that PC or a close metabolite plays a central role, there is no clear-cut answer to this question because of a lack of conclusive experimental data. We therefore designed experiments to discriminate between a transfer of PC, 1-acylglycero phosphorylcholine (lyso-PC), or glycerophosphorylcholine. After pulse-chase experiments with glycerol and acetate, plastids of leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings were purified. The labels of the glycerol moiety and the sn-1- and sn-2-bound fatty acids of plastidial lipids were determined and compared with those associated with the extraplastidial PC. After import, plastid lipids contained the glycerol moiety and the fatty acids esterified to the sn-1 position originating from the extraplastidial PC; no import of sn-2-bound fatty acid was detected. These results rule out a transfer of PC or glycerophosphorylcholine, and are totally explained by an import of lyso-PC molecules used subsequently as precursor for the synthesis of eukaryotic plastid lipids. PMID:10712548

  5. The role of phosphatidylcholine in fatty acid exchange and desaturation in Brassica napus L. leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J P; Imperial, V; Khan, M U; Hodson, J N

    2000-01-01

    The role of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in fatty acid exchange and desaturation was examined and compared with that of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) in Brassica napus leaves using (14)C-labelling in vivo. Data are presented which indicate that in the chloroplast newly formed saturated (palmitic acid, 16:0) and monounsaturated (oleic acid, 18:1) fatty acid is incorporated into MGDG and desaturated in situ. In the non-plastidic compartments, however, newly formed fatty acid is exchanged with polyunsaturated fatty acid in PC, the probable major site of subsequent desaturation. The unsaturated fatty acid is released to the acyl-CoA pool, which is then used to synthesize diacylglycerol (DAG) containing a high level of unsaturated fatty acid. This highly unsaturated DAG may be the source for the biosynthesis of other cellular glycerolipids. The generally accepted pathway in which PC is synthesized from molecular species of DAG containing 16:0 and 18:1 followed by desaturation of the 18:1 to linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids is questioned. PMID:10861220

  6. Particle size interconversion of human low density lipoproteins during incubation of plasma with phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh, Z.; Nichols, A.V.

    1982-09-30

    Incubation of plasma (37/sup 0/C, 6hr) in the presence of increasing amounts of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, above a threshold concentration, results in an increase in particle diameter of LDL relative to that from nonincubated plasma. With further PC addition, the major peak of LDL in the gradient gel electrophoretic pattern is transformed, first, into a bimodal and, subsequently, into a single peak distribution. PC-induced interconversion of LDL requires factor(s) in the d > 1.20 g/ml fraction and, at PC concentrations below approximately 2 mg/ml, is not inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Plasma incubation with increasing PC levels also leads to characteristic particle size transformations in HDL/sub 3/ species, with the transformation products ultimately converging to form a single peak pattern within the HDL/sub 2a/ size interval. In certain subjects, incubation of plasma, in the absence of added PC, shifts the particle size distribution of LDL towards smaller species; this can be prevented by addition of PC. We propose that incubation-induced shifts of LDL towards larger or smaller species result from changes in phospholipid (PL) content of LDL.

  7. Phosphatidylcholine resynthesis from components of internalized phospholipids in rat granular pneumocytes in primary culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.B.

    1986-05-01

    Uptake, degradation and reutilization of surfactant phospholipids was investigated by incubating granular pneumocytes in primary culture with 0.2 mM liposomal phosphatidylcholine containing (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline labeled dipalmitoyl PC. Trypsin-resistant cell associated liposome radioactivity in PC declined steadily with time of incubation to 50% of total radioactivity by 140 min. In the water soluble fraction, most of the radioactivity was present in glycerophosphorylcholine which increased steadily to 13% of total cell associated radioactivity. While the proportion of radioactivity in choline remained unchanged, it increased with time in CDP-choline and phosphorylcholine suggesting reutilization of choline for PC resynthesis. In lamellar bodies isolated from these cells, less than 10% of PC label was present in unsaturated PC. In the microsomal fraction the label in unsaturated PC at 21 min was 56% of total PC which increased to 71% by 140 min of incubation with liposomes (slope = 0.19%/min; r = 0.67) suggesting metabolic reutilization of dipalmitoyl PC in this compartment. These observations indicate that granular pneumocytes degrade internalized PC and resynthesize PC de novo from degradation products.

  8. Influence of the composition of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine based microemulsions on the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Ettl, Hanna; Holper, Evelyn; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-11-20

    Although microemulsions are one of the most promising dermal carrier systems, their clinical use is limited due to their skin irritation potential. Therefore, microemulsions based on naturally derived monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) were developed. The influence of the water, oil and surfactant content on dermal delivery of flufenamic acid was systematically investigated for the first time. A water-rich microemulsion led to significantly higher in vitro skin penetration of flufenamic acid compared to other microemulsions. The superiority of the water-rich microemulsion over a marketed flufenamic acid containing formulation was additionally confirmed. Differences in drug delivery could be explained by alterations of the microemulsions after application. Evaporation of isopropanol led to crystal-like structures of MAPL on the skin surface from the surfactant- or oleic acid-rich microemulsions. In contrast, the formation of this additional barrier was hindered in case of the water-rich microemulsion. The skin penetration of MAPL was additionally analyzed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments, where MAPL itself penetrated only into the initial layers of the stratum corneum, independent of the microemulsion composition. Since a surfactant must penetrate the skin to cause irritation, MAPL can be presumed as a skin-friendly emulsifier with the ability to stabilize pharmaceutically acceptable microemulsions. PMID:25178824

  9. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on surface interactions and lubrication by hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Jahn, Sabrina; Goldberg, Ronit; Klein, Jacob

    2014-11-10

    Glucosamine sulfate (GAS) is a charged monosaccharide molecule that is widely used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, a joint disease related to friction and lubrication of articular cartilage. Using a surface force balance, we examine the effect of GAS on normal and, particularly, on shear (frictional) interactions between surfaces in an aqueous environment coated with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), or liposomes, of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC). We examine the effect of GAS solution, pure water, and salt solution (0.15 M NaNO3) both inside and outside the vesicles. Cryoscanning electron microscopy shows a closely packed layer of liposomes whose morphology is affected only slightly by GAS. HSPC-SUVs with encapsulated GAS are stable upon shear at high compressions (>100 atm) and provide very good lubrication when immersed both in pure water and physiological-level salt solutions (in the latter case, the liposomes are exceptionally stable and lubricious up to >400 atm). The low friction is attributed to several parameters based on the hydration lubrication mechanism. PMID:25244425

  10. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the CO and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CO groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  11. Sequestration of bovine seminal plasma proteins by different assemblies of phosphatidylcholine: A new technical approach.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; van Leeuwen-Ibarrola, J; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Anton, M; Tainturier, D

    2016-04-01

    Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, the main proteins from bovine seminal plasma, are known to partially intercalate into the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane and bind to choline-containing lipids being present therein. This insertion generates a negative effect on semen quality after cryopreservation by inducing an early-stage capacitation of spermatozoa. The assumption of surface properties exhibited by BSP proteins was checked by tensiometry measurements: BSP proteins are highly surface active. This suggests that BSP proteins can reach the interface covered by phospholipids not only by interactions between one and each other but also due to their own surface activity. The insertion of BSP proteins into the lipid domains outer leaflet of spermatozoa was reproduced on a biomimetic system such as Langmuir monolayers. The insertion of BSP proteins can be performed in the compressible fluid domains which contain choline-bearing lipids. Monolayer films were used as well to study the complexation of BSP proteins by two phospholipid assemblies: low density lipoprotein (LDLs) from egg yolk or liposomes produced from egg phospholipids. Irrespective of the phospholipid structure (lipoprotein or liposome), BSP was hindered to alter the structure of the membrane. Only the overall ratio BSP proteins:phosphatidylcholine was important. The difference between the two sequestering agents lies on their surface properties: LDL have a strong tendency to merge with the outer layer whereas liposomes mainly remain in the bulk on the same time scale. PMID:26628332

  12. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-23

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  13. Production of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine by bonito muscle lysophosphatidylcholine/transacylase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kaoru; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Matsuura, Fumito; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Koike, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 1,3-bis[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex, a novel phosphate-capture molecule. However, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl species could not be detected. Next, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC synthesis by the cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/transacylase was examined using endogenous LPC from bonito muscle, in which the 2-docosahexaenoyl species is abundant. The LPC/transacylase synthesized 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC as the most abundant molecular species. For further characterization, the LPC/transacylase was purified to homogeneity from the 100,000 x g supernatant of bonito muscle. The isolated LPC/transacylase is a labile glycoprotein with molecular mass of 52 kDa including a 5-kDa sugar moiety. The LPC/transacylase showed a PC synthesis (transacylase activity) below and above the critical micelle concentration of substrate LPC, and fatty acid release (lysophospholipase activity) was always smaller than the transacylase activity, even with a monomeric substrate. These results suggest that the LPC/transacylase is responsible for the synthesis of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC. PMID:15625317

  14. Comparative Experimental and Computational Study of Monoalkyl Chain Phosphatidylcholine-Containing Thermoresponsive Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Kleopatra; Sideratou, Zili; Thanassoulas, Angelos; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2016-06-23

    Liposomes containing lysophospholipids are intensively studied as drug delivery systems that are stable at normal body temperature but exhibit fast release of their drug load at slightly elevated temperatures. In this study, the stability and release properties of dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine (DPPC)-based liposomes incorporating the commonly used lysophosphatidylocholine (lyso-PC), and a series of monoalkyl chain ether-linked phosphatidylcholine, i.e., the biologically relevant monoalkyl chain platelet activating factor (PAF) and its derivatives lyso-PAF and methyl-PAF, were investigated. To this end a series of PEGylated small unilamellar liposomes with DPPC:monoalkyl lipid compositions of 5% and 10% molar ratio were prepared and compared with regard to stability (37 °C) and release properties at elevated temperatures (38-43 °C). All systems were characterized with respect to size distribution, ζ-potential, and phase transition characteristics. The presence of ether-lipids endows liposomes with superior (∼10% increase) release properties at 5% incorporation compared to lyso-PC, while at 10% molar ratio the formulations do not differ significantly, the release being close to 90%. The findings are supported by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that suggest a correlation between the enhanced permeability and increased penetration of water molecules within the bilayers with density fluctuations resulting from the increased area-per-lipid and the disorder of the lysolipids alkyl chains. PMID:27280363

  15. Immobilized phospholipase A1-catalyzed modification of phosphatidylcholine with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, TingTing; No, Da Som; Kim, Byung Hee; Garcia, Hugo S; Kim, Yangha; Kim, In-Hwan

    2014-08-15

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA)-enriched phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully produced with fatty acid from fish oil and PC from soybean by immobilized phospholipase A1-catalyzed acidolysis. Detailed studies of immobilization were carried out, and Lewatit VP OC 1600 was selected as a carrier for preparation of immobilized phospholipase A1, which was used for modification of PC by acidolysis. For acidolysis of PC with n-3 PUFA, the effects of several parameters, namely, water content, temperature, and enzyme loading on the reaction time course were investigated to determine optimum conditions. The optimum water content, temperature, and enzyme loading were 1.0%, 55 °C, and 20%, respectively. The highest incorporation (57.4 mol%) of n-3 PUFA into PC was obtained at 24h and the yield of PC was 16.7 mol%. The yield of PC increased significantly by application of vacuum, even though a slight decrease of n-3 PUFA incorporation was observed. PMID:24679762

  16. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on fluidity and phase transition of phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with multifunctional properties have shown great promise in theranostics. The aim of our work was to compare the effects of SPIONs on the fluidity and phase transition of the liposomal membranes prepared with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids. In order to study if the surface modification of SPIONs has any influence on these membrane properties, we have used four types of differently functionalized SPIONs, such as: plain SPIONs (primary size was shown to bê11 nm), silica-coated SPIONs, SPIONs coated with silica and functionalized with positively charged amino groups or negatively charged carboxyl groups (the primary size of all the surface-modified SPIONs was ~20 nm). Small unilamellar vesicles prepared with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids and multilamellar vesicles prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids were encapsulated or incubated with the plain and surface-modified SPIONs to determine the fluidity and phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids, respectively. Fluorescent anisotropy and differential scanning calorimetric measurements of the liposomes that were either encapsulated or incubated with the suspension of SPIONs did not show a significant difference in the lipid ordering and fluidity; though the encapsulated SPIONs showed a slightly increased effect on the fluidity of the model membranes in comparison with the incubated SPIONs. This indicates the low potential of the SPIONs to interact with the nontargeted cell membranes, which is a desirable factor for in vivo applications. PMID:26491286

  17. A lysophosphatidic acid analogue is revealed as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Geneviéve; Granci, Virginie; Rogalle, Pierre; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Wilson, Michéle; Klaébé, Alain; Tercé, François; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Gaits, Frédérique

    2002-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that cross-desensitization experiments performed with the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogues (R)- and (S)-N-palmitoyl-norleucinol 1-phosphate (PNPAs) inhibited LPA-induced platelet aggregation without any stereospecificity. Here we report opposite biological effects of the two enantiomers on mitogenesis of IMR-90 fibroblasts in relation to their respective metabolism. (R)PNPA was proliferative, while (S)PNPA induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis at the last step of the CDP-choline pathway controlled by cholinephosphotransferase. This effect was not direct but required dephosphorylation of PNPAs by ecto-lipid phosphate phosphatase before cellular uptake of the generated N-palmitoyl-norleucinols (PNOHs). Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase by the derivative (S)PNOH was confirmed by an in vitro assay. (S)PNPA proapoptotic effects led us to clarify the mechanism linking cholinephosphotransferase inhibition to apoptosis. Three proapoptotic responses were observed: the activation of caspase-3, the production of ceramides from newly synthesized pools (as demonstrated by the inhibitor Fumonisin B1) and finally the activation of stress-activated protein kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2, as a result of ceramide increase. Thus our data demonstrate that synthetic analogues of LPA might display stereospecific effects leading to apoptosis independently of classical LPA-activated pathways. PMID:12197836

  18. Fluid Phase Lipid Areas and Bilayer Thicknesses of Commonly Used Phosphatidylcholines as a Function of Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.

  19. Phosphatidylcholine enrichment with medium chain fatty acids by immobilized phospholipase A(1) -catalyzed acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Angélica A; Hernández-Becerra, Josafat A; Cavazos-Garduño, Adriana; García, Hugo S; Vernon-Carter, Eduardo J

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipids are a biologically and industrially important class of compounds whose physical properties can be improved for diverse applications by substitution of medium-chain fatty acids for their native fatty acid chains. In this study, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) by acidolysis with phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1) ) immobilized on Duolite A568. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of the molar ratio of substrates (PC to free MCFAs), enzyme loading, and reaction temperature on the incorporation of free MCFAs into PC and on PC recovery. Enzyme loading and molar ratio of substrates contributed positively, but temperature negatively, to the incorporation of free MCFAs into PC. Increases in enzyme loading and the molar ratio of PC to free MCFAs led to increased incorporation of the latter into the former, but increased temperature had the opposite effect. By contrast, an increase in enzyme loading led to decreased PC recovery. Increased temperature had also a negative effect on PC recovery. Optimal conditions for maximum incorporation and PC recovery were molar ratio of PC to free MCFAs of 1:16, enzyme loading of 16%, and 50°C. Under these conditions, the incorporation of free MCFAs was 41% and the PC recovery was 53%. PMID:23074091

  20. Intermediate structures in the cholate-phosphatidylcholine vesicle-micelle transition

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Anne; Vinson, Phillip K.; Kaplun, Alon; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    1991-01-01

    The vesicle-micelle transition of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sodium cholate was described by comparing cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) images of the structures formed to the associated turbidity changes. These experiments were designed to identify the morphology of the intermediates between vesicles and small spheroidal mixed micelles. With increasing cholate concentration, the vesicular structures changed size and more multilamellar vesicles were seen. Between the apparent upper and lower phase boundaries, three structures were observed: open vesicles, large bilayer sheets (twenty to several hundred nanometers in diameter), and long (150-300 nm) flexible cylindrical micelles. The cylindrical micelles evolved from the edges of the bilayer sheets. At higher relative cholate concentration, the phase boundary was sharply defined by optical clarification of the egg PC-cholate mixtures. Cryo-TEM revealed only small spheroidal mixed micelles at this transition. These results provide the first direct evidence of the structural pathway or of molecular intermediates between a lamellar and a micellar state. Understanding these specific intermediates and the transitions between them is essential to developing reconstitution protocols and properly analyzing either activity or structural data obtained from cholate-dispersed membrane proteins. ImagesFIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5 PMID:19431813

  1. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  2. Revealing Transient Interactions between Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C and Phosphatidylcholine--Rich Lipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boqian; He, Tao; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Roberts, Mary; Gershenson, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes transiently interact with target membranes. Previous fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments showed that Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC specifically binds to phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich membranes and preferentially interacts with unilamellar vesicles that show larger curvature. Mutagenesis studies combined with FCS measurements of binding affinity highlighted the importance of interfacial PI-PLC tyrosines in the PC specificity. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PI-PLC performed in the presence of a PC membrane indicate these tyrosines are involved in specific cation-pi interactions with choline headgroups. To further understand those transient interactions between PI-PLC and PC-rich vesicles, we monitor single fluorescently labeled PI-PLC proteins as they cycle on and off surface-tethered small unilamellar vesicles using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. The residence times on vesicles along with vesicle size information, based on vesicle fluorescence intensity, reveal the time scales of PI-PLC membrane interactions as well as the curvature dependence. The PC specificity and the vesicle curvature dependence of this PI-PLC/membrane interaction provide insight into how the interface modulates protein-membrane interactions. This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health (R01GM060418).

  3. Physicochemical properties of structured phosphatidylcholine in drug carrier lipid emulsions for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Emi; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2008-03-15

    Drug carrier emulsions were prepared with structured phosphatidylcholine (PC-LM) which has both a long hydrocarbon chain and a medium hydrocarbon chain, and the characteristics of PC-LM as an emulsifier were investigated by measuring the creaming ratio, the surface tension of the emulsion system, and the mean particle size and zeta potential of the oil droplets in emulsions. The emulsion prepared with PC-LM as an emulsifier kept the condition and the ratio of separation was lower than those with purified egg yolk lecithin (PEL). The mean particle size of the emulsion prepared with PC-LM was smaller than that with PEL when using only sonication, approximately 250 nm. When using a high-pressure homogenizer after sonication, the mean emulsion size with PC-LM was also smaller than with PEL, approximately 150 nm. The surface tension of the various emulsions and the zeta potential of the emulsion droplets were measured to investigate the stability of the systems. In emulsions with PC-LM or PEL, the surface tension as an index of stability increased as the pressure of the homogenizer increased. Moreover, the zeta potential of the emulsion droplets prepared with PC-LM also increased with an increase in pressure of the homogenizer. As a result, it was found that the drug carrier emulsion prepared with PC-LM had significant advantages in terms of stability and mean diameter. We considered it could be used for the preparations of nanoparticle dispersion systems in drug delivery systems. PMID:17988839

  4. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Danielle B.; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation – a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  5. Phosphatidylcholine protects neurons from toxic effects of amyloid β-protein in culture.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mihee; Hattori, Toshihide; Abdullah, Mohammad; Gong, Jian-Sheng; Yamane, Tsuneo; Michikawa, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is the major component of extracellular plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that the interaction of Aβ with membrane cholesterol is essential for Aβ to exert neurotoxicity; however, the effect of phospholipids, another major membrane lipid component, on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity remains unclarified. Here we report the protective effect of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on primary cultured neurons against Aβ1-42-induced damage. Aβ1-42 caused neuronal death as demonstrated by lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) release, which was completely prevented by a pretreatment with PC in a dose-dependent manner. PC containing unsaturated long-chain acyl groups, 1,2-dioleoyl-PC (DOPC), also prevented neuronal death caused by Aβ1-42. The oleic acid ethyl-ester (OAEE) partially prevented Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. Neurons that were pretreated with DOPC or OAEE for 24h, washed out, and exposed to Aβ1-42 in the absence of either of these reagents, were still resistant to Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, treatment with phosphotidylserine (PS) or docosahexaenoic acid etyl-ester (DHAEE) had no protective effect on neurons against Aβ1-42-induced damage. These results suggest that the control of cellular PC content, not PS content, may prove useful in the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27086970

  6. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM > FT > PFF > PCF > IFP > CFVP > FNT ⩾ DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R2 = 0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  7. Effect of integral membrane proteins on the lateral mobility of plastoquinone in phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Mary F.; Whitmarsh, John

    1990-01-01

    Pyrene fluorescence quenching by plastoquinone was used to estimate the rate of plastoquinone lateral diffusion in soybean phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes containing the following integral membrane proteins: gramicidin D, spinach cytochrome bf complex, spinach cytochrome f, reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, and beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The measured plastoquinone lateral diffusion coefficient varied between 1 and 3 · 10-7 cm2 s-1 in control liposomes that lacked protein. When proteins were added, these values decreased: a 10-fold decrease was observed when 16-26% of the membrane surface area was occupied by protein for all the proteins but gramicidin. The larger protein complexes (cytochrome bf, Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, cytochrome bc1, and cytochrome oxidase), whose hydrophobic volumes were 15-20 times as large as that of cytochrome f and the gramicidin transmembrane dimer, were 15-20 times as effective in decreasing the lateral-diffusion coefficient over the range of concentrations studied. These proteins had a much stronger effect than that observed for bacteriorhodopsin in fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements. The effect of high-protein concentrations in gramicidin proteoliposomes was in close agreement with fluorescence photobleaching measurements. The results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models of lateral mobility as a function of integral membrane concentration. PMID:19431774

  8. Melittin-Induced Lipid Extraction Modulated by the Methylation Level of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroups.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Alexandre; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-01-19

    Protein- and peptide-induced lipid extraction from membranes is a critical process for many biological events, including reverse cholesterol transport and sperm capacitation. In this work, we examine whether such processes could display specificity for some lipid species. Melittin, the main component of dry bee venom, was used as a model amphipathic α-helical peptide. We specifically determined the modulation of melittin-induced lipid extraction from membranes by the change of the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were demethylated either by substitution with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or chemically by using mono- and dimethylated PE. It is shown that demethylation reduces the association of melittin with membranes, likely because of the resulting tighter chain packing of the phospholipids, which reduces the capacity of the membranes to accommodate inserted melittin. This reduced binding of the peptide is accompanied by an inhibition of the lipid extraction caused by melittin. We demonstrate that melittin selectively extracts PC from PC/PE membranes. This selectivity is proposed to be a consequence of a PE depletion in the surroundings of bound melittin to minimize disruption of the interphospholipid interactions. The resulting PC-enriched vicinity of melittin would be responsible for the observed formation of PC-enriched lipid/peptide particles resulting from the lipid efflux. These findings reveal that modulating the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups is a simple way to control the specificity of lipid extraction from membranes by peptides/proteins and thereby modulate the lipid composition of the membranes. PMID:26789763

  9. Continuous Equilibration of Phosphatidylcholine and Its Precursors between Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    de Kroon, Anton I.P.M.; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Vromans, Tom A.M; de Kruijff, Ben

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized in the ER and transported to mitochondria via an unknown mechanism. The transport of PC synthesized by the triple methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine was investigated by pulsing yeast spheroplasts with l-[methyl-3H]methionine, followed by a chase with unlabeled methionine and subcellular fractionation. During the pulse, increasing amounts of PC and its mono- and dimethylated precursors (PMME and PDME, respectively) appear in similar proportions in both microsomes and mitochondria, with the extent of incorporation in microsomes being twice that in mitochondria. During the chase, the [3H]-methyl label from the precursors accumulates into PC with similar kinetics in both organelles. The results demonstrate that transport of methylated phospholipids from ER to mitochondria is 1) coupled to synthesis, 2) not selective for PC, 3) at least as fast as the fastest step in the methylation of PE, and 4) bidirectional for PMME and PDME. The interorganellar equilibration of methylated phospholipids was reconstituted in vitro and did not depend on ongoing methylation, cytosolic factors, ATP, and energization of the mitochondria, although energization could accelerate the reaction. The exchange of methylated phospholipids was reduced after pretreating both microsomes and mitochondria with trypsin, indicating the involvement of membrane proteins from both organelles. PMID:12802081

  10. Interactions between Adsorbed Hydrogenated Soy Phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) Vesicles at Physiologically High Pressures and Salt Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ronit; Schroeder, Avi; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Klein, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Using a surface force balance, we measured normal and shear interactions as a function of surface separation between layers of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) adsorbed from dispersion at physiologically high salt concentrations (0.15 M NaNO3). Cryo-scanning electron microscopy shows that each surface is coated by a close-packed HSPC-SUV layer with an overlayer of liposomes on top. A clear attractive interaction between the liposome layers is seen upon approach and separation, followed by a steric repulsion upon further compression. The shear forces reveal low friction coefficients (μ = 0.008–0.0006) up to contact pressures of at least 6 MPa, comparable to those observed in the major joints. The spread in μ-values may be qualitatively accounted for by different local liposome structure at different contact points, suggesting that the intrinsic friction of the HSPC-SUV layers at this salt concentration is closer to the lower limit (μ = ∼0.0006). This low friction is attributed to the hydration lubrication mechanism arising from rubbing of the hydrated phosphocholine-headgroup layers exposed at the outer surface of each liposome, and provides support for the conjecture that phospholipids may play a significant role in biological lubrication. PMID:21575574

  11. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-02-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  12. Spectroscopic and morphological studies on interaction between gold nanoparticle and liposome constructed with phosphatidylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, C.; Tsuji, T.; Matsuo, K.; Nomoto, T.; Kutluk, G.; Sawada, M.; Ogawa, S.; Yoshida, T.; Yagi, S.

    2015-03-01

    The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) colloidal solution and the phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome aqueous solution are fabricated by the solution plasma method and the extrusion procedure, respectively. When the Au NPs colloidal solution and the PC liposome aqueous solution are mixed, considering the TEM image, we think that the Au NPs firstly are covered with the PC molecules, which do not contribute to form the PC liposome, and subsequently the Au NPs covered with the PC adsorb on the PC liposome surface. We propose that the PC molecule adsorbs on the Au sheet surface at the methyl group of N-CH3 and the oxygen atoms of P-O, P=O, C-O and C=O bonds, because each peak intensity of N, O and P K-edges NEXAFS spectra for the PC/Au sheet is reduced in comparison with that for the PC multilayer. Furthermore, the Au NPs covered with PC seem to be aggregated each other through the hydrophobic groups of PC on Au NPs.

  13. Insights into the requirement of phosphatidylcholine synthesis for liver function in mice.

    PubMed

    Noga, Anna A; Vance, Dennis E

    2003-10-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is made in the liver by the CDP-choline pathway and via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC. Unexpectedly, hepatic apolipoprotein B-100 secretion is inhibited in male, but not female, Pemt-/- mice (Noga, A. A., Y. Zhao, and D. E. Vance. 2002. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 42358-42365; Noga, A. A., and D. E. Vance. 2003. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 21851-21859). To gain further insight into this process, we compared PC metabolism in male and female mice fed chow or a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC) diet. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that twice as much PEMT2 was present in livers from female compared with male mice. In contrast, assays of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase from livers of Pemt+/+ mice demonstrated more active cytidylyltransferase in male than in female mice. Secretion of PEMT-derived PC into lipoproteins was examined in vivo by injection of mice with [methyl-3H]methionine in the presence of Triton WR1339. The PEMT-derived PC shifts to smaller-sized particles in response to a HF/HC diet, but only in male mice. Secretion of PEMT-derived PC into bile was enhanced in mice fed a HF/HC diet. These results demonstrate that the synthesis and targeting of PC produced by the PEMT pathway in the livers of mice differs in a gender- and diet-specific manner. PMID:12837848

  14. Formation and stability of the dispersed particles composed of retinyl palmitate and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Asai, Y; Watanabe, S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an intravenous formulation composed of retinyl palmitate (RP) for the treatment of cancer. RP was dispersed with soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) using sonication and the dispersal mechanism was evaluated by characterizing the dispersed particles using dynamic light-scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and surface monolayer techniques. The dispersions in the RP mole fraction range of 0.1-0.8 were stable at room temperature for 3 days. A limited amount of RP was incorporated into PC bilayer membranes (approximately 3 mol%). The excess RP separated from the PC bilayers was stabilized as emulsion particles by the PC surface monolayer. When the PC content was less than the solubility in RP, the PC monolayer did not completely cover the hydrophobic RP particle surfaces and separation into oil/water occurred. The miscibility between RP and PC and the lipid composition were critically important for the stability of the dispersed particles (coexistence of emulsion particles [surface monolayer of PC + core of RP] with vesicular particles [bilayer]) of the lipid mixtures. PMID:10669916

  15. Interaction of the cationic form of amphiphilic drugs with phosphatidylcholine model membranes. Competition with lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Westman, J; Eriksson, L E; Ehrenberg, A

    1984-01-01

    Model membranes (liposomes) of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine were exposed to the charged (cationic) form of amphiphilic drugs (procaine, tetracaine, metroprolol, alprenolol and propranolol). Drug analysis by ultraviolet light absorption of the bulk solution after centrifugation separation was used to determine the amount of drug bound to the membranes. Microelectrophoresis was employed to measure the change in the zeta-potential after drug adsorption. Binding constants were derived by simulating the experimental curves with a theoretical model which considers the electrostatic effects (Gouy-Chapman theory). Analogous experiments were carried out for the adsorption of Eu3+. Metal analysis was made by three different methods. Good agreement between the centrifugation and electrophoresis experiments was obtained for reasonable positions of the plane of shear relative to the positional plane of the bound ions. Displacement of Eu3+ from vesicles upon addition of drug cations was followed by 31P-NMR. The competition experiments were numerically simulated. The Eu3+ binding was assumed to obey a mass action type equilibrium, whereas the drug binding was described by a Henry's law partition. The binding constants for the drugs in the competition experiments followed the same order as in the absence of Eu3+. However, the numerical values had to be reduced. The effect of anions was studied. PMID:17005132

  16. Effect of chain length on physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of cationic vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholines and dialkyldimethylammonium bromides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of cationic vesicles that were prepared from two phosphatidylcholines and three dialkyldimethylammonium bromides (DXDAB) with differing in dialkyl chain lengths, ranging from 2-C(14) to 2-C(18), by measuring particle size and zeta potential. The dependence of particle size, zeta potential and short-storage stability of mixed phosphatidylcholine/DXDAB vesicles on the chain length and composition were also elucidated. Transmission electron microscopy analysis verified that vesicles were formed as a phosphatidylcholine film to which DXDAB was added in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.4). Furthermore, the toxicity to the human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC25) cells that were incubated with these vesicles, evaluated by a cell viability assay, increased with the percentage of DXDAB that was incorporated and was inversely proportional to the chain length of DXDAB. The morphological features (round shape, chromatin condensation and apoptosis bodies) and results of flow cytometry analysis (increased sub-G(1) fraction) confirmed the induction of apoptosis in HaCaT and SCC25 cells by cationic vesicles. Apoptosis caused by cationic vesicles without the addition of any drugs was observed for the first time in HaCaT and SCC25 cells. The results of this investigation suggest that cytotoxicity is related to the zeta potential of the cationic vesicles. PMID:19428352

  17. Lysophosphatidylcholine metabolism to 1,2-diacylglycerol in lymphoblasts: Involvement of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, J.; Wright, T.M.; Hoffman, R.D.; Liao, F.; Symer, D.E.; Shin, H.S. )

    1989-04-04

    The authors have previously described the chemoattraction of lymphoblasts by lysophosphatidylcholine. In studying the mechanism of chemoattraction it was found that lysophosphatidylcholine was metabolized to 1,2-diacylglycerol by the lymphoblastic cell line 6C3HED. One route of metabolism involves the acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholine with subsequent hydrolysis to 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphocholine by the action of phospholipase C. The increase in cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol was established by metabolic experiments using ({sup 14}C)glycerol-labeled lysophosphatidylcholine and by mass measurements of 1,2-diacylglycerol. The presence of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C was confirmed in 6C3HED cell homogenates. In intact cells, lysophosphatidylcholine induced a pattern of protein phosphorylation similar to those of 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, two known activators of protein kinase C. This pathway of lysophosphatidylcholine metabolism, which involves a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C, may be important in the activation of protein kinase C independent of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  18. A Phase I Dose-Finding Study of Silybin Phosphatidylcholine (Milk Thistle) in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Abby B.; Narayan, Rupa; Rodriguez, Rosa; Goyal, Abhishek; Jacobson, Judith S.; Kelly, Kara; Ladas, Elena; Lunghofer, Paul J.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Flaig, Thomas W.; Tsai, Wei Yann; Wu, David P. H.; Lee, Valerie; Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose per day of silybin phosphatidylcholine (Siliphos) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic dysfunction. Experimental Design Patients with advanced HCC not eligible for other therapies based on poor hepatic function were enrolled in a phase I study of silybin phosphatidylcholine. A standard phase I design was used with 4 planned cohorts, dose escalating from 2, 4, 8, to 12 g per day in divided doses for 12 weeks. Results Three participants enrolled in this single institution trial. All enrolled subjects consumed 2 g per day of study agent in divided doses. Serum concentrations of silibinin and silibinin glucuronide increased within 1 to 3 weeks. In all 3 patients, liver function abnormalities and tumor marker α-fetoprotein progressed, but after day 56 the third patient showed some improvement in liver function abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers. All 3 participants died within 23 to 69 days of enrolling into the trial, likely from hepatic failure, but it could not be ruled out that deaths were possibly due to the study drug. Conclusion Short-term administration of silybin phosphatidylcholine in patients with advanced HCC resulted in detectable increases in silibinin and its metabolite, silibinin glucuronide. The maximum tolerated dose could not be established. Since patients died soon after enrollment, this patient population may have been too ill to benefit from an intervention designed to improve liver function tests. PMID:23757319

  19. Do cinnamylideneacetophenones have antioxidant properties and a protective effect toward the oxidation of phosphatidylcholines?

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduarda M P; Melo, Tânia; Sousa, Bebiana C; Resende, Diana I S P; Magalhães, Luís M; Segundo, Marcela A; Silva, Artur M S; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2016-10-01

    Cinnamylideneacetophenones (CA) are an important group of α,β,γ,δ-diunsaturated ketones that have been widely used in a variety of synthetic transformations. Biological studies concerning these compounds are scarce and refer mainly to antiviral and antibacterial evaluations. Curcumin (CR), a natural polyphenol, is a yellow pigment extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, which is one of the major spices used in the Indian culinary. It has been reported that CR has cancer chemopreventive properties in a range of animal models of chemical carcinogenesis, along with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Inspired by the biological activity shown by CR and their structural resemblance with CA, it was considered to study the ability of the latter molecules to inhibit lipid oxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical (Fenton reaction) by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) using phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes as a model of cell membrane. Compound 4, holding a methylated hydroxy group in the position R(2), and CR showed similar effects in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. In the presence of 7, the extension of oxidation was higher than the one verified in all other compounds. Other methodologies, namely DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays, were performed to complement and clarify the results attained by oxidation of PC monitored by ESI-MS and to evaluate the antioxidant profile of compounds. For both assays, compound 7 showed to be rather efficient due to its specific structure. This derivative can form a quite stable allylic radical by abstraction of a hydrogen atom which accounts for these results. PMID:27267003

  20. Mass Spectrometric Analyses of Phosphatidylcholines in Alkali-Exposed Corneal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Ashley M.; Hua, Hong-Uyen; Coggin, Andrew D.; Gugiu, Bogdan G.; Lam, Byron L.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aims were to determine whether exposure to sodium hydroxide results in predictable changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) in corneal tissue and if PC profile changes correlate to exposure duration. PCs are major components of the cell membrane lipid bilayer and are often involved in biological processes such as signaling. Methods. Enucleated porcine (n = 140) and cadaver human eyes (n = 20) were exposed to water (control) and 11 M NaOH. The corneas were excised and lipids were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method with suitable modifications. Class-specific lipid identification was carried out using a ratiometric lipid standard on a TSQ Quantum Access Max mass spectrometer. Protein amounts were determined using Bradford assays. Results. Control and alkali-treated corneas showed reproducible PC spectra for both porcine and human corneas. Over 200 PCs were identified for human and porcine control and each experimental time point. Several PC species (m/z values) consequent upon alkali exposure could not be ascribed to a recorded PC species. Control and treated groups showed 41 and 29 common species among them for porcine and human corneas, respectively. The unique PC species peaked at 12 minutes and at 30 minutes for human and porcine corneas followed by a decline consistent with an interplay of alkali penetration and hydrolyses at various time points. Conclusions. Alkali exposure dramatically changes the PC profile of cornea. Our data are consistent with penetration and hydrolysis as stochastic contributors to changes in PCs due to exposure to alkali for a finite duration and amount. PMID:22956606

  1. Cubic Phases in Phosphatidylcholine-Cholesterol Mixtures: Cholesterol as Membrane 'Fusogen'

    SciTech Connect

    Tenchov, Boris G.; MacDonald, Robert C.; Siegel, David P.

    2010-01-18

    X-ray diffraction reveals that mixtures of some unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with cholesterol (Chol) readily form inverted bicontinuous cubic phases that are stable under physiological conditions. This effect was studied in most detail for dioleoyl PC/Chol mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1 and 3:7. Facile formation of Im3m and Pn3m phases with lattice constants of 30-50nm and 25-30nm, respectively, took place in phosphate-buffered saline, in sucrose solution, and in water near the temperature of the L{alpha}HII transition of the mixtures, as well as during cooling of the HII phase. Once formed, the cubic phases displayed an ability to supercool and replace the initial L{sub {alpha}} phase over a broad range of physiological temperatures. Conversion into stable cubic phases was also observed for mixtures of Chol with dilinoleoyl PC but not for mixtures with palmitoyl-linoleoyl PC or palmitoyl-oleoyl PC, for which only transient cubic traces were recorded at elevated temperatures. A saturated, branched-chain PC, diphytanoyl PC, also displayed a cubic phase in mixture with Chol. Unlike the PEs, the membrane PCs are intrinsically nonfusogenic lipids: in excess water they only form lamellar phases and not any of the inverted phases on their own. Thus, the finding that Chol induces cubic phases in mixtures with unsaturated PCs may have important implications for its role in fusion. In ternary mixtures, saturated PCs and sphingomyelin are known to separate into liquid-ordered domains along with Chol. Our results thus suggest that unsaturated PCs, which are excluded from these domains, could form fusogenic domains with Chol. Such a dual role of Chol may explain the seemingly paradoxical ability of cell membranes to simultaneously form rigid, low-curvature raft-like patches while still being able to undergo facile membrane fusion.

  2. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  3. Metabolic and Structural Effects of Phosphatidylcholine and Deoxycholate Injections on Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel; Boswell, Craig Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (PC-DC) injections are a popular nonsurgical method to eliminate unwanted fat. The safety and efficacy of this approach is uncertain. Objective: The authors evaluate the effects of PC-DC treatments on body composition, adipocyte function, and mechanisms responsible for fat loss. Methods: This randomized, open-label study enrolled 13 women with a body mass index (BMI) ≤30 kg/m2 and lower abdominal subcutaneous fat suitable for small-volume liposuction. Patients were randomized by the final digit of their Social Security numbers and received between 2 and 4 PC-DC treatments, spaced 8 weeks apart. One side below the umbilicus was injected with PC-DC. The contralateral, control side received no treatment. Adipose tissue biopsies were performed on the treated side at baseline, 1 week after the first treatment, and 8 weeks after the final treatment. The primary outcome was change in adipose tissue thickness at baseline and 8 weeks after the final treatment. Results: Seven women completed the study. Treatment with PC-DC significantly reduced the thickness of the anterior subcutaneous abdominal fat (P = .004). Adipose tissue showed rapid increases in crown-like structures, macrophage infiltration, and reduced expression of leptin, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose tissue triglyceride lipase, and CD36. Plasma C-reactive protein, lipid profile, and plasma glucose concentrations were unchanged. Conclusions: PC-DC injections can effectively reduce abdominal fat volume and thickness by inducing adipocyte necrosis. These treatments do not appear to increase circulating markers of inflammation or affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:23439063

  4. Phosphatidylcholine kinetics in neonatal rat lungs and the effects of rhuKGF and betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Gesche, Jens; Raith, Marco; Poets, Christian F

    2016-05-15

    Surfactant, synthesized by type II pneumocytes (PN-II), mainly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) and is essential to prevent neonatal respiratory distress. Furthermore, PC is essential to lung tissue growth and maintenance as a membrane component. Recent findings suggest that the lung contributes to systemic lipid homeostasis via PC export through ABC-A1 transporter expression. Hence it is important to consider pharmacological interventions in neonatal lung PC metabolism with respect to such export. Five-day-old rats were treated with carrier (control), intraperitoneal betamethasone, subcutaneous recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rhuKGF), or their combination for 48 h. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg [D9-methyl]choline chloride 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h before death at day 7, and lung lavage fluid (LLF) and tissue were harvested. Endogenous PC, D9-labeled PC species, and their water-soluble precursors (D9-)choline and (D9-)phosphocholine were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Treatment increased secreted and tissue PC pools but did not change equilibrium composition of PC species in LLF. However, all treatments increased specific surfactant components in tissue. In control rats, peak D9-PC in lavaged lung was reached after 3 h and was decreased at 6 h. Only 13% of this net loss in lavaged lung was found in LLF. Such decrease was not present in lungs treated with betamethasone and/or with rhuKGF. D9-PC loss at 3-6 h and PC synthesis calculated from D9 enrichment of phosphocholine indicated that daily synthesis rate is higher than total pool size. We conclude that lung tissue contributes to systemic PC homeostasis in neonatal rats, which is altered by glucocorticoid and rhuKGF treatment. PMID:26944086

  5. Effect of unsaturation on the chain order of phosphatidylcholines in a dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Separovic, F; Gawrisch, K

    1996-01-01

    The properties of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) having a perdeuterated stearic acid, 18:0d35, in the sn-1 position and the fatty acid 18:0, 18:1 omega 9, 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, 20:4 omega 6, 20:5 omega 3, or 22:6 omega 3 at the sn-2 position were investigated in a matrix of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) by 2H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. At a mole ratio of DOPE/PC = 5:1, the lipids form liquid crystalline lamellar phases below 40 degrees C and coexisting lamellar, inverse hexagonal (Hll), and cubic phases at higher temperatures. The sn-1 chain of the PCs in a DOPE matrix is appreciably more ordered than in pure PCs, corresponding to an increase in the hydrophobic bilayer thickness of approximately 1 A. Distearoylphosphatidylcholine in the DOPE matrix has a higher sn-1 chain order than the unsaturated PCs. We observed distinct differences in the lipid order of upper and lower sections of the hydrocarbon chains caused by changes of temperature, unsaturation, headgroups, and ethanol. Unsaturation lowers chain order, mostly in the lower third of the hydrocarbon chains. By contrast, the increase in chain order caused by the DOPE matrix and the decrease in order with increasing temperature have a constant magnitude for the upper two-thirds of the chain and are smaller for the lower third. Addition of 2 M ethanol reduced order parameters, in effect reversing the increase in chain order caused by the DOPE matrix. PMID:8804610

  6. Structural Determinants of Drug Partitioning in Surrogates of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer Strata

    PubMed Central

    Lukacova, Viera; Natesan, Senthil; Peng, Ming; Tandlich, Roman; Wang, Zhanbin; Lynch, Sandra; Subramaniam, Rajesh; Balaz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of drug concentrations in bilayer headgroups, core, and at the interface between them is a prerequisite for quantitative modeling of drug interactions with many membrane-bound transporters, metabolizing enzymes and receptors, which have the binding sites located in the bilayer. This knowledge also helps understand the rates of trans-bilayer transport because balanced interactions of drugs with the bilayer strata lead to high rates, while excessive affinities for any stratum cause a slowdown. Experimental determination of bilayer location is so tedious and costly that the data are only available for some fifty compounds. To extrapolate these valuable results to more compounds at a higher throughput, surrogate phases have been used to obtain correlates of the drug affinities for individual strata. We introduced a novel system, consisting of a diacetyl phosphatidylcholine (DAcPC) solution with the water content of the fluid bilayer as the headgroup surrogate and n-hexadecane (C16) representing the core. The C16/DAcPC partition coefficients were measured for 113 selected compounds, containing structural fragments that are frequently occurring in approved drugs. The data were deconvoluted into the ClogP-based fragment solvation characteristics and processed using a solvatochromic correlation. Increased H-bond donor ability and excess molar refractivity of compounds promote solvation in the DAcPC phase as compared to bulk water, contrary to H-bond acceptor ability, dipolarity/polarizability, and volume. The results show that aromates have more balanced distribution in bilayer strata, and thus faster trans-bilayer transport, than similar alkanes. This observation is in accordance with the frequent occurrence of aromatic rings in approved drugs and with the role of rigidity of drug molecules in promoting intestinal absorption. Bilayer locations, predicted using the C16/DAcPC system, are in excellent agreement with available experimental data, in contrast to

  7. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  8. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) and lamins alter nuclear membrane structure without affecting phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D

    2011-06-01

    CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. Lipid activation of CCTα results in its translocation to the nuclear envelope and expansion of an intranuclear membrane network termed the nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) by a mechanism involving membrane deformation. Nuclear lamins are also required for stability and proliferation of the NR, but whether this unique structure, or the nuclear lamina in general, is required for PC synthesis is not known. To examine this relationship, the nuclear lamina was depleted by RNAi or disrupted by expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) mutant lamin A (progerin), and the effect on CCTα and choline metabolism was analyzed. siRNA-mediated silencing of lamin A/C or lamin B1 in CHO cells to diminish the NR had no effect on PC synthesis, while double knockdown non-specifically inhibited the pathway. Confirming this minor role in PC synthesis, only 10% of transiently overexpressed choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase was detected in the NR. In CHO cells, CCTα was nucleoplasmic and co-localized with GFP-progerin in nuclear folds and invaginations; however, HGPS fibroblasts displayed an abnormal distribution of CCTα in the cytoplasm and nuclear envelope that was accompanied by a 2-fold reduction in PC synthesis. In spite of its altered localization, choline-labeling experiments showed that CCT activity was unaffected, and inhibition of PC synthesis was traced to reduced activity of a hemicholinium-sensitive choline transporter. We conclude that CCTα and lamins specifically cooperate to form the NR, but the overall structure of the nuclear envelope has a minimal impact on CCT activity and PC synthesis. PMID:21504799

  9. In vitro evidence that phosphatidylcholine protects against indomethacin/bile acid-induced injury to cells

    PubMed Central

    Dial, Elizabeth J.; Dawson, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Indomethacin is a powerful analgesic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), but is limited in use by its primary side effect to cause gastrointestinal bleeding and serious injury. One factor important for exacerbating NSAID injury is the presence of bile acids, which may interact with indomethacin to form toxic mixed micelles in the gut. The development of a safer gastrointestinal formulation of indomethacin that is chemically complexed with phosphatidylcholine (PC-indomethacin) may offer an improved therapeutic agent, particularly in the presence of bile acid, but its potential protective mechanism is incompletely understood. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were tested for injury with indomethacin (alone and plus various bile acids) compared with PC-indomethacin (alone and plus bile acids). To explore a role for bile acid uptake into cells as a requirement for NSAID injury, studies were performed using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). Indomethacin, but not PC-indomethacin, was directly and dose-dependently injurious to IEC-6 cells. Similarly, the combination of any bile acid plus indomethacin, but not PC-indomethacin, induced cell injury. The expression of ASBT had a modest effect on the acute cytotoxicity of indomethacin in the presence of some conjugated bile acids. Complexing PC with indomethacin protected against the acute intestinal epithelial injury caused by indomethacin regardless of the presence of bile acids. The presence of luminal bile acid, but not its carrier-mediated uptake into the enterocyte, is required for acute indomethacin-induced cell injury. It is likely that initial cell damage induced by indomethacin occurs at or near the cell membrane, an effect exacerbated by bile acids and attenuated by PC. PMID:25477376

  10. Phosphatidylinositol induces fluid phase formation and packing defects in phosphatidylcholine model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Aaron; Pisal, Dipak S.; Doty, Amy; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes consisted of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been utilized as delivery vehicle for drugs and proteins. In the present work, we studied the effect of soy PI on physical properties of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes such as phase state of lipid bilayer, lipid packing and phase properties using multiple orthogonal biophysical techniques. The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamino naphthalene (Laurdan) fluorescence studies showed that presence of PI induces the formation of fluid phases in DMPC. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature dependent fluorescence anisotropy measurements, and generalized polarization values for Laurdan showed that the presence of as low as 10 mol% of PI induces substantial broadening and shift to lower temperature of phase transition of DMPC. The fluorescence emission intensity of DPH labeled, PI containing DMPC lipid bilayer decreased possibly due to deeper penetration of water molecules in lipid bilayer. In order to further delineate the effect of PI on the physico chemical properties of DMPC is due to either significant hydrophobic mismatch between the acyl chains of the DMPC and that of soy PI or due to the inositol head group, we systematically replaced soy PI with PC species of similar acyl chain composition (DPPC and 18:2 (Cis) PC) or with diacylglycerol (DAG) respectively. The anisotropy of PC membrane containing soy PI showed largest fluidity change compared to other compositions. The data suggests that addition of PI alters structure and dynamics of DMPC bilayer in that it promotes deeper water penetration in the bilayer, induces fluid phase characteristics and causes lipid packing defects that involve its inositol head group. PMID:22024173

  11. An approximate model and empirical energy function for solute interactions with a water-phosphatidylcholine interface.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, C R; Schwonek, J P

    1993-01-01

    An empirical model of a liquid crystalline (L alpha phase) phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer interface is presented along with a function which calculates the position-dependent energy of associated solutes. The model approximates the interface as a gradual two-step transition, the first step being from an aqueous phase to a phase of reduced polarity, but which maintains a high enough concentration of water and/or polar head group moieties to satisfy the hydrogen bond-forming potential of the solute. The second transition is from the hydrogen bonding/low polarity region to an effectively anhydrous hydrocarbon phase. The "interfacial energies" of solutes within this variable medium are calculated based upon atomic positions and atomic parameters describing general polarity and hydrogen bond donor/acceptor propensities. This function was tested for its ability to reproduce experimental water-solvent partitioning energies and water-bilayer partitioning data. In both cases, the experimental data was reproduced fairly well. Energy minimizations carried out on beta-hexyl glucopyranoside led to identification of a global minimum for the interface-associated glycolipid which exhibited glycosidic torsion angles in agreement with prior results (Hare, B.J., K.P. Howard, and J.H. Prestegard. 1993. Biophys. J. 64:392-398). Molecular dynamics simulations carried out upon this same molecule within the simulated interface led to results which were consistent with a number of experimentally based conclusions from previous work, but failed to quantitatively reproduce an available NMR quadrupolar/dipolar coupling data set (Sanders, C.R., and J.H. Prestegard. 1991. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113:1987-1996). The proposed model and functions are readily incorporated into computational energy modeling algorithms and may prove useful in future studies of membrane-associated molecules. PMID:8241401

  12. Toward Atomistic Resolution Structure of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup and Glycerol Backbone at Different Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Botan, Alexandru; Favela-Rosales, Fernando; Fuchs, Patrick F J; Javanainen, Matti; Kanduč, Matej; Kulig, Waldemar; Lamberg, Antti; Loison, Claire; Lyubartsev, Alexander; Miettinen, Markus S; Monticelli, Luca; Määttä, Jukka; Ollila, O H Samuli; Retegan, Marius; Róg, Tomasz; Santuz, Hubert; Tynkkynen, Joona

    2015-12-10

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of biological membranes. Despite a vast amount of very accurate experimental data, the atomistic resolution structures sampled by the glycerol backbone and choline headgroup in phoshatidylcholine bilayers are not known. Atomistic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have the potential to resolve the structures, and to give an arrestingly intuitive interpretation of the experimental data, but only if the simulations reproduce the data within experimental accuracy. In the present work, we simulated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers with 13 different atomistic models, and compared simulations with NMR experiments in terms of the highly structurally sensitive C-H bond vector order parameters. Focusing on the glycerol backbone and choline headgroups, we showed that the order parameter comparison can be used to judge the atomistic resolution structural accuracy of the models. Accurate models, in turn, allow molecular dynamics simulations to be used as an interpretation tool that translates these NMR data into a dynamic three-dimensional representation of biomolecules in biologically relevant conditions. In addition to lipid bilayers in fully hydrated conditions, we reviewed previous experimental data for dehydrated bilayers and cholesterol-containing bilayers, and interpreted them with simulations. Although none of the existing models reached experimental accuracy, by critically comparing them we were able to distill relevant chemical information: (1) increase of choline order parameters indicates the P-N vector tilting more parallel to the membrane, and (2) cholesterol induces only minor changes to the PC (glycerol backbone) structure. This work has been done as a fully open collaboration, using nmrlipids.blogspot.fi as a communication platform; all the scientific contributions were made publicly on this blog. During the open research process, the repository holding our simulation trajectories and files ( https

  13. Toward Atomistic Resolution Structure of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup and Glycerol Backbone at Different Ambient Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of biological membranes. Despite a vast amount of very accurate experimental data, the atomistic resolution structures sampled by the glycerol backbone and choline headgroup in phoshatidylcholine bilayers are not known. Atomistic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have the potential to resolve the structures, and to give an arrestingly intuitive interpretation of the experimental data, but only if the simulations reproduce the data within experimental accuracy. In the present work, we simulated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers with 13 different atomistic models, and compared simulations with NMR experiments in terms of the highly structurally sensitive C–H bond vector order parameters. Focusing on the glycerol backbone and choline headgroups, we showed that the order parameter comparison can be used to judge the atomistic resolution structural accuracy of the models. Accurate models, in turn, allow molecular dynamics simulations to be used as an interpretation tool that translates these NMR data into a dynamic three-dimensional representation of biomolecules in biologically relevant conditions. In addition to lipid bilayers in fully hydrated conditions, we reviewed previous experimental data for dehydrated bilayers and cholesterol-containing bilayers, and interpreted them with simulations. Although none of the existing models reached experimental accuracy, by critically comparing them we were able to distill relevant chemical information: (1) increase of choline order parameters indicates the P–N vector tilting more parallel to the membrane, and (2) cholesterol induces only minor changes to the PC (glycerol backbone) structure. This work has been done as a fully open collaboration, using nmrlipids.blogspot.fi as a communication platform; all the scientific contributions were made publicly on this blog. During the open research process, the repository holding our simulation trajectories and files (https

  14. A strategy for solubilizing delipidated apolipoprotein with lysophosphatidylcholine and reconstitution with phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawooya, J.K.; Wells, M.A.; Law, J.H. )

    1989-08-08

    The apolipoproteins of insect lipophorin were dissociated in guanidinium chloride and isolated by gel permeation chromatography. Over 98% of the total lipid in lipophorin was associated with apolipophorin I (apoLp-I), thus suggesting this apolipoprotein to be the lipid binding component of the particle. ApoLp-I was delipidated with ethanol/ether and solubilized in buffer that contained radioactive lysophosphatidylcholine (({sup 3}H)LPC) above the critical micellar concentration. Sonic irradiation of radioactive phosphatidylcholine (({sup 14}C)PC) with ({sup 3}H)LPC-solubilized apoLp-I at a molar ratio of 318 resulted in reconstituted lipophorin I (RLp-I). ({sup 3}H)LPC was bound to fatty acid free bovine serum albumin and was separated from RLp-I by density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel permeation chromatography. Negatively stained RLp-I particles were quasispherical with an average radius of 55{angstrom}, and their overall morphology and secondary structure were similar to those of native hemolymph lipophorin. The RLp-I particle had a {rho} = 1.137 g/mL, a M{sub r} {approx} 5.2 x 10{sup 5}, and a ({sup 14}C)PC:apoLp-I molar ratio of 308. From the compositional analysis, molecular size, trypsinization, and lipolysis with phospholipase A{sub 2}, the authors concluded that each RLp-I particle contained one molecule of apoLp-I and a monomolecular layer of ({sup 14}C)PC. When injected into the hemolymph of adult moths in vivo, RLp-I was loaded with lipid, as judged by a decrease in its density both in the presence and in the absence of adipokinetic hormone. The similarities in morphology and immunology of RLp-I and native lipophorin, together with the ability of RLp-I to load lipid, suggest that reconstituted lipophorins may serve as models to probe lipophorin structure and function.

  15. Hepatoprotectant Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Increasing Phosphatidylcholine Levels as a Potential Therapy of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chamulitrat, Walee; Zhang, Wujuan; Xu, Weihong; Pathil, Anita; Setchell, Kenneth; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    It has been long known that hepatic synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is depressed during acute such as carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Anti-hepatotoxic properties of PC as liposomes have been recognized for treatment of acute liver damage. Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) is a known hepatoprotectant in stabilizing cellular membrane. For therapeutic management of liver injury, we coupled UDCA with a phospholipid known as ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE). UDCA-LPE has been shown to first-in-class hepatoprotectant being superior to UDCA or PC. It inhibits mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, elicits survival signaling pathway, and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes. We herein report that a unique contribution of UDCA-LPE in increasing concentrations of PC in vitro and in vivo. UDCA-LPE-treated hepatocytes contained significantly increased PC levels. UDCA-LPE underwent the hydrolysis to LPE which was not the precursor of the increased PC. The levels of PC in the liver and blood were increased rapidly after intraperitoneally administration UDCA-LPE, and were found to be sustained even after 24 h. Among PC synthesis genes tested, UDCA-LPE treatment of mouse hepatocytes increased transcription of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 which is an enzyme catalyzing phosphatidic acid to generate intermediates for PC synthesis. Thus, UDCA-LPE as a hepatoprotectant was able to induce synthesis of protective PC which would supplement for the loss of PC occurring during acute liver injury. This property has placed UDCA-LPE as a candidate agent for therapy of acute hepatotoxicity such as acetaminophen poisoning. PMID:22363296

  16. Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C and Sphingomyelinase Activities in Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus Group

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantsev, A. P.; Kalnin, K. V.; Osorio, M.; Leppla, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is nonhemolytic, even though it is closely related to the highly hemolytic Bacillus cereus. Hemolysis by B. cereus results largely from the action of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and sphingomyelinase (SPH), encoded by the plc and sph genes, respectively. In B. cereus, these genes are organized in an operon regulated by the global regulator PlcR. B. anthracis contains a highly similar cereolysin operon, but it is transcriptionally silent because the B. anthracis PlcR is truncated at the C terminus. Here we report the cloning, expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of PC-PLC and SPH from B. cereus and B. anthracis. We also investigated the effects of expressing PlcR on the expression of plc and sph. In B. cereus, PlcR was found to be a positive regulator of plc but a negative regulator of sph. Replacement of the B. cereus plcR gene by its truncated orthologue from B. anthracis eliminated the activities of both PC-PLC and SPH, whereas introduction into B. anthracis of the B. cereus plcR gene with its own promoter did not activate cereolysin expression. Hemolytic activity was detected in B. anthracis strains containing the B. cereus plcR gene on a multicopy plasmid under control of the strong B. anthracis protective antigen gene promoter or in a strain carrying a multicopy plasmid containing the entire B. cereus plc-sph operon. Slight hemolysis and PC-PLC activation were found when PlcR-producing B. anthracis strains were grown under anaerobic-plus-CO2 or especially under aerobic-plus-CO2 conditions. Unmodified parental B. anthracis strains did not demonstrate obvious hemolysis under the same conditions. PMID:14573681

  17. Effects of phosphatidylcholine on the topical bioavailability of corticosteroids assessed by the human skin blanching assay.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Martin, G P; Marriott, C

    1988-12-01

    A non-occluded multiple application skin blanching assay has been used to determine the effect of applied phosphatidylcholine (PC) on the bioavailability of corticosteroids. One forearm of each of ten volunteers was treated twice daily for one week with PC presented as a liposomal suspension in Sørensen's (pH 5.0) phosphate buffer (2.5 mg PC/0.5 mL) while the other arm was treated with 0.5 mL of phosphate buffer. For the following two weeks this treatment regimen was continued but in addition, each of four corticosteroid formulations (containing (i) hydrocortisone 0.1%, (ii) clobetasone butyrate 0.05%, (iii) betamethasone 0.1% and (iv) clobetasol propionate, 0.05%) was applied to sites on both arms. 5 +/- 1 mg of each cream was applied twice daily to the sites on day 1, then once daily for a further four days; after two days of no application, the protocol was repeated. Estimation of pallor was usually made four times daily. At the end of the second week of corticosteroid application the blanching response to all four formulations on the PC treated arms was significantly higher than on the buffer treated arm. Tachyphylaxis to the applied corticosteroids was markedly less apparent on the lipid-treated arms. It is proposed that the applied phospholipid either supplements the lipid content of the skin or provides a thin film in intimate epidermal contact. Such a film may promote hydration of the stratum corneum and also provide an environment into which corticosteroids initially partition before a subsequent, more controlled, release to the underlying tissue. PMID:2907573

  18. The mitigating effects of phosphatidylcholines on bile salt- and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced membrane damage.

    PubMed

    el-Hariri, L M; Marriott, C; Martin, G P

    1992-08-01

    The effects, at pH 7.0, of a series of 0.2 mM phosphatidylcholines (PC), namely dicaproyl-PC (DCPC), didecanoyl-PC (DDPC), dilauroyl-PC (DLaPC), dimyristoyl-PC (DMPC), dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC), dioleoyl-PC (DOPC) and dilinoleoyl-PC (DLPC) and a series of 0.2 mM fatty acid salts (namely sodium myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate and linoleate) upon the erythrocyte haemolysis induced by 2 mM sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC) were determined. The influence of egg PC and dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) concentration upon the haemolysis induced by 1.4 mM sodium deoxycholate (SDC), 2 mM STDC and 0.1 mM lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were also established. A bile salt:egg PC mole ratio of 0.5 virtually abolished the haemolysis induced by SDC and STDC, whereas the same ratio of LPC:egg PC only reduced haemolysis from 65 to 40% (maximum haemolysis). DHDP had no effect on the haemolytic action of SDC or STDC. The salts of the fatty acids were non-haemolytic, and when mixed with STDC did not affect the level of haemolysis induced by the bile salt. In contrast, DDPC and DLaPC enhanced the haemolysis of STDC and DCPC had no effect, whereas DMPC, DPPC, DSPC, DOPC, DLPC and egg PC all reduced haemolysis. Maximum reduction was determined for DMPC and egg PC. The mixed micelle preparation temperature (either room or 60 degrees C) and temperature of incubation (either 20 degrees C for 30 min or 37 degrees C for 5 min) had only minor effects on the net haemolysis induced by STDC. These findings may be of significance in understanding the aetiology of certain gastrointestinal diseases and in determining whether mixed bile salt micelles have a role as drug penetration enhancers. PMID:1359088

  19. Measurement of Lung Phosphatidylcholines in Exhaled Breath Particles by a Convenient Collection Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Sandqvist, Sören; Beck, Olof

    2015-11-17

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of four phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in human exhaled breath particles. Analytes were conveniently collected on an electrostatic polymer filter and extracted with methanol prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultraperformance liquid chromatographic ethylene bridged hybrid phenyl column using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol containing 4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% ammonia. The mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Detection limits for PC 16:0/16:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), PC 16:0/18:1, PC 16:0/18:2, and PC 18:0/18:2 were <0.01 ng/filter. Method recoveries at concentration levels of 0.1 and 10 ng/filter were 100-110% and 101-121%, respectively. Acceptable precision with coefficients of variation <20% and accuracies of 100% ± 20% were achieved. Identification of the individual PCs was performed on the basis of two product ions with correct ion ratios and chromatographic retention times. The highest amount in exhaled breath was found for DPPC with median concentration 1.14 ng/filter (range 0.6-21 ng/filter), and median molar ratios of DPPC/PC (16:0/18:1) of 1.98 (range 0.48-2.75). A different pattern with lower molar ratio (∼0.15) was found for oral fluid. The most significant element of this study was to use a precolumn in the LC system and to collecting exhaled particles in an electret polymer filter. Due to chromatographic interference by background contamination, an isolator column (PFC kit) was installed in between eluent mixer and injector to reduce contamination. This is the first LC/MS study where the method was successfully applied to analyze PCs in human exhaled breath by using a simple and convenient collection procedure. PMID:26505278

  20. Influence of different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine on cholesterol transport from lipoprotein recombinants in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, R.; Patton, G.M.; Atkinson, D.; Robins, S.J.

    1987-06-05

    Studies were performed to determine to what extent phosphatidylcholines (PCs) of different composition influence the turnover of lipoprotein cholesterol. Lipoprotein recombinants with the composition and structure of spherical high density lipoproteins (HDL-R) were prepared with apoproteins, /sup 14/C-labeled unesterified cholesterol (UC), a (3H)cholesteryl ester (CE), and one of four single molecular species of PC. PCs were selected to include relatively hydrophilic species (16:1-16:1 and 16:0-18:2 PCs) and relatively hydrophobic species (18:0-18:2 and 20:1-20:1 PCs). PCs were also selected to include molecules with novel acyl group pairs (16:1-16:1 and 20:1-20:1 PCs) that would permit the whole molecule to be traced during its clearance from the serum. Rats were injected with HDL-R as an intravenous bolus, and serum, liver, and bile samples were obtained for up to 2 h. The clearance from the serum of each PC was monoexponential with the two most hydrophilic species much more rapidly cleared than either of the two less hydrophilic species. Clearance of specific PCs was not accompanied by PC remodeling (i.e. transacylations), and in the main could not be attributed to the action of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). In incubations designed to simulate in vivo conditions, no more than 15% of the disappearance of 16:1-16:1 PC, one of the most rapidly cleared PCs, was due to the action of LCAT. With 20:1-20:1 PC, one of the least rapidly cleared PCs, no LCAT activity could be detected. The clearance of radiolabeled UC was multiexponential and closely corresponded to the rate of disappearance of each PC. The clearance of radiolabeled CE was linear and, in contrast to UC, was the same with the administration of different PCs. Uptake of radiolabeled UC by the liver and excretion of radiolabeled UC into bile took place in parallel and corresponded to the rapidity of turnover of UC (and PCs) in the serum.

  1. In vivo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat brain via the phospholipid methylation pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakher, Michael; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was examined. (H-3)methyl)methionine was infused i.c.v., by indwelling cannula, and brain samples were taken 0.5-18 h thereafter and assayed for (H-3)PC, as well as for its biosynthetic intermediates (H-3)phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine ((H-3)PMME) and (H-3)phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine ((H-3)PDME), and for (H-3)lysophosphatidylcholine ((H-3)LPC) and S-(H-3)adenosylmethionine ((H-3)SAM). Most of the (H-3)PC (79-94 percent) was present ipsilateral to the infusion site; indicating that the radioactivity in the (H-3)PC was primarily of intracerebral origin, and not taken up from the blood. Moreover, only very low levels of (H-3)PC were attained in brains of animals receiving (H-3)methionine i.p. and these levels were symmetrically distributed. (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME turned over with apparent half-lives of 2.2 h and 2.4 h. In contrast, the accumulation of brain (H-3)PC was biphasic, suggesting the existence of two pools, the more labile of which turned over rapidly (t(sub 1/2) = 5 h) and was formed for as long as (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME are present in the brain, and another, which was distinguishable only at 18 h after the (H-3)methionine infusion. (The latter pool may have been synthesized from (H-3)choline that was released via the hydrolysis of some of the brain (H-3)PC previously formed by the methylation of PE.) Subcellular fractionation of brain tissue obtained after in vivo labelling with (H-3)methionine revealed that mitochondrial PC had the highest specific radioactivity (dpm per micromol total lipid phosphorus), and myelin the least. These observations affirm that rat brain does synthesize PC in vivo by methylating PE, and the technique provides an experimental system which may be useful for examining the physiological regulation of this process.

  2. Structure and thermotropic properties of 1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Duclos, R I; Shipley, G G

    1994-05-01

    The structural and thermotropic properties of 1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-phosphatidylcholine (C(18):C(2)-PC) were studied as a function of hydration. A combination of differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the phase behavior of C(18):C(2)-PC. At low hydration (e.g., 20% H2O), the differential scanning calorimetry heating curve shows a single reversible endothermic transition at 44.6 degrees C with transition enthalpy delta H = 6.4 kcal/mol. The x-ray diffraction pattern at -8 degrees C shows a lamellar structure with a small bilayer periodicity d = 46.3 A and two wide angle reflections at 4.3 and 3.95 A, characteristic of a tilted chain, L beta' bilayer gel structure. Above the main transition temperature, a liquid crystalline L alpha phase is observed with d = 53.3 A. Electron density profiles at 20% hydration suggest that C(18):C(2)-PC forms a fully interdigitated bilayer at -8 degrees C and a noninterdigitated, liquid crystalline phase above its transition temperature (T > Tm). Between 30 and 50% hydration, on heating C(18):C(2)-PC converts from a highly ordered, fully interdigitated gel phase (L beta') to a less ordered, interdigitated gel phase (L beta), which on further heating converts to a noninterdigitated liquid crystalline L alpha phase. However, the fully hydrated (> 60% H2O) C(18):C(2)-PC, after incubation at 0 degrees C, displays three endothermic transitions at 8.9 degrees C (transition I, delta H = 1.6 kcal/mol), 18.0 degrees C (transition II), and 20.1 degrees C (transition III, delta HII+III = 4.8 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction at -8 degrees C again showed a lamellar gel phase (L beta') with a small periodicity d = 52.3 A. At 14 degrees C a less ordered, lamellar gel phase (L beta) is observed with d = 60.5 A. However, above the transition III, a broad, diffuse reflection is observed at approximately 39 A, consistent with the presence of a micellar phase. The following scheme is proposed for

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces lateral segregation of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylcholine in reconstituted membranes.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Jorge J; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2005-01-11

    Purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) protein was reconstituted into synthetic lipid membranes having known effects on receptor function in the presence and absence of cholesterol (Chol). The phase behavior of a lipid system (DPPC/DOPC) possessing a known lipid phase profile and favoring nonfunctional, desensitized AChR was compared with that of a lipid system (POPA/POPC) containing the anionic phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA), which stabilizes the functional resting form of the AChR. Fluorescence quenching of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) extrinsic fluorescence and AChR intrinsic fluorescence by a nitroxide spin-labeled phospholipid showed that the AChR diminishes the degree of DPH quenching and promotes DPPC lateral segregation into an ordered lipid domain, an effect that was potentiated by Chol. Fluorescence anisotropy of the probe DPH increased in the presence of AChR or Chol and also made apparent shifts to higher values in the transition temperature of the lipid system in the presence of Chol and/or AChR. The values were highest when both Chol and AChR were present, further reinforcing the view that their effect on lipid segregation is additive. These results can be accounted for by the increase in the size of quencher-free, ordered lipid domains induced by AChR and/or Chol. Pyrene phosphatidylcholine (PyPC) excimer (E) formation was strongly reduced owing to the restricted diffusion of the probe induced by the AChR protein. The analysis of Forster energy transfer (FRET) from the protein to DPH further indicates that AChR partitions preferentially into these ordered lipid microdomains, enriched in saturated lipid (DPPC or POPA), which segregate from liquid phase-enriched DOPC or POPC domains. Taken together, the results suggest that the AChR organizes its immediate microenvironment in the form of microdomains with higher lateral packing density and rigidity. The relative size of such microdomains depends not only on the phospholipid polar headgroup

  4. Lipid raft components cholesterol and sphingomyelin increase H+/OH− permeability of phosphatidylcholine membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gensure, Rebekah H.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Hill, Warren G.

    2006-01-01

    H+/OH− permeation through lipid bilayers occurs at anomalously high rates and the determinants of proton flux through membranes are poorly understood. Since all life depends on proton gradients, it is important to develop a greater understanding of proton leak phenomena. We have used stopped-flow fluorimetry to probe the influence of two lipid raft components, chol (cholesterol) and SM (sphingomyelin), on H+/OH− and water permeability. Increasing the concentrations of both lipids in POPC (palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine) liposomes decreased water permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that correlated with increased lipid order. Surprisingly, proton flux was increased by increasing the concentration of chol and SM. The chol effect was complex with molar concentrations of 17.9, 33 and 45.7% giving 2.8-fold (P<0.01), 2.2-fold (P<0.001) and 5.1-fold (P<0.001) increases in H+/OH− permeability from a baseline of 2.4×10−2 cm/s. SM at 10 mole% effected a 2.8-fold increase (P<0.01), whereas 20 and 30 mole% enhanced permeability by 3.6-fold (P<0.05) and 4.1-fold respectively (P<0.05). Supplementing membranes containing chol with SM did not enhance H+/OH− permeability. Of interest was the finding that chol addition to soya-bean lipids decreased H+/OH− permeability, consistent with an earlier report [Ira and Krishnamoorthy (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1484–1488]. We speculate that the presence of proton carriers in crude lipid extracts might contribute to this result. We conclude that (i) chol and SM specifically and independently increase rates of proton permeation in POPC bilayers, (ii) domains enriched in these lipids or domain interfaces may represent regions with high H+/OH− conductivity, (iii) H+/OH− fluxes are not governed by lipid order and (iv) chol can inhibit or promote H+/OH− permeability depending on the total lipid environment. Theories of proton permeation are discussed in the light of these results. PMID

  5. Production of structured phosphatidylcholine with high content of DHA/EPA by immobilized phospholipase A₁-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Jia-Feng; Yang, Bo; Li, Dao-Ming; Wang, Yong-Hua; Wang, Wei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of structured phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by transesterification of DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters with PC using immobilized phospholipsase A1 (PLA1) in solvent-free medium. Firstly, liquid PLA1 was immobilized on resin D380, and it was found that a pH of 5 and a support/PLA1 ratio (w/v) of 1:3 were the best conditions for the adsorption. Secondly, the immobilized PLA1 was used to catalyze transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. The maximal incorporation of DHA and EPA achieved was 30.7% for 24 h of reaction at 55 °C using a substrate mass ratio (PC/ethyl esters) of 1:6, an immobilized PLA1 loading of 15% and water dosage of 1.25%. Then the reaction mixture was analyzed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The composition of reaction product included 16.5% PC, 26.3% 2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC), 31.4% 1-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC), and 25.8% sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (GPC). PMID:25170810

  6. An albumin-associated PLA2-like activity inactivates surfactant phosphatidylcholine secreted from fetal type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Damas, Jolanta E; Cake, Max H

    2011-12-01

    Type II pneumocytes are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, which reduces surface tension in lung alveoli, thus decreasing their tendency to collapse during expiration. For this effect to be sustained, the integrity of the surface-active components of surfactant must be maintained. This study has shown that, when cultured type II pneumocytes are exposed to lipoprotein-free serum (LFS), the level of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) in the secreted surfactant phospholipids is markedly elevated with a concomitant decline in the level of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This effect is the result of hydrolysis of surfactant PC by a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-like activity present within serum. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and preparative electrophoresis of human LFS have shown that this PLA(2)-like activity coelutes with albumin and is biochemically distinct from the secretory form of PLA(2). Furthermore, specific inhibitors of PLA(2) such as p-bromophenacyl bromide, aristolochic acid, and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone do not inhibit this activity of serum. Commercially purified human serum albumin fraction V and recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) are almost as effective as LFS in enhancing the level of lyso-PC in the media. The latter finding implies that rHSA directly generates lyso-PC from secreted PC and suggests that this PLA(2)-like activity may be an intrinsic attribute of albumin. PMID:21908590

  7. Tb3+ and Ca2+ binding to phosphatidylcholine. A study comparing data from optical, NMR, and infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed Central

    Petersheim, M; Halladay, H N; Blodnieks, J

    1989-01-01

    The paramagnetic and luminescent lanthanides are unique probes of cation-phospholipid interactions. Their spectroscopic properties provide the means to characterize and monitor complexes formed with lipids in ways not possible with biochemically more interesting cations, such as Ca2+. In this work, Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes are described using the luminescence properties of Tb3+, the effect of its paramagnetism on the 31P NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the lipid, and changes in the infrared spectrum of the lipid induced by the cation. There are two Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes with very different coordination environments, as evidenced by changes in the optical excitation spectrum of the lanthanide. The NMR experiments indicate that the two complexes differ in the number of phosphate groups directly coordinating Tb3+. Tb3+ binding induces changes in the phosphodiester infrared bands that are most consistent with bidentate chelation of Tb3+ by each phosphate, whereas Ca2+-induced changes are more consistent with monodentate coordination. The significance of this discrepancy is discussed. PMID:2790138

  8. Plasma lyso-phosphatidylcholine concentration is decreased in cancer patients with weight loss and activated inflammatory status

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lenka A; Arends, Jann; Hodina, Arwen K; Unger, Clemens; Massing, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been observed that ras-transformed cell lines in culture have a higher phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis rate as well as higher PC-degradation rate (increased PC-turnover) than normal cells. In correspondence to these findings, the concentrations of the PC-degradation product lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) in cancer patients were found to be decreased. Our objective was the systematic investigation of the relationship between LPC and inflammatory and nutritional parameters in cancer patients. Therefore, plasma LPC concentrations were assessed in 59 cancer patients and related to nutritional and inflammatory parameters. To determine LPC in blood plasma we developed and validated a HPTLC method. Results Average plasma LPC concentration was 207 ± 59 μM which corresponds to the lower limit of the reported range in healthy subjects. No correlation between LPC and age, performance status, body mass index (BMI) or fat mass could be seen. However, LPC correlated inversely with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and whole blood hydrogen peroxides (HPO). Further, a negative correlation could be observed between LPC and whole body extra cellular fluid volume (ECF) as well as with relative change in body weight since cancer diagnosis. Conclusion In conclusion, LPC concentrations were decreased in cancer patients. LPC plasma concentrations correlated with weight loss and inflammatory parameters and, therefore, might be a general indicator of severity of malignant disease. PMID:17623088

  9. Phosphatidylcholine covalently linked to a methacrylate-based monolith as a biomimetic stationary phase for capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Carrasco-Correa, Enrique Javier; Planeta, Josef; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2015-07-10

    In this study a strategy to immobilize phospholipids onto a polymer-based stationary phase is described. Methacrylate-based monoliths in capillary format (150×0.1mm) were modified by soybean phosphatidylcholine through 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide coupling to obtain stationary phases suitable to mimic cell surface membranes. The covalent coupling reaction involves the phosphate group in phospholipids; therefore, the described methodology is suitable for all types of phospholipids. Immobilization of soy bean phosphatidylcholine on the monolith was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the fatty alcohol profile, generated upon reductive cleavage of the fatty acyl side chains of the phospholipid on the monolith surface with lithium aluminium hydride. The prepared stationary phases were evaluated through studies on the retention of low-molar mass model analytes including neutral, acidic, and basic compounds. Liquid chromatographic studies confirmed predominant hydrophobic interactions between the analytes and the synthesized stationary phase; however, electrostatic interactions contributed to the retention as well. The synthesized columns showed high stability even with fully aqueous mobile phases such as Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution. PMID:26024990

  10. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholines in ozone-exposed alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung: is glycerolphosphate acyltransferase a rate-limiting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Haagsman, H.P.; Schuurmans, E.A.; Batenburg, J.J.; van Golde, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. The rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by type II cells, monitored by the incorporation of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline, was impaired by ozone at concentrations that did not affect other cellular parameters. The enzymes choline kinase and cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase were not susceptible to inactivation by ozone at concentrations at which the activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase was decreased. The enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase increased after ozone exposure. The specific activity of choline kinase in the cytosolic fraction of type II cells was fivefold that in whole lung. The metabolism of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline was studied as a function of the choline concentration. Maximal rates of phosphatidylcholine synthesis were already attained at a concentration of 20 microM choline. Exposure of type II cells to ozone did not affect the recovery of label from (Me-/sup 14/C)choline in choline phosphate and CDP choline. However, the maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis decreased after ozone exposure, which indicates that the decreased apparent activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase limits the supply of diacylglycerols and thereby the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. If the flux through the diacylglycerol pathway was stimulated by the addition of palmitic acid, a higher maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis was observed. The uptake of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline and the recovery of label in CDPcholine were not altered by the addition of different concentrations of palmitate. It is concluded that type II cells take up choline very efficiently, probably due to the high specific activity of choline kinase. At low choline concentrations the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis is determined by the supply of CDPcholine.

  11. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  12. The Comparison of The Effects of Silybin and Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine on Viability and ESR Expression in Human Breast Cancer T47D Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Narges; Motamed, Nasrin; Paylakhi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Silybin is a polyphenol with anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. The poor bioavailability of some polyphenols can be improved by binding to phosphatidylcholine. In recent years, studies have been conducted to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of silybin. We studied the effect of silybin and silybin-phosphatidylcholine on ESR1 and ESR2 gene expression and viability in the T47D breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide test (MTT test) was used to determine doses for cell treatment, and the gene expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT- PCR). Results Significant dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibitory effects of silybin and silybin-phosphatidylcholine along with ESR1 down-regulation were observed in T47D cells. In contrast to ESR1, the T47D cell line showed negligible ESR2 expression. Conclusion This study suggests that silybin and silybin-phosphatidylcholine down-regulate ESR1 in ER+breast cancers. Results also show that in the T47D cell line, silybindown-regulation of ESR1 compared with silybin. PMID:24611152

  13. The Equilibria of Diosgenin-Phosphatidylcholine and Diosgenin-Cholesterol in Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Katarzyna; Jastrzebska, Izabella; Petelska, Aneta Dorota

    2016-08-01

    Diosgenin (Dio) has shown many treatment properties, but the most important property is cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated monolayers of Dio, cholesterol (Ch), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) at the air/water interface. The measurements were carried with a Langmuir Teflon trough and a Nima 9000 tensiometer program. The surface tension values of pure and mixed monolayers were used to calculate π-A isotherms and determine molecular surface areas. We were able to demonstrate the formation of complexes between Dio and PC and Dio and Ch molecules also. We considered the equilibrium between individual components and the formed complexes. In addition, we established that diosgenin and the lipids formed highly stable 1:1 complexes. PMID:27350149

  14. A phosphatidylcholine hyaluronic acid chitin–nanofibrils complex for a fast skin remodeling and a rejuvenating look

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco; Palombo, Paolo; Palombo, Marco; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Cardillo, Antonio; Svolacchia, Fabiano; Guevara, Luis; Mezzana, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging. Objective We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin. Methods Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients. Results In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging. PMID:23293530

  15. Glycerosomes: Use of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine mixture and its effect on vesicle features and diclofenac skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Manca, Maria Letizia; Cencetti, Claudia; Matricardi, Pietro; Castangia, Ines; Zaru, Marco; Sales, Octavio Diez; Nacher, Amparo; Valenti, Donatella; Maccioni, Anna Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-09-10

    In this work, diclofenac was encapsulated, as sodium salt, in glycerosomes containing 10, 20 or 30% of glycerol in the water phase with the aim to ameliorate its topical efficacy. Taking into account previous findings, glycerosome formulation was modified, in terms of economic suitability, using a cheap and commercially available mixture of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (P90H). P90H glycerosomes were spherical and multilamellar; photon correlation spectroscopy showed that obtained vesicles were ∼131nm, slightly larger and more polydispersed than those made with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) but, surprisingly, they were able to ameliorate the local delivery of diclofenac, which was improved with respect to previous findings, in particular using glycerosomes containing high amount of glycerol (20 and 30%). Finally, this drug delivery system showed a high in vitro biocompatibility toward human keratinocytes. PMID:27418567

  16. Beta-adrenergic control of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation in hepatocytes from juvenile, adult and adrenalectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Cao, D; Alvarez Chiva, V; Mato, J M

    1983-01-01

    Changes in isoprenaline-sensitive phospholipid methyltransferase were studied in hepatocytes isolated from juvenile, mature and adrenalectomized rats. Isoprenaline produced greater stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats than in mature animals. Similarly, isoprenaline stimulated phospholipid methyltransferase in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats but had no effect in mature animals. Isoprenaline-mediated activation of phospholipid methyltransferase in adrenalectomized rats was time- and dose-dependent. In hepatocytes isolated from adrenalectomized rats incubated with [Me-3H]methionine or [3H]-ethanolamine the addition of isoprenaline increased the amount of radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. The activation by isoprenaline of phospholipid methyltransferase was abolished by the beta-blocker propranolol and by insulin. These results indicate that rat liver the occupation of functional beta-receptors causes a stimulation of phospholipid methylation. It is suggested that, as reported previously, cyclic AMP activates phospholipid methyltransferase. PMID:6320796

  17. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine: an improved method without using the cadmium chloride complex of sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Iwasaki, Hitomi; Ueda, Kaori; Takizawa, Ryoko; Naito, Hideko; Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro

    2005-10-01

    An improved safe method that does not contaminate the environment with cadmium chloride, a toxic heavy metal salt, was developed for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC was synthesized from sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC) and fatty acid in one step under mild conditions without the use of cadmium chloride. GPC was prepared from egg yolk PC and adsorbed by kieselguhr in a Teflon vessel. The GPC on kieselguhr was acylated with fatty acid in the presence of two reagents, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide for synthesis of fatty acid anhydride and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as an acylating catalyst, at 30 degrees C overnight. The PC thus produced was purified by silica gel column chromatography. The yield of dioleoyl PC was 90% based on the starting material, GPC. PMID:16054615

  18. PIEZO1 gene mutation in a Japanese family with hereditary high phosphatidylcholine hemolytic anemia and hemochromatosis-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sugihara, Takashi; Okuno, Yusuke; Wang, Xinan; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kita, Shinya; Oe, Keishi; Sueyoshi, Atsushi; Usui, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji; Kanno, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) or dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) [OMIM 194380], in which PIEZO1 gene mutation has recently been identified, is difficult to diagnose. We report here the discovery of a PIEZO1 gene mutation in a Japanese family (father, daughter, and son) who were previously diagnosed with hereditary high phosphatidylcholine hemolytic anemia (HPCHA). All of the affected family members had non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia associated with severe hemochromatosis-related diabetes mellitus. Although the causative correlation between HPCHA and PIEZO1-gene mutated HX/DHS remains to be clarified, our findings raise an important question as to whether any of the HPCHA cases previously diagnosed in Japan may have in fact been the form of hemolytic anemia known as HX/DHS with PIEZO1 gene mutation. PMID:26971963

  19. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong . E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

    2006-10-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

  20. Insights about α-tocopherol and Trolox interaction with phosphatidylcholine monolayers under peroxidation conditions through Brewster angle microscopy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carla M; Pinheiro, Marina; Lúcio, Marlene; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Camacho, Luis; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette; Segundo, Marcela A

    2013-11-01

    Membranes are major targets to oxidative damage, particularly due to lipid oxidation, which has been associated to aging. The role, efficacy and membrane interaction of antioxidants is still unclear, requiring further understanding of molecular interaction. Hence, the objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between antioxidants (α-tocopherol and its aqueous soluble analog Trolox) and the monolayer formed by phosphatidylcholine molecules at air/liquid interface upon peroxidation conditions, promoted by peroxyl radicals from thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) (AAPH). The interaction with three different monolayers, containing (i) 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), (ii) DDPC+α-linolenic acid, or (iii) egg yolk l-α-phosphatidylcholine (EPC), was ascertain by surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) isotherms and by monitoring monolayer features through Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The interaction of antioxidants with DPPC monolayers was confirmed by modifications on DPPC domain shape for α-tocopherol and through the maintenance of typical multilobed domain shape during an extended surface pressure interval for Trolox. Under peroxidation conditions, BAM images showed a clear interaction between components of AAPH subphase with the monolayer through changes on DPPC domain shape and appearance of white dots, located mainly at the frontier between the condensed and expanded liquid phases. White branched structures were also observed whenever both α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol were present, indicating the segregation of these components within the monolayer, which is highly significant in biological systems. For EPC monolayers, no information from BAM was obtained but π-A isotherms confirmed the existence of the same interactions observed within the other two monolayers. PMID:23907050

  1. Physisorbed o-carborane onto lyso-phosphatidylcholine-functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes: a potential carrier system for the therapeutic delivery of boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannopoulos, S. N.; Zouganelis, G. D.; Nurmohamed, S.; Smith, J. R.; Bouropoulos, N.; Calabrese, G.; Fatouros, D. G.; Tsibouklis, J.

    2010-02-01

    A combination of data from ICP-MS, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements and gel electorphoresis studies has shown that o-carborane may be immobilized on stable aqueous dispersions of lyso-phosphatidylcholine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes, which in turn indicates the potential of such structures for deployment as carrier vehicles in boron neutron capture therapy.

  2. Increase of Oleic Acid Content in Phosphatidylcholine through Lipase-catalyzed Interesterification: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guolong; Yang, Lihui

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain phosphatidylcholine (PC) with higher amount of oleic acid, the interesterification between soybean PC and Camellia oleifera oil (COO) rich in oleic acid catalyzed by lipase was studied in hexane. For this aim three commercially available immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TLIM and Lipozyme RMIM) were assayed and Novozym 435 was finally selected for further optimization. The effects of the factors, such as PC concentration, substrate ratio, water amount, lipase dosage and temperature, on the oleic acid content in PC and PC recovery during the interesterification were investigated. The conditions of the interesterification were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were as follows: lipase dosage 13 % (based on the mass of PC and COO), reaction temperature 55°C, water amount 5% (based on the mass of PC), reaction time 8 h, PC concentration 0.3g/mL (PC/hexane), PC-to-COO ratio 1:3 (acyl groups in PC/acyl groups in COO, mol/mol). Under these conditions, oleic acid content and PC recovery were 40.8 ± 0.5% and 69.0 ± 2.8%, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the regression models were adequate for predicting the interesterifiction. The orders of reaction variables affecting on oleic acid content and PC recovery were water amount > reaction time > lipase dosage > reaction temperature, and water amount > reaction temperature > lipase dosage > reaction time, respectively. PMID:25891113

  3. Absence of Membrane Phosphatidylcholine Does Not Affect Virulence and Stress Tolerance Phenotypes in the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Adel A.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    During growth in presence of choline, both laboratory and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC), and PC makes up ∼4% of the total membrane phospholipid content. In all the strains tested, PC synthesis occurred only when choline is provided exogenously. Mutants defective in synthesis of PC were generated in the strain backgrounds PAO1 and PA14. Minimum inhibitory concentration studies testing sensitivity of PC-deficient strains towards various antibiotics and cationic antimicrobial peptides revealed no differences as compared to wild-type strains. Mutants incapable of synthesizing PC were also found to be unaffected in motility and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, colonization of biotic surfaces and virulence in a mouse infection model. A global phenotypic microarray was further used to identify conditions wherein membrane PC may play a role of in P. aeruginosa. No culture conditions were identified wherein wild-type and PC-deficient mutants showed phenotypic differences. Membrane PC may serve a highly specific role during P. aeruginosa interactions with its eukaryotic hosts based on all the clinical strains tested retaining the ability to synthesize it during availability of choline. PMID:22363496

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Phosphatidylcholine Improves Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ23-35-Induced Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mei-Hua; Yang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Han, Hailin; Wang, Jia; Wang, Guo-Du; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Zhiqin

    2016-01-01

    Both Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been shown to halt the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. This study aimed to investigate the role of DHA-containing PC (DHA-PC) in the improvement of Aβ25-35-induced cognitive deficits in rats. Aβ25-35-induced AD rats were treated for 30 days with DHA-PC, which was extracted from Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis spawns. Cognitive improvement of the AD rats was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM). The results demonstrated that DHA-PC could improve the learning and memory abilities of AD rats in a dose-dependent pattern. Further analyses showed that expression of phosphorylated tau decreased, and the neuronal morphology recovered in brains of DHA-PC-treated AD rats, as compared with mock-treated AD rats. In addition, DHAPC treatment increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in the cortex and hippocampus of AD rats. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-PC is able to improve the cognitive deficits in AD rats, probably through decreasing the phosphorylation of tau in the cortex and hippocampus CA1 area, and increasing the GSH-Px and SOD activities in the brain of AD rats. PMID:26268328

  5. Effects of ethanol and diclofenac on the organization of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles and their ability as skin carriers.

    PubMed

    Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Matricardi, Pietro; Catalán-Latorre, Ana; Nácher, Amparo; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol and/or diclofenac on vesicle bilayer structure have been studied. Liposomes with hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and two different concentrations of diclofenac sodium (5 and 10 mg/ml) were obtained. In addition, ethanol was mixed in the water phase at different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 % v/v) to obtain ethosomes. To characterize vesicles, rehological analysis were carried out to investigate the intervesicle interactions, while bilayer structure was evaluated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the ethanol and/or diclofenac concentration-dependent ability to improve diclofenac skin delivery was evaluated in vitro. The addition of 20 % ethanol and/or diclofenac led to solid-like ethosome dispersion due to the formation of a new intervesicle structure, as previously found in transcutol containing vesicle dispersions. However, when using 5-10 % of ethanol the induction to form vesicle interconnections was less evident but the simultaneous presence of the drug at the highest concentration facilitated this phenomenon. Ethosomes containing the highest amount of both, drug (10 mg/ml) and ethanol (20 % v/v), improved the drug deposition in the skin strata and in the receptor fluid up to 1.5-fold, relative to liposomes. Moreover this solid-like formulation can easily overcome drawbacks of traditional liquid liposome formulations which undergo a substantial loss at the application site. PMID:25716021

  6. Separation and purification of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from soybean degummed oil residues by using solvent extraction and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weinong; He, Haibo; Feng, Yuqi; Da, Shilu

    2003-12-25

    Natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were separated and purified from soybean degummed oil residues in this work. Crude PC and PE were first separated from degummed oil residues by extraction with 95% ethanol, and then the crude PC and PE were used as raw materials to prepare high purity PC and PE by using column chromatography of silica gel (100-200 mesh) with different eluents and elution modes. The high purity PC (content > 90%) was obtained from the crude PC by using isocratic elution with methanol as eluent. Compared with the methods reported by using isocratic elution with mixed solvents as eluent or gradient elution, the procedure proposed exhibits low cost and industry potentialities because of some advantages, such as operation simplicity, cheap equipment and solvent to be recovered easily. The purity of the PE product prepared from the crude PE was more than 75%. The gradient elution was preferable to isocratic elution for reducing the elution time and eluent consumption when to prepare PE from the crude PE. The effects of loading amount and the flow-rate on separation efficiency were also investigated. For obtaining high separation efficiency, the loading amount should be less than 2.0 g crude PC or PE/100 g silica gel, and the flow-rate should be controlled under 4 ml/min for crude PC and 3 ml/min for crude PE, respectively. PMID:14643513

  7. Phospholipase A1-catalyzed hydrolysis of soy phosphatidylcholine to prepare l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine in organic-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize the preparation of L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine (l-α-GPC) via phospholipase A1 (Lecitase Ultra)-catalyzed hydrolysis of soy phosphatidylcholine (PC). The reaction was performed in n-hexane-water biphasic media in a stirred batch reactor, and modeling and optimization were conducted using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to completely hydrolyze PC to L-α-GPC were: temperature, 50 °C; reaction time, 30 h; water content, 69 g/100 g of PC weight; and enzyme loading, 13 g/100 g of PC weight. The optimal n-hexane-to-water ratio in the medium was 5.8:1 (v/v), and 21.3g of PC was treated as the substrate in 100 mL of the medium. L-α-GPC with purity 99.3 g/100 g was obtained from the reaction products after diethyl ether extraction and silica column chromatography. These findings suggest that the use of n-hexane-water media increases the productivity of l-α-GPC compared to the aqueous media used in enzymatic reaction systems in other published studies. PMID:26212962

  8. Relaxation dynamics of the gel to liquid-crystalline transition of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Effects of chainlength and vesicle size.

    PubMed

    van Osdol, W W; Johnson, M L; Ye, Q; Biltonen, R L

    1991-04-01

    The relaxation kinetics of the gel to liquid-crystalline transition of five phosphatidylcholine (DC14PC to DC18PC) bilayer dispersions have been investigated using volume perturbation calorimetry, a steady-state technique which subjects a sample to sinusoidal changes in volume. Temperature and pressure responses to the volume perturbation are measured to monitor the relaxation to a new equilibrium position. The amplitude demodulation and phase shift of these observables are analyzed with respect to the perturbation frequency to yield relaxation times and amplitudes. In the limit of low perturbation frequency, the temperature and pressure responses are proportional to the equilibrium excess heat capacity and bulk modulus, respectively. At all temperatures, the thermal response data are consistent with a single primary relaxation process of the lipid. The less accurate bulk modulus data exhibit two relaxation times, but it is not clear whether they reflect lipid processes or are characteristic of the instrument. The observed thermal relaxation behavior of all multilamellar vesicles are quantitatively similar. The relaxation times vary from approximately 50 ms to 4 s, with a pronounced maximum at a temperature just greater than Tm, the temperature of the excess heat capacity maximum. Large unilamellar vesicles also exhibit a single relaxation process, but without a pronounced maximum in the relaxation time. Their relaxation time is approximately 80 ms over most of the transition range. PMID:2065185

  9. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Dugall, Mark; Pellegrini, Luciano; Ledda, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Togni, Stefano; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    In a previous three-month study of Meriva, a proprietary curcumin-phosphatidylcholine phytosome complex, decreased joint pain and improvement in joint function were observed in 50 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Since OA is a chronic condition requiring prolonged treatment, the long-term efficacy and safety of Meriva were investigated in a longer (eight months) study involving 100 OA patients. The clinical end points (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC] score, Karnofsky Performance Scale Index, and treadmill walking performance) were complemented by the evaluation of a series of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L], soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]). This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis. PMID:21194249

  10. Comparative Study of EPA-enriched Phosphatidylcholine and EPA-enriched Phosphatidylserine on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Miaomiao; Du, Lei; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that EPA enriched PLs have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Our previous study has demonstrated that the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of EPA-PL were superior to DHA-PL. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylserine (EPA-PS) on lipid metabolism in mice. Both 2% dietary EPA-PC and EPA-PS significantly improved serum and hepatic lipid levels in mice. The HDL-c level in mice on EPA-PC diet was significantly higher than the other two groups. The level of DHA in hepatic TG and PL were significantly increased in both EPA-PC and EPA-PS fed groups (98.3 and 117.8%, respectively; p < 0.05). Notably, the proportion of DHA in EPA-PS group was significantly higher than the EPA-PC group. EPA-PC and EPA-PS suppressed hepatic SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis and activated PPARα mediated fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. These data are the first to indicate that EPA-PS has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. PMID:27321119

  11. Histopathological and ultra-structural characterization of local neuromuscular damage induced by repeated phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate injection.

    PubMed

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; El Sabaa, Bassma; Yosry, Emad; El-Saghir, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate (PC/DC) combination is frequently used for injection lipolysis in body contouring and size reduction of subcutaneous lipomas. Nonetheless, studies that assess possible injurious effects of PC/DC combination on tissues at injection sites are inadequate. The current work attempts to evaluate the effects of repeated PC/DC injection on skeletal muscles and neural tissues at the injection site. For this purpose, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, 10 rats each, and injected percutaneously via either normal saline (control group) or PC/DC (treated group) in the groin area for 4 consecutive days. Biopsies were harvested on the 4(th) day for histopathological studies. The results of the present work demonstrated that repeated injection of PC/DC caused neural damage and intense inflammation at the injection site leading to skeletal muscle degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis. Electron microscopic examination of the neural tissues in the injected area showed intra-neural fibroblasts, deposition of intra-neural collagen fibers and marked myelin degeneration. In addition, PC/DC injection caused thickening of intra-neural blood vessel walls and evident endo-neural mast cells. The current data highlight the attendant risk of neuromuscular injury associated with repeated PC/DC injection during the treatment of undesirable fat deposits and lipomas. PMID:26404917

  12. Binding of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids to phosphatidylcholine vesicles and alveolar macrophages: relationship between binding affinity and antifibrogenic potential of these drugs.

    PubMed

    Ma, J K; Mo, C G; Malanga, C J; Ma, J Y; Castranova, V

    1991-01-01

    A group of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids has been shown to exhibit various degrees of effectiveness in preventing silica-induced fibrosis in animal models. The objective of the present study was to characterize the binding of several of these alkaloids to phosphatidylcholine vesicles and rat alveolar macrophages using fluorometric and equilibrium dialysis methods, respectively. The lipid binding affinity of these alkaloids was found to depend upon several structural factors including hydrophobic substitutions, chiral configurations, and double oxygen bridge-restricted confirmation of the benzylisoquinoline moieties. Tetrandrine, which is a highly effective agent in preventing fibrosis, showed strong binding to both lipid vesicles and alveolar macrophages. In contrast, certain analogues of tetrandrine such as curine and tubocurine, which have little or no effect on silicosis, exhibited only weak binding to lipid vesicles and almost no binding to cells. The moderate binding affinity of fangchinoline to vesicles and cells corresponded to a moderate effectiveness of the compound as an antifibrogenic agent. Methoxyadiantifoline, an alkaloid of unknown antifibrogenic potential, also exhibited high binding affinities for lipid and cells. In conclusion, the results of these studies indicate that alveolar macrophages exhibit large binding capacities for certain members of this class of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. A positive correlation was observed between binding affinity to alveolar macrophages and the reported antifibrotic potency of these compounds. These data also suggest that the ability of these drugs to interact with alveolar macrophages may be a key step in inhibition of the progression of silica-induced pulmonary disease. PMID:1663032

  13. Phosphatidylcholine is essential for efficient functioning of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gut2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rijken, Pieter J; De Kruijff, Ben; De Kroon, Anton I P M

    2007-01-01

    Gut2, the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was previously shown to become preferentially labelled with photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine (PC), pointing to a functional relation between these molecules. In the present study we analyzed whether Gut2 functioning depends on the PC content of yeast cells, using PC biosynthetic mutants in which the PC content was lowered. PC depletion was found to reduce growth on glycerol and to increase glycerol excretion, both indicating that PC is needed for optimal Gut2 functioning in vivo. Using several in vitro approaches the nature of the dependence of Gut2 functioning on cellular PC contents was investigated. The results of these experiments suggest that it is unlikely that the effects observed in vivo are due to changes in cellular Gut2 content, in specific activity of Gut2 in isolated mitochondria, or in the membrane association of Gut2, upon lowering the PC level. The in vivo effects are more likely an indirect result of PC depletion-induced changes in the cellular context in which Gut2 functions, that are not manifested in the in vitro systems used. PMID:17520483

  14. INSIGHT INTO NSAID-INDUCED MEMBRANE ALTERATIONS, PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPEUTICS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERACTION OF NSAIDS WITH PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Zhou, Yong; Jayaraman, Vasanthi; Doyen, Janice R.; O’Neil, Roger G.; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Volk, David E.; Gorenstein, David G.; Boggara, Mohan Babu; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2012-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most widely consumed pharmaceuticals, yet both the mechanisms involved in their therapeutic actions and side-effects, notably gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration/bleeding, have not been clearly defined. In this study, we have used a number of biochemical, structural, computational and biological systems including; Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, and cell culture using a specific fluorescent membrane probe, to demonstrate that NSAIDs have a strong affinity to form ionic and hydrophobic associations with zwitterionic phospholipids, and specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC), that are reversible and non-covalent in nature. We propose that the pH-dependent partition of these potent anti-inflammatory drugs into the phospholipid bilayer, and possibly extracellular mono/multilayers present on the luminal interface of the mucus gel layer, may result in profound changes in the hydrophobicity, fluidity, permeability, biomechanical properties and stability of these membranes and barriers. These changes may not only provide an explanation of how NSAIDs induce surface injury to the GI mucosa as a component in the pathogenic mechanism leading to peptic ulceration and bleeding, but potentially an explanation for a number of (COX-independent) biological actions of this family of pharmaceuticals. This insight also has proven useful in the design and development of a novel class of PC-associated NSAIDs that have reduced GI toxicity while maintaining their essential therapeutic efficacy to inhibit pain and inflammation. PMID:22521764

  15. A spiked tissue-based approach for quantification of phosphatidylcholines in brain section by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Jadoul, Laure; Longuespée, Rémi; Noël, Agnès; De Pauw, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    In the last few years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been successfully used to study the distribution of lipids within tissue sections. However, few efforts have been made to acquire reliable quantitative data regarding the localized concentrations of these molecules. Here we propose an approach based on brain homogenates for the quantification of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in brain section by MALDI MSI. Homogenates were spiked with a range of PC(16:0 d31/18:1) concentrations. Sections from homogenates and intact brain were simultaneously prepared before being analyzed by MALDI MSI using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) analyzer. Standard curves were generated from the signal intensity of the different PC(16:0 d31/18:1) ionic species ([M+H](+), [M+Na](+) and [M+K](+)) detected from the homogenate sections. Localized quantitative data were finally extracted by correlating the standard curves with the signal intensities of endogenous PC (especially PC(16:0/18:1)) ionic species detected on different areas of the brain section. They were consistent with quantitative values found in the literature. This work introduces a new method to take directly into account biological matrix effects for the quantification of lipids as well as other endogenous compounds, in tissue sections by MALDI MSI. PMID:25326885

  16. Effects of linoleic acid position in phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol addition on their rates of peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mazari, Azzedine; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    Unilamellar liposomes of phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-sn-PC (PLPC), 1-linoleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-sn-PC (LPPC), and a 1:1 mixture of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-sn-PC and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-PC (DLPC/DPPC), were peroxidized by the addition of a water-soluble 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and of a lipid-soluble 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (MeOAMVN). LPPC liposomes showed the lowest oxidizability and kinetic chain-length values on AAPH-initiated peroxidation. On MeOAMVN-initiated peroxidation, PLPC liposomes with their lower peroxidation kinetic values were more stable than LPPC or DLPC/DPPC liposomes. The incorporation of cholesterol into the liposomes induced dose-dependent inhibition of PLPC and of LPPC peroxidation, while its effect was less important for the DLPC/DPPC liposomes. Our results indicate that the sn-position of unsaturated acyl chains and the cholesterol content are important modulating factors in the oxidizability of membrane phospholipids. PMID:20460733

  17. Large effect of membrane tension on the fluid–solid phase transitions of two-component phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Santore, Maria M.

    2014-01-01

    Model phospholipid membranes and vesicles have long provided insight into the nature of confined materials and membranes while also providing a platform for drug delivery. The rich thermodynamic behavior and interesting domain shapes in these membranes have previously been mapped in extensive studies that vary temperature and composition; however, the thermodynamic impact of tension on bilayers has been restricted to recent reports of subtly reduced fluid–fluid transition temperatures. In two-component phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)], we report a dramatic influence of tension on the fluid–solid transition and resulting phases: At fixed composition, systematic variations in tension produce differently shaped solid domains (striped or irregular hexagons), shift fluid–solid transition temperatures, and produce a triple-point–like intersection of coexistence curves at elevated tensions, about 3 mN/m for 30% DOPC/70% DPPC. Tension therefore represents a potential switch of microstructure in responsive engineered materials; it is an important morphology-determining variable in confined systems, and, in biological membranes, it may provide a means to regulate dynamic structure. PMID:24344297

  18. Structural differences in aqueous dispersions of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and phosphatidylcholine upon varying their molar fractions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Y

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of dispersed particles composed of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) and phospholipid. TA was dispersed with soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) using sonication and the dispersal mechanism was evaluated by characterizing the dispersed particles using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy and surface layer techniques. The dispersions in the TA mole fraction range of 0.1-0.7 were stable at room temperature for 3 days. A limited amount of TA was incorporated into PC bilayer membranes (approximately 5 mol%). The excess TA separated from the PC bilayers was stabilized as emulsion particles by the PC surface monolayer. When the PC content was less than the solubility in TA (mole fraction of TA: more than 0.8), the PC monolayer did not completely cover the hydrophobic TA particle surfaces. In the case, the particle size increased drastically andseparation into oil and water occurred. The miscibility between TA and PC and the lipid composition were critically important for the stability of the dispersed particles (coexistence of emulsion particles [surface monolayer of PC + core of TA] with vesicular particles [bilayer]) of the lipid mixtures. PMID:15587585

  19. Cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein A-I phosphatidylcholine complexes is inhibited by ethanol: role of apolipoprotein structure and cooperative interaction of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Avdulov, N A; Chochina, S V; Igbavboa, U; Wood, W G

    2000-08-29

    There is a substantial body of evidence showing that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One of the factors thought to contribute to this reduction in risk is an increase in the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) correlated with alcohol consumption. However, HDL levels are elevated in heavy drinkers, but their risk of vascular disease is greater compared with that of moderate drinkers. Ethanol at concentrations observed in heavy drinkers and alcoholics may directly act on HDL and apolipoproteins and in turn modify cholesterol efflux. In this paper, we show that ethanol significantly inhibited cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to HDL and to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) complexed with phosphatidylcholine (PC). Ethanol significantly inhibited binding of PC to apoA-I, inhibited incorporation of cholesterol only when apoA-I contained PC, and did not alter incorporation of cholesterol into HDL. ApoA-I structure was altered by ethanol as monitored by steady-state fluorescence polarization of tryptophan residues. The absence of ethanol effects on incorporation of cholesterol into HDL versus inhibition of cholesterol incorporation into the apoA-I-PC complex suggests that the effects of ethanol on cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL involve interaction with the cell surface and that efflux mediated by the apoA-I-PC complex is a combination of aqueous diffusion and contact with the cell surface. In addition, effects of ethanol on apoA-I suggest that pre-beta-HDL or lipid-free apoA-I may be more perturbed by ethanol than mature HDL, and such effects may be pathophysiological with respect to the process of reverse cholesterol transport in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. PMID:10956052

  20. Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, Carmela; Andreone, Pietro; Brisc, Ciprian; Brisc, Michaela Cristina; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Chiaramonte, Maria; Cursaro, Carmela; Danila, Mirela; de Sio, Ilario; Floreani, Annarosa; Freni, Maria Antonietta; Grieco, Antonio; Groppo, Marzia; Lazzari, Roberta; Lobello, Salvatore; Lorefice, Elisabetta; Margotti, Marzia; Miele, Luca; Milani, Stefano; Okolicsanyi, Lajos; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero; Saltarelli, Patrizia; Smedile, Antonina; Somalvico, Francesco; Spadaro, Aldo; Sporea, Ioan; Sorrentino, Paolo; Vecchione, Raffaela; Tuccillo, Concetta; Del Vecchio Blanco, Camillo; Federico, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    The only currently recommended treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is lifestyle modification. Preliminary studies of silybin showed beneficial effects on liver function. Realsil (RA) comprises the silybin phytosome complex (silybin plus phosphatidylcholine) coformulated with vitamin E. We report on a multicenter, phase III, double-blind clinical trial to assess RA in patients with histologically documented NAFLD. Patients were randomized 1:1 to RA or placebo (P) orally twice daily for 12 months. Prespecified primary outcomes were improvement over time in clinical condition, normalization of liver enzyme plasma levels, and improvement of ultrasonographic liver steatosis, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and quality of life. Secondary outcomes were improvement in liver histologic score and/or decrease in NAFLD score without worsening of fibrosis and plasma changes in cytokines, ferritin, and liver fibrosis markers. We treated 179 patients with NAFLD; 36 were also HCV positive. Forty-one patients were prematurely withdrawn and 138 patients analyzed per protocol (69 per group). Baseline patient characteristics were generally well balanced between groups, except for steatosis, portal infiltration, and fibrosis. Adverse events (AEs) were generally transient and included diarrhea, dysgeusia, and pruritus; no serious AEs were recorded. Patients receiving RA but not P showed significant improvements in liver enzyme plasma levels, HOMA, and liver histology. Body mass index normalized in 15% of RA patients (2.1% with P). HCV-positive patients in the RA but not the P group showed improvements in fibrogenesis markers. This is the first study to systematically assess silybin in NAFLD patients. Treatment with RA but not P for 12 months was associated with improvement in liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and liver histology, without increases in body weight. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:22343419

  1. Regioisomers of phosphatidylcholine containing DHA and their potential to deliver DHA to the brain: role of phospholipase specificities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2013-07-01

    Because neurons cannot synthesize docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary supplement of DHA in the form of phospholipids is recommended for maintaining proper brain functions. A model for delivering dietary sn-2-DHA phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) to the brain involves phospholipase A2 based deacylation/reacylation cycle followed by delivery of DHA through high-density lipoproteins that bind to the brain capillary endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous study demonstrated preference of endothelial lipase (EL) for PtdCho species that contain sn-2-DHA, resulting in production of sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho that is preferentially taken up by the brain. However, since CoA-dependent reacylation of lysoPtdCho with DHA at the sn-2 position is not favored in vivo, we proposed that sn-1-DHA PtdCho in the diet may be a superior source of DHA for the brain. To test this hypothesis, DHA PtdCho regioisomers were prepared, and their hydrolysis by physiologically relevant phospholipases was determined. The data presented here show that: (1) group X secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) is about threefold more active than group V sPLA2 in releasing sn-2 fatty acids from DHA regioisomers, and (2) EL shows its specificity for DHA PtdCho species in a concentration independent manner, suggesting that the enzyme could play a major role in generating free sn-1-DHA or/and sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho from the regioisomers in the BBB. We propose that PtdCho species containing sn-1-DHA may have the advantages of both "preserving" DHA in deacylation/reacylation cycle and releasing free DHA in the BBB for uptake by the brain. PMID:23604781

  2. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine in monolayers deposited on mercury electrodes.

    PubMed Central

    Moncelli, M R; Becucci, L; Guidelli, R

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic pKa values of the phosphate groups of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and of the phosphate and carboxyl groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in self-organized monolayers deposited on a hanging mercury drop electrode were determined by a novel procedure based on measurements of the differential capacity C of this lipid-coated electrode. In view of the Gouy-Chapman theory, plots of 1/C at constant bulk pH and variable KCl concentration against the reciprocal of the calculated diffuse-layer capacity Cd,0 at zero charge exhibit slopes that decrease from an almost unit value to vanishingly low values as the absolute value of the charge density on the lipid increases from zero to approximately 2 microC cm-2. The intrinsic pKa values so determined are 0.5 for PE and 0.8 for PC. The plots of 1/C against 1/Cd,0 for pure PS exhibit slopes that pass from zero to a maximum value and then back to zero as pH is varied from 7.5 to 3, indicating that the charge density of the lipid film passes from slight negative to slight positive values over this pH range. An explanation for this anomalous behavior, which is ascribed to the phosphate group of PS, is provided. Interdispersion of PS and PC molecules in the film decreases the "formal" pKa value of the latter group by about three orders of magnitude. PMID:8075331

  3. Interfacial Recognition of Acetylcholine by an Amphiphilic p-Sulfonatocalix[8]arene Derivative Incorporated into Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Takashi; Fujii, Fumihiko; Ooi, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Dodecyl ether derivatives 1-3 of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene were incorporated into dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles, and their binding abilities for acetylcholine (ACh) were examined by using steady-state fluorescence/fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). For the detection of ACh binding to the DMPC vesicles containing 5 mol % of 1-3, competitive fluorophore displacement experiments were performed, where rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) was used as a fluorescent guest. The addition of Rh6G to the DMPC vesicles containing 3 resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G with an increase of its fluorescence anisotropy, indicating that Rh6G binds to the DMPC-3 vesicles. In the case of DMPC-1 and DMPC-2 vesicles, significant changes in the fluorescence spectra of Rh6G were not observed. When ACh was added to the DMPC-3 vesicles in the presence of Rh6G ([3]/[Rh6G]=100), the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G increased with a decrease in its fluorescence anisotropy. From the analysis of fluorescence titration data, the association constants were determined to be 7.1×105 M-1 for Rh6G-3 complex and 1.1×102 M-1 for ACh-3 complex at the DMPC-3 vesicles. To get a direct evidence for the binding of Rh6G and its displacement by ACh at the DMPC-3 vesicles, diffusion times of the Rh6G were measured by using FCS. Binding selectivity of the DMPC-3 vesicles for ACh, choline, GABA, l-aspartic acid,l-glutamic acid, l-arginine, l-lysine, l-histamine and ammonium chloride was also evaluated using FCS.

  4. Effect of Cholesterol on the Interaction of Cytochrome P450 Substrate Drug Chlorzoxazone with the Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ayumi; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-19

    Many drugs are oxidized by membrane protein cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes during their metabolism process. CYPs are located mainly in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. Recent studies have suggested that CYP substrate drugs first bind the lipid bilayers of ER membranes and then the drugs reach the active site of CYP by way of an access channel. The entrance of the channel is located in the hydrophobic regions of the lipid bilayers. One of the features of the ER membrane is a cholesterol content that is lower than those of other biomembranes. In this study, the cholesterol concentration dependence of the interaction of a CYP substrate drug, chlorzoxazone (CZX), with model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol was examined via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Experimental results indicated that CZX can bind to pure PC bilayers in the absence of cholesterol and that, by contrast, a high cholesterol concentration (30-50 mol %) tends to prevent CZX from binding to PC bilayers. Interestingly, the effect of cholesterol on the binding and insertion of CZX was biphasic. In the case of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers containing 5-10 mol % cholesterol, the CZX's binding and penetration into the bilayer were found to be greater than those with pure POPC bilayers. The concentration of 5-10 mol % nearly corresponds to the cholesterol concentration of ER membranes. The low cholesterol contents (12-20 mol %) of ER membranes might be the most suitable for the CYP drug metabolism process in ER membranes. PMID:27347790

  5. GLTP-fold interaction with planar phosphatidylcholine surfaces is synergistically stimulated by phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylethanolamine[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Xiuhong; Momsen, William E.; Malakhov, Dmitry A.; Boldyrev, Ivan A.; Momsen, Maureen M.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Brockman, Howard L.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2013-01-01

    Among amphitropic proteins, human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) forms a structurally-unique fold that translocates on/off membranes to specifically transfer glycolipids. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers with curvature-induced packing stress stimulate much faster glycolipid intervesicular transfer than nonstressed PC bilayers raising questions about planar cytosol-facing biomembranes being viable sites for GLTP interaction. Herein, GLTP-mediated desorption kinetics of fluorescent glycolipid (tetramethyl-boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-label) from lipid monolayers are assessed using a novel microfluidics-based surface balance that monitors lipid lateral packing while simultaneously acquiring surface fluorescence data. At biomembrane-like packing (30–35 mN/m), GLTP uptake of BODIPY-glycolipid from POPC monolayers was nearly nonexistent but could be induced by reducing surface pressure to mirror packing in curvature-stressed bilayers. In contrast, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) matrices supported robust BODIPY-glycolipid uptake by GLTP at both high and low surface pressures. Unexpectedly, negatively-charged cytosol-facing lipids, i.e., phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, also supported BODIPY-glycolipid uptake by GLTP at high surface pressure. Remarkably, including both 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (5 mol%) and POPE (15 mol%) in POPC synergistically activated GLTP at high surface pressure. Our study shows that matrix lipid headgroup composition, rather than molecular packing per se, is a key regulator of GLTP-fold function while demonstrating the novel capabilities of the microfluidics-based film balance for investigating protein-membrane interfacial interactions. PMID:23369752

  6. The Effect of Phosphatidylcholine and Deoxycholate Compound Injections to the Localized Adipose Tissue: An Experimental Study with a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Yongjoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and deoxycholate (DCA) compound has been recently used for the purpose of partial lipolysis and is valued for its efficacy and lower invasiveness compared to liposuction and dermolipectomy used previously. In this article, the authors discuss the efficacy of the PPC dissolved in DCA via an experimental rat study model, along with suggesting a useful animal experimental model for the study of adipose tissue and lipolysis. Methods Bilateral inguinal fat pads of an experimental rat were elevated with the deep inferior epigastric vessel as the sole vascular pedicle. Normal saline was injected on one side as a control group and a PPC and DCA compound was injected on the other side. After 4 days, the rats were euthanized for microscopic tissue examination. The pathology was scored by a semiquantitative system in 4 categories: normal fat amount, fat necrosis, inflammatory activity, and stage of fibrosis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test powered by SPSS packet program was used for statistical analysis and to determine significance. Results Microscopic examination was performed on the obtained samples, and the experimental data of all four categories showed significant histologic differences compared to the control group. All of the data also showed statistical significance by the Wilcoxon signedrank test (P<0.01). Conclusions In the inguinal fat pad rat model, the control group and the experimental group had a differed significantly in the amount of normal fat tissue, inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. We recommend the rat inguinal fat pad model used in this study, as it is likely to be useful in related research. PMID:23094238

  7. Relationships between membrane water molecules and Patman equilibration kinetics at temperatures far above the phosphatidylcholine melting point.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Bell, Thomas A; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Askew, Caitlin; Franchino, Hannabeth; Hirsche, Kelsey; Kemsley, Linea; Melchor, Stephanie; Moulton, Emma; Schwab, Morgan; Nelson, Jennifer; Bell, John D

    2015-04-01

    The naphthalene-based fluorescent probes Patman and Laurdan detect bilayer polarity at the level of the phospholipid glycerol backbone. This polarity increases with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase of phosphatidylcholines and was observed even 90°C above the melting temperature. This study explores mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. Measurements of probe anisotropy and experiments conducted at 1M NaCl or KCl (to reduce water permittivity) revealed that this effect represents interactions of water molecules with the probes without proportional increases in probe mobility. Furthermore, comparison of emission spectra to Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the increased polarity represents elevation in probe access to water molecules rather than increased mobility of relevant bilayer waters. Equilibration of these probes with the membrane involves at least two steps which were distinguished by the membrane microenvironment reported by the probe. The difference in those microenvironments also changed with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase in that the equilibrium state was less polar than the initial environment detected by Patman at temperatures near the melting point, more polar at higher temperatures, and again less polar as temperature was raised further. Laurdan also displayed this level of complexity during equilibration, although the relationship to temperature differed quantitatively from that experienced by Patman. This kinetic approach provides a novel way to study in molecular detail basic principles of what happens to the membrane environment around an individual amphipathic molecule as it penetrates the bilayer. Moreover, it provides evidence of unexpected and interesting membrane behaviors far from the phase transition. PMID:25559316

  8. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P < 0.05), with total PC and PE positively relating to insulin sensitivity (both P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle PC:PE ratio was elevated in T2D compared with OB and ATH (P < 0.05), tended to be elevated in OB vs. ATH (P = 0.07), and was inversely related to insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. PMID:27032901

  9. Synthesis of DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine by immobilized phospholipase A1: effect of water addition and vacuum condition.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Weifei; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully synthesized by immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-catalyzed transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters in a solvent-free system. Effects of reaction temperature, water addition and substrate mass ratio on the incorporation of DHA/EPA were evaluated using response surface methods (RSM). Water addition had most significant effect on the incorporation. Reaction temperature and substrate mass ratio, however, had no significant effect on the incorporation. The maximal incorporation was 19.09 % (24 h) under the following conditions: temperature 55.7 °C, water addition 1.1 wt % and substrate mass ratio (ethyl esters/PC) 6.8:1. Furthermore, effects of water addition (from 0 to 1.25 wt %) on DHA/EPA incorporation and the composition of products were further investigated. The immobilized PLA1 was more active when water addition was above 0.5 wt %. By monitoring the reaction processes with different water addition, a possible reaction scheme was proposed for transesterification of PC with DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. In summary, PC and sn2-lysophosphatidylocholine (LPC) were predominant in the mixtures at early stages of reaction, whereas sn1-LPC and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) predominant at later stages. The vacuum employed after 24 h significantly increased the incorporation of DHA/EPA and the composition of PC, and the highest incorporation (30.31 %) of DHA/EPA was obtained at 72 h and the yield of PC was 47.2 %. PMID:27108109

  10. Does Whole-Body Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy Affect Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics?

    PubMed Central

    Nespeca, Matteo; Giorgetti, Chiara; Nobile, Stefano; Ferrini, Ilaria; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether Whole-Body Hypothermia (WBH) affects pulmonary function. In vitro studies, at relatively low temperatures, suggest that hypothermia may induce significant changes to the surfactant composition. The effect of WBH on surfactant kinetics in newborn infants is unknown. We studied in vivo kinetics of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in asphyxiated newborns during WBH and in normothermic controls (NTC) with no or mild asphyxia. Both groups presented no clinically apparent lung disease. Methods Twenty-seven term or near term newborns requiring mechanical ventilation were studied (GA 38.6±2.2 wks). Fifteen during WBH and twelve NTC. All infants received an intra-tracheal dose of 13C labelled DSPC and tracheal aspirate were performed. DSPC amount, DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) were calculated. Results DSPC amount in tracheal aspirates was 0.42 [0.22–0.54] and 0.36 [0.10–0.58] mg/ml in WBH and NTC respectively (p = 0.578). DSPC HL was 24.9 [15.7–52.5] and 25.3 [15.8–59.3] h (p = 0.733) and DSPC PS was 53.2 [29.4–91.6] and 40.2 [29.8–64.6] mg/kg (p = 0.598) in WBH and NTC respectively. Conclusions WBH does not alter DSPC HL and PS in newborn infants with no clinical apparent lung disease. PMID:27070307

  11. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines suggest oxidative stress in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Najdekr, Lukáš; Gardlo, Alžběta; Mádrová, Lucie; Friedecký, David; Janečková, Hana; Correa, Elon S; Goodacre, Royston; Adam, Tomáš

    2015-07-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism encompass a large group of diseases caused by enzyme deficiencies and are therefore amenable to metabolomics investigations. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a defect in β-oxidation of fatty acids, and is one of the most well understood disorders. We report here the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based untargeted metabolomics and targeted flow injection analysis-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-TMS) that lead to discovery of novel compounds of oxidative stress. Dry blood spots of controls (n=25) and patient samples (n=25) were extracted by methanol/water (1/1, v/v) and these supernatants were analyzed by LC-MS method with detection by an Orbitrap Elite MS. Data were processed by XCMS and CAMERA followed by dimension reduction methods. Patients were clearly distinguished from controls in PCA. S-plot derived from OPLS-DA indicated that medium-chain acylcarnitines (octanoyl, decenoyl and decanoyl carnitines) as well as three phosphatidylcholines (PC(16:0,9:0(COOH))), PC(18:0,5:0(COOH)) and PC(16:0,8:0(COOH)) were important metabolites for differentiation between patients and healthy controls. In order to biologically validate these discriminatory molecules as indicators for oxidative stress, a second cohort of individuals were analyzed, including MCADD (n=25) and control (n=250) samples. These were measured by a modified newborn screening method using FIA-TMS (API 4000) in MRM mode. Calculated p-values for PC(16:0,9:0(COOH)), PC(18:0,5:0(COOH)) and PC(16:0,8:0(COOH)) were 1.927×10(-14), 2.391×10(-15) and 3.354×10(-15) respectively. These elevated oxidized phospholipids indeed show an increased presence of oxidative stress in MCADD patients as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. PMID:25882409

  12. Hydration lubrication and shear-induced self-healing of lipid bilayer boundary lubricants in phosphatidylcholine dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Zhu, Linyi; Klein, Jacob

    2016-03-14

    Measurements of normal and shear (frictional) forces between mica surfaces across small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) dispersions of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids DMPC (14:0), DPPC (16:0) and DSPC (18:0) and POPC (16:0, 18:1), at physiologically high pressures, are reported. We have previously studied the normal and shear forces between two opposing surfaces bearing PC vesicles across pure water and showed that liposome lubrication ability improved with increasing acyl chain length, and correlated strongly with the SUV structural integrity on the substrate surface (DSPC > DPPC > DMPC). In the current study, surprisingly, we discovered that this trend is reversed when the measurements are conducted in SUV dispersions, instead of pure water. In their corresponding SUV dispersion, DMPC SUVs ruptured and formed bilayers, which were able to provide reversible and reproducible lubrication with extremely low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures of 70-90 atm. Similarly, POPC SUVs also formed bilayers which exhibited low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures as high as 160 atm. DPPC and DSPC SUVs also provided good lubrication, but with slightly higher friction coefficients (μ = 10(-3)-10(-4)). We believe these differences originate from fast self-healing of the softer surface layers (which are in their liquid disordered phase, POPC, or close to it, DMPC), which renders the robustness of the DPPC or DSPC (both in their solid ordered phase) less important in these conditions. Under these circumstances, the enhanced hydration of the less densely packed POPC and DMPC surface layers is now believed to play an important role, and allows enhanced lubrication via the hydration lubrication mechanism. Our findings may have implications for the understanding of complex biological systems such us biolubrication of synovial joints. PMID:26861851

  13. Activation of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C in Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Impact on MRS-Detected Choline Metabolic Profile and Perspectives for Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Podo, Franca; Paris, Luisa; Cecchetti, Serena; Spadaro, Francesca; Abalsamo, Laura; Ramoni, Carlo; Ricci, Alessandro; Pisanu, Maria Elena; Sardanelli, Francesco; Canese, Rossella; Iorio, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the aberrant phosphatidylcholine cycle in cancer cells plays in favor of the use of metabolic imaging in oncology and opens the way for designing new targeted therapies. The anomalous choline metabolic profile detected in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging provides molecular signatures of tumor progression and response to therapy. The increased level of intracellular phosphocholine (PCho) typically detected in cancer cells is mainly attributed to upregulation of choline kinase, responsible for choline phosphorylation in the biosynthetic Kennedy pathway, but can also be partly produced by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This hydrolytic enzyme, known for implications in bacterial infection and in plant survival to hostile environmental conditions, is reported to be activated in mitogen- and oncogene-induced phosphatidylcholine cycles in mammalian cells, with effects on cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cell proliferation. Recent investigations showed that PC-PLC activation could account for 20-50% of the intracellular PCho production in ovarian and breast cancer cells of different subtypes. Enzyme activation was associated with PC-PLC protein overexpression and subcellular redistribution in these cancer cells compared with non-tumoral counterparts. Moreover, PC-PLC coimmunoprecipitated with the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR in HER2-overexpressing breast and ovarian cancer cells, while pharmacological PC-PLC inhibition resulted into long-lasting HER2 downregulation, retarded receptor re-expression on plasma membrane and antiproliferative effects. This body of evidence points to PC-PLC as a potential target for newly designed therapies, whose effects can be preclinically and clinically monitored by metabolic imaging methods. PMID:27532027

  14. General base catalysis by the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus: the role of Glu4 and Asp55.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Hergenrother, P J

    1998-04-21

    To assess what roles the active site residues Glu4 and Asp55 of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus (PLCBc) might play in binding and catalysis, selected mutants were prepared through site-directed mutagenesis of the plc gene. The mutants were then expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as fusion proteins with the maltose binding protein (MBP). Kinetic analysis showed that mutations at Glu4 had only modest effects on the catalytic activity, whereas those at Asp55 led to proteins whose values for kcat/KM were 10(4)-10(6) times less than that of the wild-type enzyme. The modest decrease in catalytic activity and the pH-dependent profile of the E4L mutant strongly suggest that glutamic acid at position 4 is not the general base in the PLCBc-catalyzed reaction. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that Glu4 is primarily involved in substrate binding, perhaps by electrostatic stabilization of the positive charge of the choline moiety of the phosphatidylcholine substrate. Examination of X-ray crystallographic data of PLCBc and its various complexes reveals that the carboxylate side chain of Asp55 is positioned such that it could activate a water for nucleophilic attack on the substrate or serve as a ligand for Zn1. However, the involvement of the side chain of Asp55 as an important Zn1 ligand is not consistent with the atomic absorption and thermostability data obtained for the D55L mutant, which are virtually identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. The large reduction in the measured kcat/KM of the D55E, D55N, and D55L mutants of PLCBc indicates that Asp55 plays a critical role in catalysis and likely serves as the general base in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by PLCBc. PMID:9548962

  15. Activation of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C in Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Impact on MRS-Detected Choline Metabolic Profile and Perspectives for Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Podo, Franca; Paris, Luisa; Cecchetti, Serena; Spadaro, Francesca; Abalsamo, Laura; Ramoni, Carlo; Ricci, Alessandro; Pisanu, Maria Elena; Sardanelli, Francesco; Canese, Rossella; Iorio, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the aberrant phosphatidylcholine cycle in cancer cells plays in favor of the use of metabolic imaging in oncology and opens the way for designing new targeted therapies. The anomalous choline metabolic profile detected in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging provides molecular signatures of tumor progression and response to therapy. The increased level of intracellular phosphocholine (PCho) typically detected in cancer cells is mainly attributed to upregulation of choline kinase, responsible for choline phosphorylation in the biosynthetic Kennedy pathway, but can also be partly produced by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This hydrolytic enzyme, known for implications in bacterial infection and in plant survival to hostile environmental conditions, is reported to be activated in mitogen- and oncogene-induced phosphatidylcholine cycles in mammalian cells, with effects on cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cell proliferation. Recent investigations showed that PC-PLC activation could account for 20–50% of the intracellular PCho production in ovarian and breast cancer cells of different subtypes. Enzyme activation was associated with PC-PLC protein overexpression and subcellular redistribution in these cancer cells compared with non-tumoral counterparts. Moreover, PC-PLC coimmunoprecipitated with the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR in HER2-overexpressing breast and ovarian cancer cells, while pharmacological PC-PLC inhibition resulted into long-lasting HER2 downregulation, retarded receptor re-expression on plasma membrane and antiproliferative effects. This body of evidence points to PC-PLC as a potential target for newly designed therapies, whose effects can be preclinically and clinically monitored by metabolic imaging methods. PMID:27532027

  16. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC induces a prolonged

  17. Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Interferes with Proliferation and Survival of Tumor Initiating Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Renata; Mercurio, Laura; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Miotti, Silvia; Iorio, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), the enzyme involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, has not yet been explored in tumor initiating cells (TICs). We investigated PC-PLC expression and effects of PC-PLC inhibition in two adherent (AD) squamous carcinoma cell lines (A431 and CaSki), with different proliferative and stemness potential, and in TIC-enriched floating spheres (SPH) originated from them. Results Compared with immortalized non-tumoral keratinocytes (HaCaT) A431-AD cells showed 2.5-fold higher PC-PLC activity, nuclear localization of a 66-kDa PC-PLC isoform, but a similar distribution of the enzyme on plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic compartments. Compared with A431-AD, A431-SPH cells showed about 2.8-fold lower PC-PLC protein and activity levels, but similar nuclear content. Exposure of adherent cells to the PC-PLC inhibitor D609 (48h) induced a 50% reduction of cell proliferation at doses comprised between 33 and 50 μg/ml, without inducing any relevant cytotoxic effect (cell viability 95±5%). In A431-SPH and CaSki-SPH D609 induced both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at about 20 to 30-fold lower doses (IC50 ranging between 1.2 and 1.6 μg/ml). Furthermore, D609 treatment of A431-AD and CaSki-AD cells affected the sphere-forming efficiency, which dropped in both cells, and induced down-modulation of stem-related markers mRNA levels (Oct4, Nestin, Nanog and ALDH1 in A431; Nestin and ALDH1 in CaSki cells). Conclusions These data suggest that the inhibition of PC-PLC activity may represent a new therapeutic approach to selectively target the most aggressive and tumor promoting sub-population of floating spheres originated from squamous cancer cells possessing different proliferative and stemness potential. PMID:26402860

  18. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Y; Suzuki, H

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6 (n-3)] ethyl ester (EE) and egg-phosphatidylcholine (PC) on maze-learning ability in young and old mice was studied. Male Crj:CD-1 mice aged either 3 wk or 14 mo were fed a diet containing 2 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 3 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE Group), 5 g egg-PC/100 g diet (egg-PC Group), 1 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 2.5 g egg-PC/100 g diet plus 1.5 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE + egg-PC Group) or 5 g palm oil/100 g diet (Control Group) for 5 mo. Maze-learning ability was assessed 4 mo after the start of the experiment. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured in three trials every 4 d. In trial 2 of young mice, performed on d 4 after the first trial, the DHA-EE group required less (P < 0.05) time to reach the maze exit and DHA-EE and egg-PC groups strayed (P < 0.05) into blind alleys fewer times than the control group. In trial 2 of old mice, the DHA-EE, egg-PC and DHA-EE + egg-PC groups needed less (P < 0.05) time to find the exit and spent a fewer (P < 0.05) number of times in blind alleys than did the control group. The DHA-EE, DHA-EE + egg-PC and egg-PC groups strayed into blind alleys fewer times than the control group in trial 3 of old mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the intake of DHA-EE and the egg-PC diet effectively enhances maze-learning ability and brain functions in old mice. PMID:10827221

  19. Increased palmitoyl-myristoyl-phosphatidylcholine in neonatal rat surfactant is lung specific and correlates with oral myristic acid supply.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Pynn, Christopher J; Gille, Christian; Stichtenoth, Guido; Stoll, Dieter; Schleicher, Erwin; Poets, Christian F

    2011-08-01

    Surfactant predominantly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, together with phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, neutral lipids, and surfactant proteins-A to -D. Together, dipalmitoyl-PC (PC16:0/16:0), palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC (PC16:0/14:0), and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC (PC16:0/16:1) make up 75-80% of mammalian surfactant PC, the proportions of which vary during development and in chronic lung diseases. PC16:0/14:0, which exerts specific effects on macrophage differentiation in vitro, increases in surfactant during alveolarization (at the expense of PC16:0/16:0), a prenatal event in humans but postnatal in rats. The mechanisms responsible and the significance of this reversible increase are, however, not understood. We hypothesized that, in rats, myristic acid (C14:0) enriched milk is key to lung-specific PC16:0/14:0 increases in surfactant. We found that surfactant PC16:0/14:0 in suckling rats correlates with C14:0 concentration in plasma chylomicrons and lung tissue triglycerides, and that PC16:0/14:0 fractions reflect exogenous C14:0 supply. Significantly, C14:0 was increased neither in plasma PC, nor in liver triglycerides, free fatty acids, or PC. Lauric acid was also abundant in triglycerides, but was not incorporated into surfactant PC. Comparing a C14:0-rich milk diet with a C14:0-poor carbohydrate diet revealed increased C14:0 and decreased C16:0 in plasma and lung triglycerides, respectively. PC16:0/14:0 enrichment at the expense of PC16:0/16:0 did not impair surfactant surface tension function. However, the PC profile of the alveolar macrophages from the milk-fed animals changed from PC16:0/16:0 rich to PC16:0/14:0 rich. This was accompanied by reduced reactive oxygen species production. We propose that nutritional supply with C14:0 and its lung-specific enrichment may contribute to decreased reactive oxygen species production during alveolarization. PMID:21636561

  20. Increased arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine is associated with reactive microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmin; Omura, Takao; Masaki, Noritaka; Arima, Hideyuki; Banno, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Ayako; Hanada, Mitsuru; Takei, Shiro; Matsushita, Shoko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) triggers cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord. However, little is known about how the polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylcholines (PUFA-PCs) are regulated in the spinal cord after PNI and the association of PUFA-PCs with the non-neuronal cells within in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we found that arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine (AA-PC), [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+), was significantly increased in the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection, and the increased expression of [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+) spatiotemporally resembled the increase of reactive microglia and the astrocytes. From the lipidomics point of view, we conclude that [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+) could be the main phospholipid in the spinal cord influenced by PNI, and the regulation of specific phospholipid molecule in the CNS after PNI is associated with the reactive microglia and astrocytes. PMID:27210057

  1. Increased arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine is associated with reactive microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongmin; Omura, Takao; Masaki, Noritaka; Arima, Hideyuki; Banno, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Ayako; Hanada, Mitsuru; Takei, Shiro; Matsushita, Shoko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) triggers cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord. However, little is known about how the polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylcholines (PUFA-PCs) are regulated in the spinal cord after PNI and the association of PUFA-PCs with the non-neuronal cells within in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we found that arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine (AA-PC), [PC(16:0/20:4)+K]+, was significantly increased in the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection, and the increased expression of [PC(16:0/20:4)+K]+ spatiotemporally resembled the increase of reactive microglia and the astrocytes. From the lipidomics point of view, we conclude that [PC(16:0/20:4)+K]+ could be the main phospholipid in the spinal cord influenced by PNI, and the regulation of specific phospholipid molecule in the CNS after PNI is associated with the reactive microglia and astrocytes. PMID:27210057

  2. Gene cloning, structural gene and promoter identification, and active assay of the phosphatidylcholine synthase of Pseudomonas sp. strain 593.

    PubMed

    He, Huoguang; Wu, Bin; Xiong, Min; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenhua; Wang, Xingguo

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain 593, a soil bacterium, is able to use exogenous choline to synthesize phosphatidylcholine via phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs). A 2020 bp DNA fragment that hybridized to a Pcs probe was cloned. This fragment contained a large open reading frame (ORF) with two potential ATG start sites that would encode for 293 and 231 amino acid proteins. Fragments containing the two ORFs encoded Pcs when they were inserted into the expression vector pET23a and expressed under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) pLysS. However, when the two ORFs were inserted into the cloning vector pMD18-T and expressed without control of the plasmid promoter in E. coli DH5α, only the larger clone exhibited Pcs activity. This suggested that the larger fragment contained a native promoter driving expression of the smaller ORF. A promoter activity assay, in which DNA fragments were inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pCB182 and β-galactosidase activity of E. coli transformants was tested, demonstrated that a promoter is indeed present in the DNA region. All results together indicate that the 696 bp ORF, not the larger 897 bp ORF, encodes the Pcs in Pseudomonas sp. strain 593 and carries a promoter in front of its 5' terminus. PMID:21939372

  3. Reductive metabolism of carbon tetrachloride by human cytochromes P-450 reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles: mass spectral identification of trichloromethyl radical bound to dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Trudell, J R; Bösterling, B; Trevor, A J

    1982-01-01

    It has been proposed that covalent binding of reactive metabolites to liver membrane constituents may be responsible for the hepatoxicity of carbon tetrachloride. This study demonstrates that trichloromethyl free radical is the major reductive metabolite of carbon tetrachloride by cytochrome P-450 and that this free radical is capable of binding to double bonds of fatty acyl chains of the phospholipids in the membrane surrounding cytochrome P-450. The structural identification of the reactive free radical metabolite and the product of its addition to phospholipids was accomplished by use of a reconstituted system of human cytochromes P-450, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, and cytochrome b5 in phospholipid vesicles. The reconstituted vesicles contained a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and egg phosphatidylethanolamine that served as both structural components and targets for trichloromethyl free radical binding. After incubation of these vesicles under a N2 atmosphere in the presence of NADPH with 14CCl4, the phospholipids were extracted and then separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine fraction was transesterified and the resulting single 14C-labeled fatty acid methyl ester was purified by reverse-phase chromatography. Desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas as well as desorption electron-impact mass spectrometry permitted identification of the molecular structure as a mixture of 9- and 10-(trichloromethyl)stearate methyl esters. PMID:6953422

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5′-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPARα response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPARα to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPARα to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease. PMID:24122873

  5. A new study of the bacterial lipidome: HPTLC-MALDI-TOF imaging enlightening the presence of phosphatidylcholine in airborne Pseudomonas fluorescens MFAF76a.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Tatiana; Merlet-Machour, Nadine; Chapelle, Manuel; Preterre, David; Dionnet, Frédéric; Feuilloley, Marc; Orange, Nicole; Duclairoir Poc, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Lipids are major functional components of bacterial cells that play fundamental roles in bacterial metabolism and the barrier function between cells and the environment. In an effort to investigate the bacterial lipidome, we adopted a protocol using MALDI-TOF MS imaging coupled to HPTLC to screen a large number of phospholipid classes in a short span of time. With this method, phospholipids of airborne Pseudomonas fluorescens MFAF76a were visualized and identified in sample extracts (measurement accuracy below 0.1 Da, phospholipid identification by means of four characteristic fragment peaks). Via this technique, the P. fluorescens lipidome was shown to comprise three major lipid classes: phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The protocol described herein is simple, rapid and effective for screening of bacterial phospholipid classes. The remarkable presence of a eukaryotic phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, was observed in P. fluorescens MFAF76a. This lipid is known to play a role in bacteria-host interactions and had not been known to be found in P. fluorescens cells. PMID:25478686

  6. Effects of solvents interacting favorably with hydrophilic segments of the membrane surface of phosphatidylcholine on their gel-phase membranes in water.

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Kinoshita, K; Furuike, S; Yamazaki, M

    1999-10-25

    We have investigated the effects of two kinds of solvents forming the lamellar liquid-crystalline (L(alpha)) phase in phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes in neat condition, such as formamide and 1,3-propanediol, on phase behaviors of multilamellar vesicle (MLV) of DPPC (DPPC-MLV). These solvents induced the interdigitated gel (L(beta)I) phase in DPPC-MLV in excess water above their critical concentrations. Solubility measurement indicates that these solvents interact favorably with the hydrophilic segment of the PC membrane but interact unfavorably with the alkyl chains. Based on these results, we propose the mechanism of the induction of the L(beta)I phase by these solvents. PMID:17030334

  7. The pharmacological modulation of [3H]-disaturated phosphatidylcholine overflow from perifused lung slices of adult rats: a new method for the study of lung surfactant secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gilfillan, A. M.; Hollingsworth, M.; Jones, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Lung slices from adult rats incubated in [methyl-3H]-choline chloride formed [3H]-disaturated phosphatidylcholine ( [3H]-DSPC) which was used as an index of lung surfactant. The slices were perifused after 3 h incubation in [methyl-3H]-choline chloride and the overflow of [3H]-DSPC, as a rate coefficient, was used as a measure of surfactant secretion. The basal overflow of [3H]-DSPC rapidly declined over the first 30 min of perifusion and then declined slowly. Salbutamol induced a prolonged, and sometimes delayed, increase in [3H]-DSPC overflow, which was reduced by (+/-)-propranolol. Potassium chloride produced an immediate, and usually transient, increase in [3H]-DSPC overflow which was not modified by atropine or (+/-)-propranolol. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate, but not phenylephrine, also increased [3H]-DSPC overflow. This method can measure the magnitude and time-course of lung surfactant secretion induced by drugs. PMID:6689133

  8. Localization of Fatty Acyl and Double Bond Positions in Phosphatidylcholines Using a Dual Stage CID Fragmentation Coupled with Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Perez, Jose; Roddy, Thomas P.; Nibbering, Nico M. M.; Shah, Vinit; McLaren, David G.; Previs, Stephen; Attygalle, Athula B.; Herath, Kithsiri; Chen, Zhu; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Mitnaul, Lyndon; Hubbard, Brian K.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Johns, Douglas G.; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    A high content molecular fragmentation for the analysis of phosphatidylcholines (PC) was achieved utilizing a two-stage [trap (first generation fragmentation) and transfer (second generation fragmentation)] collision-induced dissociation (CID) in combination with travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). The novel aspects of this work reside in the fact that a TWIMS arrangement was used to obtain a high level structural information including location of fatty acyl substituents and double bonds for PCs in plasma, and the presence of alkali metal adduct ions such as [M + Li]+ was not required to obtain double bond positions. Elemental compositions for fragment ions were confirmed by accurate mass measurements. A very specific first generation fragment ion m/z 577 (M-phosphoryl choline) from the PC [16:0/18:1 (9Z)] was produced, which by further CID generated acylium ions containing either the fatty acyl 16:0 (C15H31CO+, m/z 239) or 18:1 (9Z) (C17H33CO+, m/z 265) substituent. Subsequent water loss from these acylium ions was key in producing hydrocarbon fragment ions mainly from the α-proximal position of the carbonyl group such as the hydrocarbon ion m/z 67 (+H2C-HC = CH-CH = CH2). Formation of these ions was of important significance for determining double bonds in the fatty acyl chains. In addition to this, and with the aid of 13C labeled lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) 18:1 (9Z) in the ω-position (methyl) TAP fragmentation produced the ion at m/z 57. And was proven to be derived from the α-proximal (carboxylate) or distant ω-position (methyl) in the LPC.

  9. Dioctanoylglycerol stimulates accumulation of [methyl-14C]choline and its incorporation into acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine in a human cholinergic neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, B. E.; Richardson, U. I.; Nitsch, R. M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diacylglycerol, stimulated [14C]choline uptake in cultured human neuroblastoma (LA-N-2) cells. As this effect has not, to our knowledge, been reported before, it was of interest to characterize it in more detail. In the presence of 500 microM dioctanoylglycerol the levels of [14C]choline attained during a 2 hour labeling period were elevated by 78 +/- 12%, while [14C]acetylcholine and long fatty acyl chain [14C]phosphatidylcholine levels increased by 26 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 5%, respectively (mean +/- S.E.M.). Total (long chain plus dioctanoyl-) [14C]phosphatidylcholine was increased by 198 +/- 33%. Kinetic analysis showed that dioctanoylglycerol reduced the apparent Km for choline uptake to 56 +/- 9% of control (n = 4). The Vmax was not significantly altered. The stimulation of [14C]choline accumulation by dioctanoylglycerol was not dependent on protein kinase C activation; the effect was not mimicked by phorbol ester or by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and was not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine, or by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The effect of dioctanoylglycerol was slightly (but not significantly) reduced by EGTA and strongly inhibited by the cell-permeant calcium chelator bis(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester. Although these results implicate elevated intracellular calcium in the response, dioctanoylglycerol did not increase phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in LA-N-2 cells, and its effect was not inhibited by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 (which blocks the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, a known stimulator of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. 2H nuclear magnetic resonance order parameter profiles suggest a change of molecular shape for phosphatidylcholines containing a polyunsaturated acyl chain.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, L. L.; Peter, S. A.; Sinnwell, T. M.; Gawrisch, K.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-state 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the orientational order parameter profiles for a series of phosphatidylcholines with perdeuterated stearic acid, 18:0d35, in position sn-1 and 18:1 omega 9, 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, 20:4 omega 6, 20:5 omega 3, or 22:6 omega 3 in position sn-2. The main phase transition temperatures were derived from a first moment analysis, and order parameter profiles of sn-1 chains were calculated from dePaked nuclear magnetic resonance powder patterns. Comparison of the profiles at 37 degrees C showed that unsaturation causes an inhomogenous disordering along the sn-1 chain. Increasing sn-2 chain unsaturation from one to six double bonds resulted in a 1.6-kHz decrease in quadrupolar splittings of the sn-1 chain in the upper half of the chain (or plateau region) and maximum splitting difference of 4.4 kHz at methylene carbon 14. The change in chain order corresponds to a decrease in the 18:0 chain length of 0.4 +/- 0.2 A with 18:2 omega 6 versus 18:1 omega 9 in position sn-2. Fatty acids containing three or more double bonds in sn-2 showed a decrease in sn-1 chain length of 0.7 +/- 0.2 A compared with 18:1 omega 9. The chain length of all lipids decreased with increasing temperature. Highly unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (three or more double bonds in sn-2) had shorter sn-1 chains, but the chain length was somewhat less sensitive to temperature. The profiles reveal that the sn-1 chain exhibits a selective increase in motional freedom in a region located toward the bottom half of the chain as sn-2 unsaturation is increased. This corresponds to an area increase around carbon atom number 14 that is three to four times greater than the increase for the top part of the chain. A similar asymmetric decrease in order, largest toward the methyl end of the chain, was observed when 1 -palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine goes from a lamellar to an inverse hexagonal (H,,) phase. This is consistent with a