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Sample records for phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

  1. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent Ras activation by tauroursodesoxycholate in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, A K; Block, C; Graf, D; Dahl, S V; Schliess, F; Hussinger, D

    2000-01-01

    Ursodesoxycholic acid, widely used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease, causes choleretic, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects. Here the effects on choleresis of its taurine conjugate tauroursodesoxycholate (TUDC), which is present in the enterohepatic circulation, were correlated with the activation of important elements of intracellular signal transduction in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. TUDC induced a time- and concentration-dependent activation of the small GTP-binding protein Ras and of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in cultured hepatocytes. Ras activation was dependent on PI 3-kinase activity, without the involvement of protein kinase C- and genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinases. Ras activation by TUDC was followed by an activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-1 (Erk-1) and Erk-2. In perfused rat liver, PI 3-kinase inhibitors largely abolished the stimulatory effect of TUDC on taurocholate excretion, suggesting an important role for a PI 3-kinase/Ras/Erk pathway in the choleretic effect of TUDC. PMID:10926845

  2. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by the Src family of tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Dowler, S; Montalvo, L; Cantrell, D; Morrice, N; Alessi, D R

    2000-07-15

    We recently identified a novel adaptor protein, termed dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1), that possesses a Src homology (SH2) domain and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. DAPP1 exhibits a high-affinity interaction with PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2), which bind to the PH domain. In the present study we show that when DAPP1 is expressed in HEK-293 cells, the agonists insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and epidermal growth factor induce the phosphorylation of DAPP1 at Tyr(139). Treatment of cells with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitors or expression of a dominant-negative PI 3-kinase prevent phosphorylation of DAPP1 at Tyr(139), and a PH-domain mutant of DAPP1, which does not interact with PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) or PtdIns(3,4)P(2), is not phosphorylated at Tyr(139) following agonist stimulation of cells. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of PI 3-kinase induced the phosphorylation of DAPP1 in unstimulated cells. We demonstrated that Tyr(139) of DAPP1 is likely to be phosphorylated in vivo by a Src-family tyrosine kinase, since the specific Src-family inhibitor, PP2, but not an inactive variant of this drug, PP3, prevented the agonist-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of DAPP1. Src, Lyn and Lck tyrosine kinases phosphorylate DAPP1 at Tyr(139) in vitro at similar rates in the presence or absence of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), and overexpression of these kinases in HEK-293 cells induces the phosphorylation of Tyr(139). These findings indicate that, following activation of PI 3-kinases, PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) or PtdIns(3,4)P(2) bind to DAPP1, recruiting it to the plasma membrane where it becomes phosphorylated at Tyr(139) by a Src-family tyrosine kinase. PMID:10880360

  3. RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Nao; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori . E-mail: hirokato@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-01

    In normal epithelial cells, cell-matrix interaction is required for cell survival and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis. HeLa cells are capable of anchorage-independent cell growth and acquire resistance to anoikis. We found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG promoted anoikis in HeLa cells. Previous studies have shown that RhoG activates Rac1 and induces several cellular functions including promotion of cell migration through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180 that function as a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, RhoG-induced suppression of anoikis was independent of the ELMO- and Dock180-mediated activation of Rac1. On the other hand, the regulation of anoikis by RhoG required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and constitutively active RhoG bound to the PI3K regulatory subunit p85{alpha} and induced the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG protects cells from apoptosis caused by the loss of anchorage through a PI3K-dependent mechanism, independent of its activation of Rac1.

  4. Integrin β1-mediated acquired gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells occurs via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    DENG, QIN-FANG; SU, BO; ZHAO, YIN-MIN; TANG, LIANG; ZHANG, JIE; ZHOU, CAI-CUN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the role of integrin β1 and the relevant signaling pathways in acquired gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The inhibitory effects of gefitinib, with or without LY294002, on cellular proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, while western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of EGFR, phosphorylated (phospho)-EGFR, protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and phospho-Erk. The gene expression profiles of PC9 and PC9/G cells were determined by DNA microarray. Integrin β1 was knocked down in PC9/G cells by transiently transfected short interfering RNA (siRNA). A scrambled siRNA sequence was used as a control. Apoptosis of transfected cells was determined by Annexin V-phycoerythrin-Cy5/propidium iodide staining. Sequencing products were amplified by nested PCR. The resistant index of PC9/G cells to gefitinib was ~138- to 256-fold higher than that of PC9 cells, and this resistance was accompanied by significant increase in integrin β1 expression in PC9/G cells. Knockdown of integrin β1 with short hairpin RNA in PC9/G cells markedly inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in response to gefitinib, restoring the sensitivity of PC9/G cells gefitinib. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation was observed in PC9/G cells in the presence of gefitinib and the sensitivity of PC9/G cells to gefitinib was also able to be restored by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002. Finally, knockdown of integrin β1 significantly reduced the levels of phospho-Akt. These findings suggest that integrin β1 signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway may be a significant mechanism underlying gefitinib resistance, and may potentially present an alternative therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC unresponsive to EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26870244

  5. Polycystin-1 Induces Cell Migration by Regulating Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent Cytoskeletal Rearrangements and GSK3?-dependent CellCell Mechanical Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Boca, Manila; D'Amato, Lisa; Distefano, Gianfranco; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2007-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1) is a large plasma-membrane receptor encoded by the PKD1 gene mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although the disease is thought to be recessive on a molecular level, the precise mechanism of cystogenesis is unclear, although cytoarchitecture defects seem to be the most likely initiating events. Here we show that PC-1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) and induces cell scattering and cell migration. All of these effects require phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity. Consistent with these observations Pkd1?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) have reduced capabilities to migrate compared with controls. PC-1 overexpressing MDCK cells are able to polarize normally with proper adherens and tight junctions formation, but show quick reabsorption of ZO-1, E-cadherin, and ?-catenin upon wounding of a monolayer and a transient epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that favors a rapid closure of the wound and repolarization. Finally, we show that PC-1 is able to control the turnover of cytoskeletal-associated ?-catenin through activation of GSK3?. Expression of a nondegradable form of ?-catenin in PC-1 MDCK cells restores strong cellcell mechanical adhesion. We propose that PC-1 might be a central regulator of epithelial plasticity and its loss results in impaired normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17671167

  6. A phosphoinositide conversion mechanism for exit from endosomes.

    PubMed

    Ketel, Katharina; Krauss, Michael; Nicot, Anne-Sophie; Puchkov, Dmytro; Wieffer, Marnix; Mller, Rainer; Subramanian, Devaraj; Schultz, Carsten; Laporte, Jocelyn; Haucke, Volker

    2016-01-21

    Phosphoinositides are a minor class of short-lived membrane phospholipids that serve crucial functions in cell physiology ranging from cell signalling and motility to their role as signposts of compartmental membrane identity. Phosphoinositide 4-phosphates such as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) are concentrated at the plasma membrane, on secretory organelles, and on lysosomes, whereas phosphoinositide 3-phosphates, most notably phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), are a hallmark of the endosomal system. Directional membrane traffic between endosomal and secretory compartments, although inherently complex, therefore requires regulated phosphoinositide conversion. The molecular mechanism underlying this conversion of phosphoinositide identity during cargo exit from endosomes by exocytosis is unknown. Here we report that surface delivery of endosomal cargo requires hydrolysis of PI(3)P by the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase MTM1, an enzyme whose loss of function leads to X-linked centronuclear myopathy (also called myotubular myopathy) in humans. Removal of endosomal PI(3)P by MTM1 is accompanied by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase-2? (PI4K2?)-dependent generation of PI(4)P and recruitment of the exocyst tethering complex to enable membrane fusion. Our data establish a mechanism for phosphoinositide conversion from PI(3)P to PI(4)P at endosomes en route to the plasma membrane and suggest that defective phosphoinositide conversion at endosomes underlies X-linked centronuclear myopathy caused by mutation of MTM1 in humans. PMID:26760201

  7. Cellular Notch responsiveness is defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signals

    PubMed Central

    Mckenzie, Grahame; Ward, George; Stallwood, Yvette; Briend, Emmanuel; Papadia, Sofia; Lennard, Andrew; Turner, Martin; Champion, Brian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2006-01-01

    Background Notch plays a wide-ranging role in controlling cell fate, differentiation and development. The PI3K-Akt pathway is a similarly conserved signalling pathway which regulates processes such as differentiation, proliferation and survival. Mice with disrupted Notch and PI3K signalling show phenotypic similarities during haematopoietic cell development, suggesting functional interaction between these pathways. Results We show that cellular responsiveness to Notch signals depends on the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cells as diverse as CHO cells, primary T-cells and hippocampal neurons. Induction of the endogenous PI3K-Akt pathway in CHO cells (by the insulin pathway), in T-cells (via TCR activation) or in neurons (via TrKB activation) potentiates Notch-dependent responses. We propose that the PI3K-Akt pathway exerts its influence on Notch primarily via inhibition of GSK3-beta, a kinase known to phosphorylate and regulate Notch signals. Conclusion The PI3K-Akt pathway acts as a "gain control" for Notch signal responses. Since physiological levels of intracellular Notch are often low, coincidence with PI3K-activation may be crucial for induction of Notch-dependent responses. PMID:16507111

  8. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: the key switch mechanism in insulin signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, P R; Withers, D J; Siddle, K

    1998-01-01

    Insulin plays a key role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. However, until recently little was known about the signalling pathways that are involved in linking the insulin receptor with downstream responses. It is now apparent that the activation of class 1a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is necessary and in some cases sufficient to elicit many of insulin's effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The lipid products of PI 3-kinase act as both membrane anchors and allosteric regulators, serving to localize and activate downstream enzymes and their protein substrates. One of the major ways these lipid products of PI 3-kinase act in insulin signalling is by binding to pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK) and protein kinase B (PKB) and in the process regulating the phosphorylation of PKB by PDK. Using mechanisms such as this, PI 3-kinase is able to act as a molecular switch to regulate the activity of serine/threonine-specific kinase cascades important in mediating insulin's effects on endpoint responses. PMID:9677303

  9. Role of PI3-kinase-dependent Bad phosphorylation and altered transcription in cytokine-mediated neutrophil survival.

    PubMed

    Cowburn, Andrew S; Cadwallader, Karen A; Reed, Benjamin J; Farahi, Neda; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2002-10-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bad has been proposed as an important regulator of apoptotic cell death. To understand the importance of this pathway in nontransformed hematopoietic cells, we have examined the effect of survival cytokines on PI3-kinase activity and Bad expression and phosphorylation status in human neutrophils. Granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) both reduced the rate of apoptosis in neutrophils cultured in vitro for 20 hours. Coincubation with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, which in parallel experiments abolished GM-CSF-primed, fMLP-stimulated superoxide anion production and GM-CSF-stimulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) accumulation, inhibited the GM-CSF and TNF-alpha survival effect. In contrast, the MAP kinase kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 and the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 had only a marginal effect on GM-CSF-mediated neutrophil survival. GM-CSF substantially increased Bad phosphorylation at Ser112 and Ser136 and increased the cytosolic accumulation of Bad. GM-CSF also regulated Bad at a transcription level with a marked decrease in mRNA levels at 4 hours. TNF-alpha caused a biphasic effect on the rate of morphologic apoptosis, which corresponded to an early increase, and a late inhibition, of Bad mRNA levels. LY294002 inhibited GM-CSF- and TNF-alpha-mediated changes in Bad phosphorylation and mRNA levels. These data suggest that the survival effect of GM-CSF and TNF-alpha in neutrophils is caused by a PI3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation and cytosolic translocation of Bad, together with an inhibition of Bad mRNA levels. This has important implications for the regulation of neutrophil apoptosis in vivo. PMID:12239175

  10. Mechanism for phosphoinositide selectivity and activation of TRPV1 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen A.; Klein, Rebecca M.; Collins, Marcus D.; Rosasco, Mario G.; Martinez, Gilbert Q.

    2015-01-01

    Although PI(4,5)P2 is believed to play an essential role in regulating the activity of numerous ion channels and transporters, the mechanisms by which it does so are unknown. Here, we used the ability of the TRPV1 ion channel to discriminate between PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P to localize the region of TRPV1 sequence that interacts directly with the phosphoinositide. We identified a point mutation in the proximal C-terminal region after the TRP box, R721A, that inverted the selectivity of TRPV1. Although the R721A mutation produced only a 30% increase in the EC50 for activation by PI(4,5)P2, it decreased the EC50 for activation by PI(4)P by more than two orders of magnitude. We used chemically induced and voltage-activated phosphatases to determine that PI(4)P continued to support TRPV1 activity even after depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane. Our data cannot be explained by a purely electrostatic mechanism for interaction between the phosphoinositide and the protein, similar to that of the MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) effector domain or the EGF receptor. Rather, conversion of a PI(4,5)P2-selective channel to a PI(4)P-selective channel indicates that a structured phosphoinositide-binding site mediates the regulation of TRPV1 activity and that the amino acid at position 721 likely interacts directly with the moiety at the 5? position of the phosphoinositide. PMID:25918361

  11. TRPM7 ion channels are required for sustained phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Jaya; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2008-07-01

    Lymphocytes lacking the TRPM7 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7) dual function ion channel/protein kinase exhibit a unique phenotype: they are unable to proliferate in regular media, but proliferate normally in media supplemented with 10-15 mM extracellular Mg(2+). Here, we have analyzed the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype. We find that upon transition from proliferation-supporting Mg(2+)-supplemented media to regular media, TRPM7-deficient cells rapidly downregulate their rate of growth, resulting in a secondary arrest in proliferation. The downregulated growth rate of transitioning cells is associated with a deactivation of signaling downstream from phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and expression of constitutively active p110 phosphoinositide 3-kinase is sufficient to support growth and proliferation of TRPM7-deficient cells in regular media. Together, these observations indicate that TRPM7 channels are required for sustained phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent growth signaling and therefore, that TRPM7 is positioned alongside phosphoinositide 3-kinases as a central regulator of lymphocyte growth and proliferation. PMID:18590694

  12. Sac1Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to CharcotMarieTooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination. PMID:25113029

  13. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  14. Deletion of the phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110(gamma) gene attenuates murine atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammatory cell activation by chemokines requires intracellular signaling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and the PI3-kinase-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase Akt. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process driven by oxidatively modified (atherogenic) lipoproteins, ch...

  15. Small GTPases and phosphoinositides in the regulatory mechanisms of macropinosome formation and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Egami, Youhei; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Maekawa, Masashi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Araki, Nobukazu

    2014-01-01

    Macropinosome formation requires the sequential activation of numerous signaling pathways that coordinate the actin-driven formation of plasma membrane protrusions (ruffles) and circular ruffles (macropinocytic cups), followed by the closure of these macropinocytic cups into macropinosomes. In the process of macropinosome formation, localized productions of phosphoinositides such as PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 spatiotemporally orchestrate actin polymerization and rearrangement through recruiting and activating a variety of actin-associated proteins. In addition, the sequential activation of small GTPases, which are known to be master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, plays a pivotal role in parallel with phosphoinositides. To complete macropinosome formation, phosphoinositide breakdown and Rho GTPase deactivation must occur in appropriate timings. After the nascent macropinosomes are formed, phosphoinositides and several Rab GTPases control macropinosome maturation by regulating vesicle trafficking and membrane fusion. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the critical functions of phosphoinositide metabolism and small GTPases in association with their downstream effectors in macropinocytosis. PMID:25324782

  16. Cholesterol stabilizes fluid phosphoinositide domains

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiping; Redfern, Roberta E.; Isler, Yasmin; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2014-01-01

    Local accumulation of phosphoinositides (PIPs) is an important factor for a broad range of cellular events including membrane trafficking and cell signaling. The negatively charged phosphoinositide headgroups can interact with cations or cationic proteins and this electrostatic interaction has been identified as the main phosphoinositide clustering mechanism. However, an increasing number of reports show that phosphoinositide-mediated signaling events are at least in some cases cholesterol dependent, suggesting other possible contributors to the segregation of phosphoinositides. Using fluorescence microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles and monolayers at the air/water interface, we present data showing that cholesterol stabilizes fluid phosphoinositide-enriched phases. The interaction with cholesterol is observed for all investigated phosphoinositides (PI(4)P, PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3) as well as phosphatidylinositol. We find that cholesterol is present in the phosphoinositide-enriched phase and that the resulting phase is fluid. Cholesterol derivatives modified at the hydroxyl group (cholestenone, cholesteryl ethyl ether) do not promote formation of phosphoinositide domains, suggesting an instrumental role of the cholesterol hydroxyl group in the observed cholesterol/phosphoinositide interaction. This leads to the hypothesis that cholesterol participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond network formed among the phosphoinositide lipids. We had previously reported that the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond network between the phosphoinositide lipids leads to a reduction of the charge density at the phosphoinositide phosphomonoester groups (Kooijman et al. Biochemistry 48, (2009) 9360). We believe that cholesterol acts as a spacer between the phosphoinositide lipids, thereby reducing the electrostatic repulsion, while participating in the hydrogen bond network, leading to its further stabilization. To illustrate the effect of phosphoinositide segregation on protein binding, we show that binding of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN to PI(5)P and PI(4,5)P2 is enhanced in the presence of cholesterol. These results provide new insights into how phosphoinositides mediate important cellular events. PMID:24556334

  17. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 renders colorectal cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy by activating spleen tyrosine kinase–phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent anti-apoptotic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Haruki; Endo, Motoyoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Odagiri, Haruki; Masuda, Tetsuro; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanoue, Hironori; Motokawa, Ikuyo; Terada, Kazutoyo; Morioka, Masaki Suimye; Manabe, Ichiro; Baba, Hideo; Oike, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) plays an important role in inflammatory carcinogenesis and tumor metastasis by activating tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell chemotaxis and invasiveness. However, it is unclear whether ANGPTL2 expression has an effect on tumor cell survival. Here, we explored that possibility by determining whether ANGPTL2 expression altered survival of human colorectal cancer cell lines treated with antineoplastic drugs. To do so, we generated SW480 cells expressing ANGPTL2 (SW480/ANGPTL2) and control (SW480/Ctrl) cells. Apoptosis induced by antineoplastic drug treatment was significantly decreased in SW480/ANGPTL2 compared to control cells. Expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family genes was upregulated in SW480/ANGPTL2 compared to SW480/Ctrl cells. To assess signaling downstream of ANGPTL2 underlying this effect, we carried out RNA sequencing analysis of SW480/ANGPTL2 and SW480/Ctrl cells. That analysis, combined with in vitro experiments, indicated that Syk-PI3K signaling induced expression of BCL-2 family genes in SW480/ANGPTL2 cells. Furthermore, ANGPTL2 increased its own expression in a feedback loop by activating the spleen tyrosine kinase–nuclear factor of activated T cells (Syk–NFAT) pathway. Finally, we observed a correlation between higher ANGPTL2 expression in primary unresectable tumors from colorectal cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy with a lower objective response rate. These findings suggest that attenuating ANGPTL2 signaling in tumor cells may block tumor cell resistance to antineoplastic therapies. PMID:25287946

  18. Possible mechanism for preterm labor associated with bacterial infection. I. Stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism by endotoxin in endometrial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.A.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T. )

    1990-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests an association between intra-amniotic infection and premature initiation of parturition. We recently demonstrated that some factor(s) including endotoxin produced by the organism stimulates endogenous phospholipase A2 resulting in liberation of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin formation. The studies presented in this report were designated to evaluate the mechanism for endotoxin to stimulate phospholipase A2 using human endometrial fibroblasts. Exposure of the fibroblasts to endotoxin from Escherichia coli in the presence of ({sup 32}P) phosphate increased {sup 32}P-labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) in a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manners. The PA labeling occurred without a measurable lag time. These findings demonstrate that the endotoxin stimulates phosphoinositide metabolism in human endometrial fibroblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Membrane phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by endotoxin results in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} increment, liberation of arachidonic acid, which may be involved in the initiation of parturition.

  19. Raft-dependent endocytosis of autocrine motility factor is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent in breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Liliana D; Joshi, Bharat; Lajoie, Patrick; Le, Phuong U; Cox, Michael E; Turbin, Dmitry A; Wiseman, Sam M; Nabi, Ivan R

    2007-10-01

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is internalized via a receptor-mediated, dynamin-dependent, cholesterol-sensitive raft pathway to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum that is negatively regulated by caveolin-1. Expression of AMF and its receptor (AMFR) is associated with tumor progression and malignancy; however, the extent to which the raft-dependent uptake of AMF is tumor cell-specific has yet to be addressed. By Western blot and cell surface fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, AMFR expression is increased in tumorigenic MCF7 and metastatic MDA-231 and MDA-435 breast cancer cell lines relative to dysplastic MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. AMF uptake, determined by FACS measurement of protease-insensitive internalized fluorescein-conjugated AMF, was increased in MCF7 and MDA-435 cells relative to MCF-10A and caveolin-1-expressing MDA-231 cells. Uptake of fluorescein-conjugated AMF was dynamin-dependent, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin- and genistein-sensitive, reduced upon overexpression of caveolin-1 in MDA-435 cells, and increased upon short hairpin RNA reduction of caveolin-1 in MDA-231 cells. Tissue microarray analysis of invasive primary human breast carcinomas showed that AMFR expression had no impact on survival but did correlate significantly with expression of phospho-Akt. Phospho-Akt expression was increased in AMF-internalizing MCF7 and MDA-435 breast carcinoma cells. AMF uptake in these cells was reduced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition but not by regulators of macropinocytosis such as amiloride, phorbol ester, or actin cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D. The raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF therefore follows a distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway that is up-regulated in more aggressive tumor cells. PMID:17690101

  20. What a Tangled Web We Weave: Emerging Resistance Mechanisms to Inhibition of the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Klempner, Samuel J.; Myers, Andrea P.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is one of the most frequently mutated pathways in cancer, and is actively being pursued as a therapeutic target. Despite the importance of the PI3K pathway in cancer, durable responses to PI3K-pathway targeted therapies are uncommon with monotherapy. Several in vitro and xenograft models have elucidated compensatory signaling and genomic changes which may limit the therapeutic effectiveness of PI3K inhibitors in the clinic. Future clinical trials with prospective evaluation of tumor signaling and genomic changes are likely to identify novel resistance mechanisms as well as subsets of patients who may derive maximal benefit from PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:24265156

  1. Calcium receptor-induced serotonin secretion by parafollicular cells: role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-peing; Russo, Andrew F; Hsiung, Shu-chi; Adlersberg, Mella; Franke, Thomas F; Gershon, Michael D; Tamir, Hadassah

    2003-03-15

    Elevation of extracellular Ca2+ (increase[Ca2+]e) stimulates the Ca2+ receptor (CaR) to induce secretion of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from the calcium-sensing parafollicular (PF) cells. The CaR has been reported to couple to Galpha(q) with subsequent activation of protein kinase C-gamma (PKCgamma). We have identified a parallel transduction pathway in primary cultures of sheep PF cells by using a combinatorial approach in which we expressed adenoviral-encoded dominant-negative signaling proteins and performed in vitro kinase assays. The role of the CaR was established by expression of a dominant-negative CaR that eliminated calcium-induced 5-HT secretion but not secretion in response to KCl or phorbol esters. The calcium-induced secretion was inhibited by a dominant-negative p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). PI3-K activity was also assayed using isoform-specific antibodies. The activity of p85/p110beta (PI3-Kbeta) immunocomplexes was elevated by increase[Ca2+]e and activated by Gbetagamma subunits. In addition, secretion of 5-HT was antagonized by the expression of a minigene encoding a peptide scavenger of Gbetagamma subunits (C-terminal fragment peptide of bovine beta-adrenergic receptor kinase). One target of PI3-K activity is phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), which in turn activated PKCzeta. Expression of a dominant-negative PKCzeta in PF cells reduced 5-HT secretion. Together, these observations establish that increase[Ca2+]e evokes 5-HT secretion from PF cells by stimulating both Galpha(q)- and Gbetagamma-signaling pathways downstream of the CaR. The betagamma cascade subsequently activates PI3-Kbeta-dependent signaling that is coupled to PDK1 and the downstream effector PKCzeta, and results in an increase in 5-HT release. PMID:12657663

  2. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway in normal and malignant B cells: activation mechanisms, regulation and impact on cellular functions

    PubMed Central

    Pauls, Samantha D.; Lafarge, Sandrine T.; Landego, Ivan; Zhang, Tingting; Marshall, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a central signal transduction axis controlling normal B cell homeostasis and activation in humoral immunity. The p110δ PI3K catalytic subunit has emerged as a critical mediator of multiple B cell functions. The activity of this pathway is regulated at multiple levels, with inositol phosphatases PTEN and SHIP both playing critical roles. When deregulated, the PI3K pathway can contribute to B cell malignancies and autoantibody production. This review summarizes current knowledge on key mechanisms that activate and regulate the PI3K pathway and influence normal B cell functional responses including the development of B cell subsets, antigen presentation, immunoglobulin isotype switch, germinal center responses, and maintenance of B cell anergy. We also discuss PI3K pathway alterations reported in select B cell malignancies and highlight studies indicating the functional significance of this pathway in malignant B cell survival and growth within tissue microenvironments. Finally, we comment on early clinical trial results, which support PI3K inhibition as a promising treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:22908014

  3. Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1.

    PubMed

    Le Good, J A; Ziegler, W H; Parekh, D B; Alessi, D R; Cohen, P; Parker, P J

    1998-09-25

    Phosphorylation sites in members of the protein kinase A (PKA), PKG, and PKC kinase subfamily are conserved. Thus, the PKB kinase PDK1 may be responsible for the phosphorylation of PKC isotypes. PDK1 phosphorylated the activation loop sites of PKCzeta and PKCdelta in vitro and in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent manner in vivo in human embryonic kidney (293) cells. All members of the PKC family tested formed complexes with PDK1. PDK1-dependent phosphorylation of PKCdelta in vitro was stimulated by combined PKC and PDK1 activators. The activation loop phosphorylation of PKCdelta in response to serum stimulation of cells was PI 3-kinase-dependent and was enhanced by PDK1 coexpression. PMID:9748166

  4. Phosphoinositide regulation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are activated by stimuli as diverse as heat, cold, noxious chemicals, mechanical forces, hormones, neurotransmitters, spices, and voltage. Besides their presumably similar general architecture, probably the only common factor regulating them is phosphoinositides. The regulation of TRP channels by phosphoinositides is complex. There is a large number of TRP channels where phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2], acts as a positive cofactor, similarly to many other ion channels. In several cases however, PI(4,5)P2 inhibits TRP channel activity, sometimes even concurrently with the activating effect. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on regulation of TRP channels by membrane phosphoinositides. PMID:24961984

  5. Contraction inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1/2-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity, but not protein kinase B activation or glucose uptake, in rat muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J P; Soos, M A; Aslesen, R; O'rahilly, S; Jensen, J

    2000-01-01

    The initial stages of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake are thought to involve tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), which recruit and activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), leading to the activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and other downstream effectors. In contrast, contraction stimulates glucose uptake via a PI 3-kinase-independent mechanism. The combined effects of insulin and contraction on glucose uptake are additive. However, it has been reported that contraction causes a decrease in insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity. To investigate this paradox, we have examined the effects of contraction on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and proximal insulin-signalling events in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle. Stimulation by insulin or contraction produced a 3-fold increase in glucose uptake, with the effects of simultaneous treatment by insulin and contraction being additive. Wortmannin completely blocked the additive effect of insulin in contracting skeletal muscle, indicating that this is a PI 3-kinase-dependent effect. Insulin-stimulated recruitment of PI 3-kinase to IRS-1 was unaffected by contraction; however, insulin produced no discernible increase in PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1 or IRS-2 immunocomplexes in contracting skeletal muscle. Consistent with this, contraction inhibited insulin-stimulated p70(S6K) activation. In contrast, insulin-stimulated activation of PKB was unaffected by contraction. Thus, in contracting skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates glucose uptake and activates PKB, but not p70(S6K), by a PI 3-kinase-dependent mechanism that is independent of changes in IRS-1- and IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity. PMID:10903138

  6. Unifying Mechanism of Controlling Kir3 Channel Activity by G Proteins and Phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Logothetis, Diomedes E; Mahajan, Rahul; Adney, Scott K; Ha, Junghoon; Kawano, Takeharu; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Cui, Meng

    2015-01-01

    The question that started with the pioneering work of Otto Loewi in the 1920s, to identify how stimulation of the vagus nerve decreased heart rate, is approaching its 100th year anniversary. In the meantime, we have learned that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine acting through muscarinic M2 receptors activates cardiac potassium (Kir3) channels via the ?? subunits of G proteins, an important effect that contributes to slowing atrial pacemaker activity. Concurrent stimulation of M1 or M3 receptors hydrolyzes PIP2, a signaling phospholipid essential to maintaining Kir3 channel activity, thus causing desensitization of channel activity and protecting the heart from overinhibition of pacemaker activity. Four mammalian members of the Kir3 subfamily, expressed in heart, brain, endocrine organs, etc., are modulated by a plethora of stimuli to regulate cellular excitability. With the recent great advances in ion channel structural biology, three-dimensional structures of Kir3 channels with PIP2 and the G?? subunits are now available. Mechanistic insights have emerged that explain how modulatory control of activity feeds into a core mechanism of channel-PIP2 interactions to regulate the conformation of channel gates. This complex but beautiful system continues to surprise us for almost 100 years with an apparent wisdom in its intricate design. PMID:26422981

  7. Interferon-? Activates Transglutaminase 2 via a Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Dependent Pathway: Implications for Celiac Sprue TherapyS?

    PubMed Central

    DiRaimondo, Thomas R.; Klck, Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for activation of extracellular transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the small intestine remains a fundamental mystery in our understanding of celiac sprue pathogenesis. Using the T84 human enterocytic cell line, we show that interferon-? (IFN-?), the predominant cytokine secreted by gluten-reactive T cells in the celiac intestine, activates extracellular TG2 in a dose-dependent manner. IFN-? mediated activation of TG2 requires phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but is uninfluenced by a number of other kinases reported to be active in T84 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K in the presence of IFN-? prevents TG2 activation as well as the previously characterized increase in transepithelial permeability. Our findings therefore establish PI3K as an attractive target for celiac sprue therapy, a possibility that is underscored by the encouraging safety profiles of several PI3K inhibitors undergoing human clinical trials. PMID:22228808

  8. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents amyloid-beta peptide-induced neuronal death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sol, Susana; Castro, Rui E; Laires, Pedro A; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Ceclia M P

    2003-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, modulates cell death by interrupting classic pathways of apoptosis. Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, where a significant loss of neuronal cells is thought to occur by apoptosis. In this study, we explored the cell death pathway and signaling mechanisms involved in Abeta-induced toxicity and further investigated the anti-apoptotic effect(s) of TUDCA. Our data show significant induction of apoptosis in isolated cortical neurons incubated with Abeta peptide. Apoptosis was associated with translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, followed by cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. In addition, there was almost immediate but weak activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide 3 prime-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway with wortmannin did not markedly affect Abeta-induced cell death, suggesting that this signaling pathway is not crucial for Abeta-mediated toxicity. Notably, co-incubation with TUDCA significantly modulated each of the Abeta-induced apoptotic events. Moreover, wortmannin decreased TUDCA protection against Abeta-induced apoptosis, reduced Akt phosphorylation, and increased Bax translocation to mitochondria. Together, these findings indicate that Abeta-induced apoptosis of cortical neurons proceeds through a Bax mitochondrial pathway. Further, the PI3K signaling cascade plays a role in regulating the anti-apoptotic effects of TUDCA. PMID:15208744

  9. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Prevents Amyloid-? PeptideInduced Neuronal Death Via a Phosphatidylinositol 3-KinaseDependent Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Susana; Castro, Rui E; Laires, Pedro A; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Ceclia MP

    2003-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, modulates cell death by interrupting classic pathways of apoptosis. Amyloid-? (A?) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease, where a significant loss of neuronal cells is thought to occur by apoptosis. In this study, we explored the cell death pathway and signaling mechanisms involved in A?-induced toxicity and further investigated the anti-apoptotic effect(s) of TUDCA. Our data show significant induction of apoptosis in isolated cortical neurons incubated with A? peptide. Apoptosis was associated with translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, followed by cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. In addition, there was almost immediate but weak activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide 3?-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway with wortmannin did not markedly affect A?-induced cell death, suggesting that this signaling pathway is not crucial for A?-mediated toxicity. Notably, co-incubation with TUDCA significantly modulated each of the A?-induced apoptotic events. Moreover, wortmannin decreased TUDCA protection against A?-induced apoptosis, reduced Akt phosphorylation, and increased Bax translocation to mitochondria. Together, these findings indicate that A?-induced apoptosis of cortical neurons proceeds through a Bax mitochondrial pathway. Further, the PI3K signaling cascade plays a role in regulating the anti-apoptotic effects of TUDCA. PMID:15208744

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase dependent upregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor upon Flotillin-1 depletion in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are two homologous and ubiquitously expressed proteins that are involved in signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Recent studies have reported that flotillins promote breast cancer progression, thus making them interesting targets for breast cancer treatment. In the present study, we have investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of flotillins in breast cancer. Methods Human adenocarcinoma MCF7 breast cancer cells were stably depleted of flotillins by means of lentivirus mediated short hairpin RNAs. Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze the expression of proteins of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Western blotting was used to investigate the effect of EGFR stimulation or inhibition as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition on mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Rescue experiments were performed by stable transfection of RNA intereference resistant flotillin proteins. Results We here show that stable knockdown of flotillin-1 in MCF7 cells resulted in upregulation of EGFR mRNA and protein expression and hyperactivation of MAPK signaling, whereas ErbB2 and ErbB3 expression were not affected. Treatment of the flotillin knockdown cells with an EGFR inhibitor reduced the MAPK signaling, demonstrating that the increased EGFR expression and activity is the cause of the increased signaling. Stable ectopic expression of flotillins in the knockdown cells reduced the increased EGFR expression, demonstrating a direct causal relationship between flotillin-1 expression and EGFR amount. Furthermore, the upregulation of EGFR was dependent on the PI3K signaling pathway which is constitutively active in MCF7 cells, and PI3K inhibition resulted in reduced EGFR expression. Conclusions This study demonstrates that flotillins may not be suitable as cancer therapy targets in cells that carry certain other oncogenic mutations such as PI3K activating mutations, as unexpected effects are prone to emerge upon flotillin knockdown which may even facilitate cancer cell growth and proliferation. PMID:24304721

  11. Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Ottmann, Oliver G.; Deininger, Michael; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway represents an important anticancer target because it has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and motility. Recent studies show that PI3K may also play a role in the development of resistance to currently available therapies. In a broad range of cancers, various components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling axis are genetically modified, and the pathway can be activated through many different mechanisms. The frequency of genetic alterations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, coupled with the impact in oncogenesis and disease progression, make this signaling axis an attractive target in anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the critical function of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in leukemias and lymphomas has led to the clinical evaluation of novel rationally designed inhibitors in this setting. Three main categories of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors have been developed so far: agents that target phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (dual inhibitors), pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors that target all class I isoforms, and isoform-specific inhibitors that selectively target the α, -β, -γ, or -δ isoforms. Emerging data highlight the promise of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in combination with other therapies for the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies. Further evaluation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in first-line or subsequent regimens may improve clinical outcomes. This article reviews the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in hematologic malignancies and the potential clinical utility of inhibitors that target this pathway. PMID:24425689

  12. Channelopathies linked to plasma membrane phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Petrou, Vasileios I.; Adney, Scott K.; Mahajan, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) controls the activity of most ion channels tested thus far through direct electrostatic interactions. Mutations in channel proteins that change their apparent affinity to PIP2 can lead to channelopathies. Given the fundamental role that membrane phosphoinositides play in regulating channel activity, it is surprising that only a small number of channelopathies have been linked to phosphoinositides. This review proposes that for channels whose activity is PIP2-dependent and for which mutations can lead to channelopathies, the possibility that the mutations alter channel-PIP2 interactions ought to be tested. Similarly, diseases that are linked to disorders of the phosphoinositide pathway result in altered PIP2 levels. In such cases, it is proposed that the possibility for a concomitant dysregulation of channel activity also ought to be tested. The ever-growing list of ion channels whose activity depends on interactions with PIP2 promises to provide a mechanism by which defects on either the channel protein or the phosphoinositide levels can lead to disease. PMID:20396900

  13. Role of phosphoinositides at the neuronal synapse

    PubMed Central

    Frere, Samuel G.; Chang-Ileto, Belle; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is amongst the most sophisticated and tightly controlled biological phenomena in higher eukaryotes. In the past few decades, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying multiple facets of neurotransmission, both pre- and postsynaptically. Brought under the spotlight by pioneer studies in the areas of secretion and signal transduction, phosphoinositides and their metabolizing enzymes have been increasingly recognized as key protagonists in fundamental aspects of neurotransmission. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of phosphoinositide metabolism has also been implicated in synaptic malfunction associated with a variety of brain disorders. In the present chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the role of phosphoinositides at the neuronal synapse and highlight some of the outstanding questions in this research field. PMID:22374090

  14. Early activation of mTORC1 signalling in response to mechanical overload is independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Mitsunori; McCarthy, John J; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as a central integrator of a wide range of signals that modulate protein metabolism and cell growth. However, the contributions of individual pathways regulating mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to mTORC1 activation during mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Consistent with previous studies, mechanical overload induced progressive hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle which was associated with significant increases in total RNA content and protein metabolism. mTORC1 was activated after a single day of overload as indicated by a significant increase in S6K1 phosphorylation at T389 and T421/S424. In contrast, Akt activity, as assessed by Akt phosphorylation status (T308 and S473), phosphorylation of direct downstream targets (glycogen synthase kinase 3 β, proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)) and a kinase assay, was not significantly increased until 2–3 days of overload. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity by wortmannin was sufficient to block insulin-dependent signalling but did not prevent the early activation of mTORC1 in response to overload. We identified that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway was activated at day 1 after overload. In addition, a target of MEK/ERK signalling, phosphorylation of TSC2 at S664, was also increased at this early time point. These observations demonstrate that in vivo, mTORC1 activation at the early phase of mechanical overload in skeletal muscle occurs independently of PI3K/Akt signalling and provide evidence that the MEK/ERK pathway may contribute to mTORC1 activation through phosphorylation of TSC2. PMID:21300751

  15. Phosphoinositides alter lipid bilayer properties

    PubMed Central

    Hobart, E. Ashley; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which constitutes ?1% of the plasma membrane phospholipid, plays a key role in membrane-delimited signaling. PIP2 regulates structurally and functionally diverse membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, inwardly rectifying ion channels, transporters, and receptors. In some cases, the regulation is known to involve specific lipidprotein interactions, but the mechanisms by which PIP2 regulates many of its various targets remain to be fully elucidated. Because many PIP2 targets are membrane-spanning proteins, we explored whether the phosphoinositides might alter bilayer physical properties such as curvature and elasticity, which would alter the equilibrium between membrane protein conformational statesand thereby protein function. Taking advantage of the gramicidin A (gA) channels sensitivity to changes in lipid bilayer properties, we used gA-based fluorescence quenching and single-channel assays to examine the effects of long-chain PIP2s (brain PIP2, which is predominantly 1-stearyl-2-arachidonyl-PIP2, and dioleoyl-PIP2) on bilayer properties. When premixed with dioleoyl-phosphocholine at 2 mol %, both long-chain PIP2s produced similar changes in gA channel function (bilayer properties); when applied through the aqueous solution, however, brain PIP2 was a more potent modifier than dioleoyl-PIP2. Given the widespread use of short-chain dioctanoyl-phosphoinositides, we also examined the effects of diC8-phosphoinositol (PI), PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3. The diC8 phosphoinositides, except for PI(3,5)P2, altered bilayer properties with potencies that decreased with increasing head group charge. Nonphosphoinositide diC8 phospholipids generally were more potent bilayer modifiers than the polyphosphoinositides. These results show that physiological increases or decreases in plasma membrane PIP2 levels, as a result of activation of PI kinases or phosphatases, are likely to alter lipid bilayer properties, in addition to any other effects they may have. The results further show that exogenous PIP2, as well as structural analogues that differ in acyl chain length or phosphorylation state, alters lipid bilayer properties at the concentrations used in many cell physiological experiments. PMID:23712549

  16. Phosphoinositides and Engulfment

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular engulfment of particles, cells or solutes displaces large domains of plasma membrane into intracellular membranous vacuoles. This transfer of membrane is accompanied by major transitions of the phosphoinositide (PI) species that comprise the cytoplasmic face of membrane bilayers. Mapping of membrane PIs during engulfment reveals distinct patterns of protein and PI distributions associated with each stage of engulfment, which correspond with activities that regulate the actin cytoskeleton, membrane movements and vesicle secretion. Experimental manipulation of PI chemistry during engulfment indicates that PIs integrate organelle identity and orient signal transduction cascades within confined subdomains of membrane. These pathways are exploited by microbial pathogens to direct or redirect the engulfment process. PMID:25073505

  17. Rho GTPases, phosphoinositides, and actin

    PubMed Central

    Crois, Pauline; Estay-Ahumada, Catherine; Gasman, Stphane; Ory, Stphane

    2014-01-01

    Rho GTPases are well known regulators of the actin cytoskeleton that act by binding and activating actin nucleators. They are therefore involved in many actin-based processes, including cell migration, cell polarity, and membrane trafficking. With the identification of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases as potential binding partners or effectors, Rho GTPases also appear to participate in the regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism. Since both actin dynamics and phosphoinositide turnover affect the efficiency and the fidelity of vesicle transport between cell compartments, Rho GTPases have emerged as critical players in membrane trafficking. Rho GTPase activity, actin remodeling, and phosphoinositide metabolism need to be coordinated in both space and time to ensure the progression of vesicles along membrane trafficking pathways. Although most molecular pathways are still unclear, in this review, we will highlight recent advances made in our understanding of how Rho-dependent signaling pathways organize actin dynamics and phosphoinositides and how phosphoinositides potentially provide negative feedback to Rho GTPases during endocytosis, exocytosis and membrane exchange between intracellular compartments. PMID:24914539

  18. IL-21 Promotes CD4 T Cell Responses by Phosphatidylinositol 3-KinaseDependent Upregulation of CD86 on B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Kesley; Kenefeck, Rupert; Wardzinski, Lukasz; Qureshi, Omar S.; Wang, Chun Jing; Manzotti, Claire; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The cytokine IL-21 is a potent immune modulator with diverse mechanisms of action on multiple cell types. IL-21 is in clinical use to promote tumor rejection and is an emerging target for neutralization in the setting of autoimmunity. Despite its clinical potential, the biological actions of IL-21 are not yet fully understood and the full range of effects of this pleiotropic cytokine are still being uncovered. In this study, we identify a novel role for IL-21 as an inducer of the costimulatory ligand CD86 on B lymphocytes. CD86 provides critical signals through T cellexpressed CD28 that promote T cell activation in response to Ag engagement. Expression levels of CD86 are tightly regulated in vivo, being actively decreased by regulatory T cells and increased in response to pathogen-derived signals. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-21 can trigger potent and sustained CD86 upregulation through a STAT3 and PI3K-dependent mechanism. We show that elevated CD86 expression has functional consequences for the magnitude of CD4 T cell responses both in vitro and in vivo. These data pinpoint CD86 upregulation as an additional mechanism by which IL-21 can elicit immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24470500

  19. Positive and negative roles of p85 alpha and p85 beta regulatory subunits of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Kohjiro; Fruman, David A; Yballe, Claudine M; Fasshauer, Mathias; Klein, Johannes; Asano, Tomoichiro; Cantley, Lewis C; Kahn, C Ronald

    2003-11-28

    Class IA phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase is composed of a p110 catalytic subunit and a p85 regulatory subunit and plays a pivotal role in insulin signaling. To explore the physiological roles of two major regulatory isoforms, p85 alpha and p85 beta, we have established brown adipose cell lines with disruption of the Pik3r1 or Pik3r2 gene. Pik3r1-/- (p85 alpha-/-) cells show a 70% reduction of p85 protein and a parallel reduction of p110. These cells have a 50% decrease in PI 3-kinase activity and a 30% decrease in Akt activity, leading to decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake and anti-apoptosis. Pik3r2-/- (p85 beta-/-) cells show a 25% reduction of p85 protein but normal levels of p85-p110 and PI 3-kinase activity, supporting the fact that p85 is more abundant than p110 in wild type. p85 beta-/- cells, however, exhibit significantly increased insulin-induced Akt activation, leading to increased anti-apoptosis. Reconstitution experiments suggest that the discrepancy between PI 3-kinase activity and Akt activity is at least in part due to the p85-dependent negative regulation of downstream signaling of PI 3-kinase. Indeed, both p85 alpha-/- cells and p85 beta-/- cells exhibit significantly increased insulin-induced glycogen synthase activation. p85 alpha-/- cells show decreased insulin-stimulated Jun N-terminal kinase activity, which is restored by expression of p85 alpha, p85 beta, or a p85 mutant that does not bind to p110, indicating the existence of p85-dependent, but PI 3-kinase-independent, signaling pathway. Furthermore, a reduction of p85 beta specifically increases insulin receptor substrate-2 phosphorylation. Thus, p85 alpha and p85 beta modulate PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling by multiple mechanisms and transmit signals independent of PI 3-kinase activation. PMID:14504291

  20. Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase--Beclin1 complex mediates the amino acid-dependent regulation of autophagy in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Tassa, Amina; Roux, Marie Paule; Attaix, Didier; Bechet, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    Increased proteolysis contributes to muscle atrophy that prevails in many diseases. Elucidating the signalling pathways responsible for this activation is of obvious clinical importance. Autophagy is a ubiquitous degradation process, induced by amino acid starvation, that delivers cytoplasmic components to lysosomes. Starvation markedly stimulates autophagy in myotubes, and the present studies investigate the mechanisms of this regulation. In C(2)C(12) myotubes incubated with serum growth factors, amino acid starvation stimulated autophagic proteolysis independently of p38 and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases, but in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent manner. Starvation, however, did not alter activities of class I and class II PI3Ks, and was not sufficient to affect major signalling proteins downstream from class I PI3K (glycogen synthase kinase, Akt/protein kinase B and protein S6). In contrast, starvation increased class III PI3K activity in whole-myotube extracts. In fact, this increase was most pronounced for a population of class III PI3K that coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin1/Apg6 protein, a major determinant in the initiation of autophagy. Stimulation of proteolysis was reproduced by feeding myotubes with synthetic dipalmitoyl-PtdIns3 P, the class III PI3K product. Conversely, protein transfection of anti-class III PI3K inhibitory antibody into starved myotubes inverted the induction of proteolysis. Therefore, independently of class I PI3K/Akt, protein S6 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, amino acid starvation stimulates proteolysis in myotubes by regulating class III PI3K-Beclin1 autophagic complexes. PMID:12967324

  1. AMPA protects cultured neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activation in extracellular signal-regulated kinase to upregulate BDNF gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuan; Zhu, Daming; Jiang, Xueying; Okagaki, Peter; Mearow, Karen; Zhu, Guanshan; McCall, Sherman; Banaudha, Krishna; Lipsky, Robert H; Marini, Ann M

    2004-08-01

    The signal transduction and molecular mechanisms underlying alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-mediated neuroprotection are unknown. In the present study, we determined a major AMPA receptor-mediated neuroprotective pathway. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to AMPA (500 microM) + aniracetam (1 microM), a known blocker of AMPA receptor desensitization, evoked an accumulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the culture medium and enhanced TrkB-tyrosine phosphorylation following the release of BDNF. AMPA also activated the src-family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, and the downstream target of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway, Akt. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, was also activated. K252a, a selective inhibitor of neurotrophin signaling, blocked the AMPA-mediated neuroprotection. The involvement of BDNF release in protecting neurons by AMPA was confirmed using a BDNF-blocking antibody. AMPA-mediated neuroprotection is blocked by PP1, an inhibitor of src family kinases, LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor, or U0126, a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. Neuroprotective concentrations of AMPA increased BDNF mRNA levels that was blocked by the AMPA receptor antagonist, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). The increase in BDNF gene expression appeared to be the downstream target of the PI3-K-dependent activation of the MAPK cascade since MEK or the PI3-K inhibitor blocked the AMPA receptor-mediated increase in BDNF mRNA. Thus, AMPA receptors protect neurons through a mechanism involving BDNF release, TrkB receptor activation, and a signaling pathway involving a PI3-K dependent activation of MAPK that increases BDNF expression. PMID:15287886

  2. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event

    PubMed Central

    Boal, Frédéric; Hodgson, Lorna R.; Reed, Sam E.; Yarwood, Sophie E.; Just, Victoria J.; Stephens, David J.; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis. PMID:26515129

  3. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event.

    PubMed

    Boal, Frdric; Hodgson, Lorna R; Reed, Sam E; Yarwood, Sophie E; Just, Victoria J; Stephens, David J; McCaffrey, Mary W; Tavar, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis. PMID:26515129

  4. The anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 on tissue resident stem cells is mediated via PI3-kinase dependent secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) release

    SciTech Connect

    Gehmert, Sebastian; Sadat, Sanga; Song Yaohua; Yan Yasheng; Alt, Eckhard

    2008-07-11

    Previous studies suggest that IGF-1 may be used as an adjuvant to stem cell transfer in order to improve cell engraftment in ischemic tissue. In the current study, we investigated the effect of IGF-1 on serum deprivation and hypoxia induced stem cell apoptosis and the possible mechanisms involved. Exposure of adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) to serum deprivation and hypoxia resulted in significant apoptosis in ASC which is partially prevented by IGF-1. IGF-1's anti-apoptotic effect was abolished in ASCs transfected with Sfrp2 siRNA but not by the control siRNA. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that serum deprivation and hypoxia reduced the expression of nuclear {beta}-catenin, which is reversed by IGF-1. IGF-1's effect on {beta}-catenin expression was abolished by the presence of PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or in ASCs transfected with Sfrp2 siRNA. These results suggest that IGF-1, through the release of the Sfrp2, contributes to cell survival by stabilizing {beta}-catenin.

  5. Phosphoinositides and host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Kühbacher, Andreas; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoinositides control key cellular processes including vesicular trafficking and actin polymerization. Intracellular bacterial pathogens manipulate phosphoinositide metabolism in order to promote their uptake by target cells and to direct in some cases the biogenesis of their replication compartments. In this chapter, we review the molecular strategies that major pathogens including Listeria, Mycobacterium, Shigella, Salmonella, Legionella and Yersinia use to hijack phosphoinositides during infection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25241942

  6. Short-Chain Phosphoinositide Partitioning into Plasma Membrane Models

    PubMed Central

    Collins, MarcusD.; Gordon, SharonaE.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are vital for many cellular signaling processes, and therefore a number of approaches to manipulating phosphoinositide levels in cells or excised patches of cell membranes have been developed. Among the most common is the use of short-chain phosphoinositides, usually dioctanoyl phosphoinositol phosphates. We use isothermal titration calorimetry to determine partitioning of the most abundant phosphoinositol phosphates, PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2 into models of the intracellular and extracellular facing leaflets of neuronal plasma membranes. We show that phosphoinositide mole fractions in the lipid membrane reach physiological levels at equilibrium with reasonable solution concentrations. Finally we explore the consequences of our results for cellular electrophysiology. In particular, we find that TRPV1 is more selective for PI(4,5)P2 than PI(4)P and activated by extremely low membrane mole fractions of PIPs. We conclude by discussing how the logic of our work extends to other experiments with short-chain phosphoinositides. For delayed rectifier K+ channels, consideration of the membrane mole fraction of PI(4,5)P2 lipids with different acyl chain lengths suggests a different mechanism for PI(4,5)P2 regulation than previously proposed. Inward rectifier K+ channels apparent lack of selectivity for certain short-chain PIPs may require reinterpretation in view of the PIPs different membrane partitioning. PMID:24314079

  7. Gold nanoparticle supported phospholipid membranes as a biomimetic biosensor platform for phosphoinositide signaling detection.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qian; Liu, Si-Jia; Tang, Li-Juan; Tang, Ying; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2014-12-15

    Enzyme mediated phosphoinositide signaling plays important regulatory roles in diverse cellular processes and has close implication in human diseases. However, detection of phosphoinositide enzymes remains a challenge because of the difficulty in discriminating the phosphorylation patterns of phosphoinositide. Here we develop a novel enzyme-activated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembly strategy as a homogeneous colorimetric biosensor for activity detection of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases. This strategy utilizes a biomimetic mechanism of phosphoinositide signaling, in which AuNP supported phospholipid membranes are constructed to mimic the cellular membrane substrate, and AuNPs modified with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of cytosolic proteins are designed for specific, multivalent recognition of phosphorylated phosphoinositides. This biomimetic strategy enables efficient enzymatic reactions of the substrate and highly selective detection of target enzyme. The biosensor is demonstrated for the detection of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN). The results revealed that it allows sensitive, rapid visual detection of the enzymes with pM detection limits and four-decade wide dynamic ranges, and is capable of detecting enzyme activities in complex cell lysate samples. This biosensor might provide a general biosensor platform for high-throughput detection of phosphoinositide enzymes with high sensitivity and selectivity in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24994507

  8. MECHANICAL STIMULI REGULATE RAPAMYCIN-SENSITIVE SIGNALLING BY A PHOSPHOINOSITIDE 3-KINASE-, PROTEIN KINASE B- AND GROWTH FACTOR-INDEPENDENT MECHANISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to growth factors, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) has been identified as a central component of the signalling pathways that control the translational machinery and cell growth. Signalling through mTOR has also been shown to be necessary for the mechanical load-induced growth of ca...

  9. PHOSPHOINOSITIDE SIGNALING: NEW TOOLS AND INSIGHTS

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Tamas; Szentpetery, Zsofia; Kim, Yeun Ju

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoinositides constitute only a small fraction of cellular phospholipids yet their importance in the regulation of cellular functions can hardly be overstated. The rapid metabolic response of phosphoinositides after stimulation of certain cell surface receptors was the first indication that these lipids could serve as regulatory molecules. These early observations opened research areas that ultimately clarified the plasma membrane role of phosphoinositides in Ca2+ signaling. However, research of the last 10 years has revealed a much broader range of processes dependent on phosphoinositides. These lipids control organelle biology by regulating vesicular trafficking and they modulate lipid distribution and metabolism more generally via their close relationship with lipid transfer proteins. Phosphoinositides also regulate ion channels, pumps and transporters as well as both endocytic and exocytic processes. The significance of phosphoinositides found within the nucleus is still poorly understood and a whole new research concerns the highly phosphorylated inositols that also appear to control multiple nuclear processes. The expansion of research and interest in phosphoinositides naturally created a demand for new approaches to determine where within the cell these lipids exert their effects. Imaging of phosphoinositide dynamics within live cells has become a standard cell biological method. These new tools not only helped us localize phosphoinositides within the cell but also taught us how tightly phosphoinositide control can be linked with distinct effector protein complexes. The recent progress allows us to understand the underlying causes of certain human diseases and design new strategies for therapeutic interventions. PMID:19675354

  10. Plant phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Rupwate, Sunny D.; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) belongs to an important class of enzymes involved in signaling related to lipids. They hydrolyze a membrane-associated phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, to produce inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. The role of PI-PLC and the mechanism behind its functioning is well studied in animal system; however, mechanism of plant PI-PLC functioning remains largely obscure. Here, we attempted to summarize the understanding regarding plant PI-PLC mechanism of regulation, localization, and domain association. Using sedimentation based phospholipid binding assay and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that C2 domain of plant PI-PLC alone is capable of targeting membranes. Moreover, change in surface hydrophobicity upon calcium stimulus is the key element in targeting plant PI-PLC from soluble fractions to membranes. This property of altering surface hydrophobicity plays a pivot role in regulation of PI-PLC activity. PMID:22902702

  11. Biochemistry and structure of phosphoinositide phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jun; Jahan, Nusrat; Bahk, Young Yil

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are the phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol, and play a very significant role in a diverse range of signaling processes in eukaryotic cells. A number of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, including phosphoinositide-kinases and phosphatases are involved in the synthesis and degradation of these phospholipids. Recently, the function of various phosphatases in the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway has been of great interest. In the present review we summarize the structural insights and biochemistry of various phosphatases in regulating phosphoinositide metabolism. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 1-8] PMID:23351377

  12. Phosphoinositide turnover in Toll-like receptor signaling and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tu Le, Oanh Thi; Ngoc Nguyen, Tu Thi; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Lipid components in biological membranes are essential for maintaining cellular function. Phosphoinositides, the phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PI), regulate many critical cell processes involving membrane signaling, trafficking, and reorganization. Multiple metabolic pathways including phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases and phospholipases tightly control spatio-temporal concentration of membrane phosphoinositides. Metabolizing enzymes responsible for PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) production or degradation play a regulatory role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and trafficking. These enzymes include PI 4-phosphate 5-kinase, phosphatase and tensin homolog, PI 3-kinase, and phospholipase C. PI(4,5)P2 mediates the interaction with target cytosolic proteins to induce their membrane translocation, regulate vesicular trafficking, and serve as a precursor for other signaling lipids. TLR activation is important for the innate immune response and is implicated in diverse pathophysiological disorders. TLR signaling is controlled by specific interactions with distinct signaling and sorting adaptors. Importantly, TLR signaling machinery is differentially formed depending on a specific membrane compartment during signaling cascades. Although detailed mechanisms remain to be fully clarified, phosphoinositide metabolism is promising for a better understanding of such spatio-temporal regulation of TLR signaling and trafficking. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(7): 361-368] PMID:24856829

  13. Mechanism of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced vascular endothelium dysfunction - possible dysregulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and its downstream phosphoinositide dependent kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, Pyare Lal

    2013-12-01

    Imbalance of l-arginine/endothelial nitric oxide synthatase (eNOS) activity is the hallmark of vascular endothelium dysfunction. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhy) has been identified as a potential risk factor for vascular endothelium dysfunction that leads to cardiovascular disorders. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in plethora of cell signaling including the endothelial cells and it has been reported that signaling through this enzyme and its downstream pathway viz phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK)/protein kinase B (Akt) and eNOS is impaired in diseased conditions. Thus present study was designed to investigate the role of PI3K and PDK/Akt in vascular endothelium dysfunction produced by Hhy. Hhy was produced by administering l-methionine (1.7%w/w, p.o). After four weeks of l-methionine administration, vascular endothelium dysfunction was assessed in terms of attenuation of acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation (Isolated aortic ring preparation), a decrease in serum nitrite level, mRNA expression of eNOS (rtPCR) and disruption of integrity of vascular endothelium (Electron microscopy). Administration of insulin (0.6 IU/kg/day, s.c), YS-49 (1.6 mg/kg/day, i.p), DAQB1 (5mg/kg/day, i.p) and atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day, p.o) significantly improved acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, serum nitrate/nitrite level, mRNA expression of eNOS and integrity of vascular endothelium. This ameliorative effect of insulin was blocked by wortmannin (inhibitor of PI3K), UCN-01(PDK inhibitor), API-2 (Akt inhibitor) and l-NAME (eNOS inhibitor). Thus, it may be concluded that activation of PI3K and its downstream pathways viz. PDK/Akt and eNOS improve Hhy-induced vascular endothelium dysfunction and that therapeutic interventions designed for these pathways may provide potential therapeutic strategies to combat vascular complications. PMID:24021535

  14. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt are essential for Sonic Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Riob, Natalia A; Lu, Ke; Ai, Xingbin; Haines, Gwendolyn M; Emerson, Charles P

    2006-03-21

    Hedgehogs (Hhs) are key signaling regulators of stem cell maintenance and tissue patterning in embryos, and activating mutations in the pathway that increase Gli transcriptional activity are causal in a diversity of cancers. Here, we report that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent Akt activation is essential for Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the specification of neuronal fates in chicken neural explants, chondrogenic differentiation of 10T1/2 cells, and Gli activation in NIH 3T3 cells. Stimulation of PI3-kinase/Akt by insulin-like growth factor I potentiates Gli activation induced by low levels of Shh; however, insulin-like growth factor I alone is insufficient to induce Gli-dependent transcription. Protein kinase A (PKA) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta sequentially phosphorylate Gli2 at multiple sites, identified by mutagenesis, thus resulting in a reduction of its transcriptional activity. Gli2 mutant proteins in which the major PKA and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation sites were mutated to alanine remain fully transcriptionally active; however, PKA-mutant Gli2 functions independently of Akt signaling, indicating that Akt positively regulates Shh signaling by controlling PKA-mediated Gli inactivation. Our findings provide a basis for the synergistic role of PI3-kinase/Akt in Hh signaling in embryonic development and Hh-dependent tumors. PMID:16537363

  15. The Phox homology (PX) domain, a new player in phosphoinositide signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Seet, L F; Hanson, B; Hong, W

    2001-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain mediates the action of PtdIns(3,4)P(2), PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), while the FYVE domain relays the pulse of PtdIns3P. The recent establishment that the Phox homology (PX) domain interacts with PtdIns3P and other phosphoinositides suggests another mechanism by which phosphoinositides can regulate/integrate multiple cellular events via a spectrum of PX domain-containing proteins. Together with the recent discovery that the epsin N-terminal homologue (ENTH) domain interacts with PtdIns(4,5)P(2), it is becoming clear that phosphoinositides regulate diverse cellular events through interactions with several distinct structural motifs present in many different proteins. PMID:11736640

  16. Modulation of agonist-induced phosphoinositide metabolism, Ca2+ signalling and contraction of airway smooth muscle by cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hoiting, B. H.; Meurs, H.; Schuiling, M.; Kuipers, R.; Elzinga, C. R.; Zaagsma, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of increased cellular cyclic AMP levels induced by isoprenaline, forskolin and 8-bromoadenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP) on phosphoinositide metabolism and changes in intracellular Ca2+ elicited by methacholine and histamine were examined in bovine isolated tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) cells. 2. Isoprenaline (pD2 (-log10 EC50) = 6.32 +/- 0.24) and forskolin (pD2 = 5.6 +/- 0.05) enhanced cyclic AMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion in these cells, while methacholine (pD2 = 5.64 +/- 0.12) and histamine (pD2 = 4.90 +/- 0.04) caused a concentration-related increase in [3H]-inositol phosphates (IP) accumulation in the presence of 10 mM LiCl. 3. Preincubation of the cells (5 min, 37 degrees C) with isoprenaline (1 microM), forskolin (10 microM) and 8-Br-cyclic AMP (1 mM) did not affect the IP accumulation induced by methacholine, but significantly reduced the maximal IP production by histamine (1 mM). However, the effect of isoprenaline was small (15.0 +/- 0.6% inhibition) and insignificant at histamine concentrations between 0.1 and 100 microM. 4. Both methacholine and histamine induced a fast (max. in 0.5-2 s) and transient increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) followed by a sustained phase lasting several minutes. EGTA (5 mM) attenuated the sustained phase, indicating that this phase depends on extracellular Ca2+. 5. Preincubation of the cells (5 min, 37 degrees C) with isoprenaline (1 microM), forskolin (10 microM) and 8-Br-cyclic AMP (1 microM) significantly attenuated both the Ca(2+)-transient and the sustained phase generated at equipotent IP producing concentrations of 1 microM methacholine and 100 microM histamine (approx. 40% of maximal methacholine-induced IP response), but did not affect changes in [Ca2+]i induced by 100 microM methacholine (95.2 +/- 3.5% of maximal methacholine-induced IP response). 6. Significant correlations were found between the isoprenaline-induced inhibition of BTSM contraction and inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization or influx induced by methacholine and histamine, that were similar for each contractile agonist. 7. These data indicate that (a) cyclic AMP-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization in BTSM cells is not primarily caused by attenuation of IP production, suggesting that cyclic AMP induced protein kinase A (PKA) activation is effective at a different level in the [Ca2+]i homeostasis, (b) that attenuation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays a major role in beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of methacholine- and histamine-induced airway smooth muscle contraction, and (c) that the relative resistance of the muscarinic agonist-induced contraction to beta-adrenoceptor agonists, especially at (supra) maximal contractile concentrations is largely determined by its higher potency in inducing intracellular Ca2+ changes. PMID:8821529

  17. Detection and manipulation of phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor components of cell membranes, but play key roles in cell function. Recent refinements in techniques for their detection, together with imaging methods to study their distribution and changes, have greatly facilitated the study of these lipids. Such methods have been complemented by the parallel development of techniques for the acute manipulation of their levels, which in turn allow bypassing the long-term adaptive changes implicit in genetic perturbations. Collectively, these advancements have helped elucidate the role of PIs in physiology and the impact of the dysfunction of their metabolism in disease. Combining methods for detection and manipulation enables the identification of specific roles played by each of the PIs and may eventually lead to the complete deconstruction of the PI signaling network. Here, we review current techniques used for the study and manipulation of cellular PIs and also discuss advantages and disadvantages associated with the various methods. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25514766

  18. Mass spectrometry based cellular phosphoinositides profiling and phospholipid analysis: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngjun; Shanta, Selina Rahman; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipids are key components of cellular membrane and signaling. Among cellular phospholipids, phosphoinositides, phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol are important as a participant in essential metabolic processes in animals. However, due to its low abundance in cells and tissues, it is difficult to identify the composition of phosphoinositides. Recent advances in mass spectrometric techniques, combined with established separation methods, have allowed the rapid and sensitive detection and quantification of a variety of lipid species including phosphoinositides. In this mini review, we briefly introduce progress in profiling of cellular phosphoinositides using mass spectrometry. We also summarize current progress of matrices development for the analysis of cellular phospholipids using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The phosphoinositides profiling and phospholipids imaging will help us to understand how they function in a biological system and will provide a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of diseases such as diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The investigation of cellular phospholipids including phosphoinositides using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry will suggest new insights on human diseases, and on clinical application through drug development of lipid related diseases. PMID:19887898

  19. Frequency and amplitude control of cortical oscillations by phosphoinositide waves.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ding; Xiao, Shengping; Guo, Su; Lin, Qingsong; Nakatsu, Fubito; Wu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Rhythmicity is prevalent in the cortical dynamics of diverse single and multicellular systems. Current models of cortical oscillations focus primarily on cytoskeleton-based feedbacks, but information on signals upstream of the actin cytoskeleton is limited. In addition, inhibitory mechanisms-especially local inhibitory mechanisms, which ensure proper spatial and kinetic controls of activation-are not well understood. Here, we identified two phosphoinositide phosphatases, synaptojanin 2 and SHIP1, that function in periodic traveling waves of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) mast cells. The local, phase-shifted activation of lipid phosphatases generates sequential waves of phosphoinositides. By acutely perturbing phosphoinositide composition using optogenetic methods, we showed that pulses of PtdIns(4,5)P2 regulate the amplitude of cyclic membrane waves while PtdIns(3,4)P2 sets the frequency. Collectively, these data suggest that the spatiotemporal dynamics of lipid metabolism have a key role in governing cortical oscillations and reveal how phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) activity could be frequency-encoded by a phosphatase-dependent inhibitory reaction. PMID:26751515

  20. Phosphoinositides: Key modulators of energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Dave; Saltiel, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoinositides are key players in many trafficking and signaling pathways. Recent advances regarding the synthesis, location and functions of these lipids have dramatically improved our understanding of how and when these lipids are generated and what their roles are in animal physiology. In particular, phosphoinositides play a central role in insulin signaling, and manipulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P?levels in particular, may be an important potential therapeutic target for the alleviation of insulin resistance associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In this article we review the metabolism, regulation and functional roles of phosphoinositides in insulin signaling and the regulation of energy metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25463477

  1. Regulation of Golgi function via phosphoinositide lipids

    PubMed Central

    Mayinger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositides play important roles in Golgi traffic and structural integrity. Specific lipid kinases and phosphatases associate with the Golgi complex and regulate the multiplicity of trafficking routes from this organelle. Work in different model systems showed that the basic elements that regulate lipid signaling at the Golgi are conserved form yeast to humans. Many of the enzymes involved in Golgi phosphoinositide metabolism are essential for viability or cause severe human disease when malfunctioning. Phosphoinositide effectors at the Golgi control both non-vesicular transfer of lipids and sorting of secretory and membrane proteins. In addition, Golgi phosphoinositides were recently implicated in the metabolic and cell growth-dependent regulation of the secretory pathway. PMID:19508852

  2. Determinants of Molecular Specificity in Phosphoinositide Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rebecca M.; Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen A.; Hua, Li; Gordon, Sharona E.

    2008-01-01

    Once thought of as simply an oily barrier that maintains cellular integrity, lipids are now known to play an active role in a large variety of cellular processes. Phosphoinositides are of particular interest because of their remarkable ability to affect many signaling pathways. Ion channels and transporters are an important target of phosphoinositide signaling, but identification of the specific phosphoinositides involved has proven elusive. TRPV1 is a good example; although phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) can potently regulate its activation, we show that phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate (PI(4)P) and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) can as well. To determine the identity of the endogenous phosphoinositide regulating TRPV1, we applied recombinant pleckstrin homology domains to inside-out excised patches. Although a PI(4,5)P2-specific pleckstrin homology domain inhibited TRPV1, a PI(3,4,5)P3-specific pleckstrin homology domain had no effect. Simultaneous confocal imaging and electrophysiological recording of whole cells expressing a rapamycin-inducible lipid phosphatase also demonstrates that depletion of PI(4,5)P2 inhibits capsaicin-activated TRPV1 current; the PI(4)P generated by the phosphatases was not sufficient to support TRPV1 function. We conclude that PI(4,5)P2, and not other phosphoinositides or other lipids, is the endogenous phosphoinositide regulating TRPV1 channels. PMID:18574245

  3. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Regulates Plasma Membrane Targeting of the Ras-specific Exchange Factor RasGRP1*

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Bari; Goo, Hyun-jung; Beaulieu, Nadine; Tazmini, Ghazaleh; Kay, Robert J.; Cornell, Rosemary B.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-induced targeting of exchange factors to specific cellular membranes is the predominant mechanism for initiating and compartmentalizing signal transduction by Ras GTPases. The exchange factor RasGRP1 has a C1 domain that binds the lipid diacylglycerol and thus can potentially mediate membrane localization in response to receptors that are coupled to diacylglycerol-generating phospholipase Cs. However, the C1 domain is insufficient for targeting RasGRP1 to the plasma membrane. We found that a basic/hydrophobic cluster of amino acids within the plasma membrane-targeting domain of RasGRP1 is instead responsible for plasma membrane targeting. This basic/hydrophobic cluster binds directly to phospholipid vesicles containing phosphoinositides via electrostatic interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositide headgroups and insertion of a tryptophan into the lipid bilayer. B cell antigen receptor ligation and other stimuli induce plasma membrane targeting of RasGRP1 by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, which generates phosphoinositides within the plasma membrane. Direct detection of phosphoinositides by the basic/hydrophobic cluster of RasGRP1 provides a novel mechanism for coupling and co-compartmentalizing phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Ras signaling and, in coordination with diacylglycerol detection by the C1 domain, gives RasGRP1 the potential to serve as an integrator of converging signals from the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase C pathways. PMID:21285350

  4. BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2 induces clustering of phosphoinositides to recruit its downstream partner dynamin.

    PubMed

    Picas, Laura; Viaud, Julien; Schauer, Kristine; Vanni, Stefano; Hnia, Karim; Fraisier, Vincent; Roux, Aurlien; Bassereau, Patricia; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frdrique; Payrastre, Bernard; Laporte, Jocelyn; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Goud, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides play a central role in many physiological processes by assisting the recruitment of proteins to membranes through specific phosphoinositide-binding motifs. How this recruitment is coordinated in space and time is not well understood. Here we show that BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2, a protein involved in T-tubule biogenesis in muscle cells and frequently mutated in centronuclear myopathies, clusters PtdIns(4,5)P2 to recruit its downstream partner dynamin. By using several mutants associated with centronuclear myopathies, we find that the N-BAR and the SH3 domains of BIN1 control the kinetics and the accumulation of dynamin on membranes, respectively. We show that phosphoinositide clustering is a mechanism shared by other proteins that interact with PtdIns(4,5)P2, but do not contain a BAR domain. Our numerical simulations point out that clustering is a diffusion-driven process in which phosphoinositide molecules are not sequestered. We propose that this mechanism plays a key role in the recruitment of downstream phosphoinositide-binding proteins. PMID:25487648

  5. BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2 induces clustering of phosphoinositides to recruit its downstream partner dynamin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picas, Laura; Viaud, Julien; Schauer, Kristine; Vanni, Stefano; Hnia, Karim; Fraisier, Vincent; Roux, Aurlien; Bassereau, Patricia; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frdrique; Payrastre, Bernard; Laporte, Jocelyn; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Goud, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Phosphoinositides play a central role in many physiological processes by assisting the recruitment of proteins to membranes through specific phosphoinositide-binding motifs. How this recruitment is coordinated in space and time is not well understood. Here we show that BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2, a protein involved in T-tubule biogenesis in muscle cells and frequently mutated in centronuclear myopathies, clusters PtdIns(4,5)P2 to recruit its downstream partner dynamin. By using several mutants associated with centronuclear myopathies, we find that the N-BAR and the SH3 domains of BIN1 control the kinetics and the accumulation of dynamin on membranes, respectively. We show that phosphoinositide clustering is a mechanism shared by other proteins that interact with PtdIns(4,5)P2, but do not contain a BAR domain. Our numerical simulations point out that clustering is a diffusion-driven process in which phosphoinositide molecules are not sequestered. We propose that this mechanism plays a key role in the recruitment of downstream phosphoinositide-binding proteins.

  6. Increased levels of phosphoinositides cause neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Stuart; Chai, Andrea; Sanhueza, Mario; Marescotti, Manuela; Parry, Katherine; Georgiev, Atanas; Sahota, Virender; Mendez-Castro, Raquel; Pennetta, Giuseppa

    2013-01-01

    The Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-Associated Protein B (VAPB) is the causative gene of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8 (ALS8) in humans. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective death of motor neurons leading to spasticity, muscle atrophy and paralysis. VAP proteins have been implicated in various cellular processes, including intercellular signalling, synaptic remodelling, lipid transport and membrane trafficking and yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying ALS8 pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We identified the conserved phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac1 as a Drosophila VAP (DVAP)-binding partner and showed that DVAP is required to maintain normal levels of phosphoinositides. Downregulating either Sac1 or DVAP disrupts axonal transport, synaptic growth, synaptic microtubule integrity and the localization of several postsynaptic components. Expression of the disease-causing allele (DVAP-P58S) in a fly model for ALS8 induces neurodegeneration, elicits synaptic defects similar to those of DVAP or Sac1 downregulation and increases phosphoinositide levels. Consistent with a role for Sac1-mediated increase of phosphoinositide levels in ALS8 pathogenesis, we found that Sac1 downregulation induces neurodegeneration in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, we report that Sac1 is sequestered into the DVAP-P58S-induced aggregates and that reducing phosphoinositide levels rescues the neurodegeneration and suppresses the synaptic phenotypes associated with DVAP-P58S transgenic expression. These data underscore the importance of DVAPSac1 interaction in controlling phosphoinositide metabolism and provide mechanistic evidence for a crucial role of phosphoinositide levels in VAP-induced ALS. PMID:23492670

  7. Phosphoinositide synthesis in bovine rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Gehm, B.D.; McConnell, D.G. )

    1990-06-12

    Phosphoinositide turnover has been implicated in signal transduction in a variety of cells, including photoreceptors. The authors demonstrate here the presence of a complete pathway for rapid synthesis of phosphoinositides in isolated bovine retinal rod outer segments (ROS) free of microsomal contaminants. Synthesis was measured by the incorporation of label from radioactive precursors, ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP and ({sup 3}H)inositol. ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP also produced large amounts of labeled phosphatidic acid. Incorporation of ({sup 3}H)inositol required CTP and Mn{sup 2+}. Mn{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} increased {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, while spermine increased phosphoinositide labeling generally. ROS that had been washed to remove soluble and peripheral proteins incorporated less label than unwashed ROS into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. No effects of light were detected. Inhibitory effects of high concentrations of nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues were probably due to competition with ATP.

  8. Decoding the role of phosphoinositides in phototropin signaling involved in chloroplast movements

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Chhavi; Labuz, Justyna; Gabry?, Halina

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, light-dependent chloroplast movements are exclusively mediated by UVA/blue light receptors - phototropins. The two photoreceptors of Arabidopsis thaliana, phot1 and phot2, have overlapping roles in the control of these movements. Experiments performed in different plant species point to the participation of phosphoinositides in blue light-controlled chloroplast relocations. Here, we report a summary of recent findings presenting the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate as well as phosphatidylinositol 3- and 4-phosphates in weak blue light-mediated (accumulation) and strong blue light-mediated (avoidance) responses of chloroplasts. The blue light-activated alterations in phosphoinositide concentration are partly responsible for cytosolic Ca2+ changes. Ca2+ influx from apoplast does not seem to be involved in the mechanism of movement responses. In summary, interplay between phosphoinositides and intracellular Ca2+ regulates chloroplast redistribution in response to blue light in higher plants. PMID:23733070

  9. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase-controlled phosphoinositide availability limits VEGFA signaling and vascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weijun; Pham, Van N.; Stratman, Amber N.; Castranova, Daniel; Kamei, Makoto; Kidd, Kameha R.; Lo, Brigid D.; Shaw, Kenna M.; Torres-Vazquez, Jesus; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Davis, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis and translating these into effective therapies are of enormous scientific and clinical interests. In this report, we demonstrate the central role of CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS) in the regulation of VEGFA signaling and angiogenesis. CDS activity maintains phosphoinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) availability through resynthesis of phosphoinositides, whereas VEGFA, mainly through phospholipase C?1, consumes PIP2 for signal transduction. Loss of CDS2, 1 of 2 vertebrate CDS enzymes, results in vascular-specific defects in zebrafish in vivo and failure of VEGFA-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells in vitro. Absence of CDS2 also results in reduced arterial differentiation and reduced angiogenic signaling. CDS2 deficit-caused phenotypes can be successfully rescued by artificial elevation of PIP2 levels, and excess PIP2 or increased CDS2 activity can promote excess angiogenesis. These results suggest that availability of CDS-controlled resynthesis of phosphoinositides is essential for angiogenesis. PMID:22649102

  10. Plant phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C: an insight.

    PubMed

    Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2012-10-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) belongs to an important class of enzymes involved in signaling related to lipids. They hydrolyze a membrane-associated phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, to produce inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. The role of PI-PLC and the mechanism behind its functioning is well studied in animal system; however, mechanism of plant PI-PLC functioning remains largely obscure. Here, we attempted to summarize the understanding regarding plant PI-PLC mechanism of regulation, localization, and domain association. Using sedimentation based phospholipid binding assay and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that C2 domain of plant PI-PLC alone is capable of targeting membranes. Moreover, change in surface hydrophobicity upon calcium stimulus is the key element in targeting plant PI-PLC from soluble fractions to membranes. This property of altering surface hydrophobicity plays a pivot role in regulation of PI-PLC activity. PMID:22902702

  11. Analysis, regulation, and roles of endosomal phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Maffucci, Tania; Falasca, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor lipid components of cellular membranes that play critical roles in membrane dynamics, trafficking, and cellular signaling. Among the seven naturally occurring PIs, the monophosphate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and the bisphosphate phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] have been mainly associated with endosomes and endosomal functions. Metabolic labeling and HPLC analysis revealed that a bulk of PtdIns3P is constitutively present in cells, making it the only detectable product of the enzymes phosphoinositide 3-kinases in unstimulated, normal cells. The use of specific tagged-PtdIns3P-binding domains later demonstrated that this constitutive PtdIns3P accumulates in endosomes where it critically regulates trafficking and membrane dynamics. PMID:24377918

  12. HGF/c-Met signaling promotes liver progenitor cell migration and invasion by an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-independent, phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase-dependent pathway in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Surez-Causado, A; Caballero-Daz, D; Bertrn, E; Roncero, C; Addante, A; Garca-lvaro, M; Fernndez, M; Herrera, B; Porras, A; Fabregat, I; Snchez, A

    2015-10-01

    Oval cells constitute an interesting hepatic cell population. They contribute to sustain liver regeneration during chronic liver damage, but in doing this they can be target of malignant conversion and become tumor-initiating cells and drive hepatocarcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms beneath either their pro-regenerative or pro-tumorigenic potential are still poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role of the HGF/c-Met pathway in regulation of oval cell migratory and invasive properties. Our results show that HGF induces c-Met-dependent oval cell migration both in normal culture conditions and after in vitro wounding. HGF-triggered migration involves F-actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is also evidenced by activation of Rac1. Furthermore, HGF causes ZO-1 translocation from cell-cell contact sites to cytoplasm and its concomitant activation by phosphorylation. However, no loss of expression of cell-cell adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin, ZO-1 and Occludin-1, is observed. Additionally, migration does not lead to cell dispersal but to a characteristic organized pattern in rows, in turn associated with Golgi compaction, providing strong evidence of a morphogenic collective migration. Besides migration, HGF increases oval cell invasion through extracellular matrix, a process that requires PI3K activation and is at least partly mediated by expression and activation of metalloproteases. Altogether, our findings provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the essential role of HGF/c-Met signaling during oval cell-mediated mouse liver regeneration. PMID:26001768

  13. Urotensin-II Receptor Stimulation of Cardiac L-type Ca2+ Channels Requires the βγ Subunits of Gi/o-protein and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-dependent Protein Kinase C β1 Isoform*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Ying, Jiaoqian; Jiang, Dongsheng; Chang, Zhigang; Li, Hua; Zhang, Guoqiang; Gong, Shan; Jiang, Xinghong; Tao, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that urotensin-II (U-II) plays important roles in cardiovascular actions including cardiac positive inotropic effects and increasing cardiac output. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects of U-II in cardiomyocytes still remain unknown. We show by electrophysiological studies that U-II dose-dependently potentiates L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) in adult rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was U-II receptor (U-IIR)-dependent and was associated with a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation. Intracellular application of guanosine-5′-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and pertussis toxin pretreatment both abolished the stimulatory effects of U-II. Dialysis of cells with the QEHA peptide, but not scrambled peptide SKEE, blocked the U-II-induced response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin as well as the class I PI3K antagonist CH132799 blocked the U-II-induced ICa,L response. Protein kinase C antagonists calphostin C and chelerythrine chloride as well as dialysis of cells with 1,2bis(2aminophenoxy)ethaneN,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid abolished the U-II-induced responses, whereas PKCα inhibition or PKA blockade had no effect. Exposure of ventricular myocytes to U-II markedly increased membrane PKCβ1 expression, whereas inhibition of PKCβ1 pharmacologically or by shRNA targeting abolished the U-II-induced ICa,L response. Functionally, we observed a significant increase in the amplitude of sarcomere shortening induced by U-II; blockade of U-IIR as well as PKCβ inhibition abolished this effect, whereas Bay K8644 mimicked the U-II response. Taken together, our results indicate that U-II potentiates ICa,L through the βγ subunits of Gi/o-protein and downstream activation of the class I PI3K-dependent PKCβ1 isoform. This occurred via the activation of U-IIR and contributes to the positive inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes. PMID:25678708

  14. Decreased platelet phosphoinositide turnover and enhanced platelet activation in IDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Bastyr, E.J. 3d.; Kadrofske, M.M.; Dershimer, R.C.; Vinik, A.I. )

    1989-09-01

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus may have increased in vivo platelet activity. Abnormal platelet function could contribute to the increased incidence of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The biochemical mechanism(s) for platelet hyperactivation is unknown. We examined the hypothesis that platelet phosphoinositide turnover, a key signal-transducing mechanism involved in platelet activation, was abnormal in diabetic subjects. Platelets were harvested from 16 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 19 healthy, nondiabetic control subjects of comparable age. Plasma beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TBG), a specific marker of platelet activity in vivo, was increased in IDDM (67.1 +/- 7.3 ng/ml) compared with control (41.0 +/- 6.0 ng/ml) subjects (P less than .005). (32P)orthophosphate (32Pi) incorporation into the individual phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid (PA) reached isotopic equilibrium by 120 min for IDDM and control subjects. Specific activity (dpm 32P/micrograms phosphorus) of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) was not different between IDDM and control subjects. Under these conditions, basal 32Pi incorporation into PIP2 and PIP but not phosphatidylinositol (PI) or PA was significantly lower in IDDM subjects. There was significantly decreased (32P)PIP2 and (32P)PIP hydrolysis and decreased (32P)PA formation in IDDM after platelet stimulation with 4 U/ml human thrombin. There were no differences in (32P)PI hydrolysis between the two groups. The mass of PIP2 was reduced (P less than .005) in the platelets from IDDM (0.71 +/- 0.23 nmol/10(9) platelets) compared with control (1.65 +/- 0.53 nmol/10(9) platelets) subjects. Similarly, PIP was lower (P less than .001) in IDDM (0.66 +/- 0.09 nmol/10(9) platelets) than in control (2.92 +/- 0.43 nmol/10(9) platelets) subjects.

  15. Effectors of animal and plant pathogens use a common domain to bind host phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Guo, Yirui; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Gardner, Kevin H; Orth, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems deliver effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Many host targets of these effectors are found on membranes. Therefore, to identify their targets, effectors often use specialized membrane-localization domains to localize to appropriate host membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms used by many domains are unknown. Here we identify a conserved bacterial phosphoinositide-binding domain (BPD) that is found in functionally diverse Type III effectors of both plant and animal pathogens. We show that members of the BPD family functionally bind phosphoinositides and mediate localization to host membranes. Moreover, NMR studies reveal that the BPD of the newly identified Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III effector VopR is unfolded in solution, but folds into a specific structure upon binding its ligand phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. Thus, our findings suggest a possible mechanism for promoting refolding of Type III effectors after delivery into host cells. PMID:24346350

  16. The structure of phosphoinositide phosphatases: Insights into substrate specificity and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, FoSheng; Mao, Yuxin

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are a group of key signaling and structural lipid molecules involved in a myriad of cellular processes. PI phosphatases, together with PI kinases, are responsible for the conversion of PIs between distinctive phosphorylation states. PI phosphatases are a large collection of enzymes that are evolved from at least two disparate ancestors. One group is distantly related to endonucleases, which apply divalent metal ions for phosphoryl transfer. The other group is related to protein tyrosine phosphatases, which contain a highly conserved active site motif Cys-X5-Arg (CX5R). In this review, we focus on structural insights to illustrate current understandings of the molecular mechanisms of each PI phosphatase family, with emphasis on their structural basis for substrate specificity determinants and catalytic mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25264170

  17. The Receptor Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Stereotype C Binds Phosphoinositides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Varnum, Susan M.

    2012-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known for humans and animals with an extremely low LD50 of {approx} 1 ng/kg. BoNTs generally require a protein and a ganglioside on the cell membrane surface for binding, which is known as a 'dual receptor' mechanism for host intoxication. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to gangliosides, other membrane lipids such as phosphoinositides may be involved in the interactions with the receptor binding domain (HCR) of BoNTs for better membrane penetration. Here, using two independent lipid-binding assays, we tested the interactions of BoNT/C-HCR with lipids in vitro. BoNT/C-HCR was found to bind negatively charged phospholipids, preferentially phosphoinositides. Additional interactions to phosphoinositides may help BoNT/C bind membrane more tightly and transduct signals for subsequent steps of intoxication. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of host cell membrane recognition by BoNTs.

  18. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Lucio; Follo, Matilde Y; Manzoli, Lucia; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2015-10-01

    Phospholipases are widely occurring and can be found in several different organisms, including bacteria, yeast, plants, animals, and viruses. Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of phospholipases that cleaves phospholipids on the diacylglycerol (DAG) side of the phosphodiester bond producing DAGs and phosphomonoesters. Among PLCs, phosphoinositide-specific PLC (PI-PLC) constitutes an important step in the inositide signaling pathways. The structures of PI-PLC isozymes show conserved domains as well as regulatory specific domains. This is important, as most PI-PLCs share a common mechanism, but each of them has a peculiar role and can have a specific cell distribution that is linked to a specific function. More importantly, the regulation of PLC isozymes is fundamental in health and disease, as there are several PLC-dependent molecular mechanisms that are associated with the activation or inhibition of important physiopathological processes. Moreover, PI-PLC alternative splicing variants can play important roles in complex signaling networks, not only in cancer but also in other diseases. That is why PI-PLC isozymes are now considered as important molecules that are essential for better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both physiology and pathogenesis, and are also potential molecular targets useful for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:25821234

  19. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, P.M.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1990-08-17

    With ({sup 3}H)cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product ({sup 3}H)cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways.

  20. Retroviruses Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Murine Leukemia Virus Are Enriched in Phosphoinositides?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Robin; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Jin, Jing; Shui, Guanghou; Ott, David E.; Mothes, Walther; Wenk, Markus R.

    2008-01-01

    Retroviruses acquire a lipid envelope during budding from the membrane of their hosts. Therefore, the composition of this envelope can provide important information about the budding process and its location. Here, we present mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid content of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). The results of this comprehensive survey found that the overall lipid content of these viruses mostly matched that of the plasma membrane, which was considerably different from the total lipid content of the cells. However, several lipids are enriched in comparison to the composition of the plasma membrane: (i) cholesterol, ceramide, and GM3; and (ii) phosphoinositides, phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly, microvesicles, which are similar in size to viruses and are also released from the cell periphery, lack phosphoinositides, suggesting a different budding mechanism/location for these particles than for retroviruses. One phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], has been implicated in membrane binding by HIV Gag. Consistent with this observation, we found that PI(4,5)P2 was enriched in HIV-1 and that depleting this molecule in cells reduced HIV-1 budding. Analysis of mutant virions mapped the enrichment of PI(4,5)P2 to the matrix domain of HIV Gag. Overall, these results suggest that HIV-1 and other retroviruses bud from cholesterol-rich regions of the plasma membrane and exploit matrix/PI(4,5)P2 interactions for particle release from cells. PMID:18799574

  1. PITPs as Targets for Selectively Interfering With Phosphoinositide Signaling in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nile, Aaron H.; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Yuan, Peihua; Mousley, Carl J.; Suresh, Sundari; Wallace, Iain Michael; Shah, Sweety D.; Pohlhaus, Denise Teotico; Temple, Brenda; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Tropsha, Alexander; Davis, Ronald W.; St Onge, Robert P.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2013-01-01

    Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) integrate diverse territories of intracellular lipid metabolism with stimulated phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate production, and are discriminating portals for interrogating phosphoinositide signaling. Yet, neither Sec14-like PITPs, nor PITPs in general, have been exploited as targets for chemical inhibition for such purposes. Herein, we validate the first small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of the yeast PITP Sec14. These SMIs are nitrophenyl(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methanones (NPPMs), and are effective inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. We further establish Sec14 is the sole essential NPPM target in yeast, that NPPMs exhibit exquisite targeting specificities for Sec14 (relative to related Sec14-like PITPs), propose a mechanism for how NPPMs exert their inhibitory effects, and demonstrate NPPMs exhibit exquisite pathway selectivity in inhibiting phosphoinositide signaling in cells. These data deliver proof-of-concept that PITP-directed SMIs offer new and generally applicable avenues for intervening with phosphoinositide signaling pathways with selectivities superior to those afforded by contemporary lipid kinase-directed strategies. PMID:24292071

  2. Chromosomal Instability and Phosphoinositide Pathway Gene Signatures in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Structural rearrangements of chromosome 10 are frequently observed in glioblastoma multiforme and over 80% of tumour samples archived in the catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer database had gene copy number loss for PI4K2A which encodes phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIalpha. PI4K2A loss of heterozygosity mirrored that of PTEN, another enzyme that regulates phosphoinositide levels and also PIK3AP1, MINPP1, INPP5A and INPP5F. These results indicated a reduction in copy number for a set of phosphoinositide signalling genes that co-localise to chromosome 10q. This analysis was extended to a panel of phosphoinositide pathway genes on other chromosomes and revealed a number of previously unreported associations with glioblastoma multiforme. Of particular note were highly penetrant copy number losses for a group of X-linked phosphoinositide phosphatase genes OCRL, MTM1 and MTMR8; copy number amplifications for the chromosome 19 genes PIP5K1C, AKT2 and PIK3R2, and also for the phospholipase C genes PLCB1, PLCB4 and PLCG1 on chromosome 20. These mutations are likely to affect signalling and trafficking functions dependent on the PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(3,5)P2 lipids as well as the inositol phosphates IP3, IP5 and IP6. Analysis of flanking genes with functionally unrelated products indicated that chromosomal instability as opposed to a phosphoinositide-specific process underlay this pattern of copy number variation. This in silico study suggests that in glioblastoma multiforme, karyotypic changes have the potential to cause multiple abnormalities in sets of genes involved in phosphoinositide metabolism and this may be important for understanding drug resistance and phosphoinositide pathway redundancy in the advanced disease state. PMID:25502460

  3. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? for allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Wendy C; Smith, Janet L; Affleck, Karen; Amour, Augustin

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in the lung has long been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Central to this airway inflammation is a T-cell response to allergens, with Th2 cytokines driving the differentiation, survival and function of the major inflammatory cells involved in the allergic cascade. PI3K? (phosphoinositide 3-kinase ?) is a lipid kinase, expressed predominantly in leucocytes, where it plays a critical role in immune receptor signalling. A selective PI3K? inhibitor is predicted to block T-cell activation in the lung, reducing the production of pro-inflammatory Th2 cytokines. PI3K? is also involved in B-cell and mast cell activation. Therefore the inhibition of PI3K? should dampen down the inflammatory cascade involved in the asthmatic response through a wide breadth of pharmacology. Current anti-inflammatory therapies, which are based on corticosteroids, are effective in controlling inflammation in mild asthmatics, but moderate/severe asthmatic patients remain poorly controlled, experiencing recurrent exacerbations. Corticosteroids have no effect on mast cell degranulation and do not act directly on B-cells, so, overall, a PI3K? inhibitor has the potential to deliver improvements in onset of action, efficacy and reduced exacerbations in moderate/severe asthmatics. Additionally, PI3K? inhibition is expected to block effects of Th17 cells, which are increasingly implicated in steroid-insensitive asthma. PMID:22260698

  4. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: friend and foe in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghigo, Alessandra; Li, Mingchuan

    2015-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases activated by cell membrane receptors, either receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs), to catalyze the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). These enzymes engage multiple downstream intracellular signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration. In the cardiovascular system, the four class I PI3K isoforms, PI3K?, PI3K?, PI3K?, and PI3K? are differentially expressed in distinct cell subsets which include cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as leukocytes, suggesting specific functions for distinct PI3K isoenzymes. During the last decades, genetic disruption studies targeting different PI3K genes have elucidated the contribution of specific isoenzymes to cardiac and vascular function regulation, highlighting both beneficial and maladaptive roles. New layers of complexity in the function of PI3Ks have recently emerged, indicating that distinct PI3K isoforms are interconnected by various crosstalk events and can function not only as kinases, but also as scaffold proteins coordinating key signalosomes in cardiovascular health and disease. In this review, we will summarize major breakthroughs in the comprehension of detrimental and beneficial actions of PI3K signaling in cardiovascular homeostasis, and we will discuss recently unraveled cross-talk and scaffold mechanisms as well as the role of the less characterized class II and III PI3K isoforms. PMID:26321955

  5. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF PHOSPHOINOSITIDES AND PERIPHERAL PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Stahelin, Robert V.; Scott, Jordan L.; Frick, Cary T.

    2015-01-01

    Anionic lipids act as signals for the recruitment of proteins containing cationic clusters to biological membranes. A family of anionic lipids known as the phosphoinositides (PIPs) are low in abundance, yet play a critical role in recruitment of peripheral proteins to the membrane interface. PIPs are mono-, bis-, or trisphosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PI) yielding seven species with different structure and anionic charge. The differential spatial distribution and temporal appearance of PIPs is key to their role in communicating information to target proteins. Selective recognition of PIPs came into play with the discovery that the substrate of protein kinase C termed pleckstrin possessed the first PIP binding region termed the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Since the discovery of the PH domain, more than ten PIP binding domains have been identified including PH, ENTH, FYVE, PX, and C2 domains. Representative examples of each of these domains have been thoroughly characterized to understand how they coordinate PIP headgroups in membranes, translocate to specific membrane docking sites in the cell, and function to regulate the activity of their full-length proteins. In addition, a number of novel mechanisms of PIP-mediated membrane association have emerged, such as coincidence detection specificity for two distinct lipid headgroups. Other PIP-binding domains may also harbor selectivity for a membrane physical property such as charge or membrane curvature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the cellular distribution of PIPs and their molecular interaction with peripheral proteins. PMID:24556335

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85beta regulates invadopodium formation

    PubMed Central

    Cariaga-Martínez, Ariel E.; Cortés, Isabel; García, Esther; Pérez-García, Vicente; Pajares, María J.; Idoate, Miguel A.; Redondo-Muñóz, Javier; Antón, Inés M.; Carrera, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of invasiveness is characteristic of tumor progression. Numerous genetic changes are associated with metastasis, but the mechanism by which a cell becomes invasive remains unclear. Expression of p85β, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, markedly increases in advanced carcinoma, but its mode of action is unknown. We postulated that p85β might facilitate cell invasion. We show that p85β localized at cell adhesions in complex with focal adhesion kinase and enhanced stability and maturation of cell adhesions. In addition, p85β induced development at cell adhesions of an F-actin core that extended several microns into the cell z-axis resembling the skeleton of invadopodia. p85β lead to F-actin polymerization at cell adhesions by recruiting active Cdc42/Rac at these structures. In accordance with p85β function in invadopodium-like formation, p85β levels increased in metastatic melanoma and p85β depletion reduced invadopodium formation and invasion. These results show that p85β enhances invasion by inducing cell adhesion development into invadopodia-like structures explaining the metastatic potential of tumors with increased p85β levels. PMID:25217619

  7. Phosphoinositide and Inositol Phosphate Analysis in Lymphocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Karsten; Huang, Yina Hsing; Lin, Hongying; Sandberg, Mark; Mayr, Georg W.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocyte antigen receptor engagement profoundly changes the cellular content of phosphoinositide lipids and soluble inositol phosphates. Among these, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) play key signaling roles by acting as pleckstrin homology (PH) domain ligands that recruit signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. Moreover, PIP2 acts as a precursor for the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol and soluble inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), essential mediators of PKC, Ras/Erk, and Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes. IP3 phosphorylation by IP3 3-kinases generates inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4), an essential soluble regulator of PH domain binding to PIP3 in developing T cells. Besides PIP2, PIP3, IP3, and IP4, lymphocytes produce multiple other phosphoinositides and soluble inositol phosphates that could have important physiological functions. To aid their analysis, detailed protocols that allow one to simultaneously measure the levels of multiple different phosphoinositide or inositol phosphate isomers in lymphocytes are provided here. They are based on thin layer, conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation methods followed by radiolabeling or non-radioactive metal-dye detection. Finally, less broadly applicable nonchromatographic methods for detection of specific phosphoinositide or inositol phosphate isomers are discussed. Support protocols describe how to obtain pure unstimulated CD4+CD8+ thymocyte populations for analyses of inositol phosphate turnover during positive and negative selection, key steps in T cell development. PMID:19918943

  8. Phosphoinositides Regulate Ciliary Protein Trafficking to Modulate Hedgehog Signaling.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalo, Francesc R; Phua, Siew Cheng; Roberson, Elle C; Garcia, Galo; Abedin, Monika; Schurmans, Stphane; Inoue, Takanari; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-08-24

    Primary cilia interpret vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) signals. Why cilia are essential for signaling is unclear. One possibility is that some forms of signaling require a distinct membrane lipid composition, found at cilia. We found that the ciliary membrane contains a particular phosphoinositide, PI(4)P, whereas a different phosphoinositide, PI(4,5)P2, is restricted to the membrane of the ciliary base. This distribution is created by Inpp5e, a ciliary phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase. Without Inpp5e, ciliary PI(4,5)P2 levels are elevated and Hh signaling is disrupted. Inpp5e limits the ciliary levels of inhibitors of Hh signaling, including Gpr161 and the PI(4,5)P2-binding protein Tulp3. Increasing ciliary PI(4,5)P2 levels or conferring the ability to bind PI(4)P on Tulp3 increases the ciliary localization of Tulp3. Lowering Tulp3 in cells lacking Inpp5e reduces ciliary Gpr161 levels and restores Hh signaling. Therefore, Inpp5e regulates ciliary membrane phosphoinositide composition, and Tulp3 reads out ciliary phosphoinositides to control ciliary protein localization, enabling Hh signaling. PMID:26305592

  9. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in the vertebrate retina

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Raju V. S.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, discovered over 50 years ago by Mabel and Lowell Hokin, describes a series of biochemical reactions that occur on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of cells in response to receptor activation by extracellular stimuli. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the retina and rod outer segments (ROSs) have active PI metabolism. Biochemical studies revealed that the ROSs contain the enzymes necessary for phosphorylation of phosphoinositides. We showed that light stimulates various components of the PI cycle in the vertebrate ROS, including diacylglycerol kinase, PI synthetase, phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). This article describes recent studies on the PI3K-generated PI lipid second messengers in the control and regulation of PI-binding proteins in the vertebrate retina. PMID:19638643

  10. Analyzing Protein-Phosphoinositide Interactions with Liposome Flotation Assays.

    PubMed

    Busse, Ricarda A; Scacioc, Andreea; Schalk, Amanda M; Krick, Roswitha; Thumm, Michael; Khnel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Liposome flotation assays are a convenient tool to study protein-phosphoinositide interactions. Working with liposomes resembles physiological conditions more than protein-lipid overlay assays, which makes this method less prone to detect false positive interactions. However, liposome lipid composition must be well-considered in order to prevent nonspecific binding of the protein through electrostatic interactions with negatively charged lipids like phosphatidylserine. In this protocol we use the PROPPIN Hsv2 (homologous with swollen vacuole phenotype 2) as an example to demonstrate the influence of liposome lipid composition on binding and show how phosphoinositide binding specificities of a protein can be characterized with this method. PMID:26552682

  11. Arabidopsis AtPLC2 Is a Primary Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C in Phosphoinositide Metabolism and the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Kazue; Yu, Chao-Yuan; Cho, Yueh; Cheong, Wei-Fun; Torta, Federico; Shui, Guanghou; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phosphoinositides represent important lipid signals in the plant development and stress response. However, multiple isoforms of the phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes hamper our understanding of the pivotal enzymes in each step of the pathway as well as their roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C2 (AtPLC2) is the primary phospholipase in phosphoinositide metabolism and is involved in seedling growth and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lipidomic profiling of multiple plc mutants showed that the plc2-1 mutant increased levels of its substrates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, suggesting that the major phosphoinositide metabolic pathway is impaired. AtPLC2 displayed a distinct tissue expression pattern and localized at the plasma membrane in different cell types, where phosphoinositide signaling occurs. The seedlings of plc2-1 mutant showed growth defect that was complemented by heterologous expression of AtPLC2, suggesting that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity borne by AtPLC2 is required for seedling growth. Moreover, the plc2-1 mutant showed hypersensitive response to ER stress as evidenced by changes in relevant phenotypes and gene expression profiles. Our results revealed the primary enzyme in phosphoinositide metabolism, its involvement in seedling growth and an emerging link between phosphoinositide and the ER stress response. PMID:26401841

  12. Synthesis and Function of Membrane Phosphoinositides in Budding Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, Thomas; Thorner, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It is now well appreciated that derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are key regulators of many cellular processes in eukaryotes. Of particular interest are phosphoinositides (mono- and polyphosphorylated adducts to the inositol ring in PtdIns), which are located at the cytoplasmic face of cellular membranes. Phosphoinositides serve both a structural and a signaling role via their recruitment of proteins that contain phosphoinositide-binding domains. Phosphoinositides also have a role as precursors of several types of second messengers for certain intracellular signaling pathways. Realization of the importance of phosphoinositides has brought increased attention to characterization of the enzymes that regulate their synthesis, interconversion, and turnover. Here we review the current state of our knowledge about the properties and regulation of the ATP-dependent lipid kinases responsible for synthesis of phosphoinositides and also the additional temporal and spatial controls exerted by the phosphatases and a phospholipase that act on phosphoinositides in yeast. PMID:17382260

  13. Separation of fluorescently labeled phosphoinositides and sphingolipids by capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kelong; Jiang, Dechen; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) and sphingolipids regulate many aspects of cell behavior and are often involved in disease processes such as oncogenesis. Capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) is emerging as an important tool for enzymatic assays of the metabolism of these lipids, particularly in cell-based formats. Previous separations of phosphoinositide lipids by CE required a complex buffer with polymer additives which had the disadvantages of high cost and/or short shelf life. Further a simultaneous separation of these classes of lipids has not been demonstrated in a robust buffer system. In the current work, a simple separation buffer based on NaH2PO4 and 1-propanol was optimized to separate two sphingolipids and multiple phosphoinositides by CE. The NaH2PO4 concentration, pH, 1-propanol fraction, and a surfactant additive to the buffer were individually optimized to achieve simultaneous separation of the sphingolipids and phosphoinositides. Fluorescein-labeled sphingosine (SFL) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1PFL), fluorescein-labeled phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidyl-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), and bodipy-fluorescein (BFL)-labeled PIP2 and PIP3 were separated pairwise and in combination to demonstrate the generalizability of the method. Theoretical plate numbers achieved were as high as 2105 in separating fluorophore-labeled PIP2 and PIP3. Detection limits for the 6 analytes were in the range of 10?18 to 10?20 mol. The method also showed high reproducibility, as the relative standard deviation of the normalized migration time for each analyte in the simultaneous separation of all 6 compounds was less than 1%. The separation of a mixture composed of diacylglycerol (DAG) and multiple phosphoinositides was also demonstrated. As a final test, fluorescent lipid metabolites formed within cells loaded with BFLPIP2 were separated from a cell lysate as well as a single cell. This simple and robust separation method for SFL and S1PFL and various metabolites of phosphoinositide-related signal transduction is expected to enable improved enzymatic assays for biological and clinical applications. PMID:23000742

  14. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor PI(4)P from the plasma membrane through Ca2+-induced phospholipase C? (PLC?) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLC? indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  15. Sec14-nodulin proteins and the patterning of phosphoinositide landmarks for developmental control of membrane morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ratna; de Campos, Marília K. F.; Huang, Jin; Huh, Seong K.; Orlowski, Adam; Yang, Yuan; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Nile, Aaron; Lee, Hsin-Chieh; Dynowski, Marek; Schäfer, Helen; Róg, Tomasz; Lete, Marta G.; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Alonso, Alicia; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Igumenova, Tatyana I.; Schaaf, Gabriel; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2015-01-01

    Polarized membrane morphogenesis is a fundamental activity of eukaryotic cells. This process is essential for the biology of cells and tissues, and its execution demands exquisite temporal coordination of functionally diverse membrane signaling reactions with high spatial resolution. Moreover, mechanisms must exist to establish and preserve such organization in the face of randomizing forces that would diffuse it. Here we identify the conserved AtSfh1 Sec14-nodulin protein as a novel effector of phosphoinositide signaling in the extreme polarized membrane growth program exhibited by growing Arabidopsis root hairs. The data are consistent with Sec14-nodulin proteins controlling the lateral organization of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) landmarks for polarized membrane morphogenesis in plants. This patterning activity requires both the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding and homo-oligomerization activities of the AtSfh1 nodulin domain and is an essential aspect of the polarity signaling program in root hairs. Finally, the data suggest a general principle for how the phosphoinositide signaling landscape is physically bit mapped so that eukaryotic cells are able to convert a membrane surface into a high-definition lipid-signaling screen. PMID:25739452

  16. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-02-10

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase C? (PLC?) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLC? indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  17. Phenylephrine stimulated breakdown of phosphoinositides in brown adipocytes is attenuated by adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmel, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    Selective activation of alpha adrenergic receptors on brown adipocytes brings about increased mitochondrial respiration. This response is associated with a rapid breakdown of phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane. The authors have shown that respiration increased by alpha receptor activation can be inhibited by adenosine but the mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. The present study probes the possibility that adenosine inhibition of alpha receptor stimulated respiration is secondary to an inhibition of stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Phospholipids were labeled with (/sup 32/P) by incubation with (/sup 32/P)-Pi for up to four hours. Phenylephrine and other ligands were then added and the radioactivity present in individual lipids determined following their resolution by thin layer chromatography. Addition of 2-chloroadenosine or phenylisopropyl adenosine, but not 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, inhibited phenylephrine promoted breakdown of phosphoinositides. The dose response relation for this effect was similar to that for attenuation of stimulated respiration. This finding demonstrates adenosine inhibition of a phospholipase in brown fat cells and suggests the possibility that breakdown of inositol phospholipids is a critical control site for stimulation and attenuation of respiration.

  18. Sec14-nodulin proteins and the patterning of phosphoinositide landmarks for developmental control of membrane morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ratna; de Campos, Marlia K F; Huang, Jin; Huh, Seong K; Orlowski, Adam; Yang, Yuan; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Nile, Aaron; Lee, Hsin-Chieh; Dynowski, Marek; Schfer, Helen; Rg, Tomasz; Lete, Marta G; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Alonso, Alicia; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Igumenova, Tatyana I; Schaaf, Gabriel; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2015-05-01

    Polarized membrane morphogenesis is a fundamental activity of eukaryotic cells. This process is essential for the biology of cells and tissues, and its execution demands exquisite temporal coordination of functionally diverse membrane signaling reactions with high spatial resolution. Moreover, mechanisms must exist to establish and preserve such organization in the face of randomizing forces that would diffuse it. Here we identify the conserved AtSfh1 Sec14-nodulin protein as a novel effector of phosphoinositide signaling in the extreme polarized membrane growth program exhibited by growing Arabidopsis root hairs. The data are consistent with Sec14-nodulin proteins controlling the lateral organization of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) landmarks for polarized membrane morphogenesis in plants. This patterning activity requires both the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding and homo-oligomerization activities of the AtSfh1 nodulin domain and is an essential aspect of the polarity signaling program in root hairs. Finally, the data suggest a general principle for how the phosphoinositide signaling landscape is physically bit mapped so that eukaryotic cells are able to convert a membrane surface into a high-definition lipid-signaling screen. PMID:25739452

  19. Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates its localization at the immune synapse of activated T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rajesh; Tello-Lafoz, Maria; Norwood, Suzanne J.; Yang, Zhe; Clairfeuille, Thomas; Teasdale, Rohan D.; Mérida, Isabel; Collins, Brett M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) controls the endosomal-to-cell-surface recycling of diverse transmembrane protein cargos. Crucial to this function is the recruitment of SNX27 to endosomes which is mediated by the binding of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) by its phox homology (PX) domain. In T-cells, SNX27 localizes to the immunological synapse in an activation-dependent manner, but the molecular mechanisms underlying SNX27 translocation remain to be clarified. Here, we examined the phosphoinositide-lipid-binding capabilities of full-length SNX27, and discovered a new PtdInsP-binding site within the C-terminal 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain. This binding site showed a clear preference for bi- and tri-phosphorylated phophoinositides, and the interaction was confirmed through biophysical, mutagenesis and modeling approaches. At the immunological synapse of activated T-cells, cell signaling regulates phosphoinositide dynamics, and we find that perturbing phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain alters the SNX27 distribution in both endosomal recycling compartments and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-enriched domains of the plasma membrane during synapse formation. Our results suggest that SNX27 undergoes dynamic partitioning between different membrane domains during immunological synapse assembly, and underscore the contribution of unique lipid interactions for SNX27 orchestration of cargo trafficking. PMID:25472716

  20. CaV2.1 channels are modulated by muscarinic M1 receptors through phosphoinositide hydrolysis in neostriatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Perez-Burgos, A; Prieto, G A; Galarraga, E; Bargas, J

    2010-01-20

    In adult neostriatal projection neurons, the intracellular Ca(2+) supplied by Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q) Ca(2+) channels is in charge of both the generation of the afterhyperpolarizing potential (AHP) and the release of GABA from their synaptic terminals, thus being a major target for firing pattern and transmitter release modulations. We have shown that activation of muscarinic M(1)-class receptors modulates Ca(V)2.1 channels in these neurons in rats. This modulation is reversible, is not membrane delimited, is blocked by the specific M(1)-class muscarinic antagonist muscarine toxin 7 (MT-7), and is neither mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) nor by protein phosphatase 2B (PP-2B). Hence, the signaling mechanism of muscarinic Ca(V)2.1 channel modulation has remained elusive. The present paper shows that inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC) abolishes this modulation while inhibition of phosphoinositide kinases, PI-3K and PI-4K, prevents its reversibility, suggesting that the reconstitution of muscarinic modulation depends on phosphoinositide rephosphorylation. In support of this hypothesis, the supply of intracellular phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] blocked all muscarinic modulation of this channel. The results indicate that muscarinic M(1) modulation of Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels in these neurons involves phosphoinositide hydrolysis. PMID:19883739

  1. Soman-induced seizures impair norepinephrine-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Filbert, M.G.; Phann, S.; Forster, J.; Ballough, G.P.; Cann, F.J.

    1993-05-13

    Seizure activity increases turnover of phosphoinositide bisphosphate (PIP2). Turnover of PIP2 is thought to be modulated by neurotransmitter interactions. The effect of soman-induced seizures on neurotransmitter-stimulated PIP 2 turnover was examined in rats. Thirty minutes after induction of seizure activity, rats were euthanized and slices prepared from the hippocampus or cerebral cortex were incubated with myo-(2-3H) inositol for incorporation into phospholipids. Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides was determined by measuring the accumulation of (3H) inositol-l-phosphate (IP1) in the presence of LiCl. Carbachol, norepinephrine (NE) and high K+ increased accumulation of IP1 in slices from control rats. GABA was without effect on IP1 accumulation but potentiated the stimulation of PIP, hydrolysis by NE. NE-stimulated IP1 accumulation in slices from rats undergoing seizures was significantly reduced. GABA potentiation of the NE-stimulated hydrolysis was also reduced.

  2. Signalling by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase family in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases control many important aspects of immune cell development, differentiation and function. Mammals have eight PI3K catalytic subunits which are divided into 3 classes based on similarities in structure and function. Specific roles for the class I PI3Ks have been broadly investigated and are relatively well understood as is the function of their corresponding phosphatases. More recently, specific roles for the class II and class III PI3Ks have emerged. Through vertebrate evolution and in parallel with the evolution of adaptive immunity, there has been a dramatic increase not only in the genes for PI3K subunits but also in genes for phosphatases that act on 3-phopshoinositides and on 3-phosphoinositide binding proteins. Our understanding of the PI3Ks in immunity is guided by fundamental discoveries made in simpler model organisms as well as by appreciating new adaptions of this signalling module in mammals in general and immune cells in particular. PMID:23330955

  3. Do unsaturated phosphoinositides mix with ordered phosphadidylcholine model membranes?

    PubMed

    Hermelink, Antje; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2008-09-01

    Phosphoinositides have been shown to control membrane trafficking events by targeting proteins to specific cellular sites, which requires a tight regulation of phosphoinositide generation and turnover as well as a high degree of compartmentalization. To shed light on the processes that lead to the formation of phosphoinositide-enriched microdomains, mixed monolayers of phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl-phosphatidylinositol (DOPtdIns) or dioleoyl-phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate [DOPtdIns(4,5)P(2)] were investigated by isothermal area/pressure measurements, Brewster angle microscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The results are consistent with a charge-dependent formation of phosphatidylinositol-containing tightly packed phases. DOPtdIns is capable of mixing partially with condensed 1,2-distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and of forming mixed crystals that differ significantly from those formed by pure DSPC. DOPtdIns(4,5)P(2) in mixtures with DSPC is, to a much larger extent, phase separated. The observed phase separation of the highly charged DOPtdIns(4,5)P(2) is presumably water stabilized by electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. In biological systems, an enzymatic phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol in mixed domains may cause their insolubility in ordered phosphatidylcholine areas and lead to a cooperative reorganization of the host lipid membrane. This strong cooperative effect underlines the important role of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in signal transduction processes and suggests that the ability of phosphoinositides to induce or reduce long-range interactions in phospholipid mixtures is crucial. PMID:18708523

  4. Phosphoinositide phosphatases: just as important as the kinases.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Jennifer M; Fedele, Clare G; Davies, Elizabeth M; Becanovic, Jelena; Mitchell, Christina A

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide phosphatases comprise several large enzyme families with over 35 mammalian enzymes identified to date that degrade many phosphoinositide signals. Growth factor or insulin stimulation activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] to form phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], which is rapidly dephosphorylated either by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) to PtdIns(4,5)P(2), or by the 5-phosphatases (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases), generating PtdIns(3,4)P(2). 5-phosphatases also hydrolyze PtdIns(4,5)P(2) forming PtdIns(4)P. Ten mammalian 5-phosphatases have been identified, which regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signaling, and embryonic development. Two 5-phosphatase genes, OCRL and INPP5E are mutated in Lowe and Joubert syndrome respectively. SHIP [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain inositol phosphatase] 2, and SKIP (skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) negatively regulate insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. SHIP2 polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition to insulin resistance. SHIP1 controls hematopoietic cell proliferation and is mutated in some leukemias. The inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatases, INPP4A and INPP4B degrade PtdIns(3,4)P(2) to PtdIns(3)P and regulate neuroexcitatory cell death, or act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer respectively. The Sac phosphatases degrade multiple phosphoinositides, such as PtdIns(3)P, PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(5)P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) to form PtdIns. Mutation in the Sac phosphatase gene, FIG4, leads to a degenerative neuropathy. Therefore the phosphatases, like the lipid kinases, play major roles in regulating cellular functions and their mutation or altered expression leads to many human diseases. PMID:22403078

  5. Effect of chronic ethanol exposure on myocardial phosphoinositide turnover.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R; Schwertz, D W

    1997-06-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol consumption (2 months) on atrial contractility and the myocardial phosphoinositide signaling system was examined in rat heart. Two months of ethanol consumption was not associated with changes in heart weight-to-body weight ratios; however, developed twitch tension was significantly lower in the ethanol atria compared with the control atria. Cytosolic and membrane-associated phospholipase C activity in atrial and ventricular tissue was measured and ethanol consumption was only associated with changes in ventricular cytosolic phospholipase C activity. When examining alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulated phosphoinositide turnover in [3H]inositol radiolabeled left atria, no differences in phenylephrine (10 microM)-stimulated inositol monophosphate, inositol bisphosphate, inositol trisphosphate, and inositol tetrakisphosphate were found between groups before or at various times after the addition of phenylephrine. It is concluded that short-term ethanol consumption is associated with depressed contractile function, but not the development of hypertrophy or changes in alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. PMID:9194930

  6. Phosphoinositides: Tiny Lipids With Giant Impact on Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) make up only a small fraction of cellular phospholipids, yet they control almost all aspects of a cell's life and death. These lipids gained tremendous research interest as plasma membrane signaling molecules when discovered in the 1970s and 1980s. Research in the last 15 years has added a wide range of biological processes regulated by PIs, turning these lipids into one of the most universal signaling entities in eukaryotic cells. PIs control organelle biology by regulating vesicular trafficking, but they also modulate lipid distribution and metabolism via their close relationship with lipid transfer proteins. PIs regulate ion channels, pumps, and transporters and control both endocytic and exocytic processes. The nuclear phosphoinositides have grown from being an epiphenomenon to a research area of its own. As expected from such pleiotropic regulators, derangements of phosphoinositide metabolism are responsible for a number of human diseases ranging from rare genetic disorders to the most common ones such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that a number of infectious agents hijack the PI regulatory systems of host cells for their intracellular movements, replication, and assembly. As a result, PI converting enzymes began to be noticed by pharmaceutical companies as potential therapeutic targets. This review is an attempt to give an overview of this enormous research field focusing on major developments in diverse areas of basic science linked to cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23899561

  7. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Rory A.; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated. PMID:26313408

  8. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated. PMID:26313408

  9. Eukaryotic virulence determinants utilize phosphoinositides at the ER and host cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Stahelin, Robert V.; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Haldar, Kasturi

    2013-01-01

    Similar to bacteria, eukaryotic pathogens may also utilize common strategies of pathogenic secretion, as effector proteins from the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and virulence determinants from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum share a functionally equivalent host-cell targeting motif (RxLR-dEER in P. infestans and RxLxE/D/Q in P. falciparum). Here we summarize recent studies that reveal that the malarial motif may function differently than previously envisioned. Rather, binding the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] is a critical step in accessing the host for both pathogens, but occurs in different locations. Nanomolar affinity for PI(3)P by these short amino acid motifs, suggests a new mechanism of phosphoinositide binding unexpectedly in secretory locations that has been exploited for virulence by diverse eukaryotic pathogens. PMID:23375057

  10. INPP5E interacts with AURKA, linking phosphoinositide signaling to primary cilium stability

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikova, Olga V.; Seo, Seongjin; Cottle, Denny L.; Conduit, Sarah; Hakim, Sandra; Dyson, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, Christina A.; Smyth, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) cause the ciliopathies known as Joubert and MORM syndromes; however, the role of INPP5E in ciliary biology is not well understood. Here, we describe an interaction between INPP5E and AURKA, a centrosomal kinase that regulates mitosis and ciliary disassembly, and we show that this interaction is important for the stability of primary cilia. Furthermore, AURKA phosphorylates INPP5E and thereby increases its 5-phosphatase activity, which in turn promotes transcriptional downregulation of AURKA, partly through an AKT-dependent mechanism. These findings establish the first direct link between AURKA and phosphoinositide signaling and suggest that the function of INPP5E in cilia is at least partly mediated by its interactions with AURKA. PMID:25395580

  11. Determination and Characterization of Tetraspanin-Associated Phosphoinositide-4 Kinases in Primary and Neoplastic Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Krista; Carloni, Vinicio

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates phosphoinositide 4-phosphate as a regulatory molecule in its own right recruiting specific effector proteins to cellular membranes. Here, we describe biochemical and immunocytochemical methods to evaluate tetraspanin-associated phosphoinositide-4 kinases activity in primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and neoplastic hepatoblastoma cells. PMID:26552686

  12. Studies on phosphoinositide metabolism in retinal rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Gehm, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine whether isolated mammalian photoreceptors (bovine rod outer segments, ROS) were capable of synthesizing and hydrolyzing phosphoinositides, and if so, how synthesis and hydrolysis might be regulated. Synthesis of phosphoinositides was demonstrated by the incorporation of radioactively labeled precursors. ROS incubated with ({gamma}{sup 32}P)ATP produced labeled phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). When Mn{sup 2+}, CTP and inositol were added, labeled phosphatidylinositol (PI) was also produced. ({sup 3}H)Inositol was incorporated into PI, PIP and PIP{sub 2}, although prolonged incubation was required for detectable incorporation into PIP{sub 2}. Incorporation of ({sup 3}H)inositol was dependent on CTP, indicating that labeling proceeded via synthesis, not base exchange. Incubation with ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)CTP produced labeled CDP-diacylglycerol, an intermediate in PI synthesis. Incorporation of labeled precursors was stimulated by Mg{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} and spermine, but unaffected by light. Phosphoinositide hydrolysis was measured using exogenous {sup 3}H-labeled substrates. PI, PIP, and PIP{sub 2} were all hydrolyzed but most attention was devoted to PIP{sub 2}. Crude enzyme preparations contained an endogenous inhibitor whose effects were Ca{sup 2+}-dependently relieved by calmodulin antagonists. This inhibitor does not appear to be calmodulin but may be a novel Ca{sup 2+}-binding regulatory protein. No evidence for regulation of PLC activity by light or G-proteins was obtained. The effects on PLC activity of Mg{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, spermine, pH and detergents were also characterized.

  13. Phosphoinositide and Erk signaling pathways mediate activity-driven rodent olfactory sensory neuronal survival and stress mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeun; Mammen, Alex; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Cho, Bongki; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-In; Moon, Cheil; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2015-08-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are the initial site for olfactory signal transduction. Therefore, their survival is essential to olfactory function. In the current study, we demonstrated that while odorant stimulation promoted rodent OSN survival, it induced generation of reactive oxygen species in a dose- and time-dependent manner as well as loss of membrane potential and fragmentation of mitochondria. The MEK-Erk pathway played a critical role in mediating these events, as its inhibition decreased odorant stimulation-dependent OSN survival and exacerbated intracellular stress measured by reactive oxygen species generation and heat-shock protein 70 expression. The phosphoinositide pathway, rather than the cyclic AMP pathway, mediated the odorant-induced activation of the MEK-Erk pathway. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of activity-driven OSN survival, the role of the phosphoinositide pathway in odorant signaling, and demonstrate that odorant detection and odorant stimulation-mediated survival proceed via independent signaling pathways. This mechanism, which permits independent regulation of odorant detection from survival signaling, may be advantageous if not diminished by repeated or prolonged odor exposure. We investigated the role of odorant stimulation in generating cellular stress and the molecular mechanisms mitigating such stress and promoting neuronal survival. Odorant stimulation promoted olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) survival and also induced intracellular oxidative stress, which was exacerbated when MEK/Erks pathway was inhibited. Sensory stimulation simultaneously activated at least two parallel pathways, the AC/cAMP cascade responsible for odorant detection, and phosphoinositide hydrolysis to promote odorant stimulation-dependent neuronal survival odorants may activate parallel signaling cascades to mediate sensory detection and sensory stimulation-dependent survival. AC, adenylyl cyclase; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; Erk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MEK, MAPK/ERK kinase. PMID:25903517

  14. Pairing phosphoinositides with calcium ions in endolysosomal dynamics: phosphoinositides control the direction and specificity of membrane trafficking by regulating the activity of calcium channels in the endolysosomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dongbiao; Wang, Xiang; Xu, Haoxing

    2011-06-01

    The direction and specificity of endolysosomal membrane trafficking is tightly regulated by various cytosolic and membrane-bound factors, including soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), Rab GTPases, and phosphoinositides. Another trafficking regulatory factor is juxta-organellar Ca(2+) , which is hypothesized to be released from the lumen of endolysosomes and to be present at higher concentrations near fusion/fission sites. The recent identification and characterization of several Ca(2+) channel proteins from endolysosomal membranes has provided a unique opportunity to examine the roles of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) channels in the membrane trafficking of endolysosomes. SNAREs, Rab GTPases, and phosphoinositides have been reported to regulate plasma membrane ion channels, thereby suggesting that these trafficking regulators may also modulate endolysosomal dynamics by controlling Ca(2+) flux across endolysosomal membranes. In this paper, we discuss the roles of phosphoinositides, Ca(2+) , and potential interactions between endolysosomal Ca(2+) channels and phosphoinositides in endolysosomal dynamics. PMID:21538413

  15. Quantitation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate used for phosphoinositide metabolism in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, G.L.

    1985-11-01

    The human erythrocyte actively phosphorylates and dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol present in the membrane in an apparent ''futile cycle.'' Recent reports have proposed that this phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle is a significant consumer of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the erythrocyte. This study details two independent techniques for quantitating the ATP consumed by this phosphoinositide futile cycle. With the first technique a quasi-steady-state labeling of erythrocyte ATP with TSP-phosphate was obtained, and the rate of synthesis of TSP-phosphoinositides was then monitored. The second technique used a novel labeling strategy that allowed only ATP to be labeled with TSP; the transfer of TSP from ATP to phosphoinositides was then an independent measure of the ATP consumed for phosphoinositide synthesis. These two techniques documented that 0.5% to 1.0% of net ATP produced by the erythrocyte is used for phosphoinositide synthesis.

  16. Alcohol induced changes in phosphoinositide signaling system in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, S.; Piano, M.; Schwertz, D.; Davis, J.; Pandey, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Agonist-induced phosphoinositide break down functions as a signal generating system in a manner similar to the C-AMP system. In order to examine if the changes produced by chronic ethanol treatment on membrane lipid composition and metabolism effect the cellular functions of the neuron, the authors have examined the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on norepinephrine (NE) serotonin (5HT) and calcium ionophore (CI) stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in rat cortical slices. Rats were maintained on liber-decarli diet alcohol and control liquid diet containing isocaloric sucrose substitute for two months. They were then sacrificed and brain was removed for determination of PI turnover. 5HT stimulated {sup 3}H- inositol monophosphate ({sup 3}H-IPI) formation was significantly lower in the cortex of alcohol treated rats as compared to control rats. However, neither CI nor NE stimulated IP1 formation was significantly different from control rats. The results thus indicate that chronic exposure to ethanol decreases 5HT induced PI breakdown in rat cortex. In order to examine if this decrease is related to a decrease in 5HT2 receptors, or decreased in coupling of receptor to the effector pathway, the authors are currently determining the number and affinity of 5HT2 receptors in alcohol treated rats.

  17. Phosphoinositides in the Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bish, Bryan; Syed, Gulam; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes possess seven different phosphoinositides (PIPs) that help form the unique signatures of various intracellular membranes. PIPs serve as docking sites for the recruitment of specific proteins to mediate membrane alterations and integrate various signaling cascades. The spatio-temporal regulation of PI kinases and phosphatases generates distinct intracellular hubs of PIP signaling. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), like other plus-strand RNA viruses, promotes the rearrangement of intracellular membranes to assemble viral replication complexes. HCV stimulates enrichment of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) pools near endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sites by activating PI4KIII?, the kinase responsible for generation of ER-specific PI4P pools. Inhibition of PI4KIII? abrogates HCV replication. PI4P, the most abundant phosphoinositide, predominantly localizes to the Golgi and plays central roles in Golgi secretory functions by recruiting effector proteins involved in transport vesicle generation. The PI4P effector proteins also include the lipid-transfer and structural proteins such as ceramide transfer protein (CERT), oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) that help maintain Golgi-membrane composition and structure. Depletion of Golgi-specific PI4P pools by silencing PI4KIII?, expression of dominant negative CERT and OSBP mutants, or silencing GOLPH3 perturb HCV secretion. In this review we highlight the role of PIPs and specifically PI4P in the HCV life cycle. PMID:23202467

  18. Phosphoinositide Kinases Play Key Roles in Norepinephrine- and Angiotensin II-induced Increase in Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate and Modulation of Cardiac Function*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Xi; Si, Man; Zhang, Hui-Ran; Chen, Xing-Juan; Zhang, Xi-Dong; Wang, Chuan; Du, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hai-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The seemly paradoxical Gq agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide production has long been known, but the underlying mechanism and its physiological significance are not known. In this study, we studied cardiac phosphoinositide levels in both cells and whole animals under the stimulation of norepinephrine (NE), angiotensin II (Ang II), and other physiologically relevant interventions. The results demonstrated that activation of membrane receptors related to NE or Ang II caused an initial increase and a later fall in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) levels in the primary cultured cardiomyocytes from adult rats. The possible mechanism underlying this increase in PIP2 was found to be through an enhanced activity of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III?, which was mediated by an up-regulated interaction between phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III? and PKC; the increased activity of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase ? was also involved for NE-induced increase of PIP2. When the systolic functions of the NE/Ang II-treated cells were measured, a maintained or failed contractility was found to be correlated with a rise or fall in corresponding PIP2 levels. In two animal models of cardiac hypertrophy, PIP2 levels were significantly reduced in hypertrophic hearts induced by isoprenaline but not in those induced by swimming exercise. This study describes a novel mechanism for phosphoinositide metabolism and modulation of cardiac function. PMID:24448808

  19. Potassium ion facilitation of phosphoinositide turnover activation by muscarinic receptor agonists in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Eva, C; Costa, E

    1986-05-01

    In rat hippocampal slices kept in Krebs-Henseleit medium, an increase of K+ ions to 12 mM potentiates the stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover elicited by carbachol and (+/-)-cis-methyldioxolane. Oxotremorine is inactive if tested in Krebs-Henseleit medium but it stimulates by 220% the phosphoinositide turnover when K+ is increased to 12 mM. The K+ facilitation of the carbachol stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover was blocked by pirenzepine, a muscarinic antagonist. This drug was equally potent in inhibiting the carbachol stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover both in normal and 12 mM K+ Krebs medium. This facilitatory effect of K+ appears to be preferential for muscarinic receptors, since it failed to increase the activation of phosphoinositide breakdown induced by norepinephrine and histamine. The K+ potentiation of the muscarinic stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover is not mediated by a release of one of the endogenous neurotransmitters stored in these slices because such a facilitation occurs in Ca2+-deprived Krebs-Henseleit medium and failed to occur following a depolarizing dose of veratrine. Our experiments excluded that K+ facilitates carbachol stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover because it modifies the binding characteristics of muscarinic receptors; however, they cannot exclude that K+ acts at the receptor transducer coupling. PMID:3007671

  20. Structural Comparisons of Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Amzel, L.; Huang, C; Mandelker, D; Lengauer, C; Gabelli, S; Vogelstein, B

    2008-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that regulate cell growth. One of these kinases, PI3Kalpha, is frequently mutated in diverse tumour types. The recently determined structure of PI3Kalpha reveals features that distinguish this enzyme from related lipid kinases. In addition, wild-type PI3Kgamma differs from PI3Kalpha by a substitution identical to a PI3Kalpha oncogenic mutant (His1047Arg) that might explain the differences in the enzymatic activities of the normal and mutant PI3Kalpha. Comparison of the PI3K structures also identified structural features that could potentially be exploited for the design of isoform-specific inhibitors.

  1. Resveratrol is a class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Frjd, Sara; Cozzone, Delphine; Vidal, Hubert; Pirola, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in fruits, possesses chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties and has been shown to increase lifespan in yeast and metazoans, including mice. Genetic evidence and in vitro enzymatic measurements indicate that the deacetylase Sir2/SIRT1, an enzyme promoting stress resistance and aging, is the target of resveratrol. Similarly, down-regulation of insulin-like pathways, of which PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) is a key mediator, promotes longevity and is an attractive strategy to fight cancer. We show here that resveratrol inhibits, in vitro and in cultured muscle cell lines, class IA PI3K and its downstream signalling at the same concentration range at which it activates sirtuins. Our observations define class IA PI3K as a target of resveratrol that may contribute to the longevity-promoting and anticancer properties and identify resveratrol as a natural class-specific PI3K inhibitor. PMID:17550345

  2. A Role for Phosphoinositides in Regulating Plant Nuclear Functions

    PubMed Central

    Dieck, Catherine B.; Boss, Wendy F.; Perera, Imara Y.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear localized inositol phospholipids and inositol phosphates are important for regulating many essential processes in animal and yeast cells such as DNA replication, recombination, RNA processing, mRNA export and cell cycle progression. An overview of the current literature indicates the presence of a plant nuclear phosphoinositide (PI) pathway. Inositol phospholipids, inositol phosphates, and enzymes of the PI pathway have been identified in plant nuclei and are implicated in DNA replication, chromatin remodeling, stress responses and hormone signaling. In this review, the potential functions of the nuclear PI pathway in plants are discussed within the context of the animal and yeast literature. It is anticipated that future research will help shed light on the functional significance of the nuclear PI pathway in plants. PMID:22645589

  3. Salmonella modulates vesicular traffic by altering phosphoinositide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Lorraine D; Hueffer, Karsten; Wenk, Markus R; Galn, Jorge E

    2004-06-18

    Salmonella enterica, the cause of food poisoning and typhoid fever, induces actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane ruffling to gain access into nonphagocytic cells, where it can replicate and avoid innate immune defenses. Here, we found that SopB, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is delivered into host cells by a type III secretion system, was essential for the establishment of Salmonella's intracellular replicative niche. SopB mediated the formation of spacious phagosomes following bacterial entry and was responsible for maintaining high levels of phosphatidylinositol-three-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] in the membrane of the bacteria-containing vacuoles. Absence of SopB caused a significant defect in the maturation of the Salmonella-containing vacuole and impaired bacterial intracellular growth. PMID:15205533

  4. In vivo tracking of phosphoinositides in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Roger C; Liu, Che-Hsiung; Randall, Alexander S; Sengupta, Sukanya

    2015-12-01

    In order to monitor phosphoinositide turnover during phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated Drosophila phototransduction, fluorescently tagged lipid probes were expressed in photoreceptors and imaged both in dissociated cells, and in eyes of intact living flies. Of six probes tested, Tb(R332H) (a mutant of the Tubby protein pleckstrin homology domain) was judged the best reporter for phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], and the P4M domain from Legionella SidM for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P). Using accurately calibrated illumination, we found that only ?50% of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and very little PtdIns4P were depleted by full daylight intensities in wild-type flies, but both were severely depleted by ?100-fold dimmer intensities in mutants lacking Ca(2+)-permeable transient receptor potential (TRP) channels or protein kinase C (PKC). Resynthesis of PtdIns4P (t ?12?s) was faster than PtdIns(4,5)P2 (t ?40?s), but both were greatly slowed in mutants of DAG kinase (rdgA) or PtdIns transfer protein (rdgB). The results indicate that Ca(2+)- and PKC-dependent inhibition of PLC is required for enabling photoreceptors to maintain phosphoinositide levels despite high rates of hydrolysis by PLC, and suggest that phosphorylation of PtdIns4P to PtdIns(4,5)P2 is the rate-limiting step of the cycle. PMID:26483384

  5. In vivo tracking of phosphoinositides in Drosophila photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Roger C.; Liu, Che-Hsiung; Randall, Alexander S.; Sengupta, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to monitor phosphoinositide turnover during phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated Drosophila phototransduction, fluorescently tagged lipid probes were expressed in photoreceptors and imaged both in dissociated cells, and in eyes of intact living flies. Of six probes tested, TbR332H (a mutant of the Tubby protein pleckstrin homology domain) was judged the best reporter for phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], and the P4M domain from Legionella SidM for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P). Using accurately calibrated illumination, we found that only ∼50% of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and very little PtdIns4P were depleted by full daylight intensities in wild-type flies, but both were severely depleted by ∼100-fold dimmer intensities in mutants lacking Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential (TRP) channels or protein kinase C (PKC). Resynthesis of PtdIns4P (t½ ∼12 s) was faster than PtdIns(4,5)P2 (t½ ∼40 s), but both were greatly slowed in mutants of DAG kinase (rdgA) or PtdIns transfer protein (rdgB). The results indicate that Ca2+- and PKC-dependent inhibition of PLC is required for enabling photoreceptors to maintain phosphoinositide levels despite high rates of hydrolysis by PLC, and suggest that phosphorylation of PtdIns4P to PtdIns(4,5)P2 is the rate-limiting step of the cycle. PMID:26483384

  6. Phosphoinositide Signaling Pathways in Nuclei Are Associated with Nuclear Speckles Containing Pre-mRNA Processing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Boronenkov, Igor V.; Loijens, Joost C.; Umeda, Masato; Anderson, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways in nuclei use enzymes that are indistinguishable from their cytosolic analogues. We demonstrate that distinct phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs), the type I and type II isoforms, are concentrated in nuclei of mammalian cells. The cytosolic and nuclear PIPKs display comparable activities toward the substrates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that these kinases were associated with distinct subnuclear domains, identified as nuclear speckles, which also contained pre-mRNA processing factors. A pool of nuclear phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), the product of these kinases, was also detected at these same sites by monoclonal antibody staining. The localization of PIPKs and PIP2 to speckles is dynamic in that both PIPKs and PIP2 reorganize along with other speckle components upon inhibition of mRNA transcription. Because PIPKs have roles in the production of most phosphatidylinositol second messengers, these findings demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways are localized at nuclear speckles. Surprisingly, the PIPKs and PIP2 are not associated with invaginations of the nuclear envelope or any nuclear membrane structure. The putative absence of membranes at these sites suggests novel mechanisms for the generation of phosphoinositides within these structures. PMID:9843587

  7. Functional Anatomy of Phospholipid Binding And Regulation of Phosphoinositide Homeostasis By Proteins of the Sec14 Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, G.; Ortlund, E.A.; Tyeryar, K.R.; Mousley, C.J.; Ile, K.E.; Garrett, T.A.; Ren, J.; Woolls, M.J.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Redinbo, M.R.; Bankaitis, V.A.

    2009-05-27

    Sec14, the major yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein, regulates essential interfaces between lipid metabolism and membrane trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). How Sec14 does so remains unclear. We report that Sec14 binds PtdIns and PtdCho at distinct (but overlapping) sites, and both PtdIns- and PtdCho-binding activities are essential Sec14 activities. We further show both activities must reside within the same molecule to reconstitute a functional Sec14 and for effective Sec14-mediated regulation of phosphoinositide homeostasis in vivo. This regulation is uncoupled from PtdIns-transfer activity and argues for an interfacial presentation mode for Sec14-mediated potentiation of PtdIns kinases. Such a regulatory role for Sec14 is a primary counter to action of the Kes1 sterol-binding protein that antagonizes PtdIns 4-OH kinase activity in vivo. Collectively, these findings outline functional mechanisms for the Sec14 superfamily and reveal additional layers of complexity for regulating phosphoinositide homeostasis in eukaryotes.

  8. Phosphoinositide kinases and the synthesis of polyphosphoinositides in higher plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobak, B. K.; Dewey, R. E.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are a family of inositol-containing phospholipids which are present in all eukaryotic cells. Although in most cells these lipids, with the exception of phosphatidylinositol, constitute only a very minor proportion of total cellular lipids, they have received immense attention by researchers in the past 15-20 years. This is due to the discovery that these lipids, rather than just having structural functions, play key roles in a wide range of important cellular processes. Much less is known about the plant phosphoinositides than about their mammalian counterparts. However, it has been established that a functional phosphoinositide system exists in plant cells and it is becoming increasingly clear that inositol-containing lipids are likely to play many important roles throughout the life of a plant. It is not our intention to give an exhaustive overview of all aspects of the field, but rather we focus on the phosphoinositide kinases responsible for the synthesis of all phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol. Also, we mention some of the aspects of current phosphoinositide research which, in our opinion, are most likely to provide a suitable starting point for further research into the role of phosphoinositides in plants.

  9. Computational studies of the binding profile of phosphoinositide PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 with the pleckstrin homology domain of an oomycete cellulose synthase.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Guanglin; Bulone, Vincent; Tu, Yaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Saprolegnia monoica is a model organism to investigate Saprolegnia parasitica, an important oomycete which causes considerable loss in aquaculture every year. S. monoica contains cellulose synthases vital for oomycete growth. However, the molecular mechanism of the cellulose biosynthesis process in the oomycete growth is still poorly understood. Some cellulose synthases of S. monoica, such as SmCesA2, are found to contain a plecsktrin homology (PH) domain, which is a protein module widely found in nature and known to bind to phosphoinositides, a class of signaling compounds involved in many biological processes. Understanding the molecular interactions between the PH domain and phosphoinositides would help to unravel the cellulose biosynthesis process of oomycetes. In this work, the binding profile of PtdIns (3,4,5) P3, a typical phosphoinositide, with SmCesA2-PH was studied by molecular docking, molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 is found to bind at a specific site located at β1, β2 and β1-β2 loop of SmCesA2-PH. The high affinity of PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 to SmCesA2-PH is contributed by the free phosphate groups, which have electrostatic and hydrogen-bond interactions with Lys88, Lys100 and Arg102 in the binding site. PMID:26857031

  10. Computational studies of the binding profile of phosphoinositide PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 with the pleckstrin homology domain of an oomycete cellulose synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Guanglin; Bulone, Vincent; Tu, Yaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Saprolegnia monoica is a model organism to investigate Saprolegnia parasitica, an important oomycete which causes considerable loss in aquaculture every year. S. monoica contains cellulose synthases vital for oomycete growth. However, the molecular mechanism of the cellulose biosynthesis process in the oomycete growth is still poorly understood. Some cellulose synthases of S. monoica, such as SmCesA2, are found to contain a plecsktrin homology (PH) domain, which is a protein module widely found in nature and known to bind to phosphoinositides, a class of signaling compounds involved in many biological processes. Understanding the molecular interactions between the PH domain and phosphoinositides would help to unravel the cellulose biosynthesis process of oomycetes. In this work, the binding profile of PtdIns (3,4,5) P3, a typical phosphoinositide, with SmCesA2-PH was studied by molecular docking, molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 is found to bind at a specific site located at β1, β2 and β1-β2 loop of SmCesA2-PH. The high affinity of PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 to SmCesA2-PH is contributed by the free phosphate groups, which have electrostatic and hydrogen-bond interactions with Lys88, Lys100 and Arg102 in the binding site. PMID:26857031

  11. Computational studies of the binding profile of phosphoinositide PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 with the pleckstrin homology domain of an oomycete cellulose synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Guanglin; Bulone, Vincent; Tu, Yaoquan

    2016-02-01

    Saprolegnia monoica is a model organism to investigate Saprolegnia parasitica, an important oomycete which causes considerable loss in aquaculture every year. S. monoica contains cellulose synthases vital for oomycete growth. However, the molecular mechanism of the cellulose biosynthesis process in the oomycete growth is still poorly understood. Some cellulose synthases of S. monoica, such as SmCesA2, are found to contain a plecsktrin homology (PH) domain, which is a protein module widely found in nature and known to bind to phosphoinositides, a class of signaling compounds involved in many biological processes. Understanding the molecular interactions between the PH domain and phosphoinositides would help to unravel the cellulose biosynthesis process of oomycetes. In this work, the binding profile of PtdIns (3,4,5) P3, a typical phosphoinositide, with SmCesA2-PH was studied by molecular docking, molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 is found to bind at a specific site located at β1, β2 and β1-β2 loop of SmCesA2-PH. The high affinity of PtdIns (3,4,5) P3 to SmCesA2-PH is contributed by the free phosphate groups, which have electrostatic and hydrogen-bond interactions with Lys88, Lys100 and Arg102 in the binding site.

  12. Control of Cardiac Repolarization by Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling to Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Lisa M.; Lin, Richard Z.; Cohen, Ira S.

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is a common alteration in human cancer, and numerous drugs that target this pathway have been developed for cancer treatment. However, recent studies have implicated inhibition of the PI3K signaling pathway as the cause of a drug-induced long QT syndrome in which alterations in several ion currents contribute to arrhythmogenic drug activity. Surprisingly, some drugs that were thought to induce long QT syndrome by direct block of the rapid delayed rectifier (IKr) also appear to inhibit PI3K signaling, an effect that may contribute to their arrhythmogenicity. The importance of PI3K in regulating cardiac repolarization is underscored by evidence that QT interval prolongation in diabetes also may result from changes in multiple currents due to decreased insulin activation of PI3K in the heart. How PI3K signaling regulates ion channels to control the cardiac action potential is poorly understood. Hence, this review summarizes what is known about the impact of PI3K and its downstream effectors including Akt on sodium, potassium and calcium currents in cardiac myocytes. We also refer to some studies in non-cardiac cells that provide insight into potential mechanisms of ion channel regulation by this signaling pathway in the heart. Drug development and safety could be improved with a better understanding of the mechanisms by which PI3K regulates cardiac ion channels and the extent to which PI3K inhibition contributes to arrhythmogenic susceptibility. PMID:25552692

  13. Phosphoinositide system-linked serotonin receptor subtypes and their pharmacological properties and clinical correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, S C; Davis, J M; Pandey, G N

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission represents a complex mechanism involving pre- and post-synaptic events and distinct 5-HT receptor subtypes. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been classified into several categories, and they are termed as 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 type receptors. 5-HT1 receptors have been further subdivided into 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F. 5-HT2 receptors have been divided into 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. All 5-HT2 receptor subtypes are linked to the multifunctional phosphoinositide (PI) signalling system. 5-HT3 receptors are considered ion-gated receptors and are also linked to the PI signalling system by an unknown mechanism. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is the most widely studied of the 5-HT receptors in psychiatric disorders (for example, suicide, depression and schizophrenia) as well as in relation to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. The roles of 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors in psychiatric disorders are less clear. These 5-HT receptors also play an important role in alcoholism. It has been shown that 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 antagonists cause attenuation of alcohol intake in animals and humans. However, the exact mechanisms are unknown. The recent cloning of the cDNAs for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors provides the opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the alterations in these receptors during illness as well as pharmacotherapy. This review article will focus on the current research into the pharmacological properties, molecular biology, and clinical correlates of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:7786883

  14. Tools for visualization of phosphoinositides in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kalasova, Ilona; Fáberová, Veronika; Kalendová, Alžběta; Yildirim, Sukriye; Uličná, Lívia; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are glycerol-based phospholipids containing hydrophilic inositol ring. The inositol ring is mono-, bis-, or tris-phosphorylated yielding seven PIs members. Ample evidence shows that PIs localize both to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus. However, tools for direct visualization of nuclear PIs are limited and many studies thus employ indirect approaches, such as staining of their metabolic enzymes. Since localization and mobility of PIs differ from their metabolic enzymes, these approaches may result in incomplete data. In this paper, we tested commercially available PIs antibodies by light microscopy on fixed cells, tested their specificity using protein-lipid overlay assay and blocking assay, and compared their staining patterns. Additionally, we prepared recombinant PIs-binding domains and tested them on both fixed and live cells by light microscopy. The results provide a useful overview of usability of the tools tested and stress that the selection of adequate tools is critical. Knowing the localization of individual PIs in various functional compartments should enable us to better understand the roles of PIs in the cell nucleus. PMID:26847181

  15. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Sriskantharajah, Srividya; Hamblin, Nicole; Worsley, Sally; Calver, Andrew R; Hessel, Edith M; Amour, Augustin

    2013-03-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized in their pathogenesis by chronic inflammation in the airways. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?), a lipid kinase expressed predominantly in leukocytes, is thought to hold much promise as a therapeutic target for such inflammatory conditions. Of particular interest for the treatment of severe respiratory disease is the observation that inhibition of PI3K? may restore steroid effectiveness under conditions of oxidative stress. PI3K? inhibition may also prevent recruitment of inflammatory cells, including T lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as the release of proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and proteolytic enzymes. In addition, targeting the PI3K? pathway could reduce the incidence of pathogen-induced exacerbations by improving macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance. In this review, we discuss the potential and highlight the unknowns of targeting PI3K? for the treatment of respiratory disease, focusing on recent developments in the role of the PI3K? pathway in inflammatory cell types believed to be critical to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:23551101

  16. Ciliary Phosphoinositide Regulates Ciliary Protein Trafficking in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Park, Jina; Lee, Nayoung; Kavoussi, Adriana; Seo, Jeong Taeg; Kim, Chul Hoon; Moon, Seok Jun

    2015-12-29

    Cilia are highly specialized antennae-like cellular organelles. Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) converts PI(4,5)P2 into PI4P and is required for proper ciliary function. Although Inpp5e mutations are associated with ciliopathies in humans and mice, the precise molecular role INPP5E plays in cilia remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila INPP5E (dINPP5E) regulates ciliary protein trafficking by controlling the phosphoinositide composition of ciliary membranes. Mutations in dInpp5e lead to hearing deficits due to the mislocalization of dTULP and mechanotransduction channels, Inactive and NOMPC, in chordotonal cilia. Both loss of dINPP5E and ectopic expression of the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase Skittles increase PI(4,5)P2 levels in the ciliary base. The fact that Skittles expression phenocopies the dInpp5e mutants confirms a central role for PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of dTULP, Inactive, and NOMPC localization. These data suggest that the spatial localization and levels of PI(4,5)P2 in ciliary membranes are important regulators of ciliary trafficking and function. PMID:26723017

  17. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  18. Requirement of Phosphoinositides Containing Stearic Acid To Control Cell Polarity.

    PubMed

    Doignon, François; Laquel, Patricia; Testet, Eric; Tuphile, Karine; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are present in very small amounts but are essential for cell signaling, morphogenesis, and polarity. By mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that some PIPs with stearic acyl chains were strongly disturbed in a psi1Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deficient in the specific incorporation of a stearoyl chain at the sn-1 position of phosphatidylinositol. The absence of PIPs containing stearic acid induced disturbances in intracellular trafficking, although the total amount of PIPs was not diminished. Changes in PIPs also induced alterations in the budding pattern and defects in actin cytoskeleton organization (cables and patches). Moreover, when the PSI1 gene was impaired, a high proportion of cells with bipolar cortical actin patches that occurred concomitantly with the bipolar localization of Cdc42p was specifically found among diploid cells. This bipolar cortical actin phenotype, never previously described, was also detected in a bud9Δ/bud9Δ strain. Very interestingly, overexpression of PSI1 reversed this phenotype. PMID:26711260

  19. Ethanol stimulates phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.; Thomas, A.; Hoek, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Ethanol (50-300 mM) causes a transient mobilization of calcium from hormone-sensitive pools in rat hepatocytes. They have studied the action of ethanol on polyphosphoinositide and inositol phosphate levels in these cells. Addition of ethanol to isolated hepatocytes prelabelled with /sup 32/Pi resulted in a small (3-5%) decrease in the level of (/sup 32/P)-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and a 10-15% increase in (/sup 32/P) phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and (/sup 32/P) phosphatidic acid. Maximal changes were seen within 30 sec after ethanol. (/sup 32/P) phosphatidylcholine was unaffected. The changes were concentration dependent over a range of 50-500 mM ethanol. Phorbol esters, which inhibit ethanol-induced calcium mobilization, also inhibited these effects of ethanol on polyphosphoinositides. In intact hepatocytes labeled with myo-(2-/sup 3/H)inositol a significant ethanol-induced increase in (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates could not be detected. After permeabilization of the cells with digitonin, however, ethanol caused a time and concentration dependent release of (/sup 3/H) inositol trisphosphate and (/sup 3/H)inositol bisphosphate. These results indicate that ethanol-induced calcium mobilization in hepatocytes is due to the activation by ethanol of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C.

  20. Phosphoinositide regulation of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels

    PubMed Central

    Frst, Oliver; Mondou, Benoit; D'Avanzo, Nazzareno

    2014-01-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels are integral membrane proteins charged with a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential of excitable cells through selective control of the permeation of K+ ions across cell membranes. In conjunction with secondary anionic phospholipids, members of this family are directly regulated by phosphoinositides (PIPs) in the absence of other proteins or downstream signaling pathways. Different Kir isoforms display distinct specificities for the activating PIPs but all eukaryotic Kir channels are activated by PI(4,5)P2. On the other hand, the bacterial KirBac1.1 channel is inhibited by PIPs. Recent crystal structures of eukaryotic Kir channels in apo and lipid bound forms reveal one specific binding site per subunit, formed at the interface of N- and C-terminal domains, just beyond the transmembrane segments and clearly involving some of the key residues previously identified as controlling PI(4,5)P2 sensitivity. Computational, biochemical, and biophysical approaches have attempted to address the energetic determinants of PIP binding and selectivity among Kir channel isoforms, as well as the conformational changes that trigger channel gating. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular determinants of PIP regulation of Kir channel activity, including in context with other lipid modulators, and provide further discussion on the key questions that remain to be answered. PMID:24409153

  1. Role of Phosphoinositide 3-OH Kinase p110? in Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riddle-Kottke, Melissa A.; Leandry, Luis A.; Lynch, Christine M.; Abdalla, Mary N.; Geddis, Alyssa V.; Piper, David R.; Zhao, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) regulates a number of developmental and physiologic processes in skeletal muscle; however, the contributions of individual PI3K p110 catalytic subunits to these processes are not well-defined. To address this question, we investigated the role of the 110-kDa PI3K catalytic subunit ? (p110?) in myogenesis and metabolism. In C2C12 cells, pharmacological inhibition of p110? delayed differentiation. We next generated mice with conditional deletion of p110? in skeletal muscle (p110? muscle knockout [p110?-mKO] mice). While young p110?-mKO mice possessed a lower quadriceps mass and exhibited less strength than control littermates, no differences in muscle mass or strength were observed between genotypes in old mice. However, old p110?-mKO mice were less glucose tolerant than old control mice. Overexpression of p110? accelerated differentiation in C2C12 cells and primary human myoblasts through an Akt-dependent mechanism, while expression of kinase-inactive p110? had the opposite effect. p110? overexpression was unable to promote myoblast differentiation under conditions of p110? inhibition, but expression of p110? was able to promote differentiation under conditions of p110? inhibition. These findings reveal a role for p110? during myogenesis and demonstrate that long-term reduction of skeletal muscle p110? impairs whole-body glucose tolerance without affecting skeletal muscle size or strength in old mice. PMID:25605332

  2. NuMA interacts with phosphoinositides and links the mitotic spindle with the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kotak, Sachin; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The positioning and the elongation of the mitotic spindle must be carefully regulated. In human cells, the evolutionary conserved proteins LGN/Gαi1-3 anchor the coiled-coil protein NuMA and dynein to the cell cortex during metaphase, thus ensuring proper spindle positioning. The mechanisms governing cortical localization of NuMA and dynein during anaphase remain more elusive. Here, we report that LGN/Gαi1-3 are dispensable for NuMA-dependent cortical dynein enrichment during anaphase. We further establish that NuMA is excluded from the equatorial region of the cell cortex in a manner that depends on the centralspindlin components CYK4 and MKLP1. Importantly, we reveal that NuMA can directly associate with PtdInsP (PIP) and PtdInsP2 (PIP2) phosphoinositides in vitro. Furthermore, chemical or enzymatic depletion of PIP/PIP2 prevents NuMA cortical localization during mitosis, and conversely, increasing PIP2 levels augments mitotic cortical NuMA. Overall, our study uncovers a novel function for plasma membrane phospholipids in governing cortical NuMA distribution and thus the proper execution of mitosis. PMID:24996901

  3. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by interaction with Ras and by point mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Viciana, P; Warne, P H; Vanhaesebroeck, B; Waterfield, M D; Downward, J

    1996-01-01

    We have reported previously that Ras interacts with the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in a GTP-dependent manner. The affinity of the interaction of Ras-GTP with p85alpha/p110alpha is shown here to be approximately 150 nM. The site of interaction on the p110alpha and beta isoforms of PI 3-kinase lies between amino acid residues 133 and 314. A point mutation in this region, K227E, blocks the GTP-dependent interaction of PI 3-kinase p110alpha with Ras in vitro and the ability of Ras to activate PI 3-kinase in intact cells. In addition, this mutation elevates the basal activity of PI 3-kinase in intact cells, suggesting a direct influence of the Ras binding site on the catalytic activity of PI 3-kinase. Using an in vitro reconstitution assay, it is shown that the interaction of Ras-GTP, but not Ras-GDP, with PI 3-kinase leads to an increase in its enzymatic activity. This stimulation is synergistic with the effect of tyrosine phosphopeptide binding to p85, particularly at suboptimal peptide concentrations. These data show that PI 3-kinase is regulated by a number of mechanisms, and that Ras contributes to the activation of this lipid kinase synergistically with tyrosine kinases. Images PMID:8665852

  4. New experimental trends for phosphoinositides research on ion transporter/channel regulation.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masayuki X; Inoue, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides(4,5)-bisphosphates [PI(4,5)P2] critically controls membrane excitability, the disruption of which leads to pathophysiological states. PI(4,5)P2 plays a primary role in regulating the conduction and gating properties of ion channels/transporters, through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions that allow direct associations. In recent years, the development of many molecular tools have brought deep insights into the mechanisms underlying PI(4,5)P2-mediated regulation. This review summarizes the methods currently available to manipulate the cell membrane PI(4,5)P2 level including pharmacological interventions as well as newly designed molecular tools. We concisely introduce materials and experimental designs suitable for the study of PI(4,5)P2-mediated regulation of ion-conducting molecules, in order to assist researchers who are interested in this area. It is our further hope that the knowledge introduced in this review will help to promote our understanding about the pathology of diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias, bipolar disorders, and Alzheimer's disease which are somehow associated with a disruption of PI(4,5)P2 metabolism. PMID:25367262

  5. Effect of dual agonists on phosphoinositide pools in WRK-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, M E; Attinasi, M; Koréh, K

    1990-01-01

    Both vasopressin and bradykinin activate the phosphoinositide cycle in WRK-1 rat mammary tumour cells. When the two agonists are added simultaneously, partial additivity is observed with respect to disappearance of prelabelled phosphoinositides and accumulation of inositol phosphates; no additivity is observed with respect to resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol as assessed by monitoring [32P]Pi incorporation. Lack of complete additivity can be explained, at least in part, by heterologous desensitization. In order to determine whether the two agonists were accessing a common or individual hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide pools, cells were incubated with [32P]Pi in the presence of either vasopressin or bradykinin and subsequently restimulated with the alternative agonist. The lipid pool labelled in the presence of either agonist was sensitive to subsequent treatment by the other ligand, suggesting a common phosphoinositide pool. However, when cells were incubated with [32P]Pi in the absence of agonists, the time course of labelling of the hormone-sensitive pool was different for bradykinin and vasopressin, with that for bradykinin becoming labelled within a much shorter time. Thus although there is a significant overlap between the phosphoinositide pools responding to vasopressin and bradykinin, there is a small fraction of the hormone-sensitive lipid which responds only to bradykinin. PMID:2167661

  6. Specific interactions among transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins and phosphoinositide 4-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Yauch, R L; Hemler, M E

    2000-01-01

    In earlier work we established that phosphoinositide 4-kinase (PI 4-kinase) may associate with transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF, tetraspanin) proteins, but critical specificity issues were not addressed. Here we demonstrate that at least five different TM4SF proteins (CD9, CD63, CD81, CD151 and A15/TALLA1) can associate with a similar or identical 55 kDa type II PI 4-kinase. These associations were specific, since we found no evidence for other phosphoinositide kinases (e.g. phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphoinositide-4-phosphate 5-kinase) associating with TM4SF proteins, and many other TM4SF proteins (including CD82 and CD53) did not associate with PI 4-kinase. CD63-PI 4-kinase complexes were almost entirely intracellular, and thus are distinct from other TM4SF-PI 4-kinase complexes (e.g. involving CD9), which are largely located in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that a specific subset of TM4SF proteins may recruit PI 4-kinase to specific membrane locations, and thereby influence phosphoinositide-dependent signalling. PMID:11042117

  7. Phosphoinositides in the nucleus and myogenic differentiation: how a nuclear turtle with a PHD builds muscle.

    PubMed

    Divecha, Nullin

    2016-02-15

    Phosphoinositides are a family of phospholipid messenger molecules that control various aspects of cell biology in part by interacting with and regulating downstream protein partners. Importantly, phosphoinositides are present in the nucleus. They form part of the nuclear envelope and are present within the nucleus in nuclear speckles, intra nuclear chromatin domains, the nuclear matrix and in chromatin. What their exact role is within these compartments is not completely clear, but the identification of nuclear specific proteins that contain phosphoinositide interaction domains suggest that they are important regulators of DNA topology, chromatin conformation and RNA maturation and export. The plant homeo domain (PHD) finger is a phosphoinositide binding motif that is largely present in nuclear proteins that regulate chromatin conformation. In the present study I outline how changes in the levels of the nuclear phosphoinositide PtdIns5P impact on muscle cell differentiation through the PHD finger of TAF3 (TAF, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor), which is a core component of a number of different basal transcription complexes. PMID:26862219

  8. [Phosphoinositides: lipidic essential actors in the intracellular traffic].

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Dimitri L; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Sanjuan-Vazquez, Myriam; Raess, Matthieu A; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PPIn) are lipids involved in the vesicular transport of proteins between the different intracellular compartments. They act by recruiting and/or activating effector proteins and are thus involved in crucial cellular functions including vesicle budding, fusion and dynamics of membranes and regulation of the cytoskeleton. Although they are present in low concentrations in membranes, their activity is essential for cell survival and needs to be tightly controlled. Therefore, phosphatases and kinases specific of the various cellular membranes can phosphorylate/dephosphorylate their inositol ring on the positions D3, D4 and/or D5. The differential phosphorylation determines the intracellular localisation and the activity of the PPIn. Indeed, non-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is the basic component of the PPIn and can be found in all eukaryotic cells at the cytoplasmic face of the ER, the Golgi, mitochondria and microsomes. It can get phosphorylated on position D4 to obtain PtdIns4P, a PPIn enriched in the Golgi compartment and involved in the maintenance of this organelle as well as anterograde and retrograde transport to and from the Golgi. PtdIns phosphorylation on position D3 results in PtdIns3P that is required for endosomal transport and multivesicular body (MVB) formation and sorting. These monophosphorylated PtdIns can be further phosphorylated to produce bisphophorylated PtdIns. Thus, PtdIns(4,5)P2, mainly produced by PtdIns4P phosphorylation, is enriched in the plasma membrane and involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis. PtdIns(3,5)P2, mainly produced by PtdIns3P phosphorylation, is enriched in late endosomes, MVBs and the lysosome/vacuole and plays a role in endosome to vacuole transport. PtdIns(3,4)P2 is absent in yeast, cells and mainly produced by PtdIns4P phosphorylation in human cells; PtdIns(3,4)P2 is localised in the plasma membrane and plays an important role as a second messenger by recruiting specific protein kinases (Akt and PDK1). Finally the triple phosphorylated PPIn, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 also absent in yeast, is produced by the phosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 and localized at the plasma membrane of human cells where it binds proteins via their PH domain. Interaction partners include members of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factors) family, PDK1 (Phosphoinositide Dependent Kinase 1) and Akt. Therefore this last PPIn is essential for the control of cell proliferation and its deregulation leads to the development of numerous cancers. In conclusion, the regulation of PPIn phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is complex and needs to be very precisely regulated. Indeed phosphatases and kinases allow the maintenance of the equilibrium between the different forms. PPIn play a crucial role in numerous cellular functions and a loss in their synthesis or regulation results in severe genetic diseases. PMID:26115715

  9. Carbachol-induced phosphoinositide turnover in NCB-20 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, D.M.; Dillon-Carter, O.

    1986-03-01

    NCB-20 cells (fetal Chinese hamster brain cell x neuroblastoma hybrids) have been shown to contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. The authors now report that this cloned cell line also contains acetylcholne receptors which are linked to phospholipase C. Confluent cell cultures were preincubated with /sup 3/H-myo-inositol to label endogenous phosphoinositide (PI) and the accumulation of a PI metabolite, inositol monophosphate (IP/sub 1/), was measured in the presence of LiCl. Carbachol increased IP/sub 1/), accumulation be more than 400% with a EC/sub 50/ of about 50 ..mu..M. Acetylcholine and muscarine were also effective, whereas oxotremorine and McN-A-343 were weak in both potency and efficacy. The carbachol-induced IP/sub 1/ accumulation was completely blocked by atropine (Ki approx. 0.6 nM) and pirenzepine (Ki approx. 15 nM). The presence of KCl was not required for the carbachol-induced effect. The formation of inositol bis- and triphosphate was also increased carbachol; these increases occurred earlier but were of much smaller magnitude. Pretreatment of cells with 4 ..beta..-phorbol dibutyrate or 4 ..beta..-phorbol myristate acetate was found to attenuate the carbachol-induced formation of IP/sub 1/ (IC/sub 50/ in the low nanomolar concentration ranges), however 4 ..beta..-phorbol, the biologically inactive phorbol ester, was ineffective in causing this attenuation. These results suggest a feedback inhibition of PI turnover in NCB-20 cells through the action of protein kinase C.

  10. Ca2+ Regulation of Trypanosoma brucei Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    King-Keller, Sharon; Moore, Christina A.; Docampo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from the procyclic form (PCF) of Trypanosoma brucei. The protein contains a domain organization characteristic of typical PI-PLCs, such as X and Y catalytic domains, an EF-hand calcium-binding motif, and a C2 domain, but it lacks a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. In addition, the T. brucei PI-PLC (TbPI-PLC) contains an N-terminal myristoylation consensus sequence found only in trypanosomatid PI-PLCs. A peptide containing this N-terminal domain fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was targeted to the plasma membrane. TbPI-PLC enzymatic activity was stimulated by Ca2+ concentrations below the cytosolic levels in the parasite, suggesting that the enzyme is constitutively active. TbPI-PLC hydrolyzes both phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), with a higher affinity for PIP2. We found that modification of a single amino acid in the EF-hand motif greatly affected the protein's Ca2+ sensitivity and substrate preference, demonstrating the role of this motif in Ca2+ regulation of TbPI-PLC. Endogenous TbPI-PLC localizes to intracellular vesicles and might be using an intracellular source of PIP2. Knockdown of TbPI-PLC expression by RNA interference (RNAi) did not result in growth inhibition, although enzymatic activity was still present in parasites, resulting in hydrolysis of PIP2 and a contribution to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/diacylglycerol (DAG) pathway. PMID:25769297

  11. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. )

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  12. The role of phosphoinositide-regulated actin reorganization in chemotaxis and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C-Y; Lin, M-W; Wu, D-C; Huang, Y-B; Huang, H-T; Chen, C-L

    2014-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cell motility and chemotaxis. Actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and membrane lipids, especially phosphoinositides PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 are involved in the regulation of this reorganization. At least 15 ABPs have been reported to interact with, or regulated by phosphoinositides (PIPs) whose synthesis is regulated by extracellular signals. Recent studies have uncovered several parallel intracellular signalling pathways that crosstalk in chemotaxing cells. Here, we review the roles of ABPs and phosphoinositides in chemotaxis and cell migration. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Migration, Wound Healing and Related Topics. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-24 PMID:25420930

  13. Transient receptor potential melastatin 3 is a phosphoinositide-dependent ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Badheka, Doreen; Borbiro, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are emerging as general regulators of the functionally diverse transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been reported to positively regulate many TRP channels, but in several cases phosphoinositide regulation is controversial. TRP melastatin 3 (TRPM3) is a heat-activated ion channel that is also stimulated by chemical agonists, such as pregnenolone sulfate. Here, we used a wide array of approaches to determine the effects of phosphoinositides on TRPM3. We found that channel activity in excised inside-out patches decreased over time (rundown), an attribute of PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels. Channel activity could be restored by application of either synthetic dioctanoyl (diC8) or natural arachidonyl stearyl (AASt) PI(4,5)P2. The PI(4,5)P2 precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) was less effective at restoring channel activity. TRPM3 currents were also restored by MgATP, an effect which was inhibited by two different phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase inhibitors, or by pretreatment with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzyme, indicating that MgATP acted by generating phosphoinositides. In intact cells, reduction of PI(4,5)P2 levels by chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases or a voltage-sensitive 5?-phosphatase inhibited channel activity. Activation of PLC via muscarinic receptors also inhibited TRPM3 channel activity. Overall, our data indicate that TRPM3 is a phosphoinositide-dependent ion channel and that decreasing PI(4,5)P2 abundance limits its activity. As all other members of the TRPM family have also been shown to require PI(4,5)P2 for activity, our data establish PI(4,5)P2 as a general positive cofactor of this ion channel subfamily. PMID:26123195

  14. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and their role in regulating kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Hill, M M; Hess, D; Brazil, D P; Hofsteenge, J; Hemmings, B A

    2001-10-01

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a central role in signal transduction pathways that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Despite its key role as an upstream activator of enzymes such as protein kinase B and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, the regulatory mechanisms controlling PDK1 activity are poorly understood. PDK1 has been reported to be constitutively active in resting cells and not further activated by growth factor stimulation (Casamayor, A., Morrice, N. A., and Alessi, D. R. (1999) Biochem. J. 342, 287-292). Here, we report that PDK1 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to pervanadate and insulin. Following pervanadate treatment, PDK1 kinase activity increased 1.5- to 3-fold whereas the activity of PDK1 associated with the plasma membrane increased approximately 6-fold. The activity of PDK1 localized to the plasma membrane was also increased by insulin treatment. Three tyrosine phosphorylation sites of PDK1 (Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376) were identified using in vivo labeling and mass spectrometry. Using site-directed mutants, we show that, although phosphorylation on Tyr-373/376 is important for PDK1 activity, phosphorylation on Tyr-9 has no effect on the activity of the kinase. Both of these residues can be phosphorylated by v-Src tyrosine kinase in vitro, and co-expression of v-Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PDK1. Thus, these data suggest that PDK1 activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, possibly by a member of the Src kinase family. PMID:11481331

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Phosphoinositide Kinome from Two Ciliates Reveals Novel Evolutionary Links for Phosphoinositide Kinases in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leondaritis, George; Siokos, John; Skaripa, Irini; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotes is partly due to expansion of specific families and types of phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs) that can generate all phosphoinositides via multiple routes. This is particularly evident in the PI3Ks and PIPKs, and it is considered an evolutionary trait associated with metazoan diversification. Yet, there are limited comprehensive studies on the PIK repertoire of free living unicellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a genome-wide analysis of putative PIK genes in two free living ciliated cells, Tetrahymena and Paramecium. The Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia genomes were probed with representative kinases from all families and types. Putative homologs were verified by EST, microarray and deep RNA sequencing database searches and further characterized for domain structure, catalytic efficiency, expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships. In total, we identified and characterized 22 genes in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome and 62 highly homologues genes in Paramecium tetraurelia suggesting a tight evolutionary conservation in the ciliate lineage. Comparison to the kinome of fungi reveals a significant expansion of PIK genes in ciliates. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights four important aspects concerning ciliate and other unicellular PIKs. First, ciliate-specific expansion of PI4KIII-like genes. Second, presence of class I PI3Ks which, at least in Tetrahymena, are associated with a metazoan-type machinery for PIP3 signaling. Third, expansion of divergent PIPK enzymes such as the recently described type IV transmembrane PIPKs. Fourth, presence of possible type II PIPKs and presumably inactive PIKs (hence, pseudo-PIKs) not previously described. Taken together, our results provide a solid framework for future investigation of the roles of PIKs in ciliates and indicate that novel functions and novel regulatory pathways of phosphoinositides may be more widespread than previously thought in unicellular organisms. PMID:24244373

  16. Genetic alterations of phosphoinositide 3-kinase subunit genes in human glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Nutt, Catherine L; Mohapatra, Gayatry; Louis, David N

    2004-10-01

    Genetic alterations of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) subunits have been documented in a number of tumor types, with increased PI3K activity linked to gene amplification and mutation of catalytic subunits, as well as mutations of regulatory subunits. Among high grade gliomas, activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway through loss of PTEN function is common. We therefore investigated whether genetic alteration of class IA PI3Ks might provide a mechanism for deregulation of this pathway in glioblastomas. We studied a series of glioblastomas with FISH to assess copy number of catalytic subunits (PIK3CA and PIK3CD) and with PCR-SSCP to screen for somatic mutations of conserved regions of both catalytic and regulatory subunits. FISH revealed frequent balanced copy number increases of both PIK3CA and PIK3CD, and one case showed an extra copy limited to PIK3CA. One glioblastoma exhibited a 9-bp deletion that encompassed the exon-intron junction of exon 12 of PIK3R1, documenting for the first time a mutation within a PI3K regulatory subunit in human glioblastoma. This deletion would be predicted to yield a truncated protein that lacks the inhibitory domain, resulting in increased PI3K activity. Furthermore, the case with selected PIK3CA copy number gain and the case with a truncating PIK3R1 mutation both featured AKT activation without PTEN mutation. These results suggest that genetic alterations of class IA PI3K subunit genes can occasionally play a role in human glioblastoma by activating the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway independently of PTEN mutation. PMID:15605984

  17. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-δ regulates fungus-induced allergic lung inflammation through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Jeong, Jae Seok; Kim, So Ri; Cho, Seong Ho; Kolliputi, Narasaiah; Ko, Yun Hee; Lee, Kyung Bae; Park, Suk Chul; Park, Hae Jin; Lee, Yong Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitisation with Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) is known to be associated with severe allergic lung inflammation, but the mechanism remains to be clarified. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are suggested to be involved in steroid-resistant lung inflammation. We aimed to elucidate the role of PI3K-δ and its relationship with ER stress in fungus-induced allergic lung inflammation. Methods Using Af-exposed in vivo and in vitro experimental systems, we examined whether PI3K-δ regulates ER stress, thereby contributing to steroid resistance in fungus-induced allergic lung inflammation. Moreover, we checked expression of an ER stress marker in lung tissues isolated from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Results Af-exposed mice showed that ER stress markers, unfolded protein response (UPR)-related proteins, phosphorylated Akt, generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), eosinophilic allergic inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were increased in the lung. Similarly, glucose-regulated protein 78 was increased in lung tissues of patients with ABPA. A PI3K-δ inhibitor reduced Af-induced increases in ER stress markers, UPR-related proteins, allergic inflammation and AHR in mice. However, dexamethasone failed to reduce Af-induced allergic inflammation, AHR and elevation of ER stress. Administration of an ER stress inhibitor or a mtROS scavenger improved Af-induced allergic inflammation. The PI3K-δ inhibitor reduced Af-induced mtROS generation and the mtROS scavenger ameliorated ER stress. In primary cultured tracheal epithelial cells, Af-induced ER stress was inhibited by blockade of PI3K-δ. Conclusions These findings suggest that PI3K-δ regulates Af-induced steroid-resistant eosinophilic allergic lung inflammation through ER stress. PMID:26543090

  18. Triggering Actin Comets Versus Membrane Ruffles: Distinctive Effects of Phosphoinositides on Actin Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tasuku; Falkenburger, Björn H.; Pohlmeyer, Christopher; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    A limited set of phosphoinositide membrane lipids regulate diverse cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. We developed two techniques based on rapamycin-induced protein dimerization to rapidly change the concentration of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. First, we increased PI(4,5)P2 synthesis from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] using a membrane recruitable form of PI(4)P 5-kinase, and found that COS-7, HeLa, and HEK293 cells formed bundles of motile actin filaments known as actin comets. In contrast, a second technique that increased the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 without consuming PI(4)P induced membrane ruffles. These distinct phenotypes were mediated by dynamin-mediated vesicular trafficking and mutually inhibitory crosstalk between the small guanosine triphosphatases Rac and RhoA. Our results indicate that the effect of PI(4,5)P2 on actin reorganization depends on the abundance of other phosphoinositides, such as PI(4)P. Thus, combinatorial regulation of phosphoinositide concentrations may contribute to the diversity of phosphoinositide functions. PMID:22169478

  19. Phosphoinositides: Lipids with informative heads and mastermind functions in cell division.

    PubMed

    Cauvin, Clothilde; Echard, Arnaud

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoinositides are low abundant but essential phospholipids in eukaryotic cells and refer to phosphatidylinositol and its seven polyphospho-derivatives. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on phosphoinositides in multiple aspects of cell division in animal cells, including mitotic cell rounding, longitudinal cell elongation, cytokinesis furrow ingression, intercellular bridge abscission and post-cytokinesis events. PtdIns(4,5)P?production plays critical roles in spindle orientation, mitotic cell shape and bridge stability after furrow ingression by recruiting force generator complexes and numerous cytoskeleton binding proteins. Later, PtdIns(4,5)P?hydrolysis and PtdIns3P production are essential for normal cytokinesis abscission. Finally, emerging functions of PtdIns3P and likely PtdIns(4,5)P?have recently been reported for midbody remnant clearance after abscission. We describe how the multiple functions of phosphoinositides in cell division reflect their distinct roles in local recruitment of protein complexes, membrane traffic and cytoskeleton remodeling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25449648

  20. Coordinated Expression of Phosphoinositide Metabolic Genes during Development and Aging of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Stanley I.; Primiani, Christopher T.; Chen, Chuck T.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Ryan, Veronica H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositides, lipid-signaling molecules, participate in diverse brain processes within a wide metabolic cascade. Hypothesis Gene transcriptional networks coordinately regulate the phosphoinositide cascade during human brain Development and Aging. Methods We used the public BrainCloud database for human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to examine age-related expression levels of 49 phosphoinositide metabolic genes during Development (0 to 20+ years) and Aging (21+ years). Results We identified three groups of partially overlapping genes in each of the two intervals, with similar intergroup correlations despite marked phenotypic differences between Aging and Development. In each interval, ITPKB, PLCD1, PIK3R3, ISYNA1, IMPA2, INPPL1, PI4KB, and AKT1 are in Group 1, PIK3CB, PTEN, PIK3CA, and IMPA1 in Group 2, and SACM1L, PI3KR4, INPP5A, SYNJ1, and PLCB1 in Group 3. Ten of the genes change expression nonlinearly during Development, suggesting involvement in rapidly changing neuronal, glial and myelination events. Correlated transcription for some gene pairs likely is facilitated by colocalization on the same chromosome band. Conclusions Stable coordinated gene transcriptional networks regulate brain phosphoinositide metabolic pathways during human Development and Aging. PMID:26168237

  1. IN VITRO ALUMINUM INHIBITION OF BRAIN PHOSPHOINOSITIDE METABOLISM:COMPARISON OF NEONATAL AND ADULTS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent evidence indicates that the neurotoxic metal aluminum interferes with the phosphoinositide second messenger system in adult rats both in vitro and in vivo. e have examined the age-related effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on receptor-stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) a...

  2. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN RECEPTOR-MEDIATED PHOSPHOINOSITIDE HYDROLYSIS IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of age on cholinergic markers and receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was dined in the frontal cortex and striatum of male Fischer-344 rats. holine acetyltransferase activity was decreased 27% in the striatum of aged (24 month) rats cared to young (3 month...

  3. Structure-Function Analysis of Vaccinia Virus H7 Protein Reveals a Novel Phosphoinositide Binding Fold Essential for Poxvirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kolli, Swapna; Meng, Xiangzhi; Wu, Xiang; Shengjuler, Djoshkun; Cameron, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play a critical role in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Their critical role in replication of cytoplasmic viruses has just begun to be understood. Poxviruses, a family of large cytoplasmic DNA viruses, rely on the intracellular membranes to develop their envelope, and poxvirus morphogenesis requires enzymes from the cellular phosphoinositide metabolic pathway. However, the role of phosphoinositides in poxvirus replication remains unclear, and no poxvirus proteins show any homology to eukaryotic phosphoinositide binding domains. Recently, a group of poxvirus proteins, termed viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs), were identified as essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. A key component of VMAPs is the H7 protein. Here we report the crystal structure of the H7 protein from vaccinia virus. The H7 structure displays a novel fold comprised of seven ?-helices and a highly curved three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet. We identified a phosphoinositide binding site in H7, comprised of basic residues on a surface patch and the flexible C-terminal tail. These residues were found to be essential for viral replication and for binding of H7 to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Our studies suggest that phosphoinositide binding by H7 plays an essential role in poxvirus membrane biogenesis. IMPORTANCE Poxvirus viral membrane assembly proteins (VMAPs) were recently shown to be essential for poxvirus membrane biogenesis. One of the key components of VMAPs is the H7 protein. However, no known structural motifs could be identified from its sequence, and there are no homologs of H7 outside the poxvirus family to suggest a biochemical function. We have determined the crystal structure of the vaccinia virus (VACV) H7 protein. The structure displays a novel fold with a distinct and positively charged surface. Our data demonstrate that H7 binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and that the basic surface patch is indeed required for phosphoinositide binding. In addition, mutation of positively charged residues required for lipid binding disrupted VACV replication. Phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide binding proteins play critical roles in membrane and protein trafficking in eukaryotes. Our study demonstrates that VACV H7 displays a novel fold for phosphoinositide binding, which is essential for poxvirus replication. PMID:25473060

  4. Characterization of the binding between a 70-kDa heat shock protein, HspA1A, and phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    McCallister, Chelsea; Kdeiss, Brianna; Oliverio, Ryan; Nikolaidis, Nikolas

    2016-03-25

    HspA1A, a seventy-kilodalton heat shock protein, binds to specific anionic lipids and this interaction regulates important physiological phenomena like apoptosis, tumor growth, and lysosomal rescue. However, whether HspA1A binds to phosphoinositides has yet to be established and quantified. Therefore, in this study, we determined the binding affinity of HspA1A to several phosphoinositides and characterized five aspects of their molecular interaction. First, we established that HspA1A binds phosphatidylinositol monophosphates with higher affinity than di- and triphosphorylated inositides. Second, using high concentrations of potassium we found that HSPA1A embeds within the lipid bilayer of all phosphoinositides tested. However, the effects of the high salt concentrations were significantly different between the different phosphoinositides. Third, using calcium and reaction buffers equilibrated at different pH values we found that these differentially affected HspA1A-phosphoinositide binding, revealing a lipid-specific pattern of binding. Fourth, by assessing the binding properties of the two HspA1A domains, the nucleotide-binding domain and the substrate-binding domain, we determined that in most cases the full-length protein is necessary for binding to phosphoinositides. Fifth, by including in the reactions nucleotides and protein substrates we determined that they minimally and differentially affected phosphoinositide-binding. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that the HspA1A-phosphoinositide binding is complex yet specific, is mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, is not related to the lipid-head charge, and depends on the physicochemical properties of the lipid. PMID:26923070

  5. D-3 phosphoinositides of the ciliate Tetrahymena: characterization and study of their regulatory role in lysosomal enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Leondaritis, George; Tiedtke, Arno; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2005-09-30

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, PtdIns3P, is a phosphoinositide which is implicated in regulating membrane trafficking in both mammalian and yeast cells. It also serves as a precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PtdIns3,5P2, a phosphoinositide, the exact functions of which remain unknown. In this report, we show that these two phosphoinositides are constitutive lipid components of the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using HPLC analysis, PtdIns3P and PtdIns3,5P2 were found to comprise 16% and 30-40% of their relevant phosphoinositide pools, respectively. Treatment of Tetrahymena cells with wortmannin (0.1-10 microM) resulted in the depletion of PtdIns3P and PtdIns3,5P2 without any effect on D-4 phosphoinositides. Wortmannin was further used for the investigation of D-3 phosphoinositide involvement in the regulation of lysosomal vesicular trafficking. Incubation of Tetrahymena cells with wortmannin resulted in enhanced secretion of two different lysosomal enzymes without any change in their total activities. Experiments performed with a T. thermophila secretion mutant strain verified that the wortmannin-induced secretion is specific and it is not due to a diversion of lysosomal enzymes to other secretory pathways. Moreover, experiments performed with a phagocytosis-deficient T. thermophila strain showed that a substantial fraction of wortmannin-induced secretion was dependent on the presence of functional phagosomes/phagolysosomes. PMID:16081170

  6. Exploiting the ubiquitin and phosphoinositide pathways by the Legionella pneumophila effector, SidC.

    PubMed

    Wasilko, David J; Mao, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens use secreted effector proteins to alter host cellular processes, with the goal of subverting host defenses and allowing the infection to progress. One such pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, secretes ~300 proteins into its host to alter a number of pathways including intracellular trafficking, phosphoinositide metabolism, and cell signaling. The Legionella effector SidC was previously found to bind to PI(4)P and was responsible for the enrichment of ER proteins and ubiquitinated species on the Legionella-containing vacuoles. Through our recent work, we have discovered that SidC contains a unique N-terminal E3 ubiquitin ligase domain and a C-terminal novel PI(4)P-binding domain. Our results demonstrate that SidC serves to link two distinct cellular pathways, ubiquitin and phosphoinositide. However, how the ubiquitin ligase activity regulates host membrane trafficking events remains to be investigated. PMID:26433729

  7. The p110α isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is essential for cone photoreceptor survival.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Raju V S; Ranjo-Bishop, Michelle; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Ammaji; Anderson, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that phosphorylates the 3'OH of the inositol ring of phosphoinositides (PIs). They are responsible for coordinating a diverse range of cellular functions. Class IA PI3K is a heterodimeric protein composed of a regulatory p85 and a catalytic p110 subunit. In this study, we conditionally deleted the p110α-subunit of PI3K in cone photoreceptor cells using the Cre-loxP system. Cone photoreceptors allow for color vision in bright light (daylight vision). Cone-specific deletion of p110α resulted in cone degeneration. Our studies suggest that PI3K signaling is essential for cone photoreceptor functions. PMID:25742742

  8. Purification of active HOPS complex reveals its affinities for phosphoinositides and the SNARE Vam7p

    PubMed Central

    Stroupe, Christopher; Collins, Kevin M; Fratti, Rutilio A; Wickner, William

    2006-01-01

    Coupling of Rab GTPase activation and SNARE complex assembly during membrane fusion is poorly understood. The homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex links these two processes: it is an effector for the vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p and is required for vacuolar SNARE complex assembly. We now report that pure, active HOPS complex binds phosphoinositides and the PX domain of the vacuolar SNARE protein Vam7p. These binding interactions support HOPS complex association with the vacuole and explain its enrichment at the same microdomains on docked vacuoles as phosphoinositides, Ypt7p, Vam7p, and the other SNARE proteins. Concentration of the HOPS complex at these microdomains may be a key factor for coupling Rab GTPase activation to SNARE complex assembly. PMID:16601699

  9. Characterization of the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in phosphoinositide metabolism in bovine tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Roffel, A. F.; Meurs, H.; Elzinga, C. R.; Zaagsma, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. The muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the methacholine-induced enhancement of phosphoinositide metabolism in bovine tracheal smooth muscle was identified by using the M2-selective antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M3-selective antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) methobromide, in addition to the M1-selective antagonist pirenzepine, in a classical Schild analysis. 2. All the antagonists shifted the methacholine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel and concentration-dependent fashion, yielding Schild plots with slopes not significantly different from unity. The pA2 values (6.94, 6.32 and 8.54 for pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and 4-DAMP methobromide respectively) indicate that it is the M3 (smooth muscle/glandular), but not the M2 (cardiac) muscarinic receptor subtype, present in this tissue, that mediates phosphoinositide turnover, in accordance with our previous contractile studies. 3. The results provide additional evidence for the involvement of phosphoinositide turnover in the pharmacomechanical coupling between muscarinic receptor stimulation and contraction in (bovine tracheal) smooth muscle. PMID:2158372

  10. Misregulation of phosphoinositides in Arabidopsis thaliana decreases pollen hydration and maternal fertility.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Laura A; Goring, Daphne R

    2011-12-01

    Phosphoinositides are important lipids involved in membrane identity, vesicle trafficking, and intracellular signaling. In recent years, phosphoinositides have been shown to play a critical role in polarized secretion in plants, as perturbations of phosphoinositide metabolism, through loss of function mutants, result in defects in root hair elongation and pollen tube growth, where polarized secretion occurs rapidly. In the Brassicaceae, responses of stigmatic papillae to compatible pollen are also thought to involve highly regulated secretory events to facilitate pollen hydration and penetration of the pollen tube through the stigmatic surface. We therefore sought to analyze the female sporophyte fertility of the root hair defective4-1 mutant and the PI 4-kinase ?1/?2 double mutant, which differentially affect phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) levels. Stigmas from both mutants supported slower rates of pollen grain hydration, and the fecundity of these mutants was also diminished as a result of failed pollination events. This study therefore concludes that PI4P is integral to appropriate pistil responses to compatible pollen. PMID:21691764

  11. Specificity of Collybistin-Phosphoinositide Interactions: IMPACT OF THE INDIVIDUAL PROTEIN DOMAINS.

    PubMed

    Ludolphs, Michaela; Schneeberger, Daniela; Soykan, Tolga; Schfer, Jonas; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Brose, Nils; Schindelin, Hermann; Steinem, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory protein collybistin (CB) recruits the receptor-scaffolding protein gephyrin to mammalian inhibitory glycinergic and GABAergic postsynaptic membranes in nerve cells. CB is tethered to the membrane via phosphoinositides. We developed an in vitro assay based on solid-supported 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membranes doped with different phosphoinositides on silicon/silicon dioxide substrates to quantify the binding of various CB2 constructs using reflectometric interference spectroscopy. Based on adsorption isotherms, we obtained dissociation constants and binding capacities of the membranes. Our results show that full-length CB2 harboring the N-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain (CB2SH3+) adopts a closed and autoinhibited conformation that largely prevents membrane binding. This autoinhibition is relieved upon introduction of the W24A/E262A mutation, which conformationally "opens" CB2SH3+ and allows the pleckstrin homology domain to properly bind lipids depending on the phosphoinositide species with a preference for phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate. This type of membrane tethering under the control of the release of the SH3 domain of CB is essential for regulating gephyrin clustering. PMID:26546675

  12. TbFRP, a novel FYVE-domain containing phosphoinositide-binding Ras-like GTPase from trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Adung'a, Vincent O; Field, Mark C

    2013-03-01

    Ras-like small GTPases are regulatory proteins that control multiple aspects of cellular function, and are particularly prevalent in vesicular transport. A proportion of GTPase paralogs appear restricted to certain eukaryote lineages, suggesting roles specific to a restricted lineage, and hence potentially reflecting adaptation to individual lifestyles or ecological niche. Here we describe the role of a GTPase, TbFRP, a FYVE domain N-terminally fused to a Ras-like GTPase, originally identified in Trypanosoma brucei. As FYVE-domains specifically bind phosphoinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), which associates with endosomes, we suggest that TbFRP may unite phosphoinositide and small G protein endosomal signaling in trypanosomatids. TbFRP orthologs are present throughout the Euglenazoa suggesting that FRP has functions throughout the group. We show that the FYVE domain of TbFRP is functional in PI3P-dependent membrane targeting and localizes at the endosomal region. Further, while TbFRP is apparently non-essential, knockdown and immunochemical evidence indicates that TbFRP is rapidly cleaved upon synthesis, releasing the GTPase and FYVE-domains. Finally, TbFRP expression at both mRNA and protein levels is cell density-dependent. Together, these data suggest that TbFRP is an endocytic GTPase with a highly unusual mechanism of action that involves proteolysis of the nascent protein and membrane targeting via PI3P. PMID:23220323

  13. Divergent regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by phosphoinositide 3-kinase via Akt and PKClambda/zeta.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Kondo, Tatsuya; Sajan, Mini; Luo, Ji; Bronson, Roderick; Asano, Tomoichiro; Farese, Robert; Cantley, Lewis C; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-05-01

    Although the class I(A) phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is central to the metabolic actions of insulin, its mechanism of action is not well understood. To identify the role of the PI3K pathway in insulin regulation of hepatic function, we ablated the expression of both major regulatory subunits of PI3K by crossing mice lacking Pik3r1 in liver with Pik3r2 null mice, creating liver-specific double knockout mice (L-p85DKO). L-p85DKO mice failed to activate PI3K or generate PIP(3) upon insulin stimulation or activate its two major effectors, Akt and PKClambda/xi. Decreased Akt activation resulted in increased gluconeogenic gene expression, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia, while the defective activation of PKClambda/xi by insulin was associated with hypolipidemia and decreased transcription of SREBP-1c. These data indicate that the PI3K pathway is critical for insulin's actions in the liver in vivo, and that differential regulation by Akt and PKClambda/xi differentially defines specific actions of insulin and PI3K on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:16679292

  14. Phosphoinositide Kinase-3 Status Associated With Presence or Absence of Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, Wendell G. Whigham, Amy; Brown, Brandee; Roach, Michael; Slebos, Robbert

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K) activation in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) status in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Gene expression microarray data were analyzed to determine differentially expressed genes between HPV(+) and HPV(-) HNSCC. PIK3CA gene expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in seven HPV(+) and seven HPV(-) primary HNSCCs. PIK3CA mutation status in three HPV(+) and nine HPV(-) cell lines was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hot spot exons (1, 9, 20) followed by direct sequencing. Results: PIK3CA was overexpressed in HPV(+)-associated HNSCC compared with the expression in HPV(-) HNSCC. Activation of PIK3CA by mutation was found in 1 of the 12 tested HNSCC cell lines. Conclusion: Activation of PI3K by mutation of PIK3CA is rare in HNSCC cell lines and was not found in three HPV(+) cell lines. One mechanism by which HPV-associated HNSCC might activate PI3K is increased expression of PIK3CA.

  15. ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase temporally coordinate different modes of actin-based motility during embryonic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Siwei; Soto, Ximena; Woolner, Sarah; Amaya, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Summary Embryonic wound healing provides a perfect example of efficient recovery of tissue integrity and homeostasis, which is vital for survival. Tissue movement in embryonic wound healing requires two functionally distinct actin structures: a contractile actomyosin cable and actin protrusions at the leading edge. Here, we report that the discrete formation and function of these two structures is achieved by the temporal segregation of two intracellular upstream signals and distinct downstream targets. The sequential activation of ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling divides Xenopus embryonic wound healing into two phases. In the first phase, activated ERK suppresses PI3K activity, and is responsible for the activation of Rho and myosin-2, which drives actomyosin cable formation and constriction. The second phase is dominated by restored PI3K signalling, which enhances Rac and Cdc42 activity, leading to the formation of actin protrusions that drive migration and zippering. These findings reveal a new mechanism for coordinating different modes of actin-based motility in a complex tissue setting, namely embryonic wound healing. PMID:23986484

  16. RUNX1 regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway: role in chemotherapy sensitivity in acute megakaryocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Holly; Xie, Chengzhi; LaFiura, Katherine M; Dombkowski, Alan A; Buck, Steven A; Boerner, Julie L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Matherly, Larry H; Ge, Yubin

    2009-09-24

    RUNX1 (AML1) encodes the core binding factor alpha subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor complex which plays critical roles in normal hematopoiesis. Translocations or down-regulation of RUNX1 have been linked to favorable clinical outcomes in acute leukemias, suggesting that RUNX1 may also play critical roles in chemotherapy responses in acute leukemias; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The median level of RUNX1b transcripts in Down syndrome (DS) children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) were 4.4-fold (P < .001) lower than that in non-DS AMkL cases. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of RUNX1 in a non-DS AMkL cell line, Meg-01, resulted in significantly increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of PIK3CD, which encodes the delta catalytic subunit of the survival kinase, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase. Transcriptional regulation of PIK3CD by RUNX1 was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. Further, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and cytosine arabinoside synergized in antileukemia effects on Meg-01 and primary pediatric AMkL cells. Our results suggest that RUNX1 may play a critical role in chemotherapy response in AMkL by regulating the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Thus, the treatment of AMkL may be improved by integrating PI3-kinase or Akt inhibitors into the chemotherapy of this disease. PMID:19638627

  17. A phosphoinositide-binding cluster in cavin1 acts as a molecular sensor for cavin1 degradation.

    PubMed

    Tillu, Vikas A; Kovtun, Oleksiy; McMahon, Kerrie-Ann; Collins, Brett M; Parton, Robert G

    2015-10-15

    Caveolae are abundant surface organelles implicated in a range of cellular processes. Two classes of proteins work together to generate caveolae: integral membrane proteins termed caveolins and cytoplasmic coat proteins called cavins. Caveolae respond to membrane stress by releasing cavins into the cytosol. A crucial aspect of this model is tight regulation of cytosolic pools of cavin under resting conditions. We now show that a recently identified region of cavin1 that can bind phosphoinositide (PI) lipids is also a major site of ubiquitylation. Ubiquitylation of lysines within this site leads to rapid proteasomal degradation. In cells that lack caveolins and caveolae, cavin1 is cytosolic and rapidly degraded as compared with cells in which cavin1 is associated with caveolae. Membrane stretching causes caveolar disassembly, release of cavin complexes into the cytosol, and increased proteasomal degradation of wild-type cavin1 but not mutant cavin1 lacking the major ubiquitylation site. Release of cavin1 from caveolae thus leads to exposure of key lysine residues in the PI-binding region, acting as a trigger for cavin1 ubiquitylation and down-regulation. This mutually exclusive PI-binding/ubiquitylation mechanism may help maintain low levels of cytosolic cavin1 in resting cells, a prerequisite for cavins acting as signaling modules following release from caveolae. PMID:26269585

  18. The Protein Complex of Neurodegeneration-related Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac3 and ArPIKfyve Binds the Lewy Body-associated Synphilin-1, Preventing Its Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Compton, Lauren M; Kumar, Rita; Tisdale, Ellen J; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2015-11-20

    The 5-phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3, in which loss-of-function mutations are linked to neurodegenerative disorders, forms a stable cytosolic complex with the scaffolding protein ArPIKfyve. The ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer interacts with the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve in a ubiquitous ternary complex that couples PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis with turnover at endosomal membranes, thereby regulating the housekeeping endocytic transport in eukaryotes. Neuron-specific associations of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer, which may shed light on the neuropathological mechanisms triggered by Sac3 dysfunction, are unknown. Here we conducted mass spectrometry analysis for brain-derived interactors of ArPIKfyve-Sac3 and unraveled the ?-synuclein-interacting protein Synphilin-1 (Sph1) as a new component of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex. Sph1, a predominantly neuronal protein that facilitates aggregation of ?-synuclein, is a major component of Lewy body inclusions in neurodegenerative ?-synucleinopathies. Modulations in ArPIKfyve/Sac3 protein levels by RNA silencing or overexpression in several mammalian cell lines, including human neuronal SH-SY5Y or primary mouse cortical neurons, revealed that the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex specifically altered the aggregation properties of Sph1-GFP. This effect required an active Sac3 phosphatase and proceeded through mechanisms that involved increased Sph1-GFP partitioning into the cytosol and removal of Sph1-GFP aggregates by basal autophagy but not by the proteasomal system. If uncoupled from ArPIKfyve elevation, overexpressed Sac3 readily aggregated, markedly enhancing the aggregation potential of Sph1-GFP. These data identify a novel role of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex in the mechanisms controlling aggregate formation of Sph1 and suggest that Sac3 protein deficiency or overproduction may facilitate aggregation of aggregation-prone proteins, thereby precipitating the onset of multiple neuronal disorders. PMID:26405034

  19. Stromal resistance of fibroblasts against oxidative damage: involvement of tumor cell-secreted platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation.

    PubMed

    Werth, Christel; Stuhlmann, Dominik; Cat, Bahar; Steinbrenner, Holger; Alili, Lirija; Sies, Helmut; Brenneisen, Peter

    2008-02-01

    A critical step in tumor progression is the interaction of malignant and stromal cells via paracrine mechanisms. Stromal cells, particularly fibroblasts, support cancer cells in invasion of the surrounding tissue for access to the vascular system. Here, the question is addressed of whether tumor cells induce 'stromal resistance', i.e. protect the microenvironment from oxidative damage. The supernatant of cultured skin-derived tumor cells was added to fibroblasts and was shown to protect the fibroblasts from hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell toxicity. The platelet-derived growth factor secreted from the cancer cells was identified as trigger of this protection in fibroblasts via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. These data suggest that prosurvival signals in stromal fibroblasts as initiated by tumor cells constitute a strategy of 'stromal resistance', illustrating a novel biological role of fibroblasts for the tumor microenvironment. PMID:18174235

  20. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, T K; Duffy, L R; Frey, J W; Hornberger, T A

    2009-07-15

    Resistance exercise induces a hypertrophic response in skeletal muscle and recent studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. For example, several studies indicate that signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is necessary for a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, resistance exercise has been proposed to activate mTOR signalling through an upstream pathway involving the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB); however, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the temporal pattern of signalling through PI3K-PKB and mTOR following a bout of resistance exercise with eccentric contractions (EC). Our results indicated that the activation of signalling through PI3K-PKB is a transient event (<15 min), while the activation of mTOR is sustained for a long duration (>12 h). Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K-PKB activity did not prevent the activation of mTOR signalling by ECs, indicating that PI3K-PKB is not part of the upstream regulatory pathway. These observations led us to investigate an alternative pathway for the activation of mTOR signalling involving the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD). Our results demonstrate that ECs induce a sustained elevation in [PA] and inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevented the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, we determined that similar to ECs, PA activates mTOR signalling through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism. Combined, the results of this study indicate that the activation of mTOR following eccentric contractions occurs through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism that requires PLD and PA. PMID:19470781

  1. Phosphoinositide-mediated oligomerization of a defensin induces cell lysis

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ivan KH; Baxter, Amy A; Lay, Fung T; Mills, Grant D; Adda, Christopher G; Payne, Jennifer AE; Phan, Thanh Kha; Ryan, Gemma F; White, Julie A; Veneer, Prem K; van der Weerden, Nicole L; Anderson, Marilyn A; Kvansakul, Marc; Hulett, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) such as defensins are ubiquitously found innate immune molecules that often exhibit broad activity against microbial pathogens and mammalian tumor cells. Many CAPs act at the plasma membrane of cells leading to membrane destabilization and permeabilization. In this study, we describe a novel cell lysis mechanism for fungal and tumor cells by the plant defensin NaD1 that acts via direct binding to the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). We determined the crystal structure of a NaD1:PIP2 complex, revealing a striking oligomeric arrangement comprising seven dimers of NaD1 that cooperatively bind the anionic headgroups of 14 PIP2 molecules through a unique ‘cationic grip’ configuration. Site-directed mutagenesis of NaD1 confirms that PIP2-mediated oligomerization is important for fungal and tumor cell permeabilization. These observations identify an innate recognition system by NaD1 for direct binding of PIP2 that permeabilizes cells via a novel membrane disrupting mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01808.001 PMID:24692446

  2. Assessing the subcellular distribution of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase using microinjection into live cells

    PubMed Central

    Layton, MeredithJ.; Rynkiewicz, Natalie K.; Ivetac, Ivan; Horan, KristyA.; Mitchell, ChristinaA.; Phillips, WayneA.

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA lead to an increase in intrinsic phosphoinositide kinase activity, but it is thought that increased access of PI3K? (phosphoinositide 3-kinase ?) to its PM (plasma membrane) localized substrate is also required for increased levels of downstream PIP3/Akt [phosphoinositide-3,4,5-trisphosphate/also called PKB (protein kinase B)] signalling. We have studied the subcellular localization of wild-type and the two most common oncogenic mutants of PI3K? in cells maintained in growth media, and starved or stimulated cells using a novel method in which PI3K? is pre-formed as a 1:1 p110?:p85? complex invitro then introduced into live cells by microinjection. Oncogenic E545K and H1047R mutants did not constitutively interact with membrane lipids invitro or in cells maintained in 10% (v/v) FBS. Following stimulation of RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), microinjected PI3K? was recruited to the PM, but oncogenic forms of PI3K? were not recruited to the PM to a greater extent and did not reside at the PM longer than the wild-type PI3K?. Instead, the E545K mutant specifically bound activated Cdc42 invitro and microinjection of E545K was associated with the formation of cellular protrusions, providing some preliminary evidence that changes in proteinprotein interactions may play a role in the oncogenicity of the E545K mutant in addition to the well-known changes in lipid kinase activity. PMID:24597785

  3. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of (3H) inositol phosphates in (3H)inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats. Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of (3H)QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with (3H)pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%.

  4. Phosphoinositide signalling in type 2 diabetes: a β-cell perspective.

    PubMed

    Rameh, Lucia E; Deeney, Jude T

    2016-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease. It results from a failure of the body to maintain energy homoeostasis. Multicellular organisms have evolved complex strategies to preserve a relatively stable internal nutrient environment, despite fluctuations in external nutrient availability. This complex strategy involves the co-ordinated responses of multiple organs to promote storage or mobilization of energy sources according to the availability of nutrients and cellular bioenergetics needs. The endocrine pancreas plays a central role in these processes by secreting insulin and glucagon. When this co-ordinated effort fails, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia develops, characterizing a state of metabolic imbalance and ultimately overt diabetes. Although diabetes is most likely a collection of diseases, scientists are starting to identify genetic components and environmental triggers. Genome-wide association studies revealed that by and large, gene variants associated with type 2 diabetes are implicated in pancreatic β-cell function, suggesting that the β-cell may be the weakest link in the chain of events that results in diabetes. Thus, it is critical to understand how environmental cues affect the β-cell. Phosphoinositides are important 'decoders' of environmental cues. As such, these lipids have been implicated in cellular responses to a wide range of growth factors, hormones, stress agents, nutrients and metabolites. Here we will review some of the well-established and potential new roles for phosphoinositides in β-cell function/dysfunction and discuss how our knowledge of phosphoinositide signalling could aid in the identification of potential strategies for treating or preventing type 2 diabetes. PMID:26862218

  5. Modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in aortic smooth muscle cells by allylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L.R.; Murphy, S.K.; Ramos, K. )

    1990-08-01

    Aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) modulate from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype upon subchronic exposure to allylamine. The present studies were designed to determine if this phenotypic modulation is associated with alterations in the metabolism of membrane phosphoinositides. 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) was lower by 31, 35, and 22%, respectively, in SMC from allylamine-treated animals relative to controls. In contrast, incorporation of (3H)myoinositol into inositol phosphates did not differ in allylamine cells relative to control cells. Exposure to dibutyryl (db) cAMP (0.2 mM) and theophylline (0.1 mM) reduced 32P incorporation into PIP and PIP2 in SMC from both experimental groups. Under these conditions, a decrease in (3H)myoinositol incorporation into inositol 1-phosphate was only observed in allylamine cells. The effects of db cAMP and theophylline in allylamine and control SMC correlated with a marked decrease in cellular proliferation. These results suggest that alterations in phosphoinositide synthesis and/or degradation contribute to the enhanced proliferation of SMC induced by allylamine. To further examine this concept, the effects of agents which modulate protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. Sphingosine (125-500 ng/ml), a PKC inhibitor, decreased SMC proliferation in allylamine, but not control cells. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1-100 ng/ml), a PKC agonist, stimulated proliferation in control cells, but inhibited proliferation in cells from allylamine-treated animals. We conclude that allylamine-induced phenotypic modulation of SMC is associated with alterations in phosphoinositide metabolism.

  6. Direct targets of phosphoinositide 3-kinase products in membrane traffic and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Corvera, S; Czech, M P

    1998-11-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases are a family of lipid kinases that phosphorylate the 3' position of the inositol ring on phosphatidylinositol and higher-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositides. The multiplicity of cellular functions influenced by the activity of these enzymes has captured the attention of researchers working on two important fields of cell biology--signal transduction and membrane traffic. This review discusses how the recent identification of proteins that interact directly with 3'-polyphosphoinositides has revealed novel potential interconnections between these fundamental cellular processes. PMID:9854311

  7. Electrostatics of phosphoinositide bilayer membranes. Theoretical and experimental results.

    PubMed Central

    Langner, M; Cafiso, D; Marcelja, S; McLaughlin, S

    1990-01-01

    We made fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electrophoretic mobility, and ionizing electrode measurements to study the effect of the monovalent lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) and the trivalent lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on the electrostatic potential adjacent to bilayer membranes. When the membranes were formed from mixtures of PI and the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) theory described adequately the dependence of potential on distance (0, 1, 2 nm) from the membrane, mole % negative lipid, and [KCI]. Furthermore, all EPR and fluorescence probes reported identical surface potentials with a PC/PI membrane. With PC/PIP2 membranes, however, the anionic (coion) probes reported less negative potentials than the cationic (counterion) probes; the deviations from the GCS theory were greater for the coions than the counterions. Discreteness-of-charge theories based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation incorrectly predict that deviations from the GCS theory should be greater for counterions than for coions. We discuss a consistent statistical mechanical theory that takes into account three effects ignored in the GCS theory: the finite size of the ions in the double layer, the electrical interaction between pairs of ions (correlation effects), and the mobile discrete nature of the surface charges. This theory correctly predicts that deviations from GCS theory should be negligible for monovalent lipids, significant for trivalent lipids, and greater for coions than for counterions. PMID:2156577

  8. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. {yields} EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. {yields} Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. {yields} These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K{sub i} values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  9. Late Simian virus 40 transcription factor is a target of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in anti-apoptotic Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Kashour, Tarek; Burton, Teralee; Dibrov, Alexander; Amara, Francis M

    2003-01-01

    The association of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) with mutations in Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) suggests important functions for APP in the central nervous system. Mutations in APP impair its function to confer resistance to apoptosis in cells under stress, and this may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. We examined the role of the late Simian virus 40 transcription factor (LSF), in anti-apoptotic APP pathways. We show that in APP-deficient B103 cells, expression of wild-type human APP (hAPPwt), but not of FAD-mutant APP, inhibited staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis. This inhibition was further enhanced by expression of LSFwt, although LSFwt alone was not sufficient to inhibit STS-induced apoptosis. In contrast, expression of dominant-negative LSF led to a marked increase in STS-induced cell death that was significantly blocked by hAPPwt. These effects of APP were accompanied by LSF nuclear translocation and dependent gene transcription. The activation of LSF is dependent on the expression of hAPPwt and is inhibited by the expression of dominant-negative forms of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt. These results demonstrate that LSF activation is required for the neuroprotective effects of APP via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling. Alterations in this pathway by aberrations in APP and/or LSF could promote neuronal loss in AD brain, due to secondary insults. Thus a link is established between APP and LSF and AD. PMID:12472467

  10. Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by a novel substance partially purified from rat and bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepp, D.; Wilson, T.; Elliott, C.; Wright, G.; McCumbee, W.

    1986-03-05

    This study demonstrates the partial purification of a potentially novel substance from rat and bovine brain. Whole brains were homogenized in distilled water, then heated at 100/sup 0/C for 30 min. The water extract was dialyzed and the < 2000 dalton dialysate was fractionated on a Bio-Gel P-4 gel filtration column. Fractions were assayed for stimulation of /sup 3/H-inositol monophosphate (/sup 3/H-IP) using lithium-treated slices of rat cerebral cortex prelabelled with /sup 3/H-myo-inositol. A major peak of activity was observed in fractions from the molecular weight range of 800-1300 daltons. Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by this material was time-dependent and dose-related. Maximal stimulation of /sup 3/H-IP (323% of control) required 10mg/ml of bovine material and was observed at 30 minutes. These effects could not be mimicked by a number of substances of similar molecular weight (e.g. substance P, neurotensin, angiotensin II, bradykinin). Furthermore, the effects of this material were not blocked by antagonist drugs which act at the alpha-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinoceptor, 5-HT2 receptor, substance P receptor, or neurotensin receptor. These results indicate that the substance isolated may be a novel neuroactive molecule which has receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in brain.

  11. Measuring Activity of Phosphoinositide Lipid Kinases Using a Bioluminescent ADP-Detecting Assay.

    PubMed

    Tai, Andrew W; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its phosphorylated derivatives, collectively called phosphoinositides, are important second messengers involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and migration. These derivatives are generated by a family of kinases called phosphoinositide lipid kinases (PIKs). Due to the central role of these kinases in signaling pathways, assays for measuring their activity are often used for drug development. Lipid kinase substrates are present in unique membrane environments in vivo and are insoluble in aqueous solutions. Therefore the most important consideration in developing successful lipid kinase assays is the physical state of lipid kinase substrates. Here we describe the preparation of lipid substrates for two major classes of lipid kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks). Using PI4Ks as an example, we also provide a detailed protocol for small-scale kinase expression and affinity purification from transiently transfected mammalian cells. For measuring lipid kinase activity we apply a universal bioluminescent ADP detection approach. The approach is compatible with diverse lipid substrates and can be used as a single integrated platform for measuring all classes of lipid and protein kinases. PMID:26501903

  12. PIP4K and the role of nuclear phosphoinositides in tumour suppression.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Roberta; Stijf-Bultsma, Yvette; Shah, Zahid H; Keune, Willem Jan; Jones, David R; Jude, Julian Georg; Divecha, Nullin

    2015-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PtdIns5P)-4-kinases (PIP4Ks) are stress-regulated lipid kinases that phosphorylate PtdIns5P to generate PtdIns(4,5)P?. There are three isoforms of PIP4Ks: PIP4K2A, 2B and 2C, which localise to different subcellular compartments with the PIP4K2B isoform being localised predominantly in the nucleus. Suppression of PIP4K expression selectively prevents tumour cell growth in vitro and prevents tumour development in mice that have lost the tumour suppressor p53. p53 is lost or mutated in over 70% of all human tumours. These studies suggest that inhibition of PIP4K signalling constitutes a novel anti-cancer therapeutic target. In this review we will discuss the role of PIP4K in tumour suppression and speculate on how PIP4K modulates nuclear phosphoinositides (PPIns) and how this might impact on nuclear functions to regulate cell growth. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25728392

  13. Modulation of Ciliary Phosphoinositide Content Regulates Trafficking and Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Output.

    PubMed

    Chvez, Marcelo; Ena, Sabrina; Van Sande, Jacqueline; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; Schurmans, Stphane; Schiffmann, Serge N

    2015-08-10

    Ciliary transport is required for ciliogenesis, signal transduction, and trafficking of receptors to the primary cilium. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) have been associated with ciliary dysfunction; however, its role in regulating ciliary phosphoinositides is unknown. Here we reportthat in neural stem cells, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) is found in high levels in cilia whereas phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is not detectable. Upon INPP5E inactivation, PI(4,5)P2 accumulates at the ciliary tip whereas PI4P is depleted. This is accompanied by recruitment of the PI(4,5)P2-interacting protein TULP3 to the ciliary membrane, along with Gpr161. This results in an increased production of cAMP and a repression of the Shh transcription gene Gli1. Our results reveal the link between ciliary regulation of phosphoinositides by INPP5E and Shh regulation via ciliary trafficking of TULP3/Gpr161 and also provide mechanistic insight into ciliary alterations found in Joubert and MORM syndromes resulting from INPP5E mutations. PMID:26190144

  14. Yunis-Varn Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in FIG4, Encoding a Phosphoinositide Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, PhilippeM.; Lenk, GuyM.; Lu, JamesT.; Bae, Yangjin; Burrage, Lindsay; Turnpenny, Peter; RomnCorona-Rivera, Jorge; Morandi, Lucia; Mora, Marina; Reutter, Heiko; Vulto-vanSilfhout, AnnekeT.; Faivre, Laurence; Haan, Eric; Gibbs, RichardA.; Meisler, MiriamH.; Lee, BrendanH.

    2013-01-01

    Yunis-Varn syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder with cleidocranial dysplasia, digital anomalies, and severe neurological involvement. Enlarged vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified frameshift and missense mutations of FIG4 in affected individuals from three unrelated families. FIG4 encodes a phosphoinositide phosphatase required for regulation of PI(3,5)P2 levels, and thus endosomal trafficking and autophagy. In a functional assay, both missense substitutions failed to correct the vacuolar phenotype of Fig4-null mouse fibroblasts. Homozygous Fig4-null mice exhibit features of YVS, including neurodegeneration and enlarged vacuoles in neurons. We demonstrate that Fig4-null mice also have small skeletons with reduced trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness and that cultured osteoblasts accumulate large vacuoles. Our findings demonstrate that homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for null mutations of FIG4 is responsible for YVS, the most severe known human phenotype caused by defective phosphoinositide metabolism. In contrast, in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (also caused by FIG4 mutations), one of the FIG4 alleles is hypomorphic and disease is limited to the peripheral nervous system. This genotype-phenotype correlation demonstrates that absence of FIG4 activity leads to central nervous system dysfunction and extensive skeletal anomalies. Our results describe a role for PI(3,5)P2 signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. PMID:23623387

  15. An N-terminal Amphipathic Helix Binds Phosphoinositides and Enhances Kalirin Sec14 Domain-mediated Membrane Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan B; Vishwanatha, Kurutihalli S; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2015-05-22

    Previous studies revealed an essential role for the lipid-binding Sec14 domain of kalirin (KalSec14), but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because alternative promoter usage appends unique N-terminal peptides to the KalSec14 domain, we used biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological approaches to examine the two major products, bKalSec14 and cKalSec14. Promoter B encodes a charged, unstructured peptide, whereas promoter C encodes an amphipathic helix (Kal-C-helix). Both bKalSec14 and cKalSec14 interacted with lipids in PIP strip and liposome flotation assays, with significantly greater binding by cKalSec14 in both assays. Disruption of the hydrophobic face of the Kal-C-helix in cKalSec14KKED eliminated its increased liposome binding. Although cKalSec14 showed significantly reduced binding to liposomes lacking phosphatidylinositol phosphates or cholesterol, liposome binding by bKalSec14 and cKalSec14KKED was not affected. When expressed in AtT-20 cells, bKalSec14-GFP was diffusely localized, whereas cKalSec14-GFP localized to the trans-Golgi network and secretory granules. The amphipathic C-helix was sufficient for this localization. When AtT-20 cells were treated with a cell-permeant derivative of the Kal-C-helix (Kal-C-helix-Arg9), we observed increased secretion of a product stored in mature secretory granules, with no effect on basal secretion; a cell-permeant control peptide (Kal-C-helixKKED-Arg9) did not have this effect. Through its ability to control expression of a novel, phosphoinositide-binding amphipathic helix, Kalrn promoter usage is expected to affect function. PMID:25861993

  16. Cell autonomous phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation in oocytes disrupts normal ovarian function through promoting survival and overgrowth of ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Youn; Ebbert, Katherine; Cordeiro, Marilia H; Romero, Megan; Zhu, Jie; Serna, Vanida Ann; Whelan, Kelly A; Woodruff, Teresa K; Kurita, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of oocytic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation on folliculogensis by generating transgenic mice, in which the oocyte-specific Cre-recombinase induces the expression of constitutively active mutant PI3K during the formation of primordial follicles. The ovaries of neonatal transgenic (Cre+) mice showed significantly reduced apoptosis in follicles, which resulted in an excess number of follicles per ovary. Thus, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate levels within oocytes promotes the survival of follicles during neonatal development. Despite the increase in AKT phosphorylation, primordial follicles in neonatal Cre+ mice remained dormant demonstrating a nuclear accumulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). These primordial follicles containing a high level of nuclear PTEN persisted in postpubertal females, suggesting that PTEN is the dominant factor in the maintenance of female reproductive lifespan through the regulation of primordial follicle recruitment. Although the oocytic PI3K activity and PTEN levels were elevated, the activation of primordial follicles and the subsequent accumulation of antral follicles with developmentally competent oocytes progressed normally in prepubertal Cre+ mice. However, mature Cre+ female mice were anovulatory. Because postnatal day 50 Cre+ mice released cumulus-oocyte complexes with developmentally competent oocytes in response to super-ovulation treatment, the anovulatory phenotype was not due to follicular defects but rather endocrine abnormalities, which were likely caused by the excess number of overgrown follicles. Our current study has elucidated the critical role of oocytic PI3K activity in follicular function, as well as the presence of a PTEN-mediated mechanism in the prevention of immature follicle activation. PMID:25594701

  17. Akt phosphorylation and nuclear phosphoinositide association mediate mRNA export and cell proliferation activities by ALY.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masashi; Jang, Sang-Wuk; Ye, Keqiang

    2008-06-24

    Nuclear PI3K and its downstream effectors play essential roles in a variety of cellular activities including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and pre-mRNA splicing. Aly is a nuclear speckle protein implicated in mRNA export. Here we show that Aly is a physiological target of nuclear PI3K signaling, which regulates its subnuclear residency, cell proliferation, and mRNA export activities through nuclear Akt phosphorylation and phosphoinositide association. Nuclear Akt phosphorylates Aly on threonine-219, which is required for its interaction with Akt. Aly binds phosphoinositides, and this action is regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation. Phosphoinositide binding but not Akt phosphorylation dictates Aly's nuclear speckle residency. Depletion of Aly results in cell growth suppression and mRNA export reduction. Inhibition of Aly phosphorylation substantially decreases cell proliferation and mRNA export. Furthermore, disruption of phosphoinositide association with Aly also significantly reduces these activities. Thus, nuclear PI3K signaling mediates both cell proliferation and mRNA export functions of Aly. PMID:18562279

  18. The yeast VAP homolog Scs2p has a phosphoinositide-binding ability that is correlated with its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kagiwada, Satoshi Hashimoto, Misa

    2007-12-28

    The yeast VAMP-associated protein (VAP) homolog Scs2p is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear membrane protein that binds to an FFAT (diphenylalanine in an acidic tract) motif found in various lipid-metabolic proteins, including Opi1p, a negative regulator of phospholipid biosynthesis. Here, we show that Scs2p is a novel phosphoinositide-binding protein that can bind to phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and bisphosphates in vitro. The phosphoinositide-binding domain was assigned to the N-terminal major sperm protein (MSP) domain which also contains the FFAT-binding domain. When several lysine residues in the MSP domain were substituted for alanine, the resulting mutant Scs2 proteins lost the phosphoinositide-binding ability and failed to complement the inositol auxotrophy of an scs2 deletion strain. However, the mutant proteins still localized in the ER/nuclear membrane, in a similar manner to wild-type Scs2p. These results suggest the possibility that Scs2p activity is regulated by phosphoinositides to coordinate phospholipid biosynthesis in response to changes in phospholipid composition.

  19. Importance of phosphoinositide-dependent signaling pathways in the control of gene expression in resting cells and in response to phytohormones.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Kravets, Volodymyr; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    "Phosphoinositide" refers to phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol, including phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. Both of these molecules could be in vivo substrates of plant phospholipase C. These phosphoinositides can also be biologically active "per se," by directly binding to proteins and thus altering their location and/or activity. The use of pharmacological agents in Arabidopsis suspension cells allowed us to identify genes whose expression was positively or negatively controlled, in the basal state, by products of phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C. In this basal state, it seems that no genes exhibit a phosphoinositide-dependent expression "per se." However, many genes whose expression is altered in the presence of phospholipase C inhibitors appeared to be responsive to salicylic acid. This allowed us to show that salicylic acid acts both by increasing the phosphoinositide pool and by inhibiting the phospholipase C. In response to salicylic acid it is possible to identify genes whose expression is controlled by products of PI-PLC, but also genes whose expression is controlled by phosphoinositides "per se." Our data highlight the importance of phosphoinositide-dependent pathways in gene expression in resting cells and in response to phytohormones. PMID:26039482

  20. Importance of phosphoinositide-dependent signaling pathways in the control of gene expression in resting cells and in response to phytohormones

    PubMed Central

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Kravets, Volodymyr; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide refers to phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol, including phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. Both of these molecules could be in vivo substrates of plant phospholipase C. These phosphoinositides can also be biologically active per se, by directly binding to proteins and thus altering their location and/or activity. The use of pharmacological agents in Arabidopsis suspension cells allowed us to identify genes whose expression was positively or negatively controlled, in the basal state, by products of phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C. In this basal state, it seems that no genes exhibit a phosphoinositide-dependent expression per se. However, many genes whose expression is altered in the presence of phospholipase C inhibitors appeared to be responsive to salicylic acid. This allowed us to show that salicylic acid acts both by increasing the phosphoinositide pool and by inhibiting the phospholipase C. In response to salicylic acid it is possible to identify genes whose expression is controlled by products of PI-PLC, but also genes whose expression is controlled by phosphoinositides per se. Our data highlight the importance of phosphoinositide-dependent pathways in gene expression in resting cells and in response to phytohormones. PMID:26039482

  1. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of SLP-76 by the lymphoma-associated ITK-SYK fusion-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Alamdar; Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Chak Shazad Campus, Islamabad ; Faryal, Rani; Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Chak Shazad Campus, Islamabad ; Nore, Beston F.; Mohamed, Abdalla J.; Smith, C.I. Edvard

    2009-12-18

    Recurrent chromosomal translocations have long been implicated in various types of lymphomas and other malignancies. Novel recurrent t(5;9)(q33;q22) has been recently discovered in un-specified peripheral T-cell lymphoma. To elucidate the role of this translocation, the corresponding fusion construct encoding the N-terminal portion of the ITK kinase and the C-terminal catalytic region of the SYK kinase was generated. We herein show that the ITK-SYK fusion-protein is constitutively active. Moreover, we demonstrate that ITK-SYK is phosphorylated on key tyrosine residues and is capable of potently phosphorylating the related adapter proteins BLNK and SLP-76. In transiently transfected cells, SYK was phosphorylated at Y352 but not detectably at the activation-loop tyrosines Y525/Y526. In contrast, ITK-SYK was phosphorylated both at Y212 and the activation-loop tyrosines Y385/Y386, corresponding to Y352 and Y525/Y526 in SYK, respectively. In resting primary lymphocytes, ITK-SYK predominantly localizes to the cell surface. In addition, we demonstrate that following stimulation, the ITK-SYK fusion-protein in cell lines translocates to the cell membrane and, moreover, that this phenomenon as well as SLP-76 phosphorylation are blocked upon phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibition.

  2. Salicylic acid modulates levels of phosphoinositide dependent-phospholipase C substrates and products to remodel the Arabidopsis suspension cell transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Ruelland, Eric; Pokotylo, Igor; Djafi, Nabila; Cantrel, Catherine; Repellin, Anne; Zachowski, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity controls gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. PI-PLC catalyzes the production of phosphorylated inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphoinositides. It is not known how PI-PLC regulates the transcriptome although the action of DAG-kinase (DGK) on DAG immediately downstream from PI-PLC is responsible for some of the regulation. We previously established a list of genes whose expression is affected in the presence of PI-PLC inhibitors. Here this list of genes was used as a signature in similarity searches of curated plant hormone response transcriptome data. The strongest correlations obtained with the inhibited PI-PLC signature were with salicylic acid (SA) treatments. We confirm here that in Arabidopsis suspension cells SA treatment leads to an increase in phosphoinositides, then demonstrate that SA leads to a significant 20% decrease in phosphatidic acid, indicative of a decrease in PI-PLC products. Previous sets of microarray data were re-assessed. The SA response of one set of genes was dependent on phosphoinositides. Alterations in the levels of a second set of genes, mostly SA-repressed genes, could be related to decreases in PI-PLC products that occur in response to SA action. Together, the two groups of genes comprise at least 40% of all SA-responsive genes. Overall these two groups of genes are distinct in the functional categories of the proteins they encode, their promoter cis-elements and their regulation by DGK or phospholipase D. SA-regulated genes dependent on phosphoinositides are typical SA response genes while those with an SA response that is possibly dependent on PI-PLC products are less SA-specific. We propose a model in which SA inhibits PI-PLC activity and alters levels of PI-PLC products and substrates, thereby regulating gene expression divergently. PMID:25426125

  3. The Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac1 Is Required for Midline Axon Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongsoo; Kim, Sungdae; Nahm, Minyeop; Kim, Euijae; Kim, Tai-Il; Yoon, Jin Ho; Lee, Seungbok

    2011-01-01

    Sac1 phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatases are important regulators of PtdIns(4)P turnover at the ER, Golgi, and plasma membrane (PM) and are involved in diverse cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Here, we present evidence that Sac1 regulates axon guidance in the embryonic CNS of Drosophila. Sac1 is expressed on three longitudinal axon tracts that are defined by the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin II (Fas II). Mutations in the sac1 gene cause ectopic midline crossing of Fas II-positive axon tracts. This phenotype is rescued by neuronal expression of wild-type Sac1 but not by a catalytically-inactive mutant. Finally, sac1 displays dosage-sensitive genetic interactions with mutations in the genes that encode the midline repellent Slit and its axonal receptor Robo. Taken together, our results suggest that Sac1-mediated regulation of PIs is critical for Slit/Robo-dependent axon repulsion at the CNS midline. PMID:22042447

  4. MTM-6, a Phosphoinositide Phosphatase, is Required to Promote Synapse Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Vivian R.; Spilker, Kerri A.; Tugizova, Madina S.; Shen, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Forming the proper number of synapses is crucial for normal neuronal development. We found that loss of function of the phosphoinositide phosphatase mtm-6 results in a reduction in the number of synaptic puncta. The reduction in synapses is partially the result of MTM-6 regulation of the secretion of the Wnt ligand EGL-20 from cells in the tail and partially the result of neuronal action. MTM-6 shows relative specificity for EGL-20 over the other Wnt ligands. We suggest that the ability of MTM-6 to regulate EGL-20 secretion is a function of its expression pattern. We conclude that regulation of secretion of different Wnt ligands can use different components. Additionally, we present a novel neuronal function for MTM-6. PMID:25479419

  5. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? regulates membrane fission of Golgi carriers for selective cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Low, Pei Ching; Misaki, Ryo; Schroder, Kate; Stanley, Amanda C; Sweet, Matthew J; Teasdale, Rohan D; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Meunier, Frdric A; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Stow, Jennifer L

    2010-09-20

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110 isoforms are membrane lipid kinases classically involved in signal transduction. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages constitutively and abundantly secrete proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF). Loss of function of the p110? isoform of PI3K using inhibitors, RNA-mediated knockdown, or genetic inactivation in mice abolishes TNF trafficking and secretion, trapping TNF in tubular carriers at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Kinase-active p110? localizes to the Golgi complex in LPS-activated macrophages, and TNF is loaded into p230-labeled tubules, which cannot undergo fission when p110? is inactivated. Similar blocks in fission of these tubules and in TNF secretion result from inhibition of the guanosine triphosphatase dynamin 2. These findings demonstrate a new function for p110? as part of the membrane fission machinery required at the TGN for the selective trafficking and secretion of cytokines in macrophages. PMID:20837769

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Regulates Glycolysis through Mobilization of Aldolase from the Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Juvekar, Ashish; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Lien, Evan C; Albeck, John G; Oh, Doogie; Varma, Gopal; Hung, Yin Pun; Ullas, Soumya; Lauring, Josh; Seth, Pankaj; Lundquist, Mark R; Tolan, Dean R; Grant, Aaron K; Needleman, Daniel J; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2016-01-28

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates multiple steps in glucose metabolism and also cytoskeletal functions, such as cell movement and attachment. Here, we show that PI3K directly coordinates glycolysis with cytoskeletal dynamics in an AKT-independent manner. Growth factors or insulin stimulate the PI3K-dependent activation of Rac, leading to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, release of filamentous actin-bound aldolase A, and an increase in aldolase activity. Consistently, PI3K inhibitors, but not AKT, SGK, or mTOR inhibitors, cause a significant decrease in glycolysis at the step catalyzed by aldolase, while activating PIK3CA mutations have the opposite effect. These results point toward a master regulatory function of PI3K that integrates an epithelial cell's metabolism and its form, shape, and function, coordinating glycolysiswith the energy-intensive dynamics of actin remodeling. PMID:26824656

  7. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in breast cancer: how big a role might it play?

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Michael John

    2001-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) was first identified as a lipid kinase activity associated with the products of viral oncogenes and with activated protein-tyrosine kinases. Since those early studies, the PI3K superfamily has grown to embrace at least 12 structurally and functionally related enzymes present in the human genome, some of which have protein kinase activity but not lipid kinase activity. Evidence is emerging that PI3K superfamily members, and components of PI3K signalling, play a role in the development of many human cancers. In this review, the PI3K family of enzymes and their signalling is reviewed, with particular reference to possible involvement in breast cancer. PMID:11597319

  8. Homotypic vacuole fusion requires VTI11 and is regulated by phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiameng; Han, Sang Won; Rodriguez-Welsh, Maria Fernanda; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2014-06-01

    Most plant cells contain a large central vacuole that is essential to maintain cellular turgor. We report a new mutant allele of VTI11 that implicates the SNARE protein VTI11 in homotypic fusion of protein storage and lytic vacuoles. Fusion of the multiple vacuoles present in vti11 mutants could be induced by treatment with Wortmannin and LY294002, which are inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K). We provide evidence that Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) regulates vacuole fusion in vti11 mutants, and that fusion of these vacuoles requires intact microtubules and actin filaments. Finally, we show that Wortmannin also induced the fusion of guard cell vacuoles in fava beans, where vacuoles are naturally fragmented after ABA-induced stomata closure. These results suggest a ubiquitous role of phosphoinositides in vacuole fusion, both during the development of the large central vacuole and during the dynamic vacuole remodeling that occurs as part of stomata movements. PMID:24569132

  9. Platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide responses in endogenous depression

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Hideki ); Koyama, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Itaru )

    1991-01-01

    We have previously indicated that epinephrine stimulates phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis by activating alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in human platelets. This method involves the measurement of the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP-1) as an index of Pl hydrolysis; lithium is added to inhibit the metabolism of IP-1, thus giving an enhanced signal. In the present study, we assessed the platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated PI responses in samples from 15 unmedicated patients with endogenous depression and 15 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The responses to epinephrine in the depressed patients were significantly higher than those of the controls, whereas the basal values did not differ significantly. These results support the hypothesis that platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptors may be supersensitive in patients with endogenous depression.

  10. The serine kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) regulates T cell development.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Heather J; Alessi, Dario R; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2004-05-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with activation of diverse AGC serine kinases (named after family members protein kinase A, protein kinase G and protein kinase C). It has been difficult to assess the function of these molecules in T cell development with simple gene-deletion strategies because different isoforms of AGC kinases are coexpressed in the thymus and have overlapping, redundant functions. To circumvent these problems, we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a rate-limiting 'upstream' activator of AGC kinases. Here we analyzed the effect of PDK1 deletion on T lineage development. We also assessed the consequences of reducing PDK1 levels to 10% of normal. Complete PDK1 loss blocked T cell differentiation in the thymus, whereas reduced PDK1 expression allowed T cell differentiation but blocked proliferative expansion. These studies show that AGC family kinases are essential for T cell development. PMID:15077109

  11. Phosphoinositide-signaling is one component of a robust plant defense response

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Aspesi Jr, Peter; Hunter, Melissa R.; Lomax, Aaron W.; Perera, Imara Y.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide pathway and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) have been implicated in plant responses to many abiotic stresses; however, their role in response to biotic stress is not well characterized. In the current study, we show that both basal defense and systemic acquired resistance responses are affected in transgenic plants constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase) which have greatly reduced InsP3 levels. Flagellin induced Ca2+-release as well as the expressions of some flg22 responsive genes were attenuated in the InsP 5-ptase plants. Furthermore, the InsP 5-ptase plants were more susceptible to virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. The InsP 5-ptase plants had lower basal salicylic acid (SA) levels and the induction of SAR in systemic leaves was reduced and delayed. Reciprocal exudate experiments showed that although the InsP 5-ptase plants produced equally effective molecules that could trigger PR-1 gene expression in wild type plants, exudates collected from either wild type or InsP 5-ptase plants triggered less PR-1 gene expression in InsP 5-ptase plants. Additionally, expression profiles indicated that several defense genes including PR-1, PR-2, PR-5, and AIG1 were basally down regulated in the InsP 5-ptase plants compared with wild type. Upon pathogen attack, expression of these genes was either not induced or showed delayed induction in systemic leaves. Our study shows that phosphoinositide signaling is one component of the plant defense network and is involved in both basal and systemic responses. The dampening of InsP3-mediated signaling affects Ca2+ release, modulates defense gene expression and compromises plant defense responses. PMID:24966862

  12. 3?phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 is essential for ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Budas, Grant R.; Sukhodub, Andrey; Alessi, Dario R.; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion that precede sustained ischemia lead to a reduction in myocardial infarct size. This phenomenon, known as ischemic preconditioning, is mediated by signaling pathway(s) that are yet to be fully defined. 3?-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) has been implicated in numerous cellular processes. However, the involvement of PDK1 in preconditioning has yet to be elucidated. Studying PDK1 is not as straightforward as it is for the majority of kinases, due to the lack of a specific inhibitor of PDK1. Therefore, we have taken advantage of PDK1 hypomorphic mutant mice with reduced expression of PDK1 to study the role of PDK1 in preconditioning. Whole heart and single cell models of preconditioning demonstrated that the hearts and cardiac cells from PDK1 hypomorphic mice could not be preconditioned. The cardioprotective effect of PDK1 was not related to the effect that preconditioning has on sarcolemmal membrane action potential as revealed by di-8-ANEPPS, a sarcolemmal-potential sensitive dye, and laser confocal microscopy. In contrast, experiments with JC-1, a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye, has demonstrated that intact PDK1 levels were required for preconditioning-mediated regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blotting combined with functional experiments have shown that intact PDK1 levels were required for preconditioning-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB), glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), and cardioprotection. We conclude that PDK1 mediates preconditioning in the heart by regulating activating PKB-GSK-3? to regulate mitochondrial but not sarcolemmal membrane potential. 3?phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) is essential for ischemic preconditioning of the myocardium. PMID:17077284

  13. Distinctive changes in plasma membrane phosphoinositides underlie differential regulation of TRPV1 in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, Viktor; Yudin, Yevgen; Hammond, Gerald R; Sharma, Esseim; Fukami, Kiyoko; Rohacs, Tibor

    2013-07-10

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel crucial to regulation of nociceptor responsiveness. Sensitization of TRPV1 by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists to its endogenous activators, such as low pH and noxious heat, is a key factor in hyperalgesia during tissue injury as well as pathological pain syndromes. Conversely, chronic pharmacological activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin leads to calcium influx-induced adaptation of the channel. Paradoxically, both conditions entail activation of phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphoinositides. We found that in sensory neurons PLC? activation by bradykinin led to a moderate decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but no sustained change in the levels of its precursor PI(4)P. Preventing this selective decrease in PI(4,5)P2 inhibited TRPV1 sensitization, while selectively decreasing PI(4,5)P2 independently of PLC potentiated the sensitizing effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the channel, thereby inducing increased TRPV1 responsiveness. Maximal pharmacological TRPV1 stimulation led to a robust decrease of both PI(4,5)P2 and its precursor PI(4)P in sensory neurons. Attenuating the decrease of either lipid significantly reduced desensitization, and simultaneous reduction of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P independently of PLC inhibited TRPV1. We found that, on the mRNA level, the dominant highly Ca(2+)-sensitive PLC isoform in dorsal root ganglia is PLC?4. Capsaicin-induced desensitization of TRPV1 currents was significantly reduced, whereas capsaicin-induced nerve impulses in the skin-nerve preparation increased in mice lacking this isoform. We propose a comprehensive model in which differential changes in phosphoinositide levels mediated by distinct PLC isoforms result in opposing changes in TRPV1 activity. PMID:23843517

  14. Distinctive Changes in Plasma Membrane Phosphoinositides Underlie Differential Regulation of TRPV1 in Nociceptive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lukacs, Viktor; Yudin, Yevgen; Hammond, Gerald R.; Sharma, Esseim; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2013-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal, Ca2+-permeable cation channel crucial to regulation of nociceptor responsiveness. Sensitization of TRPV1 by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists to its endogenous activators, such as low pH and noxious heat, is a key factor in hyperalgesia during tissue injury as well as pathological pain syndromes. Conversely, chronic pharmacological activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin leads to calcium influx-induced adaptation of the channel. Paradoxically, both conditions entail activation of phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphoinositides. We found that in sensory neurons PLC? activation by bradykinin led to a moderate decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but no sustained change in the levels of its precursor PI(4)P. Preventing this selective decrease in PI(4,5)P2 inhibited TRPV1 sensitization, while selectively decreasing PI(4,5)P2 independently of PLC potentiated the sensitizing effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the channel, thereby inducing increased TRPV1 responsiveness. Maximal pharmacological TRPV1 stimulation led to a robust decrease of both PI(4,5)P2 and its precursor PI(4)P in sensory neurons. Attenuating the decrease of either lipid significantly reduced desensitization, and simultaneous reduction of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P independently of PLC inhibited TRPV1. We found that, on the mRNA level, the dominant highly Ca2+-sensitive PLC isoform in dorsal root ganglia is PLC?4. Capsaicin-induced desensitization of TRPV1 currents was significantly reduced, whereas capsaicin-induced nerve impulses in the skinnerve preparation increased in mice lacking this isoform. We propose a comprehensive model in which differential changes in phosphoinositide levels mediated by distinct PLC isoforms result in opposing changes in TRPV1 activity. PMID:23843517

  15. Expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isoenzymes in cultured astrocytes activated after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Cocco, L

    2010-04-01

    Signal transduction pathways, involved in cell cycle and activities, depend on various components including lipid signalling molecules, such as phosphoinositides and related enzymes. Many evidences support the hypothesis that inositol lipid cycle is involved in astrocytes activation during neurodegeneration. Previous studies investigated the pattern of expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family isoforms in astrocytes, individuating in cultured neonatal rat astrocytes, supposed to be quiescent cells, the absence of some isoforms, accordingly to their well known tissue specificity. The same study was conducted in cultured rat astrocytoma C6 cells and designed a different pattern of expression of PI-PLCs in the neoplastic counterpart, accordingly to literature suggesting a PI signalling involvement in tumour progression. It is not clear the role of PI-PLC isoforms in inflammation; recent data demonstrate they are involved in cytokines production, with special regard to IL-6. PI-PLCs expression in LPS treated neonatal rat astrocytes performed by using RT-PCR, observed at 3, 6, 18 and 24 h intervals, expressed: PI-PLC beta1, beta4 and gamma1 in all intervals analysed; PI-PLC delta1 at 6, 18 and 24 h; PI-PLC delta3 at 6 h after treatment. PI-PLC beta3, delta4 and epsilon, present in untreated astrocytes, were not detected after LPS treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis, performed to visualize the sub-cellular distribution of the expressed isoforms, demonstrated different patterns of localisation at different times of exposure. These observations suggest that PI-PLCs expression and distribution may play a role in ongoing inflammation process of CNS. PMID:20082315

  16. Lithium potentiates GSK-3? activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. Lithium enhances GSK-3? activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3? phosphorylation. Lithium suppresses GSK-3? activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3?. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3? activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3? in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3? at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation of ?-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3? in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3? at Ser9, and ?-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3? activity.

  17. Pharmacological characterization of the phosphoinositide second messenger system in the rabbit kidney

    SciTech Connect

    McArdle, S.

    1988-01-01

    The cellular response to hormones and neurotransmitters is a result of receptor activation of a second messenger system to initiate the intracellular cascade. In several tissues, such as brain and liver, one of the second messenger systems involves the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides (PIs) for the formation of inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol as the intracellular messengers. In the present study, they examined the effect of various agents on the hydrolysis of PIs in the rabbit kidney. In the kidney, the effect of the various hormones and neurotransmitters was region specific. Hydrolysis of PIs was stimulated in the inner medulla by (arg{sup 8})-vasopressin, angiotensin II, and atriopeptin I, and in the outer medulla by histamine, adenosine, and secretin. Only carbachol was able to stimulate the hydrolysis of PIs in both the inner and outer medulla. None of the substances tested were able to stimulate this response in the cortex. The following agents did not have an effect in any of the three zones of the kidney: norepinephrine, dopamine, atriopeptins II, and III. They have directly demonstrated the presence of a high affinity saturable binding site on inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells with studies of binding characteristics of the radiolabelled muscarinic antagonist, 1-quinuclidinyl (phenyl-4-{sup 3}H) benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB). The K{sub d} of 0.27 nM and the B{sub max} of 27.5 fmol/mg protein were determined from Scatchard analysis of the saturation data. In summary, they have demonstrated that cholinergic muscarinic receptors are present in the rabbit kidney, specifically in the IMCD cells. These receptors, which are coupled to the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, may be involved in the vasodilatory and/or diuretic effects of cholinergic agents.

  18. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  19. Effects of acetylcholine and other agents on /sup 32/P-prelabeled phosphoinositides and phosphatidate in crude synaptosomal preparations

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.L.

    1988-05-01

    Experimental conditions are described which permit effects of various agents on polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid (PA) to be evaluated simultaneously in crude nerve-ending preparations from rat brain. Acetylcholine (3-100 microM) or carbachol (30-1,000 microM) induced the hydrolysis of prelabeled polyphosphoinositides and, at the same time, stimulated the net label incorporated in phosphatidic acid. All muscarinic effects were blocked by atropine or pirenzepine. Non-muscarinic agonists (glutamate, adenosine, norepinephrine) stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in this preparation, but of these only norepinephrine affected phosphatidic acid turnover. A potentiation of acetylcholine-induced phosphoinositide turnover by KCl was observed, as well as an apparent selective inhibition of PIP2 hydrolysis by LiCl. Acetylcholine-stimulated turnover of PA was not necessarily coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

  20. Fucoidan inhibits the migration and proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathways

    PubMed Central

    HAN, YONG-SEOK; LEE, JUN HEE; LEE, SANG HUN

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The cell growth of HT29 cells was significantly decreased following treatment with fucoidan (200 μg/ml). In addition, fucoidan inhibited the migration of HT-29 cells by decreasing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in a dose-dependent manner (0–200 μg/ml). The underlying mechanism of these inhibitory effects included the downregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by treatment with fucoidan. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and decreased cancer sphere formation. The present study suggested that fucoidan exerts an anti-cancer effect on HT-29 human colon cancer cells by downregulating the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential therapeutic reagent against the growth of human colon cancer cells. PMID:25998232

  1. Curcumin inhibits vasculogenic mimicry through the downregulation of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yiming; Huang, Min; Li, Jianwen; Sun, Xinlin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Li, Liangping; Ke, Yiquan

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors found in humans. In high-grade gliomas, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is often detected. VM is the formation of de novo vascular networks by highly invasive tumor cells, instead of endothelial cells. An understanding of the mechanisms of VM formation will contribute to the targeted therapy of GBMs. In the present study, the efficacy of curcumin (CCM) on VM formation and its mechanisms were investigated. It was found that CCM inhibits the VM formation, proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioma U251 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CCM downregulated the protein and mRNA expression of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2, indicating that CCM may function through these factors for the inhibition of VM formation. These data provide novel insights into the use of CCM to antagonize VM, and may contribute to the angiogenesis-targeted therapy of malignant glioma. PMID:25202424

  2. Effects of glucose on sorbitol pathway activation, cellular redox, and metabolism of myo-inositol, phosphoinositide, and diacylglycerol in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T P; Porcellati, F; Kato, K; Stevens, M J; Sherman, W R; Greene, D A

    1994-01-01

    Sorbitol (aldose reductase) pathway flux in diabetes perturbs intracellular metabolism by two putative mechanisms: reciprocal osmoregulatory depletion of other organic osmolytes e.g., myo-inositol, and alterations in NADPH/NADP+ and/or NADH/NAD+. The "osmolyte" and "redox" hypotheses predict secondary elevations in CDP-diglyceride, the rate-limiting precursor for phosphatidylinositol synthesis, but through different mechanisms: the "osmolyte" hypothesis via depletion of intracellular myo-inositol (the cosubstrate for phosphatidylinositol-synthase) and the "redox" hypothesis through enhanced de novo synthesis from triose phosphates. The osmolyte hypothesis predicts diminished phosphoinositide-derived arachidonyl-diacylglycerol, while the redox hypothesis predicts increased total diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. In high aldose reductase expressing retinal pigment epithelial cells, glucose-induced, aldose reductase inhibitor-sensitive CDP-diglyceride accumulation and inhibition of 32P-incorporation into phosphatidylinositol paralleled myo-inositol depletion (but not cytoplasmic redox, that was unaffected by glucose) and depletion of arachidonyl-diacylglycerol. 3 mM pyruvate added to the culture medium left cellular redox unaltered, but stimulated Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol uptake, accumulation, and incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. These results favor myo-inositol depletion rather than altered redox as the primary cause of glucose-induced aldose reductase-related defects in phospholipid metabolism in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Images PMID:8201009

  3. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Ji?

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domaindelineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. PMID:24876254

  4. Structural Basis for Different Phosphoinositide Specificities of the PX Domains of Sorting Nexins Regulating G-protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Caroline; Norwood, Suzanne J.; Bugarcic, Andrea; Kinna, Genevieve; Leneva, Natalya; Kovtun, Oleksiy; Ghai, Rajesh; Ona Yanez, Lorena E.; Davis, Jasmine L.; Teasdale, Rohan D.; Collins, Brett M.

    2014-01-01

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) or phox homology (PX) domain containing proteins are central regulators of cell trafficking and signaling. A subfamily of PX domain proteins possesses two unique PX-associated domains, as well as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling (RGS) domain that attenuates G?s-coupled G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here we delineate the structural organization of these RGS-PX proteins, revealing a protein family with a modular architecture that is conserved in all eukaryotes. The one exception to this is mammalian SNX19, which lacks the typical RGS structure but preserves all other domains. The PX domain is a sensor of membrane phosphoinositide lipids and we find that specific sequence alterations in the PX domains of the mammalian RGS-PX proteins, SNX13, SNX14, SNX19, and SNX25, confer differential phosphoinositide binding preferences. Although SNX13 and SNX19 PX domains bind the early endosomal lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, SNX14 shows no membrane binding at all. Crystal structures of the SNX19 and SNX14 PX domains reveal key differences, with alterations in SNX14 leading to closure of the binding pocket to prevent phosphoinositide association. Our findings suggest a role for alternative membrane interactions in spatial control of RGS-PX proteins in cell signaling and trafficking. PMID:25148684

  5. Structural basis for different phosphoinositide specificities of the PX domains of sorting nexins regulating G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Mas, Caroline; Norwood, Suzanne J; Bugarcic, Andrea; Kinna, Genevieve; Leneva, Natalya; Kovtun, Oleksiy; Ghai, Rajesh; Ona Yanez, Lorena E; Davis, Jasmine L; Teasdale, Rohan D; Collins, Brett M

    2014-10-10

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) or phox homology (PX) domain containing proteins are central regulators of cell trafficking and signaling. A subfamily of PX domain proteins possesses two unique PX-associated domains, as well as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling (RGS) domain that attenuates Gαs-coupled G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here we delineate the structural organization of these RGS-PX proteins, revealing a protein family with a modular architecture that is conserved in all eukaryotes. The one exception to this is mammalian SNX19, which lacks the typical RGS structure but preserves all other domains. The PX domain is a sensor of membrane phosphoinositide lipids and we find that specific sequence alterations in the PX domains of the mammalian RGS-PX proteins, SNX13, SNX14, SNX19, and SNX25, confer differential phosphoinositide binding preferences. Although SNX13 and SNX19 PX domains bind the early endosomal lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, SNX14 shows no membrane binding at all. Crystal structures of the SNX19 and SNX14 PX domains reveal key differences, with alterations in SNX14 leading to closure of the binding pocket to prevent phosphoinositide association. Our findings suggest a role for alternative membrane interactions in spatial control of RGS-PX proteins in cell signaling and trafficking. PMID:25148684

  6. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs—PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G.; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID:26150791

  7. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs-PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility.

    PubMed

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K(+) channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID:26150791

  8. Assessing the subcellular distribution of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase using microinjection into live cells.

    PubMed

    Layton, Meredith J; Rynkiewicz, Natalie; Ivetac, Ivan; Horan, Kristy A; Mitchell, Christina A; Phillips, Wayne A

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA lead to an increase in instrinsic phosphoinositide kinase activity, but it is thought that increased access of PI3K? to its plasma membrane localised substrate is also required for increased levels of downstream PIP3/Akt signalling. We have studied the subcellular localisation of wild type and the two most common oncogenic mutants of PI3K? in cells maintained in growth media, and starved or stimulated cells using a novel method in which PI3K? is pre-formed as a 1:1 p110?:p85? complex in vitro then introduced into live cells by microinjection. Oncogenic E545K and H1047R mutants did not constitutively interact with membrane lipid in vitro or in cells maintained in 10% FCS. Following stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, microinjected PI3K? was recruited to the plasma membrane, but oncogenic forms of PI3K? were not recruited to the plasma membrane to a greater extent and did not reside at the plasma membrane longer than wild type PI3K?. Instead, the E545K mutant specifically bound activated Cdc42 in vitro and microinjection of E545K was associated with the formation of cellular protrusions, providing some preliminary evidence that changes in protein-protein interactions may play a role in the oncogenicity of the E545K mutant in addition to the well-known changes in lipid kinase activity. PMID:24597785

  9. Short-Form Ron Promotes Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis through Interaction with Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhao, Ling; DeRose, Yoko S.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Bieniasz, Magdalena; Eyob, Henok; Buys, Saundra S.; Neumayer, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been the subject of intense investigation due to their widespread deregulation in cancer and the prospect of developing targeted therapeutics against these proteins. The Ron RTK has been implicated in tumor aggressiveness and is a developing target for therapy, but its function in tumor progression and metastasis is not fully understood. We examined Ron activity in human breast cancers and found striking predominance of an activated Ron isoform known as short-form Ron (sfRon), whose function in breast tumors has not been explored. We found that sfRon plays a significant role in aggressiveness of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. sfRon expression was sufficient to convert slow-growing, nonmetastatic tumors into rapidly growing tumors that spontaneously metastasized to liver and bones. Mechanistic studies revealed that sfRon promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis through interaction with p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of PI3K activity, or introduction of a single mutation in the p85 docking site on sfRon, completely eliminated the ability of sfRon to promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. These findings reveal sfRon as an important new player in breast cancer and validate Ron and PI3K as therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:22207901

  10. Molecular and Enzymatic Characterization of Three Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Isoforms from Potato1

    PubMed Central

    Kopka, Joachim; Pical, Christophe; Gray, Julie E.; Mller-Rber, Bernd

    1998-01-01

    Many cellular responses to stimulation of cell-surface receptors by extracellular signals are transmitted across the plasma membrane by hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which is cleaved into diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-tris-phosphate by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). We present structural, biochemical, and RNA expression data for three distinct PI-PLC isoforms, StPLC1, StPLC2, and StPLC3, which were cloned from a guard cell-enriched tissue preparation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) leaves. All three enzymes contain the catalytic X and Y domains, as well as C2-like domains also present in all PI-PLCs. Analysis of the reaction products obtained from PIP2 hydrolysis unequivocally identified these enzymes as genuine PI-PLC isoforms. Recombinant StPLCs showed an optimal PIP2-hydrolyzing activity at 10 ?m Ca2+ and were inhibited by Al3+ in equimolar amounts. In contrast to PI-PLC activity in plant plasma membranes, however, recombinant enzymes could not be activated by Mg2+. All three stplc genes are expressed in various tissues of potato, including leaves, flowers, tubers, and roots, and are affected by drought stress in a gene-specific manner. PMID:9449844

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? gene mutation predisposes to respiratory infection and airway damage

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Ivan; Vadas, Oscar; Garon, Fabien; Banham-Hall, Edward; Plagnol, Vincent; Leahy, Timothy R.; Baxendale, Helen; Coulter, Tanya; Curtis, James; Wu, Changxin; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Perisic, Olga; Smyth, Deborah; Maes, Mailis; Fiddler, Christine; Juss, Jatinder; Cilliers, Deirdre; Markelj, Gaper; Chandra, Anita; Farmer, George; Kielkowska, Anna; Clark, Jonathan; Kracker, Sven; Debr, Marianne; Picard, Capucine; Pellier, Isabelle; Jabado, Nada; Morris, James A.; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Fischer, Alain; Stephens, Len; Hawkins, Phillip; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Abinun, Mario; Clatworthy, Menna; Durandy, Anne; Doffinger, Rainer; Chilvers, Edwin; Cant, Andrew J.; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Williams, Roger L.; Condliffe, Alison; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which predispose to infections. Here we describe Activated PI3K-? Syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation E1021K in the p110? protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3,346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased IgM and reduced IgG2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110?. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110? inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, suggesting a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS. PMID:24136356

  12. Expression and localization of the diacylglycerol kinase family and of phosphoinositide signaling molecules in adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Yasukazu; Akimoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Akihito; Otani, Koichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Goto, Kaoru

    2015-11-01

    Adrenal glands play a central role in the secretion of steroid hormones and catecholamines. Previous studies have revealed that molecules engaged in phosphoinositide (PI) turnover are expressed in the adrenal gland, suggesting the importance of PI signaling in adrenal signal transduction. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DG), a major second messenger in the PI signaling cascade. The DGK family is expressed in distinct patterns in endocrine organs at the mRNA and protein levels. Nevertheless, little is known about the characteristics and morphological aspects of DGKs in the adrenal gland. We have performed immunohistochemical analyses to investigate the expression and localization of DGK isozymes, together with PI signaling molecules, in the adrenal gland at the protein level. Our results show that the DGK family and a set of PI signaling molecules are expressed intensely in zona glomerulosa cells and medullary chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland. In adrenal cells, DGK? localizes to the Golgi complex, DGK? to the plasma membrane, and DGK? to the nucleus. These findings show the distinct expression and subcellular localization of DGK isozymes and PI signaling molecules in the adrenal gland, suggesting that each DGK isozyme has a role in signal transduction in adrenal cells, especially in the zona glomerulosa and medulla. PMID:26003177

  13. The Basal Transcription Complex Component TAF3 Transduces Changes in Nuclear Phosphoinositides into Transcriptional Output

    PubMed Central

    Stijf-Bultsma, Yvette; Sommer, Lilly; Tauber, Maria; Baalbaki, Mai; Giardoglou, Panagiota; Jones, DavidR.; Gelato, KathyA.; vanPelt, Jason; Shah, Zahid; Rahnamoun, Homa; Toma, Clara; Anderson, KarenE.; Hawkins, Philip; Lauberth, ShannonM.; Haramis, Anna-PavlinaG.; Hart, Daniel; Fischle, Wolfgang; Divecha, Nullin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphoinositides (PI) are important signaling molecules in the nucleus that influence gene expression. However, if and how nuclear PI directly affects the transcriptional machinery is not known. We report that the lipid kinase PIP4K2B regulates nuclear PI5P and the expression of myogenic genes during myoblast differentiation. A targeted screen for PI interactors identified the PHD finger of TAF3, a TATA box binding protein-associated factor with important roles in transcription regulation, pluripotency, and differentiation. We show that the PI interaction site is distinct from the known H3K4me3 binding region of TAF3 and that PI binding modulates association of TAF3 with H3K4me3 invitro and with chromatin invivo. Analysis of TAF3 mutants indicates that TAF3 transduces PIP4K2B-mediated alterations in PI into changes in specific gene transcription. Our study reveals TAF3 as a direct target of nuclear PI and further illustrates the importance of basal transcription components as signal transducers. PMID:25866244

  14. Morphological characterization of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Inaguma, Yutaka; Ito, Hidenori; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Yamagata, Takanori; Tabata, Hidenori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    The mammalian Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3C3, also known as mammalian vacuolar protein sorting 34 homologue, Vps34) is a regulator of vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and nutrient sensing. In this study, we generated a specific antibody against PIK3C3, and carried out expression and morphological analyses of PIK3C3 during mouse brain development. In Western blotting, PIK3C3 was detected throughout the developmental process with higher expression in the early embryonic stage. In immunohistochemical analyses with embryonic day 16 mouse brain, PIK3C3 was detected strongly in the axon of cortical neurons. While PIK3C3 was distributed at the soma, nucleus, axon, and dendrites in primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons at 3 days in vitro (div), it was also found in a punctate distribution with partial colocalization with synaptic marker, synaptophysin, at 21 div. The obtained results indicate that PIK3C3 is expressed and may have a physiological role in central nervous system during corticogenesis. PMID:26242203

  15. A Toxoplasma gondii phosphoinositide phospholipase C (TgPI-PLC) with high affinity for phosphatidylinositol

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianmin; Marchesini, Norma; Moreno, Silvia N. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Toxoplasma gondii phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene (TgPI-PLC) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli and its enzymatic characteristics were investigated. TgPI-PLC is present in the genome as a single-copy gene consisting of 22 exons interrupted by 21 introns, and encodes a polypeptide of 1097 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 121 kDa. In addition to the conserved catalytic X and Y domains, TgPI-PLC contains an apparent N-terminal PH domain, an EF hand motif and a C-terminal C2 domain. When compared with mammalian δ-type PI-PLC, TgPI-PLC has an additional extended N-terminus and two insertions in the region between the X and Y domains, with a 31–35% identity over the whole sequence. Recombinant TgPI-PLC, as well as the native enzyme obtained from crude membrane extracts of the parasite, was more active with phosphatidylinositol than with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate as substrate. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis using an affinity-purified antibody against TgPI-PLC revealed that this enzyme localizes in the plasma membrane of the parasites. PMID:16288600

  16. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shi-Qiang; Li, Jian; Li, Shu-Qing; Cao, Yu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3K?) has been implicated in multiple signaling pathways involved in autoimmune diseases. We here aimed to test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of PI3K? may promote anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a selective PI3K? inhibitor IC87114 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The efficacy was evaluated based on clinical scores, histopathology, serum cytokines and inflammatory infiltrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Treatment of EAE mice with IC87114 reduced the clinical symptoms, histopathology and cellular infiltration into the CNS. And treatment of EAE with IC87114 suppressed the Th1 and Th17 cell ratios. Consistently, the serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17 and INF-? were markedly reduced by IC87114. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that inhibition of PI3K? may serve as novel therapy to suppress neuroinflammation seen during EAE. PMID:26884985

  17. Up-regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in human lamina propria T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, J; Autschbach, F; Giese, T; Lasitschka, F; Heidtmann, A; Sido, B; Funke, B; Reiser, C; Schrder, A J; Nebl, G; Samstag, Y; Meuer, S C

    2008-03-01

    Human intestinal lamina propria T lymphocytes (LPT), when investigated ex vivo, exhibit functional properties profoundly different from those of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBT). One prominent feature represents their enhanced sensitivity to CD2 stimulation when compared to PBT. Given that LPT are hyporesponsive to T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 stimulation, an alternative activation mode, as mimicked by CD2 triggering in vitro, may be functional in mucosal inflammation in vivo. This study provides insight into signalling events associated with the high CD2 responsiveness of LPT. When compared to PBT, LPT show an increased activation of the phosphoinositide 3/protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (PI3-kinase/AKT/GSK-3beta) pathway in response to CD2 stimulation. Evidence is provided that up-regulation of this pathway contributes to the enhanced CD2-induced cytokine production in LPT. Given the importance of TCR-independent stimulation for the initiation of intestinal immune responses analysis of signalling pathways induced by 'co-stimulatory' receptors may provide valuable information for therapeutic drug design. PMID:18234058

  18. Interaction of aluminum ions with phosphoinositide metabolism in rat cerebral cortical membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Candura, S.M.; Castoldi, A.F.; Costa, L.G. Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, Pavia ); Manzo, L. Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, Pavia )

    1991-01-01

    Al, complexed with fluoride to form fluoroaluminate (AlF{sub 4}-), can activate the GTP-binding (G) proteins of the adenylate cyclase and retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase systems. Since an involvement of G-proteins with cerebral phosphoinositide (PtdIns) metabolism has also been suggested, in this study the authors investigated the interaction of the stable GTP analogue GTP(S), Al salts and NaF with this system. In rat cerebral cortical membranes, GTP(S) dose-dependently stimulated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates (({sup 3}H)InsPs) accumulation. This effect was potentiated by carbachol and was partially prevented by the GTP-binding antagonist GDP(S), indicating that CNS muscarinic receptor activation is coupled to PtdIns hydrolysis via putative G-protein(s). GTP(S) stimulation was also inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both Al salts and NaF mimicked the action of GTP(S) in stimulating PtdIns turnover. Their actions were highly synergistic. However, the stimulatory effects of AlCl{sub 3} and/or NaF were not potentiated by carbachol and were not inhibited by GDP(S) and PMA. In the nervous tissue, activation of PtdIns hydrolysis by Al may be mediated by activating a regulatory G-protein at a location distinct from the GTP-binding site or by a direct stimulation of phospholipase C.

  19. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition restores neutrophil accuracy in the elderly: toward targeted treatments for immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Sapey, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Hannah; Walton, Georgia; Mann, Elizabeth; Love, Alexander; Aaronson, Natasha; Insall, Robert H; Stockley, Robert A; Lord, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Immunosenescence is the functional deterioration of the immune system during natural aging. Despite increased susceptibility to bacterial infections in older adults, age-associated changes to neutrophil responses are only partially understood, and neutrophil migration has not been characterized in detail. Here we describe reduced chemotaxis but preserved chemokinesis toward a range of inflammatory stimuli in migrating neutrophils isolated from healthy older subjects. Cross-sectional data indicate that migratory behavior changes in the sixth decade of life. Crucially, aberrant migration may increase "bystander" tissue damage and heighten inflammation as a result of excess proteinase release during inaccurate chemotaxis, as well as reducing pathogen clearance. We show evidence of increased neutrophil proteinase activity in older adults, namely, raised levels of neutrophil proteinase substrate-derived peptides and evidence of primary granule release, associated with increased systemic inflammation. Inaccurate migration was causally associated with increased constitutive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling; untreated neutrophils from old donors demonstrated significant PI3K activation compared with cells from young donors. PI3K-blocking strategies, specifically inhibition of PI3K? or PI3K?, restored neutrophil migratory accuracy, whereas SHIP1 inhibition worsened migratory flaws. Targeting PI3K signaling may therefore offer a new strategy in improving neutrophil functions during infections and reduce inappropriate inflammation in older patients. PMID:24191150

  20. Osteopontin stimulates gelsolin-associated phosphoinositide levels and phosphatidylinositol triphosphate-hydroxyl kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Chellaiah, M; Hruska, K

    1996-01-01

    Based on previous studies demonstrating activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-hydroxyl kinase (PI3-kinase) and stimulation of a change in cell shape, we examined the effect of osteopontin on the association of phospholipids with gelsolin, an actin-capping/severing protein. Osteopontin stimulated a rapid increase in phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol triphosphate levels associated with gelsolin in Triton-soluble fractions of cell lysates. The increased levels of phosphatidylinositol triphosphate associated with gelsolin were due to stimulation of PI3-kinase activity associated with gelsolin in the Triton-soluble fractions, and they were blocked by the PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Osteopontin stimulated translocation of PI3-kinase from the Triton-insoluble to Triton-soluble gelsolin. Osteopontin also decreased Triton-soluble gelsolin/actin complexes consistent with actin uncapping, and increased F-actin levels, which were also blocked by wortmannin. The osteopontin effects were mediated through binding to the alpha(v)beta 3 integrin. Taken together, our studies indicate that osteopontin/alpha(v)beta 3-mediated changes in gelsolin-associated phosphoinositide levels and PI3-kinase activity are related to stimulation of F-actin formation in osteoclasts. Images PMID:8744948

  1. Requirement for Class II Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase C2? in Maintenance of Glomerular Structure and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, David P.; Vogel, Peter; Wims, Marie; Moberg, Karen; Humphries, Juliane; Jhaver, Kanchan G.; DaCosta, Christopher M.; Shadoan, Melanie K.; Xu, Nianhua; Hansen, Gwenn M.; Balakrishnan, Sanjeevi; Domin, Jan; Powell, David R.; Oravecz, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    An early lesion in many kidney diseases is damage to podocytes, which are critical components of the glomerular filtration barrier. A number of proteins are essential for podocyte filtration function, but the signaling events contributing to development of nephrotic syndrome are not well defined. Here we show that class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2? (PI3KC2?) is expressed in podocytes and plays a critical role in maintaining normal renal homeostasis. PI3KC2?-deficient mice developed chronic renal failure and exhibited a range of kidney lesions, including glomerular crescent formation and renal tubule defects in early disease, which progressed to diffuse mesangial sclerosis, with reduced podocytes, widespread effacement of foot processes, and modest proteinuria. These findings were associated with altered expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, WT-1, and desmin, indicating that PI3KC2? deficiency specifically impacts podocyte morphology and function. Deposition of glomerular IgA was observed in knockout mice; importantly, however, the development of severe glomerulonephropathy preceded IgA production, indicating that nephropathy was not directly IgA mediated. PI3KC2? deficiency did not affect immune responses, and bone marrow transplantation studies also indicated that the glomerulonephropathy was not the direct consequence of an immune-mediated disease. Thus, PI3KC2? is critical for maintenance of normal glomerular structure and function by supporting normal podocyte function. PMID:20974805

  2. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Park, Eui Kyun; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK) regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders. PMID:26068872

  3. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? gene mutation predisposes to respiratory infection and airway damage.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Ivan; Vadas, Oscar; Garon, Fabien; Banham-Hall, Edward; Plagnol, Vincent; Leahy, Timothy R; Baxendale, Helen; Coulter, Tanya; Curtis, James; Wu, Changxin; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Perisic, Olga; Smyth, Deborah; Maes, Mailis; Fiddler, Christine; Juss, Jatinder; Cilliers, Deirdre; Markelj, Gaper; Chandra, Anita; Farmer, George; Kielkowska, Anna; Clark, Jonathan; Kracker, Sven; Debr, Marianne; Picard, Capucine; Pellier, Isabelle; Jabado, Nada; Morris, James A; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Fischer, Alain; Stephens, Len; Hawkins, Phillip; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Abinun, Mario; Clatworthy, Menna; Durandy, Anne; Doffinger, Rainer; Chilvers, Edwin R; Cant, Andrew J; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Williams, Roger L; Condliffe, Alison; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2013-11-15

    Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to infections. Here, we describe activated PI3K-? syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation in which lysine replaced glutamic acid at residue 1021 (E1021K) in the p110? protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased immunoglobulin M, and reduced immunoglobulin G2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110?. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110? inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, which suggested a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS. PMID:24136356

  4. Calcium mobilization and phosphoinositide turnover in fluoride-activated human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, C.F.; Wong, K.

    1986-05-01

    Fluoride ion, at concentrations above 10 mM, has been found to activate a superoxide production response in human neutrophils which is strongly dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. In an attempt to further explore the calcium requirement of fluoride-induced neutrophil activation, intracellular calcium concentrations were monitored through use of the fluorescent calcium probe, Quin 2. Fluoride ion, at concentrations between 10 and 20 mM, was found to elicit a rise in intracellular calcium levels which was characterized by a lag period of 4 to 10 min and a prolonged duration of action (greater than 20 min). In contrast, the chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced a rise in intracellular calcium concentration which peaked within 1 min. Preincubation of cells with 1 ..mu..g/ml pertussis toxin resulted in inhibition of the FMLP-induced response, but not that elicited by fluoride. Furthermore, anion exchange chromatography indicated that inositol phosphate accumulation occurred in fluoride-treated cells in association with calcium mobilization. Recent evidence suggests that the FMLP receptor is coupled to phospholipase C and phosphoinositide turnover through a guanine nucleotide binding protein susceptible to inhibition by pertussis toxin. Present results suggest that fluoride ion may serve to activate this protein in a manner resistant to inhibition by pertussis toxin.

  5. TRAF4 Is a Novel Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein Modulating Tight Junctions and Favoring Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Adrien; McEwen, Alastair G.; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Rognan, Didier; Nomin, Yves; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine; Alpy, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs) in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP)-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6) is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration. PMID:24311986

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase family in channel catfish and their regulated expression after bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxia; Yao, Jun; Xie, Yangjie; Geng, Xin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3Ks) family of lipid kinases is widely conserved from yeast to mammals. In this work, we identified a total of 14 members of the PI3Ks from the channel catfish genome and transcriptome and conducted phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of these genes. The expression profiles after infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare were examined to determine the involvement of PI3Ks in immune responses after bacterial infection in catfish. The results indicated that PI3Ks genes including all of the catalytic subunit and several regulatory subunits genes were widely regulated after bacterial infection. The expression patterns were quite different when challenged with different bacteria. The PI3Ks were up-regulated rapidly at the early stage after ESC infection, but their induced expression was much slower, at the middle stage after columnaris infection. RNA-Seq datasets indicated that PI3K genes may be expressed at different levels in different catfish differing in their resistance levels against columnaris. Future studies are required to confirm and validate these observations. Taken together, this study indicated that PI3K genes may be involved as a part of the defense responses of catfish after infections, and they could be one of the determinants for disease resistance. PMID:26772478

  7. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR Pathway as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lauring, Josh; Park, Ben Ho; Wolff, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt-mTOR pathway is a central signal transduction pathway that regulates many critical aspects of normal and cancer physiology, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell morphology and migration, protein synthesis, and integration of metabolism. In breast cancer, somatic mutations that activate the pathway occur in more than 50% of tumors, underscoring the potentially broad impact of targeting the pathway for therapy. A vast body of preclinical data demonstrates the efficacy of pathway inhibition on tumor growth, and evidence also shows that activation of the pathway occurs in models of acquired resistance to hormonal therapy. This preclinical work led to the investigation of allosteric mTOR inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus, in metastatic hormone receptorpositive breast cancer. The recent BOLERO-2 trial comparing everolimus plus exemestane versus placebo plus exemestane in women with resistance to nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors demonstrated a 6-month improvement in progression-free survival and led to FDA approval of everolimus for this indication in the United States. This landmark trial is the first demonstration of significant clinical benefit using drugs targeting this pathway in breast cancer. Many questions remain about the role of everolimus and other pathway-targeting drugs in clinical development in breast cancer treatment. This article reviews the role of the PI3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway in breast cancer biology and the clinical trial evidence available to date. PMID:23744866

  8. Chronic ethanol inhibits receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat liver slices

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, R.A.; Crews, F.T. )

    1991-03-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on norepinephrine (NE)- and arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in rat liver slices was determined. The maximum NE-stimulated PI response was significantly reduced by 40% in liver slices from 8-month-old rats which had been treated for 5 months with a liquid diet containing ethanol compared to pair-fed controls. The maximum AVP-stimulated PI response was decreased by 39% in liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats compared to control. EC50 values for NE- and AVP-stimulated PI hydrolysis in liver slices were not affected by the chronic ethanol treatment. Similar reductions in the maximal NE- and AVP-stimulated PI hydrolysis (28% and 27%, respectively) were found in 22-month-old rats which had been maintained on an ethanol containing diet for 5 months compared to pair-fed controls. The binding of (3H)prazosin and (3H)AVP to liver plasma membranes from 8-month-old ethanol-fed rats was not significantly different from binding to liver membranes from sucrose-fed controls. Our data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may lead to a reduction in PI-linked signal transduction in liver.

  9. Cell Activation-Induced Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Alpha/Beta Dimerization Regulates PTEN Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prez-Garca, Vicente; Redondo-Muoz, Javier; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) pathway is one of the central routes that enhances cell survival, division, and migration, and it is frequently deregulated in cancer. PI3K catalyzes formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] after cell activation; PTEN subsequently reduces these lipids to basal levels. Activation of the ubiquitous p110? isoform precedes that of p110? at several points during the cell cycle. We studied the potential connections between p110? and p110? activation, and we show that cell stimulation promotes p110? and p110? association, demonstrating oligomerization of PI3K catalytic subunits within cells. Cell stimulation also promoted PTEN incorporation into this complex, which was necessary for PTEN activation. Our results show that PI3Ks dimerize in vivo and that PI3K and PTEN activities modulate each other in a complex that controls cell PI(3,4,5)P3 levels. PMID:24958106

  10. Inducible costimulator promotes helper T-cell differentiation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Gigoux, Mathieu; Shang, Jijun; Pak, Youngshil; Xu, Minghong; Choe, Jongseon; Mak, Tak W; Suh, Woong-Kyung

    2009-12-01

    The T-cell costimulatory receptors, CD28 and the inducible costimulator (ICOS), are required for the generation of follicular B helper T cells (T(FH)) and germinal center (GC) reaction. A common signal transducer used by CD28 and ICOS is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Although it is known that CD28-mediated PI3K activation is dispensable for GC reaction, the role of ICOS-driven PI3K signaling has not been defined. We show here that knock-in mice that selectively lost the ability to activate PI3K through ICOS had severe defects in T(FH) generation, GC reaction, antibody class switch, and antibody affinity maturation. In preactivated CD4(+) T cells, ICOS delivered a potent PI3K signal that was critical for the induction of the key T(FH) cytokines, IL-21 and IL-4. Under the same settings, CD28 was unable to activate PI3K but supported a robust secondary expansion of T cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a nonredundant function of ICOS-PI3K pathway in the generation of T(FH) and suggest that CD28 and ICOS play differential roles during a multistep process of T(FH) differentiation. PMID:19915142

  11. Structural basis for substrate recognition by a unique Legionella phosphoinositide phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, FoSheng; Zhu, Wenhan; Brennan, Lucy; Tao, Lili; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Mao, Yuxin

    2012-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen that causes sporadic and epidemic cases of Legionnaires disease. Emerging data suggest that Legionella infection involves the subversion of host phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. However, how this bacterium actively manipulates PI lipids to benefit its infection is still an enigma. Here, we report that the L. pneumophila virulence factor SidF is a phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate 3-phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes the D3 phosphate of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3. This activity is necessary for anchoring of PI(4)P-binding effectors to bacterial phagosomes. Crystal structures of SidF and its complex with its substrate PI(3,4)P2 reveal striking conformational rearrangement of residues at the catalytic site to form a cationic pocket that specifically accommodates the D4 phosphate group of the substrate. Thus, our findings unveil a unique Legionella PI phosphatase essential for the establishment of lipid identity of bacterial phagosomes. PMID:22872863

  12. A PH domain within OCRL bridges clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking to phosphoinositide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuxin; Balkin, Daniel M; Zoncu, Roberto; Erdmann, Kai S; Tomasini, Livia; Hu, Fenghua; Jin, Moonsoo M; Hodsdon, Michael E; De Camilli, Pietro

    2009-07-01

    OCRL, whose mutations are responsible for Lowe syndrome and Dent disease, and INPP5B are two similar proteins comprising a central inositol 5-phosphatase domain followed by an ASH and a RhoGAP-like domain. Their divergent NH2-terminal portions remain uncharacterized. We show that the NH2-terminal region of OCRL, but not of INPP5B, binds clathrin heavy chain. OCRL, which in contrast to INPP5B visits late stage endocytic clathrin-coated pits, was earlier shown to contain another binding site for clathrin in its COOH-terminal region. NMR structure determination further reveals that despite their primary sequence dissimilarity, the NH2-terminal portions of both OCRL and INPP5B contain a PH domain. The novel clathrin-binding site in OCRL maps to an unusual clathrin-box motif located in a loop of the PH domain, whose mutations reduce recruitment efficiency of OCRL to coated pits. These findings suggest an evolutionary pressure for a specialized function of OCRL in bridging phosphoinositide metabolism to clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking. PMID:19536138

  13. Ethanol stimulates calcium mobilization, phosphoinositide turnover and shape change in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.; Hoek, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of ethanol of cytosolic free calcium levels was investigated in human platelets which were loaded with the intracellular calcium indicator FURA-2. Administration of ethanol in the concentration range of 50-300 mM resulted in a transient, dose-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium, maximal within 5 seconds and returning to near basal levels over the next 5 minutes. Parallel incubations of platelets with the same concentrations of ethanol stimulated shape change as detected in an aggregometer. Chelation of external calcium with EGTA prior to the addition of ethanol reduced the calcium burst partially, but not completely, whereas shape change was largely unaffected. Addition of ethanol to /sup 32/P-labeled platelets resulted in a 16% decrease in the level of /sup 32/P-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and a 14% increase in /sup 32/P-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within 2 minutes. /sup 32/P-phosphatidic acid levels increased rapidly within 30 seconds and rose linearly thereafter. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine were unaffected by ethanol. The results indicate that ethanol mobilizes intracellular calcium by activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, thereby stimulating platelet shape change.

  14. Unique serotonin receptor (5HT-1C) in choroid plexus is linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders-Bush, E.; Conn, P.J.; Hoffman, B.J.; Hartig, P.R.

    1986-03-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-LSD to the 5HT-1C site and of /sup 3/H-ket-anserin to the 5HT-2 site was determined in choroid plexus and cerebral cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. As an index of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, whole choroid plexus and cerebral cortex slices were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and serotonin (5HT) stimulated release of /sup 3/H-inositol-1-phosphate was measured. 5HT stimulated PI hydrolysis in choroid plexus (6-fold) and in cerebral cortex (2.5-fold). 5HT was more potent in choroid plexus (EC/sub 50/ = 46 nM) consistent with the involvement of the 5HT-1C site. 5HT antagonists, ketanserin, mianserin and spiperone, inhibited the response to 5HT with different potencies in the two tissues. In cerebral cortex all 3 antagonists had nM affinities and a rank order (spiperone > ketanserin > mianserin) consistent with the 5HT-2 site. In choroid plexus, however, the rank order (mianserin > ketanserin > spiperone) and absolute potencies agreed with binding to the 5HT-1C site. These data suggest that the 5HT-1C site is a functional receptor which utilizes PI hydrolysis as its biochemical effector system.

  15. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Stanley K.L.; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yap, Yann-Wan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Ee-Chee; Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  16. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor: Binding and phosphoinositide breakdown in human myometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Breuiller-Fouche, M.; Doualla-Bell Kotto Maka, F.; Geny, B.; Ferre, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were examined in both inner and outer layers of human pregnant myometrium using radioligand binding of (3H)prazosin. (3H)prazosin bound rapidly and reversibly to a single class of high affinity binding sites in myometrial membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis gave similar values of equilibrium dissociation constants in both myometrial layers. In contrast, more alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were detected in the outer layer than in the inner layer. Antagonist inhibited (3H)prazosin binding with an order of potency of prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than idazoxan. Competition experiments have also revealed that a stable guanine nucleotide decreases the apparent affinity of norepinephrine for myometrial (3H)prazosin binding sites. The functional status of these alpha-1 adrenergic receptors was also assessed by measuring the norepinephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in myometrial tissue. Norepinephrine produced a concentration-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in both myometrial layers. However, norepinephrine-induced increases in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate were only observed in the outer layer. These results indicate that alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in human myometrium at the end of pregnancy are linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and that this response occurs mainly in the outer layer.

  17. Essential Role of the p110β Subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-OH Kinase in Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Ciraolo, Elisa; Morello, Fulvio; Hobbs, Robin M.; Wolf, Frieder; Marone, Romina; Iezzi, Manuela; Lu, Xiaoyun; Mengozzi, Giulio; Altruda, Fiorella; Sorba, Giovanni; Guan, Kaomei; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Wymann, Matthias P.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are key molecular players in male fertility. However, the specific roles of different p110 PI3K catalytic subunits within the spermatogenic lineage have not been characterized so far. Herein, we report that male mice expressing a catalytically inactive p110β develop testicular hypotrophy and impaired spermatogenesis, leading to a phenotype of oligo-azoospermia and defective fertility. The examination of testes from p110β-defective tubules demonstrates a widespread loss in spermatogenic cells, due to defective proliferation and survival of pre- and postmeiotic cells. In particular, p110β is crucially needed in c-Kit–mediated spermatogonial expansion, as c-Kit–positive cells are lost in the adult testis and activation of Akt by SCF is blocked by a p110β inhibitor. These data establish that activation of the p110β PI3K isoform by c-Kit is required during spermatogenesis, thus opening the way to new treatments for c-Kit positive testicular cancers. PMID:20053680

  18. Genetic and transcriptional analysis of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Andreas; Berry, Laurence; Sollelis, Lauriane; Cerdan, Rachel; Tawk, Lina; Vial, Henri J; Billker, Oliver; Wengelnik, Kai

    2011-09-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is a major regulator of calcium-dependent signal transduction, which has been shown to be important in various processes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium. PI-PLC is generally implicated in calcium liberation from intracellular stores through the action of its product, inositol-(1,4,5)-trisphosphate, and is itself dependent on calcium for its activation. Here we describe the plc genes from Plasmodium species. The encoded proteins contain all domains typically found in PI-PLCs of the ? class but are almost twice as long as their orthologues in mammals. Transcriptional analysis by qRT-PCR of plc during the erythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum revealed steady expression levels that increased at the late schizont stages. Genetic analysis in the P. berghei model revealed that the plc locus was targetable but that plc gene knock-outs could not be obtained, thereby strongly indicating that the gene is essential during blood stage development. Alternatively, we attempted to modify plc expression through a promoter exchange approach but found the gene to be refractory to over-expression indicating that plc expression levels might additionally be tightly controlled. PMID:21651909

  19. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enables phagocytosis of large particles by terminating actin assembly through Rac/Cdc42 GTPase-activating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Bagshaw, Richard D.; Freeman, Spencer A.; Collins, Richard F.; Pawson, Tony; Fairn, Gregory D.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is responsible for the elimination of particles of widely disparate sizes, from large fungi or effete cells to small bacteria. Though superficially similar, the molecular mechanisms involved differ: engulfment of large targets requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while that of small ones does not. Here, we report that inactivation of Rac and Cdc42 at phagocytic cups is essential to complete internalization of large particles. Through a screen of 62 RhoGAP-family members, we demonstrate that ARHGAP12, ARHGAP25 and SH3BP1 are responsible for GTPase inactivation. Silencing these RhoGAPs impairs phagocytosis of large targets. The GAPs are recruited to largebut not smallphagocytic cups by products of PI3K, where they synergistically inactivate Rac and Cdc42. Remarkably, the prominent accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate characteristic of large-phagosome formation is less evident during phagocytosis of small targets, accounting for the contrasting RhoGAP distribution and the differential requirement for PI3K during phagocytosis of dissimilarly sized particles. PMID:26465210

  20. Coincidence detection in a neural correlate of classical conditioning is initiated by bidirectional 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 signalling and modulated by adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Joyce; Zheng, Zhaoqing

    2015-04-01

    How the neural substrates for detection of paired stimuli are distinct from unpaired stimuli is poorly understood and a fundamental question for understanding the signalling mechanisms for coincidence detection during associative learning. To address this question, we used a neural correlate of eyeblink classical conditioning in an isolated brainstem from the turtle, in which the cranial nerves are directly stimulated in place of using a tone or airpuff. A bidirectional response is activated in <5 min of training, in which phosphorylated 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (p-PDK1) is increased in response to paired and decreased in response to unpaired nerve stimulation and is mediated by the opposing actions of neurotrophin receptors TrkB and p75(NTR) . Surprisingly, blockade of adenosine 2A (A2A ) receptors inhibits both of these responses. Pairing also induces substantially increased surface expression of TrkB that is inhibited by Src family tyrosine kinase and A2A receptor antagonists. Finally, the acquisition of conditioning is blocked by a PDK1 inhibitor. The unique action of A2A receptors to function directly as G proteins and in receptor transactivation to control distinct TrkB and p75(NTR) signalling pathways allows for convergent activation of PDK1 and protein kinase A during paired stimulation to initiate classical conditioning. PMID:25639253

  1. Osteopontin is a myosphere-derived secretory molecule that promotes angiogenic progenitor cell proliferation through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi . E-mail: tueyama@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Tetsuya; Asada, Satoshi; Tagawa, Masashi; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa . E-mail: hidemasa@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-27

    We have reported that skeletal myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) can differentiate into vascular cells, and that MDPC transplantation into cardiomyopathic hearts improves cardiac function. However, the autocrine/paracrine molecules and underlying mechanisms responsible for MDPC growth have not yet been determined. To explore the molecules enhancing the proliferation of MDPCs, we performed serial analysis of gene expression and signal sequence trap methods using RNA isolated from MDPCs. We identified osteopontin (OPN), a secretory molecule, as one of most abundant molecules expressed in MDPCs. OPN provided a proliferative effect for MDPCs. MDPCs treated with OPN showed Akt activation, and inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway repressed the proliferative effect of OPN. Furthermore, OPN-pretreated MDPCs maintained their differentiation potential into endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate an important role of OPN as an autocrine/paracrine molecule in regulating the proliferative growth of muscle-derived angiogenic progenitor cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  2. Roles of Pdk1p, a Fission Yeast Protein Related to Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase, in the Regulation of Mitosis and Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Bimbó, Andrea; Liu, Jianhua; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2005-01-01

    Proteins related to the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase family have been identified in the majority of eukaryotes. Although much is known about upstream mechanisms that regulate the PDK1-family of kinases in metazoans, how these kinases regulate cell growth and division remains unclear. Here, we characterize a fission yeast protein related to members of this family, which we have termed Pdk1p. Pdk1p localizes to the spindle pole body and the actomyosin ring in early mitotic cells. Cells deleted for pdk1 display multiple defects in mitosis and cytokinesis, all of which are exacerbated when the function of fission yeast polo kinase, Plo1p, is partially compromised. We conclude that Pdk1p functions in concert with Plo1p to regulate multiple processes such as the establishment of a bipolar mitotic spindle, transition to anaphase, placement of the actomyosin ring and proper execution of cytokinesis. We also present evidence that the effects of Pdk1p on cytokinesis are likely mediated via the fission yeast anillin-related protein, Mid1p, and the septation initiation network. PMID:15857958

  3. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Gamma Contributes to Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Surgical Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Sherchan, Prativa; Wang, Yuechun; Reis, Cesar; Applegate, Richard L; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2015-07-22

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of surgical brain injury (SBI). Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3K?), predominately expressed in immune and endothelial cells, activates multiple inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the role of PI3K? and PI3K?-activated phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in neuroinflammation in a rat model of SBI. One hundred and fifty-two male Sprague Dawley rats (weight 280-350 g) were subjected to a partial right frontal lobe corticotomy model of SBI. A PI3K? pharmacological inhibitor (AS252424 or AS605240) was administered intraperitoneally. PI3K? siRNA, human recombinant active-PI3K? protein, or human recombinant active-PDE3B protein were administered intracerebroventricularly. Post-SBI assessments included neurobehavioral tests, brain water content, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Endogenous PI3K? levels were increased within peri-resection brain tissues after SBI, accompanied by increased brain water content and neurological functional deficits. There was a trend toward increased endogenous PDE3B phosphorylation after SBI. The selective PI3K? inhibitors AS252424 and AS605240 reduced brain water content surrounding corticotomy and improved neurological function after SBI. SBI increased and PI3K? inhibitor decreased levels of myeloperoxidase, cluster of differentiation 3, mast cell degranulation, E-selectin, and IL-1 in peri-resection brain tissues. Direct administration of human recombinant active-PI3K? protein and active-PDE3B protein countered the protective effect of AS252424. PI3K? siRNA reduced PI3K? levels, decreased brain water content within peri-resection brain tissues, and improved neurological function after SBI. Collectively, our findings suggest that PI3K? contributed to neuroinflammation after SBI. The use of selective PI3K? inhibitors may be a novel approach to ameliorating SBI via their anti-inflammation effects. Significance statement: Life-saving or elective neurosurgeries often involve unavoidable damages to neighboring, nondiseased brain tissues. Such surgical brain injury (SBI) is attributable exclusively to the neurosurgical procedure itself and may cause postoperative complications that exacerbate neurological function. Although the importance of this medical problem is fully acknowledged, intraoperative administration of adjunctive treatment such as steroids and mannitol to patients undergoing neurosurgery appear not to be efficient remedies for SBI. To date, the issue of perioperative neuroprotection specifically against SBI has not been well studied. Using a clinically relevant rat model of SBI, we are exploring a new neuroprotective strategy targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3K?). PI3K? activates multiple inflammatory responses. By attenuating neuroinflammation, selective PI3K? inhibition would limit postoperative complications and benefit neurological outcomes. PMID:26203135

  4. Phosphoinositides Regulate Membrane-dependent Actin Assembly by Latex Bead Phagosomes

    PubMed Central

    Defacque, Hlne; Bos, Evelyne; Garvalov, Boyan; Barret, Ccile; Roy, Christian; Mangeat, Paul; Shin, Hye-Won; Rybin, Vladimir; Griffiths, Gareth

    2002-01-01

    Actin assembly on membrane surfaces is an elusive process in which several phosphoinositides (PIPs) have been implicated. We have reconstituted actin assembly using a defined membrane surface, the latex bead phagosome (LBP), and shown that the PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins ezrin and/or moesin were essential for this process (Defacque et al., 2000b). Here, we provide several lines of evidence that both preexisting and newly synthesized PI(4,5)P2, and probably PI(4)P, are essential for phagosomal actin assembly; only these PIPs were routinely synthesized from ATP during in vitro actin assembly. Treatment of LBP with phospholipase C or with adenosine, an inhibitor of type II PI 4-kinase, as well as preincubation with anti-PI(4)P or anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibodies all inhibited this process. Incorporation of extra PI(4)P or PI(4,5)P2 into the LBP membrane led to a fivefold increase in the number of phagosomes that assemble actin. An ezrin mutant mutated in the PI(4,5)P2-binding sites was less efficient in binding to LBPs and in reconstituting actin assembly than wild-type ezrin. Our data show that PI 4- and PI 5-kinase, and under some conditions also PI 3-kinase, activities are present on LBPs and can be activated by ATP, even in the absence of GTP or cytosolic components. However, PI 3-kinase activity is not required for actin assembly, because the process was not affected by PI 3-kinase inhibitors. We suggest that the ezrin-dependent actin assembly on the LBP membrane may require active turnover of D4 and D5 PIPs on the organelle membrane. PMID:11950931

  5. Agonist-induced calcium flux, phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and enzyme secretion in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A G; McMillan, R M; MacIntyre, D E

    1988-07-01

    Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are potent activators of human neutrophils. Using human neutrophils prelabelled with the fluorescent indicator dye, Quin 2, or with [32P]-orthophosphate, we examined the effects of these stimuli on intracellular free calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, and on various indices of phosphoinositide metabolism, including [32P]-phosphatidic acid (PtdA) formation. The concentration-dependence of the observed changed in [Ca2+]i or [32P]-PtdA were then compared to stimulus-induced aggregation and enzyme release (beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and lysozyme). FMLP, PAF and LTB4 caused a concentration-dependent elevation of [Ca2+]i, aggregation and enzyme release. However, unlike FMLP and PAF, LTB4 (less than or equal to 2.5 microM) did not cause significant formation of [32P]-PtdA. The concentration response curves for agonist-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i lie to the left of those for aggregation and enzyme release. FMLP and PAF also caused an elevation of [Ca2+]i at concentrations lower than those required to elicit [32P]-PtdA formation. These observations suggest that [Ca2+]i elevation per se cannot mediate human neutrophil functional responses to FMLP, PAF and LTB4. Consequently there may exist other mediator(s) that act in concert with [Ca2+]i or are triggered by [Ca2+]i elevation to promote human neutrophil activation. Both the elevation of [Ca2+]i and the formation of these putative mediator(s) in response to LTB4 apparently occur independently of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. PMID:2845744

  6. Triggering actin polymerization in Xenopus egg extracts from phosphoinositide-containing lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Walrant, Astrid; Saxton, Daniel S; Correia, Guilherme Pereira; Gallop, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Xenopus egg extracts are a powerful tool to reconstitute complex cell biological processes using a cell-free strategy. When used in conjunction with liposomes and supported lipid bilayers, they can recapitulate the biochemical activities occurring at the cytosol/plasma membrane interface of the cell that underlie remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We use these in vitro systems to elucidate how membranes and proteins collaborate to make the appropriate actin structure at a given time and place. We have recently broadened the types of membrane substrate used, and also optimized protocols for preparation of Xenopus egg extracts for actin assembly assays from membranes. Tuning the lipid composition and curvature appropriately demands an appreciation of the native phospholipid and curvature environments that can form transiently in cells. Supported lipid bilayers on glass coverslips that contain phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) make actin bundles termed filopodia-like structures that contain fascin and have vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) at their growing tips, indicating that these resemble filopodia growing from the plasma membrane. The combination of PI(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in curved liposomes or supported bilayers on glass nanospheres uses Snx9, Cdc42, N-WASP (neuronal-Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein), and Arp2/3 complex for actin polymerization suggesting that this membrane may mimic the progression from plasma membrane to endosomes. Here we describe how to prepare high-speed supernatant frog egg extracts and phosphoinositide-containing liposomes and supported lipid bilayers that can assemble actin structures. We also describe the methods we use to assay actin polymerization using microscopy and spectrofluorometry and our protocol for immunodepleting specific proteins from extracts. PMID:25997346

  7. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase γ Inhibits Cardiac GSK-3 Independently of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Maradumane L.; Jha, Babal K.; Gupta, Manveen K.; Vasudevan, Neelakantan T.; Martelli, Elizabeth E.; Mosinski, John David; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of cardiac phosphoinositide 3-kinase a (PI3Kα) by growth factors, such as insulin, or activation of PI3Kγ downstream of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors stimulates the activity of the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). We found that PI3Kγ inhibited GSK-3 independently of the insulin-PI3Ka-Akt axis. Although insulin treatment activated Akt in PI3Kγ knockout mice, phosphorylation of GSK-3 was decreased compared to control mice. GSK-3 is activated when dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is activated when methylated by the PP2A methyltransferase PPMT-1. PI3Kγ knockout mice showed increased activity of PPMT-1 and PP2A and enhanced nuclear export of the GSK-3 substrate NFATc3. GSK-3 inhibits cardiac hypertrophy, and the hearts of PI3Kγ knockout mice were smaller compared to those of wild-type mice. Cardiac overexpression of a catalytically inactive PI3Kγ (PI3Kγinact) transgene in PI3Kγ knockout mice reduced the activities of PPMT-1 and PP2A and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3. Furthermore, PI3Kγ knockout mice expressing the PI3Kγinact transgene had larger hearts than wild-type or PI3Kγ knockout mice. Our studies show that a kinase-independent function of PI3Kγ could directly inhibit GSK-3 function by preventing the PP2A–PPMT-1 interaction and that this inhibition of GSK-3 was independent of Akt. PMID:23354687

  8. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lupia, Enrico; Pigozzi, Luca; Goffi, Alberto; Hirsch, Emilio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A large body of experimental and clinical data supports the notion that inflammation in acute pancreatitis has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of local and systemic damage and is a major determinant of clinical severity. Thus, research has recently focused on molecules that can regulate the inflammatory processes, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), a family of lipid and protein kinases involved in intracellular signal transduction. Studies using genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibitors of different PI3K isoforms, in particular the class I PI3K? and PI3K?, have contributed to a greater understanding of the roles of these kinases in the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Recent data suggest that PI3Ks are also involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, and in particular of the class IB PI3K? isoform, has a significant role in those events which are necessary for the initiation of acute pancreatic injury, namely calcium signaling alteration, trypsinogen activation, and nuclear factor-?B transcription. Moreover, PI3K? is instrumental in modulating acinar cell apoptosis, and regulating local neutrophil infiltration and systemic inflammatory responses during the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. The availability of PI3K inhibitors selective for specific isoforms may provide new valuable therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical course of this disease. This article presents a brief summary of PI3K structure and function, and highlights recent advances that implicate PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25386068

  9. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase couples NMDA receptors to superoxide release in excitotoxic neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Minnella, A M; Shen, Y; Swanson, R A

    2013-01-01

    Sustained activation of neuronal N-methly D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors leads to excitotoxic cell death in stroke, trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. Excitotoxic neuronal death results in part from superoxide produced by neuronal NADPH oxidase (NOX2), but how NMDA receptors are coupled to neuronal NOX2 activation is not well understood. Here, we identify a signaling pathway coupling NMDA receptor activation to NOX2 activation in primary neuron cultures. Calcium influx through the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors leads to the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Formation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by PI3K activates the atypical protein kinase C, PKC zeta (PKC?), which in turn phosphorylates the p47phox organizing subunit of neuronal NOX2. Calcium influx through NR2B-containing NMDA receptors triggered mitochondrial depolarization, NOX2 activation, superoxide formation, and cell death. However, equivalent magnitude calcium elevations induced by ionomycin did not induce NOX2 activation or neuronal death, despite causing mitochondrial depolarization. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin prevented NMDA-induced NOX2 activation and cell death, without preventing cell swelling, calcium elevation, or mitochondrial depolarization. The effects of wortmannin were circumvented by exogenous supply of the PI3K product, PI(3,4,5)P3, and by transfection with protein kinase M, a constitutively active form of PKC?. These findings demonstrate that superoxide formation and excitotoxic neuronal death can be dissociated from mitochondrial depolarization, and identify a novel role for PI3K in this cell death pathway. Perturbations in this pathway may either increase or decrease superoxide production in response to NMDA receptor activation, and may thereby impact neurological disorders, in which excitotoxicity is a contributing factor. PMID:23559014

  10. Supramolecular nanoparticles that target phosphoinositide-3-kinase overcome insulin resistance and exert pronounced antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ashish A; Roy, Bhaskar; Rao, Poornima S; Wyant, Gregory A; Mahmoud, Ayaat; Ramachandran, Madhumitha; Sengupta, Poulomi; Goldman, Aaron; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Basu, Sudipta; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2013-12-01

    The centrality of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in cancer etiology is well established, but clinical translation of PI3K inhibitors has been limited by feedback signaling, suboptimal intratumoral concentration, and an insulin resistance "class effect." This study was designed to explore the use of supramolecular nanochemistry for targeting PI3K to enhance antitumor efficacy and potentially overcome these limitations. PI3K inhibitor structures were rationally modified using a cholesterol-based derivative, facilitating supramolecular nanoassembly with L-?-phosphatidylcholine and DSPE-PEG [1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polythylene glycol)]. The supramolecular nanoparticles (SNP) that were assembled were physicochemically characterized and functionally evaluated in vitro. Antitumor efficacy was quantified in vivo using 4T1 breast cancer and K-Ras(LSL/+)/Pten(fl/fl) ovarian cancer models, with effects on glucose homeostasis evaluated using an insulin sensitivity test. The use of PI103 and PI828 as surrogate molecules to engineer the SNPs highlighted the need to keep design principles in perspective; specifically, potency of the active molecule and the linker chemistry were critical principles for efficacy, similar to antibody-drug conjugates. We found that the SNPs exerted a temporally sustained inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6K, and 4EBP in vivo. These effects were associated with increased antitumor efficacy and survival as compared with PI103 and PI828. Efficacy was further increased by decorating the nanoparticle surface with tumor-homing peptides. Notably, the use of SNPs abrogated the insulin resistance that has been associated widely with other PI3K inhibitors. This study provides a preclinical foundation for the use of supramolecular nanochemistry to overcome current challenges associated with PI3K inhibitors, offering a paradigm for extension to other molecularly targeted therapeutics being explored for cancer treatment. PMID:24121488

  11. Selective Inhibition of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110? Preserves Lymphocyte Function*

    PubMed Central

    So, Lomon; Yea, Sung Su; Oak, Jean S.; Lu, Mengrou; Manmadhan, Arun; Ke, Qiao Han; Janes, Matthew R.; Kessler, Linda V.; Kucharski, Jeff M.; Li, Lian-Sheng; Martin, Michael B.; Ren, Pingda; Jessen, Katti A.; Liu, Yi; Rommel, Christian; Fruman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is essential for clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function of B and T lymphocytes. The p110? catalytic isoform of PI3K is highly expressed in lymphocytes and plays a prominent role in B and T cell responses. Another class IA PI3K catalytic isoform, p110?, is a promising drug target in cancer but little is known about its function in lymphocytes. Here we used highly selective inhibitors to probe the function of p110? in lymphocyte responses in vitro and in vivo. p110? inhibition partially reduced B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent AKT activation and proliferation, and diminished survival supported by the cytokines BAFF and IL-4. Selective p110? inhibition suppressed B cell responses much more strongly, yet maximal suppression was achieved by targeting multiple PI3K isoforms. In mouse and human T cells, inhibition of single class IA isoforms had little effect on proliferation, whereas pan-class I inhibition did suppress T cell expansion. In mice, selective p110? inhibition using the investigational agent MLN1117 (previously known as INK1117) did not disrupt the marginal zone B cell compartment and did not block T cell-dependent germinal center formation. In contrast, the selective p110? inhibitor IC87114 strongly suppressed germinal center formation and reduced marginal zone B cell numbers, similar to a pan-class I inhibitor. These findings show that although acute p110? inhibition partially diminishes AKT activation, selective p110? inhibitors are likely to be less immunosuppressive in vivo compared with p110? or pan-class I inhibitors. PMID:23275335

  12. Phosphoinositides play differential roles in regulating phototropin1- and phototropin2-mediated chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Chhavi; Labuz, Justyna; Gabryś, Halina

    2013-01-01

    Phototropins are UVA/blue-light receptors involved in controlling the light-dependent physiological responses which serve to optimize the photosynthetic activity of plants and promote growth. The phototropin-induced phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism has been shown to be essential for stomatal opening and phototropism. However, the role of PIs in phototropin-induced chloroplast movements remains poorly understood. The aim of this work is to determine which PI species are involved in the control of chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis and the nature of their involvement. We present the effects of the inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC), PI3-kinase (PI3K) and PI4-kinase (PI4K) on chloroplast relocations in Arabidopsis. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphospahte [PI(4,5)P2]-PLC pathway, using neomycin and U73122, suppressed the phot2-mediated chloroplast accumulation and avoidance responses, without affecting movement responses controlled by phot1. On the other hand, PI3K and PI4K activities are more restricted to phot1- and phot2-induced weak-light responses. The inactivation of PI3K and PI4K by wortmannin and LY294002 severely affected the weak blue-light-activated accumulation response but had little effect on the strong blue-light-activated avoidance response. The inhibitory effect observed with PI metabolism inhibitors is, at least partly, due to a disturbance in Ca(2+) ((c)) signaling. Using the transgenic aequorin system, we show that the application of these inhibitors suppresses the blue-light-induced transient Ca(2+) ((c)) rise. These results demonstrate the importance of PIs in chloroplast movements, with the PI(4,5)P2-PLC pathway involved in phot2 signaling while PI3K and PI4K are required for the phot1- and phot2-induced accumulation response. Our results suggest that these PIs modulate cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling during movements. PMID:23405144

  13. Targeting Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase-? with Theophylline Reverses Corticosteroid Insensitivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    To, Yasuo; Ito, Kazuhiro; Kizawa, Yasuo; Failla, Marco; Ito, Misako; Kusama, Tadashi; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Adcock, Ian M.; Barnes, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show a poor response to corticosteroids. This has been linked to a reduction of histone deacetylase-2 as a result of oxidative stress and is reversed by theophylline. Objectives: To determine the role of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-delta (PI3K-?) on the development of corticosteroid insensitivity in COPD and under oxidative stress, and as a target for theophylline. Methods: Corticosteroid sensitivity was determined as the 50% inhibitory concentration of dexamethasone on tumor necrosis factor-?induced interleukin-8 release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD (n = 17) and compared with that of nonsmoking (n = 8) and smoking (n = 7) control subjects. The effect of theophylline and a selective PI3K-? inhibitor (IC87114) on restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity was confirmed in cigarette smokeexposed mice. Measurements and Main Results: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COPD (50% inhibitory concentration of dexamethasone: 156.8 32.6 nM) were less corticosteroid sensitive than those of nonsmoking (41.2 10.5 nM; P = 0.018) and smoking control subjects (47.5 19.6 nM; P = 0.031). Corticosteroid insensitivity and reduced histone deacetylase-2 activity after oxidative stress were reversed by a non-selective PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and low concentrations of theophylline. Theophylline was a potent selective inhibitor of oxidant-activated PI3K-?, which was up-regulated in peripheral lung tissue of patients with COPD. Furthermore, cells with knock-down of PI3K-? failed to develop corticosteroid insensitivity with oxidative stress. Both theophylline and IC87114, combined with dexamethasone, inhibited corticosteroid-insensitive lung inflammation in cigarettesmoke-exposed mice in vivo. Conclusions: Inhibition of oxidative stress dependent PI3K-? activation by a selective inhibitor or theophylline provides a novel approach to reversing corticosteroid insensitivity in COPD. PMID:20224070

  14. Changes in phosphoinositide turnover, Ca sup 2+ mobilization, and protein phosphorylation in platelets from NIDDM patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H.; Umeda, F.; Hashimoto, T.; Nawata, H. )

    1990-12-01

    Enhanced platelet functions have been demonstrated in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This study evaluated abnormalities in platelet signal transduction in diabetic patients, including turnover of phosphoinositides, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, and phosphorylation of 20,000- and 47,000-Mr proteins (P20 and P47). Washed platelets were obtained from 6 patients with NIDDM whose platelet aggregation rates were abnormally elevated (DM-A group), 11 NIDDM patients with normal platelet aggregation rates (DM-B group), and 8 age-matched healthy control subjects. The mass and specific radioactivity of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in 32P-labeled platelets were not different among the three groups. Hydrolysis of PIP2, PIP, and PI; accumulation of PA; and phosphorylation of P20 in platelets stimulated by 0.05 U/ml thrombin were significantly increased in the DM-A group compared with the control or DM-B group. There was no difference in P47 phosphorylation among the three groups. On the contrary, P20 and P47 phosphorylation induced by 50 nM of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, was significantly decreased in the DM-A group. Additionally, the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (( Ca2+)i) was measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura 2. Although the basal (Ca2+)i value was similar in the three groups, the rise in (Ca2+)i induced by 0.05 U/ml thrombin in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was significantly higher in the DM-A group than the other groups.

  15. Live-Cell Imaging of Phosphoinositide Dynamics and Membrane Architecture during Legionella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Stephen; Wagner, Maria; Hilbi, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The causative agent of Legionnaires disease, Legionella pneumophila, replicates in amoebae and macrophages in a distinct membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation is governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system that translocates ~300 different effector proteins into host cells. Some of the translocated effectors anchor to the LCV membrane via phosphoinositide (PI) lipids. Here, we use the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, producing fluorescent PI probes, to analyze the LCV PI dynamics by live-cell imaging. Upon uptake of wild-type or Icm/Dot-deficient L.pneumophila, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 transiently accumulated for an average of 40s on early phagosomes, which acquired PtdIns(3)P within 1min after uptake. Whereas phagosomes containing ?icmT mutant bacteria remained decorated with PtdIns(3)P, more than 80% of wild-type LCVs gradually lost this PI within 2h. The process was accompanied by a major rearrangement of PtdIns(3)P-positive membranes condensing to the cell center. PtdIns(4)P transiently localized to early phagosomes harboring wild-type or ?icmT L.pneumophila and was cleared within minutes after uptake. During the following 2h, PtdIns(4)P steadily accumulated only on wild-type LCVs, which maintained a discrete PtdIns(4)P identity spatially separated from calnexin-positive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for at least 8h. The separation of PtdIns(4)P-positive and ER membranes was even more pronounced for LCVs harboring ?sidC-sdcA mutant bacteria defective for ER recruitment, without affecting initial bacterial replication in the pathogen vacuole. These findings elucidate the temporal and spatial dynamics of PI lipids implicated in LCV formation and provide insight into host cell membrane and effector protein interactions. PMID:24473127

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces phosphoinositide hydrolysis stimulated by quisqualate in rat cerebellar granule cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, P G; Cai, Z; Zhu, N

    1994-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced alteration in poly-phosphoinositide (PPI) hydrolysis stimulated by excitatory amino acids (EAA) was studied in rat cerebellar granule cells previously labeled with [3H]myoinositol. The prenatal exposure to ethanol was achieved via maternal consumption of a Sustacal (chocolate flavored) liquid diet containing either 5% ethanol (w/v, 35% of calories) or isocaloric sucrose (pair-fed) substituted for ethanol from gestation d 11 until the day of parturition. The ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists, N-methyl-D-aspartate, kainate or (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) (100 microM each) induced a two- to four-fold increase in PPI hydrolysis over the basal level, regardless of the liquid dietary treatment. Stimulation with quisqualate (QA), an agonist activating both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors, resulted in a much stronger and dose-dependent response in PPI hydrolysis and exposure in utero to ethanol significantly reduced this response. Tetrodotoxin, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), or (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) had no effect on QA-stimulated PPI hydrolysis nor on the suppression of this hydrolysis by ethanol. Exposure in utero to ethanol did not affect PPI hydrolysis stimulated by a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, trans-(+/-)-l-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD). Although the PPI hydrolysis stimulated by t-ACPD could be blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, MCPG was incapable of affecting QA-induced PPI hydrolysis and the suppressive effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on this hydrolysis. Taken together, the data suggest that the long-lasting suppressive effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on QA-stimulated PPI hydrolysis in cerebellar granule cell cultures is through a metabotropic QA receptor pathway that may be different from the one activated by t-ACPD. PMID:7893331

  17. Endosomal Maturation, Rab7 GTPase and Phosphoinositides in African Swine Fever Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel A.; Galindo, Inmaculada; Hernez, Bruno; Quetglas, Jose Ignacio; Dalmau-Mena, Inmaculada; Alonso, Covadonga

    2012-01-01

    Here we analyzed the dependence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection on the integrity of the endosomal pathway. Using confocal immunofluorescence with antibodies against viral capsid proteins, we found colocalization of incoming viral particles with early endosomes (EE) during the first minutes of infection. Conversely, viral capsid protein was not detected in acidic late endosomal compartments, multivesicular bodies (MVBs), late endosomes (LEs) or lysosomes (LY). Using an antibody against a viral inner core protein, we found colocalization of viral cores with late compartments from 30 to 60 minutes postinfection. The absence of capsid protein staining in LEs and LYs suggested that virus desencapsidation would take place at the acid pH of these organelles. In fact, inhibitors of intraluminal acidification of endosomes caused retention of viral capsid staining virions in Rab7 expressing endosomes and more importantly, severely impaired subsequent viral protein production. Endosomal acidification in the first hour after virus entry was essential for successful infection but not thereafter. In addition, altering the balance of phosphoinositides (PIs) which are responsible of the maintenance of the endocytic pathway impaired ASFV infection. Early infection steps were dependent on the production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) which is involved in EE maturation and multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis and on the interconversion of PtdIns3P to phosphatidylinositol 3, 5-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2). Likewise, GTPase Rab7 activity should remain intact, as well as processes related to LE compartment physiology, which are crucial during early infection. Our data demonstrate that the EE and LE compartments and the integrity of the endosomal maturation pathway orchestrated by Rab proteins and PIs play a central role during early stages of ASFV infection. PMID:23133661

  18. Assembly and Molecular Architecture of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p85? Homodimer.

    PubMed

    LoPiccolo, Jaclyn; Kim, Seung Joong; Shi, Yi; Wu, Bin; Wu, Haiyan; Chait, Brian T; Singer, Robert H; Sali, Andrej; Brenowitz, Michael; Bresnick, Anne R; Backer, Jonathan M

    2015-12-18

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that are activated by growth factor and G-protein-coupled receptors and propagate intracellular signals for growth, survival, proliferation, and metabolism. p85?, a modular protein consisting of five domains, binds and inhibits the enzymatic activity of class IA PI3K catalytic subunits. Here, we describe the structural states of the p85? dimer, based on data from in vivo and in vitro solution characterization. Our in vitro assembly and structural analyses have been enabled by the creation of cysteine-free p85? that is functionally equivalent to native p85?. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies showed that p85? undergoes rapidly reversible monomer-dimer assembly that is highly exothermic in nature. In addition to the documented SH3-PR1 dimerization interaction, we identified a second intermolecular interaction mediated by cSH2 domains at the C-terminal end of the polypeptide. We have demonstrated in vivo concentration-dependent dimerization of p85? using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy. Finally, we have defined solution conditions under which the protein is predominantly monomeric or dimeric, providing the basis for small angle x-ray scattering and chemical cross-linking structural analysis of the discrete dimer. These experimental data have been used for the integrative structure determination of the p85? dimer. Our study provides new insight into the structure and assembly of the p85? homodimer and suggests that this protein is a highly dynamic molecule whose conformational flexibility allows it to transiently associate with multiple binding proteins. PMID:26475863

  19. Peroxovanadate induces tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 potential involvement of src kinase.

    PubMed

    Grillo, S; Grémeaux, T; Casamayor, A; Alessi, D R; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y; Tanti, J F

    2000-11-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a recently identified kinase that phosphorylates and activates protein kinase B (PKB). Activation of PKB by insulin is linked to its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. However, no data are available yet concerning the localization of PDK1 in insulin-sensitive tissue. Using isolated adipocytes, we studied the effect of insulin and of an insulin-mimicking agent peroxovanadate on the subcellular localization of PDK1. In unstimulated adipocytes, overexpressed PDK1 was mostly cytosolic with a low amount associated to membranes. Peroxovanadate stimulation induced the redistribution of PDK1 to the membranes while insulin was without effect. This peroxovanadate effect was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] production as inhibition of PtdIns 3-kinase by wortmannin or deletion of the PH domain of PDK1 prevented the peroxovanadate-induced translocation of PDK1. Further, peroxovanadate-treatment induced a tyrosine phosphorylation of PDK1 which was wortmannin insensitive and did not require the PH domain of PDK1. An inhibitor of Src kinase (PP2) decreased the peroxovanadate-induced PDK1 tyrosine phosphorylation and overexpression of v-Src stimulated this phosphorylation. Mutation of tyrosine 373 of PDK1 abolished the v-Src induced PDK1 tyrosine phosphorylation and partially reduced the effect of peroxovanadate. Our findings suggest that PDK1 could be a substrate for tyrosine kinases and identify Src kinase as one of the tyrosine kinases able to phosphorylate PDK1. PMID:11054117

  20. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pathway in Human Cancer: Genetic Alterations and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Arcaro, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Ana S

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in human cancer and represents an attractive target for therapies based on small molecule inhibitors. PI3K isoforms play an essential role in the signal transduction events activated by cell surface receptors including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are eight known PI3K isoforms in humans, which have been subdivided into three classes (I-III). Therefore PI3Ks show considerable diversity and it remains unclear which kinases in this family should be targeted in cancer. The class IA of PI3K comprises the p110α, p110β and p110δ isoforms, which associate with activated RTKs. In human cancer, recent reports have described activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding p110α, and inactivating mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene, a tumour suppressor and antagonist of the PI3K pathway. The PIK3CA mutations described in cancer constitutively activate p110α and, when expressed in cells drive oncogenic transformation. Moreover, these mutations cause the constitutive activation of downstream signaling molecules such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) that is commonly observed in cancer cells. In addition to p110α, the other isoforms of the PI3K family may also play a role in human cancer, although their individual functions remain to be precisely identified. In this review we will discuss the evidence implicating individual PI3K isoforms in human cancer and their potential as drug targets in this context. PMID:19384426

  1. IQGAP Proteins Reveal an Atypical Phosphoinositide (aPI) Binding Domain with a Pseudo C2 Domain Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Schenning, Martijn; Agacan, Mark; Tempel, Wolfram; Tong, Yufeng; Nedyalkova, Lyudmila; Park, Hee-Won; Leslie, Nicholas R.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Downes, C. Peter; Batty, Ian H.

    2012-10-16

    Class I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases act through effector proteins whose 3-PI selectivity is mediated by a limited repertoire of structurally defined, lipid recognition domains. We describe here the lipid preferences and crystal structure of a new class of PI binding modules exemplified by select IQGAPs (IQ motif containing GTPase-activating proteins) known to coordinate cellular signaling events and cytoskeletal dynamics. This module is defined by a C-terminal 105-107 amino acid region of which IQGAP1 and -2, but not IQGAP3, binds preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3). The binding affinity for PtdInsP3, together with other, secondary target-recognition characteristics, are comparable with those of the pleckstrin homology domain of cytohesin-3 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1), an established PtdInsP3 effector protein. Importantly, the IQGAP1 C-terminal domain and the cytohesin-3 pleckstrin homology domain, each tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein, were both re-localized from the cytosol to the cell periphery following the activation of PI 3-kinase in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, consistent with their common, selective recognition of endogenous 3-PI(s). The crystal structure of the C-terminal IQGAP2 PI binding module reveals unexpected topological similarity to an integral fold of C2 domains, including a putative basic binding pocket. We propose that this module integrates select IQGAP proteins with PI 3-kinase signaling and constitutes a novel, atypical phosphoinositide binding domain that may represent the first of a larger group, each perhaps structurally unique but collectively dissimilar from the known PI recognition modules.

  2. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 as an emerging target in the management of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fyffe, Chanse; Falasca, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It should be noted that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a protein encoded by the PDPK1 gene, which plays a key role in the signaling pathways activated by several growth factors and hormones. PDK1 is a crucial kinase that functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases, such as protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase C (PKC), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases, and serum glucocorticoid-dependent kinase, by phosphorylating serine/threonine residues in the activation loop. AGC kinases are known to play crucial roles in regulating physiological processes relevant to metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human diseases including cancer. Recent data have revealed that the alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in breast cancer, suggesting that inhibition of PDK1 can inhibit breast cancer progression. Indeed, PDK1 is highly expressed in a majority of human breast cancer cell lines and both PDK1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid are overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of PDK1 is sufficient to transform mammary epithelial cells. PDK1 plays an essential role in regulating cell migration, especially in the context of phosphatase and tensin homologue deficiency. More importantly, downregulation of PDK1 levels inhibits migration and experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting PDK1 may be a valuable anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic strategies in breast cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the evidence that has been reported to support the idea that PDK1 may be a key target in breast cancer management. PMID:24039447

  3. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus VP5 Polypeptide: A Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein Required for Efficient Cell-to-Cell Virus Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez, Dolores; Rodrguez, Jos F.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a major avian pathogen responsible for an immunosuppressive disease affecting juvenile chickens. The IBDV genome is formed by two dsRNA segments. The largest one harbors two partially overlapping open reading frames encoding a non-structural polypeptide, known as VP5, and a large polyprotein, respectively. VP5 is non-essential for virus replication. However, it plays a major role in IBDV pathogenesis. VP5 accumulates at the plasma membrane (PM) of IBDV-infected cells. We have analyzed the mechanism underlying the VP5 PM targeting. Updated topological prediction algorithm servers fail to identify a transmembrane domain within the VP5 sequence. However, the VP5 polycationic C-terminal region, harboring three closely spaced patches formed by two or three consecutive basic amino acid residues (lysine or arginine), might account for its PM tropism. We have found that mutations, either C-terminal VP5 deletions or replacement of basic amino acids by alanine residues, that reduce the electropositive charge of the VP5 C-terminus abolish PM targeting. Lipid overlay assays performed with an affinity-purified Flag-tagged VP5 (FVP5) protein version show that this polypeptide binds several phosphoinositides (PIP), exhibiting a clear preference for monophosphate species. Experiments performed with FVP5 mutant proteins lacking the polycationic domain demonstrate that this region is essential for PIP binding. Data gathered with IBDV mutants expressing C-terminal deleted VP5 polypeptides generated by reverse genetics demonstrate that the VP5-PIP binding domain is required both for its PM targeting in infected cells, and for efficient virus dissemination. Data presented here lead us to hypothesize that IBDV might use a non-lytic VP5-dependent cell-to-cell spreading mechanism. PMID:25886023

  4. Labeling of phosphoinositides in rat brain membranes: an assessment of changes due to post-decapitative ischemic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Huang, S F

    1987-01-01

    Metabolic changes in brain phosphoinositides with respect to post-decapitative ischemic treatment were examined with rats labeled after i.p. injection of (32)Pi and intracerebral injection of [(3)H]inositol. The ischemic treatment resulted in a large and rapid decrease (40% in 2 min) in labeled polyphosphoinositide (poly-Pl), regardless of the source of the labeling. The rapid disappearance of poly-PI labeling can be similarly detected in the synaptosomes and plasma membrane fractions. On the other hand, the ischemic treatment resulted in an increase (10%) in [(32)P]-labeling of phosphatidylinositol, indicating possible contribution due to the poly-PI phosphomonoesterase pathway. In addition to the decrease in labeling of poly-PI, there was a decrease in radioactivity of phosphatidic acids in brain homogenates and plasma membranes due to the ischemic treatment. The labeling pattern of other phospholipids was not altered by the ischemic treatment. With rats prelabeled with [(3)H]inositol, the amount of labeled inositol monophosphate in brain increased 4-fold after pretreatment with LiCl (8 meq/kg). While no obvious change in labeling of inositol bisphosphate and inositol monophosphate was observed, there was a 40% decrease in labeled inositol trisphosphate after 2 min ischemic treatment. Discussions were made regarding the advantage and disadvantages in labeling brain phosphoinositides with these two types of labeled precursors. PMID:20501107

  5. Class I Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Exerts a Differential Role on Cell Survival and Cell Trafficking in Retina.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Seifollah; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E; Rajala, Raju V S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that phosphorylates the 3'OH of the inositol ring of phosphoinositides. They are responsible for coordinating a diverse range of cell functions including proliferation, cell survival, degranulation, vesicular trafficking, and cell migration. The PI 3-kinases are grouped into three distinct classes: I, II, and III. Class III PI3K has been shown to be involved in intracellular protein trafficking, whereas class I PI3K is known to regulate cell survival following activation of cell surface receptors. However, studies from our laboratory and others have shown that class I PI3K may also be involved in photoreceptor protein trafficking. Therefore, to learn more about the role of class I and class III P13K in trafficking and to understand the impact of the lipid content of trafficking cargo vesicles, we developed a methodology to isolate trafficking vesicles from retinal tissue. PI3K class I and III proteins were enriched in our extracted trafficking vesicle fraction. Moreover, levels of ether phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and ether phosphatidylcholine (PC) were significantly higher in the trafficking vesicle fraction than in total retina. These two lipid classes have been suggested to be involved with fusion/targeting of trafficking vesicles. PMID:26427433

  6. Effect of aging on alpha-1 adrenergic stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in various regions of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, D.M.; Bowyer, J.F.; Masserano, J.M.; Zahniser, N.R. )

    1990-12-01

    The effects of aging were examined on the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in three brain regions. Tissue minces of thalamus, cerebral cortex and hippocampus from 3-, 18- and 28-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)myoinositol. Exposure of these prelabeled minces to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine revealed that accumulation of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates was selectively reduced by 20 to 30% in the thalamus and cerebral cortex of the oldest age group. Analysis of concentration-response and competition binding curves indicated that this decrease was due to diminished agonist efficacy rather than diminished receptor affinity. The reduction in responsiveness to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex and the lack of any changes in the hippocampus parallel previously reported changes in the density of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors with aging. These data indicate that the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis is reduced in some, but not all, brain regions of aged Fischer 344 rats.

  7. Pharmacologic Profiling of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibitors as Mitigators of Ionizing RadiationInduced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Epperly, Michael W.; Lira, Ana; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Skoda, Erin M.; Wipf, Peter; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces genotoxic stress that triggers adaptive cellular responses, such as activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade. Pluripotent cells are the most important population affected by IR because they are required for cellular replenishment. Despite the clear danger to large population centers, we still lack safe and effective therapies to abrogate the life-threatening effects of any accidental or intentional IR exposure. Therefore, we computationally analyzed the chemical structural similarity of previously published small molecules that, when given after IR, mitigate cell death and found a chemical cluster that was populated with PI3K inhibitors. Subsequently, we evaluated structurally diverse PI3K inhibitors. It is remarkable that 9 of 14 PI3K inhibitors mitigated ?IR-induced death in pluripotent NCCIT cells as measured by caspase 3/7 activation. A single intraperitoneal dose of LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one], administered to mice at 4 or 24 hours, or PX-867 [(4S,4aR,5R,6aS,9aR,Z)-11-hydroxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-4a,6a-dimethyl-2,7,10-trioxo-1-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethylene)-1,2,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,9a,10-dodecahydroindeno[4,5-H]isochromen-5-yl acetate (CID24798773)], administered 4 hours after a lethal dose of ?IR, statistically significantly (P < 0.02) enhanced in vivo survival. Because cell cycle checkpoints are important regulators of cell survival after IR, we examined cell cycle distribution in NCCIT cells after ?IR and PI3K inhibitor treatment. LY294002 and PX-867 treatment of nonirradiated cells produced a marked decrease in S phase cells with a concomitant increase in the G1 population. In irradiated cells, LY294002 and PX-867 treatment also decreased S phase and increased the G1 and G2 populations. Treatment with LY294002 or PX-867 decreased ?IR-induced DNA damage as measured by ?H2AX, suggesting reduced DNA damage. These results indicate pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K after IR abrogated cell death. PMID:24068833

  8. Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the human Class Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy I; Cook, James A; Thomas, James E; Radding, Jeffrey A; Horn, Candice; Lingaraj, Trupti; Smith, Michele C

    2004-06-01

    The Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositides. Although closely related, experimental evidence suggests that the four Class I PI3Ks may be functionally distinct. To further study their unique biochemical properties, the three human Class Ia PI3K (alpha, beta, and delta) p110 catalytic domains were cloned and co-expressed with the p85alpha regulatory domain in Sf9 cells. None of the p110 subunits were successfully expressed in the absence of p85alpha. Successful expression and purification of each p85alpha/p110 protein required using an excess of the p110 vector over the p85 vector during co-infection of Sf9 cells. Proteins were purified as the p85alpha/p110 complex by nickel affinity chromatography through an N-terminal His-tag on the p110 subunit using an imidazole gradient. The purification yields were high using the optimized ratio of p85/p110 vector and small culture volumes, with 24mg/L cell culture media for p85alpha/p110alpha, 17.5mg/L for p85alpha/p110delta, and 3.5mg/L for p85alpha/p110beta. The identity of each purified isoform was confirmed by mass spectral analysis and immunoblotting. The activities of the three p85alpha/p110 proteins and the Class Ib p110gamma catalytic domain were investigated using phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) as the substrate in a PIP2/phosphatidylserine (PS) liposome. All four enzymes exhibited reaction velocities that were dependent on the surface concentration of PIP2. The surface concentrations that gave maximal activity for each human isoform with 0.5mM PIP2 were 2.5mol% PIP2 for p110gamma, 7.5mol% for p85alpha/p110beta, and 10mol% PIP2 for p85alpha/p110alpha and p85alpha/p110delta. The specific activity of p85alpha/p110alpha was three to five times higher than that of the other human isoforms. These kinetic differences may contribute to the unique roles of these isoforms in cells. PMID:15135396

  9. The Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXO3a Increases Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase/Akt Activity in Drug-Resistant Leukemic Cells through Induction of PIK3CA Expression▿

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Rosaline C.-Y.; Gomes, Ana R.; Constantinidou, Demetra; Costa, Joana R.; Karadedou, Christina T.; Fernandez de Mattos, Silvia; Wymann, Matthias P.; Brosens, Jan J.; Schulze, Almut; Lam, Eric W.-F.

    2008-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway plays a key role in the tumorigenesis of many cancers and in the subsequent development of drug resistance. Using the K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line and the doxorubicin-resistant derivative lines KD30 and KD225 as models, we observed that enhanced PI3K/Akt activity and the acquisition of chemoresistance correlated unexpectedly with the increased expression and nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a. Moreover, we found that the induction of FOXO3a activity in naïve K562 cells was sufficient to enhance PI3K/Akt activity and to confer resistance to the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin. Conversely, the knockdown of endogenous FOXO3a expression reduced PI3K/Akt activity and sensitized these cells to doxorubicin. Further chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter mutation analyses demonstrated that FOXO3a regulates the expression of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110α through the activation of a promoter region proximal to a novel untranslated exon upstream from the reported transcription start site of the p110α gene PIK3CA. As was the case for FOXO3a, the expression or knockdown of p110α was sufficient to amplify or reduce PI3K/Akt activity, respectively. Thus, our results suggest that the chronic activation of FOXO3a by doxorubicin in CML cells can enhance survival through a feedback mechanism that involves enhanced p110α expression and hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:18644865

  10. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Aurora-B alters the metastatic behavior of A549 cells via modulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LONG DIAN; XIONG, XU; LONG, XIN HUA; LIU, ZHI LI; HUANG, SHAN HU; ZHANG, WEI

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that an elevated expression level of Aurora-B is associated with metastasis in various types of malignant tumor. However, it is currently unclear whether this molecule is involved in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis, and the molecular mechanisms associated with Aurora-B and metastasis remain unknown. In the present study, in order to investigate whether Aurora-B is involved in the development and metastasis of NSCLC, the Aurora-B protein expression in NSCLC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and its association with metastasis was analyzed. The results revealed that the expression levels of the Aurora-B protein in tissues obtained from NSCLC patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those without metastatic disease. Furthermore, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on A549 cell migration and invasion, as well as the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was evaluated. Aurora-B was inhibited in the A549 cells using short hairpin RNA, and the cell migration and invasion rates were investigated using wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. In addition, the expression of the main proteins in the PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 were measured by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cell migration and invasion were decreased as a result of silencing Aurora-B. Furthermore, the activity of the PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway and the expression of MMP-2 and -9 protein were suppressed by silencing Aurora-B. The results of the present study indicate that the knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses A549 cell invasion and migration via the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vitro and thus, targeting Aurora-B may present a potential treatment strategy for NSCLC. PMID:25295091

  11. In vivo regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in retina through light-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Raju V S; McClellan, Mark E; Ash, John D; Anderson, Robert E

    2002-11-01

    Recently, we have shown that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in bovine rod outer segment (ROS) is activated in vitro by tyrosine phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of the insulin receptor (Rajala, R. V. S., and Anderson, R. E. (2001) Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 42, 3110-3117). In this study, we have investigated the in vivo mechanism of PI3K activation in the rodent retina and report the novel finding that light stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor (IRbeta) in ROS membranes, which leads to the association of PI3K enzyme activity with IRbeta. Retinas from light- or dark-adapted mice and rats were homogenized and immunoprecipitated with antibodies against phosphotyrosine, IRbeta, or the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K, and PI3K activity was measured using PI-4,5-P(2) as substrate. We observed a light-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of IRbeta and an increase in PI3K enzyme activity in isolated ROS and in anti-phosphotyrosine and anti-IRbeta immunoprecipitates of retinal homogenates. The light effect was localized to photoreceptor neurons and is independent of insulin secretion. Our results suggest that light induces tyrosine phosphorylation of IRbeta in outer segment membranes, which leads to the binding of p85 through its N-terminal Src homology 2 domain and the generation of PI-3,4,5-P(3). We suggest that the physiological role of this process may be to provide neuroprotection of the retina against light damage by activating proteins that protect against stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:12213821

  12. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-07-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and (3H)PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of (3H)PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation).

  13. IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR) cross-linking recruits tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide kinases and serine/threonine kinases to glycolipid rafts.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Mark L; Chen, Yih-Wen; Shen, Li; Gao, Hong; Lang, Gillian A; Wade, Terri K; Wade, William F

    2002-01-01

    The human IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR, CD89) triggers several important physiological functions, including phagocytosis, NADPH oxidase activation and antigen presentation. Efforts are underway to delineate FcalphaR signal-transduction pathways that control these functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that cross-linking of FcalphaR increased its partitioning into membrane glycolipid rafts and was accompanied by gamma-chain-dependent recruitment and phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases Lck/Yes-related novel protein tyrosine kinase (Lyn) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Here we have performed a more extensive characterization of signalling effectors recruited to rafts on FcalphaR cross-linking. We demonstrate that in addition to tyrosine kinases Lyn and Btk, FcalphaR cross-linking also recruits B-lymphocyte kinase (Blk) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to rafts. We show recruitment of phosphoinositide kinases, including 3-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cgamma2, and serine/threonine kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, PKCepsilon, and protein kinase B (PKB) alpha. This suggests that lipid rafts serve as sites for FcalphaR-triggered recruitment of multiple classes of signalling effectors. We further demonstrate that tyrosine kinases and PKCalpha have a sustained association with rafts, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream effectors have a transient association with rafts. This is consistent with temporally regulated divergence of FcalphaR signalling pathways in rafts. Furthermore, we suggest the spatial separation of signalling effectors by transport of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, PKBalpha and PKCepsilon to endocytic compartments containing internalized FcalphaR. PMID:12023895

  14. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Selective 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Jesus R.; Becker, Christopher J.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W.; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H.; Miller, William H.; Romeril, Stuart P.; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A.; Chadderton, Antony R.; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M.; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G.; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-02

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor.

  15. Structure-based design of potent and selective 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jess R; Becker, Christopher J; Blackledge, Charles W; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H; Miller, William H; Romeril, Stuart P; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A; Chadderton, Antony R; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-24

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor. PMID:21341675

  16. A novel class of PTEN protein in Arabidopsis displays unusual phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and efficiently binds phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Pribat, Anne; Sormani, Rodnay; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Julkowska, Magdalena M; Testerink, Christa; Joubs, Jerme; Castroviejo, Michel; Laguerre, Michel; Meyer, Christian; Germain, Vronique; Rothan, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) proteins are dual phosphatases with both protein and phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. They modulate signalling pathways controlling growth, metabolism and apoptosis in animals and are implied in several human diseases. In the present paper we describe a novel class of PTEN pro-teins in plants, termed PTEN2, which comprises the AtPTEN (Arabidopsis PTEN) 2a and AtPTEN2b proteins in Arabidopsis. Both display low in vitro tyrosine phosphatase activity. In addition, AtPTEN2a actively dephosphorylates in vitro the 3' phosphate group of PI3P (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate), PI(3,4)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate) and PI(3,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate). In contrast with animal PTENs, PI(3,4,5)P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) is a poor substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis of AtPTEN2a and molecular modelling of protein-phosphoinositide interactions indicated that substitutions at the PTEN2 core catalytic site of the Lys267 and Gly268 residues found in animals, which are critical for animal PTEN activity, by Met267 and Ala268 found in the eudicot PTEN2 are responsible for changes in substrate specificity. Remarkably, the AtPTEN2a protein also displays strong binding activity for PA (phosphatidic acid), a major lipid second messenger in plants. Promoter::GUS (?-glucuronidase) fusion, transcript and protein analyses further showed the transcriptional regulation of the ubiquitously expressed AtPTEN2a and AtPTEN2b by salt and osmotic stress. The results of the present study suggest a function for this novel class of plant PTEN proteins as an effector of lipid signalling in plants. PMID:21864294

  17. Nuclear envelope assembly is promoted by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C with selective recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-enriched membranes.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard D; Barona, Teresa M; Garnier, Marie; Koster, Grielof; Katan, Matilda; Poccia, Dominic L; Larijani, Banafsh

    2005-04-15

    Nuclear envelope (NE) formation in a cell-free egg extract proceeds by precursor membrane vesicle binding to chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner, followed by a GTP-induced NE assembly step. The requirement for GTP in the latter step of this process can be mimicked by addition of bacterial PI-PLC [phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C]. The NE assembly process is here dissected in relation to the requirement for endogenous phosphoinositide metabolism, employing recombinant eukaryotic PI-PLC, inhibitors and direct phospholipid analysis using ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) species analysis by ESI-MS indicates that the chromatin-bound NE precursor vesicles are enriched for specific PtdIns species. Moreover, during GTP-induced precursor vesicle fusion, the membrane vesicles become partially depleted of the PtdIns 18:0/20:4 species. These data indicate that eukaryotic PI-PLC can support NE formation, and the sensitivity to exogenous recombinant PtdIns-5-phosphatases shows that the endogenous PLC hydrolyses a 5-phosphorylated species. It is shown further that the downstream target of this DAG (diacylglycerol) pathway does not involve PKC (protein kinase C) catalytic function, but is mimicked by phorbol esters, indicating a possible engagement of one of the non-PKC phorbol ester receptors. The results show that ESI-MS can be used as a sensitive means to measure the lipid composition of biological membranes and their changes during, for example, membrane fusogenic events. We have exploited this and the intervention studies to illustrate a pivotal role for PI-PLC and its product DAG in the formation of NEs. PMID:15554872

  18. Purification of two distinct types of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C from rat liver. Enzymological and structural studies.

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, O; Homma, Y; Kawasaki, H; Emori, Y; Suzuki, K; Takenawa, T

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) were purified from rat liver by acid precipitation and several steps of column chromatography. About 50% of the activity could be precipitated when the pH of the liver homogenate was lowered to pH 4.7. The redissolved precipitate yielded two peaks, PLC I and PLC II, in an Affi-gel Blue column, and each was further purified to homogeneity by three sequential h.p.l.c. steps, which were different for the two enzymes. The purified PLC I and PLC II had estimated Mr values of 140,000 and 71,000 respectively on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Both enzymes hydrolysed phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in a Ca2+- and pH-dependent manner. PLC I was most active at 10 microM- and 0.1 mM-Ca2+ for hydrolysis of PI and PIP2 respectively, whereas PLC II showed the highest activity at 5 mM- and 10 microM-Ca2+ for that of PI and PIP2 respectively. The optimal pH of the two enzymes also differed with substrates or Ca2+ concentration, in the range pH 5.0-6.0. Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides by these enzymes was completely inhibited by Hg2+ and was affected by other bivalent cations. From data obtained by peptide mapping and partial amino acid sequencing, it was clarified that PLC I and PLC II had distinct structures. Moreover, partial amino acid sequences of three proteolytic fragments of PLC I completely coincided with those of PLC-148 [Stahl, Ferenz, Kelleher, Kriz & Knopf (1988) Nature (London) 332, 269-272]. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 6. PMID:2851991

  19. Molecular cytogenetic interphase analysis of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C ?1 gene in paraffin-embedded brain samples of major depression patients.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Polonia, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders represent a major medical need, as their chronic treatments are not effective in all patients. Literature data suggested that phosphoinositides (PI) signal transduction pathway and related molecules such as the Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes, might be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, including major depression. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we analyzed PLCB1 gene, which codifies for the PI-PLC ?1 enzyme, in paraffin embedded samples of orbito-frontal cortex of 15 patients affected with major depression and in 15 normal controls. No deletions of PLCB1 were identified with the methodology used, which allows to exclude wide gene deletions. The results, the technical aspects of the FISH methodology, and its limitations are discussed. PMID:21880371

  20. A switch of G protein-coupled receptor binding preference from phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-p85 to filamin A negatively controls the PI3K pathway.

    PubMed

    Najib, Souad; Saint-Laurent, Nathalie; Estve, Jean-Pierre; Schulz, Stefan; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Fourmy, Daniel; Lttig, Jens; Mollereau, Catherine; Pyronnet, Stphane; Susini, Christiane; Bousquet, Corinne

    2012-03-01

    Frequent oncogenic alterations occur in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, urging identification of novel negative controls. We previously reported an original mechanism for restraining PI3K activity, controlled by the somatostatin G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) sst2 and involving a ligand-regulated interaction between sst2 with the PI3K regulatory p85 subunit. We here identify the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA) as a critical player regulating the dynamic of this complex. A preexisting sst2-p85 complex, which was shown to account for a significant basal PI3K activity in the absence of ligand, is disrupted upon sst2 activation. FLNA was here identified as a competitor of p85 for direct binding to two juxtaposed sites on sst2. Switching of GPCR binding preference from p85 toward FLNA is determined by changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation of p85- and FLNA-binding sites on sst2 upon activation. It results in the disruption of the sst2-p85 complex and the subsequent inhibition of PI3K. Knocking down FLNA expression, or abrogating FLNA recruitment to sst2, reversed the inhibition of PI3K and of tumor growth induced by sst2. Importantly, we report that this FLNA inhibitory control on PI3K can be generalized to another GPCR, the mu opioid receptor, thereby providing an unprecedented mechanism underlying GPCR-negative control on PI3K. PMID:22203038

  1. Opposing effects of a ras oncogene on growth factor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis: desensitization to platelet-derived growth factor and enhanced sensitivity to bradykinin

    SciTech Connect

    Parries, G.; Hoebel, R.; Racker, E.

    1987-05-01

    Expression of a transforming Harvey or Kirsten ras gene caused opposing effects in the ability of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and bradyknin to activate phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled rat-1 fibroblasts, PDGF resulted in a 2-fold increase in the level of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/) after 2 min and, in the presence of LiCl, a 3- to 8-fold increase in the level of (/sup 3/H)inositol monophosphate (InsP/sub 1/) after 30 min. However, in EJ-ras-transfected rat-1 cells, which exhibit near normal levels of PDGF receptors, PDGF resulted in little or no accumulation of either (/sup 3/H)InsP/sub 3/ or (/sup 3/H)InsP/sub 1/. Similarly, marked stimulations by PDGF were observed in NIH 3T3 cells, as well as in v-src-transformed 3T3 cells, but not in 3T3 cells transformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus or by transfection with v-Ha-ras DNA. This diminished phosphoinositide response in ras-transformed cells was associated with a markedly attenuated mitogenic response to PDGF. On the other hand, both phosphoinositide metabolism and DNA synthesis in ras-transformed fibroblasts were stimulated several-fold by serum. In NIH 3T3 cells carrying a glucocorticoid-inducible v-Ha-ras gene, a close correlation was found between the expression of p21/sup ras/ and the loss of PDGF-stimulated (/sup 3/H)InsP/sub 1/ accumulation. The authors propose that a ras gene product (p21) can, directly or indirectly, influence growth factor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis, as well as DNA synthesis, via alterations in the properties of specific growth factor receptors.

  2. Ligand-based Pharmacophore Modeling; Atom-based 3D-QSAR Analysis and Molecular Docking Studies of Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, P.; Muthusamy, K.; Singh, K. H. D.; Nagamani, S.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 plays a vital role in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway that regulates gene expression, cell cycle growth and proliferation. The common human cancers include lung, breast, blood and prostate possess over stimulation of the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 signaling and making phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 an interesting therapeutic target in oncology. A ligand-based pharmacophore and atom-based 3D-QSAR studies were carried out on a set of 82 inhibitors of PDK1. A six point pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors (A), three hydrogen bond donors (D) and one hydrophobic group (H) was obtained. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a 3D-QSAR model with good partial least square statistics results. The training set correlation is characterized by partial least square factors (R2 = 0.9557, SD = 0.2334, F = 215.5, P = 1.407e-32). The test set correlation is characterized by partial least square factors (Q2 ext = 0.7510, RMSE = 0.5225, Pearson-R =0.8676). The external validation indicated that our QSAR model possess high predictive power with good value of 0.99 and value of 0.88. The docking results show the binding orientations of these inhibitors at active site amino acid residues (Ala162, Thr222, Glu209 and Glu166) of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 protein. The binding free energy interactions of protein-ligand complex have been calculated, which plays an important role in molecular recognition and drug design approach. PMID:23325995

  3. CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by biocomputation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Chen, Qingchun; Jiang, Zhenfu; Feng, Haitao

    2014-11-01

    We data-analyzed and constructed the high-expression CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with low-expression (fold change ? 2) no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) in GEO data set, using integration of gene regulatory network inference method with gene ontology (GO). Our result showed that CAMK1 transport subnetwork upstream KCNQ3, LCN2, NKX2_5, NUP62, SORT1, STX1A activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated AFP, ENAH, KPNA2, SLC4A3; CAMK1 signal subnetwork upstream BRCA1, DKK1, GPSM2, LEF1, NR5A1, NUP62, SORT1, SSTR5, TBL3 activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated MAP2K6, SFRP4, SSTR5, TSHB, UBE2C in HCC. We proposed that CAMK1 activated network enhanced endosome to lysosome transport, endosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway, Golgi to endosome transport, intracellular protein transmembrane transport, intracellular protein transport, ion transport, mRNA transport, plasma membrane to endosome transport, potassium ion transport, protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport, anion transport, intracellular transport, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell surface receptor-linked signal transduction, hormone-mediated signaling, induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in transcription of p21 class mediator, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, Wnt receptor signaling pathway, as a result of inducing phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting, and transport in HCC. Our hypothesis was verified by CAMK1 functional regulation subnetwork containing positive regulation of calcium ion transport via voltage gated calcium channel, cell proliferation, DNA repair, exocytosis, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, immunoglobulin-mediated immune response, mast cell activation, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, survival gene product activity, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription via serum response element binding, exit from mitosis, ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle, regulation of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, gene expression, insulin secretion, steroid biosynthesis, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter, cell cycle, cell migration, DNA recombination, and protein metabolism; also by CAMK1 negative functional regulation subnetwork including negative regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, centriole replication, fatty acid biosynthesis, lipoprotein lipase activity, MAPK activity, progression through cell cycle, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, cell growth, phosphorylation, and ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle in HCC. PMID:24825433

  4. Phosphoinositide Metabolism Links cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase G to Essential Ca2+ Signals at Key Decision Points in the Life Cycle of Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Mathieu; Collins, Mark O.; Smith, Terry K.; Thompson, Eloise; Sebastian, Sarah; Volkmann, Katrin; Schwach, Frank; Chappell, Lia; Gomes, Ana Rita; Berriman, Matthew; Rayner, Julian C.; Baker, David A.; Choudhary, Jyoti; Billker, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Many critical events in the Plasmodium life cycle rely on the controlled release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores to activate stage-specific Ca2+-dependent protein kinases. Using the motility of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes as a signalling paradigm, we show that the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase, PKG, maintains the elevated level of cytosolic Ca2+ required for gliding motility. We find that the same PKG-dependent pathway operates upstream of the Ca2+ signals that mediate activation of P. berghei gametocytes in the mosquito and egress of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites from infected human erythrocytes. Perturbations of PKG signalling in gliding ookinetes have a marked impact on the phosphoproteome, with a significant enrichment of in vivo regulated sites in multiple pathways including vesicular trafficking and phosphoinositide metabolism. A global analysis of cellular phospholipids demonstrates that in gliding ookinetes PKG controls phosphoinositide biosynthesis, possibly through the subcellular localisation or activity of lipid kinases. Similarly, phosphoinositide metabolism links PKG to egress of P. falciparum merozoites, where inhibition of PKG blocks hydrolysis of phosphatidylinostitol (4,5)-bisphosphate. In the face of an increasing complexity of signalling through multiple Ca2+ effectors, PKG emerges as a unifying factor to control multiple cellular Ca2+ signals essential for malaria parasite development and transmission. PMID:24594931

  5. Nicotine enhances hepatocyte growth factor-mediated lung cancer cell migration by activating the ?7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor and phosphoinositide kinase-3-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    YONEYAMA, REMI; AOSHIBA, KAZUTETSU; FURUKAWA, KINYA; SAITO, MAKOTO; KATABA, HIROAKI; NAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; IKEDA, NORIHIKO

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking not only promotes lung carcinogenesis, but it has also been demonstrated to promote the progression of lung cancer. Despite nicotine being a major component of cigarette smoke, it is not carcinogenic when acting alone. Instead, it is believed to function as a tumor promoter. Due to the fatal consequences of lung cancer being primarily associated with the processes of invasion and metastasis, the present study aimed to determine the effect of nicotine on the migratory activity of lung cancer cells. The effect of nicotine on the migration of lung cancer A549 cells was evaluated by a wound healing assay. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was used as a pro-migratory stimulus. During several of the experiments, specific inhibitors of ?7-nicotine acetylcholine receptor (?7-nAchR), phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 were included. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERK1/2 were examined using a cell-based protein phosphorylation assay. It was observed that nicotine did not induce cell migration by itself, but that it instead promoted HGF-induced cell migration. The effects of nicotine were inhibited by the pretreatment of the cells with the ?7-nAchR inhibitor, methyllycaconitine, and the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. The mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase kinase inhibitor exerted modest, but non-significant inhibitory activity on the effect of nicotine. Nicotine did not induce Akt phosphorylation by itself, but instead promoted the HGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt. It was also observed that nicotine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The results from the present study indicate that nicotine, when alone, does not have a pro-migratory function, but instead enhances responsiveness to the pro-migratory stimulus emitted by HGF. The current study provides an insight into the mechanism of tumor promotion by demonstrating that nicotine and ?7-nAchRs act in synergy with the HGF-induced PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, increasing the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to HGF, and thereby promoting cell migration, a vital step in invasion and metastasis. PMID:26870265

  6. Repression of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 expression by ciglitazone via Egr-1 represents a new approach for inhibition of lung cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR?) ligands have been shown to inhibit the growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.?However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain incompletely elucidated. Methods Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by cell viability, MTT and caspase3/7 activity assays. Phosphorylation/protein expression and gene silence/overexpression of AMPK?, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), Egr-1 and PPAR? were performed by Western blot and siRNA/transfection assays. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Kit was used to measure the PPAR response elements (PPRE) reporter and PDK1 promoter activities, and ChIP assay was used to detect the Egr-1 protein binding to the DNA site in the PDK1 gene promoter. Results We found that ciglitazone, one synthetic PPAR? ligand, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through decreased expression of PDK1, which was not blocked by GW9662 (a specific PPAR? antagonist). Overexpression of PDK1 overcame the effect of ciglitazone on cell growth and caspase 3/7 activity. Ciglitazone increased the phosphorylation of AMPK? and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibitor of AMPK (compound C), but not JNK (SP600125), reversed the effect of ciglitazone on PDK1 protein expression. Ciglitazone reduced PDK1 gene promoter activity, which was not observed in cells exposed to compound C, but not silenced of PPAR? siRNA. Combination of ciglitazone and metformin further reduced PDK1 expression and promoter activity.?Furthermore, we showed that ciglitazone induced the protein expression of Egr-1, which was not observed in cells silencing of AMPK?. Moreover, silencing of Egr-1 abrogated the effect of ciglitazone on PDK1 promoter activity and cell growth. On the contrary, overexpression of Egr-1 enhanced the effect of ciglitazone on PDK1 gene promoter activity. ChIP assays demonstrated that ciglitazone induced Egr-1 protein bind to the specific DNA site in the PDK1 gene promoter. Conclusion Collectively, our results demonstrate that ciglitazone inhibits PDK1 expression through AMPK?-mediated induction of Egr-1 and Egr-1 binding to the specific DNA site in the PDK1 gene promoter, which is independent of PPAR?. Activation of AMPK? by metformin enhances the effect of ciglitazone. In turn, this leads to inhibition of NSCLC cell proliferation. PMID:24925061

  7. Regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats: effects of follicle-stimulating hormone and fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, S.M.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Many hormones elicit effects on target cells by stimulating the enzyme phospholipase-C, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides to the intracellular second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates. The present study examined the roles of FSH and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) in regulating the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides in Sertoli cells. Sertoli cell cultures prepared from 16- to 18-day-old rats were incubated for 24 h with myo-(2-3H) inositol to label endogenous phospholipids. Treatment of cells from 0.5-20 min with preparations of ovine FSH ranging in potency from 1-60 times that of NIH FSH S1 did not affect accumulation of inositol phosphates. Levels of total (3H)inositol phosphates ((3H)inositol mono-, di-, and triphosphates (IP, IP2, and IP3)) in FSH-treated cultures was 75-120% the levels in control cultures over the various time intervals studied. Addition of testosterone and the combination of testosterone plus retinoic acid, agents that have been shown to potentiate effects of FSH in other systems, did not affect accumulation of inositol phosphates in response to FSH. In contrast to the lack of effect on accumulation of inositol phosphates, FSH stimulated 4- to 11-fold increases in estradiol secretion over 24 h of culture, indicating that Sertoli cells were viable and responsive to FSH. AIF4- has been shown to activate G-proteins involved in regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, AIF4- induced 4- to 5-fold increases in IP, IP2, and IP3 in experiments wherein FSH had no effect. Pretreatment of Sertoli cells with pertussis toxin (100 and 1000 ng/ml) for 24 h inhibited fluoride-induced generation of IP, IP2, and IP3 by 24-51%. Similar treatment with cholera toxin had no effect on basal or fluoride-induced generation of IP2 or IP3, but increased fluoride-induced generation of IP by 20-34%.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-2-stimulated protein synthesis through the PI 3-kinase-dependent Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-responsive neuropeptide that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract, including enhancing mucosal cell survival and proliferation. GLP-2 stimulates mucosal growth in vivo with an increased rate of protein synthesis. However, it was unclear w...

  9. PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Plk1Ser99 promotes association with 14-3-3? and is required for metaphaseanaphase transition

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kousuke; Goto, Hidemasa; Izawa, Ichiro; Kiyono, Tohru; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Elowe, Sabine; Nigg, Erich A; Inagaki, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) controls multiple aspects of mitosis and is activated through its phosphorylation at Thr210. Here we identify Ser99 on Plk1 as a novel mitosis-specific phosphorylation site, which operates independently of Plk1Thr210 phosphorylation. Plk1Ser99 phosphorylation creates a docking site for 14-3-3?, and this interaction stimulates the catalytic activity of Plk1. Knockdown of 14-3-3? or replacement of wild-type (WT) Plk1 by a Ser99-phospho-blocking mutant leads to a prometaphase/metaphase-like arrest due to the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt significantly reduces the level of Plk1Ser99 phosphorylation and delays metaphase to anaphase transition. Plk1Ser99 phosphorylation requires not only Akt activity but also protein(s) associated with Plk1 in a mitosis-specific manner. Therefore, mitotic Plk1 activity is regulated not only by Plk1Thr210 phosphorylation, but also by Plk1 binding to 14-3-3? following Plk1Ser99 phosphorylation downstream of the PI3KAkt signalling pathway. This novel Plk1 activation pathway controls proper progression from metaphase to anaphase. PMID:23695676

  10. Requirement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway and Src for Gas6-Axl mitogenic and survival activities in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Goruppi, S; Ruaro, E; Varnum, B; Schneider, C

    1997-01-01

    Gas6 is a secreted protein previously identified as the ligand of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase. We have shown that Gas6 is able to induce cell cycle reentry of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells and to efficiently prevent apoptosis after complete growth factor removal, a survival effect uncoupled from Gas6-induced mitogenesis. Here we report that the mitogenic effect of Gas6 requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity since it is abrogated both by the specific inhibitor wortmannin and by overexpression of the dominant negative P13K p85 subunit. Consistently, Gas6 activates the P13K downstream targets S6K and Akt, whose activation is abrogated by addition of wortmannin. Moreover, rapamycin treatment blocks Gas6-induced entry into the S phase of serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells. We also demonstrate the requirement of Src tyrosine kinase for Gas6 signalling since stable or transient expression of a catalytically inactive form of Src significantly inhibited Gas6-stimulated entry into the S phase. Accordingly, Gas6 addition to serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells causes activation of the intrinsic Src kinase activity. When specifically analyzed in a survival assay, these elements were found to be required for the survival effect of Gas6. Taken together, the evidence presented here identifies elements involved in the Gas6 transduction pathway that are responsible for its antiapoptotic effect and suggests that Src is involved in the events regulating cell survival. PMID:9234702

  11. Echinacea purpurea root extract inhibits TNF release in response to Pam3Csk4 in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fast, David J; Balles, John A; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy; Rana, Jatinder

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Echinacea have historically been shown to be immunostimulatory. We describe in this work however the anti-inflammatory effect of a water extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (EPRW) that inhibited Pam3Csk4 stimulated production of TNFα by human monocytic THP-1 cells. The polyphenols and alkylamides typically found in Echinacea extracts were absent in EPRW suggesting that the anti-inflammatory component(s) was a polysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as chemical inhibition of PI3K abolished the EPRW anti-inflammatory effect. Demonstration of phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 proteins, downstream targets of PI3K confirmed EPRW-mediated activation of this pathway. In conclusion, this observation suggests that non-alkylamide/non-polyphenolic phytochemicals from Echinacea may contribute in part to some of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects such as reduced severity of symptoms that have been observed in vivo in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with Echinacea. PMID:26190752

  12. Factors Influencing the Central Nervous System Distribution of a Novel Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor GSK2126458: Implications for Overcoming Resistance with Combination Therapy for Melanoma Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Vaidhyanathan, Shruthi; Wilken-Resman, Brynna; Ma, Daniel J; Parrish, Karen E; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Carlson, Brett L; Sarkaria, Jann N; Elmquist, William F

    2016-02-01

    Small molecule inhibitors targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (Braf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase) have had success in extending survival for patients with metastatic melanoma. Unfortunately, resistance may occur via cross-activation of alternate signaling pathways. One approach to overcome resistance is to simultaneously target the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Recent reports have shown that GSK2126458 [2,4-difluoro-N-(2-methoxy-5-(4-(pyridazin-4-yl)quinolin-6-yl)pyridin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide], a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, can overcome acquired resistance to Braf and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors in vitro. These resistance mechanisms may be especially important in melanoma brain metastases because of limited drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence the brain distribution of GSK2126458 and to examine the efficacy of GSK2126458 in a novel patient-derived melanoma xenograft (PDX) model. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that GSK2126458 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), two dominant active efflux transporters in the blood-brain barrier. The steady-state brain distribution of GSK2126458 was 8-fold higher in the P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice compared with the wild type. We also observed that when simultaneously infused to steady state, GSK212658, dabrafenib, and trametinib, a rational combination to overcome mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance, all had limited brain distribution. Coadministration of elacridar, a P-gp/Bcrp inhibitor, increased the brain distribution of GSK2126458 by approximately 7-fold in wild-type mice. In the PDX model, GSK2126458 showed efficacy in flank tumors but was ineffective in intracranial melanoma. These results show that P-gp and Bcrp are involved in limiting the brain distribution of GSK2126458 and provide a rationale for the lack of efficacy of GSK2126458 in the orthotopic PDX model. PMID:26604245

  13. A method to control phosphoinositides and to analyze PTEN function in living cells using voltage sensitive phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Thallmair, Veronika; Leitner, Michael G.; Schreiber, Daniela N.; Oliver, Dominik; Halaszovich, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs), including engineered voltage sensitive PTEN, are excellent tools to rapidly and reversibly alter the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the plasma membrane in vivo and study the tumor suppressor PTEN. However, widespread adoption of these tools is hampered by the requirement for electrophysiological instrumentation to control the activity of VSPs. Additionally, monitoring and quantifying the PI changes in living cells requires sophisticated microscopy equipment and image analysis. Here we present methods that bypass these obstacles. First, we explore technically simple means for activation of VSPs via extracellularly applied agents or light. Secondly, we characterize methods to monitor PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels using fluorescence microscopy or photometry in conjunction with translocation or FRET based PI probes, respectively. We then demonstrate the application of these techniques by characterizing the effect of known PTEN mutations on its enzymatic activity, analyzing the effect of PTEN inhibitors, and detecting in real time rapid inhibition of protein kinase B following depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3. Thus, we established an approach that does not only allow for rapidly manipulating and monitoring PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels in a population of cells, but also facilitates the study of PTEN mutants and pharmacological targeting in mammalian cells. PMID:25873899

  14. A method to control phosphoinositides and to analyze PTEN function in living cells using voltage sensitive phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Thallmair, Veronika; Leitner, Michael G; Schreiber, Daniela N; Oliver, Dominik; Halaszovich, Christian R

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs), including engineered voltage sensitive PTEN, are excellent tools to rapidly and reversibly alter the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the plasma membrane in vivo and study the tumor suppressor PTEN. However, widespread adoption of these tools is hampered by the requirement for electrophysiological instrumentation to control the activity of VSPs. Additionally, monitoring and quantifying the PI changes in living cells requires sophisticated microscopy equipment and image analysis. Here we present methods that bypass these obstacles. First, we explore technically simple means for activation of VSPs via extracellularly applied agents or light. Secondly, we characterize methods to monitor PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels using fluorescence microscopy or photometry in conjunction with translocation or FRET based PI probes, respectively. We then demonstrate the application of these techniques by characterizing the effect of known PTEN mutations on its enzymatic activity, analyzing the effect of PTEN inhibitors, and detecting in real time rapid inhibition of protein kinase B following depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3. Thus, we established an approach that does not only allow for rapidly manipulating and monitoring PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels in a population of cells, but also facilitates the study of PTEN mutants and pharmacological targeting in mammalian cells. PMID:25873899

  15. Apelin/APJ signaling promotes hypoxia-induced proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells via phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingchang; Liu, Qiming; Hu, Xinqun; Fang, Zhenfei; Huang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Shenghua

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can adhere to the endothelium at sites of hypoxia/ischemia and participate in the formation of novel vessels through differentiating into endothelial cells (ECs). Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G protein?coupled receptor APJ, and apelin/APJ signaling has a role in cardiovascular function. The present study aimed to investigate the role of apelin/APJ signaling in the regulation of EPC proliferation under hypoxia. The results showed that hypoxia was able to induce EPC proliferation, accompanied with an upregulation of hypoxia?inducible factor (HIF)?1? as well as apelin/APJ signaling. Further investigation indicated that siRNA?mediated knockdown of apelin or APJ expression attenuated the hypoxia?induced proliferation of EPCs, suggesting that apelin/APJ signaling has an important role in hypoxia?induced EPC proliferation. Moreover, the phosphoinositide?3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was found to be involved in the apelin/APJ?mediated EPC proliferation under hypoxia. Based on these findings, the present study suggested that hypoxia?induced upregulation of HIF?1? promotes the expression of apelin and APJ, which further activate the downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, a key promoter of EPC proliferation. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of apelin/APJ in the regulation of EPC proliferation, and apelin/APJ may therefore serve as a potential target for the prevention of hypoxic ischemic injury. PMID:26018184

  16. Propofol pretreatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats by activating the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L L; Hu, G C; Zhu, S S; Li, J F; Liu, G J

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propofol pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in this procedure. Survival was determined 48 h after LPS injection. At 1 h after LPS challenge, the lung wet- to dry-weight ratio was examined, and concentrations of protein, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined using the bicinchoninic acid method or ELISA. Lung injury was assayed via lung histological examination. PI3K and p-Akt expression levels in the lung tissue were determined by Western blotting. Propofol pretreatment prolonged survival, decreased the concentrations of protein, TNF-?, and IL-6 in BALF, attenuated ALI, and increased PI3K and p-Akt expression in the lung tissue of LPS-challenged rats, whereas treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt pathway specific inhibitor, blunted this effect. Our study indicates that propofol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI, partly by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:25318066

  17. Propofol pretreatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats by activating the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L L; Hu, G C; Zhu, S S; Li, J F; Liu, G J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propofol pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in this procedure. Survival was determined 48 h after LPS injection. At 1 h after LPS challenge, the lung wet- to dry-weight ratio was examined, and concentrations of protein, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined using the bicinchoninic acid method or ELISA. Lung injury was assayed via lung histological examination. PI3K and p-Akt expression levels in the lung tissue were determined by Western blotting. Propofol pretreatment prolonged survival, decreased the concentrations of protein, TNF-?, and IL-6 in BALF, attenuated ALI, and increased PI3K and p-Akt expression in the lung tissue of LPS-challenged rats, whereas treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt pathway specific inhibitor, blunted this effect. Our study indicates that propofol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI, partly by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:25387673

  18. Novel roles for class II Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase C2β in signalling pathways involved in prostate cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mavrommati, Ioanna; Cisse, Ouma; Falasca, Marco; Maffucci, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate several cellular functions such as proliferation, growth, survival and migration. The eight PI3K isoforms are grouped into three classes and the three enzymes belonging to the class II subfamily (PI3K-C2α, β and γ) are the least investigated amongst all PI3Ks. Interest on these isoforms has been recently fuelled by the identification of specific physiological roles for class II PI3Ks and by accumulating evidence indicating their involvement in human diseases. While it is now established that these isoforms can regulate distinct cellular functions compared to other PI3Ks, there is still a limited understanding of the signalling pathways that can be specifically regulated by class II PI3Ks. Here we show that PI3K-C2β regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We further demonstrate that MEK/ERK and PI3K-C2β are required for PCa cell invasion but not proliferation. In addition we show that PI3K-C2β but not MEK/ERK regulates PCa cell migration as well as expression of the transcription factor Slug. These data identify novel signalling pathways specifically regulated by PI3K-C2β and they further identify this enzyme as a key regulator of PCa cell migration and invasion. PMID:26983806

  19. Phosphoinositides in Ca(2+) signaling and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: an old player and newcomers.

    PubMed

    Csernoch, Laszlo; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Since the postulate, 30 years ago, that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2) as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3) would be critical for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the issue of whether phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) may have something to do with Ca(2+) signaling in muscle raised limited interest, if any. In recent years however, the PtdInsP world has expanded considerably with new functions for PtdIns(4,5)P 2 but also with functions for the other members of the PtdInsP family. In this context, the discovery that genetic deficiency in a PtdInsP phosphatase has dramatic consequences on Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle came unanticipated and opened up new perspectives in regards to how PtdInsPs modulate muscle Ca(2+) signaling under normal and disease conditions. This review intends to make an update of the established, the questioned, and the unknown regarding the role of PtdInsPs in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis and EC coupling, with very specific emphasis given to Ca(2+) signals in differentiated skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26377756

  20. Requirement for class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2alpha in maintenance of glomerular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Harris, David P; Vogel, Peter; Wims, Marie; Moberg, Karen; Humphries, Juliane; Jhaver, Kanchan G; DaCosta, Christopher M; Shadoan, Melanie K; Xu, Nianhua; Hansen, Gwenn M; Balakrishnan, Sanjeevi; Domin, Jan; Powell, David R; Oravecz, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    An early lesion in many kidney diseases is damage to podocytes, which are critical components of the glomerular filtration barrier. A number of proteins are essential for podocyte filtration function, but the signaling events contributing to development of nephrotic syndrome are not well defined. Here we show that class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2? (PI3KC2?) is expressed in podocytes and plays a critical role in maintaining normal renal homeostasis. PI3KC2?-deficient mice developed chronic renal failure and exhibited a range of kidney lesions, including glomerular crescent formation and renal tubule defects in early disease, which progressed to diffuse mesangial sclerosis, with reduced podocytes, widespread effacement of foot processes, and modest proteinuria. These findings were associated with altered expression of nephrin, synaptopodin, WT-1, and desmin, indicating that PI3KC2? deficiency specifically impacts podocyte morphology and function. Deposition of glomerular IgA was observed in knockout mice; importantly, however, the development of severe glomerulonephropathy preceded IgA production, indicating that nephropathy was not directly IgA mediated. PI3KC2? deficiency did not affect immune responses, and bone marrow transplantation studies also indicated that the glomerulonephropathy was not the direct consequence of an immune-mediated disease. Thus, PI3KC2? is critical for maintenance of normal glomerular structure and function by supporting normal podocyte function. PMID:20974805

  1. Crystal structure of hGEF-H1 PH domain provides insight into incapability in phosphoinositide binding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Jiang, Heli; Zhou, Shaoyang; Meng, Bing; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Ouyang, Songying

    2016-03-18

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 (also known as ARHGEF2) is identified as a member of the Dbl family of GEFs. It regulates RhoA-dependent cell signaling pathways and plays important roles in biological processes. GEF-H1 contains an N-terminal zinc finger domain, a Dbl-homologous (DH) domain followed by a Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and a C-terminal domain. The specific roles of its PH domain are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of human GEF-H1 PH domain to 2.45 Å resolution. A conserved surface is formed by β8, β9, β10, and it may mediate protein-protein interactions. Although the folding resembles other PH domains that have defined structures, superposition of different PH domains clearly shows that the loop between β6/β7 and the loop between β3/β4 are so close that they will prevent its binding with phosphoinositide due to steric hindrance, and this has been proved by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and thermal shift assay (TSA). Our studies provide a structural framework for further work on the function of GEF-H1. PMID:26820534

  2. Overexpression of a rat kinase-deficient phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Vps34p, inhibits cathepsin D maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Row, P E; Reaves, B J; Domin, J; Luzio, J P; Davidson, H W

    2001-01-01

    Lipid kinases and their phosphorylated products are important regulators of many cellular processes, including intracellular membrane traffic. The best example of this is provided by the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K), Vps34p, which is required for correct targeting of newly synthesized carboxypeptidase Y to the yeast vacuole. A probable mammalian Vps34p orthologue has been previously identified, but its function in the trafficking of lysosomal enzymes has not been resolved. To investigate the possible role(s) of mammalian Vps34p in protein targeting to lysosomes, we have cloned the rat orthologue and overexpressed a kinase-deficient mutant in HeLa cells. Expression of the mutant protein inhibited both maturation of procathepsin D and basal secretion of the precursor. In contrast wortmannin, which also inhibited maturation, caused hypersecretion of the precursor. We propose that mammalian Vps34p plays a direct role in targeting lysosomal enzyme precursors to the endocytic pathway in an analogous fashion to its role in the fusion of early endocytic vesicles with endosomes. We further suggest that inhibition of a wortmannin-sensitive enzyme, other than mammalian Vps34p, is responsible for the failure to recycle unoccupied mannose 6-phosphate receptors to the trans-Golgi network, and consequent hypersecretion of lysosomal enzyme precursors observed in the presence of this drug. PMID:11171063

  3. Expression Analysis of a Stress-Related Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lizhu; Hou, Mingyu; Dou, Shijuan; Pan, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    Plant phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PI-PLCs) function in several essential plant processes associated with either development or environmental stress. In this report, we examined the expression patterns of TaPLC1 under drought and high salinity stress at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. TaPLC1 mRNA was expressed in all wheat organs examined. U73122 and edelfosine, the PLC inhibitor, impaired seedling growth and enhanced seedling sensitivity to drought and high salinity stress. Though TaPLC1 expression in wheat was lowest at the seedling stage, it was strongly induced under conditions of stress. When 6-day-old wheat seedlings were treated with 200 mM NaCl or 20% (w/v) PEG 6000 for 6 or 12 h, respectively, the TaPLC1 transcript level increased by 16-fold compared to the control. Western blotting showed that the TaPLC protein concentration was also maintained at a high level from 24 to 48 h during stress treatment. Together, our results indicate the possible biological functions of TaPLC1 in regulating seedling growth and the response to drought and salinity stress. PMID:25121594

  4. Regulatory roles of phosphoinositides in membrane trafficking and their potential impact on cell-wall synthesis and re-modelling

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Praveen; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Clara; Heilmann, Ingo; Persson, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant cell walls are complex matrices of carbohydrates and proteins that control cell morphology and provide protection and rigidity for the plant body. The construction and maintenance of this intricate system involves the delivery and recycling of its components through a precise balance of endomembrane trafficking, which is controlled by a plethora of cell signalling factors. Phosphoinositides (PIs) are one class of signalling molecules with diverse roles in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton structure across different kingdoms. Therefore, PIs may also play an important role in the assembly of plant cell walls. Scope The eukaryotic PI pathway is an intricate network of different lipids, which appear to be divided in different pools that can partake in vesicle trafficking or signalling. Most of our current understanding of how PIs function in cell metabolism comes from yeast and mammalian systems; however, in recent years significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the plant PI system. This review examines the current state of knowledge of how PIs regulate vesicle trafficking and their potential influence on plant cell-wall architecture. It considers first how PIs are formed in plants and then examines their role in the control of vesicle trafficking. Interactions between PIs and the actin cytoskeleton and small GTPases are also discussed. Future challenges for research are suggested. PMID:24769536

  5. Leukotriene D4 receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoinositide and mobilization of calcium in sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mong, S.; Miller, J.; Wu, H.L.; Crooke, S.T.

    1988-02-01

    A sheep tracheal smooth muscle primary culture cell system was developed to characterize leukotriene D4 (LTD4) receptor-mediated biochemical and pharmacological effects. (/sup 3/H)LTD4 binding to the enriched plasma membrane receptor was specific, stereoselective and saturable. LTE4 and high affinity receptor antagonists bound to the receptors with a rank-order potency that was expected from previous smooth muscle contraction studies. In the (/sup 3/H)myoinositol labeled cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-trisphosphate was rapid and the induction of biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-monophosphate by LTs was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited specifically by a receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. In the fura-2 loaded smooth muscle cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced transient intracellular Ca++ mobilization. The fura-2/Ca++ transient was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited by receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. These results suggest that the cultured sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells have plasma membrane receptors for LTD4. These receptors were coupled to a phospholipase C that, when activated by agonists, induced hydrolysis of inositol containing phospholipids. The hydrolysis products, e.g. diacylglycerol and inositol-trisphosphate, may serve as intracellular messengers that trigger or contribute to the contractile effect in sheep tracheal smooth muscle.

  6. Structural basis for UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) specificity and PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Komander, David; Kular, Gursant S; Bain, Jennifer; Elliott, Matthew; Alessi, Dario R; Van Aalten, Daan M F

    2003-10-15

    PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1) is a member of the AGC (cAMP-dependent, cGMP-dependent, protein kinase C) family of protein kinases, and has a key role in insulin and growth-factor signalling through phosphorylation and subsequent activation of a number of other AGC kinase family members, such as protein kinase B. The staurosporine derivative UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) has been reported to be a potent inhibitor for PDK1, and is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we report the crystal structures of staurosporine and UCN-01 in complex with the kinase domain of PDK1. We show that, although staurosporine and UCN-01 interact with the PDK1 active site in an overall similar manner, the UCN-01 7-hydroxy group, which is not present in staurosporine, generates direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonds with active-site residues. Inhibition data from UCN-01 tested against a panel of 29 different kinases show a different pattern of inhibition compared with staurosporine. We discuss how these differences in inhibition could be attributed to specific interactions with the additional 7-hydroxy group, as well as the size of the 7-hydroxy-group-binding pocket. This information could lead to opportunities for structure-based optimization of PDK1 inhibitors. PMID:12892559

  7. Platelet P-selectin expression: requirement for protein kinase C, but not protein tyrosine kinase or phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Libersan, Danielle; Merhi, Yahye

    2003-06-01

    P-selectin is translocated from the alpha-granules to the surface of activated platelets where it participates in thrombosis and inflammation. We investigated the signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced human platelet P-selectin expression. Assessed by flow cytometry, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with chelerythrine reduced P-selectin expression by 66%, platelet/neutrophil binding, GPIIb/IIIa activation and aggregation (p<0.05). G 6976, an inhibitor of the conventional PKCs (alpha and beta), did not alter P-selectin expression. However, rottlerin inhibited by 50% its expression (p<0.05), but only at doses that interfere with the novel (epsilon eta) and atypical (zeta) PKCs. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and phosphoinosi-tide 3-kinase (PI3-K) did not significantly affect P-selectin expression. In conclusion, thrombin-induced P-selectin expression is PKC-sensitive, but PTK and PI3-K-insensitive. The novel epsilon and eta and atypical zeta, but not the conventional alpha and beta and the novel delta PKCs, may be involved in this process. PMID:12783114

  8. Radiolabeling and Quantification of Cellular Levels of Phosphoinositides by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-coupled Flow Scintillation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheuk Y; Choy, Christopher H; Botelho, Roberto J

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) are essential signaling lipids responsible for recruiting specific effectors and conferring organelles with molecular identity and function. Each of the seven PtdInsPs varies in their distribution and abundance, which are tightly regulated by specific kinases and phosphatases. The abundance of PtdInsPs can change abruptly in response to various signaling events or disturbance of the regulatory machinery. To understand how these events lead to changes in the amount of PtdInsPs and their resulting impact, it is important to quantify PtdInsP levels before and after a signaling event or between control and abnormal conditions. However, due to their low abundance and similarity, quantifying the relative amounts of each PtdInsP can be challenging. This article describes a method for quantifying PtdInsP levels by metabolically labeling cells with (3)H-myo-inositol, which is incorporated into PtdInsPs. Phospholipids are then precipitated and deacylated. The resulting soluble (3)H-glycero-inositides are further extracted, separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and detected by flow scintillation. The labeling and processing of yeast samples is described in detail, as well as the instrumental setup for the HPLC and flow scintillator. Despite losing structural information regarding acyl chain content, this method is sensitive and can be optimized to concurrently quantify all seven PtdInsPs in cells. PMID:26780479

  9. Acylation-dependent Export of Trypanosoma cruzi Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C to the Outer Surface of Amastigotes*

    PubMed Central

    de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Okura, Michael; Maric, Danijela; Engman, David M.; Vieira, Mauricio; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an essential role in cell signaling. A unique Trypanosoma cruzi PI-PLC (TcPI-PLC) is lipid-modified in its N terminus and localizes to the plasma membrane of amastigotes. Here, we show that TcPI-PLC is located onto the extracellular phase of the plasma membrane of amastigotes and that its N-terminal 20 amino acids are necessary and sufficient to target the fused GFP to the outer surface of the parasite. Mutagenesis of the predicted acylated residues confirmed that myristoylation of a glycine residue in the 2nd position and acyl modification of a cysteine in the 4th but not in the 8th or 15th position of the coding sequence are required for correct plasma membrane localization in T. cruzi epimastigotes or amastigotes. Interestingly, mutagenesis of the cysteine at the 8th position increased its flagellar localization. When expressed as fusion constructs with GFP, the N-terminal 6 and 10 amino acids fused to GFP are predominantly located in the cytosol and concentrated in a compartment that co-localizes with a Golgi complex marker. The N-terminal 20 amino acids of TcPI-PLC associate with lipid rafts when dually acylated. Taken together, these results indicate that N-terminal acyl modifications serve as a molecular addressing system for sending TcPI-PLC to the outer surface of the cell. PMID:20647312

  10. Phospholipase C ? and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Link Cytokines to ERK Activation in Hematopoietic Cells With Normal and Oncogenic Kras

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Goldschmidt, Hana; Depeille, Philippe; Ng, Victor; Akutagawa, Jon; Krisman, Kimberly; Crone, Michael; Burgess, Michael R.; Williams, Olusegun; Houseman, Benjamin; Shokat, Kevan; Sampath, Deepak; Bollag, Gideon; Roose, Jeroen P.; Braun, Benjamin S.; Shannon, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic K-Ras proteins, such as K-RasG12D, accumulate in the active, guanosine triphosphate (GTP)bound conformation and stimulate signaling through effector kinases. The presence of the K-RasG12D oncoprotein at a similar abundance to that of endogenous wild-type K-Ras results in only minimal phosphorylation and activation of the canonical Rafmitogen-activated or extracellular signalregulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)Aktmammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascades in primary hematopoietic cells, and these pathways remain dependent on growth factors for efficient activation. Here, we show that phospholipase C ? (PLC-?), PI3K, and their generated second messengers link activated cytokine receptors to Ras and ERK signaling in differentiated bone marrow cells and in a cell population highly enriched for leukemia stem cells. Cells expressing endogenous oncogenic K-RasG12D remained dependent on the second messenger diacylglycerol for the efficient activation of Ras-ERK signaling. These data raise the unexpected possibility of therapeutically targeting proteins that function upstream of oncogenic Ras in cancer. PMID:24300897

  11. Endogenous mono-ADP-ribosylation of the free Gbetagamma prevents stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma and phospholipase C-beta2 and is activated by G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, Rosita; Dani, Nadia; Dietrich, Alexander; Marchegiani, Adriano; Turacchio, Sabrina; Berrie, Christopher P; Moss, Joel; Gierschik, Peter; Corda, Daniela; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2002-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the beta subunit of the heterotrimeric G-proteins is endogenously mono-ADP-ribosylated in intact cells. The modified betagamma heterodimer loses its ability to inhibit calmodulin-stimulated type 1 adenylate cyclase and, remarkably, is de-ADP-ribosylated by a cytosolic hydrolase that completes an ADP-/de-ADP-ribosylation cycle of potential physiological relevance. In the present study, we show that this ADP-ribosylation might indeed be a general mechanism for termination of betagamma signalling, since the ADP-ribosylated betagamma subunit is also unable to activate both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-gamma and phospholipase C-beta2. Moreover, we show that beta subunit ADP-ribosylation is induced by G-protein-coupled receptor activation, since hormone stimulation of Chinese-hamster ovary plasma membranes leads to increases in beta subunit labelling. This occurs when betagamma is in its active heterodimeric conformation, since full inhibition of this modification can be achieved by binding of GDP-alphai3 to the betagamma heterodimer. Taken together, these findings delineate a pathway that arises from the activation of a G-protein-coupled receptor and leads to the inhibition of betagamma activity through its reversible mono-ADP-ribosylation. PMID:12149126

  12. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling enhances cell migration and invasion by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, LIANG; ZHAO, DAN; LIU, HUI-BIN; WANG, QIU-SHI; ZHANG, PING; LI, CHEN-LONG; DU, WEN-ZHONG; WANG, HONG-JUN; LIU, XING; ZHANG, ZHI-REN; JIANG, CHUAN-LU

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant hedgehog signaling contributes to the development of various malignancies, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the potential mechanism of hedgehog signaling in GBM migration and invasion has remained to be elucidated. The present study showed that enhanced hedgehog signaling by recombinant human sonic hedgehog N-terminal peptide (rhSHH) promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by increases in mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. However, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by decreases in mRNA and protein levels of MMP-2 and -9. Furthermore, it was found that MMP-2- and MMP-9-neutralizing antibodies or GAM6001 reversed the inductive effects of rhSHH on cell migration and invasion. In addition, enhanced hedgehog signaling by rhSHH increased AKT phosphorylation, whereas blockade of hedgehog signaling decreased AKT phosphorylations. Further experiments showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), decreased rhSHH-induced upregulation of MMP-2 and -9. Finally, the protein expression of glioblastoma-associated oncogene 1 was positively correlated with levels of phosphorylated AKT as well as protein expressions of MMP-2 and -9 in GBM tissue samples. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the hedgehog pathway regulates GBM-cell migration and invasion by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26299938

  13. Regulation of PLC?2 by the electrostatic and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Arduin, Alessia; Gaffney, Piers R J; Ces, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is an important family of enzymes constituting a junction between phosphoinositide lipid signaling and the trans-membrane signal transduction processes that are crucial to many living cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of PLC is not yet understood in detail. To address this issue, activity studies were carried out using lipid vesicles in a model system that was specifically designed to study protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions in concert. Evidence was found for a direct interaction between PLC and the GTPases that mediate phospholipase activation. Furthermore, for the first time, the relationships between PLC activity and substrate presentation in lipid vesicles of various sizes, as well as lipid composition and membrane mechanical properties, were analyzed. PLC activity was found to depend upon the electrostatic potential and the stored curvature elastic stress of the lipid membranes. PMID:26243281

  14. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase–Akt Signaling Pathway Is Important for Staphylococcus aureus Internalization by Endothelial Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Huante-Mendoza, Alejandro; Yu, Hong B.; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J.; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Finlay, B. Brett; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2011-01-01

    Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine endothelial cells (BEC) is increased by tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation and NF-κB activation. Because the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt signaling pathway also modulates NF-κB activity, we considered whether the internalization of S. aureus by BEC is associated with the activity of PI3K and Akt. We found a time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 in BEC infected with S. aureus. This phosphorylation was inhibited by LY294002 (LY), indicating the participation of PI3K. Inhibition of either PI3K with LY or wortmannin, or Akt with SH-5, strongly reduced the internalization of S. aureus. Transfection of BEC with a dominant-negative form of the Akt gene significantly decreased S. aureus internalization, whereas transfection with the constitutively active mutant increased the number of internalized bacterium. Inhibition of PDK1 activity with OSU-03012 did not affect the level of S. aureus internalization, demonstrating that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 is not important for this process. Compared to the untreated control, the adherence of S. aureus to the surface of BEC was unaltered when cells were transfected or incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, Akt activation by internalized S. aureus triggered a time-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α) on Ser21 and GSK-3β on Ser9 that was partially inhibited with SH-5. Finally, treatment of BEC with LY prior to S. aureus infection inhibited the NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylation on Ser536, indicating the involvement of PI3K. These results suggest that PI3K-Akt activity is important for the internalization of S. aureus and phosphorylation of GSK-3α, GSK-3β, and NF-κB. PMID:21844240

  15. Up-Regulation of Phosphoinositide Metabolism in Tobacco Cells Constitutively Expressing the Human Type I Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase1

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP3. The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP3 compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP3 in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP3 levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP3 signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2), the lipid precursor of InsP3, was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP2 metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP2-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of 32P into PtdInsP2 in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP2 synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP2 synthesis as a regulatory step in this system. PMID:12177493

  16. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase ? Protects Against Catecholamine-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmia Through Protein Kinase AMediated Regulation of Distinct Phosphodiesterases

    PubMed Central

    Ghigo, Alessandra; Perino, Alessia; Mehel, Hind; Zahradnkov, Alexandra; Morello, Fulvio; Leroy, Jrme; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Damilano, Federico; Cimino, James; De Luca, Elisa; Richter, Wito; Westenbroek, Ruth; Catterall, William A.; Zhang, Jin; Yan, Chen; Conti, Marco; Gomez, Ana Maria; Vandecasteele, Grgoire; Hirsch, Emilio; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?) signaling engaged by ?-adrenergic receptors is pivotal in the regulation of myocardial contractility and remodeling. However, the role of PI3K? in catecholamine-induced arrhythmia is currently unknown. Methods and Results Mice lacking PI3K? (PI3K??/?) showed runs of premature ventricular contractions on adrenergic stimulation that could be rescued by a selective ?2-adrenergic receptor blocker and developed sustained ventricular tachycardia after transverse aortic constriction. Consistently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes revealed abnormal cAMP accumulation after ?2-adrenergic receptor activation in PI3K??/? cardiomyocytes that depended on the loss of the scaffold but not of the catalytic activity of PI3K?. Downstream from ?-adrenergic receptors, PI3K? was found to participate in multiprotein complexes linking protein kinase A to the activation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, PDE4A, and PDE4B but not of PDE4D. These PI3K?-regulated PDEs lowered cAMP and limited protein kinase Amediated phosphorylation of L-type calcium channel (Cav1.2) and phospholamban. In PI3K??/? cardiomyocytes, Cav1.2 and phospholamban were hyperphosphorylated, leading to increased Ca2+ spark occurrence and amplitude on adrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, PI3K??/? cardiomyocytes showed spontaneous Ca2+ release events and developed arrhythmic calcium transients. Conclusions PI3K? coordinates the coincident signaling of the major cardiac PDE3 and PDE4 isoforms, thus orchestrating a feedback loop that prevents calcium-dependent ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:23008439

  17. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Binds to TRPV1 and Mediates NGF-stimulated TRPV1 Trafficking to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Alexander T.; Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen A.; Hua, Li; Santana, Luis F.; Gordon, Sharona E.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization of the pain-transducing ion channel TRPV1 underlies thermal hyperalgesia by proalgesic agents such as nerve growth factor (NGF). The currently accepted model is that the NGF-mediated increase in TRPV1 function during hyperalgesia utilizes activation of phospholipase C (PLC) to cleave PIP2, proposed to tonically inhibit TRPV1. In this study, we tested the PLC model and found two lines of evidence that directly challenge its validity: (1) polylysine, a cationic phosphoinositide sequestering agent, inhibited TRPV1 instead of potentiating it, and (2) direct application of PIP2 to inside-out excised patches dramatically potentiated TRPV1. Furthermore, we show four types of experiments indicating that PI3K is physically and functionally coupled to TRPV1: (1) the p85? subunit of PI3K interacted with the N-terminal region of TRPV1 in yeast 2-hybrid experiments, (2) PI3K-p85? coimmunoprecipitated with TRPV1 from both HEK293 cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, (3) TRPV1 interacted with recombinant PI3K-p85 in vitro, and (4) wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, completely abolished NGF-mediated sensitization in acutely dissociated DRG neurons. Finally, simultaneous electrophysiological and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy recordings demonstrate that NGF increased the number of channels in the plasma membrane. We propose a new model for NGF-mediated hyperalgesia in which physical coupling of TRPV1 and PI3K in a signal transduction complex facilitates trafficking of TRPV1 to the plasma membrane. PMID:17074976

  18. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  19. The Arabidopsis DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed by basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C coupled to diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Djafi, Nabila; Vergnolle, Chantal; Cantrel, Catherine; Wietrzyski, Wojciech; Delage, Elise; Cochet, Franoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Gey, Delphine; Collin, Sylvie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipases C (PI-PLCs) are activated in response to various stimuli. They utilize substrates provided by type III-Phosphatidylinositol-4 kinases (PI4KIII) to produce inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) that is phosphorylated into phosphatidic acid (PA) by DAG-kinases (DGKs). The roles of PI4KIIIs, PI-PLCs, and DGKs in basal signaling are poorly understood. We investigated the control of gene expression by basal PI-PLC pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis allowed the identification of genes whose expression was altered by edelfosine, 30 ?M wortmannin, or R59022, inhibitors of PI-PLCs, PI4KIIIs, and DGKs, respectively. We found that a gene responsive to one of these molecules is more likely to be similarly regulated by the other two inhibitors. The common action of these agents is to inhibit PA formation, showing that basal PI-PLCs act, in part, on gene expression through their coupling to DGKs. Amongst the genes up-regulated in presence of the inhibitors, were some DREB2 genes, in suspension cells and in seedlings. The DREB2 genes encode transcription factors with major roles in responses to environmental stresses, including dehydration. They bind to C-repeat motifs, known as Drought-Responsive Elements that are indeed enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated by PI-PLC pathway inhibitors. PA can also be produced by phospholipases D (PLDs). We show that the DREB2 genes that are up-regulated by PI-PLC inhibitors are positively or negatively regulated, or indifferent, to PLD basal activity. Our data show that the DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed in resting conditions and that DGK coupled to PI-PLC is active in this process, in suspension cells and seedlings. We discuss how this basal negative regulation of DREB2 genes is compatible with their stress-triggered positive regulation. PMID:23964284

  20. Anti-Malarial Drug Artesunate Attenuates Experimental Allergic Asthma via Inhibition of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chang; Ho, W. Eugene; Goh, Fera Y.; Guan, Shou Ping; Kong, Li Ren; Lai, Wen-Qi; Leung, Bernard P.; Wong, W. S. Fred

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts, and cytokine and chemokine levels. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, and the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Airway hyperresponsiveness was monitored by direct airway resistance analysis. Artesunate dose-dependently inhibited OVA-induced increases in total and eosinophil counts, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It attenuated OVA-induced lung tissue eosinophilia and airway mucus production, mRNA expression of E-selectin, IL-17, IL-33 and Muc5ac in lung tissues, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, artesunate blocked epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates tuberin, p70S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1, and transactivation of NF-?B. Similarly, artesunate blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates in lung tissues from OVA-challenged mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of artesunate was further confirmed in a house dust mite mouse asthma model. Conclusion/Significance Artesunate ameliorates experimental allergic airway inflammation probably via negative regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway and the downstream NF-?B activity. These findings provide a novel therapeutic value for artesunate in the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:21695271

  1. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Cheng, Long; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  2. Phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 is required for exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy but not the associated mitochondrial adaptations.

    PubMed

    Noh, Junghyun; Wende, Adam R; Olsen, Curtis D; Kim, Bumjun; Bevins, Jack; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Riehle, Christian; Abel, E Dale

    2015-12-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK1) is an important mediator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. We previously reported that PI3K but not Akt signaling mediates the increase in mitochondrial oxidative capacity following physiological cardiac hypertrophy. To determine if PDPK1 regulates these metabolic adaptations we examined mice with cardiomyocyte-specific heterozygous knockout of PDPK1 (cPDPK1(+/-)) after 5 wk. exercise swim training. Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 increased by 43% in wildtype (WT) mice but not in cPDPK1(+/-) mice following exercise training. Ventricular contractile function was not different between WT and cPDPK1(+/-) mice at baseline. In addition, exercise did not influence ventricular function in WT or cPDPK1(+/-) mice. Heart weight normalized to tibia length ratios increased by 13.8% in WT mice (6.20.2 vs. 7.10.2, P=0.001), but not in cPDPK1(+/-) (6.20.3 vs. 6.50.2, P=0.20) mice after swim training. Diastolic LV dimension increased in WT mice (3.70.1 vs. 4.00.1mm, P=0.01) but not in cPDPK1(+/-) (3.80.1 vs. 3.70.1mm, P=0.56) following swim training. Maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption (VADP, nmol/min/mg) using palmitoyl carnitine as a substrate was significantly increased in mice of all genotypes following swim training (WT: 13.60.6 vs.16.10.9, P=0.04; cPDPK1(+/-): 12.40.6 vs.15.91.2, P=0.04). These findings suggest that PDPK1 is required for exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy but does not contribute to exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial function. PMID:26476238

  3. Molecular pharmacology in a simple model system: Implicating MAP kinase and phosphoinositide signalling in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Boeckeler, Katrina; Williams, Robin S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug action has been the primary focus for pharmacological researchers, traditionally using rodent models. However, non-sentient model systems are now increasingly being used as an alternative approach to better understand drug action or targets. One of these model systems, the social amoeba Dictyostelium, enables the rapid ablation or over-expression of genes, and the subsequent use of isogenic cell culture for the analysis of cell signalling pathways in pharmacological research. The model also supports an increasingly important ethical view of research, involving the reduction, replacement and refinement of animals in biomedical research. This review outlines the use of Dictyostelium in understanding the pharmacological action of two commonly used bipolar disorder treatments (valproic acid and lithium). Both of these compounds regulate mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and inositol phospholipid-based signalling by unknown means. Analysis of the molecular pathways targeted by these drugs in Dictyostelium and translation of discoveries to animal systems has helped to further understand the molecular mechanisms of these bipolar disorder treatments. PMID:21093602

  4. Light-induced phosphoinositide degradation and light-induced structural alterations in the rat retina are enhanced after chronic lithium treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeilschifter, J.; Reme, C.; Dietrich, C.

    1988-11-15

    In the rat retina, light-induced break down of polyphosphoinositides and structural alterations of photoreceptor outer segment disk-membranes were enhanced by chronic lithium treatment at doses equivalent to therapeutic levels in humans. Furthermore, the recovery of phosphoinositide baseline levels after light exposure was delayed in lithium treated retinas. Light and lithium may thus affect phospholipid membranes in the retina. Initial processes in the pathogenesis of light damage in the retina are largely unknown to date. The hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides may possibly constitute such an initial event.

  5. Regulation of the transient receptor potential channel TRPM3 by phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Tth, Balzs I.; Konrad, Maik; Ghosh, Debapriya; Mohr, Florian; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Leitner, Michael G.; Vriens, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPM3 is a calcium-permeable cation channel activated by heat and by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PregS). TRPM3 is highly expressed in sensory neurons, where it plays a key role in heat sensing and inflammatory hyperalgesia, and in pancreatic ? cells, where its activation enhances glucose-induced insulin release. However, despite its functional importance, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that regulate TRPM3 activity. Here, we provide evidence for a dynamic regulation of TRPM3 by membrane phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs). Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2) and ATP applied to the intracellular side of excised membrane patches promote recovery of TRPM3 from desensitization. The stimulatory effect of cytosolic ATP on TRPM3 reflects activation of phosphatidylinositol kinases (PI-Ks), leading to resynthesis of PIPs in the plasma membrane. Various PIPs directly enhance TRPM3 activity in cell-free inside-out patches, with a potency order PI(3,4,5)P3 > PI(3,5)P2 > PI(4,5)P2 ? PI(3,4)P2 >> PI(4)P. Conversely, TRPM3 activity is rapidly and reversibly inhibited by activation of phosphatases that remove the 5-phosphate from PIPs. Finally, we show that recombinant TRPM3, as well as the endogenous TRPM3 in insuloma cells, is rapidly and reversibly inhibited by activation of phospholipase Ccoupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our results reveal basic cellular mechanisms whereby membrane receptors can regulate TRPM3 activity. PMID:26123194

  6. The Structure of p85ni in Class IA Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Exhibits Interdomain Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, K. Ilker; Wu, Haiyan; Backer, Jonathan M.; Gerfen, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of the Class IA PI 3-kinase involves inhibition and stabilization of the catalytic subunit (p110) by the regulatory subunit (p85). Regulation is achieved by 2 major contacts: a stable interface involving the Adapter-Binding Domain (ABD) of p110 and the inter-SH2 (iSH2) domain of p85, and a regulatory interaction between the N-terminal SH2 (nSH2) domain of p85 and the helical domain of p110. In the present study, we have examined the relative orientation of the nSH2 and iSH2 of p85? using site-directed spin labeling and pulsed EPR. Surprisingly, both distance measurements and distance distributions suggest that the nSH2 domain is highly disordered relative to the iSH2 domain. Molecular modeling based on EPR distance restraints suggests that the nSH2 domain moves in a hinge-like manner, sampling a torus space around the proximal end of the iSH2 domain. These data have important implications for the mechanism by which p85/p110 dimers are regulated by phosphopeptides. PMID:20131869

  7. Cholecystokinin receptors: disparity between phosphoinositide breakdown and amylase releasing activity of CCK analogues in pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.W.; Grant, D.; Bianchi, B.; Miller, T.; Witte, D.; Shue, Y.K.; Nadzan, A.

    1986-03-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) peptides are a family of hormones which also occur in brain. In pancreas CCK stimulates the release of amylase, a process that is dependent on the mobilization of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. Recent evidence suggests that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the breakdown product of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, is responsible for the rise in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. Their laboratory has developed assays to study synthetic CCK analogues using radioligand binding, PI breakdown and amylase release. They have shown that there are good correlations among these three assay systems for the carboxy terminal fragments of CCK/sub 8/. Recently, they have discovered synthetic analogues of CCK/sub 4/ that are full agonists in amylase release but are ineffective in causing PI breakdown. In particular, A-61576, Boc-5-amino-2-indolemethylene-pent-2-ene-1-oyl-Leu-Asp-Phe-NH/sub 2/, is a full agonist in the amylase releasing assay, but is devoid of PI stimulating activity. A-61576 completely reverses the stimulation of PI response induced by CCK/sub 8/, indicative of an antagonist. Since a mechanism other than the PI breakdown is responsible for amylase release by A-61576, they suggest that separate receptors are responsible for PI breakdown and amylase release.

  8. The interferon-gamma-mediated inhibition of lipoprotein lipase gene transcription in macrophages involves casein kinase 2- and phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated regulation of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sandra M; Harvey, Elizabeth J; Hughes, Timothy R; Ramji, Dipak P

    2008-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying transcriptional inhibition by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are poorly understood despite the existence of a large number of genes that are regulated in this manner and the key role of this cytokine in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. We have previously identified a novel mechanism for transcriptional inhibition by IFN-gamma that involves a reduction in the binding of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to regulatory sequences in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. In the present study, we have investigated the signalling pathways that impact on the IFN-gamma-mediated regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding and LPL gene transcription in macrophages. The IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of LPL promoter activity was prevented by expression of dominant negative forms of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein kinase B (PKB), a key downstream component of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. IFN-gamma activated both the catalytic subunits of CK2 without affecting their expression. CK2 interacted with both Sp1 and Sp3 and this association was increased by IFN-gamma. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that a CK2-mediated phosphorylation of either cellular extracts or recombinant Sp1 reduced binding to the regulatory region in the LPL gene. The action of PKB was potentially mediated through mammalian target for rapamycin proteins. Taken together, these results suggest a key role for CK2 and PI3K signalling pathways in the IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of macrophage LPL gene transcription through the regulation of Sp1/Sp3 binding. PMID:18793716

  9. Integrin ?v?3 mediates the synergetic regulation of core-binding factor ?1 transcriptional activity by gravity and insulin-like growth factor-1 through phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongquan; Guo, Feima; Wu, Feng; Xu, Hongjie; Yang, Chao; Li, Jinqiao; Liang, Peilong; Zhang, Hongyu; Qu, Lina; Tan, Yingjun; Wan, Yumin; Li, Yinghui

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation and biological factors coordinately regulate bone development and regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Microgravity induces bone loss, which may be partly related to the development of resistance to local cytokines, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Here, we report the involvement of integrin ?v?3 in microgravity-associated bone loss. An established OSE-3T3 cell model was stably transfected with a 6OSE2 (Osteoblast-Specific Element 2)-luciferase reporter and cultured under simulated microgravity (SMG) and hypergravity (HG) conditions in the presence or absence of IGF-1, the disintegrin echistatin, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, or combinations of these agents. Activity of core-binding factor ?1 (Cbfa1), an essential transcription factor for osteoblastic differentiation and osteogenesis, was reflected by luciferase activity. Different gravity conditions affected the induction of IGF-1 and subsequent effects on Cbfa1 transcription activity. SMG and HG influenced the expression and activity of integrin ?v?3 and phosphorylation level of p85. LY294002 inhibited the effects of HG or IGF-1 on Cbfa1 activity, indicating that HG and IGF-1 could increase Cbfa1 activity via PI3K signaling. Inhibition of integrin ?v?3 by echistatin attenuated the induction of IGF-1 and thus its effect on Cbfa1 activity under normal and HG conditions. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that integrin ?3 interacted with insulin receptor substrate 1, and that this interaction was decreased under SMG and increased under HG conditions. These results suggest that integrin ?v?3 mediates the synergetic regulation of Cbfa1 transcription activity by gravity and IGF-1 via PI3K signaling. PMID:25263523

  10. Lithium Increases Synapse Formation between Hippocampal Neurons by Depleting PhosphoinositidesS?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jung; Thayer, Stanley A.

    2009-01-01

    The mood-stabilizing effects of lithium are well documented, although its mechanism of action remains unknown. Increases in gray matter volume detected in patients with bipolar disorder who were treated with lithium suggest that changes in the number of synapses might underlie its therapeutic effects. We investigated the effects of lithium on the number of synaptic connections between hippocampal neurons in culture. Confocal imaging of neurons expressing postsynaptic density protein 95 fused to green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP) enabled visualization of synaptic sites. PSD95-GFP fluorescent puncta represented functional synapses, and lithium (4 h, 5 mM) increased their number by 150 12%. The increase was time- and concentration-dependent (EC50 = 1.0 0.6 mM). Lithium induced a parallel increase in the presynaptic marker synaptophysin-GFP. Valproic acid, another mood stabilizer, also increased the number of fluorescent puncta at a clinically relevant concentration. Inhibition of postsynaptic glutamate receptors or presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release significantly reduced lithium-induced synapse formation, indicating that glutamatergic synaptic transmission was required. Pretreatment with exogenous myo-inositol inhibited synapse formation, demonstrating that depletion of inositol was necessary to increase synaptic connections. In contrast, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3? did not mimic lithium-induced synapse formation. Pharmacological and lipid reconstitution experiments showed that new synapses formed as a result of depletion of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate rather than a build-up of polyphosphoinositides or changes in the activity of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. Increased synaptic connections may underlie the mood-stabilizing effects of lithium in patients with bipolar disorder and could contribute to the convulsions produced by excessive doses of this drug. PMID:19188338

  11. p110? phosphoinositide 3-kinase represses IgE switch by potentiating BCL6 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting-ting; Makondo, Kennedy J; Marshall, Aaron J

    2012-04-15

    PI3Ks are key signaling enzymes required for triggering many immunological functions. In B lymphocytes, PI3K signaling is required for Ag-induced proliferation and robust production of most Ab isotypes. Paradoxically, PI3K was found to have a negatively regulatory function regarding Ab class switch recombination, and blockade of PI3K can strongly potentiate IgE switch. In this article, we explore the mechanisms of this unexpected negative regulatory function of PI3K regarding IgE. We demonstrate that p110? PI3K selectively regulates IgE switch in a B cell-intrinsic manner by controlling germline transcription of the IgE promoter (?GLT). Although p110? can regulate transcription of activation-induced cytidine deaminase via Akt, repression of ?GLT and IgE switch is not dependent on Akt signaling. Inhibition of p110?, but not Akt, leads to reduced expression of transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) and concomitant upregulation of ?GLT and other BCL6-target genes. p110? inhibitor treatment strikingly alters the balance between BCL6 and IRF4 (a transcription factor that antagonizes BCL6), leading to increased IRF4 and decreased BCL6 expression levels in germinal center B cells. Ectopic expression of BCL6 can partially overcome the elevated ?GLTs and potentiated IgE switching in p110?-inhibited B cells. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that p110? PI3K signaling regulates BCL6 expression and indicate that PI3K promotes the germinal center B cell program and selectively represses IgE switch by maintaining sufficient levels of BCL6. PMID:22422878

  12. Daclatasvir inhibits hepatitis C virus NS5A motility and hyper-accumulation of phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Chukkapalli, Vineela; Berger, Kristi L.; Kelly, Sean M.; Thomas, Meryl; Deiters, Alexander; Randall, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have the potential to revolutionize the HCV therapeutic regime. An integral component of DAA combination therapies are HCV NS5A inhibitors. It has previously been proposed that NS5A DAAs inhibit two functions of NS5A: RNA replication and virion assembly. In this study, we characterize the impact of a prototype NS5A DAA, daclatasvir (DCV), on HCV replication compartment formation. DCV impaired HCV replicase localization and NS5A motility. In order to characterize the mechanism behind altered HCV replicase localization, we examined the impact of DCV on the interaction of NS5A with its essential cellular cofactor, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III ? (PI4KA). We observed that DCV does not inhibit PI4KA directly, nor does it impair early events of the NS5A-PI4KA interaction that can occur when NS5A is expressed alone. NS5A functions that are unaffected by DCV include PI4KA binding, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and a basal accumulation of the PI4KA product, PI4P. However, DCV impairs late steps in PI4KA activation that requires NS5A expressed in the context of the HCV polyprotein. These NS5A functions include hyper-stimulation of PI4P levels and appropriate replication compartment formation. The data are most consistent with a model wherein DCV inhibits conformational changes in the NS5A protein or protein complex formations that occur in the context of HCV polyprotein expression and stimulate PI4P hyper-accumulation and replication compartment formation. PMID:25546252

  13. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cause defects in the postendocytic sorting of β2-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Hibah O.; Iyer, Varsha; Rosenfeld, Jennifer L.; Millman, Ellen E.; Foster, Estrella; Moore, Robert H.; Knoll, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors have been shown to affect the endocytosis or subsequent intracellular sorting in various receptor systems. Agonist-activated β2-adrenergic receptors undergo desensitization by mechanisms that include the phosphorylation, endocytosis and degradation of receptors. Following endocytosis, most internalized receptors are sorted to the cell surface, but some proportion is sorted to lysosomes for degradation. It is not known what governs the ratio of receptors that recycle versus receptors that undergo degradation. To determine if phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases regulate β2-adrenergic receptor trafficking, HEK293 cells stably expressing these receptors were treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 or wortmannin. We then studied agonist-induced receptor endocytosis and postendocytic sorting, including recycling and degradation of the internalized receptors. Both inhibitors amplified the internalization of receptors after exposure to the β-agonist isoproterenol, which was attributable to the sorting of a significant fraction of receptors to an intracellular compartment from which receptor recycling did not occur. The initial rate of β2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis and the default rate of receptor recycling were not significantly altered. During prolonged exposure to agonist, LY294002 slowed the degradation rate of β2-adrenergic receptors and caused the accumulation of receptors within rab7-positive vesicles. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (1) cause a misrouting of β2-adrenergic receptors into vesicles that are neither able to efficiently recycle to the surface nor sort to lysosomes, and (2) delays the movement of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes. PMID:17553490

  14. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit phosphoinositide formation and chemotaxis in neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, R I; Benincaso, A I; Knoell, C T; Larkin, J K; Austen, K F; Robinson, D R

    1993-01-01

    Earlier studies demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation attenuates the chemotactic response of neutrophils and the generation of leukotriene (LT) B4 by neutrophils stimulated with calcium ionophore; however, the mechanisms and relationship of these effects were not examined. Neutrophils and monocytes from eight healthy individuals were examined before and after 3 and 10 wk of dietary supplementation with 20 g SuperEPA daily, which provides 9.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 5 g docosahexaenoic acid. The maximal neutrophil chemotactic response to LTB4, assessed in Boyden microchambers, decreased by 69% after 3 wk and by 93% after 10 wk from prediet values. The formation of [3H]inositol tris-phosphate (IP3) by [3H]inositol-labeled neutrophils stimulated by LTB4 decreased by 71% after 3 wk (0.033 +/- 0.013% [3H] release, mean +/- SEM) and by 90% after 10 wk (0.011 +/- 0.011%) from predict values (0.114 +/- 0.030%) as quantitated by beta-scintillation counting after resolution on HPLC. LTB4-stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis and IP3 formation correlated significantly (P < 0.0001); each response correlated closely and negatively with the EPA content of the neutrophil phosphatidylinositol (PI) pool (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0005, respectively). Neither the affinities and densities of the high and low affinity LTB4 receptors on neutrophils nor LTB4-mediated diglyceride formation changed appreciably during the study. Similar results were observed in neutrophils activated with platelet-activating factor (PAF). The summed formation of LTB4 plus LTB5 was selectively inhibited in calcium ionophore-stimulated neutrophils and was also inhibited in zymosan-stimulated neutrophils. The inhibition of the summed formation of LTB4 plus LTB5 in calcium ionophore-stimulated neutrophils and in zymosan-stimulated neutrophils did not correlate significantly with the EPA content of the PI pool. The data indicate that dietary omega-3 PUFA supplementation inhibits the autoamplification of the neutrophil inflammatory response by decreasing LTB4 formation through the inactivation of the LTA epoxide hydrolase and independently by inhibiting LTB4- (and PAF) stimulated chemotaxis by attenuating the formation of IP3 by the PI-selective phospholipase C. This is the initial demonstration that dietary omega-3 PUFA supplementation can suppress signal transduction at the level of the PI-specific phospholipase C in humans. Images PMID:8381824

  15. Emergence of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Axis in Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lamouille, Samy; Derynck, Rik

    2010-01-01

    During development and in pathological contexts such as fibrosis and cancer progression, epithelial cells can initiate a complex transcriptional reprogramming, accompanied by dramatic morphological changes, in a process named ‘epithelial-mesenchymal transition’ (EMT). In this transition, epithelial cells lose their epithelial characteristics to acquire mesenchymal properties and increased motile and invasive behavior. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has emerged as a major inducer of EMT through activation of downstream signaling pathways, including Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. Among the non-Smad pathways, increasing evidence is emerging that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin axis plays a major role in TGF-β-induced EMT, notably through the regulation of translation and cell invasion. Pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway may therefore represent an opportunity to selectively target essential aspects of TGF-β-induced EMT and provide an approach to prevent cancer cell dissemination toward metastasis, without the need to fully inactivate TGF-β signaling. PMID:21041997

  16. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein integrates phosphoinositide signaling with lipid droplet metabolism to regulate a developmental program of nutrient stress-induced membrane biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jihui; Lin, Coney Pei-Chen; Pathak, Manish C.; Temple, Brenda R.S.; Nile, Aaron H.; Mousley, Carl J.; Duncan, Mara C.; Eckert, Debra M.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Myers, David S.; Murphy, Robert C.; Brown, H. Alex; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Bloom, Kerry S.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Neiman, Aaron M.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2014-07-11

    Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic, and functional genomics approaches.

  17. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein integrates phosphoinositide signaling with lipid droplet metabolism to regulate a developmental program of nutrient stress–induced membrane biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jihui; Pei-Chen Lin, Coney; Pathak, Manish C.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Nile, Aaron H.; Mousley, Carl J.; Duncan, Mara C.; Eckert, Debra M.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Myers, David S.; Murphy, Robert C.; Brown, H. Alex; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Bloom, Kerry S.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Neiman, Aaron M.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic, and functional genomics approaches. PMID:24403601

  18. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway decreases innate resistance to lipopolysaccharide toxicity in TLR4 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, activation of both the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways serves to balance proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Although the antagonist to TLR4 represents an emerging promising target for the treatment of sepsis; however, the role of the PI3K pathway under TLR4-null conditions is not well understood. This goal of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of PI3K on innate resistance to LPS toxicity in a murine model. Results The overall survival of the cohorts receiving intraperitoneal injections of 100, 500, or 1000?g LPS from Escherichia coli serotype 026:B6 after 7 d was 100%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. In contrast, no mortality was noted after 500-?g LPS injection in Tlr4-/- mice. When the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was injected (1mg/25g body weight) 1h prior to the administration of LPS, the overall survival of the Tlr4-/- mice was 30%. In the Tlr4-/- mice, the LPS injection induced no NF-?B activation but an increased Akt phosphorylation in the lung and liver, when compared to that of the C57BL/6 mice. Injection of 500?g LPS led to a significant induction in O2- detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping spectroscopy in the lung and liver at 3 and 6h in C57BL/6 but not Tlr4-/- mice. Addition of LY294002 only significantly increased the O2- level in the lung and liver of the Tlr4-/- mice but not in the C57BL/6 mice following 500-?g LPS injection. In addition, the serum IL-1? and IL-2 levels were more elevated in C57BL/6 mice than in Tlr4-/- mice. Notably, IL-1? and IL-2 were significantly increased in Tlr4-/- mice but not in the C57BL/6 mice when the PI3K pathway was inhibited by LY294002 prior to LPS injection. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that innate resistance to LPS toxicity in Tlr4-/- mice is impaired by inhibition of the PI3K pathway, with a corresponding increase in mortality and production of tissue O2- and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24618279

  19. Variation in the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Gamma Gene Affects Plasma HDL-Cholesterol without Modification of Metabolic or Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kächele, Martin; Hennige, Anita M.; Machann, Jürgen; Hieronimus, Anja; Lamprinou, Apostolia; Machicao, Fausto; Schick, Fritz; Fritsche, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Nürnberg, Bernd; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is a G-protein-coupled receptor-activated lipid kinase mainly expressed in leukocytes and cells of the cardiovascular system. PI3Kγ plays an important signaling role in inflammatory processes. Since subclinical inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, obesity-related insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell failure, we asked whether common genetic variation in the PI3Kγ gene (PIK3CG) contributes to body fat content/distribution, serum adipokine/cytokine concentrations, alterations in plasma lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, insulin release, and glucose homeostasis. Study Design Using a tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, we analyzed genotype-phenotype associations in 2,068 German subjects genotyped for 10 PIK3CG SNPs and characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests. In subgroups, data from hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were available, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for gene expression analysis. Results After appropriate adjustment, none of the PIK3CG tagging SNPs was significantly associated with body fat content/distribution, adipokine/cytokine concentrations, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or blood glucose concentrations (p>0.0127, all; Bonferroni-corrected α-level: 0.0051). However, six non-linked SNPs displayed at least nominal associations with plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations, two of them (rs4288294 and rs116697954) reaching the level of study-wide significance (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0004, respectively). More precisely, rs4288294 and rs116697954 influenced HDL2-, but not HDL3-, cholesterol. With respect to the SNPs’ in vivo functionality, rs4288294 was significantly associated with PIK3CG mRNA expression in PBMCs. Conclusions We could demonstrate that common genetic variation in the PIK3CG locus, possibly via altered PIK3CG gene expression, determines plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Since HDL2-, but not HDL3-, cholesterol is influenced by PIK3CG variants, PI3Kγ may play a role in HDL clearance rather than in HDL biogenesis. Even though the molecular pathways connecting PI3Kγ and HDL metabolism remain to be further elucidated, this finding could add a novel aspect to the pathophysiological role of PI3Kγ in atherogenesis. PMID:26658747

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2 beta in renal brush-border plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Crljen, Vladiana; Volinia, Stefano; Banfic, Hrvoje

    2002-01-01

    Upon stimulation of renal cortical slices with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), inositol lipid metabolism was studied in basal-lateral plasma membranes (BLM) and brush-border plasma membranes (BBM). Whereas in BLM rapid increases in 1,2-diacylglycerol, PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2) were observed, suggesting that in BLM HGF activates both phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in BBM only HGF-induced transient accumulation of PtdIns3P was seen, which was temporarily delayed from signalling events in BLM and could be blocked by the PtdIns-specific-PLC inhibitor ET-18-OCH(3) and the calpain inhibitor calpeptin, suggesting that 3-kinase activation in BBM lies downstream of PLC activation in BLM and is a calpain-mediated event. Moreover, the increase in immunoprecipitable PI3K-C2 beta activity, which is sensitive to wortmannin (10 nM) and shows strong preference for PtdIns over PtdIns4P as a substrate, was observed only in BBM upon stimulation of renal cortical slices with HGF and could be mimicked by the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 and blocked by the cell-penetrant Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)]. On Western blots PI3K-C2 beta revealed a single immunoreactive band of 180 kDa in BLM and BBM, while after stimulation with HGF a gel shift of 18 kDa was noticed only in BBM, suggesting that the observed enzyme activation is achieved by proteolysis. When BBM were subjected to short-term (15 min) exposure to mu-calpain, a similar gel shift together with an increase in PI3K-C2 beta activity was observed, when compared with the BBM harvested after HGF stimulation. The above-mentioned gel shift and increase in PI3K-C2 beta activity could be prevented by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin. The data presented in this report show that in renal cells there is a spatial separation of the inositol lipid signalling system between BLM and BBM, and that HGF causes activation of PLC and PI3K primarily in BLM, which leads to calpain-mediated activation of PI3K-C2 beta in BBM with a concomitant increase in PtdIns3P. PMID:11931646

  1. Implication of the calcium sensing receptor and the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in the extracellular calcium-mediated migration of RAW 264.7 osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Cdric; Saidak, Zuzana; Boulanouar, Abdel Krim; Petit, Laurent; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Massy, Ziad; Brazier, Michel; Mentaverri, Romuald; Kamel, Sad

    2010-05-01

    While the processes involved in the formation, maturation and apoptosis of osteoclasts have been investigated extensively in previous studies, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the localization and homing of osteoclast precursor cells to the bone environment in order to initiate the bone remodeling process. Recent studies have suggested that the extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o)) concentration gradient present near the bone environment may be one of the participating factors, producing a chemoattractant effect on osteoclast precursors. Using the murine osteoclast precursor cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, the RAW 264.7 cell line, we have shown that Ca(2+)(o) increases the migration of these cells in a directional manner. The participation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in this effect was tested by knocking down its expression through RNA interference, which resulted in an abolition of the migratory response. By the use of specific pathway inhibitors and western blot analysis, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and phospholipase Cbeta pathways were shown to be implicated in the migratory effect. The implication of the Akt pathway in the Ca(2+)(o)-induced chemoattraction of RAW 264.7 cells was also confirmed by transducing the cells with the fusion protein TAT-dominant negative-Akt, which decreased the migratory effect. In contrast, the MAPK pathways (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) were not involved in the production of the migratory effect. We conclude that through the activation of the CaR and subsequent signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway, Ca(2+)(o) produces a chemoattractant effect on the osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the Ca(2+)(o) gradient present near the bone may be one of the initiating factors for the homing of osteoclast precursors to bone, thus possibly playing a role in the initiation of bone remodeling. PMID:20149906

  2. Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-specific Ubiquitin Ligase MID1 Is a Sequence-dependent Regulator of Translation Efficiency Controlling 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDPK-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Orgills, Beatriz; Rutschow, Dsire; Zeller, Raphael; Karagiannidis, Antonios I.; Khler, Andrea; Chen, Changwei; Wilson, Timothy; Krause, Sven; Roepcke, Stefan; Lilley, David; Schneider, Rainer; Schweiger, Susann

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that the ubiquitin ligase MID1, mutations of which cause the midline malformation Opitz BBB/G syndrome (OS), serves as scaffold for a microtubule-associated protein complex that regulates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Here, we show that the MID1 protein complex associates with mRNAs via a purine-rich sequence motif called MIDAS (MID1 association sequence) and thereby increases stability and translational efficiency of these mRNAs. Strikingly, inclusion of multiple copies of the MIDAS motif into mammalian mRNAs increases production of the encoded proteins up to 20-fold. Mutated MID1, as found in OS patients, loses its influence on MIDAS-containing mRNAs, suggesting that the malformations in OS patients could be caused by failures in the regulation of cytoskeleton-bound protein translation. This is supported by the observation that the majority of mRNAs that carry MIDAS motifs is involved in developmental processes and/or energy homeostasis. Further analysis of one of the proteins encoded by a MIDAS-containing mRNA, namely PDPK-1 (3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1), which is an important regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin/PP2A signaling, showed that PDPK-1 protein synthesis is significantly reduced in cells from an OS patient compared with an age-matched control and can be rescued by functional MID1. Together, our data uncover a novel messenger ribonucleoprotein complex that regulates microtubule-associated protein translation. They suggest a novel mechanism underlying OS and point at an enormous potential of the MIDAS motif to increase the efficiency of biotechnological protein production in mammalian cells. PMID:21930711

  3. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110? Isoform Regulates Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Expression via c-Myc and miR-125b to Promote Cell Proliferation in Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    von Bueren, Andr O.; ?wiek, Paulina; Rehrauer, Hubert; Djonov, Valentin; Anderle, Pascale; Arcaro, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and represents the main cause of cancer-related death in this age group. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of medulloblastoma cell survival and proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms and downstream effectors underlying PI3K signaling still remain elusive. The impact of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of PI3K isoforms p110? and p110? on global gene expression was investigated by DNA microarray analysis in medulloblastoma cell lines. A subset of genes with selectively altered expression upon p110? silencing in comparison to silencing of the closely related p110? isoform was revealed. Among these genes, the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor ? (LIFR ?) was validated as a novel p110? target in medulloblastoma. A network involving c-Myc and miR-125b was shown to be involved in the control of LIFR? expression downstream of p110?. Targeting the LIFR? by RNAi, or by using neutralizing reagents impaired medulloblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and induced a tumor volume reduction in vivo. An analysis of primary tumors revealed that LIFR? and p110? expression were elevated in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma, indicating its clinical relevance. Together, these data reveal a novel molecular signaling network, in which PI3K isoform p110? controls the expression of LIFR? via c-Myc and miR-125b to promote MB cell proliferation. PMID:25915540

  4. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110? Isoform Regulates Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Expression via c-Myc and miR-125b to Promote Cell Proliferation in Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Salm, Fabiana; Dimitrova, Valeriya; von Bueren, Andr O; ?wiek, Paulina; Rehrauer, Hubert; Djonov, Valentin; Anderle, Pascale; Arcaro, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and represents the main cause of cancer-related death in this age group. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of medulloblastoma cell survival and proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms and downstream effectors underlying PI3K signaling still remain elusive. The impact of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of PI3K isoforms p110? and p110? on global gene expression was investigated by DNA microarray analysis in medulloblastoma cell lines. A subset of genes with selectively altered expression upon p110? silencing in comparison to silencing of the closely related p110? isoform was revealed. Among these genes, the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor ? (LIFR ?) was validated as a novel p110? target in medulloblastoma. A network involving c-Myc and miR-125b was shown to be involved in the control of LIFR? expression downstream of p110?. Targeting the LIFR? by RNAi, or by using neutralizing reagents impaired medulloblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and induced a tumor volume reduction in vivo. An analysis of primary tumors revealed that LIFR? and p110? expression were elevated in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma, indicating its clinical relevance. Together, these data reveal a novel molecular signaling network, in which PI3K isoform p110? controls the expression of LIFR? via c-Myc and miR-125b to promote MB cell proliferation. PMID:25915540

  5. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    CHUANG, WAN-LING; SU, CHIN-CHENG; LIN, PING-YI; LIN, CHI-CHEN; CHEN, YAO-LI

    2015-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer. PMID:25847489

  6. A mutation in PLC1, a candidate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes aberrant mitotic chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W E; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M

    1993-01-01

    We identified a putative Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene, PLC1, which encodes a protein most similar to the delta class of PI-PLC enzymes. The PLC1 gene was isolated during a study of yeast strains that exhibit defects in chromosome segregation. plc1-1 cells showed a 10-fold increase in aberrant chromosome segregation compared with the wild type. Molecular analysis revealed that PLC1 encodes a predicted protein of 101 kDa with approximately 50 and 26% identity to the highly conserved X and Y domains of PI-PLC isozymes from humans, bovines, rats, and Drosophila melanogaster. The putative yeast protein also contains a consensus EF-hand domain that is predicted to bind calcium. Interestingly, the temperature-sensitive and chromosome missegregation phenotypes exhibited by plc1-1 cells were partially suppressed by exogenous calcium. Images PMID:8391635

  7. PDGF-induced receptor phosphorylation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis are unaffected by protein kinase C activation in mouse swiss 3T3 and human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sturani, E.; Vicentini, L.M.; Zippel, R.; Toschi, L.; Pandiella-Alonso, A.; Comoglio, P.M.; Meldolesi, J.

    1986-05-29

    Short (1-10 min) pretreatment of intact cells with activators of protein kinase C (e.g. phorbol-12 myristate, 13-acetate, PMA) affects the activity of a variety of surface receptors (for growth factors, hormones and neurotransmitters), with inhibition of transmembrane signal generation. In two types of fibroblasts it is demonstrated that the PDGF receptor is unaffected by PMA. Exposure to PMA at concentrations up to 100 nM for 10 min failed to inhibit either one of the agonist-induced, receptor-coupled responses of PDGF: the autophosphorylation of receptor molecules at tyrosine residues, and the hydrolysis of membrane polyphosphoinositides. In contrast, the EGF receptor autophosphorylation (in A 431 cells) and the bombesin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis were readily inhibited by PMA.

  8. Progress in the Preclinical Discovery and Clinical Development of Class I and Dual Class I/IV Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shuttleworth, S.J; Silva, F.A; Cecil, A.R.L; Tomassi, C.D; Hill, T.J; Raynaud, F.I; Clarke, P.A; Workman, P

    2011-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) constitute an important family of lipid kinase enzymes that control a range of cellular processes through their regulation of a network of signal transduction pathways, and have emerged as important therapeutic targets in the context of cancer, inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. Since the mid-late 1990s, considerable progress has been made in the discovery and development of small molecule ATP-competitive PI3K inhibitors, a number of which have entered early phase human trials over recent years from which key clinical results are now being disclosed. This review summarizes progress made to date, primarily on the discovery and characterization of class I and dual class I/IV subtype inhibitors, together with advances that have been made in translational and clinical research, notably in cancer. PMID:21649578

  9. p70 S6 Kinase Is Regulated by Protein Kinase C? and Participates in a Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Regulated Signalling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Angela; Martin, Kathleen A.; Toker, Alex; Blenis, John

    1999-01-01

    p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) is an important regulator of cell proliferation. Its activation by growth factor requires phosphorylation by various inputs on multiple sites. Data accumulated thus far support a model whereby p70S6K activation requires sequential phosphorylations at proline-directed residues in the putative autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate domain, as well as threonine 389. Threonine 229, a site in the catalytic loop is phosphorylated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1). Experimental evidence suggests that p70S6K activation requires a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)-dependent signal(s). However, the intermediates between PI3-K and p70S6K remain unclear. Here, we have identified PI3-K-regulated atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKC? as an upstream regulator of p70S6K. In coexpression experiments, we found that a kinase-inactive PKC? mutant antagonized activation of p70S6K by epidermal growth factor, PDK-1, and activated Cdc42 and PI3-K. While overexpression of a constitutively active PKC? mutant (myristoylated PKC? [myr-PKC?]) only modestly activated p70S6K, this mutant cooperated with PDK-1 activation of p70S6K. PDK-1-induced activation of a C-terminal truncation mutant of p70S6K was also enhanced by myr-PKC?. Moreover, we have found that p70S6K can associate with both PDK-1 and PKC? in vivo in a growth factor-independent manner, while PDK-1 and PKC? can also associate with each other, suggesting the existence of a multimeric PI3-K signalling complex. This work provides evidence for a link between a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isoform and p70S6K. The existence of a PI3-K-dependent signalling complex may enable efficient activation of p70S6K in cells. PMID:10082559

  10. Targeted Inhibition of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Sensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Doxorubicin without Exacerbating Cardiac Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Durrant, David E; Das, Anindita; Dyer, Samya; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Dent, Paul; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the lowest 5-year survival rate of all major cancers despite decades of effort to design and implement novel, more effective treatment options. In this study, we tested whether the dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor BEZ235 (BEZ) potentiates the antitumor effects of doxorubicin (DOX) against pancreatic cancer. Cotreatment of BEZ235 with DOX resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mechanistic target of rapamycin survival pathway, which corresponded with an increase in poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Moreover, BEZ cotreatment significantly improved the effects of DOX toward both cell viability and cell death in part through reduced Bcl-2 expression and increased expression of the shorter, more cytotoxic forms of BIM. BEZ also facilitated intracellular accumulation of DOX, which led to enhanced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, BEZ in combination with gemcitabine reduced MiaPaca2 cell proliferation but failed to increase reactive oxygen species generation or BIM expression, resulting in reduced necrosis and apoptosis. Treatment with BEZ and DOX in mice bearing tumor xenographs significantly repressed tumor growth as compared with BEZ, DOX, or gemcitabine. Additionally, in contrast to the enhanced expression seen in MiaPaca2 cells, BEZ and DOX cotreatment reduced BIM expression in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Also, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased, which was associated with a reduction in cell death. In vivo echocardiography showed decreased cardiac function with DOX treatment, which was not improved by combination treatment with BEZ. Thus, we propose that combining BEZ with DOX would be a better option for patients than current standard of care by providing a more effective tumor response without the associated increase in toxicity. PMID:26101222

  11. Crucial role of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIalpha in development of zebrafish pectoral fin is linked to phosphoinositide 3-kinase and FGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Blake, Trevor; Chitnis, Ajay; Liu, Paul; Balla, Tamas

    2009-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) catalyze the first committed step in the synthesis of phosphoinositides, important lipid regulators of signaling and trafficking pathways. Here we cloned Pik4a, one of the zebrafish PI4K enzymes, and studied its role(s) in vertebrate development using morpholino oligonucleotide-based gene silencing in zebrafish. Downregulation of Pik4a led to multiple developmental abnormalities, affecting the brain, heart, trunk and most prominently causing loss of pectoral fins. Strikingly similar defects were caused by treatment of the developing embryos with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. To investigate the cause of the pectoral fin developmental defect, we focused on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways because vertebrate limb development requires the concerted action of a series of FGF ligands. Using in situ hybridization, the pectoral fin defect was traced to disruption of the early FGF signaling loops that are crucial for the establishment of the sharp signaling center formed by the apical ectodermal ridge and the underlying mesenchyme. This, in turn caused a prominent loss of the induction of one of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases, Mkp3, an essential intermediate in vertebrate limb development. These changes were associated with impaired proliferation in the developing fin bud due to a loss of balance between the MAPK and PI3K branch of FGF-initiated signals. Our results identify Pik4a as an upstream partner of PI3Ks in the signaling cascade orchestrated by FGF receptors with a prominent role in forelimb development. PMID:19887586

  12. Synaptojanin 1 Mutation in Parkinson's Disease Brings Further Insight into the Neuropathological Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Valrie; Lesage, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1) is a phosphoinositide phosphatase highly expressed in nerve terminals. Its two phosphatase domains dephosphorylate phosphoinositides present in membranes, while its proline-rich domain directs protein-protein interactions with synaptic components, leading to efficient recycling of synaptic vesicles in neurons. Triplication of SYNJ1 in Down's syndrome is responsible for higher level of phosphoinositides, enlarged endosomes, and learning deficits. SYNJ1 downregulation in Alzheimer's disease models is protective towards amyloid-beta peptide (A?) toxicity. One missense mutation in one of SYNJ1 functional domains was recently incriminated in an autosomal recessive form of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). In the third decade of life, these patients develop progressive Parkinsonism with bradykinesia, dystonia, and variable atypical symptoms such as cognitive decline, seizures, and eyelid apraxia. The identification of this new gene, together with the fact that most of the known PD proteins play a role in synaptic vesicle recycling and lipid metabolism, points out that synaptic maintenance is a key player in PD pathological mechanisms. Studying PD genes as a network regulating synaptic activity could bring insight into understanding the neuropathological processes of PD and help identify new genes at fault in this devastating disorder. PMID:25302295

  13. Expression of HER-2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells modulates anti-apoptotic proteins Survivin and Bcl-2 via the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqa, Aisha; Long, Linda M; Li, Liuxia; Marciniak, Robert A; Kazhdan, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Background The oncoprotein HER-2 is over-expressed and/or has undergone gene amplification in between 20 to 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. HER-2 amplified breast cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and increased resistance to chemo- and hormonal therapy. Data supporting the transforming potential of HER-2 are irrefutable but the mechanism by which HER-2 contributes to this process is complex and a unified model of HER2-induced increased cell proliferation and survival has not emerged. To understand the initial event(s) that take place by HER-2 over expression, we studied the effect of short term induction of HER-2 expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Methods We examined the modulation of apoptotic pathways by tetracycline-regulated HER-2 expression for 48 hrs in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Specific inhibitors were used to determine signalling pathways that are required for HER-2 induced up-regulation of survivin. Results Tetracycline regulated short term over expression of HER-2 in the MCF7 cell line increased the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin levels. Significant increase of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation but not AKT1, AKT2 and STAT3 was observed in HER-2 over-expressing MCF7 cells. Specific inhibitors of ERK, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), inhibited the HER-2 induced up-regulation of survivin. We did not observe a change in survivin and NF-?B promoter activity in HER-2 expressing MCF7 cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that short term over expression of HER-2 up regulates antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin in MCF7 cells. We determined that survivin is up-regulated via ERK activation and PI3K signalling. Additionally we show that survivin up-regulation is not at transcriptional level. These data provide insight into the mechanism(s) by which induction of HER-2 over expression up-regulates survivin and Bcl-2 and identifies new targets for therapy of breast cancer. PMID:18454859

  14. Exendin-4 enhances the migration of adipose-derived stem cells to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte-derived conditioned medium via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-stromal cell-derived factor-1?/CXC chemokine receptor 4 pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, HAO; YANG, JUNJIE; XIN, TING; ZHANG, TAO; HU, SHUNYIN; ZHOU, SHANSHAN; CHEN, GUANGHUI; CHEN, YUNDAI

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered a suitable source of cells for the repair of tissue following acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, the transplantation efficiency of ADSCs remains low. Therefore, identification of an efficient method to enhance the migration of engrafted cells to the target site is required. The present study used exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, to optimize the migratory capacity of ADSCs. The aim was to determine the effect and mechanisms of Ex-4 on the migration of ADSCs to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte-derived conditioned medium (NRVC-CM). The ADSCs and cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro. Following incubation of the ADSCs with Ex-4, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay and the expression levels of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were investigated by reverse transctiption quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and flow cytometry. In addition, the expression levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) were evaluated in the NRVC-CM treated with Ex-4 by ELISA, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The migration of the ADSCs to the NRVC-CM was examined using a Transwell assay. Changes in the protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p?)Akt were examined in the two types of cell by western blot analysis. The results suggested that Ex-4 promoted the proliferation and expression of CXCR4 in the ADSCs, increased the secretion of SDF-1? in the cardiomyocytes and increased the expression levels of p-Akt in both cells. However, the alterations to the SDF-1?/C XC R4 cascade in the cells were abrogated following pretreatment with LY-294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, a Transwell migration assay revealed marked translocation of the ADSCs through the membranes, towards the NRVC-CM, following treatment with Ex-4. However, these effects were reduced significantly by pretreatment of the cells with the SDF-1?/CXCR4 cascade antagonist, AMD3100, and the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002. These results indicated that Ex-4 augmented the SDF-1?/CXCR4 cascade by activating the PI3K/Akt pathways in the ADSCs and NRVCs. Furthermore, enhancement of the PI3K/Akt-SDF-1?/CXCR4 pathway may be important in the migratory response of ADSCs to NRVC-CM in vitro. PMID:25625935

  15. Phosphatidic acid and phosphoinositides facilitate liposome association of Yas3p and potentiate derepression of ARE1 (alkane-responsive element one)-mediated transcription control.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Kiyoshi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2013-12-01

    In the n-alkane assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the expression of ALK1, encoding a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes terminal mono-oxygenation of n-alkanes, is induced by n-alkanes. The transcription of ALK1 is regulated by a heterocomplex that comprises the basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators, Yas1p and Yas2p, and binds to alkane-responsive element 1 (ARE1) in the ALK1 promoter. An Opi1 family transcription repressor, Yas3p, represses transcription by binding to Yas2p. Yas3p localizes in the nucleus when Y. lipolytica is grown on glucose but localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon the addition of n-alkanes. In this study, we showed that recombinant Yas3p binds to the acidic phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphoinositides (PIPs), in vitro. The ARE1-mediated transcription was enhanced in vivo in mutants defective in an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PAH1, encoding PA phosphatase, and in an ortholog of SAC1, encoding PIP phosphatase in the ER. Truncation mutation analyses for Yas3p revealed two regions that bound to PA and PIPs. These results suggest that the interaction with acidic phospholipids is important for the n-alkane-induced association of Yas3p with the ER membrane. PMID:24120453

  16. Stimulation of endothelin-1 gene expression by insulin via phosphoinositide-3 kinase-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeran; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2008-02-27

    Insulin stimulates secretion of the potent vasoactive and mitogenic peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelial cells. We sought to investigate whether phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) by insulin leads to elevation of ET-1 gene expression in endothelial cells. Inhibition of GSK3beta activity by LiCl or siRNA technique mimicked insulin action to stimulate ET-1 gene expression. Luciferase reporter assay showed insulin stimulated-elevation of ET-1 promoter activity can be abolished by the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin, but not by the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD-98059. To further investigate whether the transcription factor vascular endothelial zinc finger-1 (Vezf1) is involved in ET-1 regulation, site-mutated reporter plasmid was used in luciferase reporter assay. A 2-bp mutation in Vezf1 binding element abolished insulin-stimulated elevation of ET-1 promoter activity. Furthermore, siRNA inhibition of Vezf1 led to decline in the levels of ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptides. These observations indicate that PI3K-dependent inactivation of GSK3beta by insulin leads to upregulation of ET-1 gene expression and Vezf1 may be a target for ET-1 regulation by insulin. PI3K-GSK3beta signaling may be responsible for insulin stimulation of ET-1 production associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:18201727

  17. Platelet alpha IIb-beta 3 integrin engagement induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl and its association with phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Syk.

    PubMed Central

    Saci, A; Rendu, F; Bachelot-Loza, C

    2000-01-01

    Agonist-induced platelet activation triggers 'inside-out' signalling which activates alpha IIb-beta 3, the most abundant integrin in platelet membranes. The engagement of activated alpha IIb-beta 3 integrin by linking fibrinogen is necessary for platelet aggregation, and this induces subsequent outside-in signalling, which enhances platelet activation. Here we studied the involvement of Cbl during alpha IIb-beta 3-integrin-mediated signal transduction. During thrombin-induced platelet activation, Cbl was tyrosine phosphorylated, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity measured in Cbl immunoprecipitates was increased. Both Cbl phosphorylation and its association with PI 3-kinase were dependent on alpha IIb-beta 3 engagement by linking fibrinogen. The P256 and anti-LIBS6 (ligand-induced binding site 6) antibodies, which activate platelets directly through alpha IIb-beta 3, induced Cbl phosphorylation and increased the PI 3-kinase activity associated with Cbl. Both thrombin and antibodies to alpha IIb-beta 3 induced association of Cbl with the tyrosine kinase, Syk. Experiments performed with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases indicated that both Src-family kinases and Syk contribute to phosphorylation of Cbl and its consequent association with PI 3-kinase. The results show that, following integrin alpha IIb-beta 3 engagement, Cbl is tyrosine phosphorylated, recruits PI 3-kinase to this integrin signalling pathway and possibly enhances PI 3-kinase activity, downstream of Src-family tyrosine kinases and Syk activation. PMID:11042121

  18. Expression pattern and sub-cellular distribution of phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C enzymes after treatment with U-73122 in rat astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Panetta, Barbara; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Cocco, Lucio

    2010-07-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes interfere with the metabolism of inositol phospholipids (PI), molecules involved in signal transduction, a complex process depending on various components. Many evidences support the hypothesis that, in the glia, isoforms of PI-PLC family display different expression and/or sub cellular distribution under non-physiological conditions such as the rat astrocytes activation during neurodegeneration, the tumoural progression of some neoplasms and the inflammatory cascade activation after lipopolysaccharide administration, even if their role remains not completely elucidated. Treatment of a cultured established glioma cell line (C6 rat astrocytoma cell line) induces a modification in the pattern of expression and of sub cellular distribution of PI-PLCs compared to untreated cells. Special attention require PI-PLC beta3 and PI-PLC gamma2 isoforms, whose expression and sub cellular localization significantly differ after U-73122 treatment. The meaning of these modifications is unclear, also because the use of this N-aminosteroid compound remains controversial, inasmuch it has further actions which might contribute to the global effect recorded on the treated cells. PMID:20564200

  19. cDNA sequence and gene locus of the human retinal phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C{beta}4 (PLCB4)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.; Ghalayini, A.J.; Anderson, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Defects in the Drosophila norpA (no receptor potential A) gene encoding a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) block invertebrate phototransduction and lead to retinal degeneration. The mammalian homolog, PLCB4, is expressed in rat brain, bovine cerebellum, and the bovine retina in several splice variants. To determine a possible role of PLCB4 gene defects in human disease, we isolated several overlapping cDNA clones from a human retina library. The composite cDNA sequence predicts a human PLC{beta}4 polypeptide of 1022 amino acid residues (MW 117,000). This PLC{beta}4 variant lacks a 165-amino-acid N-terminal domain characteristic for the rat brain isoforms, but has a distinct putative exon 1 unique for human and bovine retina isoforms. A PLC{beta}4 monospecific antibody detected a major (130 kDa) and a minor (160 kDa) isoform in retina homogenates. Somatic cell hybrids and deletion panels were used to localize the PCLB4 gene to the short arm of chromosome 20. The gene was further sublocalized to 20p12 by florescence in situ hybridization. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Cdc42 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase drive Rac-mediated actin polymerization downstream of c-Met in distinct and common pathways.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Tanja; Ehinger, Julia; Czuchra, Aleksandra; Benesch, Stefanie; Steffen, Anika; Wu, Xunwei; Schloen, Kathrin; Niemann, Hartmut H; Scita, Giorgio; Stradal, Theresia E B; Brakebusch, Cord; Rottner, Klemens

    2007-10-01

    Activation of c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor receptor induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, which drives epithelial cell scattering and motility and is exploited by pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes to invade nonepithelial cells. However, the precise contributions of distinct Rho-GTPases, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and actin assembly regulators to c-Met-mediated actin reorganization are still elusive. Here we report that HGF-induced membrane ruffling and Listeria invasion mediated by the bacterial c-Met ligand internalin B (InlB) were significantly impaired but not abrogated upon genetic removal of either Cdc42 or pharmacological inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). While loss of Cdc42 or PI3-kinase function correlated with reduced HGF- and InlB-triggered Rac activation, complete abolishment of actin reorganization and Rac activation required the simultaneous inactivation of both Cdc42 and PI3-kinase signaling. Moreover, Cdc42 activation was fully independent of PI3-kinase activity, whereas the latter partly depended on Cdc42. Finally, Cdc42 function did not require its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor N-WASP. Instead, actin polymerization was driven by Arp2/3 complex activation through the WAVE complex downstream of Rac. Together, our data establish an intricate signaling network comprising as key molecules Cdc42 and PI3-kinase, which converge on Rac-mediated actin reorganization essential for Listeria invasion and membrane ruffling downstream of c-Met. PMID:17682062

  1. Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling are essential for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetrical distribution of F-actin directed by cell polarity has been observed during the migration of monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. The significance of Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling during the formation of cell polarity in migrating monospores was analysed pharmacologically. The results indicate that the inhibition of the establishment of cell polarity, as judged by the ability of F-actin to localize asymmetrically, cell wall synthesis, and development into germlings, occurred when monospores were treated with inhibitors of the Ca2+ permeable channel, phospholipase C (PLC), diacylglycerol kinase, and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Moreover, it was also found that light triggered the establishment of cell polarity via photosynthetic activity but not its direction, indicating that the Ca2+ influx and PLC activation required for the establishment of cell polarity are light dependent. By contrast, inhibition of phospholipase D (PLD) prevented the migration of monospores but not the asymmetrical localization of F-actin. Taken together, these findings suggest that there is functional diversity between the PLC and PLD signalling systems in terms of the formation of cell polarity; the former being critical for the light-dependent establishment of cell polarity and the latter playing a role in the maintenance of established cell polarity. PMID:19531546

  2. Possible involvement of phosphoinositide-Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of alpha-amylase expression and germination of rice seed (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kashem, M A; Itoh, K; Iwabuchi, S; Hori, H; Mitsui, T

    2000-04-01

    We have studied the effects of neomycin, a potent inhibitor of inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC), on the germination of rice seed and the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase in the aleurone layer and the scutellar tissues. It was shown that, in the absence of exogenous Ca2+, neomycin markedly reduced the germination speed and seedling growth of rice seeds and inhibited the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase in both secretory tissues. In addition, neomycin decreased the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in the gibberellin-treated aleurone layer and the scutellar tissues. However, the inhibitory effects on the germination speed and the expression of alpha-amylase activity were overcome by supplementation of Ca2+. In addition, gibberellin elevated the level of IP3, and ABA prevented the gibberellin-induced formation of IP3, although ABA alone did not alter the IP3 level. The expression of a membrane-bound PLC molecule in rice aleurone layer was shown to be induced by gibberellin, and the gibberellin-induced expression of PLC was markedly delayed by treatment with ABA. These results strongly suggest that the phosphoinositide-Ca2+ signal transduction pathway may play an important role in the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase molecules closely related to the germination processes of rice seed. PMID:10845452

  3. Melittin stimulates phosphoinositide hydrolysis and placental lactogen release: Arachidonic acid as a link between phospholipase A sub 2 and phospholipase C signal-transduction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitler, P.; Handwerger, S. ); Wu, Y.Q. )

    1991-01-01

    Previous investigations from this laboratory have implicated both phospholipase A{sub 2} and phospholipase C in the regulation of human placental lactogen release from human trophoblast. To study further the role of endogenous phospholipase A{sub 2} and the relationship between phospholipase A{sub 2} activation and phosphoinositide metabolism, the authors examined hPL and ({sup 3}H)-inositol release from trophoblast cells in response to agents that stimulate or inhibit the endogenous enzyme. Melittin stimulated rapid, dose-dependent, and reversible increases in the release of hPL, prostaglandin E, and ({sup 3}H)-inositol. Mepacrine inhibited this stimulation. However, mepacrine had no effect on the stimulation of hPL and ({sup 3}H)-inositol release by exogenous arachidonic acid (AA). These results indicate that the stimulation by melittin of phosphoionsitide metabolism and hPL release is mediated by initial activation of phospholipase A{sub 2}. Furthermore, the results support the possibility that AA, released as a consequence of phospholipase A{sub 2} activation, can act as a second messenger linking the two phospholipase pathways.

  4. Role of Arabidopsis AtPI4K?3, a type II phosphoinositide 4-kinase, in abiotic stress responses and floral transition.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Salina; Uddin, Mohammad N; Jeong, In S; Kim, Dae W; Liu, Xiao-Min; Bahk, Jeong D

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are essential metabolites which are generated by various lipid kinases and rapidly respond to a variety of environmental stimuli in eukaryotes. One of the precursors of important regulatory PIs, phosphatidylinositol (PtdIn) 4-phosphate, is synthesized by PtdIns 4-kinases (PI4K). Despite its wide distribution in eukaryotes, its role in plants remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the activity of AtPI4K?3 gene, an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) type II PtdIn 4-kinase, is regulated by DNA demethylation and some abiotic stresses. AtPI4K?3 is targeted to the nucleus and selectively bounds to a few PtdIns. It possessed autophosphorylation activity but unexpectedly had no detectable lipid kinase activity. Overexpression of AtPI4K?3 revealed enhanced tolerance to high salinity or ABA along with inducible expression of a host of stress-responsive genes and an optimal accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, overexpressed AtPI4K?3 augmented the salt tolerance of bzip60 mutants. The ubiquitin-like domain of AtPI4K?3 is demonstrated to be essential for salt stress tolerance. Besides, AtPI4K?3-overexpressed plants showed a late-flowering phenotype, which was caused by the regulation of some flowering pathway integrators. In all, our results indicate that AtPI4K?3 is necessary for reinforcement of plant response to abiotic stresses and delay of the floral transition. PMID:25879253

  5. The pan phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor SAR245409 (voxtalisib/XL765) blocks survival, adhesion and proliferation of primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, R; Ter Burg, J; van Bochove, G G W; de Rooij, M F M; Kuil, A; Jansen, M H; Kuijpers, T W; Baars, J W; Virone-Oddos, A; Spaargaren, M; Egile, C; van Oers, M H J; Eldering, E; Kersten, M J; Kater, A P

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are critical components of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway and have an important role in the pathobiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Inhibitors of PI3K? block BCR-mediated cross-talk between CLL cells and the lymph node microenvironment and provide significant clinical benefit to CLL patients. However, the PI3K? inhibitors applied thus far have limited direct impact on leukemia cell survival and thus are unlikely to eradicate the disease. The use of inhibitors of multiple isoforms of PI3K might lead to deeper remissions. Here we demonstrate that the pan-PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor SAR245409 (voxtalisib/XL765) was more pro-apoptotic to CLL cells-irrespective of their ATM/p53 status-than PI3K? or PI3K? isoform selective inhibitors. Furthermore, SAR245409 blocked CLL survival, adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, SAR245409 was a more potent inhibitor of T-cell-mediated production of cytokines, which support CLL survival. Taken together, our in vitro data provide a rationale for the evaluation of a pan-PI3K inhibitor in CLL patients. PMID:26338274

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases gamma and delta, linkers of coordinate C5a receptor-Fcgamma receptor activation and immune complex-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Stephanie; Ali, Syed R; Wiege, Kristina; Syed, Shahzad N; Engling, Linda; Piekorz, Roland P; Hirsch, Emilio; Nrnberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Gessner, J Engelbert

    2008-11-28

    Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) and the C5a receptor (C5aR) are key effectors of the acute inflammatory response to IgG immune complexes (IC). Their coordinated activation is critical in IC-induced diseases, although the significance of combined signaling by these two different receptor classes in tissue injury is unclear. Here we used the mouse model of the passive reverse lung Arthus reaction to define their requirements for distinct phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activities in vivo. We show that genetic deletion of class IB PI3Kgamma abrogates C5aR signaling that is crucial for FcgammaR-mediated activation of lung macrophages. Thus, in PI3Kgamma(-/-) mice, IgG IC-induced FcgammaR regulation, cytokine release, and neutrophil recruitment were blunted. Notably, however, C5a production occurred normally in PI3Kgamma(-/-) mice but was impaired in PI3Kdelta(-/-) mice. Consequently, class IA PI3Kdelta deficiency caused resistance to acute IC lung injury. These results demonstrate that PI3Kgamma and PI3Kdelta coordinate the inflammatory effects of C5aR and FcgammaR and define PI3Kdelta as a novel and essential element of FcgammaR signaling in the generation of C5a in IC disease. PMID:18786920

  7. Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate 5-Kinase I? and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Couple to Promote Oncogenic Growth.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Narendra; Choi, Suyong; Tan, Xiaojun; Wise, Thomas; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-07-24

    The assembly of signaling complexes at the plasma membrane is required for the initiation and propagation of cellular signaling upon cell activation. The class I PI3K and the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Akt signaling pathways (PI3K/Akt) are often activated in tumors. These pathways are initiated by the generation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) by PI3K-mediated phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), synthesized by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIPKI) enzymes. The mechanism of how tumor cells recruit and organize the PIP2-synthesizing enzymes with PI3K in the plasma membrane for activation of PI3K/Akt signaling is not defined. Here, we demonstrated a role for the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase I? (PIPKI?) in PI3K/Akt signaling. PIPKI? is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers. Loss of PIPKI? or its focal adhesion-targeting variant, PIPKI?i2, impaired PI3K/Akt activation upon stimulation with growth factors or extracellular matrix proteins in different tumor cells. PIPKI?i2 assembles into a complex containing Src and PI3K; Src was required for the recruitment of PI3K enzyme into the complex. PIPKI?i2 interaction with Src and its lipid kinase activity were required for promoting PI3K/Akt signaling. These results define a mechanism by which PIPKI?i2 and PI3K are integrated into a complex regulated by Src, resulting in the spatial generation of PIP2, which is the substrate PI3K required for PIP3 generation and subsequent Akt activation. This study elucidates the mechanism by which PIP2-generating enzyme controls Akt activation upstream of a PI3K enzyme. This pathway may represent a signaling nexus required for the survival and growth of metastasizing and circulating tumor cells in vivo. PMID:26070568

  8. Histone deacetylase 3 expression correlates with vasculogenic mimicry through the phosphoinositide3-kinase / ERK-MMP-laminin5γ2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Ji-Hui; Li, Shun; Li, Lin-Lin; Huang, Min; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yuan-Tao; Ding, Rui; Ke, Yi-Quan

    2015-07-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the process by which highly aggressive tumor cells mimic endothelial cells to form vessel-like structures that aid in supplying enough nutrients to rapidly growing tumors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the expression and activity of numerous molecules involved in cancer initiation and progression. Notably, HDAC3 is overexpressed in the majority of carcinomas. However, thus far, no data are available to support the role of HDAC3 in VM. In this study, we subjected glioma specimens to immunohistochemical and histochemical double-staining methods and found that VM and HDAC3 expression were related to the pathological grade of gliomas. The presence of VM correlated with HDAC3 expression in glioma tissues. The formation of tubular structures, as determined by the tube formation assay to evaluate VM, was impaired in U87MG cells when transfected by siRNA or treated with an HDAC3 inhibitor. Importantly, the expression of VM-related molecules such as MMP-2/14 and laminin5γ2 was also affected when HDAC3 expression was altered. Furthermore, U87MG cells were treated with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor or/and ERK inhibitor and found that the PI3K and ERK signaling pathways play key roles in VM; whereas, in VM, the two signaling pathways did not act upstream or downstream from each other. Taken together, our findings showed that HDAC3 contributed to VM in gliomas, possibly through the PI3K/ERK-MMPs-laminin5γ2 signaling pathway, which could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for gliomas. PMID:25940092

  9. Histone deacetylase 3 expression correlates with vasculogenic mimicry through the phosphoinositide3-kinase/ERKMMPlaminin5?2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Ji-Hui; Li, Shun; Li, Lin-Lin; Huang, Min; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yuan-Tao; Ding, Rui; Ke, Yi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the process by which highly aggressive tumor cells mimic endothelial cells to form vessel-like structures that aid in supplying enough nutrients to rapidly growing tumors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the expression and activity of numerous molecules involved in cancer initiation and progression. Notably, HDAC3 is overexpressed in the majority of carcinomas. However, thus far, no data are available to support the role of HDAC3 in VM. In this study, we subjected glioma specimens to immunohistochemical and histochemical double-staining methods and found that VM and HDAC3 expression were related to the pathological grade of gliomas. The presence of VM correlated with HDAC3 expression in glioma tissues. The formation of tubular structures, as determined by the tube formation assay to evaluate VM, was impaired in U87MG cells when transfected by siRNA or treated with an HDAC3 inhibitor. Importantly, the expression of VM-related molecules such as MMP-2/14 and laminin5?2 was also affected when HDAC3 expression was altered. Furthermore, U87MG cells were treated with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor or/and ERK inhibitor and found that the PI3K and ERK signaling pathways play key roles in VM; whereas, in VM, the two signaling pathways did not act upstream or downstream from each other. Taken together, our findings showed that HDAC3 contributed to VM in gliomas, possibly through the PI3K/ERKMMPslaminin5?2 signaling pathway, which could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for gliomas. PMID:25940092

  10. Synergistic inhibition of colon carcinoma cell growth by Hedgehog-Gli1 inhibitor arsenic trioxide and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xinyi; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yunfeng; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zhibin; Shen, Tao; Duan, Lincan; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Weiya

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays important roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis, but also in tumorigenesis. Aberrant Hh pathway activation has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors including colon carcinoma. Here, we sought to investigate the regulation of the Hh pathway transcription factor Gli1 by arsenic trioxide and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 in colon carcinoma cells. We transfected cells with siGli1 and observed a significant reduction of Gli1 expression in HCT116 and HT29 cells, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. Knocking down endogenous Gli1 reduced colon carcinoma cell viability through inducing cell apoptosis. Similarly, knocking down Gli2 using short interfering RNA impaired colon carcinoma cell growth in vitro. To elucidate the regulation of Gli1 expression, we found that both Gli inhibitor arsenic trioxide and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly reduced Gli1 protein expression and colon carcinoma cell proliferation. Arsenic trioxide treatment also reduced Gli1 downstream target gene expression, such as Bcl2 and CCND1. More importantly, the inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli1 by arsenic trioxide showed synergistic anticancer effect with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in colon carcinoma cells. Our findings suggest that the Hh pathway transcription factor Gli1 is involved in the regulation of colon carcinoma cell viability. Inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli1 expression by arsenic trioxide and PI3K inhibitor synergistically reduces colon cancer cell proliferation, indicating that they could be used as an effective anti-colon cancer combination therapy. PMID:25945059

  11. Calcineurin activation is not necessary for Doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 embryonic rat cardiac cells: involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Merten, Kevyn E; Jiang, Youchun; Feng, Wenke; Kang, Y James

    2006-11-01

    The calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient to induce cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with the antineoplastic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was shown to activate calcineurin signaling in H9c2 rat cardiac muscle cells; however, the effect of this activation on hypertrophy was not investigated. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the involvement of calcineurin activation in DOX-induced cardiac cell hypertrophy. H9c2 cells were treated with 1 microM DOX for 2 h following pretreatment with and in the presence of calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine A (CsA) or FK506 (tacrolimus). Subsequent analysis of calcineurin signaling and cellular hypertrophy was performed 8 to 48 h after the treatment. DOX treatment activated calcineurin signaling and resulted in cellular hypertrophy as assessed by an increase in cell volume and protein content per cell. Inhibition of calcineurin with CsA or FK506 blocked DOX-induced calcineurin signaling. However, this inhibition did not prevent the DOX-induced hypertrophic response in H9c2 cells. Further evaluation of the possible signaling pathways involved in DOX-induced H9c2 cellular hypertrophy revealed that DOX treatment resulted in phosphorylation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, a downstream effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Moreover, the DOX-induced hypertrophic response was blunted by LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one], a specific inhibitor for PI3K. These results demonstrate that, although calcineurin is activated by DOX treatment, it is not necessary for DOX-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Rather, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway seems to be more critically involved in DOX-induced hypertrophy. PMID:16926266

  12. Functional phenotype of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85alpha-null platelets characterized by an impaired response to GP VI stimulation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naohide; Nakajima, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Oda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Yumiko; Moroi, Masaaki; Terauchi, Yasuo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Suzuki, Harumi; Koyasu, Shigeo; Ikeda, Yasuo; Handa, Makoto

    2003-07-15

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), a family of lipid kinases comprising 3 classes with multiple isoforms, have been shown to participate in different phases of platelet signaling. To investigate the roles that enzymes play in platelet function in vivo and determine which isoforms are important for particular signaling events, we analyzed platelet function of gene knockout mice deficient in the p85alpha regulatory subunit of heterodimeric class IA PI3K. The kinase activity of p85alpha-/- platelets was only 5% of the activity of platelets from wild-type littermates. Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin, U46619, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or botrocetin was not defective in p85alpha-/- mice, compared with wild-type animals. In contrast, aggregation induced by collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP) was partially but readily impaired in p85alpha-/- mice. Both P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding in response to CRP were also decreased to a similar extent in p85alpha-/- platelets. Platelets from p85alpha-/- mice appeared to spread poorly over a CRP-coated surface with intact filopodial protrusions. Significant attenuation of CRP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in known PI3K effectors such as Btk, Tec, PKB/Akt, and phospholipase Cgamma2 were observed with p85alpha-/- platelets, whereas no alteration was noted in upstream molecules of Syk, LAT, and SLP-76. Considered as a whole, these results provide the first genetic evidence that PI3K p85alpha plays a significant role in platelet function, almost exclusively in the glycoprotein (GP) VI/Fc receptor gamma chain complex-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:12649157

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Isoquinoline Alkaloid Berberine on Ischemia-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mia; Shin, Mal Soon; Lee, Jae Min; Cho, Han Sam; Kim, Chang Ju; Kim, Young Joon; Choi, Hey Ran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Berberine is a type of isoquinoline alkaloid that has been used to treat various diseases. A neuroprotective effect of berberine against cerebral ischemia has been reported; however, the effects of berberine on apoptosis in relation to reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation under ischemic conditions have not yet been fully evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on global ischemia-induced apoptosis, and focused on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in the hippocampus using gerbils. Methods Gerbils received berberine orally once a day for 14 consecutive days, starting one day after surgery. In this study, a step-down avoidance task was used to assess short-term memory. Furthermore, we employed the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to evaluate DNA fragmentation, immunohistochemistry to investigate glial fibriallary acidic protein, CD11b, and caspase-3, and western blot to assess PI3K, Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c. Results Our results revealed that berberine treatment alleviated ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Treatment with berbeine also attenuated ischemia-induced apoptosis and inhibited reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Furthermore, berberine enhanced phospho-PI3K and phospho-Akt expression in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. Conclusions Berberine exerted a neuroprotective effect against ischemic insult by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The antiapoptotic effect of berberine was achieved through inhibition of reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Berberine may therefore serve as a therapeutic agent for stroke-induced neurourological problems. PMID:25279238

  14. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Alpha-Dependent Regulation of Branching Morphogenesis in Murine Embryonic Lung: Evidence for a Role in Determining Morphogenic Properties of FGF7

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Edward; Miron-Buchacra, Gabriela; Goldoni, Silvia; Danahay, Henry; Westwick, John; Watson, Malcolm L.; Tosh, David; Ward, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of many epithelial organs. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been identified as a central component of this process but the precise role has not been fully established. Herein we sought to determine the role of PI3K in murine lung branching using a series of pharmacological inhibitors directed at this pathway. The pan-class I PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 greatly enhanced the branching potential of whole murine lung explants as measured by an increase in the number of terminal branches compared with controls over 48 hours. This enhancement of branching was also observed following inhibition of the downstream signalling components of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. Isoform selective inhibitors of PI3K identified that the alpha isoform of PI3K is a key driver in branching morphogenesis. To determine if the effect of PI3K inhibition on branching was specific to the lung epithelium or secondary to an effect on the mesenchyme we assessed the impact of PI3K inhibition in cultures of mesenchyme-free lung epithelium. Isolated lung epithelium cultured with FGF7 formed large cyst-like structures, whereas co-culture with FGF7 and ZSTK474 induced the formation of defined branches with an intact lumen. Together these data suggest a novel role for PI3K in the branching program of the murine embryonic lung contradictory to that reported in other branching organs. Our observations also point towards PI3K acting as a morphogenic switch for FGF7 signalling. PMID:25460003

  15. Inhibition by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of P2-purinergic receptor-mediated iodide efflux and phosphoinositide turnover in FRTL-5 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okajima, F.; Sho, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-08-01

    Exposure of FRTL-5 thyroid cells to ATP (1 microM to 1 mM) resulted in the stimulation of I- efflux in association with the induction of inositol trisphosphate production and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Nonhydrolyzable ATP derivatives, ADP and GTP, were also as effective in magnitude as ATP, whereas neither AMP nor adenosine exerted significant effect on I- efflux, suggesting a P2-purinergic receptor-mediated activation of I- efflux. Treatment of the cells with the islet-activating protein (IAP) pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylated a 41,000 mol wt membrane protein, effectively suppressed the phosphoinositide response to ATP in addition to ATP-dependent I- efflux at agonist concentrations below 10 microM. In contrast, the I- efflux stimulated by TSH, A23187, or phorbol myristate acetate was insusceptible to IAP. The IAP substrate, probably GTP-binding protein, is hence proposed to mediate the activation of P2-purinergic receptor-linked phospholipase-C in FRTL-5 cells. However, the responses to ATP, its nonhydrolyzable derivatives, or ADP at the higher agonist concentrations, especially above 100 microM, were only partially inhibited by IAP, even though the IAP substrate was totally ADP ribosylated by the toxin. The responses to GTP in the whole concentration range tested were not influenced by IAP treatment. Thus, signals arising from the P2-receptor might be transduced to phospholipase-C by two different pathways, i.e. IAP-sensitive and insensitive ones, and result in the stimulation of I- efflux.

  16. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases Upregulate System xc? via Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2? and Activating Transcription Factor 4??A Pathway Active in Glioblastomas and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul; Kassubek, Rebecca; Albrecht, Philipp; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Meakin, Paul J.; Hayes, John D.; Aronica, Eleonora; Smolders, Ilse; Ludolph, Albert C.; Methner, Axel; Conrad, Marcus; Massie, Ann; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) relay growth factor signaling and mediate cytoprotection and cell growth. The cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc? imports cystine while exporting glutamate, thereby promoting glutathione synthesis while increasing extracellular cerebral glutamate. The aim of this study was to analyze the pathway through which growth factor and PI3K signaling induce the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc? and to demonstrate its biological significance for neuroprotection, cell growth, and epilepsy. Results: PI3Ks induce system xc? through glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) inhibition, general control non-derepressible-2-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor 2? phosphorylation, and the subsequent translational up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4. This pathway is essential for PI3Ks to modulate oxidative stress resistance of nerve cells and insulin-induced growth in fibroblasts. Moreover, the pathway is active in human glioblastoma cells. In addition, it is induced in primary cortical neurons in response to robust neuronal activity and in hippocampi from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Innovation: Our findings further extend the concepts of how growth factors and PI3Ks induce neuroprotection and cell growth by adding a new branch to the signaling network downstream of GSK-3?, which, ultimately, leads to the induction of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc?. Importantly, the induction of this pathway by neuronal activity and in epileptic hippocampi points to a potential role in epilepsy. Conclusion: PI3K-regulated system xc? activity is not only involved in the stress resistance of neuronal cells and in cell growth by increasing the cysteine supply and glutathione synthesis, but also plays a role in the pathophysiology of tumor- and non-tumor-associated epilepsy by up-regulating extracellular cerebral glutamate. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20: 29072922. PMID:24219064

  17. Platelet activation by bacterial phospholipase C involves phosphoinositide turnover and phosphorylation of 47,000 dalton but not 20,000 dalton protein

    SciTech Connect

    Huzoor-Akbar; Anwer, K.

    1986-05-01

    This study was conducted to examine the role of phosphoinositides (PIns) and phosphorylation of 47,000 dalton (P47) and 20,000 dalton (P20) proteins in platelet activation by bacterial phospholipase C (PLC). PLC induced serotonin secretion (SS) and platelet aggregation (PA) in a concentration dependent manner. PLC (0.02 U/ml) caused phosphorylation of P47 in a time dependent manner (27% at 0.5 min to 378% at 7 min). PLC did not induce more than 15% phosphorylation of P20 by 7 min. Aspirin (500 ..mu..M) blocked phosphorylation of P20 but did not inhibit SS, PA or phosphorylation of P47. PLC (0.04 U/ml) decreased radioactivity (cpm) in /sup 32/P labeled phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI-4,5-bis-PO4 (PIP2) and PI-4-PO4 (PIP) by 20%, 12% and 7.5% respectively at 15 sec. The level of PI but not that of PIP2 returned to base line in 3 min. PIP level increased above control values within one min. PLC increased phosphatidic acid level (75% at 0.5 min. to 1545% at 3 min). In other experiments PLC produced diacylglycerol (DAG) in a time and concentration dependent manner. However, no DAG was detectable in the first 60 sec. These data suggest that: (a) PIns turnover and phosphorylation of P47 but not that of P20 is involved in platelet activation by PLC; and (b) DAG production from outer membrane phospholipids is not a prerequisite for platelet activation by PLC.

  18. Genomic organization and complete cDNA sequence of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 gene (PLCB3)

    SciTech Connect

    Lagercrantz, J.; Carson, E.; Phelan, C.

    1995-04-10

    We have characterized the complete cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and expression of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 (PLC {beta}3) gene (gene symbol PLCB3). PLC {beta}3 plays an important role in initiating receptor-mediated signal transduction. Activation of PLC takes place in many cells as a response to stimulation by hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and other ligands. The partial cDNA sequence of PLC {beta}3, previously published, was extended with 876 bp in the 5{prime} direction, giving a transcript of 4400 bp and a total open reading frame of 1234 amino acids. This was in accordance with expression analysis by Northern blotting that revealed a single 4.4-kb transcript in all tissues tested. Genomic data were obtained by sequencing plasmid subclones of a cosmid that contained the whole gene. The size of the complete transcription unit was estimated to be on the order of 15 kb. The gene contains 31 exons, with all splice donor and acceptor sites conforming to the GT/AG rule. No exon exceeds 571 bp in length, and the shortest exon spans only 36 bp. More than half of the introns are smaller than 200 bp, with the smallest being only 79 bp long. The transcription initiation site was determined to be within an 8-bp cluster 328-321 bp upstream of the translation initiation site. The 5{prime} flanking region is highly GC rich, with multiple CpG doublets, and contains multiple binding sites for Sp1. Lacking typical transcriptional regulatory sequences such as TATA and CAAT boxes, the putative promoter region conforms to the group of housekeeping promoters. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Regulation of Phosphoinositide Levels by the Phospholipid Transfer Protein Sec14p Controls Cdc42p/p21-Activated Kinase-Mediated Cell Cycle Progression at Cytokinesis?

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Alicia G.; Fairn, Gregory D.; MacDonald, Kendra; Bankaitis, Vytas A.; McMaster, Christopher R.

    2007-01-01

    Sec14p is an essential phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein with a well-described role in the regulation of Golgi apparatus-derived vesicular transport in yeast. Inactivation of the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis allows cells to survive in the absence of Sec14p function through restoration of Golgi vesicular transport capability. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells containing a SEC14 temperature-sensitive allele along with an inactivated CDP-choline pathway were transformed with a high-copy-number yeast genomic library. Genes whose increased expression inhibited cell growth in the absence of Sec14p function were identified. Increasing levels of the Rho GTPase Cdc42p and its direct effector kinases Cla4p and Ste20p prevented the growth of cells lacking Sec14p and CDP-choline pathway function. Growth suppression was accompanied by an increase in large and multiply budded cells. This effect on polarized cell growth did not appear to be due to an inability to establish cell polarity, since both the actin cytoskeleton and localization of the septin Cdc12p were unaffected by increased expression of Cdc42p, Cla4p, or Ste20p. Nuclei were present in both the mother cell and the emerging bud, consistent with Sec14p regulation of the cell cycle subsequent to anaphase but prior to cytokinesis/septum breakdown. Increased expression of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase prevented growth arrest by CDC42, CLA4, or STE20 upon inactivation of Sec14p function. Sec14p regulation of phosphoinositide levels affects cytokinesis at the level of the Cdc42p/Cla4p/Ste20p signaling cascade. PMID:17601877

  20. Compartment-specific regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by platelet-derived growth factor and insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Navé, B T; Haigh, R J; Hayward, A C; Siddle, K; Shepherd, P R

    1996-01-01

    To understand how the stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) by different growth factors can activate different subsets of downstream responses, growth-factor regulation of PI 3-kinase activity at different intracellular locations was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin caused a large stimulation of glucose transport and stimulated recruitment of transferrin receptors to the plasma membrane (PM) in these cells, whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-bb was virtually without effect on these responses. Subcellular fractionation studies after stimulation with PDGF-bb or insulin revealed a differential effect of these growth factors on subcellular localization of PI 3-kinase activity. PDGF was more effective than insulin in stimulating PI 3-kinase activity and recruiting the p85 alpha PI 3-kinase adaptor subunit in the fraction containing the PM. However, in the microsomal fraction insulin significantly increased PI 3-kinase activity and p85 alpha levels, whereas PDGF was almost without effect. In the microsomal membrane fraction the insulin-stimulated recruitment of p85 alpha closely matched the increase PI 3-kinase activity, indicating that insulin stimulation of PI 3-kinase in this fraction is largely due to recruitment of PI 3-kinase enzyme rather than alterations in specific activity. Insulin-stimulated recruitment of p85 alpha to the microsomal membranes was not inhibited by wortmannin, indicating that PI 3-kinase activity was not required for this process. A further level of compartment-specific regulation of PI 3-kinase in response to PDGF was revealed by the finding that tyrosine phosphorylation of the p85 alpha adaptor was restricted to the PM-containing fraction. Insulin had no effect on p85 tyrosine phosphorylation in either fraction. In summary, these results suggest a basis by which insulin and PDGF could both use PI 3-kinase signalling cascades but achieve different signalling outcomes. PMID:8761452

  1. Nuclear Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C ?1 Controls Cytoplasmic CCL2 mRNA Levels in HIV-1 gp120-Stimulated Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Purificato, Cristina; Sabbatucci, Michela; Podo, Franca; Ramoni, Carlo; Gessani, Sandra; Fantuzzi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces, independently of infection, the release of CCL2 from macrophages. In turn, this chemokine acts as an autocrine factor enhancing viral replication. In this study, we show for the first time that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is required for the production of CCL2 triggered by gp120 in macrophages. Using a combination of confocal laser-scanner microscopy, pharmacologic inhibition, western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, we demonstrate that gp120 interaction with CCR5 leads to nuclear localization of the PI-PLC ?1 isozyme mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK-1/2. Notably, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), previously reported to be required for NF-kB-mediated CCL2 production induced by gp120 in macrophages, drives both ERK1/2 activation and PI-PLC ?1 nuclear localization induced by gp120. PI-PLC ?1 activation through CCR5 is also triggered by the natural chemokine ligand CCL4, but independently of ERK1/2. Finally, PI-PLC inhibition neither blocks gp120-mediated NF-kB activation nor overall accumulation of CCL2 mRNA, whereas it decreases CCL2 transcript level in the cytoplasm. These results identify nuclear PI-PLC ?1 as a new intermediate in the gp120-triggered PC-PLC-driven signal transduction pathway leading to CCL2 secretion in macrophages. The finding that a concerted gp120-mediated signaling involving both PC- and PI-specific PLCs is required for the expression of CCL2 in macrophages suggests that this signal transduction pathway may also be relevant for the modulation of viral replication in these cells. Thus, this study may contribute to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention in HIV-1 infection. PMID:23555755

  2. Two sites of action for PLD2 inhibitors: The enzyme catalytic center and an allosteric, phosphoinositide biding pocket.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ramya; Mahankali, Madhu; Alter, Gerald; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) has been implicated in many physiological functions, such as chemotaxis and phagocytosis, as well as pathological functions, such as cancer cell invasion and metastasis. New inhibitors have been described that hamper the role of PLD in those pathologies but their site of action is not known. We have characterized the biochemical and biological behavior of the PLD1/2 dual inhibitor 5-Fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), and the specific PLD2 inhibitor, N-[2-[1-(3-Fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,-8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-2-naphthalenecarboxamide (NFOT), and found that both FIPI and NFOT are mixed-kinetics inhibitors. Mutagenesis studies indicate that FIPI binds at S757 of PLD2, which is within the HKD2 catalytic site of the enzyme, whereas NFOT binds to PLD2 at two different sites, one being at S757/S648 and another to an allosteric site that is a natural site occupied by PIP2 (R210/R212). This latter site, along with F244/L245/L246, forms a hydrophobic pocket in the PH domain. The mechanism of action of FIPI is a direct effect on the catalytic site (and as such inhibits both PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms), whereas PLD2 affects both the catalytic site (orthosteric) and blocks PIP2 binding to PLD2 (allosteric), which negates the natural enhancing role of PIP2. Moreover, NFOT prevents cell invasion of cancer cells, which does not occur in cells overexpressing PLD2-F244A/L245A/L246A, or PLD2-R210A/R212A, or PLD2-S757/S648 mutants. This study provides new specific knowledge of enzyme regulation and mechanisms of activation and inhibition of PLD2 that are necessary to understand its role in cell signaling and to develop new inhibitors for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:25532944

  3. The Na+/H+ Exchanger-3 (NHE3) Activity Requires Ezrin Binding to Phosphoinositide and Its Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Babich, Victor; Di Sole, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Na+/H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) plays an essential role in maintaining sodium and fluid homeostasis in the intestine and kidney epithelium. Thus, NHE3 is highly regulated and its function depends on binding to multiple regulatory proteins. Ezrin complexed with NHE3 affects its activity via not well-defined mechanisms. This study investigates mechanisms by which ezrin regulates NHE3 activity in epithelial Opossum Kidney cells. Ezrin is activated sequentially by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding and phosphorylation of threonine 567. Expression of ezrin lacking PIP2 binding sites inhibited NHE3 activity (-40%) indicating that ezrin binding to PIP2 is required for preserving NHE3 activity. Expression of a phosphomimetic ezrin mutated at the PIP2 binding region was sufficient not only to reverse NHE3 activity to control levels but also to increase its activity (+80%) similar to that of the expression of ezrin carrying the phosphomimetic mutation alone. Calcineurin Homologous Protein-1 (CHP1) is part, with ezrin, of the NHE3 regulatory complex. CHP1-mediated activation of NHE3 activity was blocked by expression of an ezrin variant that could not be phosphorylated but not by an ezrin variant unable to bind PIP2. Thus, for NHE3 activity under baseline conditions not only ezrin phosphorylation, but also ezrin spatial-temporal targeting on the plasma membrane via PIP2 binding is required; however, phosphorylation of ezrin appears to overcome the control of NHE3 transport. CHP1 action on NHE3 activity is not contingent on ezrin binding to PIP2 but rather on ezrin phosphorylation. These findings are important in understanding the interrelation and dynamics of a CHP1-ezrin-NHE3 regulatory complex. PMID:26042733

  4. [ROLE PHOSPHOINOSITID SIGNALING PATHWAY IN OPIOIDS CONTROL OF P2X3 RECEPTORS IN THE PRIMARY SENSORY NEURONS].

    PubMed

    Kulyk, V B; Chizhmakov, I V; Volkova, T M; Maximyuk, O P; Krishtal, O A

    2015-01-01

    Homomeric P2X3 receptors expressed in primary nociceptive neurons are crucial elements in the pain signal generation. In turn, opioid system regulates the intensity of this signal in both CNS and PNS. Here we describe the effects of opioids on P2X3 receptors in DRG neurons studied by using patch clamp technique. Activation of G-protein coupled opioid receptors by endogenous opioid Leu-enkephalin (Leu), resulted in the two opposite effects on P2X3 receptor-mediated currents (P2X3 currents). In particular, application of 1 M Leu lead to the complete inhibition of P2X3 currents. However, after pretreatment of the neurons with a Gi/o-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PT), the same concentration of Leu caused facilitation of P2X3 currents. PLC inhibitor U-73122 at concentration of 1 M completely eliminated both facilitating and inhibitory effects of Leu on P2X3 currents. Thus, opioid receptor agonists cause two oppositely directed effects on P2X3 receptors in DRG neurons of rats and both of them are mediated through PLC signaling pathway. Our results point to a possible molecular basis of the mechanism for the well-known transition inhibitory action of opioids (analgesia) to facilitating (hyperalgesia). PMID:26552301

  5. Phosphoinositide interacting regulator of TRP (Pirt) enhances TRPM8 channel activity in vitro via increasing channel conductance

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Wu, Guang-yi; Dong, Xin-zhong; Tang, Zong-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Pirt is a two-transmembrane domain protein that regulates the function of a variety of ion channels. Our previous study indicated that Pirt acts as a positive endogenous regulator of the TRPM8 channel. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the regulation of TRPM8 channel by Pirt. Methods: HEK293 cells were transfected with TRPM8+Pirt or TRPM8 alone. Menthol (1 mmol/L) was applied through perfusion to induce TRPM8-mediated voltage-dependent currents, which were recorded using a whole-cell recording technique. PIP2 (10 μmol/L) was added into the electrode pipettes (PI was taken as a control). Additionally, cell-attached single-channel recordings were conducted in CHO cells transfected with TRPM8+Pirt or TRPM8 alone, and menthol (1 mmol/L) was added into the pipette solution. Results: Either co-transfection with Pirt or intracellular application of PIP2 (but not PI) significantly enhanced menthol-induced TRPM8 currents. Furthermore, Pirt and PIP2 synergistically modulated menthol-induced TRPM8 currents. Single-channel recordings revealed that co-transfection with Pirt significantly increased the single channel conductance. Conclusion: Pirt and PIP2 synergistically enhance TRPM8 channel activity, and Pirt regulates TRPM8 channel activity by increasing the single channel conductance. PMID:26657057

  6. Discovery of PDK1 kinase inhibitors with a novel mechanism of action by ultrahigh throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Weber, Michael J; Xu, Zangwei; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Jung, Joon; Blume-Jensen, Peter; Northrup, Alan; Kunapuli, Priya; Andersen, Jannik N; Kariv, Ilona

    2010-06-11

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, and angiogenesis. Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) acts at a focal point in this pathway immediately downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and PTEN, where it phosphorylates numerous AGC kinases. The PDK1 kinase domain has at least three ligand-binding sites: the ATP-binding pocket, the peptide substrate-binding site, and a groove in the N-terminal lobe that binds the C-terminal hydrophobic motif of its kinase substrates. Based on the unique PDK1 substrate recognition system, ultrahigh throughput TR-FRET and Alphascreen screening assays were developed using a biotinylated version of the PDK1-tide substrate containing the activation loop of AKT fused to a pseudo-activated hydrophobic motif peptide. Using full-length PDK1, K(m) values were determined as 5.6 mum for ATP and 40 nm for the fusion peptide, revealing 50-fold higher affinity compared with the classical AKT(Thr-308)-tide. Kinetic and biophysical studies confirmed the PDK1 catalytic mechanism as a rapid equilibrium random bireactant reaction. Following an ultrahigh throughput screen of a large library, 2,000 compounds were selected from the reconfirmed hits by computational analysis with a focus on novel scaffolds. ATP-competitive hits were deconvoluted by dose-response studies at 1x and 10x K(m) concentrations of ATP, and specificity of binding was assessed in thermal shift assay. Inhibition studies using fusion PDK1-tide1 substrate versus AKT(Thr-308)-tide and kinase selectivity profiling revealed a novel selective alkaloid scaffold that evidently binds to the PDK1-interacting fragment pocket. Molecular modeling suggests a structural paradigm for the design of inhibitory versus activating allosteric ligands of PDK1. PMID:20385558

  7. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and prostaglandin E2 formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Possible parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2

    SciTech Connect

    Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-03-25

    alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors mediate two effects on phospholipid metabolism in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells: hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and arachidonic acid release with generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The similarity in concentration dependence for the agonist (-)-epinephrine in eliciting these two responses implies that they are mediated by a single population of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. However, we find that the kinetics of the two responses are quite different, PGE2 production occurring more rapidly and transiently than the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The antibiotic neomycin selectively decreases alpha 1-receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis without decreasing alpha 1-receptor-mediated arachidonic acid release and PGE2 generation. In addition, receptor-mediated inositol trisphosphate formation is independent of extracellular calcium, whereas release of labeled arachidonic acid is largely calcium-dependent. Moreover, based on studies obtained with labeled arachidonic acid, receptor-mediated generation of arachidonic acid cannot be accounted for by breakdown of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, or phosphatidic acid. Further studies indicate that epinephrine produces changes in formation or turnover of several classes of membrane phospholipids in MDCK cells. We conclude that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in MDCK cells appear to regulate phospholipid metabolism by the parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. This parallel activation of phospholipases contrasts with models described in other systems which imply sequential activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase or phospholipase A2.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is independent of phosphoinositide signalling, but dependent on sphingosine kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, K W; Challiss, R A; Nahorski, S R; MacKrill, J J

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular application of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The maximal response to LPA occurred between 0. 1 and 1 microM, at which point [Ca(2+)](i) was increased by approx. 500 nM. This increase was of similar magnitude to that caused by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist methacholine (MCh), although the initial rate of release by LPA was slower. Both LPA and MCh released Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, as assessed by inhibition of their effects by thapsigargin, a blocker of endoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) uptake, and by the persistence of their action in nominally Ca(2+)-free extracellular medium. Similarly, both agonists appeared to stimulate store-refilling Ca(2+) entry. MCh produced a marked elevation in cellular Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and stimulated [(3)H]InsP accumulation in the presence of Li(+). In contrast, LPA failed to stimulate detectable phosphoinositide turnover. Chronic down-regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor (InsP(3)R) proteins with MCh did not affect Ca(2+) responses to LPA. In addition, heparin, a competitive antagonist of InsP(3)Rs, blocked Ca(2+)-mobilization in permeabilized SH-SY5Y cells in response to MCh or exogenously added Ins(1,4,5)P(3), but failed to inhibit Ca(2+)-release induced by LPA. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by LPA was blocked by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]-diphosphate, indicating that this agonist acts via a G-protein-coupled receptor. However, pertussis toxin was without effect on LPA-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) responses, suggesting that G(i/o)-proteins were not involved. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS, 30 microM), a competitive inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, blocked LPA-induced Ca(2+) responses by almost 90%. In addition, MCh-induced Ca(2+) responses were also diminished by the addition of DMS, although to a lesser extent than with LPA. We conclude that LPA mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+)-stores in SH-SY5Y cells independently of the generation and action of Ins(1,4,5)P(3). Furthermore, the Ca(2+)-response to LPA appears to be dependent on sphingosine kinase activation and the potential generation of the putative second messenger sphingosine 1-phosphate. PMID:10493910

  9. ETP-46321, a dual p110α/δ class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor modulates T lymphocyte activation and collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aragoneses-Fenoll, L; Montes-Casado, M; Ojeda, G; Acosta, Y Y; Herranz, J; Martínez, S; Blanco-Aparicio, C; Criado, G; Pastor, J; Dianzani, U; Portolés, P; Rojo, J M

    2016-04-15

    Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are essential to function of normal and tumor cells, and to modulate immune responses. T lymphocytes express high levels of p110α and p110δ class IA PI3K. Whereas the functioning of PI3K p110δ in immune and autoimmune reactions is well established, the role of p110α is less well understood. Here, a novel dual p110α/δ inhibitor (ETP-46321) and highly specific p110α (A66) or p110δ (IC87114) inhibitors have been compared concerning T cell activation in vitro, as well as the effect on responses to protein antigen and collagen-induced arthritis in vivo. In vitro activation of naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was inhibited more effectively by the p110δ inhibitor than by the p110α inhibitor as measured by cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ), T-bet expression and NFAT activation. In activated CD4(+) T cells re-stimulated through CD3 and ICOS, IC87114 inhibited Akt and Erk activation, and the secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17A, and IFN-γ better than A66. The p110α/δ inhibitor ETP-46321, or p110α plus p110δ inhibitors also inhibited IL-21 secretion by differentiated CD4(+) T follicular (Tfh) or IL-17-producing (Th17) helper cells. In vivo, therapeutic administration of ETP-46321 significantly inhibited responses to protein antigen as well as collagen-induced arthritis, as measured by antigen-specific antibody responses, secretion of IL-10, IL-17A or IFN-γ, or clinical symptoms. Hence, p110α as well as p110δ Class IA PI3Ks are important to immune regulation; inhibition of both subunits may be an effective therapeutic approach in inflammatory autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26883061

  10. The Essential Phosphoinositide Kinase MSS-4 Is Required for Polar Hyphal Morphogenesis, Localizing to Sites of Growth and Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P2. In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P2 localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P2 that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N. crassa MSS-4 and its roles in hyphal growth are discussed with a comparative perspective on PI-control of polar tip growth in different organismic kingdoms. PMID:23272106

  11. The essential phosphoinositide kinase MSS-4 is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mhs, Anette; Ischebeck, Till; Heilig, Yvonne; Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N. crassa MSS-4 and its roles in hyphal growth are discussed with a comparative perspective on PI-control of polar tip growth in different organismic kingdoms. PMID:23272106

  12. Selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta: modulators of B-cell function with potential for treating autoimmune inflammatory diseases and B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Kamal D.; Gold, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The delta isoform of the p110 catalytic subunit (p110δ) of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells and plays an essential role in B-cell development and function. Studies employing mice lacking a functional p110δ protein, as well as the use of highly-selective chemical inhibitors of p110δ, have revealed that signaling via p110δ-containing PI3K complexes (PI3Kδ) is critical for B-cell survival, migration, and activation, functioning downstream of key receptors on B cells including the B-cell antigen receptor, chemokine receptors, pro-survival receptors such as BAFF-R and the IL-4 receptor, and co-stimulatory receptors such as CD40 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Similarly, this PI3K isoform plays a key role in the survival, proliferation, and dissemination of B-cell lymphomas. Herein we summarize studies showing that these processes can be inhibited in vitro and in vivo by small molecule inhibitors of p110δ enzymatic activity, and that these p110δ inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PI3Kδ also plays a critical role in the activation, proliferation, and tissue homing of self-reactive B cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases, in particular innate-like B-cell populations such as marginal zone (MZ) B cells and B-1 cells that have been strongly linked to autoimmunity. We discuss the potential utility of p110δ inhibitors, either alone or in combination with B-cell depletion, for treating autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. Because PI3Kδ plays a major role in both B-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation and B-cell malignancies, PI3Kδ inhibitors may represent a promising therapeutic approach for treating these diseases. PMID:22936933

  13. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Chronic Kidney Disease with Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases as Its Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gajjala, Prathibha Reddy; Sanati, Maryam; Jankowski, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are complex disorders of partly unknown genesis and mostly known progression factors. CVD and DM are the risk factors of CKD and are strongly intertwined since DM can lead to both CKD and/or CVD, and CVD can lead to kidney disease. In recent years, our knowledge of CKD, DM, and CVD has been expanded and several important experimental, clinical, and epidemiological associations have been reported. The tight cellular and molecular interactions between the renal, diabetic, and cardiovascular systems in acute or chronic disease settings are becoming increasingly evident. However, the (patho-) physiological basis of the interactions of CKD, DM, and CVD with involvement of multiple endogenous and environmental factors is highly complex and our knowledge is still at its infancy. Not only single pathways and mediators of progression of these diseases have to be considered in these processes but also the mutual interactions of these factors are essential. The recent advances in proteomics and integrative analysis technologies have allowed rapid progress in analyzing complex disorders and clearly show the opportunity for new efficient and specific therapies. More than a dozen pathways have been identified so far, including hyperactivity of the renin–angiotensin (RAS)–aldosterone system, osmotic sodium retention, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, RAS/RAF/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway, modification of the purinergic system, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent signaling pathways, and inflammation, all leading to histomorphological alterations of the kidney and vessels of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Since a better understanding of the common cellular and molecular mechanisms of these diseases may be a key to successful identification of new therapeutic targets, we review in this paper the current literature about cellular and molecular mechanisms of CKD. PMID:26217336

  14. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635) by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Hwang, Jinah; Sykes, Michelle; Michell, Belinda J.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Lum, Hazel; Jo, Hanjoong

    2002-01-01

    Shear stress stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production by phosphorylating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at Ser(1179) in a phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. The eNOS has additional potential phosphorylation sites, including Ser(116), Thr(497), and Ser(635). Here, we studied these potential phosphorylation sites in response to shear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and 8-bromocAMP (8-BRcAMP) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). All three stimuli induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635), which was consistently slower than that at Ser(1179). Thr(497) was rapidly dephosphorylated by 8-BRcAMP but not by shear and VEGF. None of the stimuli phosphorylated Ser(116). Whereas shear-stimulated Ser(635) phosphorylation was not affected by phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002, it was blocked by either treating the cells with a PKA inhibitor H89 or infecting them with a recombinant adenovirus-expressing PKA inhibitor. These results suggest that shear stress stimulates eNOS by two different mechanisms: 1) PKA- and PI3K-dependent and 2) PKA-dependent but PI3K-independent pathways. Phosphorylation of Ser(635) may play an important role in chronic regulation of eNOS in response to mechanical and humoral stimuli.

  15. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the development and function of Th17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurebayashi, Yutaka; Nagai, Shigenori; Ikejiri, Ai; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells comprise a distinct Th subset involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil-mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes. At the same time, Th17 cells play significant roles in the development of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Since the identification of Th17 cells approximately a decade ago, the molecular mechanisms of their differentiation have been intensively studied and a number of signaling cascades and transcription factors have been shown to be involved. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of Th17 cells in vivo as well as several key concepts for the molecular mechanisms of Th17 differentiation. We also discuss the emerging roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the differentiation of Th17 cells. PMID:23383714

  16. Retinoic acid signaling in axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Puttagunta, Radhika; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Following an acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, axonal regeneration and functional recovery are extremely limited. This is due to an extrinsic inhibitory growth environment and the lack of intrinsic growth competence. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling, essential in developmental dorsoventral patterning and specification of spinal motor neurons, has been shown through its receptor, the transcription factor RA receptor ?2 (RAR?2), to induce axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, it has been shown that in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs), cAMP levels were greatly increased by lentiviral RAR?2 expression and contributed to neurite outgrowth. Moreover, RAR?agonists, in cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) and in the brain in vivo, induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase dependent phosphorylation of AKT that was involved in RAR?-dependent neurite outgrowth. More recently, RA-RAR?pathways were shown to directly transcriptionally repress a member of the inhibitory Nogo receptor (NgR) complex, Lingo-1, under an axonal growth inhibitory environment in vitro as well as following spinal injury in vivo. This perspective focuses on these newly discovered molecular mechanisms and future directions in the field. PMID:22287943

  17. A Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K)-serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase 1 (SGK1) Pathway Promotes Kv7.1 Channel Surface Expression by Inhibiting Nedd4-2 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Petersen, Frederic; Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Olesen, Sren-Peter; Abriel, Hugues; Jespersen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell polarization involves several kinase signaling cascades that eventually divide the surface membrane into an apical and a basolateral part. One kinase, which is activated during the polarization process, is phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In MDCK cells, the basolateral potassium channel Kv7.1 requires PI3K activity for surface-expression during the polarization process. Here, we demonstrate that Kv7.1 surface expression requires tonic PI3K activity as PI3K inhibition triggers endocytosis of these channels in polarized MDCK. Pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 gave similar results as PI3K inhibition, whereas overexpression of constitutively active SGK1 overruled it, suggesting that SGK1 is the primary downstream target of PI3K in this process. Furthermore, knockdown of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 overruled PI3K inhibition, whereas a Nedd4-2 interaction-deficient Kv7.1 mutant was resistant to both PI3K and SGK1 inhibition. Altogether, these data suggest that a PI3K-SGK1 pathway stabilizes Kv7.1 surface expression by inhibiting Nedd4-2-dependent endocytosis and thereby demonstrates that Nedd4-2 is a key regulator of Kv7.1 localization and turnover in epithelial cells. PMID:24214981

  18. Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha (PI3K?): 3D-QSAR analysis utilizing the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm to refine receptor-ligand complexes for molecular alignment.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Jasuja, H; Kaur, M; Singh Bahia, M; Silakari, O

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha (PI3K?) is a lipid kinase involved in several cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival, and its anomalous regulation leads to cancerous conditions. PI3K? inhibition completely blocks the cancer signalling pathway, hence it can be explored as an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the present study, docking analysis of 49 selective imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine inhibitors of PI3K? was carried out using the QM-Polarized ligand docking (QPLD) program of the Schrdinger software, followed by the refinement of receptor-ligand conformations using the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm in the Liaison program, and alignment of refined conformations of inhibitors was utilized for the development of an atom-based 3D-QSAR model in the PHASE program. Among the five generated models, the best model was selected corresponding to PLS factor 2, displaying the highest value of Q(2)test (0.650). The selected model also displayed high values of r(2)train (0.917), F-value (166.5) and Pearson-r (0.877) and a low value of SD (0.265). The contour plots generated for the selected 3D-QSAR model were correlated with the results of docking simulations. Finally, this combined information generated from 3D-QSAR and docking analysis was used to design new congeners. PMID:24601789

  19. Baculovirus production of fully-active phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha as a p85alpha-p110alpha fusion for X-ray crystallographic analysis with ATP competitive enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sinnamon, Robert H; McDevitt, Patrick; Pietrak, Beth L; Leydon, Vaughan R; Xue, Yu; Lehr, Ruth; Qi, Hongwei; Burns, Matthew; Elkins, Patricia; Ward, Paris; Vincentini, Giorgia; Fisher, Donald; Grimes, Maggie; Brandt, Martin; Auger, Kurt R; Ho, Thau; Johanson, Kyung; Jones, Christopher S; Schwartz, Benjamin; Sweitzer, Thomas D; Kirkpatrick, Robert B

    2010-10-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases have been targeted for therapeutic research because they are key components of a cell signaling cascade controlling proliferation, growth, and survival. Direct activation of the PI3Kalpha pathway contributes to the development and progression of solid tumors in breast, endometrial, colon, ovarian, and gastric cancers. In the context of a drug discovery effort, the availability of a robust crystallographic system is a means to understand the subtle differences between ATP competitive inhibitor interactions with the active site and their selectivity against other PI3Kinase enzymes. To generate a suitable recombinant design for this purpose, a p85alpha-p110alpha fusion system was developed which enabled the expression and purification of a stoichiometrically homogeneous, constitutively active enzyme for structure determination with potent ATP competitive inhibitors (Raha et al., in preparation) [56]. This approach has yielded preparations with activity and inhibition characteristics comparable to those of the full-length PI3Kalpha from which X-ray diffracting crystals were grown with inhibitors bound in the active site. PMID:20457255

  20. REGULATION OF CA2+ ENTRY BY INOSITOL LIPIDS IN MAMMALIAN CELLS BY MULTIPLE MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    Increased phosphoinositide turnover was first identified as an early signal transduction event initiated by cell surface receptors that were linked to calcium signaling. Subsequently, the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C enzymes was defined as the major link between inositide turnover and the cytosolic Ca2+ rise in response to external stimulation. However, in the last decades, phosphoinositides have been emerging as major regulatory lipids involved in virtually every membrane-associated signaling process. Phosphoinositides regulate both the activity and the trafficking of almost all ion channels and transporters contributing to the maintenance of the ionic gradients that are essential for the proper functioning of all eukaryotic cells. Here we summarize the various means by which phosphoinositides affect ion channel functions with special emphasis on Ca2+ signaling and outline the principles that govern the highly compartmentalized roles of these regulatory lipids. PMID:19395084

  1. Puzzling Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  2. Puzzling Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by

  3. Signalling mechanisms regulating phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Volinsky, Natalia; McCarthy, Cormac J; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Saban, Nina; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2015-01-01

    In MCF-7 breast cancer cells epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell proliferation, whereas heregulin (HRG)/neuregulin (NRG) induces irreversible phenotypic changes accompanied by lipid accumulation. Although these changes in breast cancer cells resemble processes that take place in the tissue, there is no understanding of signalling mechanisms regulating it. To identify molecular mechanisms mediating this cell-fate decision process, we applied different perturbations to pathways activated by these growth factors. The results demonstrate that phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC)1 activation is necessary for lipid accumulation that can also be induced by insulin, whereas stimulation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is surprisingly dispensable. Interestingly, insulin exposure, as short as 4 h, was sufficient for triggering the lipid accumulation, whereas much longer treatment with HRG was required for achieving similar cellular response. Further, activation patterns of ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), an enzyme playing a central role in linking glycolytic and lipogenic pathways, suggest that lipids accumulated within cells are produced de novo rather than absorbed from the environment. In the present study, we demonstrate that PI3K pathway regulates phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, whereas signal intensity and duration is crucial for cell fate decisions and commitment. Our findings reveal that MCF-7 cell fate decisions are controlled by a network of positive and negative regulators of both signalling and metabolic pathways. PMID:25643809

  4. Signalling mechanisms regulating phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; McCarthy, CormacJ.; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Saban, Nina; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, BorisN.

    2015-01-01

    In MCF-7 breast cancer cells epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell proliferation, whereas heregulin (HRG)/neuregulin (NRG) induces irreversible phenotypic changes accompanied by lipid accumulation. Although these changes in breast cancer cells resemble processes that take place in the tissue, there is no understanding of signalling mechanisms regulating it. To identify molecular mechanisms mediating this cell-fate decision process, we applied different perturbations to pathways activated by these growth factors. The results demonstrate that phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC)1 activation is necessary for lipid accumulation that can also be induced by insulin, whereas stimulation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is surprisingly dispensable. Interestingly, insulin exposure, as short as 4h, was sufficient for triggering the lipid accumulation, whereas much longer treatment with HRG was required for achieving similar cellular response. Further, activation patterns of ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), an enzyme playing a central role in linking glycolytic and lipogenic pathways, suggest that lipids accumulated within cells are produced de novo rather than absorbed from the environment. In the present study, we demonstrate that PI3K pathway regulates phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, whereas signal intensity and duration is crucial for cell fate decisions and commitment. Our findings reveal that MCF-7 cell fate decisions are controlled by a network of positive and negative regulators of both signalling and metabolic pathways. PMID:25643809

  5. Characterization of VPS34-IN1, a selective inhibitor of Vps34, reveals that the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding SGK3 protein kinase is a downstream target of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Bago, Ruzica; Malik, Nazma; Munson, Michael J.; Prescott, Alan R.; Davies, Paul; Sommer, Eeva; Shpiro, Natalia; Ward, Richard; Cross, Darren; Ganley, Ian G.; Alessi, Dario R.

    2014-01-01

    The Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) class III PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) phosphorylates PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) at endosomal membranes to generate PtdIns(3)P that regulates membrane trafficking processes via its ability to recruit a subset of proteins possessing PtdIns(3)P-binding PX (phox homology) and FYVE domains. In the present study, we describe a highly selective and potent inhibitor of Vps34, termed VPS34-IN1, that inhibits Vps34 with 25 nM IC50 in vitro, but does not significantly inhibit the activity of 340 protein kinases or 25 lipid kinases tested that include all isoforms of class I as well as class II PI3Ks. Administration of VPS34-IN1 to cells induces a rapid dose-dependent dispersal of a specific PtdIns(3)P-binding probe from endosome membranes, within 1 min, without affecting the ability of class I PI3K to regulate Akt. Moreover, we explored whether SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-3), the only protein kinase known to interact specifically with PtdIns(3)P via its N-terminal PX domain, might be controlled by Vps34. Mutations disrupting PtdIns(3)P binding ablated SGK3 kinase activity by suppressing phosphorylation of the T-loop [PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) site] and hydrophobic motif (mammalian target of rapamycin site) residues. VPS34-IN1 induced a rapid ~50–60% loss of SGK3 phosphorylation within 1 min. VPS34-IN1 did not inhibit activity of the SGK2 isoform that does not possess a PtdIns(3)P-binding PX domain. Furthermore, class I PI3K inhibitors (GDC-0941 and BKM120) that do not inhibit Vps34 suppressed SGK3 activity by ~40%. Combining VPS34-IN1 and GDC-0941 reduced SGK3 activity ~80–90%. These data suggest SGK3 phosphorylation and hence activity is controlled by two pools of PtdIns(3)P. The first is produced through phosphorylation of PtdIns by Vps34 at the endosome. The second is due to the conversion of class I PI3K product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 into PtdIns(3)P, via the sequential actions of the PtdIns 5-phosphatases [SHIP1/2 (Src homology 2-domain-containing inositol phosphatase 1/2)] and PtdIns 4-phosphatase [INPP4B (inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II)]. VPS34-IN1 will be a useful probe to delineate physiological roles of the Vps34. Monitoring SGK3 phosphorylation and activity could be employed as a biomarker of Vps34 activity, in an analogous manner by which Akt is used to probe cellular class I PI3K activity. Combining class I (GDC-0941) and class III (VPS34-IN1) PI3K inhibitors could be used as a strategy to better analyse the roles and regulation of the elusive class II PI3K. PMID:25177796

  6. Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C ? 1b (PI-PLC?1b) Interactome: Affinity Purification-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of PI-PLC?1b with Nuclear Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Piazzi, Manuela; Blalock, William L.; Bavelloni, Alberto; Faenza, Irene; D'Angelo, Antonietta; Maraldi, Nadir M.; Cocco, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Two isoforms of inositide-dependent phospholipase C ?1 (PI-PLC?1) are generated by alternative splicing (PLC?1a and PLC?1b). Both isoforms are present within the nucleus, but in contrast to PLC?1a, the vast majority of PLC?1b is nuclear. In mouse erythroid leukemia cells, PI-PLC?1 is involved in the regulation of cell division and the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nuclear localization is crucial for the enzymatic function of PI-PLC?1, although the mechanism by which this nuclear import occurs has never been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize both the mechanism of nuclear localization and the molecular function of nuclear PI-PLC?1 by identifying its interactome in Friend's erythroleukemia isolated nuclei, utilizing a procedure that coupled immuno-affinity purification with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Using this procedure, 160 proteins were demonstrated to be in association with PI-PLC?1b, some of which have been previously characterized, such as the splicing factor SRp20 (Srsf3) and Lamin B (Lmnb1). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis of selected proteins confirmed the data obtained via mass spectrometry. Of particular interest was the identification of the nuclear import proteins Kpna2, Kpna4, Kpnb1, Ran, and Rangap1, as well as factors involved in hematological malignancies and several anti-apoptotic proteins. These data give new insight into possible mechanisms of nuclear trafficking and functioning of this critical signaling molecule. PMID:23665500

  7. A Potent Inhibitor of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) and Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signalling, Quercetin (3, 3', 4', 5, 7-Pentahydroxyflavone) Promotes Cell Death in Ultraviolet (UV)-B-Irradiated B16F10 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Rather A.; Quadri, Afnan; Nazir, Lone A.; Peerzada, Kaiser; Ganai, Bashir A.; Tasduq, Sheikh A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation–induced skin damage contributes strongly to the formation of melanoma, a highly lethal form of skin cancer. Quercetin (Qu), the most widely consumed dietary bioflavonoid and well known inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling, has been reported to be chemopreventive in several forms of non-melanoma skin cancers. Here, we report that the treatment of ultraviolet (UV)-B-irradiated B16F10 melanoma cells with quercetin resulted in a dose dependent reduction in cell viability and increased apoptosis. The present study has brought out that the pro-apoptotic effects of quercetin in UVB-irradiated B16F10 cells are mediated through the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, calcium homeostasis imbalance, modulation of anti-oxidant defence response and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM). Promotion of UVB-induced cell death by quercetin was further revealed by cleavage of chromosomal DNA, caspase activation, poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and an increase in sub-G1 cells. Quercetin markedly attenuated MEK-ERK signalling, influenced PI3K/Akt pathway, and potentially enhanced the UVB-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, combined UVB and quercetin treatment decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to that of Bax, and upregulated the expression of Bim and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Overall, these results suggest the possibility of using quercetin in combination with UVB as a possible treatment option for melanoma in future. PMID:26148186

  8. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the lipid- and protein-kinase activities of the p110alpha and p110beta catalytic subunits of class-Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Beeton, C A; Chance, E M; Foukas, L C; Shepherd, P R

    2000-01-01

    Growth factors regulate a wide range of cellular processes via activation of the class-Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases). We directly compared kinetic properties of lipid- and protein-kinase activities of the widely expressed p110alpha and p110beta isoforms. The lipid-kinase activity did not display Michaelis-Menten kinetics but modelling the kinetic data demonstrated that p110alpha has a higher V(max) and a 25-fold higher K(m) for PtdIns than p110beta. A similar situation occurs with PtdIns(4,5)P(2), because at low concentration of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) p110beta is a better PtdIns(4,5)P(2) kinase than p110alpha, although this is reversed at high concentrations. These differences suggest different functional roles and we hypothesize that p110beta functions better in areas of membranes containing low levels of substrate whereas p110alpha would work best in areas of high substrate density such as membrane lipid rafts. We also compared protein-kinase activities. We found that p110beta phosphorylated p85 to a lower degree than did p110alpha. We used a novel peptide-based assay to compare the kinetics of the protein-kinase activities of p110alpha and p110beta. These studies revealed that, like the lipid-kinase activity, the protein-kinase activity of p110alpha has a higher K(m) (550 microM) than p110beta (K(m) 8 microgM). Similarly, the relative V(max) towards peptide substrate of p110alpha was three times higher than that of p110beta. This implies differences in the rates of regulatory autophosphorylation in vivo, which are likely to mean differential regulation of the lipid-kinase activities of p110alpha and p110beta in vivo. PMID:10947948

  9. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase class IA (PI3K 110α) and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) in regulation of vascular differentiation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bekhite, Mohamed M; Müller, Veronika; Tröger, Sebastian H; Müller, Jörg P; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The impact of reactive oxygen species and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells is largely unknown. Here, we show that the silencing of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110α and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (NOX1) by short hairpin RNA or pharmacological inhibition of NOX and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) abolishes superoxide production by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse ES cells and in ES-cell-derived fetal liver kinase-1(+) (Flk-1(+)) vascular progenitor cells, whereas the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone does not have an effect. Silencing p110α or inhibiting Rac1 arrests vasculogenesis at initial stages in embryoid bodies, even under VEGF treatment, as indicated by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1)-positive areas and branching points. In the absence of p110α, tube-like structure formation on matrigel and cell migration of Flk-1(+) cells in scratch migration assays are totally impaired. Silencing NOX1 causes a reduction in PECAM-1-positive areas, branching points, cell migration and tube length upon VEGF treatment, despite the expression of vascular differentiation markers. Interestingly, silencing p110α but not NOX1 inhibits the activation of Rac1, Ras homologue gene family member A (RhoA) and Akt leading to the abrogation of VEGF-induced lamellipodia structure formation. Thus, our data demonstrate that the PI3K p110α-Akt/Rac1 and NOX1 signalling pathways play a pivotal role in VEGF-induced vascular differentiation and cell migration. Rac1, RhoA and Akt phosphorylation occur downstream of PI3K and upstream of NOX1 underscoring a role of PI3K p110α in the regulation of cell polarity and migration. PMID:26553657

  10. The p110δ crystal structure uncovers mechanisms for selectivity and potency of novel PI3K inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Alex; Miller, Simon; Williams, Olusegun; Le, Daniel D.; Houseman, Benjamin T.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Gorrec, Fabrice; Hon, Wai-Ching; Liu, Yi; Rommel, Christian; Gaillard, Pascale; Ruckle, Thomas; Schwarz, Matthias K.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Shaw, Jeffrey P.; Williams, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    Deregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been implicated in numerous pathologies like cancer, diabetes, thrombosis, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Recently, small molecule and ATP-competitive PI3K inhibitors with a wide range of selectivities have entered clinical development. In order to understand mechanisms underlying isoform selectivity of these inhibitors, we developed a novel expression strategy that enabled us to determine the first crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of the class IA PI3K p110δ. Structures of this enzyme in complex with a broad panel of isoform- and pan-selective class I PI3K inhibitors reveal that selectivity towards p110δ can be achieved by exploiting its conformational flexibility and the sequence diversity of active-site residues that do not contact ATP. We have used these observations to rationalize and synthesize highly selective inhibitors for p110δ with greatly improved potencies. PMID:20081827

  11. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  12. 3-D structure and dynamics of protein kinase B-new mechanism for the allosteric regulation of an AGC kinase.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Vronique; Laguerre, Michel; Larijani, Banafsh

    2009-03-01

    New developments regarding the structure and in vivo dynamics of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) have been recently exposed. Here, we specifically review how the use of multi-disciplinary approaches has resulted in reaching the recent progress made to relate the quaternary structure of PKB to its in vivo function. Using X-ray crystallography, the structure of PKB pleckstrin homology (PH) and kinase domains was determined separately. The molecular mechanisms involved in (a) the binding of the phosphoinositides to the PH domain and (b) the activation of the kinase with the rearrangement of the catalytic site and substrate binding were determined. In vitro, nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dychroism studies gave complementary information on the interaction of the PH domain with the phosphoinositides. However, the molecular nature and the function of the interactions between the PKB domains could not be deduced from the X-ray data since the full-length PKB has not been crystallised. In vitro, dynamic information on the inter-domain conformational changes related to PKB activation states emerged with the use of tandem mass spectrometry. Cell imaging and Frster resonance energy transfer provided in vivo dynamics. Molecular modelling and dynamic simulations in conjunction with mutagenesis and biochemical analysis were used to investigate the complex interactions between the PKB domains in vivo and understand at the molecular level how it linked to its activity. The compilation of the information obtained on the 3-D structure and the spatiotemporal dynamics of this widely studied oncogene could be applied to the study of other proteins. This inter-disciplinary approach led to a more profound understanding of PKB complex activation mechanism in vivo that will shed light onto new ideas and possibilities for modulating its activity. PMID:19568789

  13. Investigation of molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of pro-angiogenic nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Rajendran, Saranya; Mattapally, Saidulu; Misra, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-05-01

    Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role.Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01327e

  14. Physical Mechanisms of Signal Integration by WASP Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Padrick, Shae B.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) family are activators of the ubiquitous actin nucleation factor, Arp2/3 complex. WASP family proteins contain a C-terminal VCA domain that binds and activates Arp2/3 complex in response to numerous inputs, including Rho family GTPases, phosphoinositide lipids, SH3 domain containing proteins, kinases and phosphatases. In the archetypal members of the family, WASP and N-WASP, these signals are integrated through two levels of regulation, an allosteric autoinhibitory interaction, in which the VCA is sequestered from Arp2/3 complex, and dimerization/oligomerization, in which multi-VCA complexes are better activators of Arp2/3 complex than monomers. Here we review the structural, biochemical and biophysical details of these mechanisms and illustrate how they work together to control WASP protein activity in response to multiple inputs. These regulatory principles, derived from studies of WASP and N-WASP, are likely to apply broadly across the family. PMID:20533885

  15. SOEP: Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Clinton O.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A series of articles examines aspects of supervised occupational experience programs (SOEP) in agricultural mechanics, including production agriculture, horticulture, technical institute programs, mechanized agriculture, safety education, point guide system for developing competencies, and teacher education's responsibility. (SK)

  16. Multiple metabolic pools of phosphoinositides and phosphatidate in human erythrocytes incubated in a medium that permits rapid transmembrane exchange of phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    King, C E; Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T; Guy, G R; Michell, R H

    1987-01-01

    1. A Hepes-based medium has been devised which allows rapid Pi exchange across the plasma membrane of the human erythrocyte. This allows the metabolically labile phosphate pools of human erythrocytes to come to equilibrium with [32P]Pi in the medium after only 5 h in vitro. 2. After 5-7 h incubation with [32P]Pi in this medium, only three phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) are radioactively labelled. The concentrations of PtdIns4P and PtdIns4,5P2 remain constant throughout the incubation, so this labelling process is a reflection of the steady-state turnover of their monoester phosphate groups. 3. During such incubations, the specific radioactivities of the monoesterified phosphates of PtdIns4, PtdIns4,5P2 and PtdOH come to a steady value after 5 h that is only 25-30% of the specific radioactivity of the gamma-phosphate of ATP at that time. We suggest that this is a consequence of metabolic heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is not a result of the heterogeneous age distribution of the erythrocytes in human blood. Thus it appears that there is metabolic compartmentation of these lipids within cells, such that within a time-scale of a few hours only 25-30% of these three lipids are actively metabolized. 4. The phosphoinositidase C of intact human erythrocytes, when activated by Ca2+-ionophore treatment, only hydrolyses 50% of the total PtdIns4,5P2 and 50% of 32P-labelled PtdIns4,5P2 present in the cells: this enzyme does not discriminate between the metabolically active and inactive compartments of lipids in the erythrocyte membrane. Hence at least four metabolic pools of PtdIns4P and PtdIns4,5P2 are distinguishable in the human erythrocyte plasma membrane. 5. The mechanisms by which multiple non-mixing metabolic pools of PtdOH, PtdIns4P and PtdIns4,5P2 are sustained over many hours in the plasma membranes of intact erythrocytes are unknown, although some possible explanations are considered. PMID:2821998

  17. Plasma membrane nanoporation as a possible mechanism behind infrared excitation of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Hope T.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Musick, Joshua D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Short infrared (IR) laser pulses have been used to stimulate action potentials in neurons both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon has remained elusive. In vitro studies have found that pulsed IR exposure generates a nearly instant change in capacitance in the plasma membrane, characterized by inward rectification, a common feature in pore-forming exposures, such as electrical pulses and acoustic shock waves. Based on this similarity, we hypothesize that the mechanism of IR stimulation is the formation of short-lived nanopores in the plasma membrane. These transient, small-diameter pores allow the influx of extracellular ions that lead to action potential generation, possibly through activation of secondary messenger pathways or depolarization of the cell membrane resulting in activation of voltage-gated ion channels. Approach. A variety of fluorescent markers are used to observe the cell response to IR stimulation to monitor for effects indicative of nanoporation in other modalities. Main results. We observe rapid, transient rises in intracellular Ca2+, influx of YO-PRO-1 and propidium iodide into the cell signifying membrane permeabilization, cellular blebbing and swelling, and activation of the intracellular phosphoinositides lipid signaling pathway. Significance. This conclusion better explains the experimental observations and limitations of IR-induced neurological stimulation and represents a distinct theoretical shift in the understanding of the mechanism of IR-induced stimulation.

  18. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-08-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  19. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2006-10-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  20. Phosphorylation of phosphoinositides in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, K.; Kambayashi, J.; Kawasaki, T.; Sakon, M.; Mori, T.

    1986-10-15

    32P-labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI-4-monophosphate (PIP), PI-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in /sup 32/P-labelled intact human platelets was investigated in the presence of various agents which alter intracellular level of cAMP or Ca/sup 2 +/. Addition of dibutyryl cAMP to intact platelets pre- or pulse labelled with /sup 32/P resulted in increased /sup 32/P-labelling of PIP and in concomitant decreased /sup 32/P-labelling of PI without affecting that of PIP2 or PA. Similar changes were observed in intact platelets treated by prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) or a new low Km phosphodiesterase inhibitor (DN-9693). When intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ was chelated by loading quin 2-AM to intact platelets, /sup 32/P-labelling of PIP was significantly increased in a dose related manner. From these observations it was concluded that PI kinase is activated by elevation of cAMP or chelation of Ca/sup 2 +/ in intact platelets.

  1. Phosphoinositide turnover in cell growth and transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Interaction of cells with various stimuli triggers a common signal transduction pathway involving breakdown and resynthesis of the minor membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/). Hydrolysis of PIP/sub 2/ by phospholipase C generates two key catabolites-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) and diacylglycerol (DAG)-which mediate and amplify cellular responses. These studies provide evidence for potential involvement of this pathway in oncogenic transformation and cell cycle progression. Altered levels of PIP/sub 2/ and its breakdown products were found in cells transformed by ras oncogenes, in contrast to untransformed counterparts. Steady-state levels of PIP/sub 2/, DAG and inositol phosphates were measured in NIH 3T3 and NRK cells metabolically labelled with /sup 3/H-glycerol and /sup 3/H-inositol. DAG and inositol phosphate levels were significantly elevated by 2.5-3 fold in the transformed cells while levels of PIP/sub 2/ were decreased. These findings suggest that the ras protein may activate phospholipase C. Elevated DAG content in the transformed cells was also measured by phosphorylation of DAG using a partially purified DAG kinase, indicating that the differences seen could not be attributed to differences in labelling between the cell lines.

  2. Investigation of molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of pro-angiogenic nanorods†

    PubMed Central

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Rajendran, Saranya; Mattapally, Saidulu; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role. PMID:25963768

  3. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  4. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  5. Fault mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent observational, experimental, and theoretical modeling studies of fault mechanics are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics examined include interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic deformation, postseismic deformation, and the earthquake cycle; long-term deformation; fault friction and the instability mechanism; pore pressure and normal stress effects; instability models; strain measurements prior to earthquakes; stochastic modeling of earthquakes; and deep-focus earthquakes. Maps, graphs, and a comprehensive bibliography are provided. 220 refs.

  6. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Shigella flexneri Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. The disease is characterized by bacterial invasion of intestinal cells, dissemination within the colonic epithelium through direct spread from cell to cell, and massive inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Here, we review the mechanisms supporting S. flexneri dissemination. The dissemination process primarily relies on actin assembly at the bacterial pole, which propels the pathogen throughout the cytosol of primary infected cells. Polar actin assembly is supported by polar expression of the bacterial autotransporter family member IcsA, which recruits the N-WASP/ARP2/3 actin assembly machinery. As motile bacteria encounter cell-cell contacts, they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. In addition to the ARP2/3-dependent actin assembly machinery, protrusion formation relies on formins and myosins. The resolution of protrusions into vacuoles occurs through the collapse of the protrusion neck, leading to the formation of an intermediate membrane-bound compartment termed vacuole-like protrusions (VLPs). VLP formation requires tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide signaling in protrusions, which relies on the integrity of the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is also required for escaping double membrane vacuoles through the activity of the T3SS translocases IpaB and IpaC, and the effector proteins VirA and IcsB. Numerous factors supporting envelope biogenesis contribute to IcsA exposure and maintenance at the bacterial pole, including LPS synthesis, membrane proteases, and periplasmic chaperones. Although less characterized, the assembly and function of the T3SS in the context of bacterial dissemination also relies on factors supporting envelope biogenesis. Finally, the dissemination process requires the adaptation of the pathogen to various cellular compartments through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:27014639

  7. Predicting the structures of complexes between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and romidepsin-related compounds for the drug design of PI3K/histone deacetylase dual inhibitors using computational docking and the ligand-based drug design approach.

    PubMed

    Oda, Akifumi; Saijo, Ken; Ishioka, Chikashi; Narita, Koichi; Katoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Yurie; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2014-11-01

    Predictions of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of the complexes between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and two inhibitors were conducted using computational docking and the ligand-based drug design approach. The obtained structures were refined by structural optimizations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The ligands were located deep inside the ligand binding pocket of the p110α subunit of PI3K, and the hydrogen bond formations and hydrophobic effects of the surrounding amino acids were predicted. Although rough structures were obtained for the PI3K-inhibitor complexes before the MD simulations, the refinement of the structures by these simulations clarified the hydrogen bonding patterns of the complexes. PMID:25254927

  8. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  9. Repair Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-07-09

    Maintaining the integrity of its genetic blueprint is of central importance for a living cell and the organism of which it is a part. To preserve the function of the genetic material within the cell and to ensure its accurate transmission to future generations, numerous mechanisms have evolved to repair errors and damage in DNA. As an example of the cellular resources devoted to this end, consider that of 1709 proteins encoded by the first bacterial genome to be sequenced, that of Haemophilus influenzae, at least 45 function in DNA repair mechanisms. The complementary, double-stranded structure of DNA, a crucial feature that allows it to be readily replicated, also facilitates its repair. The objects of repair range from mismatched bases resulting from errors in DNA replication to base damage and even gross distortion of the DNA structure by physical and chemical agents. In a few instances damage is directly reversed. Most repair mechanisms, however, first remove the damaged region together with a segment of the DNA strand in which it occurred and then resynthesize that segment correctly using the complementary strand as a template. Depending on the component initially removed or recognized, these mechanisms have been categorized as base excision, nucleotide (oroligonucleotide) excision, and mismatch repair. When the damage cannot be so simply repaired, a mechanism of recombinational repair, requiring interaction with another copy of the genome, may intervene.

  10. Turntable mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In vacuum plasma spraying a turntable must be provided which not only makes it possible to rotate and tilt a heavy workpiece, but to operate at vacuum plasma temperatures to do so. In the vacuum plasma coating of large parts such as combustion chambers of rocket engines, the workpiece must not only be rotated, but it must be tilted. Hence, the turntable must be capable not only of supporting heavy parts, but of angulating such heavy workpieces. And this must be done without drive means failure due to extremely high temperatures under which the turntable mechanism is operated. A turntable mechanism is provided which is capable of operating under such conditions. For cooling the turntable drive mechanism, internal cooling means are included.

  11. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  12. Soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  13. Ca2+ transport in plant cells and mechanisms of transformation of phytochrome-induced photosignals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotovski, Igor D.

    1995-01-01

    The recent data on the influence of phytochrome on the efficiency of Ca2+ translocation across the membranes of oat protoplasts are given. Ca2+ uptake in the protoplasts was shown to be influenced by the red light (R) illumination. This effect was reverted by the following far-red light (FR) illumination. To elucidate the sensitivity to phytochrome-controlling action the screening between the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across the plasma membranes of oat protoplasts, Na+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, Ca2+-pump and Ca2+-channel was done. It was established that phytochrome modulated the activity of Na+/Ca2+-exchanger and Ca2+-pump. The light-mediated oscillations of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in the oat protoplasts were demonstrated using fluorescence probe quin2 loaded into the cells and laser monitoring of fluorescence signal. The evidences were obtained that the oscillations were not the result of the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and had no connection with Ca2+ pool of mitochondria. The possibility of the relation between the Ca2+ oscillations and phosphoinositide metabolism in plant cell membranes is analyzed. The mechanisms of transformation of primary phytochrome signal into biological effects were discussed.

  14. Cratering mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Main concepts and theoretical models which are used for studying the mechanics of cratering are discussed. Numerical two-dimensional calculations are made of explosions near a surface and high-speed impact. Models are given for the motion of a medium during cratering. Data from laboratory modeling are given. The effect of gravitational force and scales of cratering phenomena is analyzed.

  15. Transcription mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, T Keith; Walker, Amy K

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of mRNA transcription is central to the differentiation and functions of eukaryotic cells, and to the development of complex organisms. mRNAs are synthesized by the coordinated action of a set of general transcription and mRNA modification factors. These factors and the fundamental mechanisms involved in transcription are conserved among eukaryotes, including C. elegans. Recent studies in various systems have revealed that this apparatus is not controlled through a simple on/off "switch" at the promoter, and that the factors and mechanisms involved in transcription are instead subject to regulation at a surprising number of different levels. In this chapter we will discuss examples in which regulation involving the general mRNA transcription apparatus or other transcription co-factors plays a central role in C. elegans development, and in which C. elegans studies have provided new insights into eukaryotic transcription mechanisms. Together, these studies have shown that regulatory mechanisms that involve the general Pol II machinery are a central participant in many aspects of C. elegans biology. PMID:18050436

  16. Mechanical Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 33 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of mechanical technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and would

  17. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Desmond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science

  18. Mechanical allodynia.

    PubMed

    Lolignier, Stphane; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Wood, John N

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical allodynia (other pain) is a painful sensation caused by innocuous stimuli like light touch. Unlike inflammatory hyperalgesia that has a protective role, allodynia has no obvious biological utility. Allodynia is associated with nerve damage in conditions such as diabetes, and is likely to become an increasing clinical problem. Unfortunately, the mechanistic basis of this enhanced sensitivity is incompletely understood. In this review, we describe evidence for the involvement of candidate mechanosensitive channels such as Piezo2 and their role in allodynia, as well as the peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms that have also been implicated in this form of pain. Specific treatments that block allodynia could be very useful if the cell and molecular basis of the condition could be determined. There are many potential mechanisms underlying this condition ranging from alterations in mechanotransduction and sensory neuron excitability to the actions of inflammatory mediators and wiring changes in the CNS. As with other pain conditions, it is likely that the range of redundant mechanisms that cause allodynia will make therapeutic intervention problematic. PMID:24846747

  19. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  20. Mechanical Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Gerald R.

    This publication, the third in a series on drafting, is intended to strengthen students' competence in the specialized field of mechanical drafting. The text consists of instructional materials for both teacher and students, written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 11 units. Each instructional unit…

  1. Classical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Tai L.

    1995-05-01

    Bring Classical Mechanics To Life With a Realistic Software Simulation! You can enhance the thorough coverage of Chow's Classical Mechanics with a hands-on, real-world experience! John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is proud to announce a new computer simulation for classical mechanics. Developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), this simulation offers complex, often realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Classical Mechanics Simulations (54881-2) is the perfect complement to Chow's text. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Other Important Features Include: * Six powerful simulations include: The Motion Generator, Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects, Coupled Oscillators, Anharmonic Oscillators, Gravitational Orbits, and Collisions * Pascal source code for all programs is supplied and a number of exercises suggest specific ways the programs can be modified. * Simulations usually include graphical (often animated) displays. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine book/software simulations which comprise most of the undergraduate physics major's curriculum.

  2. Cellular Mechanisms of Gravitropic Response in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Sergei; Smolikova, Galina; Pozhvanov, Gregory; Suslov, Dmitry

    The evolutionary success of land plants in adaptation to the vectorial environmental factors was based mainly on the development of polarity systems. In result, normal plant ontogenesis is based on the positional information. Polarity is a tool by which the developing plant organs and tissues are mapped and the specific three-dimensional structure of the organism is created. It is due to their polar organization plants are able to orient themselves relative to the gravity vector and different vectorial cues, and to respond adequately to various stimuli. Gravitation is one of the most important polarized environmental factor that guides the development of plant organisms in space. Every plant can "estimate" its position relative to the gravity vector and correct it, if necessary, by means of polarized growth. The direction and the magnitude of gravitational stimulus are constant during the whole plant ontogenesis. The key plant response to the action of gravity is gravitropism, i.e. the directed growth of organs with respect to the gravity vector. This response is a very convenient model to study the mechanisms of plant orientation in space. The present report is focused on the main cellular mechanisms responsible for graviropic bending in higher plants. These mechanisms and structures include electric polarization of plant cells, Ca ({2+) }gradients, cytoskeleton, G-proteins, phosphoinositides and the machinery responsible for asymmetric auxin distribution. Those mechanisms tightly interact demonstrating some hierarchy and multiple feedbacks. The Ca (2+) gradients provide the primary physiological basis of polarity in plant cells. Calcium ions influence on the bioelectric potentials, the organization of actin cytoskeleton, the activity of Ca (2+) -binding proteins and Ca (2+) -dependent protein kinases. Protein kinases modulate transcription factors activity thereby regulating the gene expression and switching the developmental programs. Actin cytoskeleton affects the molecular machinery of polar auxin transport. It results in the changes of auxin gradients in plant organs and tissues, which modulate all cellular mechanisms of polarity via multiple feedback loops. The understanding of the mechanisms of plant organism orientation relative to the gravity vector will allow us to develop efficient technologies for plant growing in microgravity conditions at orbital space stations and during long piloted space flights. This work was supported by the grant of Russian Foundation for Basic Research (N 14-04-01-624) and by the grant of St.-Petersburg State University (N 1.38.233.2014).

  3. Mechanical clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withey, Michael M. (Inventor); Lucas-Dean, Rob G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a mechanical clutch which limits transmission of torque to a desired, predetermined maximum torque from a first clutch plate to a second clutch plate. More specifically, the mechanical clutch includes at least one stepper member, preferably three or more evenly spaced stepper members, which transmit the torque from a first clutch plate to a second clutch plate providing a desired maximum torque is not exceeded. However, if the desired maximum torque is exceeded, the stepper member will rotate and move between the clutch plates so that the torque to the second clutch plate does not exceed the desired maximum torque. The desired maximum torque is set by the axial force compressing the stepper member between the clutch plates and when the applied torque to the first clutch plate exceeds the desired torque, the stepper member will rotate between the clutch plates rather than transmit that torque to the second clutch plate.

  4. Mechanical capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, J. A.; Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    A new energy storage system (the mechanical capacitor), using a spokeless magnetically levitated composite ring rotor, is described and design formulas for sizing the components are presented. This new system is configured around a permanent magnet (flux biased) suspension which has active servo control in the radial direction and passive control in the axial direction. The storage ring is used as a moving rotor and electronic commutation of the stationary armature coils is proposed. There is no mechanical contact with the rotating spokeless ring; therefore, long life and near zero rundown losses are projected. A 7-kW h system is sized to demonstrate feasibility. A literature review of flywheel energy storage systems is also presented and general formulas are developed for comparing rotor geometries.

  5. Biofluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, Herbert

    In contrast to the topics discussed in previous chapters, biofluid mechanics is concerned with flows that are influenced by flexible biological surfaces. We distinguish between flows past living bodies in air or in water, such as bird flight or the swimming of fish, and internal flows, such as the closed blood circulation of living beings. In the previous millions of years, evolution has developed crawling, running, swimming, gliding, and flying as methods of motion of living beings, depending on their size and weight.

  6. Impact Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stronge, W. J.

    2004-03-01

    Impact mechanics is concerned with the reaction forces that develop during a collision and the dynamic response of structures to these reaction forces. The subject has a wide range of engineering applications, from designing sports equipment to improving the crashworthiness of automobiles. This book develops several different methodologies for analysing collisions between structures. These range from rigid body theory for structures that are stiff and compact, to vibration and wave analyses for flexible structures. The emphasis is on low-speed impact where damage is local to the small region of contact between the colliding bodies. The analytical methods presented give results that are more robust or less sensitive to initial conditions than have been achieved hitherto. As a text, Impact Mechanics builds upon foundation courses in dynamics and strength of materials. It includes numerous industrially relevant examples and end-of-chapter homework problems drawn from industry and sports. Practising engineers will also find the methods presented in this book useful in calculating the response of a mechanical system to impact.

  7. Mural propagation of descending vasa recta responses to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Payne, Kristie; Cao, Chunhua; Pallone, Thomas L

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the responses of descending vasa recta (DVR) to deformation of the abluminal surface, we devised an automated method that controls duration and frequency of stimulation by utilizing a stream of buffer from a micropipette. During stimulation at one end of the vessel, fluorescent responses from fluo4 or bis[1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid-(5)] trimethineoxonol [DiBAC?(3)], indicating cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca?]CYT) or membrane potential, respectively, were recorded from distant cells. Alternately, membrane potential was recorded from DVR pericytes by nystatin whole cell patch-clamp. Mechanical stimulation elicited reversible [Ca?)]CYT responses that increased with frequency. Individual pericyte responses along the vessel were initiated within a fraction of a second of one another. Those responses were inhibited by gap junction blockade with 18 ?-glycyrrhetinic acid (100 ?M) or phosphoinositide 3 kinase inhibition with 2-morpholin-4-yl-8-phenylchromen-4-one (50 ?M). [Ca?]CYT responses were blocked by removal of extracellular Ca? or L-type voltage-gated channel blockade with nifedipine (10 ?M). At concentrations selective for the T-type channel blockade, mibefradil (100 nM) was ineffective. During mechanostimulation, pericytes rapidly depolarized, as documented with either DiBAC4(3) fluorescence or patch-clamp recording. Single stimuli yielded depolarizations of 22.5 2.2 mV while repetitive stimuli at 0.1 Hz depolarized pericytes by 44.2 4.0 mV. We conclude that DVR are mechanosensitive and that rapid transmission of signals along the vessel axis requires participation of gap junctions, L-type Ca? channels, and pericyte depolarization. PMID:23698119

  8. Molecular Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Mechanics (MM) force fields are the methods of choice for protein simulations, which are essential in the study of conformational flexibility. Given