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Sample records for phosphoprotein phosphatases

  1. [Phosphoprotein phosphatase nonspecifically hydrolyzes CoA].

    PubMed

    Reziapkin, V I; Moiseenok, A G

    1988-01-01

    CoA hydrolysis was studied by a homogenous phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 3.1 3.16) preparation from bovine spleen nuclei at pH 5.8. Phosphoprotein phosphatase catalyzed hydrolysis of the CoA 3'-phosphoester bond to form dephospho-CoA and Pi. The Km value for phosphoprotein phosphatase with CoA as substrate was 3.7 mM, the specific activity - 0.26 mmol Pi.min-1.mg-1. Phosphoprotein phosphatase did not essentially catalyze the calcium pantothenate hydrolysis (not more than 2% as compared with the CoA hydrolysis rate). PMID:2849829

  2. Leishmanial phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphoproteins and inositol phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.K.; Das, S.; Glew, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    An extensively purified preparation of the predominant, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP) from the external surface of Leishmania donovani promastigotes form catalyzes the dephosphorylation of several phosphoproteins; these include: pyruvate kinase, phosphorylase kinase and histones. However, the protein phosphatase activity of ACP is very low compared with that of other protein phosphates known to be involved in regulating various metabolic pathways. /sup 32/P-labelled inositoltriphosphate (IP3), a well-established second messenger derived from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PIP2), was a substrate for the leishmanial acid phosphatase; incubation of the IP3 preparation with 13.2 milliunits (1 unit equals 1 ..mu..mol 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (MUP) cleaved per min at pH 5.5) of ACP at pH 5.5 for 4 hr resulted in hydrolysis of 75% of the radiolabelled substrate resulting in a mixture of inositoldiphosphate and inositolmonophosphate. In addition PIP2 was hydrolyzed rapidly by ACP at pH 5.5 (V/sub max/, 71 units/mg protein; k/sub m/, 4.16 ..mu..M). In contrast, to MUP which is hydrolzyed most rapidly at pH 5.5, PIP2 hydrolysis was optimal at pH 6.8. These observations raise the possibility that ACP could play a role in the host-phagocyte interaction by degrading the precursor of the second messenger, PIP2 or the second messenger itself, IP3.

  3. Hyperphosphatemia, Phosphoprotein Phosphatases, and Microparticle Release in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Nima; Burton, James O.; Herbert, Karl E.; Tregunna, Barbara-Emily; Brown, Jeremy R.; Ghaderi-Najafabadi, Maryam; Brunskill, Nigel J.; Goodall, Alison H.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in patients with advanced CKD is thought to be an important contributor to cardiovascular risk, in part because of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi). Such patients also have an elevated circulating concentration of procoagulant endothelial microparticles (MPs), leading to a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to acute occlusive events. We hypothesized that hyperphosphatemia leads to MP formation from ECs through an elevation of intracellular Pi concentration, which directly inhibits phosphoprotein phosphatases, triggering a global increase in phosphorylation and cytoskeletal changes. In cultured human ECs (EAhy926), incubation with elevated extracellular Pi (2.5 mM) led to a rise in intracellular Pi concentration within 90 minutes. This was mediated by PiT1/slc20a1 Pi transporters and led to global accumulation of tyrosine- and serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins, a marked increase in cellular Tropomyosin-3, plasma membrane blebbing, and release of 0.1- to 1-μm-diameter MPs. The effect of Pi was independent of oxidative stress or apoptosis. Similarly, global inhibition of phosphoprotein phosphatases with orthovanadate or fluoride yielded a global protein phosphorylation response and rapid release of MPs. The Pi-induced MPs expressed VE-cadherin and superficial phosphatidylserine, and in a thrombin generation assay, they displayed significantly more procoagulant activity than particles derived from cells incubated in medium with a physiologic level of Pi (1 mM). These data show a mechanism of Pi-induced cellular stress and signaling, which may be widely applicable in mammalian cells, and in ECs, it provides a novel pathologic link between hyperphosphatemia, generation of MPs, and thrombotic risk. PMID:25745026

  4. Hyperphosphatemia, Phosphoprotein Phosphatases, and Microparticle Release in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Nima; Burton, James O; Herbert, Karl E; Tregunna, Barbara-Emily; Brown, Jeremy R; Ghaderi-Najafabadi, Maryam; Brunskill, Nigel J; Goodall, Alison H; Bevington, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in patients with advanced CKD is thought to be an important contributor to cardiovascular risk, in part because of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi). Such patients also have an elevated circulating concentration of procoagulant endothelial microparticles (MPs), leading to a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to acute occlusive events. We hypothesized that hyperphosphatemia leads to MP formation from ECs through an elevation of intracellular Pi concentration, which directly inhibits phosphoprotein phosphatases, triggering a global increase in phosphorylation and cytoskeletal changes. In cultured human ECs (EAhy926), incubation with elevated extracellular Pi (2.5 mM) led to a rise in intracellular Pi concentration within 90 minutes. This was mediated by PiT1/slc20a1 Pi transporters and led to global accumulation of tyrosine- and serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins, a marked increase in cellular Tropomyosin-3, plasma membrane blebbing, and release of 0.1- to 1-μm-diameter MPs. The effect of Pi was independent of oxidative stress or apoptosis. Similarly, global inhibition of phosphoprotein phosphatases with orthovanadate or fluoride yielded a global protein phosphorylation response and rapid release of MPs. The Pi-induced MPs expressed VE-cadherin and superficial phosphatidylserine, and in a thrombin generation assay, they displayed significantly more procoagulant activity than particles derived from cells incubated in medium with a physiologic level of Pi (1 mM). These data show a mechanism of Pi-induced cellular stress and signaling, which may be widely applicable in mammalian cells, and in ECs, it provides a novel pathologic link between hyperphosphatemia, generation of MPs, and thrombotic risk. PMID:25745026

  5. Lymphocyte phosphatase-associated phosphoprotein proteoforms analyzed using monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Filatov, Alexander; Kruglova, Natalia; Meshkova, Tatiana; Mazurov, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase CD45 regulates the activation of lymphocytes by controlling the level of receptor and signal molecule phosphorylation. However, it remains unknown which molecules mediate the phosphatase activity of CD45. A candidate for such a molecule is a small transmembrane adapter protein called lymphocyte phosphatase-associated phosphoprotein (LPAP). LPAP forms a supramolecular complex that consists of not only CD45 molecule but also CD4 and Lck kinase. The function of LPAP has not been defined clearly. In our study, we determined the pattern of LPAP expression in various cell types and characterized its proteoforms using new monoclonal antibodies generated against the intracellular portion of the protein. We show that LPAP is a pan-lymphocyte marker, and its expression in cells correlates with the expression of CD45. The majority of T, B and NK cells express high levels of LPAP, whereas monocytes, granulocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, platelets and red blood cells are negative for LPAP. Using one- and two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis, we demonstrate that LPAP has at least four sites of phosphorylation. The resting cells express at least six different LPAP phosphoforms representing mono-, di- and tri-phosphorylated LPAP. T and B cells differ in the distribution of the protein between phosphoforms. The activation of lymphocytes with PMA reduces the diversity of phosphorylated forms. Our experiments on Lck-deficient Jurkat cells show that Lck kinase is not involved in LPAP phosphorylation. Thus, LPAP is a dynamically phosphorylated protein, the function of which can be understood, when all phosphosites and kinases involved in its phosphorylation will be identified. PMID:26682052

  6. Intracellular transduction in the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: suggested involvement of calmodulin and phosphoprotein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, S; Ozawa, R; Nagamine, T; Kim, G H; Uchiumi, K; Shono, T; Mitsui, T

    1995-03-01

    We have tested the effects of chemicals on bombykol production in vitro in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, to probe the biochemical steps as well as underlying mechanisms regulated by PBAN. These results suggest the involvement of calmodulin and phosphoprotein phosphatase in the intracellular signal transduction of PBAN action. PMID:7766202

  7. Yeast has homologs (CNA1 and CNA2 gene products) of mammalian calcineurin, a calmodulin-regulated phosphoprotein phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, M S; Kunisawa, R; Kaim, D; Thorner, J

    1991-01-01

    Calcineurin, or phosphoprotein phosphatase type 2B (PP2B), is a calmodulin-regulated phosphoprotein phosphatase. We isolated a gene encoding a yeast PP2B homolog (CNA1) by screening a yeast genomic DNA library in the expression vector lambda gt11, first with 125I-labeled yeast calmodulin and then with a human cDNA encoding the catalytic (or A) subunit of calcineurin. The predicted CNA1 gene product is 54% identical to its mammalian counterpart. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with oligonucleotide primers based on sequences conserved between CNA1 and mammalian PP2B genes, we isolated a second gene, CNA2. CNA2 is identical to PP2Bw, a partial cDNA clone previously described by others as originating from rabbit brain tissue. Our findings demonstrate that a unicellular eukaryote contains phosphoprotein phosphatases of the 2B class. Haploid cells containing a single cna1 or cna2 null mutation, or both mutations, were viable. MATa cna1 cna2 double mutants were more sensitive than wild-type cells or either single mutant to growth arrest induced by the mating pheromone alpha factor and failed to resume growth during continuous exposure to alpha factor. Thus, calcineurin action antagonizes the mating-pheromone response pathway. Images PMID:1651503

  8. Rhizobiales-like Phosphatase 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Novel Phospho-tyrosine-specific Phospho-protein Phosphatase (PPP) Family Protein Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Muhammad, Jamshed; Samuel, Marcus; Moorhead, Greg B

    2016-03-11

    Cellular signaling through protein tyrosine phosphorylation is well established in mammalian cells. Although lacking the classic tyrosine kinases present in humans, plants have a tyrosine phospho-proteome that rivals human cells. Here we report a novel plant tyrosine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtRLPH2) that, surprisingly, has the sequence hallmarks of a phospho-serine/threonine phosphatase belonging to the PPP family. Rhizobiales/Rhodobacterales/Rhodospirillaceae-like phosphatases (RLPHs) are conserved in plants and several other eukaryotes, but not in animals. We demonstrate that AtRLPH2 is localized to the plant cell cytosol, is resistant to the classic serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin, but is inhibited by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate and is particularly sensitive to inhibition by the adenylates, ATP and ADP. AtRLPH2 displays remarkable selectivity toward tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides versus serine/threonine phospho-peptides and readily dephosphorylates a classic tyrosine phosphatase protein substrate, suggesting that in vivo it is a tyrosine phosphatase. To date, only one other tyrosine phosphatase is known in plants; thus AtRLPH2 represents one of the missing pieces in the plant tyrosine phosphatase repertoire and supports the concept of protein tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory event in plants. PMID:26742850

  9. Identical phosphatase mechanisms achieved through distinct modes of binding phosphoprotein substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Pazy, Y.; Motaleb, M.A.; Guarnieri, M.T.; Charon, N.W.; Zhao, R.; Silversmith, R.E.

    2010-04-05

    Two-component signal transduction systems are widespread in prokaryotes and control numerous cellular processes. Extensive investigation of sensor kinase and response regulator proteins from many two-component systems has established conserved sequence, structural, and mechanistic features within each family. In contrast, the phosphatases which catalyze hydrolysis of the response regulator phosphoryl group to terminate signal transduction are poorly understood. Here we present structural and functional characterization of a representative of the CheC/CheX/FliY phosphatase family. The X-ray crystal structure of Borrelia burgdorferi CheX complexed with its CheY3 substrate and the phosphoryl analogue BeF{sub 3}{sup -} reveals a binding orientation between a response regulator and an auxiliary protein different from that shared by every previously characterized example. The surface of CheY3 containing the phosphoryl group interacts directly with a long helix of CheX which bears the conserved (E - X{sub 2} - N) motif. Conserved CheX residues Glu96 and Asn99, separated by a single helical turn, insert into the CheY3 active site. Structural and functional data indicate that CheX Asn99 and CheY3 Thr81 orient a water molecule for hydrolytic attack. The catalytic residues of the CheX-CheY3 complex are virtually superimposable on those of the Escherichia coli CheZ phosphatase complexed with CheY, even though the active site helices of CheX and CheZ are oriented nearly perpendicular to one other. Thus, evolution has found two structural solutions to achieve the same catalytic mechanism through different helical spacing and side chain lengths of the conserved acid/amide residues in CheX and CheZ.

  10. Progestin-inducible EDD E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to α4 phosphoprotein to regulate ubiquitination and degradation of protein phosphatase PP2Ac.

    PubMed

    McDonald, William J; Thomas, Lynn N; Koirala, Samir; Too, Catherine K L

    2014-01-25

    Mammalian α4 phosphoprotein binds to the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) to regulate PP2A activity, and to poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and progestin-inducible EDD E3 ubiquitin ligase. This study showed induction of the EDD protein by progesterone, 17β-estradiol and prolactin in breast cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses, using lysates of COS-1 cells transfected with α4-deletion constructs, showed the α4 N-terminus binding to endogenous PP2Ac and PABP, and the C-terminus to EDD. Monoubiquitinated α4 in MCF-7 cells was unaffected by EDD-targeting siRNA (siEDD) nor by non-targetting siNT, thus, EDD does not ubiquitinate α4. PP2Ac is polyubiquitinated, and 36-kDa PP2Ac only was detected in siEDD- or siNT-transfected cells. However, treatment with proteasomal inhibitor MG132 showed polyubiquitinated-PP2Ac molecules (∼65-250kDa) abundantly in siNT controls but low in siEDD-transfectants, implicating PP2Ac as an EDD substrate. Finally, progesterone induction of EDD in MCF-7 cells correlated with decreased PP2Ac levels, further implicating hormone-inducible EDD in PP2Ac turnover. PMID:24145130

  11. Regulatory subunit (CNB1 gene product) of yeast Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatases is required for adaptation to pheromone.

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, M S; Thorner, J

    1992-01-01

    By using an assay specific for detection of calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase, this enzyme was purified approximately 5,000-fold from extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cna1p and Cna2p, the products of two yeast genes encoding the catalytic (A) subunits of calcineurin, were major constituents of the purified fraction. A third prominent component of apparent molecular mass 16 kDa displayed several properties, including ability to bind 45Ca2+, that are characteristic of the regulatory (B) subunit of mammalian calcineurin and was recognized by an antiserum raised against bovine calcineurin. These antibodies were used to isolate the structural gene (CNB1) encoding this protein from a yeast expression library in the vector lambda gt11. The nucleotide sequence of CNB1 predicted a polypeptide similar in length and highly related in amino acid sequence (56% identity) to the mammalian calcineurin B subunit. Like its counterpart in higher cells, yeast Cnb1p was myristoylated at its N terminus. Mutants lacking Cnb1p, or all three calcineurin subunits (Cna1p, Cna2p, and Cnb1p), were viable. Extracts of cnb1 delta mutants contained no detectable calcineurin activity, even though Cna1p and Cna2p were present at normal levels, suggesting that the B subunit is required for full enzymatic activity in vitro. As was observed previously for MATa cna1 cna2 double mutants, MATa cnb1 mutants were defective in their ability to recover from alpha-factor-induced growth arrest. Thus, the B subunit also is required for the function of calcineurin in promoting adaptation of haploid yeast cells to pheromone in vivo. Images PMID:1321337

  12. Thylakoid phosphoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1986-01-01

    Thylakoid phosphoproteins were successively fractionated by (1) treatment of /sup 32/P-labeled membranes with 1 M NaBr to remove superficial proteins; (2) extraction with octyl glucoside/cholate; (3) precipitation with ammonium sulfate; (4) size exclusion chromatography on BioGel P300, and (5) sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The detergent extract contained <10% of the original membrane-bound /sup 32/P; it was enriched in cytochrome b/f complex and 64-kDa protein kinase. A 20-kDa protein which copurified with the cytochrome complex and was assumed to be the Rieske protein, was partially phosphorylated. The protein kinase, which phosphorylates itself in vitro, appeared on the sucrose gradient as a phosphoprotein, signalling that it had become labeled in the intact thylakoid. A phosphoprotein of approx.10 kDa which is seen as a product of directly radiolabeling the BioGel P300 extract, was found to differ from the well documented phosphoprotein of this approximate mass that appears in labeled thylakoids. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination. PMID:26035336

  15. Specific Enrichment of Phosphoproteins Using Functionalized Multivalent Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Leekyoung; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Cai, Wenxuan; Valeja, Santosh G.; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of protein phosphorylation remains a significant challenge due to the low abundance of phosphoproteins and the low stoichiometry of phosphorylation, which requires effective enrichment of phosphoproteins. Here we have developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) whose surface is functionalized by multivalent ligand molecules that specifically bind to the phosphate groups on any phosphoproteins. These NPs enrich phosphoproteins from complex cell and tissue lysates with high specificity as confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis with a phosphoprotein-specific stain and mass spectrometry analysis of the enriched phosphoproteins. This method enables universal and effective capture, enrichment, and detection of intact phosphoproteins towards a comprehensive analysis of the phosphoproteome. PMID:25655481

  16. Oligomerization of Mumps Virus Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Adrian; Elson, Andrew; Yang, Yang; Xu, Pei; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mumps virus (MuV) genome encodes a phosphoprotein (P) that is important for viral RNA synthesis. P forms the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with the large protein (L). P also interacts with the viral nucleoprotein (NP) and self-associates to form a homotetramer. The P protein consists of three domains, the N-terminal domain (PN), the oligomerization domain (PO), and the C-terminal domain (PC). While PN is known to relax the NP-bound RNA genome, the roles of PO and PC are not clear. In this study, we investigated the roles of PO and PC in viral RNA synthesis using mutational analysis and a minigenome system. We found that PN and PC functions can be trans-complemented. However, this complementation requires PO, indicating that PO is essential for P function. Using this trans-complementation system, we found that P forms parallel dimers (PN to PN and PC to PC). Furthermore, we found that residues R231, K238, K253, and K260 in PO are critical for P's functions. We identified PC to be the domain that interacts with L. These results provide structure-function insights into the role of MuV P. IMPORTANCE MuV, a paramyxovirus, is an important human pathogen. The P protein of MuV is critical for viral RNA synthesis. In this work, we established a novel minigenome system that allows the domains of P to be complemented in trans. Using this system, we confirmed that MuV P forms parallel dimers. An understanding of viral RNA synthesis will allow the design of better vaccines and the development of antivirals. PMID:26311887

  17. NEURONAL PHOSPHOPROTEINS: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of a great variety of neuron-specific phosproteins in nervous tissue supports the view that protein phosphorylation plays many roles in neuronal function. The physiological significance of several of these phosphoproteins has already been established. Some neuronal p...

  18. Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, “bacterial-like” enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the “eukaryotic-like” phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research. PMID:24675170

  19. Protein phosphatase 2C is involved in the cAMP-dependent ciliary control in Paramecium caudatum.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Munenori; Sasaki, Jun-Ya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    Forward swimming of the Triton-extracted model of Paramecium is stimulated by cAMP. Backward swimming of the model induced by Ca(2+) is depressed by cAMP. Cyclic AMP and Ca(2+) act antagonistically in setting the direction of the ciliary beat. Some ciliary axonemal proteins from Paramecium caudatum are phosphorylated in a cAMP-dependent manner. In the presence of cAMP, axonemal 29- and 65-kDa polypeptides were phosphorylated by endogenous A-kinase in vitro. These phosphoproteins, however, were not dephosphorylated after in vitro phosphorylation, presumably because of the low endogenous phosphoprotein phosphatase activity associated with isolated axonemes. We purified the protein phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylated the 29- and 65-kDa phosphoproteins from Paramecium caudatum. The molecular weight of the protein phosphatase was 33 kDa. The protein phosphatase had common characteristics as protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). The characteristics of the protein phosphatase were the same as those of the PP2C from Paramecium tetraurelia (PtPP2C) [Grothe et al., 1998: J. Biol. Chem. 273:19167-19172]. We concluded that the phosphoprotein phosphatase is the PP2C from Paramecium caudatum (PcPP2C). The PcPP2C markedly accelerated the backward swimming of the Triton-extracted model in the presence of Ca(2+). On the other hand, the PcPP2C slightly depressed the forward swimming speed. This indicates that the PP2C plays a role in the cAMP-dependent regulation of ciliary movement in Paramecium caudatum through dephosphorylation of 29- and/or 65-kDa regulatory phosphoproteins by terminating the action of cAMP. PMID:12529856

  20. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  1. Mapping phosphoproteins in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Giulia; Laschi, Marcella; Serchi, Tommaso; Arena, Simona; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Braconi, Daniela; Scaloni, Andrea; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the phosphorylation capability of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA) and to implement our knowledge in meningococcal biology and in bacterial post-translational modifications, cell extracts were separated by 2-DE and 51 novel phosphoproteins were revealed by the use of the highly specific Ser/Thr/Tyr-phosphorylated proteins staining by Pro-Q Diamond and identified by MALDI-ToF/MS. Our results indicate that phosphorylation in MenA is comparable to that of other bacterial species. A first functional characterization of the identified modified proteins was also given, in order to understand their role in meningococcal physiopathology. PMID:21365747

  2. The activity of the acidic phosphoproteins from the 80 S rat liver ribosome.

    PubMed

    MacConnell, W P; Kaplan, N O

    1982-05-25

    The selective removal of acidic phosphoproteins from the 80 S rat liver ribosome was accomplished by successive alcohol extractions at low salt concentration. The resulting core ribosomes lost over 90% of their translation activity and were unable to support the elongation factor 2 GTPase reaction. Both activities were partially restored when the dialyzed extracts were added back to the core ribosome. The binding of labeled adenosine diphosphoribosyl-elongation factor 2 to ribosomes was also affected by extraction and could be reconstituted, although not to the same extent as the GTPase activity associated with elongation factor 2 in the presence of the ribosome. The alcohol extracts of the 80 S ribosome contained mostly phosphoproteins P1 and P2 which could be dephosphorylated and rephosphorylated in solution by alkaline phosphatase and protein kinase, respectively. Dephosphorylation of the P1/P2 mixture in the extracts caused a decrease in the ability of these proteins to reactivate the polyphenylalanine synthesis activity of the core ribosome. However, treatment of the dephosphorylated proteins with the catalytic subunit of 3':5'-cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the presence of ATP reactivated the proteins when compared to the activity of the native extracts. Rabbit antisera raised against the alcohol-extracted proteins were capable of impairing both the polyphenylalanine synthesis reaction and the elongation factor 2-dependent GTPase reaction in the intact ribosomes. PMID:6121796

  3. Phospho-proteins patial gradients in a cell of spheroidal shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, Gerardo; Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo

    2010-03-01

    Many signalling proteins undergo phosphorilated-dephosphorilated cycles at different locations inside the cell. These cycles give rise to spatial gradients of phosphoproteins. In this work we solve the reaction-difussion equation in a spheroidal geometry and investigate the diffusion of the phosphorilated form of the proteins to evaluate the size of the spatial gradients. This is done in terms of diffusion coefficients as well as protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Previous estimations of these gradients have been done for two geometries [1]: (i) a spherical cell and (ii) for a kinase and a protein each one located on two parallel planar membranes. This type of quantitative analyzes may have important implications in the cellular signaling processes [2].[4pt] [1] G.C. Brown, B.N. Kholodenko, FEBS Letters, vol. 457, p. 452-454[0pt] [2] B.N. Kholodenko, G.C. Brown, J.B. Hoek, Biochem. J. vol. 350, p. 901-907.

  4. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  5. Signaling in striatal neurons: the phosphoproteins of reward, addiction, and dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The striatum is a deep region of the forebrain involved in action selection, control of movement, and motivation. It receives a convergent excitatory glutamate input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, controlled by dopamine (DA) released in response to unexpected rewards and other salient stimuli. Striatal function and its dysfunction in drug addiction or Parkinson's disease depend on the interplay between these neurotransmitters. Signaling cascades in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) involve multiple kinases, phosphatases, and phosphoproteins, some of which are highly enriched in these neurons. They control the properties of ion channels and the plasticity of MSNs, in part through their effects on gene transcription. This chapter summarizes signaling in MSNs and focuses on the regulation of multiple protein phosphatases through DA and glutamate receptors and the role of ERK. It is hypothesized that these pathways are particularly adapted to the specific computing properties of MSNs and the function of the basal ganglia circuits in which they participate. PMID:22340713

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Serine/Threonine Phosphoprotein Phosphatases (PPP): From Housekeeper to 'Holy Grail'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of complete genome sequence for Plasmodium falciparum has been useful in drawing a comprehensive metabolic map of the parasite. Distinct and unique metabolic characteristics of the parasite may be exploited as potential targets for new antimalarial drug discovery research. Reversible ph...

  7. Phosphoprotein Phosphatase 1 Is Required for Extracellular Calcium-Induced Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hong; Zeng, Qin; Pennypacker, Sally D.; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular calcium is a major regulator of keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and appears to play that role in vivo, but the mechanism is unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, following calcium stimulation, PIP5K1α is recruited by the E-cadherin-β-catenin complex to the plasma membrane where it provides the substrate PIP2 for both PI3K and PLC-γ1. This signaling pathway is critical for calcium-induced generation of second messengers including IP3 and intracellular calcium and keratinocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored the upstream regulatory mechanism by which calcium activates PIP5K1α and the role of this activation in calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. We found that treatment of human keratinocytes in culture with calcium resulted in an increase in serine dephosphorylation and PIP5K1α activation. PP1 knockdown blocked extracellular calcium-induced increase in serine dephosphorylation and activity of PIP5K1α and induction of keratinocyte differentiation markers. Knockdown of PLC-γ1, the downstream effector of PIP5K1α, blocked upstream dephosphorylation and PIP5K1α activation induced by calcium. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed calcium induced recruitment of PP1 to the E-cadherin-catenin-PIP5K1α complex in the plasma membrane. These results indicate that PP1 is recruited to the extracellular calcium-dependent E-cadherin-catenin-PIP5K1α complex in the plasma membrane to activate PIP5K1α, which is required for PLC-γ1 activation leading to keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27340655

  8. Phosphoprotein Phosphatase 1 Is Required for Extracellular Calcium-Induced Keratinocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Chandrama; Tang, Yuanyuan; Fan, Hong; Li, Lusha; Zeng, Qin; Pennypacker, Sally D; Bikle, Daniel D; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular calcium is a major regulator of keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and appears to play that role in vivo, but the mechanism is unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, following calcium stimulation, PIP5K1α is recruited by the E-cadherin-β-catenin complex to the plasma membrane where it provides the substrate PIP2 for both PI3K and PLC-γ1. This signaling pathway is critical for calcium-induced generation of second messengers including IP3 and intracellular calcium and keratinocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored the upstream regulatory mechanism by which calcium activates PIP5K1α and the role of this activation in calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. We found that treatment of human keratinocytes in culture with calcium resulted in an increase in serine dephosphorylation and PIP5K1α activation. PP1 knockdown blocked extracellular calcium-induced increase in serine dephosphorylation and activity of PIP5K1α and induction of keratinocyte differentiation markers. Knockdown of PLC-γ1, the downstream effector of PIP5K1α, blocked upstream dephosphorylation and PIP5K1α activation induced by calcium. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed calcium induced recruitment of PP1 to the E-cadherin-catenin-PIP5K1α complex in the plasma membrane. These results indicate that PP1 is recruited to the extracellular calcium-dependent E-cadherin-catenin-PIP5K1α complex in the plasma membrane to activate PIP5K1α, which is required for PLC-γ1 activation leading to keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27340655

  9. Phosphoproteins and protein kinases of the Golgi apparatus membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1985-11-25

    Incubation of a highly purified fraction derived from rat liver Golgi apparatus with (gamma-TSP)ATP results in phosphorylation of several endogenous phosphoproteins. One phosphoprotein with an apparent Mr of 48,300 is radiolabeled to an apparent extent at least 5-fold higher than any other phosphoprotein as part of either the Golgi apparatus or highly purified rat liver fractions derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plasma membrane, coated vesicles, cytosol, and total homogenate. Approximately 70% of the 48.3-kDa phosphoprotein appears to be a specific extrinsic Golgi membrane protein with the phosphorylated amino acid being threonine. The protein kinase which phosphorylates the 48.3-kDa protein is an intrinsic Golgi membrane protein and is dependent on MgS , independent of CaS , calmodulin, and cAMP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Preliminary evidence suggests that there are also intrinsic membrane protein kinases in the Golgi apparatus which are dependent on CaS and cAMP. The physiological role of the above phosphoproteins and protein kinases is not known.

  10. Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signaling is commonly mediated through post-translational protein modifications that propagate messages from membrane-bound receptors to ultimately regulate gene expression. Signaling cascades are ubiquitously intertwined, and a full understanding of function can only be gleaned by observing dynamics across multiple key signaling nodes. Importantly, targets within signaling cascades often represent opportunities for therapeutic development or can serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Protein phosphorylation is a particularly important post-translational modification that controls many essential cellular signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, aberrant phosphorylation is found in many human diseases, including cancer, and phosphoprotein-based biomarker signatures hold unrealized promise for disease monitoring. Moreover, phosphoprotein analysis has wide-ranging applications across fundamental chemical biology, as many drug discovery efforts seek to target nodes within kinase signaling pathways. For both fundamental and translational applications, the analysis of phosphoprotein biomarker targets is limited by a reliance on labor-intensive and/or technically challenging methods, particularly when considering the simultaneous monitoring of multiplexed panels of phosphoprotein biomarkers. We have developed a technology based upon arrays of silicon photonic microring resonator sensors that fills this void, facilitating the rapid and automated analysis of multiple phosphoprotein levels from both cell lines and primary human tumor samples requiring only minimal sample preparation. PMID:26539563

  11. Localization of Phosphoproteins within the Barnacle Adhesive Interface.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Yang, Xu; Wu, Fanghui; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Beniash, Elia

    2016-06-01

    Barnacles permanently adhere to nearly any inert substrate using proteinaceous glue. The glue consists of at least ten major proteins, some of which have been isolated and sequenced. Questions still remain about the chemical mechanisms involved in adhesion and the potential of the glue to serve as a platform for mineralization of the calcified base plate. We tested the hypothesis that barnacle glue contains phosphoproteins, which have the potential to play a role in both adhesion and mineralization. Using a combination of phosphoprotein-specific gel staining and Western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibody, we identified multiple phosphorylated proteins in uncured glue secretions from the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite The protein composition of the glue and the quantity and abundance of phosphoproteins varied distinctly among individual barnacles, possibly due to cyclical changes in the glue secretion over time. We assessed the location of the phosphoproteins within the barnacle glue layer using decalcified barnacle base plates and residual glue deposited by reattached barnacles. Phosphoproteins were found throughout the organic matrix of the base plate and within the residual glue. Staining within the residual glue appeared most intensely in regions where capillary glue ducts, which are involved in cyclical release of glue, had been laid down. Lastly, mineralization studies of glue proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that proteins identified as phosphorylated possibly induce mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These results contribute to our understanding of the protein composition of barnacle glue, and provide new insights into the potential roles of phosphoproteins in underwater bioadhesives. PMID:27365418

  12. Structural and functional basis of protein phosphatase 5 substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Jasmeen; Dunn, Diana M.; Woodford, Mark R.; Mariotti, Laura; Schulman, Jacqualyn; Bourboulia, Dimitra; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The serine/threonine phosphatase protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) regulates hormone- and stress-induced cellular signaling by association with the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). PP5-mediated dephosphorylation of the cochaperone Cdc37 is essential for activation of Hsp90-dependent kinases. However, the details of this mechanism remain unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a Cdc37 phosphomimetic peptide bound to the catalytic domain of PP5. The structure reveals PP5 utilization of conserved elements of phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) structure to bind substrate and provides a template for many PPP–substrate interactions. Our data show that, despite a highly conserved structure, elements of substrate specificity are determined within the phosphatase catalytic domain itself. Structure-based mutations in vivo reveal that PP5-mediated dephosphorylation is required for kinase and steroid hormone receptor release from the chaperone complex. Finally, our data show that hyper- or hypoactivity of PP5 mutants increases Hsp90 binding to its inhibitor, suggesting a mechanism to enhance the efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors by regulation of PP5 activity in tumors. PMID:27466404

  13. Applying a Targeted Label-free Approach using LC-MS AMT Tags to Evaluate Changes in Protein Phosphorylation Following Phosphatase Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Feng; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jayachandran, Hemalatha; Lou, Quanzhou; Monroe, Matthew E.; Du, Xiuxia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Zhang, Rui; Anderson, David J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Moore, Ronald J.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Lipton, Mary S.; Camp, David G.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.; Rossie, Sandra S.

    2007-10-12

    To identify phosphoproteins regulated by the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family of S/T phosphatases, we performed a large-scale characterization of changes in protein phosphorylation on extracts from HeLa cells treated with or without calyculin A, a potent PPP enzyme inhibitor. A label-free comparative Phosphoproteomics approach using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and targeted tandem mass spectrometry was employed to discover and identify signatures based upon distinctive changes in abundance. Overall, 232 proteins were identified as either direct or indirect targets for PPP enzyme regulation. Most of the present identifications represent novel PPP enzyme targets at the level of both phosphorylation site and protein. These include phosphorylation sites within signaling proteins such as p120 Catenin, A Kinase Anchoring Protein 8, JunB, and Type II Phosphatidyl Inositol 4 Kinase. These data can be used to define underlying signaling pathways and events regulated by the PPP family of S/T phosphatases.

  14. PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of phosphoproteins at mitotic exit is controlled by inhibitor-1 and PP1 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Judy Qiju; Guo, Jessie Yanxiang; Tang, Wanli; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Freel, Christopher D.; Chen, Chen; Nairn, Angus C.; Kornbluth, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Loss of Cdc2 activity following Cyclin B degradation is necessary, but not sufficient, for mitotic exit. Proteins phosphorylated by Cdc2 and downstream mitotic kinases must also be dephosphorylated. We report here that protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is the major catalyst of mitotic phosphoprotein dephosphorylation. Suppression of PP1 during early mitosis is maintained through the dual inhibition of PP1 by Cdc2 phosphorylation and the binding of Inhibitor-1 (I1), which is facilitated by PKA-mediated I1 phosphorylation. As Cdc2 levels drop following Cyclin B degradation, autodephosphorylation of PP1 at the site of Cdc2 phosphorylation (T320) allows partial PP1 activation. This promotes PP1-regulated dephosphorylation of I1 at its activating site (T35), dissociation of the I1-PP1 complex, and full PP1 activation to promote mitotic exit. Thus, Cdc2 both phosphorylates multiple mitotic substrates and inhibits their PP1-mediated dephosphorylation. PMID:19396163

  15. Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) Is a Phosphoprotein Regulated by Calcineurin (PP2B)*

    PubMed Central

    Filosto, Simone; Fry, William; Knowlton, Anne A.; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to oxidative stress increased ceramide generation via specific activation of neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2). Here we show that nSMase2 is a phosphoprotein exclusively phosphorylated at serine residues. The level of nSMase2 phosphorylation can be modulated by treatment with anisomycin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), suggesting that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinases Cs are upstream of nSMase2 phosphorylation. Oxidative stress enhances both the activity and phosphorylation of nSMase2. Strikingly, we show here that nSMase2 is bound directly by the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), which acts as an on/off switch for nSMase2 phosphorylation in the presence or absence of oxidative stress. Specifically, CaN is being inhibited/degraded and therefore does not bind nSMase2 under oxidative stress, and a mutant nSMase2 that lacks the CaN binding site exhibits constitutively elevated phosphorylation and increased activity relative to wild type nSMase2. Importantly, the phosphorylation and activity of the mutant no longer responds to oxidative stress, confirming that CaN is the critical link that allows oxidative stress to modulate nSMase2 phosphorylation and function. PMID:20106976

  16. Centromeric binding and activity of Protein Phosphatase 4

    PubMed Central

    Lipinszki, Zoltan; Lefevre, Stephane; Savoian, Matthew S.; Singleton, Martin R.; Glover, David M.; Przewloka, Marcin R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell division cycle requires tight coupling between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. However, understanding the cell cycle roles of multimeric protein phosphatases has been limited by the lack of knowledge of how their diverse regulatory subunits target highly conserved catalytic subunits to their sites of action. Phosphoprotein phosphatase 4 (PP4) has been recently shown to participate in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We now find that the EVH1 domain of the regulatory subunit 3 of Drosophila PP4, Falafel (Flfl), directly interacts with the centromeric protein C (CENP-C). Unlike other EVH1 domains that interact with proline-rich ligands, the crystal structure of the Flfl amino-terminal EVH1 domain bound to a CENP-C peptide reveals a new target-recognition mode for the phosphatase subunit. We also show that binding of Flfl to CENP-C is required to bring PP4 activity to centromeres to maintain CENP-C and attached core kinetochore proteins at chromosomes during mitosis. PMID:25562660

  17. Crystal Structure of the Nipah Virus Phosphoprotein Tetramerization Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, Jessica F.; Barnett, Katherine C.; Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens M. H.; Keegan, Ronan M.; Rigden, Daniel J.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Nipah virus phosphoprotein (P) is multimeric and tethers the viral polymerase to the nucleocapsid. We present the crystal structure of the multimerization domain of Nipah virus P: a long, parallel, tetrameric, coiled coil with a small, α-helical cap structure. Across the paramyxoviruses, these domains share little sequence identity yet are similar in length and structural organization, suggesting a common requirement for scaffolding or spatial organization of the functions of P in the virus life cycle. PMID:24155387

  18. Enrichment and Analysis of Intact Phosphoproteins in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Uma K.; Ross, Andrew R. S.; Krochko, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates diverse cellular functions and plays a key role in the early development of plants. To complement and expand upon previous investigations of protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis seedlings we used an alternative approach that combines protein extraction under non-denaturing conditions with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) enrichment of intact phosphoproteins in Rubisco-depleted extracts, followed by identification using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In-gel trypsin digestion and analysis of selected gel spots identified 144 phosphorylated peptides and residues, of which only18 phosphopeptides and 8 phosphosites were found in the PhosPhAt 4.0 and P3DB Arabidopsis thaliana phosphorylation site databases. More than half of the 82 identified phosphoproteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis/respiration or oxidative stress response mechanisms. Enrichment of intact phosphoproteins prior to 2-DE and LC-MS/MS appears to enhance detection of phosphorylated threonine and tyrosine residues compared with methods that utilize peptide-level enrichment, suggesting that the two approaches are somewhat complementary in terms of phosphorylation site coverage. Comparing results for young seedlings with those obtained previously for mature Arabidopsis leaves identified five proteins that are differentially phosphorylated in these tissues, demonstrating the potential of this technique for investigating the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during plant development. PMID:26158488

  19. Quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of phosphoproteins and ABA-regulated phosphoproteins in maize leaves under osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiuli; Li, Nana; Wu, Liuji; Li, Chunqi; Li, Chaohai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Tianxue; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a central post-translational modification (PTM) in ABA signaling. However, the phosphoproteins regulated by ABA under osmotic stress remain unknown in maize. In this study, maize mutant vp5 (deficient in ABA biosynthesis) and wild-type Vp5 were used to identify leaf phosphoproteins regulated by ABA under osmotic stress. Up to 4052 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 3017 phosphoproteins, were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and LC-MS/MS methods. The 4052 phosphopeptides contained 5723 non-redundant phosphosites; 512 phosphopeptides (379 in Vp5, 133 in vp5) displayed at least a 1.5-fold change of phosphorylation level under osmotic stress, of which 40 shared common in both genotypes and were differentially regulated by ABA. Comparing the signaling pathways involved in vp5 response to osmotic stress and those that in Vp5, indicated that ABA played a vital role in regulating these pathways related to mRNA synthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. Our results provide a comprehensive dataset of phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites regulated by ABA in maize adaptation to osmotic stress. This will be helpful to elucidate the ABA-mediate mechanism of maize endurance to drought by triggering phosphorylation or dephosphorylation cascades. PMID:26503333

  20. Isolation of Human Mitotic Protein Phosphatase Complexes: Identification of a Complex between Protein Phosphatase 1 and the RNA Helicase Ddx21

    PubMed Central

    De Wever, Veerle; Lloyd, David C.; Nasa, Isha; Nimick, Mhairi; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Gourlay, Robert; Morrice, Nick; Moorhead, Greg B. G.

    2012-01-01

    Metazoan mitosis requires remodelling of sub-cellular structures to ensure proper division of cellular and genetic material. Faults often lead to genomic instability, cell cycle arrests and disease onset. These key structural changes are under tight spatial-temporal and post-translational control, with crucial roles for reversible protein phosphorylation. The phosphoprotein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A are paramount for the timely execution of mitotic entry and exit but their interaction partners and substrates are still largely unresolved. High throughput, mass-spectrometry based studies have limited sensitivity for the detection of low-abundance and transient complexes, a typical feature of many protein phosphatase complexes. Moreover, the limited timeframe during which mitosis takes place reduces the likelihood of identifying mitotic phosphatase complexes in asynchronous cells. Hence, numerous mitotic protein phosphatase complexes still await identification. Here we present a strategy to enrich and identify serine/threonine protein phosphatase complexes at the mitotic spindle. We thus identified a nucleolar RNA helicase, Ddx21/Gu, as a novel, direct PP1 interactor. Furthermore, our results place PP1 within the toposome, a Topoisomerase II alpha (TOPOIIα) containing complex with a key role in mitotic chromatin regulation and cell cycle progression, possibly via regulated protein phosphorylation. This study provides a strategy for the identification of further mitotic PP1 partners and the unravelling of PP1 functions during mitosis. PMID:22761809

  1. Studies in pig heart tissue on various 60,000 Da phosphoproteins.

    PubMed

    Guesdon, F; David-Pfeuty, T

    1989-03-01

    Pig heart tissue have been shown to contain 3 different 60,000 Da phosphoproteins. Different purification procedures were used in order to separate them, suggesting that the 3 phosphoproteins differ in their environmental parameters. The 2 major ones appear essentially as peripheral phosphoproteins that are associated with cellular membranes through ionic forces, whereas the third minor phosphoprotein behaves as an integral plasma membrane protein. The three phosphoproteins also differ in their relative amount of phosphorylated serine, threonine and tyrosine residues after in vitro protein kinase assay. Evidence that the 3 phosphoproteins are related arises from the similarity between their respective phosphopeptide maps after partial hydrolysis with proteases, an experiment that also points out relatedness in primary structure between them and the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, pp60v-src. The 3 phosphoproteins, however, do not appear to be immunologically related to pp60v-src since none of them is immunoprecipitated by sera that precipitate pp60v-src. The possibility that the three 60,000 Da phosphoproteins under study represent 3 differentially localized and phosphorylated products of c-src and/or c-src related genes is discussed. PMID:2472841

  2. Structure of human PIR1, an atypical dual-specificity phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Sankhala, Rajeshwer Singh; Lokareddy, Ravi Kumar; Cingolani, Gino

    2014-02-11

    PIR1 is an atypical dual-specificity phosphatase (DSP) that dephosphorylates RNA with a higher specificity than phosphoproteins. Here we report the atomic structure of a catalytically inactive mutant (C152S) of the human PIR1 phosphatase core (PIR1-core, residues 29-205), refined at 1.20 Å resolution. PIR1-core shares structural similarities with DSPs related to Vaccinia virus VH1 and with RNA 5'-phosphatases such as the baculovirus RNA triphosphatase and the human mRNA capping enzyme. The PIR1 active site cleft is wider and deeper than that of VH1 and contains two bound ions: a phosphate trapped above the catalytic cysteine C152 exemplifies the binding mode expected for the γ-phosphate of RNA, and ∼6 Å away, a chloride ion coordinates the general base R158. Two residues in the PIR1 phosphate-binding loop (P-loop), a histidine (H154) downstream of C152 and an asparagine (N157) preceding R158, make close contacts with the active site phosphate, and their nonaliphatic side chains are essential for phosphatase activity in vitro. These residues are conserved in all RNA 5'-phosphatases that, analogous to PIR1, lack a "general acid" residue. Thus, a deep active site crevice, two active site ions, and conserved P-loop residues stabilizing the γ-phosphate of RNA are defining features of atypical DSPs that specialize in dephosphorylating 5'-RNA. PMID:24447265

  3. MALDI mass sequencing and biochemical characterization of Setaria cervi protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Rai, Reeta; Singh, Neetu; Elesela, Srikanth; Tiwari, Savitri; Rathaur, Sushma

    2013-01-01

    A 30-kDa acid phosphatase with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was identified in Setaria cervi (ScPTP). The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using three-step column chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of purified ScPTP yielded a total of eight peptides matching most closely to phosphoprotein phosphatase of Ricinus communis (RcPP). A hydrophilicity plot of RcPP revealed the presence of these peptides in the hydrophilic region, suggesting their antigenic nature. The substrate specificity of ScPTP with ortho-phospho-L-tyrosine and inhibition with sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate affirmed it as a protein tyrosine phosphatase. ScPTP was also found to be tartrate resistant. The Km and Vmax were 6.60 mM and 83.3 μM/ml/min, respectively, with pNPP and 8.0 mM and 111 μM/ml/min, respectively, with ortho-phospho-L-tyrosine as the substrate. The Ki value with sodium orthovanadate was calculated to be 16.10 mM. Active site modification with DEPC, EDAC and pHMB suggested the presence of histidine, cysteine and aspartate at its active site. Thus, on the basis of MALDI-TOF and biochemical studies, it was confirmed that purified acid phosphatase is a PTP. PMID:23052758

  4. Preparation of a novel Zr(4+)-immobilized metal affinity membrane for selective adsorption of phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a novel phosphate-Zr(4+) immobilized metal affinity membrane (IMAM) was prepared based on the surface initiated-atom transfer radical polymerization technique for the selective adsorption of phosphoprotein. The adsorption capacity and selectivity of the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM were evaluated by using the mixture of standard phosphoproteins (β-casein, ovalbumin) and nonphosphoproteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) as model samples. The adsorption isotherms and competitive adsorption results demonstrated that the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM had higher binding capacity and selectivity for phosphoproteins over nonphosphoproteins. Moreover, the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM exhibited good re-usability and re-productivity. Finally, the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM was applied to separate phosphoprotein from real samples with high purity. Therefore, the as-prepared phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM could be a promising affinity material for the efficient enrichment of phosphoprotein from complex bio-samples. PMID:27433983

  5. Role of presynaptic phosphoprotein synapsin II in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Luke; Hui, Patricia; Tan, Mattea; Mishra, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Synapsin II is a member of the neuronal phosphoprotein family. These phosphoproteins are evolutionarily conserved across many organisms and are important in a variety of synaptic functions, including synaptogenesis and the regulation of neurotransmitter release. A number of genome-wide scans, meta-analyses, and genetic susceptibility studies have implicated the synapsin II gene (3p25) in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) and other psychiatric disorders. Further studies have found a reduction of synapsin II mRNA and protein in the prefrontal cortex in post-mortem samples from schizophrenic patients. Disruptions in the expression of this gene may cause synaptic dysfunction, which can result in neurotransmitter imbalances, likely contributing to the pathogenesis of SZ. SZ is a costly, debilitating psychiatric illness affecting approximately 1.1% of the world’s population, amounting to 51 million people today. The disorder is characterized by positive (hallucinations, paranoia), negative (social withdrawal, lack of motivation), and cognitive (memory impairments, attention deficits) symptoms. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the structure, function, and involvement of the synapsin family, specifically synapsin II, in the pathophysiology of SZ and possible target for therapeutic intervention/implications. PMID:26425441

  6. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, M. R.; Honkanen, R.; Ciszak, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    Serinehhreonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) affects many signaling networks that regulate cell growth and cellular responses to stress. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 A. From this structure we resolved the mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a con served Aspn-271-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His-427-His-304-Asp-274 catalytic motif. The structure of PPSc provides a structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  7. Protein phosphatase 1 suppresses androgen receptor ubiquitylation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaming; Han, Weiwei; Gulla, Sarah; Simon, Nicholas I; Gao, Yanfei; Cai, Changmeng; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jihong; Balk, Steven P; Chen, Shaoyong

    2016-01-12

    The phosphoprotein phosphatases are emerging as important androgen receptor (AR) regulators in prostate cancer (PCa). We reported previously that the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1α) can enhance AR activity by dephosphorylating a site in the AR hinge region (Ser650) and thereby decrease AR nuclear export. In this study we show that PP1α increases the expression of wildtype as well as an S650A mutant AR, indicating that it is acting through one or more additional mechanisms. We next show that PP1α binds primarily to the AR ligand binding domain and decreases its ubiquitylation and degradation. Moreover, we find that the PP1α inhibitor tautomycin increases phosphorylation of AR ubiquitin ligases including SKP2 and MDM2 at sites that enhance their activity, providing a mechanism by which PP1α may suppress AR degradation. Significantly, the tautomycin mediated decrease in AR expression was most pronounced at low androgen levels or in the presence of the AR antagonist enzalutamide. Consistent with this finding, the sensitivity of LNCaP and C4-2 PCa cells to tautomycin, as assessed by PSA synthesis and proliferation, was enhanced at low androgen levels or by treatment with enzalutamide. Together these results indicate that PP1α may contribute to stabilizing AR protein after androgen deprivation therapies, and that targeting PP1α or the AR-PP1α interaction may be effective in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PMID:26636645

  8. Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Affinity Tags: Application to the Enrichment and Identification of Low-Abundance Phosphoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Goshe, Michael; Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Panisko, Ellen A.; Conrads, Thomas P. ); Angell, Nicolas H.; Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-02-01

    A novel approach using different isotopic labeling and biotinylation has been developed for the enrichment and quantitation of phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl-peptides. The phosphoprotein isotope-coded affinity tag (PhIAT) exploits the high affinity biotin-avidin interaction to isolate modified phosphopeptides from a complex mixture of peptides. The PhIAT strategy for quantifying and enriching mixtures for phosphopeptides was demonstrated using a commercially available sample of the phosphoprotein B-casein. A denatured solution of B-casein was labeled using the PhIAT method and after proteolytic digestion, the labeled peptides were isolated using immobilize avidin. The recovered peptides were separated by capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. PhIAT-labeled peptides corresponding to known O-phosphorylated peptides from B-casein were identified as were phosphorylated peptides from as1-casein and ase-casein, known low-level (< 5%) contaminants of commercially available B-casein. All of the identified phosphopeptides from these caseins have been previously documented to be phosphorylated at the sites elucidated by the PhIAT approach. The results illustrate the efficancy of the PhIAT-labeling strategy to enrich mixtures for phosphopeptides and permit the detection and identification of low abundance phosphopeptides. In addition, experiments using light and heavy isotopic version of the PhIAT reagents demonstrated that a 10% difference in phosphorylation state could be determined between phosphopeptides in comparative samples.

  9. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kateřina; Procházková, Jiřina; Pacherník, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  10. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  11. Nucleolin: The most abundant multifunctional phosphoprotein of nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Tajrishi, Marjan M; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-05-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional phosphoprotein ubiquitously distributed in the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell. Nucleolin has a bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence and is conserved in animals, plants and yeast. Its levels are correlated with the rate of functional activity of the nucleolus in exponentially growing cells. Nucleolin contains intrinsic DNA and RNA helicase, nucleic-acid-dependent ATPase and self-cleaving activities. It binds RNA through its RNA recognition motifs. It regulates various aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism, chromatin structure, rDNA transcription, rRNA maturation, cytokinesis, nucleogenesis, cell proliferation and growth, the folding, maturation and ribosome assembly and nucleocytoplasmic transport of newly synthesized pre-RNAs. In this review we present an overview on nucleolin, its localization, structure and various functions. We also describe the discovery and important studies of nucleolin in plants. PMID:21980556

  12. An integrated workflow for characterizing intact phosphoproteins from complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Rui; Tolic, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2009-05-08

    The phosphorylation of any site on a given protein can affect its activity, degradation rate, ability to dock with other proteins or bind divalent cations, and/or its localization. These effects can operate within the same protein; in fact, multisite phosphorylation is a key mechanism for achieving signal integration in cells. Hence, knowing the overall phosphorylation signature of a protein is essential for understanding the "state" of a cell. However, current technologies to monitor the phosphorylation status of proteins are inefficient at determining the relative stoichiometries of phosphorylation at multiple sites. Here we report a new capability for comprehensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of intact phosphoproteins. The technology platform built upon integrated bottom-up and top-down approach that is facilitated by intact protein reversed-phase (RP)LC concurrently coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and fraction collection.

  13. Selective adsorption of phosphoproteins on gel-immobilized ferric chelate

    SciTech Connect

    Muszynska, G.; Andersson, L.; Porath, J.

    1986-11-04

    Ferric ions are very strongly adsorbed to iminodiacetic acid substituted agarose. This firmly immobilized complex acts as a selective immobilized metal affinity adsorbent for phosphoproteins. Chromatography based on this principle is illustrated by the adsorption-desorption behavior of egg yolk phosvitin before and after dephosphorylation as well as by the change in the chromatographic pattern before and after enzymic phosphorylation of selected histones. The strength of binding is dependent on the phosphate content. The difference is binding before and after phosphorylation of a single amino acid residue is demonstrated. Affinity elution can be accomplished by inclusion in the buffer of (1) phosphoserine or (2) a displacing metal ion such as Mg/sup 2 +/.

  14. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) and dopamine DA1 agonist-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase in renal tubule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meister, B; Fryckstedt, J; Schalling, M; Cortés, R; Hökfelt, T; Aperia, A; Hemmings, H C; Nairn, A C; Ehrlich, M; Greengard, P

    1989-01-01

    The cellular localization of DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 that appears to mediate certain actions of dopamine in the mammalian brain by acting as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1, was studied in the kidney of several species. DARPP-32 mRNA and DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The specific dopamine DA1 agonist SKF 82526 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity, which could be blocked by SCH 23390, a specific DA1 antagonist, and by PKI-(5-24) amide, a specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The results indicate that DA1 dopamine receptors and DARPP-32, an intracellular third messenger for dopamine, are part of the signal-transduction process for dopamine acting on renal tubule cells. Images PMID:2573060

  15. An integrated workflow for characterizing intact phosphoproteins from complex mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Si; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Rui; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Camp, David; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of any site on a given protein can affect its activity, degradation rate, ability to dock with other proteins or bind divalent cations, and/or its localization. These effects can operate within the same protein; in fact, multisite phosphorylation is a key mechanism for achieving signal integration in cells. Hence, knowing the overall phosphorylation signature of a protein is essential for understanding the "state" of a cell. However, current technologies to monitor the phosphorylation status of proteins are inefficient at determining the relative stoichiometries of phosphorylation at multiple sites. Here we report a new capability for comprehensive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of intact phosphoproteins. The technology platform built upon integrated bottom-up and top-down approach that is facilitated by intact protein reversed-phase (RP)LC concurrently coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and fraction collection. As the use of conventional RPLC systems for phosphopeptide identification has proven challenging due to the formation of metal ion complexes at various metal surfaces during LC/MS and ESI-MS analysis, we have developed a “metal-free” RPLC-ESI-MS platform for phosphoprotein characterization. This platform demonstrated a significant sensitivity enhancement for phosphorylated casein proteins enriched from a standard protein mixture and revealed the presence of over 20 casein isoforms arising from genetic variants with varying numbers of phosphorylation sites. The integrated workflow was also applied to an enriched yeast phosphoproteome to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy for characterizing complex biological systems, and revealed ~16% of the detected yeast proteins to have multiple phosphorylation isoforms. Intact protein LC/MS platform for characterization of combinatorial posttranslational modifications (PTMs), with special emphasis on multisite phosphorylation, holds

  16. Dephosphorylation of Ser-137 in DARPP-32 by protein phosphatases 2A and 2C: different roles in vitro and in striatonigral neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Desdouits, F; Siciliano, J C; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P; Girault, J A

    1998-01-01

    DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr=32000) is highly expressed in striatonigral neurons in which its phosphorylation is regulated by several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. DARPP-32 becomes a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 when it is phosphorylated on Thr-34 by cAMP- or cGMP-dependent protein kinases. DARPP-32 is also phosphorylated on Ser-137 by protein kinase CK1 (CK1), in vitro and in vivo. This phosphorylation has an important regulatory role since it inhibits the dephosphorylation of Thr-34 by calcineurin in vitro and in striatonigral neurons. Here, we show that DARPP-32 phosphorylated by CK1 is a substrate in vitro for protein phosphatases 2A and 2C, but not protein phosphatase 1 or calcineurin. However, in substantia nigra slices, dephosphorylation of Ser-137 was markedly sensitive to decreased temperature, and not detectably affected by the presence of okadaic acid under conditions in which dephosphorylation of Thr-34 by protein phosphatase 2A was inhibited. These results suggest that, in neurons, phospho-Ser-137-DARPP-32 is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2C, but not 2A. Thus, DARPP-32 appears to be a component of a regulatory cascade of phosphatases in which dephosphorylation of Ser-136 by protein phosphatase 2C facilitates dephosphorylation of Thr-34 by calcineurin, removing the cyclic nucleotide-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 1. PMID:9461512

  17. Spatial Phosphoprotein Profiling Reveals a Compartmentalized Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Switch Governing Neurite Growth and Retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yingchun; Yang, Feng; Fu, Yi; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xining; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Zhao, Rui; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pertz, Olivier C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Orton, Daniel J.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2011-05-20

    Abstract - Brain development and spinal cord regeneration require neurite sprouting and growth cone navigation in response to extension and collapsing factors present in the extracellular environment. These external guidance cues control neurite growth cone extension and retraction processes through intracellular protein phosphorylation of numerous cytoskeletal, adhesion, and polarity complex signaling proteins. However, the complex kinase/substrate signaling networks that mediate neuritogenesis have not been investigated. Here, we compare the neurite phosphoproteome under growth and retraction conditions using neurite purification methodology combined with mass spectrometry. More than 4000 non-redundant phosphorylation sites from 1883 proteins have been annotated and mapped to signaling pathways that control kinase/phosphatase networks, cytoskeleton remodeling, and axon/dendrite specification. Comprehensive informatics and functional studies revealed a compartmentalized ERK activation/deactivation cytoskeletal switch that governs neurite growth and retraction, respectively. Our findings provide the first system-wide analysis of the phosphoprotein signaling networks that enable neurite growth and retraction and reveal an important molecular switch that governs neuritogenesis.

  18. Comparison of phosphoprotein isolated from mature and immature human tooth roots.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S P; Clarkson, B H; Feagin, F F

    1992-12-01

    Mature (average patient age = 29.5 yr, closed apical foramen) and immature (average patient age = 17.5 yr, open apical foramen) root shards were placed in dialysis tubing and demineralized to completion using either 10% disodium EDTA plus protease inhibitors or 0.6 N HCl. The demineralized shards were re-extracted (five times) with 0.05 M tris-HCl, 1.0 M NaCl and then collagenase digested. No major differences were observed in chromatograms of extracts, re-extracts or collagenase digests from root shards demineralized in either way. In contrast, chromatograms of immature and mature roots showed qualitative differences. Chromatograms of mature roots demineralized in either way showed broader protein peaks and less organic phosphorus than those from immature tooth roots. A distinct band amid degraded phosphoprotein (150 K) was found in SDS-PAGE gels (7.5%) from EDTA-extracted immature tooth roots but not from mature tooth roots. Electroelution of this band revealed a typical phosphoprotein amino-acid profile containing increased aspartic acid and serine residues. Comparison of the total phosphoprotein and amino acid composition of extracts, re-extracts and collagenase digests revealed that phosphoprotein, serine and to a lesser extent aspartic acid were recovered in greater quantities from immature roots than mature tooth roots. These data suggest that the degree of maturation is crucial to the isolation of an intact phosphoprotein and provides additional evidence that human dentine phosphoprotein undergoes amino acid compositional changes during maturation. PMID:1471954

  19. A new fluorescent quenching method for the determination of phosphoproteins by using calconcarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongxin; Zhu, Xinliang; Shen, Jiayi; Zhou, Ayi; Ni, Maowei; Jin, Litai; Cong, Weitao

    2015-03-01

    A fluorescent quenching detection method for phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE by using calconcarboxylic acid (CCA) was described. In this method, the fluorescence intensity of CCA was greatly increased with the presence of Al(3+) in the gel background, while in zones where phosphoproteins are located this intensity was absent because of fluorescence quenching phenomenon through the formation of CCA-Al(3+) -phosphoprotein appended complex. Approximately 4-8 ng of phosphoproteins can be selectively detected within 1 h (1D SDS-PAGE), which is similar to that of the most commonly used Pro-Q Diamond stain. The specificity of this novel technique for phosphoproteins was confirmed by dephosphorylation, Western blot, and LC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. Furthermore, to better understand the newly developed method, the detection mechanism of CCA stain was explored by fluorescent spectrometry. According to the results, it is believed that CCA stain may provide a new choice for selective, economical, MS compatible, and convenient visualization of gel-separated phosphoproteins. PMID:25546259

  20. Probing Mechanistic Similarities between Response Regulator Signaling Proteins and Haloacid Dehalogenase Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Immormino, Robert M; Starbird, Chrystal A; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Response regulator signaling proteins and phosphatases of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily share strikingly similar folds, active site geometries, and reaction chemistry. Proteins from both families catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a substrate to one of their own aspartyl residues, and subsequent hydrolysis of the phosphoprotein. Notable differences include an additional Asp that functions as an acid/base catalyst and an active site well-structured prior to phosphorylation in HAD phosphatases. Both features contribute to reactions substantially faster than those for response regulators. To investigate mechanisms underlying the functional differences between response regulators and HAD phosphatases, we characterized five double mutants of the response regulator CheY designed to mimic HAD phosphatases. Each mutant contained the extra Asp paired with a phosphatase-inspired substitution to potentially position the Asp properly. Only CheY DR (Arg as the anchor) exhibited enhanced rates of both autophosphorylation with phosphoramidate and autodephosphorylation compared to those of wild-type CheY. Crystal structures of CheY DR complexed with MoO4(2-) or WO4(2-) revealed active site hydrogen bonding networks similar to those in HAD·substrate complexes, with the extra Asp positioned for direct interaction with the leaving group (phosphorylation) or nucleophile (dephosphorylation). However, CheY DR reaction kinetics did not exhibit the pH sensitivities expected for acid/base catalysis. Biochemical analysis indicated CheY DR had an enhanced propensity to adopt the active conformation without phosphorylation, but a crystal structure revealed unphosphorylated CheY DR was not locked in the active conformation. Thus, the enhanced reactivity of CheY DR reflected partial acquisition of catalytic and structural features of HAD phosphatases. PMID:25928369

  1. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  2. Transgenic expression of dentin phosphoprotein inhibits skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Liu, P; Wang, S; Liu, C; Jani, P; Lu, Y; Qin, C

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  3. Transgenic Expression of Dentin Phosphoprotein Inhibits Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Liu, P.; Wang, S.; Liu, C.; Jani, P.; Lu, Y.; Qin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  4. Psy2 Targets the PP4 Family Phosphatase Pph3 To Dephosphorylate Mth1 and Repress Glucose Transporter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui; Han, Bong-Kwan; Guaderrama, Marisela; Aslanian, Aaron; Yates, John R.; Hunter, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The reversible nature of protein phosphorylation dictates that any protein kinase activity must be counteracted by protein phosphatase activity. How phosphatases target specific phosphoprotein substrates and reverse the action of kinases, however, is poorly understood in a biological context. We address this question by elucidating a novel function of the conserved PP4 family phosphatase Pph3-Psy2, the yeast counterpart of the mammalian PP4c-R3 complex, in the glucose-signaling pathway. Our studies show that Pph3-Psy2 specifically targets the glucose signal transducer protein Mth1 via direct binding of the EVH1 domain of the Psy2 regulatory subunit to the polyproline motif of Mth1. This activity is required for the timely dephosphorylation of the downstream transcriptional repressor Rgt1 upon glucose withdrawal, a critical event in the repression of HXT genes, which encode glucose transporters. Pph3-Psy2 dephosphorylates Mth1, an Rgt1 associated corepressor, but does not dephosphorylate Rgt1 at sites associated with inactivation, in vitro. We show that Pph3-Psy2 phosphatase antagonizes Mth1 phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), the major protein kinase activated in response to glucose, in vitro and regulates Mth1 function via putative PKA phosphorylation sites in vivo. We conclude that the Pph3-Psy2 phosphatase modulates Mth1 activity to facilitate precise regulation of HXT gene expression by glucose. PMID:24277933

  5. Psy2 targets the PP4 family phosphatase Pph3 to dephosphorylate Mth1 and repress glucose transporter gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Han, Bong-Kwan; Guaderrama, Marisela; Aslanian, Aaron; Yates, John R; Hunter, Tony; Wittenberg, Curt

    2014-02-01

    The reversible nature of protein phosphorylation dictates that any protein kinase activity must be counteracted by protein phosphatase activity. How phosphatases target specific phosphoprotein substrates and reverse the action of kinases, however, is poorly understood in a biological context. We address this question by elucidating a novel function of the conserved PP4 family phosphatase Pph3-Psy2, the yeast counterpart of the mammalian PP4c-R3 complex, in the glucose-signaling pathway. Our studies show that Pph3-Psy2 specifically targets the glucose signal transducer protein Mth1 via direct binding of the EVH1 domain of the Psy2 regulatory subunit to the polyproline motif of Mth1. This activity is required for the timely dephosphorylation of the downstream transcriptional repressor Rgt1 upon glucose withdrawal, a critical event in the repression of HXT genes, which encode glucose transporters. Pph3-Psy2 dephosphorylates Mth1, an Rgt1 associated corepressor, but does not dephosphorylate Rgt1 at sites associated with inactivation, in vitro. We show that Pph3-Psy2 phosphatase antagonizes Mth1 phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), the major protein kinase activated in response to glucose, in vitro and regulates Mth1 function via putative PKA phosphorylation sites in vivo. We conclude that the Pph3-Psy2 phosphatase modulates Mth1 activity to facilitate precise regulation of HXT gene expression by glucose. PMID:24277933

  6. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  7. Broad-Scale Phosphoprotein Profiling of Beta Adrenergic Receptor (β-AR) Signaling Reveals Novel Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation Events

    PubMed Central

    Chruscinski, Andrzej J.; Singh, Harvir; Chan, Steven M.; Utz, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) are model G-protein coupled receptors that mediate signal transduction in the sympathetic nervous system. Despite the widespread clinical use of agents that target β-ARs, the signaling pathways that operate downstream of β-AR stimulation have not yet been completely elucidated. Here, we utilized a lysate microarray approach to obtain a broad-scale perspective of phosphoprotein signaling downstream of β-AR. We monitored the time course of phosphorylation states of 54 proteins after β-AR activation mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. In response to stimulation with the non-selective β-AR agonist isoproterenol, we observed previously described phosphorylation events such as ERK1/2(T202/Y204) and CREB(S133), but also novel phosphorylation events such as Cdc2(Y15) and Pyk2(Y402). All of these events were mediated through cAMP and PKA as they were reproduced by stimulation with the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and were blocked by treatment with H89, a PKA inhibitor. In addition, we also observed a number of novel isoproterenol-induced protein dephosphorylation events in target substrates of the PI3K/AKT pathway: GSK3β(S9), 4E-BP1(S65), and p70s6k(T389). These dephosphorylations were dependent on cAMP, but were independent of PKA and correlated with reduced PI3K/AKT activity. Isoproterenol stimulation also led to a cAMP-dependent dephosphorylation of PP1α(T320), a modification known to correlate with enhanced activity of this phosphatase. Dephosphorylation of PP1α coincided with the secondary decline in phosphorylation of some PKA-phosphorylated substrates, suggesting that PP1α may act in a feedback loop to return these phosphorylations to baseline. In summary, lysate microarrays are a powerful tool to profile phosphoprotein signaling and have provided a broad-scale perspective of how β-AR signaling can regulate key pathways involved in cell growth and metabolism. PMID:24340001

  8. Phosphoprotein Stability in Clinical Tissue and Its Relevance for Reverse Phase Protein Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Virginia; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated proteins reflect the activity of specific cell signaling nodes in biological kinase protein networks. Cell signaling pathways can be either activated or deactivated depending on the phosphorylation state of the constituent proteins. The state of these kinase pathways reflects the in vivo activity of the cells and tissue at any given point in time. As such, cell signaling pathway information can be extrapolated to infer which phosphorylated proteins/pathways are driving an individual tumor’s growth. Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays (RPMA) are a sensitive and precise platform that can be applied to the quantitative measurement of hundreds of phosphorylated signal proteins from a small sample of tissue. Pre-analytical variability originating from tissue procurement and preservation may cause significant variability and bias in downstream molecular analysis. Depending on the ex vivo delay time in tissue processing, and the manner of tissue handling, protein biomarkers such as signal pathway phosphoproteins will be elevated or suppressed in a manner that does not represent the biomarker levels at the time of excision. Consequently, assessment of the state of these kinase networks requires stabilization, or preservation, of the phosphoproteins immediately post tissue procurement. We have employed reverse phase protein microarray analysis of phosphoproteins to study the factors influencing stability of phosphoproteins in tissue following procurement. Based on this analysis we have established tissue procurement guidelines for clinical research with an emphasis on quantifying phosphoproteins by RPMA. PMID:21901591

  9. NMR structure of the forkhead-associated domain from the Arabidopsis receptor kinase-associated protein phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gui-in; Ding, Zhaofeng; Walker, John C.; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are phosphoprotein-binding modules found in diverse signaling proteins that bind partners phosphorylated on threonine or serine. Kinase-associated protein phosphatase from Arabidopsis employs its FHA domain for negative regulation of receptor-like kinase signaling pathways, which are important in plant development. The solution structure of the free state of kinase-interacting FHA domain (KI-FHA) of kinase-associated protein phosphatase has been determined with high precision and accuracy using residual dipolar couplings. KI-FHA is a sandwich of a five-stranded mixed β-sheet with a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. Despite homology only in the recognition loops, this fold is shared with FHA domains from checkpoint proteins from yeast and humans, as well as with nonhomologous MH2 domains of Smad tumor suppressors. A shared pattern of hydrophobicity throughout FHA domains and Smad MH2 domains may stabilize the core of the β-sandwich. Evolutionary trace analysis of FHA domains suggests class-specific residues in the recognition loops that could tune their phosphoprotein-binding specificity. This surface agrees with that of KI-FHA in contact with a phosphothreonine peptide ligand. Evolutionary trace analysis also predicts an unexpected swath of class-specific residues on another face of FHA domains. Protein interactions with these faces may affect assembly of transmembrane signaling complexes in plants, and in other FHA domain-containing assemblies. PMID:14500786

  10. Distinct phosphatases antagonize the p53 response in different phases of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Shaltiel, Indra A; Aprelia, Melinda; Saurin, Adrian T; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Kops, Geert J P L; Voest, Emile E; Medema, René H

    2014-05-20

    The basic machinery that detects DNA damage is the same throughout the cell cycle. Here, we show, in contrast, that reversal of DNA damage responses (DDRs) and recovery are fundamentally different in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. We find that distinct phosphatases are required to counteract the checkpoint response in G1 vs. G2. Whereas WT p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) promotes recovery in G2-arrested cells by antagonizing p53, it is dispensable for recovery from a G1 arrest. Instead, we identify phosphoprotein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit (PP4) to be specifically required for cell cycle restart after DNA damage in G1. PP4 dephosphorylates Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1-S473 to repress p53-dependent transcriptional activation of p21 when the DDR is silenced. Taken together, our results show that PP4 and Wip1 are differentially required to counteract the p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2, by antagonizing early or late p53-mediated responses, respectively. PMID:24711418

  11. Beyond the Dopamine Receptor: Regulation and Roles of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Walaas, Sven Ivar; Hemmings, Hugh Caroll; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus Clark

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important modulatory role in the central nervous system, helping to control critical aspects of motor function and reward learning. Alteration in normal dopaminergic neurotransmission underlies multiple neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Modulation of dopamine-regulated signaling pathways is also important in the addictive actions of most drugs of abuse. Our studies over the last 30 years have focused on the molecular actions of dopamine acting on medium spiny neurons, the predominant neurons of the neostriatum. Striatum-enriched phosphoproteins, particularly dopamine and adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), regulator of calmodulin signaling (RCS), and ARPP-16, mediate pleiotropic actions of dopamine. Notably, each of these proteins, either directly or indirectly, regulates the activity of one of the three major subclasses of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, PP1, PP2B, and PP2A, respectively. For example, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 by protein kinase A results in potent inhibition of PP1, leading to potentiation of dopaminergic signaling at multiple steps from the dopamine receptor to the nucleus. The discovery of DARPP-32 and its emergence as a critical molecular integrator of striatal signaling will be discussed, as will more recent studies that highlight novel roles for RCS and ARPP-16 in dopamine-regulated striatal signaling pathways. PMID:21904525

  12. Prediction and verification of novel peptide targets of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Köhn, Maja

    2016-08-01

    Phosphotyrosine peptides are useful starting points for inhibitor design and for the search for protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) phosphoprotein substrates. To identify novel phosphopeptide substrates of PTP1B, we developed a computational prediction protocol based on a virtual library of protein sequences with known phosphotyrosine sites. To these we applied sequence-based methods, biologically meaningful filters and molecular docking. Five peptides were selected for biochemical testing of their potential as PTP1B substrates. All five peptides were equally good substrates for PTP1B compared to a known peptide substrate whereas appropriate control peptides were not recognized, showing that our protocol can be used to identify novel peptide substrates of PTP1B. PMID:27025565

  13. PCPP-260, PURKINJE CELL-SPECIFIC CYCLE AMP-REGULATED MEMBRANE PHOSPHOPROTEIN OF (M SUB R) 260,000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study reports the existence of Purkinje cell-specific phosphoprotein, Mr260,000 (PCPP-260), a neuronal membrance phosphoprotein, in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PCPP-260, which on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has an apparaent molecular mass ...

  14. Molecular evolution of dentin phosphoprotein among toothed and toothless animals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is the largest member of the SIBLING family and is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin. DSPP is also expressed in non-mineralized tissues including metabolically active ductal epithelia and some cancers. Its function, however, is poorly defined. The carboxy-terminal fragment, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is encoded predominantly by a large repetitive domain that requires separate cloning/sequencing reactions and is, therefore, often incomplete in genomic databases. Comparison of DPP sequences from at least one member of each major branch in the mammalian evolutionary tree (including some "toothless" mammals) as well as one reptile and bird may help delineate its possible functions in both dentin and ductal epithelia. Results The BMP1-cleavage and translation-termination domains were sufficiently conserved to permit amplification/cloning/sequencing of most species' DPP. While the integrin-binding domain, RGD, was present in about half of species, only vestigial remnants of this tripeptide were identified in the others. The number of tandem repeats of the nominal SerSerAsp phosphorylation motif in toothed mammals (including baleen whale and platypus which lack teeth as adults), ranged from ~75 (elephant) to >230 (human). These repeats were not perfect, however, and patterns of intervening sequences highlight the rapidity of changes among even closely related species. Two toothless anteater species have evolved different sets of nonsense mutations shortly after their BMP1 motifs suggesting that while cleavage may be important for DSPP processing in other tissues, the DPP domain itself may be required only in dentin. The lizard DSPP had an intact BMP1 site, a remnant RGD motif, as well as a distinctly different Ser/Asp-rich domain compared to mammals. Conclusions The DPP domain of DSPP was found to change dramatically within mammals and was lost in two truly toothless animals. The defining aspect of DPP, the

  15. Phosphatase regulation of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Kozicky, Lisa K; Sly, Laura M

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that play critical roles in tissue homeostasis and the immune response to invading pathogens or tumor cells. A hallmark of macrophages is their "plasticity," that is, their ability to respond to cues in their local microenvironment and adapt their activation state or phenotype to mount an appropriate response. During the inflammatory response, macrophages may be required to mount a profound anti-bacterial or anti-tumor response, an anti-inflammatory response, an anti-parasitic response, or a wound healing response. To do so, macrophages express cell surface receptors for growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, as well pathogen and danger associated molecular patterns. Downstream of these cell surface receptors, cell signalling cascades are activated and deactivated by reversible and competing activities of lipid and protein kinases and phosphatases. While kinases drive the activation of cell signalling pathways critical for macrophage activation, the strength and duration of the signalling is regulated by phosphatases. Hence, gene knockout mouse models have revealed critical roles for lipid and protein phosphatases in macrophage activation. Herein, we describe our current understanding and the key roles of specific cellular phosphatases in the regulation of the quality of macrophage polarization as well as the quantity of cytokines produced by activated macrophages. PMID:26216598

  16. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN PROTEIN IIIA AND PROTEIN IIIB, TWO PROMINENT SYNAPTIC VESICLE-ASSOCIATED PHOSPHOPROTEINS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein IIIa (Mr 74,000) and protein IIIb (Mr 55,000) are two major phosphoproteins found in mammalian brain. It was previously shown in intact nerve cells that the phosphorylation state of these two proteins could be increased by electrical stimulation, by depolarizing agents in...

  17. Phosphoprotein extraction from the dentine/cementum complex of human tooth roots.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S P; Clarkson, B H; Speirs, R L; Feagin, F F

    1990-01-01

    Root shards were placed in dialysis tubing and demineralized to completion in either 10% disodium EDTA, pH 7.4, 0.6 M HCl, 0.1 M HCl, 0.5 M acetic or 75 mM-25 mM lactic-acetic acids. The demineralized shards were then re-extracted with 0.05 M tris-HCl, 1.0 M NaCl. DEAE chromatography revealed that the major peak of the 0.6 M CHl and EDTA extracts contained organic phosphorus, whereas much less organic phosphorus was found in the major peak of the 0.1 M HCl extract. Analysis of the re-extracts gave a pattern opposite to that obtained from the initial extractions. Measurements of protein and organic phosphorus released during extraction and re-extraction confirmed these results. Staining of SDS-PAGE gels for phosphoprotein with Stains-All resulted in a blue smear in fractions containing organic phosphorus. Thus the extraction of phosphoproteins from human tooth roots differed depending upon the demineralizing conditions. This ability to remove phosphoprotein differentially will allow further investigation of the role of phosphoprotein in mineralization and remineralization. PMID:2115325

  18. PROTEIN III, A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN: VARIANT FORMS FOUND IN HUMAN BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work in the laboratory has shown the presence of many neuron-specific phosphoproteins in the mammalian nervous system. Two of these proteins, Protein III and Synapsin I, are specifically associated with synaptic vesicles in neurons throughout the brain. Protein III consist...

  19. The glucose-6-phosphatase system.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaftingen, Emile; Gerin, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mainly in the liver and the kidneys, plays the important role of providing glucose during starvation. Unlike most phosphatases acting on water-soluble compounds, it is a membrane-bound enzyme, being associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. In 1975, W. Arion and co-workers proposed a model according to which G6Pase was thought to be a rather unspecific phosphatase, with its catalytic site oriented towards the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [Arion, Wallin, Lange and Ballas (1975) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 6, 75--83]. Substrate would be provided to this enzyme by a translocase that is specific for glucose 6-phosphate, thereby accounting for the specificity of the phosphatase for glucose 6-phosphate in intact microsomes. Distinct transporters would allow inorganic phosphate and glucose to leave the vesicles. At variance with this substrate-transport model, other models propose that conformational changes play an important role in the properties of G6Pase. The last 10 years have witnessed important progress in our knowledge of the glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis system. The genes encoding G6Pase and the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been cloned and shown to be mutated in glycogen storage disease type Ia and type Ib respectively. The gene encoding a G6Pase-related protein, expressed specifically in pancreatic islets, has also been cloned. Specific potent inhibitors of G6Pase and of the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been synthesized or isolated from micro-organisms. These as well as other findings support the model initially proposed by Arion. Much progress has also been made with regard to the regulation of the expression of G6Pase by insulin, glucocorticoids, cAMP and glucose. PMID:11879177

  20. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  1. Enzymatic characteristics of an ApaH-like phosphatase, PrpA, and a diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, ApaH, from Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masashi; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Yoshio

    2014-09-17

    We characterized the activities of the Myxococcus xanthus ApaH-like phosphatases PrpA and ApaH, which share homologies with both phosphoprotein phosphatases and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases. PrpA exhibited a phosphatase activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), tyrosine phosphopeptide and tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, and a weak hydrolase activity towards ApnA and ATP. In the presence of Mn(2+), PrpA hydrolyzed Ap4A into AMP and ATP, whereas in the presence of Co(2+) PrpA hydrolyzed Ap4A into two molecules of ADP. ApaH exhibited high phosphatase activity towards pNPP, and hydrolase activity towards ApnA and ATP. Mn(2+) was required for ApaH-mediated pNPP dephosphorylation and ATP hydrolysis, whereas Co(2+) was required for ApnA hydrolysis. Thus, PrpA and ApaH may function mainly as a tyrosine protein phosphatase and an ApnA hydrolase, respectively. PMID:25107648

  2. Stable Isotope Metabolic Labeling-based Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Reveals Ethylene-regulated Time-dependent Phosphoproteins and Putative Substrates of Constitutive Triple Response 1 Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Guo, Guangyu; Zhang, Manyu; Liu, Claire Y.; Hu, Qin; Lam, Henry; Cheng, Han; Xue, Yu; Li, Jiayang; Li, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene is an important plant hormone that regulates numerous cellular processes and stress responses. The mode of action of ethylene is both dose- and time-dependent. Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in ethylene signaling, which is mediated by the activities of ethylene receptors, constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) kinase, and phosphatase. To address how ethylene alters the cellular protein phosphorylation profile in a time-dependent manner, differential and quantitative phosphoproteomics based on 15N stable isotope labeling in Arabidopsis was performed on both one-minute ethylene-treated Arabidopsis ethylene-overly-sensitive loss-of-function mutant rcn1-1, deficient in PP2A phosphatase activity, and a pair of long-term ethylene-treated wild-type and loss-of-function ethylene signaling ctr1-1 mutants, deficient in mitogen-activated kinase kinase kinase activity. In total, 1079 phosphopeptides were identified, among which 44 were novel. Several one-minute ethylene-regulated phosphoproteins were found from the rcn1-1. Bioinformatic analysis of the rcn1-1 phosphoproteome predicted nine phosphoproteins as the putative substrates for PP2A phosphatase. In addition, from CTR1 kinase-enhanced phosphosites, we also found putative CTR1 kinase substrates including plastid transcriptionally active protein and calcium-sensing receptor. These regulatory proteins are phosphorylated in the presence of ethylene. Analysis of ethylene-regulated phosphosites using the group-based prediction system with a protein–protein interaction filter revealed a total of 14 kinase–substrate relationships that may function in both CTR1 kinase- and PP2A phosphatase-mediated phosphor-relay pathways. Finally, several ethylene-regulated post-translational modification network models have been built using molecular systems biology tools. It is proposed that ethylene regulates the phosphorylation of arginine/serine-rich splicing factor 41, plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2A, light

  3. NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEINS AS BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF NEUROTOXICITY: EFFECTS OF ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF TRIMETHYLTIN TO THE ADULT RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cytoarchitecture of the adult central nervous system is expressed by proteins specific to individual cell types. In this investigation, a subclass of these proteins, the neuron-specific phosphoproteins, was examined after the administration of trimethyltin (TMT), a neurotoxic...

  4. Critical roles of specimen type and temperature before and during fixation in the detection of phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Gündisch, Sibylle; Annaratone, Laura; Beese, Christian; Drecol, Enken; Marchiò, Caterina; Quaglino, Elena; Sapino, Anna; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Bussolati, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    The most efficient approach for therapy selection to inhibit the deregulated kinases in cancer tissues is to measure their phosphorylation status prior to the treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of pre-analytical parameters (cold ischemia time, temperature before and during tissue fixation, and sample type) on the levels of proteins and phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues, focusing on the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. The BALB-neuT mouse breast cancer model expressing HER2 and pAKT proteins and human biopsy and resection specimens were analyzed. By using quantitative reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA), 9 proteins and 16 phosphoproteins relevant to breast cancer biology were assessed. Cold temperatures before and during fixation resulted in a marked improvement in the preservation of the reactivity of biological markers (eg, ER, HER2) in general and, specifically, pHER2 and pAKT. Some phosphoproteins, eg, pHER2 and pAKT, were more sensitive to prolonged cold ischemia times than others (eg, pS6RP and pSTAT5). By comparing the phosphoprotein levels in core needle biopsies with those in resection specimens, we found a marked decrease in many phosphoproteins in the latter. Cold conditions can improve the preservation of proteins and phosphoproteins in breast cancer tissues. Biopsies ≤ 1 mm in size are the preferred sample type for assessing the activity of deregulated kinases for personalized cancer treatments because the phosphoprotein levels are better preserved compared with resection specimens. Each potential new (phospho)protein biomarker should be tested for its sensitivity to pre-analytical processing prior to the development of a diagnostic assay. PMID:25730369

  5. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  6. Identification of the 64 kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein as phosphoglucomutase. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Salvucci, M.E.; Drake, R.R.; Broadbent, K.P.; Haley, B.E. ); Hanson, K.R.; McHale, N.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Phosphorylation of the 64 kilodalton stromal phosphoprotein by incubation of pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP decreased in the presence of Glc-6-P and Glc-1,6-P{sub 2}, but was stimulated by glucose. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis following incubation of intact chloroplasts and stromal extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, or incubation of stromal extracts and partially purified phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) with ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P showed that the identical 64 kilodalton polypeptide was labeled. A 62 kilodalton polypeptide was phosphorylated by incubation of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) stromal extracts with either ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP or ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P. In contrast, an analogous polypeptide was not phosphorylated in extracts from a tobacco mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase activity. The results indicate that the 64 (or 62) kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein is phosphoglucomutase.

  7. Protein phosphatases in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Ortsäter, Henrik; Grankvist, Nina; Honkanen, Richard E.; Sjöholm1, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly world-wide. A cardinal feature of most forms of diabetes is the lack of insulin-producing capability, due to the loss of insulin-producing β-cells, impaired glucose-sensitive insulin secretion from the β-cell, or a combination thereof, the reasons for which largely remain elusive. Reversible phosphorylation is an important and versatile mechanism for regulating the biological activity of many intracellular proteins, which, in turn, controls a variety of cellular functions. For instance, significant changes in protein kinase activities and in protein phosphorylation patterns occur subsequent to stimulation of insulin release by glucose. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms regulating phosphorylation of proteins involved in the insulin secretory process by the β-cell have been extensively investigated. However, far less is known about the role and regulation of protein dephosphorylation by various protein phosphatases. Herein we review extant data implicating serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases in various aspects of healthy and diabetic islet biology, ranging from control of hormonal stimulus-secretion coupling to mitogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:24681827

  8. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3, and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses) is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phospho)proteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g., WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the “PEN” pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens). Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org). PMID:25368622

  9. Atrazine Affects Phosphoprotein and Protein Expression in MCF-10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng; Sheehan, David

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p < 0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells. PMID:25275270

  10. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  11. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Nitric Oxide–Responsive Phosphoproteins in Cotton Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Ji; Zhan, Xianjin; Lan, Jiayang; Feng, Changhui; Zhang, Shengxi; Yu, Shuxun

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of phosphorylation events and their regulation is crucial to understanding the functional biology of plant proteins, but very little is currently known about nitric oxide–responsive phosphorylation in plants. Here, we report the first large-scale, quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) treated with sodium nitroprusside (nitric oxide donor) by utilizing the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. A total of 1315 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1528 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1020 cotton phosphoproteins. Among them, 183 phosphopeptides corresponding to 167 phosphoproteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated in response to sodium nitroprusside. Several of the phosphorylation sites that we identified, including RQxS, DSxE, TxxxxSP and SPxT, have not, to our knowledge, been reported to be protein kinase sites in other species. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including signal transduction, RNA metabolism, intracellular transport and so on. This study reveals unique features of the cotton phosphoproteome and provides new insight into the biochemical pathways that are regulated by nitric oxide. PMID:24714030

  12. Large-scale comparative phosphoprotein analysis of maize seedling leaves during greening.

    PubMed

    Ning, De-Li; Liu, Ke-Hui; Liu, Chang-Cai; Liu, Jin-Wen; Qian, Chun-Rong; Yu, Yang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Wang, Ying-Chun; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-02-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION : Large-scale comparative phosphoprotein analysis in maize seedlings reveals a complicated molecular regulation mechanism at the phosphoproteomic level during de-etiolation. In the present study we report a phosphoproteomic study conducted on Zea mays etiolated leaves harvested at three time points during greening (etiolated seedlings and seedlings exposed to light for 6 or 12 h). We identified a total of 2483 phosphopeptides containing 2389 unambiguous phosphosites from 1339 proteins. The abundance of nearly 692 phosphorylated peptides containing 783 phosphosites was reproducible and profiled with high confidence among treatments. Comparisons with other large-scale phosphoproteomic studies revealed that 473 of the phosphosites are novel to this study. Of the 783 phosphosites identified, 171, 79, and 138 were identified in 0, 6, and 12 h samples, respectively, which suggest that regulation of phosphorylation plays important roles during maize seedling de-etiolation. Our experimental methods included enrichment of phosphoproteins, allowing the identification of a great number of low abundance proteins, such as transcription factors, protein kinases, and photoreceptors. Most of the identified phosphoproteins were involved in gene transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, or signal transduction, and only a few were involved in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. It is noteworthy that tyrosine phosphorylation and calcium signaling pathways might play important roles during maize seedling de-etiolation. Taken together, we have elucidated a new level of complexity in light-induced reversible protein phosphorylation during maize seedling de-etiolation. PMID:26497871

  13. Structures of nuclear phosphoproteins characteristic of rapidly growing HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arezzo, F.; Choi, Y.C.

    1986-05-01

    To study characteristic events of phosphorylation in cell growth, phosphoproteins were labeled with (/sup 32/P)-phosphate at mid-logarithmic phase of HeLa cell proliferation. Among a number of nuclear phosphoproteins isolated, three characteristic classes of most highly labeled phosphoproteins were identified by DEAE-column chromatography (0.2-0.25 M NaCl gradient, pH 6.0), followed by 7.5% SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chemical characterization of their structures showed that they contained three different forms of post-translational modifications: Class I with phosphoserine, Class II with phosphoserine and oligonulceotides (5-10 nucleotides long), and Class III with phosphoserine, 5'-GMP and poly(ADP-ribose). Class I is represented by nucleolar C-23. Class II is represented by nucleolar 125 kDa and nucleoplasmic 50 kDa with GC rich sequences (G = 30%, C = 40%) and 5'-linking pCp. Class III is represented by nucleoplasmic poly(ADP-ribose) proteins (18 different species, MW ranges 30 kDa-200 kDa) with branched poly(ADP-ribose) longer than tRNA. When HeLa cells were labeled at non-mid-logarithmic phase, labeling of these classes were 4 fold less efficient, indicating their functional importance in cell proliferation.

  14. Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 regulates EGF-induced AKT activation through interaction with EGFR and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junfang; Dai, Yuanping; Yang, Zhiyu; Yang, Longyan; Peng, Zhiqiang; Meng, Ran; Xiong, Ying; He, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, especially EGFR/AKT signaling, plays important roles in tumorigenesis and progression, the study on intracellular regulation of this signaling pathway has great clinical significance. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is an important antagonist of AKT activity. Its regulation of AKT activity can be enhanced by ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50)-mediated PTEN/EBP50/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) complex. EBP50 was reported to bind to EGFR, and that it may also mediate the formation of PTEN/EGFR complex to regulate EGFR/AKT signaling. In this study, experiments were performed to verify the hypothesis. Results showed that PTEN co-immunoprecipitated with EGFR, demonstrating PTEN/EGFR complex can form in tissue. Further studies showed that EBP50 knockdown decreased the amount of PTEN/EGFR complex by GST pull-down assay, and EBP50 overexpression increased the amount of PTEN/EGFR complex in a dose-dependent manner. While PTEN mutant (V403A), which can not bind with EBP50, only slightly mediated the formation of PTEN/EGFR complex, confirming that EBP50 specifically mediated the formation of the PTEN/EGFR complex. Both PTEN (V403A) and EGFR (L1043/1063F) mutants can not bind with EBP50. The expression of PTEN (V403A) or EGFR (L1043/1063F) mutant in cells resulted in higher AKT activation level than their respective wild-types by EGF stimulation, indicating that EBP50-mediated PTEN/EGFR complex can effectively inhibit EGF-induced AKT activation. EGF stimulation of siEBP50 cells induced higher AKT activation level compared with control cells, further confirming EBP50-mediated PTEN/EGFR complex can more effectively inhibit EGF-induced AKT activation. These results demonstrated the PTEN/EGFR complex formed under the mediation of EBP50, revealing a novel mechanism for negative regulation of EGF-induced AKT pathway, which may be an important molecular

  15. A systems toxicology approach identifies Lyn as a key signaling phosphoprotein modulated by mercury in a B lymphocyte cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Stemmer, Paul M.; Dombkowski, Alan; Caruthers, Nicholas J.; Gill, Randall; Rosenspire, Allen J.

    2014-04-01

    Network and protein–protein interaction analyses of proteins undergoing Hg{sup 2+}-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in Hg{sup 2+}-intoxicated mouse WEHI-231 B cells identified Lyn as the most interconnected node. Lyn is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase known to be intimately involved in the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Under normal signaling conditions the tyrosine kinase activity of Lyn is controlled by phosphorylation, primarily of two well known canonical regulatory tyrosine sites, Y-397 and Y-508. However, Lyn has several tyrosine residues that have not yet been determined to play a major role under normal signaling conditions, but are potentially important sites for phosphorylation following mercury exposure. In order to determine how Hg{sup 2+} exposure modulates the phosphorylation of additional residues in Lyn, a targeted MS assay was developed. Initial mass spectrometric surveys of purified Lyn identified 7 phosphorylated tyrosine residues. A quantitative assay was developed from these results using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) strategy. WEHI-231 cells were treated with Hg{sup 2+}, pervanadate (a phosphatase inhibitor), or anti-Ig antibody (to stimulate the BCR). Results from these studies showed that the phosphoproteomic profile of Lyn after exposure of the WEHI-231 cells to a low concentration of Hg{sup 2+} closely resembled that of anti-Ig antibody stimulation, whereas exposure to higher concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} led to increases in the phosphorylation of Y-193/Y-194, Y-501 and Y-508 residues. These data indicate that mercury can disrupt a key regulatory signal transduction pathway in B cells and point to phospho-Lyn as a potential biomarker for mercury exposure. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) induces changes in the WEHI-231 B cell phosphoproteome. • The B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway was the pathway most affected by Hg{sup 2+}. • The Src family phosphoprotein kinase Lyn was the

  16. Involvement of a mitochondrial phosphatase in the regulation of ATP production and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, David J; Wiley, Sandra E; Kimple, Michelle E; Dixon, Jesse R; Kelly, Patrick; Worby, Carolyn A; Casey, Patrick J; Dixon, Jack E

    2005-07-22

    Reversible phosphorylation is the cell's most prevalent form of posttranslational modification, yet its role in the regulation of mitochondrial functions is poorly understood. We have discovered that a member of the dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (DS-PTP) family, PTPMT1 (PTP localized to the Mitochondrion 1) resides nearly exclusively in mitochondria. PTPMT1 is targeted to the mitochondrion by an N-terminal signal sequence and is found anchored to the matrix face of the inner membrane. Knockdown of PTPMT1 expression in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line INS-1 832/13 alters the mitochondrial phosphoprotein profile and markedly enhances both ATP production and insulin secretion. These data define PTPMT1 as a potential drug target for the treatment of type II diabetes and strengthen the notion that mitochondria are an underappreciated site of signaling by reversible phosphorylation. PMID:16039589

  17. HuPho: the human phosphatase portal.

    PubMed

    Liberti, Susanna; Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Perfetto, Livia; Iannuccelli, Marta; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Palma, Anita; Nardozza, Aurelio P; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases and kinases contribute to the regulation of protein phosphorylation homeostasis in the cell. Phosphorylation is a key post-translational modification underlying the regulation of many cellular processes. Thus, a comprehensive picture of phosphatase function and the identification of their target substrates would aid a systematic approach to a mechanistic description of cell signalling. Here we present a website designed to facilitate the retrieval of information about human protein phosphatases. To this end we developed a search engine to recover and integrate information annotated in several publicly available web resources. In addition we present a text-mining-assisted annotation effort aimed at extracting phosphatase related data reported in the scientific literature. The HuPho (human phosphatases) website can be accessed at http://hupho.uniroma2.it. PMID:22804825

  18. Phosphoinositide Phosphatases in Cell Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are essential signaling molecules linked to a diverse array of cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. The metabolic interconversions of these phospholipids are subject to exquisite spatial and temporal regulation executed by arrays of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes. These include PtdIns- and phosphoinositide-kinases that drive phosphoinositide synthesis, and phospholipases and phosphatases that regulate phosphoinositide degradation. In the past decade, phosphoinositide phosphatases have emerged as topics of particular interest. This interest is driven by the recent appreciation that these enzymes represent primary mechanisms for phosphoinositide degradation, and because of their ever-increasing connections with human diseases. Herein, we review the biochemical properties of six major phosphoinositide phosphatases, the functional involvements of these enzymes in regulating phosphoinositide metabolism, the pathologies that arise from functional derangements of individual phosphatases, and recent ideas concerning the involvements of phosphoinositide phosphatases in membrane traffic control. PMID:20043944

  19. Specificity of a protein phosphatase inhibitor from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P; Nimmo, G A; Antoniw, J F

    1977-01-01

    A hear-stable protein, which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-III, was purified 700-fold from skeletal muscle by a procedure that involved heat-treatment at 95 degrees C, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The final step completely resolved the protein phosphatase inhibitor from the protein inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The phosphorylase phosphatase, beta-phosphorylase kinase phosphatase, glycogen synthase phosphatase-1 and glycogen synthase phosphatase-2 activities of protein phosphatase-III [Antoniw, J. F., Nimmo, H. G., Yeaman, S. J. & Cohen, P.(1977) Biochem.J. 162, 423-433] were inhibited in a very similar manner by the protein phosphatase inhibitor and at least 95% inhibition was observed at high concentrations of inhibitor. The two forms of protein phosphatase-III, termed IIIA and IIIB, were equally susceptible to the protein phosphatase inhibitor. The protein phosphatase inhibitor was at least 200 times less effective in inhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase-I and protein phosphatase-II. The high degree of specificity of the inhibitor for protein phosphatase-III was used to show that 90% of the phosphorylase phosphatase and glycogen synthase phosphatase activities measured in muscle extracts are catalysed by protein phosphatase-III. Protein phosphatase-III was tightly associated with the protein-glycogen complex that can be isolated from skeletal muscle, whereas the protein phosphatase inhibitor and protein phosphatase-II were not. The results provide further evidence that the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-II) and the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-III) are distinct. The results suggest that the protein phosphatase inhibitor may be a useful probe for differentiating different classes of protein phosphatases in mammalian

  20. Phosphoproteomes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth matrix: identification of a major acidic sea urchin tooth phosphoprotein, phosphodontin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sea urchin is a major model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization research. However, identification of proteins involved in larval skeleton formation and mineralization processes in the embryo and adult, and the molecular characterization of such proteins, has just gained momentum with the sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the introduction of high-throughput proteomics into the field. Results The present report contains the determination of test (shell) and tooth organic matrix phosphoproteomes. Altogether 34 phosphoproteins were identified in the biomineral organic matrices. Most phosphoproteins were specific for one compartment, only two were identified in both matrices. The sea urchin phosphoproteomes contained several obvious orthologs of mammalian proteins, such as a Src family tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C-delta 1, Dickkopf-1 and other signal transduction components, or nucleobindin. In most cases phosphorylation sites were conserved between sea urchin and mammalian proteins. However, the majority of phosphoproteins had no mammalian counterpart. The most interesting of the sea urchin-specific phosphoproteins, from the perspective of biomineralization research, was an abundant highly phosphorylated and very acidic tooth matrix protein composed of 35 very similar short sequence repeats, a predicted N-terminal secretion signal sequence, and an Asp-rich C-terminal motif, contained in [Glean3:18919]. Conclusions The 64 phosphorylation sites determined represent the most comprehensive list of experimentally identified sea urchin protein phosphorylation sites at present and are an important addition to the recently analyzed Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth proteomes. The identified phosphoproteins included a major, highly phosphorylated protein, [Glean3:18919], for which we suggest the name phosphodontin. Although not sequence-related to such highly phosphorylated acidic mammalian dental

  1. Multiple Functions of the Eya Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya), a protein conserved from plants to humans and best characterized as a transcriptional coactivator, is also the prototype for a novel class of eukaryotic aspartyl protein tyrosine phosphatases. This minireview discusses recent breakthroughs in elucidating the substrates and cellular events regulated by Eya's tyrosine phosphatase function and highlights some of the complexities, new questions, and surprises that have emerged from efforts to understand how Eya's unusual multifunctionality influences developmental regulation and signaling. PMID:26667035

  2. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  4. Analysis of Smad Phosphatase Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qin, Lan; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 at the C-terminal SXS motif by BMP type I receptors is one of the most critical events in BMP signaling. Conversely, protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate phospho-Smad1/5/8 can consequently prevent or terminate BMP signaling. PPM1H is an undercharacterized phosphatase in the PPM family. We recently demonstrated that PPM1H can dephosphorylate Smad1 in the cytoplasm and block BMP signaling responses in cellular assays. Here we describe in vitro method showing that PPM1H is a bona fide phosphatase for Smad1/5/8. PPM1H is produced as GST fusion protein in E. coli, and purified against glutathione sepharose beads. Bacterially purified recombinant PPM1H possesses phosphatase activity toward artificial substrate para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Recombinant PPM1H also dephosphorylates immuno-purified phosphorylated Smad1 in test tubes. These direct in vitro phosphatase assays provide convincing evidence demonstrating the role of PPM1H as a specific phosphatase for P-Smad1. PMID:26520120

  5. Robust production of recombinant phosphoproteins using cell-free protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Javin P.; Aerni, Hans R.; Pirman, Natasha L.; Barber, Karl W.; ter Haar, Charlotte M.; Rogulina, Svetlana; Amrofell, Matthew B.; Isaacs, Farren J.; Rinehart, Jesse; Jewett, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the functional and structural consequences of site-specific protein phosphorylation has remained limited by our inability to produce phosphoproteins at high yields. Here we address this limitation by developing a cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) platform that employs crude extracts from a genomically recoded strain of Escherichia coli for site-specific, co-translational incorporation of phosphoserine into proteins. We apply this system to the robust production of up to milligram quantities of human MEK1 kinase. Then, we recapitulate a physiological signalling cascade in vitro to evaluate the contributions of site-specific phosphorylation of mono- and doubly phosphorylated forms on MEK1 activity. We discover that only one phosphorylation event is necessary and sufficient for MEK1 activity. Our work sets the stage for using CFPS as a rapid high-throughput technology platform for direct expression of programmable phosphoproteins containing multiple phosphorylated residues. This work will facilitate study of phosphorylation-dependent structure–function relationships, kinase signalling networks and kinase inhibitor drugs. PMID:26350765

  6. Growth arrest and differentiation-associated phosphoproteins in mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.L.; Scott, R.E.

    1986-03-05

    Cancer is thought to result from the expression of defects in the control of both cell proliferation and differentiation. In murine mesenchymal stem cells they have established that differentiation and proliferation can be mediated at a variety of distinct states in the G/sub 1/ phase of the cell cycle. In order to evaluate the role of cellular phosphoprotein (PP) expression in these regulatory processes, five different growth and differentiation-dependent states were compared. Cells in the following states were studied: (1) exponential growth; (2) arrest in serum-deficient medium; (3) arrest at the predifferentiation arrest state; (4) arrest at a state of nonterminal differentiation; and (5) arrest at a state of terminal differentiation. Whole cell lysates from each group were phosphorylated in vitro using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two most interesting observations were established. First, a distinct PP with a molecular weight of 37 kD was expressed in all growth arrested cells but was not evident in rapidly growing cells. Second, two distinct differentiation-associated PP with molecular weights of 72 kD and 29 kD were expressed exclusively in nonterminally and terminally differentiated cells. Since the identification of the 37 kD cell cycle-dependent growth arrest-associated PP could be of great significance, they plan to further investigate the functional role of this phosphoprotein in the control of cellular proliferation.

  7. Modulation of mTOR effector phosphoproteins in blood basophils from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Gernez, Yael; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Reshamwala, Neha; Yu, Grace; Weldon, Brittany C; Galli, Stephen J; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Nadeau, Kari C

    2012-06-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway contributes to various immunoinflammatory processes. Yet, its potential involvement in basophil responses in allergy remains unclear. In this pilot study, we quantified two key mTOR effector phosphoproteins, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (peIF4E) and S6 ribosomal protein (pS6rp), in blood basophils from nut allergy patients (NA, N = 16) and healthy controls (HC, N = 13). Without stimulation in vitro, basophil peIF4E levels were higher in NA than HC subjects (P = 0.014). Stimulation with nut (offending) but not chicken / rice (non-offending) extract increased basophil peIF4E and pS6rp levels (+32%, P = 0.018, and +98%, P = 0.0026, respectively) in NA but not HC subjects, concomitant with increased surface levels of CD203c and CD63, both known to reflect basophil activation. Pre-treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin decreased pS6rp and CD203c responses in nut extract-stimulated basophils in NA subjects. Thus, basophil responses to offending allergens are associated with modulation of mTOR effector phosphoproteins. PMID:22350221

  8. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  9. Archaeal Signal Transduction: Impact of Protein Phosphatase Deletions on Cell Size, Motility, and Energy Metabolism in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius*

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Julia; Esser, Dominik; Orell, Alvaro; Amman, Fabian; Pham, Trong Khoa; Noirel, Josselin; Lindås, Ann-Christin; Bernander, Rolf; Wright, Phillip C.; Siebers, Bettina; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro and in vivo functions of the only two identified protein phosphatases, Saci-PTP and Saci-PP2A, in the crenarchaeal model organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were investigated. Biochemical characterization revealed that Saci-PTP is a dual-specific phosphatase (against pSer/pThr and pTyr), whereas Saci-PP2A exhibited specific pSer/pThr activity and inhibition by okadaic acid. Deletion of saci_pp2a resulted in pronounced alterations in growth, cell shape and cell size, which could be partially complemented. Transcriptome analysis of the three strains (Δsaci_ptp, Δsaci_pp2a and the MW001 parental strain) revealed 155 genes that were differentially expressed in the deletion mutants, and showed significant changes in expression of genes encoding the archaella (archaeal motility structure), components of the respiratory chain and transcriptional regulators. Phosphoproteome studies revealed 801 unique phosphoproteins in total, with an increase in identified phosphopeptides in the deletion mutants. Proteins from most functional categories were affected by phosphorylation, including components of the motility system, the respiratory chain, and regulatory proteins. In the saci_pp2a deletion mutant the up-regulation at the transcript level, as well as the observed phosphorylation pattern, resembled starvation stress responses. Hypermotility was also observed in the saci_pp2a deletion mutant. The results highlight the importance of protein phosphorylation in regulating essential cellular processes in the crenarchaeon S. acidocaldarius. PMID:24078887

  10. Protein kinase and phosphoprotein phosphatase activities of nitrogen regulatory proteins NTRB and NTRC of enteric bacteria: roles of the conserved amino-terminal domain of NTRC.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, J; Kustu, S

    1988-01-01

    The NTRC protein (ntrC product) of enteric bacteria activates transcription of nitrogen-regulated genes by a holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase that contains the ntrA product (sigma 54) as sigma factor. Although unmodified NTRC will bind to DNA, it must be phosphorylated to activate transcription. Both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of NTRC occur in the presence of the NTRB protein (ntrB product). We here demonstrate rigorously that it is the NTRB protein that is a protein kinase by showing that NTRB can phosphorylate itself, whereas NTRC cannot. Phosphorylated NTRC (NTRC-P) is capable of autodephosphorylation with a first-order rate constant of 0.14-0.19 min-1 (t 1/2 of 5.0-3.6 min) at 37 degrees C. In addition, there is regulated dephosphorylation of NTRC-P. By contrast to the autophosphatase activity, regulated dephosphorylation requires three components in addition to NTRC-P: the PII regulatory protein, NTRB, and ATP. NTRC is phosphorylated within its amino-terminal domain, which is conserved in one partner of a number of two-component regulatory systems in a wide variety of eubacteria. A purified amino-terminal fragment of NTRC (approximately equal to 12.5 kDa) is sufficient for recognition by NTRB and is autodephosphorylated at the same rate as the native protein. Images PMID:2839825

  11. Role of protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Persoulla; Hajjar, Roger J.; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2009-01-01

    The type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) is a critical negative regulator of Ca2+ cycling and contractility in the cardiomyocyte. In particular, it mediates restoration of cardiac function to basal levels, after β-adrenergic stimulation, by dephosphorylating key phospho-proteins. PP1 is a holoenzyme comprised of its catalytic and auxiliary subunits. These regulatory proteins dictate PP1's subcellular localization, substrate specificity and activity. Amongst them, inhibitor-1 is of particular importance since it has been implicated as an integrator of multiple neurohormonal pathways, which finely regulate PP1 activity, at the level of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In fact, perturbations in the regulation of PP1 by inhibitor-1 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure, suggesting that inhibitor-1-based therapeutic interventions may ameliorate cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in the failing heart. This review will discuss the current views on the role of inhibitor-1 in cardiac physiology, its possible contribution to cardiac disease and its potential as a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:19481088

  12. Protein Phosphatase 1 β Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1β, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1β, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of a approximately 66 kD glycosylated phosphoprotein during development of the embryonic chick tibia.

    PubMed

    Bruder, S P; Caplan, A I; Gotoh, Y; Gerstenfeld, L C; Glimcher, M J

    1991-06-01

    Localization of a approximately 66 kD glycosylated phosphoprotein during morphogenesis of the embryonic chick tibia has been accomplished using immunohistochemistry. Although initial expression of the tibial osteoblast phenotype is detected as early as stage 28.5, with the deposition of osteoid matrix beginning at stage 30, little or no immunoreactivity against the approximately 66 kD glycosylated phosphoprotein is observed in pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, or in the uncalcified osteoid matrix during the early events of tibia development. Immunoreactivity was first observed at stage 32 when mineralization of the osteoid matrix is initiated. At this and all later stages, the phosphoprotein is located almost exclusively in the extracellular matrix at the mineralization front with essentially no detectable staining in the adjacent unmineralized osteoid matrix. Similarly, no cellular staining is observed when even the lightly mineralized extracellular matrix is strongly immunoreactive. Only scant immunostaining is present over the heavily mineralized regions, although demineralization of these areas with EDTA exposes a low intensity, punctate staining pattern. Additionally, cryosections of developing calvaria stained with this antiserum only display reactivity in regions of bone matrix undergoing mineralization. These localization studies support the hypothesis that this phosphoprotein is intimately associated with the process of bone matrix mineralization in the developing chick long bone. PMID:2070278

  14. Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Ogino, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Sayaka; Kudoh, Shinji; Koizumi, Daikai; Kudoh, Noritaka; Nakamura, Fumiko; Misumi, Masahiro; Shimomura, Tadasuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Usui, Fumihiko; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ito, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3) and spectrin β chain brain 1 (SPTBN1), in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases. PMID:25349779

  15. Structure-Function Analysis of the 3' Phosphatase Component of T4 Polynucleotide Kinase/phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,H.; Smith, P.; Wang, L.; Shuman, S.

    2007-01-01

    T4 polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (Pnkp) exemplifies a family of bifunctional enzymes with 5'-kinase and 3' phosphatase activities that function in nucleic acid repair. T4 Pnkp is a homotetramer of a 301-aa polypeptide, which consists of an N-terminal kinase domain of the P-loop phosphotransferase superfamily and a C-terminal phosphatase domain of the DxD acylphosphatase superfamily. The homotetramer is formed via pairs of phosphatase-phosphatase and kinase-kinase homodimer interfaces. Here we identify four side chains-Asp187, Ser211, Lys258, and Asp277-that are required for 3' phosphatase activity. Alanine mutations at these positions abolished phosphatase activity without affecting kinase function or tetramerization. Conservative substitutions of asparagine or glutamate for Asp187 did not revive the 3' phosphatase, nor did arginine or glutamine substitutions for Lys258. Threonine in lieu of Ser211 and glutamate in lieu of Asp277 restored full activity, whereas asparagine at position 277 had no salutary effect. We report a 3.0 A crystal structure of the Pnkp tetramer, in which a sulfate ion is coordinated between Arg246 and Arg279 in a position that we propose mimics one of the penultimate phosphodiesters (5'NpNpNp-3') of the polynucleotide 3'-PO(4) substrate. The amalgam of mutational and structural data engenders a plausible catalytic mechanism for the phosphatase that includes covalent catalysis (via Asp165), general acid-base catalysis (via Asp167), metal coordination (by Asp165, Asp277 and Asp278), and transition state stabilization (via Lys258, Ser211, backbone amides, and the divalent cation). Other critical side chains play architectural roles (Arg176, Asp187, Arg213, Asp254). To probe the role of oligomerization in phosphatase function, we introduced six double-alanine cluster mutations at the phosphatase-phosphatase domain interface, two of which (R297A-Q295A and E292A-D300A) converted Pnkp from a tetramer to a dimer and ablated phosphatase activity.

  16. Regulation of a protein phosphatase cascade allows convergent dopamine and glutamate signals to activate ERK in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Pascoli, Vincent; Svenningsson, Per; Paul, Surojit; Enslen, Hervé; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Stipanovich, Alexandre; Caboche, Jocelyne; Lombroso, Paul J; Nairn, Angus C; Greengard, Paul; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2005-01-11

    Many drugs of abuse exert their addictive effects by increasing extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, where they likely alter the plasticity of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission. This mechanism implies key molecular alterations in neurons in which both dopamine and glutamate inputs are activated. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an enzyme important for long-term synaptic plasticity, is a good candidate for playing such a role. Here, we show in mouse that d-amphetamine activates ERK in a subset of medium-size spiny neurons of the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, through the combined action of glutamate NMDA and D1-dopamine receptors. Activation of ERK by d-amphetamine or by widely abused drugs, including cocaine, nicotine, morphine, and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol was absent in mice lacking dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32,000 (DARPP-32). The effects of d-amphetamine or cocaine on ERK activation in the striatum, but not in the prefrontal cortex, were prevented by point mutation of Thr-34, a DARPP-32 residue specifically involved in protein phosphatase-1 inhibition. Regulation by DARPP-32 occurred both upstream of ERK and at the level of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Blockade of the ERK pathway or mutation of DARPP-32 altered locomotor sensitization induced by a single injection of psychostimulants, demonstrating the functional relevance of this regulation. Thus, activation of ERK, by a multilevel protein phosphatase-controlled mechanism, functions as a detector of coincidence of dopamine and glutamate signals converging on medium-size striatal neurons and is critical for long-lasting effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:15608059

  17. Genetic analysis of phosphoprotein and matrix protein of rabies viruses isolated in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Okuda, Hiromi; Nakamura, Kana; Sato, Go; Itou, Takuya; Carvalho, Adolorata A B; Silva, Marlon V; Mota, Carla S; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the genetic characteristics of phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) genes of variable rabies virus (RV) prevalent in Brazil, the authors genetically characterized the P and M genes from 30 Brazilian RV field isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the P and M genes revealed the presence of six RV variants that consisted primarily of three insectivorous bats, the vampire bat, dog and fox in Brazil. Specific amino acid substitutions corresponding to these phylogenetic lineages were observed, with Asp(42) and Glu(62) in the P protein found to be characteristic of Brazilian chiroptera- and carnivora-related RVs, respectively. Amino acid sequence motifs predicted to associate with a viral function in the P and M proteins were conserved among Brazilian RV variants. PMID:18057829

  18. Rabies virus phosphoprotein interacts with ribosomal protein L9 and affects rabies virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Youwen; Dong, Wanyu; Shi, Yuejun; Deng, Feng; Chen, Xi; Wan, Chunyun; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-01-15

    Rabies virus is a highly neurotropic virus that can cause fatal infection of the central nervous system in warm-blooded animals. The RABV phosphoprotein (P), an essential cofactor of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, the ribosomal protein L9, which has functions in protein translation, is identified as P-interacting cellular factor using phage display analysis. Direct binding between the L9 and P was confirmed by protein pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. It was further demonstrated that L9 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with P in cells infected with RABV or transfected with P gene. RABV replication was reduced with L9 overexpression and enhanced with L9 knockdown. Thus, we propose that during RABV infection, P binds to L9 that translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, inhibiting the initial stage of RABV transcription. PMID:26655239

  19. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 as a molecular switch to determine the fate of phosphoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yih-Cherng; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2011-01-01

    Pin1 is a highly conserved enzyme that only isomerizes specific phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro bonds in certain proteins, thereby inducing conformational changes. Such conformational changes represent a novel and tightly controlled signaling mechanism regulating a spectrum of protein activities in physiology and disease, often through phosphorylation-dependent, ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in elucidating the role and regulation of Pin1 in controlling protein stability. We also propose a mechanism by which Pin1 functions as a molecular switch to control the fates of phosphoproteins. We finally stress the need to develop tools to directly visualize Pin1-catalyzed protein conformational changes as a way to determine their roles in the development and treatment of human diseases. PMID:21852138

  20. Viral suppression function of intracellular antibody against C-terminal domain of rabies virus phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Lina; Yu, Pengcheng; Li, Aqian; Li, Chuan; Tang, Qing; Li, Dexin; Liang, Mifang

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RV) causes a fatal disease in both human and animals. The disease can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis in individuals exposed to RV. However, the neutralization effect is limited after the virus enters into the host cells. So, it is important to identify new targets for rabies therapy. In this study, a human antibody RV1A2 specific to RV phosphoprotein (RV-P) was generated from a human naïve immune antibody library. The antibody recognized all forms of the phosphoproteins including the full length (P1) and short length of the P proteins (P2, P3, P4, and P5). The epitope mapping and the molecular docking of antigen-antibody complex showed that the antibody targets at a conserved epitope of 'VLGWV' ranging from amino acid (aa) 262 to 266 at C-terminal domain of the P protein, which locates at a hydrophobic pocket region in the C-terminal of the RV-P. The aa W265 within the epitope is on the flat surface of the domain, suggesting that it may be a critical amino acid for the functions of the P protein. Our results further showed that intracellular antibody RV1A2 which targets at the C-terminal domain of the P protein could effectively inhibit RV propagation 2-4 days post infection. These results suggest that the conserved C-terminal domain may be used as a new target for drug discovery, which highlights an intracellular inhibition of RV propagation and provides a potential novel way to treat RV infection. PMID:26188200

  1. Clinical application for the preservation of phospho-proteins through in-situ tissue stabilization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein biomarkers will play a pivotal role in the future of personalized medicine for both diagnosis and treatment decision-making. While the results of several pre-clinical and small-scale clinical studies have demonstrated the value of protein biomarkers, there have been significant challenges to translating these findings into routine clinical care. Challenges to the use of protein biomarkers include inter-sample variability introduced by differences in post-collection handling and ex vivo degradation of proteins and protein modifications. Results In this report, we re-create laboratory and clinical scenarios for sample collection and test the utility of a new tissue stabilization technique in preserving proteins and protein modifications. In the laboratory setting, tissue stabilization with the Denator Stabilizor T1 resulted in a significantly higher yield of phospho-protein when compared to standard snap freeze preservation. Furthermore, in a clinical scenario, tissue stabilization at collection resulted in a higher yield of total phospho-protein, total phospho-tyrosine, pErkT202/Y204 and pAktS473 when compared to standard methods. Tissue stabilization did not have a significant effect on other post-translational modifications such as acetylation and glycosylation, which are more stable ex-vivo. Tissue stabilization did decrease total RNA quantity and quality. Conclusion Stabilization at the time of collection offers the potential to better preserve tissue protein and protein modification levels, as well as reduce the variability related to tissue processing delays that are often associated with clinical samples. PMID:21092202

  2. Focal Adhesion Kinase Is Involved in Rabies Virus Infection through Its Interaction with Viral Phosphoprotein P

    PubMed Central

    Fouquet, Baptiste; Nikolic, Jovan; Larrous, Florence; Bourhy, Hervé; Wirblich, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein P is a multifunctional protein: it plays an essential role in viral transcription and replication, and in addition, RABV P has been identified as an interferon antagonist. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen revealed that RABV P interacts with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The binding involved the 106-to-131 domain, corresponding to the dimerization domain of P and the C-terminal domain of FAK containing the proline-rich domains PRR2 and PRR3. The P-FAK interaction was confirmed in infected cells by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization of FAK with P in Negri bodies. By alanine scanning, we identified a single mutation in the P protein that abolishes this interaction. The mutant virus containing a substitution of Ala for Arg in position 109 in P (P.R109A), which did not interact with FAK, is affected at a posttranscriptional step involving protein synthesis and viral RNA replication. Furthermore, FAK depletion inhibited viral protein expression in infected cells. This provides the first evidence of an interaction of RABV with FAK that positively regulates infection. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus exhibits a small genome that encodes a limited number of viral proteins. To maintain efficient virus replication, some of them are multifunctional, such as the phosphoprotein P. We and others have shown that P establishes complex networks of interactions with host cell components. These interactions have revealed much about the role of P and about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here, we identified another cellular partner of P, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Our data shed light on the implication of FAK in RABV infection and provide evidence that P-FAK interaction has a proviral function. PMID:25410852

  3. The dynein light chain 8 binding motif of rabies virus phosphoprotein promotes efficient viral transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gene S.; Preuss, Mirjam A. R.; Williams, John C.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the interaction between rabies virus (RV) phosphoprotein and the dynein light chain 8 (LC8) is essential for RV pathogenesis. Through its association with the dynein motor complex, LC8 has been suggested as a molecular factor that links the viral ribonucleoprotein to the host cell transport system. Recent structural investigations, however, dispute this model. To understand the role of LC8 in RV pathogenesis, we generated recombinant RVs with or without the LC8 binding domain (LC8-BD) deleted from the RV phosphoprotein. Peripheral infection of adult mice showed that removal of the LC8-BD did not inhibit entry into the CNS, although it prevented onset of RV-induced CNS disease. However, deletion of the LC8-BD significantly attenuated viral transcription and replication in the CNS. Studies in RAG2 knockout (KO) mice infected with the same recombinant RVs confirmed this finding and indicated that the adaptive immune system is not a factor in the attenuation of viral replication early in the infection. In cell culture, the deletion of the LC8-BD greatly attenuated growth on neuronal cells whereas the growth pattern on nonneuronal cells remained unchanged. However, deletion of the LC8-BD did not affect production of RV virions. We provide evidence that removal of the LC8-BD decreases primary transcription. In this study, we propose that LC8 does not play a role in the retrograde axonal transport of RV and that the deletion of the LC8-BD impairs the infectivity of the virions by reducing early transcription and replication in neurons. PMID:17438267

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Attenuation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) by Phosphoprotein Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Wongthida, Phonphimon; Jengarn, Juggragarn; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Koonyosying, Pongpisid; Srisutthisamphan, Kanjana; Wanitchang, Asawin; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Teeravechyan, Samaporn; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2016-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is highly immunogenic and able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, its ability to induce adverse effects has held back the use of VSV as a potential vaccine vector. In this study we developed VSV-ΔP, a safe yet potent replication-defective recombinant VSV in which the phosphoprotein (P) gene was deleted. VSV-ΔP replicated only in supporting cells expressing P (BHK-P cells) and at levels more than 2 logs lower than VSV. In vivo studies indicated that the moderate replication of VSV-ΔP in vitro was associated with the attenuation of this virus in the mouse model, whereas mice intracranially injected with VSV succumbed to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, we constructed VSV and VSV-ΔP expressing a variety of antigens including hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from Newcastle disease virus (NDV), hemagglutinin (HA) from either a 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09) or the avian H7N9. VSV and VSV-ΔP incorporated the foreign antigens on their surface resulting in induction of robust neutralizing antibody, serum IgG, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers against their corresponding viruses. These results indicated that VSV with P gene deletion was attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and possibly expressed the foreign antigen on its surface. Therefore, the P gene-deletion strategy may offer a potentially useful and safer approach for attenuating negative-sense RNA viruses which use phosphoprotein as a cofactor for viral replication. PMID:27315286

  5. Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 and Sex-Specific Differences in Silica-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Latoche, Joseph D.; Ufelle, Alexander Chukwuma; Fazzi, Fabrizio; Ganguly, Koustav; Leikauf, George D.; Fattman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibrotic lung diseases occur predominantly in males, and reports describe better survival in affected females. Male mice are more sensitive to silica-induced lung fibrosis than silica-treated female mice. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, also known as osteopontin) increases in pulmonary fibrosis, and Spp1 transcription may be regulated by estrogen or estrogen receptor–related receptors. Objective: We determined whether differences in silica-induced SPP1 levels contribute to sex differences in lung fibrosis. Methods: Male and female mice were treated with 0.2 g/kg intratracheal silica, and lung injury was assessed 1, 3, or 14 days post-exposure. Gene-targeted (Spp1–/–) mice, control Spp1+/+ (C57BL/6J) mice, ovariectomized (OVX) female mice, and estrogen-treated male mice were treated with silica, and lung injury was assessed. Results: Silica-induced SPP1 in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum increased more in male than in female mice. Following silica treatment, bronchoalveolar lavage cell infiltrates decreased in female Spp1–/– mice compared with female Spp1+/+ mice, and lung hydroxyproline decreased in male Spp1–/– mice compared with male Spp1+/+ mice. OVX female mice had increased lung SPP1 expression in response to silica compared with silica-treated sham female mice. Silica-induced lung collagen and hydroxyproline (markers of fibrosis), and SPP1 levels decreased in estrogen-treated males compared with untreated males. Conclusion: These findings suggest that sex-specific differences in SPP1 levels contribute to the differential sensitivity of male and female mice to the development of silica-induced fibrosis. Citation: Latoche JD, Ufelle AC, Fazzi F, Ganguly K, Leikauf GD, Fattman CL. 2016. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 and sex-specific differences in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1199–1207; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510335 PMID:26955063

  6. The stathmin phosphoprotein family: intracellular localization and effects on the microtubule network.

    PubMed

    Gavet, O; Ozon, S; Manceau, V; Lawler, S; Curmi, P; Sobel, A

    1998-11-01

    Stathmin is a small regulatory phosphoprotein integrating diverse intracellular signaling pathways. It is also the generic element of a protein family including the neural proteins SCG10, SCLIP, RB3 and its two splice variants RB3' and RB3". Stathmin itself was shown to interact in vitro with tubulin in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, sequestering free tubulin and hence promoting microtubule depolymerization. We investigated the intracellular distribution and tubulin depolymerizing activity in vivo of all known members of the stathmin family. Whereas stathmin is not associated with interphase microtubules in HeLa cells, a fraction of it is concentrated at the mitotic spindle. We generated antisera specific for stathmin phosphoforms, which allowed us to visualize the regulation of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation during the successive stages of mitosis, and the partial localization of stathmin phosphorylated on serine 16 at the mitotic spindle. Results from overexpression experiments of wild-type and novel phosphorylation site mutants of stathmin further suggest that it induces depolymerization of interphase and mitotic microtubules in its unphosphorylated state but is inactivated by phosphorylation in mitosis. Phosphorylation of mutants 16A25A and 38A63A on sites 38 and 63 or 16 and 25, respectively, was sufficient for the formation of a functional spindle, whereas mutant 16A25A38A63E retained a microtubule depolymerizing activity. Transient expression of each of the neural phosphoproteins of the stathmin family showed that they are at least partially associated to the Golgi apparatus and not to other major membrane compartments, probably through their different NH2-terminal domains, as described for SCG10. Most importantly, like stathmin and SCG10, overexpressed SCLIP, RB3 and RB3" were able to depolymerize interphase microtubules. Altogether, our results demonstrate in vivo the functional conservation of the stathmin domain within each protein of the

  7. Stathmin and its phosphoprotein family: general properties, biochemical and functional interaction with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Curmi, P A; Gavet, O; Charbaut, E; Ozon, S; Lachkar-Colmerauer, S; Manceau, V; Siavoshian, S; Maucuer, A; Sobel, A

    1999-10-01

    Stathmin, also referred to as Op18, is a ubiquitous cytosolic phosphoprotein, proposed to be a small regulatory protein and a relay integrating diverse intracellular signaling pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and activities. It interacts with several putative downstream target and/or partner proteins. One major action of stathmin is to interfere with microtubule dynamics, by inhibiting the formation of microtubules and/or favoring their depolymerization. Stathmin (S) interacts directly with soluble tubulin (T), which results in the formation of a T2S complex which sequesters free tubulin and therefore impedes microtubule formation. However, it has been also proposed that stathmin's action on microtubules might result from the direct promotion of catastrophes, which is still controversial. Phosphorylation of stathmin regulates its biological actions: it reduces its affinity for tubulin and hence its action on microtubule dynamics, which allows for example progression of cells through mitosis. Stathmin is also the generic element of a protein family including the neural proteins SCG10, SCLIP and RB3/RB3'/RB3". Interestingly, the stathmin-like domains of these proteins also possess a tubulin binding activity in vitro. In vivo, the transient expression of neural phosphoproteins of the stathmin family leads to their localization at Golgi membranes and, as previously described for stathmin and SCG10, to the depolymerization of interphasic microtubules. Altogether, the same mechanism for microtubule destabilization, that implies tubulin sequestration, is a common feature likely involved in the specific biological roles of each member of the stathmin family. PMID:15216892

  8. Regulation and subcellular localization of the microtubule-destabilizing stathmin family phosphoproteins in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Gavet, Olivier; El Messari, Saïd; Ozon, Sylvie; Sobel, André

    2002-06-01

    Stathmin is a ubiquitous cytosolic phosphoprotein, preferentially expressed in the nervous system, and the generic element of a protein family that includes the neural-specific proteins SCG10, SCLIP, and RB3 and its splice variants, RB3' and RB3". All phosphoproteins of the family share with stathmin its tubulin binding and microtubule (MT)-destabilizing activities. To understand better the specific roles of these proteins in neuronal cells, we performed a comparative study of their expression, regulation, and intracellular distribution in embryonic cortical neurons in culture. We found that stathmin is highly expressed ( approximately 0.25% of total proteins) and uniformly present in the various neuronal compartments (cell body, dendrites, axon, growth cones). It appeared mainly unphosphorylated or weakly phosphorylated on one site, and antisera to specific phosphorylated sites (serines 16, 25, or 38) did not reveal a differential regulation of its phosphorylation among neuronal cell compartments. However, they revealed a subpopulation of cells in which stathmin was highly phosphorylated on serine 16, possibly by CaM kinase II also active in a similar subpopulation. The other proteins of the stathmin family are expressed about 100-fold less than stathmin in partially distinct neuronal populations, RB3 being detected in only about 20% of neurons in culture. In contrast to stathmin, they are each mostly concentrated at the Golgi apparatus and are also present along dendrites and axons, including growth cones. Altogether, our results suggest that the different members of the stathmin family have complementary, at least partially distinct functions in neuronal cell regulation, in particular in relation to MT dynamics. PMID:12111843

  9. Spatiotemporal phosphoprotein distribution and associated cytokine response of a traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Alice A; Currie, Holly N; Loos, Matthew S; Vrana, Julie A; Fabyanic, Emily B; Prediger, Maren S; Boyd, Jonathan W

    2016-03-01

    Molecular mechanisms of wound healing have been extensively characterized, providing a better understanding of the processes involved in wound repair and offering advances in treatment methods. Both spatial and temporal investigations of injury biomarkers have helped to pinpoint significant time points and locations during the recovery process, which may be vital in managing the injury and making the appropriate diagnosis. This study addresses spatial and temporal differences of phosphoproteins found in skeletal muscle tissue following a traumatic femur fracture, which were further compared to co-localized cytokine responses. In particular, several proteins (Akt, ERK, c-Jun, CREB, JNK, MEK1, and p38) and post-translational phosphorylations (p-Akt, p-c-Jun, p-CREB, p-ERK1/2, p-MEK1, p-p38, p-GSK3α/β, p-HSP27, p-p70S6K, and p-STAT3) associated with inflammation, new tissue formation, and remodeling were found to exhibit significant spatial and temporal differences in response to the traumatic injury. Quadratic discriminant analysis of all measured responses, including cytokine concentrations from previously published findings, was used to classify temporal and spatial observations at high predictive rates, further confirming that distinct spatiotemporal distributions for total protein, phosphorylation signaling, and cytokine (IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL2, IL6, TNF-α, and MIP-1α) responses exist. Finally, phosphoprotein measurements were found to be significantly correlated to cytokine concentrations, suggesting coordinated intracellular and extracellular activity during crucial periods of repair. This study represents a first attempt to monitor and assess integrated changes in extracellular and intracellular signaling in response to a traumatic injury in muscle tissues, which may provide a framework for future research to improve both our understanding of wounds and their treatment options. PMID:26702931

  10. Phosphatase activities as biosignatures of extant life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Itoh, Y.; Edazawa, Y.; Moroi, A.; Takano, Y.

    It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere high temperature hot springs and stratosphere Possible extraterrestrial biospheres in Mars Europa and Titan are being discussed Many biosignatures or biomarkers have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments Phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life since they are constituents of nucleic acids and cell mebranes Thus all the terrestrial organisms have phosphatases that are enzymes catalyzing hydrolysis of phosphate esters We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount Izu-Bonin Arc the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002 and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems the Pacific Oceanas in 2003 both in a part of the Archaean Park Project Phosphatase activity in solid rock samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate pH 8 0 or pH 6 5 as a substrate as follows Pulverized samples were incuvated with substrate solution for an hour and then production rate of p-nitrophenol was calculated with absorbance at 410 nm Phosphatase activity in extracts was measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratio were determined by HPLC after HF digestion of the

  11. Phosphatase hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatases are diverse groups of enzymes that deserve special attention because of the significant roles they play in mineralizing organic phosphorus (P) into inorganic available form. For getting more insight on the enzymatically hydrolysis of organic P, in this work, we compared the catalytic pa...

  12. Smooth-muscle caldesmon phosphatase is SMP-I, a type 2A protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Pato, M D; Sutherland, C; Winder, S J; Walsh, M P

    1993-07-01

    Caldesmon phosphatase was identified in chicken gizzard smooth muscle by using as substrates caldesmon phosphorylated at different sites by protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cdc2 kinase. Most (approximately 90%) of the phosphatase activity was recovered in the cytosolic fraction. Gel filtration after (NH4)2SO4 fractionation of the cytosolic fraction revealed a single major peak of phosphatase activity which coeluted with calponin phosphatase [Winder, Pato and Walsh (1992) Biochem. J. 286, 197-203] and myosin LC20 phosphatase. Further purification of caldesmon phosphatase was achieved by sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, omega-amino-octyl-agarose, aminopropyl-agarose and thiophosphorylated myosin LC20-Sepharose. A single peak of caldesmon phosphatase activity was detected at each step of the purification. The purified phosphatase was identified as SMP-I [Pato and Adelstein (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6535-6538] by subunit composition (three subunits, of 60, 55 and 38 kDa) and Western blotting using antibodies against the holoenzyme which recognize all three subunits and antibodies specific for the 38 kDa catalytic subunit. SMP-I is a type 2A protein phosphatase [Pato, Adelstein, Crouch, Safer, Ingebritsen and Cohen (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 132, 283-287; Winder et al. (1992), cited above]. Consistent with the conclusion that SMP-I is the major caldesmon phosphatase of smooth muscle, purified SMP-I from turkey gizzard dephosphorylated all three phosphorylated forms of caldesmon, whereas SMP-II, -III and -IV were relatively ineffective. Kinetic analysis of dephosphorylation by chicken gizzard SMP-I of the three phosphorylated caldesmon species and calponin phosphorylated by protein kinase C indicates that calponin is a significantly better substrate of SMP-I than are any of the three phosphorylated forms of caldesmon. We therefore suggest that caldesmon phosphorylation in vivo can be maintained after kinase

  13. Phosphoprotein Isotope-Coded Solid-Phase Tag Approach for Enrichment and Quantitative Analysis of Phosphopeptides from Complex Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun ); Goshe, Michael B.; Camp, David G. ); Yu, Li-Rong ); Tang, Keqi ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2003-10-15

    Many cellular processes are regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation and the ability to identify and quantify phosphoproteins from proteomes is essential for gaining a better understanding of these dynamic cellular processes. However, a sensitive, efficient and global method capable of addressing the phosphoproteome has yet to be developed. Here we describe an improved stable-isotope labeling method using a Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Solid-phase Tag (PhIST) for isolating and measuring the relative abundance of phosphorylated peptides from complex peptide mixtures resulting from the enzymatic digestion of extracted proteins. The PhIST approach is an extension of the previously reported Phosphoprotein Isotope-coded Affinity Tag (PhIAT)approach developed by our laboratory1-2, where the O-phosphate moiety on phosphoseryl or phosphothreonyl residues were derivatized by hydroxide ion-medated B-elimination followed by the addition of 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). Instead of using the biotin affinity tag, peptides containing the EDT moiety were captured and labeled in one step using isotope-coded solid-phase reagents containing either light (12C6, 14N) or heavy (13C6, 15N) stable isotopes. The captured peptides labeled with the isotope-coded tags were released from the solid-phase support by UV photocleavage and analyzed by capillary LC-MS/MS. The efficiency and sensitivity of the PhIST labeling approach for identification of phosphopeptides from mixtures was demonstrated using casein phosphoproteins. Its utility for proteomic applications is demonstrated by the labeling of soluble proteins from human breast cancer cell line.

  14. A Druggable Pocket at the Nucleocapsid/Phosphoprotein Interaction Site of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ouizougun-Oubari, Mohamed; Pereira, Nelson; Tarus, Bogdan; Galloux, Marie; Lassoued, Safa; Fix, Jenna; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Hoos, Sylviane; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick; Bontems, François; Rey, Félix A.; Eléouët, Jean-François; Slama-Schwok, Anny

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Presently, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of severe respiratory infections in infants, cannot be treated efficiently with antivirals. However, its RNA-dependent polymerase complex offers potential targets for RSV-specific drugs. This includes the recognition of its template, the ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP), consisting of genomic RNA encapsidated by the RSV nucleoprotein, N. This recognition proceeds via interaction between the phosphoprotein P, which is the main polymerase cofactor, and N. The determinant role of the C terminus of P, and more particularly of the last residue, F241, in RNP binding and viral RNA synthesis has been assessed previously. Here, we provide detailed structural insight into this crucial interaction for RSV polymerase activity. We solved the crystallographic structures of complexes between the N-terminal domain of N (N-NTD) and C-terminal peptides of P and characterized binding by biophysical approaches. Our results provide a rationale for the pivotal role of F241, which inserts into a well-defined N-NTD pocket. This primary binding site is completed by transient contacts with upstream P residues outside the pocket. Based on the structural information of the N-NTD:P complex, we identified inhibitors of this interaction, selected by in silico screening of small compounds, that efficiently bind to N and compete with P in vitro. One of the compounds displayed inhibitory activity on RSV replication, thereby strengthening the relevance of N-NTD for structure-based design of RSV-specific antivirals. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a widespread pathogen that is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections in infants worldwide. RSV cannot be treated efficiently with antivirals, and no vaccine is presently available, with the development of pediatric vaccines being particularly challenging. Therefore, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies that specifically target RSV. The interaction

  15. Sequence of Events in Measles Virus Replication: Role of Phosphoprotein-Nucleocapsid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Joanna; Chopy, Damien; Dosnon, Marion; Bloyet, Louis-Marie; Devaux, Patricia; Urzua, Erica; Cattaneo, Roberto; Longhi, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses is tightly embedded within a nucleocapsid made of a nucleoprotein (N) homopolymer. To ensure processive RNA synthesis, the viral polymerase L in complex with its cofactor phosphoprotein (P) binds the nucleocapsid that constitutes the functional template. Measles virus P and N interact through two binding sites. While binding of the P amino terminus with the core of N (NCORE) prevents illegitimate encapsidation of cellular RNA, the interaction between their C-terminal domains, PXD and NTAIL is required for viral RNA synthesis. To investigate the binding dynamics between the two latter domains, the PXD F497 residue that makes multiple hydrophobic intramolecular interactions was mutated. Using a quantitative mammalian protein complementation assay and recombinant viruses, we found that an increase in PXD-to-NTAIL binding strength is associated with a slower transcript accumulation rate and that abolishing the interaction renders the polymerase nonfunctional. The use of a newly developed system allowing conditional expression of wild-type or mutated P genes, revealed that the loss of the PXD-NTAIL interaction results in reduced transcription by preformed transcriptases, suggesting reduced engagement on the genomic template. These intracellular data indicate that the viral polymerase entry into and progression along its genomic template relies on a protein-protein interaction that serves as a tightly controlled dynamic anchor. IMPORTANCE Mononegavirales have a unique machinery to replicate RNA. Processivity of their polymerase is only achieved when the genome template is entirely embedded into a helical homopolymer of nucleoproteins that constitutes the nucleocapsid. The polymerase binds to the nucleocapsid template through the phosphoprotein. How the polymerase complex enters and travels along the nucleocapsid template to ensure uninterrupted synthesis of up to ∼6,700-nucleotide messenger RNAs from six

  16. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Modulates Epigenetic Signaling in Neurons To Control Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Emilie M.; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. IMPORTANCE Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only

  17. Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adão S; Espíndola, Suéllen P; Campos, Maria Rita C

    2016-05-31

    The activity and kinetics of soil phosphatases are important indicators to evaluate soil quality in specific sites such as the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). This study aimed to determine the activity and kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase in Cerrado systems. Soil phosphatase activity was assessed in samples of native Cerrado (NC), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and pasture with Brachiaria brizantha (PBb) and evaluated with acetate buffer (AB), tris-HCl buffer (TB), modified universal buffer (MUB) and low MUB. The Michaelis-Menten equation and Eadie-Hofstee model were applied to obtain the kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase using different concentrations of p-nitrophenol phosphate (p-NPP). MUB showed the lowest soil phosphatase activity in all soils whereas AB in NC and NT presented the highest. Low MUB decreased interferences in the assessment of soil phosphatase activity when compared to MUB, suggesting that organic acids interfere on the soil phosphatase activity. In NC and NT, soil phosphatase activity performed with TB was similar to AB and low MUB. Km values from the Michaels-Menten equation were higher in NC than in NT, which indicate a lower affinity of phosphatase activity for the substrate in NC. Vmax values were also higher in NC than in NT. The Eadie-Hofstee model suggests that NC had more phosphatase isoforms than NT. The study showed that buffer type is of fundamental importance when assessing soil phosphatase activity in Cerrado soils. PMID:27254453

  18. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae. PMID:16350755

  19. Protein phosphatases and their regulation in the control of mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Mochida, Satoru; Hunt, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle transitions depend on protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The discovery of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their mode of activation by their cyclin partners explained many important aspects of cell cycle control. As the cell cycle is basically a series of recurrences of a defined set of events, protein phosphatases must obviously be as important as kinases. However, our knowledge about phosphatases lags well behind that of kinases. We still do not know which phosphatase(s) is/are truly responsible for dephosphorylating CDK substrates, and we know very little about whether and how protein phosphatases are regulated. Here, we summarize our present understanding of the phosphatases that are important in the control of the cell cycle and pose the questions that need to be answered as regards the regulation of protein phosphatases. PMID:22482124

  20. The Extended Family of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Andrés; Nunes-Xavier, Caroline E; Bayón, Yolanda; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the Tyr phosphorylation status of cellular proteins results from the coordinated action of Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs have emerged as highly regulated enzymes with diverse substrate specificity, and proteins with Tyr-dephosphorylation or Tyr-dephosphorylation-like properties can be clustered as the PTPome. This includes proteins from the PTP superfamily, which display a Cys-based catalytic mechanism, as well as enzymes from other gene families (Asp-based phosphatases, His-based phosphatases) that have converged in protein Tyr-dephosphorylation-related functions by using non-Cys-based catalytic mechanisms. Within the Cys-based members of the PTPome, classical PTPs dephosphorylate specific phosphoTyr (pTyr) residues from protein substrates, whereas VH1-like dual-specificity PTPs dephosphorylate pTyr, pSer, and pThr residues, as well as nonproteinaceous substrates, including phosphoinositides and phosphorylated carbohydrates. In addition, several PTPs have impaired catalytic activity as a result of amino acid substitutions at their active sites, but retain regulatory functions related with pTyr signaling. As a result of their relevant biological activity, many PTPs are linked to human disease, including cancer, neurodevelopmental, and metabolic diseases, making these proteins important drug targets and molecular markers in the clinic. Here, a brief overview on the biochemistry and physiology of the different groups of proteins that belong to the mammalian PTPome is presented. PMID:27514797

  1. Role of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Alka; Agrawal, Nisha; Sharma, Manisha; Pandey, Amita; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a crucial regulatory mechanism that controls many biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, phosphorylation events primarily occur on serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues, while in certain cases, it was also discovered on tyrosine (Tyr) residues. In contrary to plants, extensive reports on Tyr phosphorylation regulating a large numbers of biological processes exist in animals. Despite of such prodigious function in animals, Tyr phosphorylation is a least studied mechanism of protein regulation in plants. Recently, various chemical analytical procedures have strengthened the view that Tyr phosphorylation is equally prevalent in plants as in animals. However, regardless of Tyr phosphorylation events occuring in plants, no evidence could be found for the existence of gene encoding for Tyr phosphorylation i.e. the typical Tyr kinases. Various methodologies have suggested that plant responses to stress signals and developmental processes involved modifications in protein Tyr phosphorylation. Correspondingly, various reports have established the role of PTPs (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases) in the dephosphorylation and inactivation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) hence, in the regulation of MAPK signaling cascade. Besides this, many dual specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) are also known to bind starch and regulate starch metabolism through reversible phosphorylation. Here, we are emphasizing the significant progress on protein Tyr phosphatases to understand the role of these enzymes in the regulation of post-translational modification in plant physiology and development. PMID:26962298

  2. Regulatory Roles of MAPK Phosphatases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Low, Heng Boon

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key regulators of cell growth and survival in physiological and pathological processes. Aberrant MAPK signaling plays a critical role in the development and progression of human cancer, as well as in determining responses to cancer treatment. The MAPK phosphatases (MKPs), also known as dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), are a family of proteins that function as major negative regulators of MAPK activities in mammalian cells. Studies using mice deficient in specific MKPs including MKP1/DUSP1, PAC-1/DUSP2, MKP2/DUSP4, MKP5/DUSP10 and MKP7/DUSP16 demonstrated that these molecules are important not only for both innate and adaptive immune responses, but also for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, the consequences of the gain or loss of function of the MKPs in normal and malignant tissues have highlighted the importance of these phosphatases in the pathogenesis of cancers. The involvement of the MKPs in resistance to cancer therapy has also gained prominence, making the MKPs a potential target for anti-cancer therapy. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the MKPs in cancer development, progression and treatment outcomes. PMID:27162525

  3. Effects of calcium salts of acidic monomers on mineral induction of phosphoprotein immobilized to agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Motai, Fumiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Saito, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the mineralizing potential of acidic monomers and their calcium salts for mineralization, using an in vitro mineral induction model. Phosvitin (PV) was used as a model phosphoprotein in this study. PV was immobilized on agarose beads with divinyl sulfone. Five aliquots of agarose-immobilized PV, acidic monomers, and their calcium salts were incubated in mineralizing solution at various concentrations. The PV beads and acidic monomers were incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at several time points during the incubation. Then, the agarose beads were analyzed for bound calcium by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral formed on the agarose beads was identified as an apatite by microarea X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineral induction time decreased with increasing solution saturation. 4-METCa salt [calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate (CMET)] significantly reduced the mineral induction time. Using these data, the interfacial tension for mineral induction of PV and CMET was determined to be 90.1 and 92.7 ergs/cm(2), respectively. The mineral induced in each specimen after incubation for 24 h was identified by its X-ray diffraction pattern as apatite. SEM observation showed that lath-shaped crystals were formed on the surfaces of the CMET. We conclude that CMET could play a role in dentin remineralization. PMID:22623052

  4. The role of phosphorylation in dentin phosphoprotein peptide absorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Garduño-Juarez, Ramon; Gericke, Arne; Boskey, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is a protein expressed mainly in dentin and to a lesser extent in bone. DPP has a disordered structure, rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phosphorylated serine/threonine residues. It has a high capacity for binding to calcium ions and to hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal surfaces. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a method for virtually screening interactions between DPP motifs and HA. The goal was to determine which motifs are absorbed to HA surfaces. For these simulations, we considered five peptides from the human DPP sequence. All-atom MD simulations were performed using GROMACS, the peptides were oriented parallel to the {100} HA crystal surface, the distance between the HA and the peptide was 3 nm. The system was simulated for 20 ns. Preliminary results show that for the unphosphorylated peptides, the acidic amino acids present an electrostatic attraction where their side chains are oriented towards HA. This attraction, however, is slow to facilitate bulk transport to the crystal surface. On the other hand, the phosphorylated (PP) peptides are rapidly absorbed on the surface of the HA with their centers of mass closer to the HA surface. More importantly, the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) indicates that the average structures of the phosphorylated peptides are very inflexible and elongate, while that of the unphosphorylated peptides are flexible. Radius of gyration (Rg) analysis showed the compactness of un-phosphorylated peptides is lower than phosphorylated peptides. Phosphorylation of the DPP peptides is necessary for binding to HA surfaces. PMID:25158198

  5. Golgi Phosphoprotein 4 (GPP130) is a Sensitive and Selective Cellular Target of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Melisa; Braun-sommargren, Michelle; Crooks, Dan; Smith, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic elevated exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with neurocognitive and fine motor deficits in children. However, relatively little is understood about cellular responses to Mn spanning the transition between physiologic to toxic levels of exposure. Here, we investigated the specificity, sensitivity, and time course of the Golgi Phosphoprotein 4 (GPP130) response to Mn exposure in AF5 GABAergic neuronal cells, and we determined the extent to which GPP130 degradation occurs in brain cells in vivo in rats subchronically exposed to Mn. Our results show that GPP130 degradation in AF5 cells was specific to Mn, and did not occur following exposure to cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, or zinc. GPP130 degradation occurred without measurable increases in intracellular Mn levels and at Mn exposures as low as 0.54 µM. GPP130 protein was detectable by immunofluorescence in only ~15–30% of cells in striatal and cortical rat brain slices, and Mn-exposed animals exhibited a significant reduction in both the number of GPP130-positive cells, and the overall levels of GPP130 protein, demonstrating the in vivo relevance of this Mn-specific response within the primary target organ of Mn toxicity. These results provide insight into specific mechanism(s) of cellular Mn regulation and toxicity within the brain, including the selective susceptibility of cells to Mn cytotoxicity. PMID:23280773

  6. The measles virus phosphoprotein interacts with the linker domain of STAT1

    SciTech Connect

    Devaux, Patricia Priniski, Lauren; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2013-09-15

    The measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P) and V proteins block the interferon (IFN) response by impeding phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). We characterized how STAT1 mutants interact with P and JAK1 phosphorylation. Certain mutants of the linker, the Src-homology 2 domain (SH2), or the transactivation domain had reduced or abolished phosphorylation through JAK1 after IFN treatment. Other mutants, mainly localized in the linker, failed to interact with P as documented by the lack of interference with nuclear translocation. Thus the functional footprint of P on STAT1 localizes mainly to the linker domain; there is also some overlap with the STAT1 phosphorylation functional footprint on the SH2 domain. Based on these observations, we discuss how the MV-P might operate to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway. - Highlights: • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for MV-P interaction. • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for STAT1 phosphorylation. • Residues interferring with both functions have similar location on STAT1. • The viral P and V proteins may operate in concert to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway.

  7. Knockdown of Golgi phosphoprotein 2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xiaodi; Sun, Ting; Jiang, Junchang; Li, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Wei, Zhen; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhou, Linfu

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GP73) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it serves as a biomarker and indicator of disease progression. We used MTS assays, anchorage-independent cell colony formation assays and a xenograft tumor model to show that GP73-specific siRNAs inhibit HCC proliferation in HepG2, SMMC-7721, and Huh7 cell lines and in vivo. Following GP73 silencing, levels of p-Rb, a factor related to metastasis, were reduced, but cell cycle progression was unaffected. Our results suggest that GP73 silencing may not directly suppress proliferation, but may instead inhibit cell motility. Results from proliferation assays suggest GP73 reduces expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors and promotes cell motility, while transwell migration and invasion assays indicated a possible role in metastasis. Immunofluorescence co-localization microscopy and immunoblotting showed that GP73 decreases expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin, two key factors in EMT, which may in turn decrease intracellular adhesive forces and promote cell motility. This study confirmed that GP73 expression leads to increased expression of EMT-related proteins and that GP73 silencing reduces HCC cell migration in vitro. These findings suggest that GP73 silencing through siRNA delivery may provide a novel low-toxicity therapy for the inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. PMID:26870893

  8. An abundant nucleolar phosphoprotein is associated with ribosomal DNA in Tetrahymena macronuclei.

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, K E; Smothers, J F; Dadd, C A; Madireddi, M T; Gorovsky, M A; Allis, C D

    1997-01-01

    An abundant 52-kDa phosphoprotein was identified and characterized from macronuclei of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Immunoblot analyses combined with light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry demonstrate that this polypeptide, termed Nopp52, is enriched in the nucleoli of transcriptionally active macronuclei and missing altogether from transcriptionally inert micronuclei. The cDNA sequence encoding Nopp52 predicts a polypeptide whose amino-terminal half consists of multiple acidic/serine-rich regions alternating with basic/proline-rich regions. Multiple serines located in these acidic stretches lie within casein kinase II consensus motifs, and Nopp52 is an excellent substrate for casein kinase II in vitro. The carboxyl-terminal half of Nopp52 contains two RNA recognition motifs and an extreme carboxyl-terminal domain rich in glycine, arginine, and phenylalanine, motifs common in many RNA processing proteins. A similar combination and order of motifs is found in vertebrate nucleolin and yeast NSR1, suggesting that Nopp52 is a member of a family of related nucleolar proteins. NSR1 and nucleolin have been implicated in transcriptional regulation of rDNA and rRNA processing. Consistent with a role in ribosomal gene metabolism, rDNA and Nopp52 colocalize in situ, as well as by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation experiments, demonstrating an association between Nopp52 and rDNA in vivo. Images PMID:9017598

  9. Solution and Crystallographic Structures of the Central Region of the Phosphoprotein from Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P) from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). We located the central region of HMPV P (Pced) which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of Pced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of Pced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (Pcore), that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales Pced structures suggests that Pced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes. PMID:24224051

  10. Characterization of interleukin 2 stimulated 65-kilodalton phosphoprotein in human T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Kohno, Michiaki; Namba, Yuziro ); Kohno, Michiaki ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Nishida, Eisuke )

    1990-01-30

    The authors have characterized the cellular proteins which are rapidly phosphorylated by interleukin 2 (IL 2) in a human IL 2 dependent cell line. When treated with IL 2, the phosphorylation of five proteins, 65, 50, 37, 24, and 21 kDa, was found in IL 2 dependent cell lines by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis. After cell conversion from an IL 2 dependent state to an IL 2 independent state, one of the five phosphoproteins, the 65-kDa protein, became constitutively phosphorylated even without addition of IL 2. Also, in other IL 2 independent cell lines, such as KUT-2 and HUT-102, constitutive phosphorylation of the 65-kDa protein occurred without IL 2-stimulation. So our researchers were focused on biochemical characterization of the 65-kDa protein. It was found that the 65-kDa protein was one of the major cellular proteins by comparing the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of ({sup 32}P)P{sub i}-labeled and ({sup 3}H)leucine-labeled cellular proteins and peptide mapping analysis. Subcellular fraction studies indicated that the 65-kDa protein is a cytosol protein. The 65-kDa protein was purified from cytosol of a human T cell line, and its amino acid composition and amino acid sequences of its three oligopeptides were determined. It was found that the 65-kDa protein is identical with 1-plastin.

  11. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.; Slavkin, H. ); Murray, J. ); Crall, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is the major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.

  12. Structural studies on the authentic mumps virus nucleocapsid showing uncoiling by the phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert; Pickar, Adrian; Qiu, Shihong; Tsao, Jun; Rodenburg, Cynthia; Dokland, Terje; Elson, Andrew; He, Biao; Luo, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mumps virus (MuV) is a highly contagious pathogen, and despite extensive vaccination campaigns, outbreaks continue to occur worldwide. The virus has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that is encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (N) to form the nucleocapsid (NC). NC serves as the template for both transcription and replication. In this paper we solved an 18-Å–resolution structure of the authentic MuV NC using cryo-electron microscopy. We also observed the effects of phosphoprotein (P) binding on the MuV NC structure. The N-terminal domain of P (PNTD) has been shown to bind NC and appeared to induce uncoiling of the helical NC. Additionally, we solved a 25-Å–resolution structure of the authentic MuV NC bound with the C-terminal domain of P (PCTD). The location of the encapsidated viral genomic RNA was defined by modeling crystal structures of homologous negative strand RNA virus Ns in NC. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of MuV P bind NC to participate in access to the genomic RNA by the viral RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase. These results provide critical insights on the structure-function of the MuV NC and the structural alterations that occur through its interactions with P. PMID:25288750

  13. Mumps Virus Nucleoprotein Enhances Phosphorylation of the Phosphoprotein by Polo-Like Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Adrian; Zengel, James; Xu, Pei; Li, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (vRdRps) of nonsegmented, negative-sense viruses (NNSVs) consist of the enzymatic large protein (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). P is heavily phosphorylated, and its phosphorylation plays a critical role in viral RNA synthesis. Since NNSVs do not encode kinases, P is phosphorylated by host kinases. In this study, we investigate the roles that viral proteins play in the phosphorylation of mumps virus (MuV) P. We found that nucleoprotein (NP) enhances the phosphorylation of P. We have identified the serine/threonine kinase Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as a host kinase that phosphorylates P and have found that phosphorylation of P by PLK1 is enhanced by NP. The PLK1 binding site in MuV P was mapped to residues 146 to 148 within the S(pS/T)P motif, and the phosphorylation site was identified as residues S292 and S294. IMPORTANCE It has previously been shown that P acts as a chaperone for NP, which encapsidates viral genomic RNA to form the NP-RNA complex, the functional template for viral RNA synthesis. Thus, it is assumed that phosphorylation of P may regulate NP's ability to form the NP-RNA complex, thereby regulating viral RNA synthesis. Our work demonstrates that MuV NP affects phosphorylation of P, suggesting that NP can regulate viral RNA synthesis by regulating phosphorylation of P. PMID:26608325

  14. Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein promotes immune-mediated pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simarro, Maria; Giannattasio, Giorgio; De la Fuente, Miguel A; Benarafa, Charaf; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Ishizawar, Rumey; Balestrieri, Barbara; Andersson, Emma M; Luo, Hongbo R.; Orduña, Antonio; Boyce, Joshua; Anderson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We have generated Fas activated serine threonine phosphoprotein-deficient mice (FAST−/−) to study the in vivo role of FAST in immune system function. In a model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic pulmonary inflammation, wild type mice develop a mixed cellular infiltrate composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils. FAST−/− mice develop airway inflammation that is distinguished by the near absence of neutrophils. Similarly, LPS-induced alveolar neutrophil recruitment is markedly reduced in FAST−/− mice compared to wild type controls. This is accompanied by reduced concentrations of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-23) and chemoattractants (MIP-2 and KC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. As FAST−/− neutrophils exhibit normal chemotaxis and survival, impaired neutrophil recruitment is likely to be due to reduced production of chemoattractants within the pulmonary parenchyma. Studies using bone marrow chimeras implicate lung resident hematopoietic cells (e.g. pulmonary dendritic cells and/or alveolar macrophages) in this process. In conclusion, our results introduce FAST as a pro-inflammatory factor that modulates the function of lung resident hematopoietic cells to promote neutrophil recruitment and pulmonary inflammation. PMID:20363972

  15. Retinophilin is a light-regulated phosphoprotein required to suppress photoreceptor dark noise in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Kirk L.; Takemori, Nobuaki; Komori, Naoka; Chu, Brian; Hardie, Roger C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; O’Tousa, Joseph. E.

    2010-01-01

    Photoreceptor cells achieve high sensitivity, reliably detecting single photons, while limiting the spontaneous activation events responsible for dark noise. We used proteomic, genetic, and electrophysiological approaches to characterize Retinophilin (RTP/CG10233) in Drosophila photoreceptors, and establish its involvement in dark noise suppression. RTP possesses MORN (Membrane Occupation and Recognition Nexus) motifs, a structure shared with mammalian junctophilins and other membrane-associated proteins found within excitable cells. We show the MORN repeats, and both the N- and C-terminal domains, are required for RTP localization in the microvillar light gathering organelle, the rhabdomere. RTP exists in multiple phosphorylated isoforms under dark conditions and is dephosphorylated by light exposure. An RTP deletion mutant exhibits a high rate of spontaneous membrane depolarization events in dark conditions but retains the normal kinetics of the light response. Photoreceptors lacking NINAC myosin III, a motor protein/kinase, also display a similar dark noise phenotype as the RTP deletion. We show that NINAC mutants are depleted for RTP. These results suggest the increase in dark noise in NINAC mutants is due to lack of RTP, and further, defines a novel role for NINAC in the rhabdomere. We propose that RTP is a light-regulated phosphoprotein that organizes rhabdomeric components to suppress random activation of the phototransduction cascade and thus increases the signaling fidelity of dark-adapted photoreceptors. PMID:20107052

  16. Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL3) Provokes a Tyrosine Phosphoproteome to Drive Prometastatic Signal Transduction*

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Chad D.; Iliuk, Anton; Bai, Yunpeng; Wang, Mu; Tao, W. Andy; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL3) is suspected to be a causative factor toward cellular metastasis when in excess. To date, the molecular basis for PRL3 function remains an enigma, making efforts at distilling a concerted mechanism for PRL3-mediated metastatic dissemination very difficult. We previously discovered that PRL3 expressing cells exhibit a pronounced increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we take an unbiased mass spectrometry-based approach toward identifying the phosphoproteins exhibiting enhanced levels of tyrosine phosphorylation with a goal to define the “PRL3-mediated signaling network.” Phosphoproteomic data support intracellular activation of an extensive signaling network normally governed by extracellular ligand-activated transmembrane growth factor, cytokine, and integrin receptors in the PRL3 cells. Additionally, data implicate the Src tyrosine kinase as the major intracellular kinase responsible for “hijacking” this network and provide strong evidence that aberrant Src activation is a major consequence of PRL3 overexpression. Importantly, the data support a PDGF(α/β)-, Eph (A2/B3/B4)-, and Integrin (β1/β5)-receptor array as being the predominant network coordinator in the PRL3 cells, corroborating a PRL3-induced mesenchymal-state. Within this network, we find that tyrosine phosphorylation is increased on a multitude of signaling effectors responsible for Rho-family GTPase, PI3K-Akt, STAT, and ERK activation, linking observations made by the field as a whole under Src as a primary signal transducer. Our phosphoproteomic data paint the most comprehensive picture to date of how PRL3 drives prometastatic molecular events through Src activation. PMID:24030100

  17. The herpes simplex virus 1 protein kinase encoded by the US3 gene mediates posttranslational modification of the phosphoprotein encoded by the UL34 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Purves, F C; Spector, D; Roizman, B

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) open reading frame, US3, encodes a novel protein kinase and have characterized the cognate amino acid sequence which is phosphorylated by this enzyme. This report identifies an apparently essential viral phosphoprotein whose posttranslational processing involves the viral protein kinase. Analyses of viral proteins phosphorylated in the course of productive infection revealed a phosphoprotein whose mobility was viral protein kinase and serotype dependent. Thus, the corresponding HSV-1 and HSV-2 phosphoproteins differ in their electrophoretic mobilities, and the phosphoprotein specified by the HSV-1 mutant deleted in US3 (R7041) differs from that of the corresponding HSV-1 and HSV-2 proteins. Analyses of HSV-1 x HSV-2 recombinants mapped the phosphoprotein between 0.42 and 0.47 map units on the prototype HSV-1 DNA map. Within this region, the UL34 open reading frame was predicted to encode a protein of appropriate molecular weight which would also contain the consensus target site for phosphorylation by the viral protein kinase as previously defined with synthetic peptides. Replacement of the native UL34 gene with a UL34 gene tagged with a 17-amino-acid epitope from the alpha 4 protein identified this gene as encoding the phosphoprotein. Finally, mutagenesis of the predicted phosphorylation site on UL34 in the viral genome, and specifically the substitution of threonine or serine with alanine in the product of the UL34 gene, yielded phosphoproteins whose electrophoretic mobilities could not be differentiated from that of the US3- mutant. We conclude that the posttranslational processing of the UL34 gene product to its wild-type phenotype requires the participation of the viral protein kinase. While the viral protein kinase is not essential for viral replication in cells in culture, the UL34 gene product itself may not be dispensable. Images PMID:1656069

  18. Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-321,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Marina; Guiot, Elvire; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Valjent, Emmanuel; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Paupardin-Tritsch, Danièle; Castro, Liliana R. V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 10A phosphodiesterase (PDE10A) is highly expressed in the striatum, in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. PDE10A inhibitors have pharmacological and behavioral effects suggesting an antipsychotic profile, but the cellular bases of these effects are unclear. We analyzed the effects of PDE10A inhibition in vivo by immunohistochemistry, and imaged cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), and cGMP signals with biosensors in mouse brain slices. PDE10A inhibition in mouse striatal slices produced a steady-state increase in intracellular cAMP concentration in D1 and D2 MSNs, demonstrating that PDE10A regulates basal cAMP levels. Surprisingly, the PKA-dependent AKAR3 phosphorylation signal was strong in D2 MSNs, whereas D1 MSNs remained unresponsive. This effect was also observed in adult mice in vivo since PDE10A inhibition increased phospho-histone H3 immunoreactivity selectively in D2 MSNs in the dorsomedial striatum. The PKA-dependent effects in D2 MSNs were prevented in brain slices and in vivo by mutation of the PKA-regulated phosphorylation site of 32 kDa dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), which is required for protein phosphatase-1 inhibition. These data highlight differences in the integration of the cAMP signal in D1 and D2 MSNs, resulting from stronger inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 by DARPP-32 in D2 MSNs than in D1 MSNs. This study shows that PDE10A inhibitors share with antipsychotic medications the property of activating preferentially PKA-dependent signaling in D2 MSNs. PMID:26465004

  19. Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Polito, Marina; Guiot, Elvire; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Valjent, Emmanuel; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Paupardin-Tritsch, Danièle; Castro, Liliana R V; Vincent, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Type 10A phosphodiesterase (PDE10A) is highly expressed in the striatum, in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. PDE10A inhibitors have pharmacological and behavioral effects suggesting an antipsychotic profile, but the cellular bases of these effects are unclear. We analyzed the effects of PDE10A inhibition in vivo by immunohistochemistry, and imaged cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), and cGMP signals with biosensors in mouse brain slices. PDE10A inhibition in mouse striatal slices produced a steady-state increase in intracellular cAMP concentration in D1 and D2 MSNs, demonstrating that PDE10A regulates basal cAMP levels. Surprisingly, the PKA-dependent AKAR3 phosphorylation signal was strong in D2 MSNs, whereas D1 MSNs remained unresponsive. This effect was also observed in adult mice in vivo since PDE10A inhibition increased phospho-histone H3 immunoreactivity selectively in D2 MSNs in the dorsomedial striatum. The PKA-dependent effects in D2 MSNs were prevented in brain slices and in vivo by mutation of the PKA-regulated phosphorylation site of 32 kDa dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), which is required for protein phosphatase-1 inhibition. These data highlight differences in the integration of the cAMP signal in D1 and D2 MSNs, resulting from stronger inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 by DARPP-32 in D2 MSNs than in D1 MSNs. This study shows that PDE10A inhibitors share with antipsychotic medications the property of activating preferentially PKA-dependent signaling in D2 MSNs. PMID:26465004

  20. Carboxyarabinitol-1-P phosphatase of Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Kobza, J.; Moore, B.d.; Seemann, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The activity of carboxyarabinitol-1-P (CA1P) phosphatase was detected in clarified stromal extracts by the generation of {sup 14}C-carboxyarabinitol from {sup 14}C-CA1P. Carboxyribitol-1-P dependent activity was 3% of the CA1P dependent activity, indicating the enzyme was specific for CA1P. Inclusion of DTT in the assay was required for maximum velocity, but it appears that the enzyme is not regulated by thioredoxin in vivo. Activity o f the CA1P phosphatase was stimulated by RuBP, NADPH and FBP, though the latter two metabolites were required at nonphysiological concentrations in order to achieve significant stimulation. Contrary to a previous report on purified tobacco enzyme, ATP stimulated the CA1P phosphatase activity. In the presence of 1 mM RuBP or ATP, rates of 2 or 3 {mu}mol mg{sup {minus}1} Chl h{sup {minus}1}, respectively, were observed at 1 mM CA1P. These rates were 3-4 fold higher than the rate observed in the absence of effectors and are 2-4 times the in vivo rate of degradation of CA1P during dark/light transitions. The rates from bean were about 7 fold higher than rates reported for the enzyme from tobacco. Changes in the levels of ATP and RuBP associated with dark/light transitions could modulate the enzyme activity in vivo, but it remains to be established if this is the only mechanism for the required regulation of the enzyme.

  1. Astacin Proteases Cleave Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) to Generate Dentin Phosphoprotein (Dpp)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Shuhei; Simmer, James P; Hu, Jan C-C; Richardson, Amelia S; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is critical for proper dentin biomineralization because genetic defects in DSPP cause dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III. Dspp is processed by proteases into smaller subunits; the initial cleavage releases dentin phosphoprotein (Dpp). We incubated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides containing the amino acid context of the Dpp cleavage site (YEFDGKSMQGDDPN, designated Dspp-FRET) or a mutant version of that context (YEFDGKSIEGDDPN, designated mutDspp-FRET) with BMP-1, MEP1A, MEP1B, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, MT3-MMP, Klk4, MMP-20, plasmin, or porcine Dpp and characterized the peptide cleavage products. Only BMP-1, MEP1A, and MEP1B cleaved Dspp-FRET at the G–D peptide bond that releases Dpp from Dspp in vivo. We isolated Dspp proteoglycan from dentin power and incubated it with the three enzymes that cleaved Dspp-FRET at the G–D bond. In each case, the released Dpp domain was isolated, and its N-terminus was characterized by Edman degradation. BMP-1 and MEP1A both cleaved native Dspp at the correct site to generate Dpp, making both these enzymes prime candidates for the protease that cleaves Dspp in vivo. MEP1B was able to degrade Dpp when the Dpp was at sufficiently high concentration to deplete free calcium ion concentration. Immunohistochemistry of developing porcine molars demonstrated that astacins are expressed by odontoblasts, a result that is consistent with RT-PCR analyses. We conclude that during odontogenesis, astacins in the predentin matrix cleave Dspp before the DDPN sequence at the N-terminus of Dpp to release Dpp from the parent Dspp protein. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20687161

  2. Prognostic significance of peroxiredoxin 1 and ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yonglitthipagon, Ponlapat; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Bethony, Jeffrey; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-01-01

    Summary We performed a comparative proteomic analysis of protein expression profiles in four cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines: K100, M156, M213, and M139. The H69 biliary cell line was used as a control. Peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) were selected for further validation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a CCA tissue microarray (n=301) to assess their prognostic value in this cancer. Both PRX1 and EBP50 were overexpressed in CCA tissues compared with normal liver tissues. Of the 301 CCA cases, overexpression of PRX1 in 103 (34.3%) was associated with an age-related effect in young patients (P = 0.011) and the absence of cholangiocarcinoma in lymphatic vessels and perineural tissues (P = 0.004 and P = 0.037, respectively). Expression of EBP50 correlated with histopathologic type, being higher in 180 (59.8%) of moderately or poorly differentiated tumors (P = 0.039) and was associated with the presence of cholangiocarcinoma in lymphatic and vascular vessels (P< 0.001 and P< 0.001, respectively). The high expression of EBP50 and the low expression of PRX1 correlated with reduced survival by univariate analysis (P = 0.017 and P = 0.048, respectively). Moreover, the impact of PRX1 and EBP50 expression on patient survival was an independent predictor in multivariate analyses (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). Therefore, altered expression of PRX1 and EBP50 may be used as prognostic markers incholangiocarcinoma. PMID:22446018

  3. Rabies virus phosphoprotein interacts with mitochondrial Complex I and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kammouni, Wafa; Wood, Heidi; Saleh, Ali; Appolinario, Camila M; Fernyhough, Paul; Jackson, Alan C

    2015-08-01

    Our previous studies in an experimental model of rabies showed neuronal process degeneration in association with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult rodent dorsal root ganglion neurons infected with challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain of rabies virus (RABV) showed axonal swellings and reduced axonal growth with evidence of oxidative stress. We have shown that CVS infection alters a variety of mitochondrial parameters and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Complex I activity vs. mock infection. We have hypothesized that a RABV protein targets mitochondria and triggers dysfunction. Mitochondrial extracts of mouse neuroblastoma cells were analyzed with a proteomics approach. We have identified peptides belonging to the RABV nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G), and our data indicate that the extract was most highly enriched with P. P was also detected by immunoblotting in RABV-infected purified mitochondrial extracts and also in Complex I immunoprecipitates from the extracts but not in mock-infected extracts. A plasmid expressing P in cells increased Complex I activity and increased ROS generation, whereas expression of other RABV proteins did not. We have analyzed recombinant plasmids encoding various P gene segments. Expression of a peptide from amino acid 139-172 increased Complex I activity and ROS generation similar to expression of the entire P protein, whereas peptides that did not contain this region did not increase Complex I activity or induce ROS generation. These results indicate that a region of the RABV P interacts with Complex I in mitochondria causing mitochondrial dysfunction, increased generation of ROS, and oxidative stress. PMID:25698500

  4. Protein kinase C regulates the phosphorylation and oligomerization of ERM binding phosphoprotein 50

    SciTech Connect

    Fouassier, Laura; Nichols, Matthew T.; Gidey, Elizabeth; McWilliams, Ryan R.; Robin, Helene; Finnigan, Claire; Howell, Kathryn E.; Housset, Chantal; Doctor, R. Brian . E-mail: brian.doctor@uchsc.edu

    2005-05-15

    Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50, a.k.a. NHERF-1) is a scaffold protein essential for the localization and coordinated activity of apical transporters, enzymes and receptors in epithelial cells. EBP50 acts via multiple protein binding interactions, including oligomerization through interactions of its PSD95-Dlg-ZO1 (PDZ) domains. EBP50 can be phosphorylated on multiple sites and phosphorylation of specific sites modulates the extent of oligomerization. The aim of the present study was to test the capacity of protein kinase C (PKC) to phosphorylate EBP50 and to regulate its oligomerization. In vitro experiments showed that the catalytic subunit of PKC directly phosphorylates EBP50. In HEK-293 cells transfected with rat EBP50 cDNA, a treatment with 12 myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced a translocation of PKC{alpha} and {beta} isoforms to the membrane and increased {sup 32}P incorporation into EBP50. In co-transfection/co-precipitation studies, PMA treatment stimulated EBP50 oligomerization. Mass spectrometry analysis of full-length EBP50 and phosphorylation analyses of specific domains, and of mutated or truncated forms of EBP50, indicated that PKC-induced phosphorylation of EBP50 occurred on the Ser{sup 337}/Ser{sup 338} residue within the carboxyl-tail domain of the protein. Truncation of Ser{sup 337}/Ser{sup 338} also diminished PKC-induced oligomerization of EBP50. These results suggest the PKC signaling pathway can impact EBP50-dependent cellular functions by regulating EBP50 oligomerization.

  5. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Deficiency Potentiates PAR-1-induced Increase in Endothelial Permeability in Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Han, Jingyan; Andreeva, Alexandra V.; Neamu, Radu F.; Pavlovic, Sasha; Vogel, Stephen M.; Walter, Ulrich; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A.

    2010-01-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is implicated in the protection of the endothelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. VASP function in thrombin signaling in the endothelial cells (ECs) is not known. For the first time we studied the effects of VASP deficiency on EC permeability and pulmonary vascular permeability in response to thrombin receptor stimulation. We provided the evidence that VASP deficiency potentiates the increase in endothelial permeability induced by activation of thrombin receptor in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and isolated mouse lungs. Using transendothelial resistance measurement, we showed that siRNA-mediated VASP downregulation in HUVECs leads to a potentiation of thrombin- and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) agonist-induced increase in endothelial permeability. Compared to control cells, VASP-deficient HUVECs had delayed endothelial junctional reassembly and abrogated VE-cadherin cytoskeletal anchoring in the recovery phase after thrombin stimulation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence studies and cell fractionation analysis, respectively. Measurement of the capillary filtration coefficient in isolated mouse lungs demonstrated that VASP−/− mice have increased microvascular permeability in response to infusion with PAR-1 agonist compared to wild type mice. Lack of VASP led to decreased Rac1 activation both in VASP-deficient HUVECs after thrombin stimulation and VASP−/− mouse lungs after PAR-1 agonist infusion, indicating that VASP effects on thrombin signaling may correlated with changes in Rac1 activity. This study demonstrates that VASP may play critical and complex role in the regulation of thrombin-dependent disruption of the endothelial barrier function. PMID:20945373

  6. Characterization of the major phosphoprotein and its kinase on the surface of the rat adipocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, E.S.; Chiang, T.M.

    1986-12-01

    Intact rat fat cell exposed to 12.5 ..mu..M (..gamma..-32P)ATP incorporate label into specific proteins within minutes. By solubilizing the reaction mixture with SDS which bypasses the subcellular fractionation steps, the labeled proteins can be identified in autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels. The most prominently labeled protein has an M/sub r/ of 42,000. Localization of this component to the cell surface can be made on the basis of inhibition of phosphorylation by addition of a protein derived from the rat brain with protein kinase inhibitory property, susceptibility of the phosphorylated protein to the tryptic digestion, inhibition of phosphorylation of this protein after brief exposure to melittin. To rule out the possibility that the cell surface protein might be a mitochondrial contaminant from broken cells, /sup 32/Pi-labeled and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled cells were chromatographed on a rabbit anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase antibody-Sepharose 4B column. A single labeled peak was detected upon elution of the bound fraction only in the /sup 32/pi-labeled sample, and not in the (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled sample. Subcellular fractionation studies of intact cells labeled depending on whether a continuous sucrose gradient or a discontinuous sucrose gradient was used. Finally, comparison of the autoradiographs of two-dimensional (2D) gels show different isoelectric points for 42,000 M/sub r/ components in (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP- and /sup 32/Pi-labeled cells. These and other experiments support the likelihood that phosphoproteins of 42,000 M/sub r/ are present at two sites in the intact rat fat cell, the cell surface and at an intracellular site, most likely the mitochondria.

  7. Atomic resolution description of the interaction between the nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein of Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Communie, Guillaume; Habchi, Johnny; Yabukarski, Filip; Blocquel, David; Schneider, Robert; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W H; Jamin, Marc; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Longhi, Sonia; Blackledge, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The HeV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. Recruitment of the viral polymerase onto the nucleocapsid template relies on the interaction between the C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), of N and the C-terminal X domain, XD, of the polymerase co-factor phosphoprotein (P). Here, we provide an atomic resolution description of the intrinsically disordered N(TAIL) domain in its isolated state and in intact nucleocapsids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using electron microscopy, we show that HeV nucleocapsids form herringbone-like structures typical of paramyxoviruses. We also report the crystal structure of XD of P that consists of a three-helix bundle. We study the interaction between N(TAIL) and XD using NMR titration experiments and provide a detailed mapping of the reciprocal binding sites. We show that the interaction is accompanied by α-helical folding of the molecular recognition element of N(TAIL) upon binding to a hydrophobic patch on the surface of XD. Finally, using solution NMR, we investigate the interaction between intact nucleocapsids and XD. Our results indicate that monomeric XD binds to N(TAIL) without triggering an additional unwinding of the nucleocapsid template. The present results provide a structural description at the atomic level of the protein-protein interactions required for transcription and replication of HeV, and the first direct observation of the interaction between the X domain of P and intact nucleocapsids in Paramyxoviridae. PMID:24086133

  8. The extended human PTPome: a growing tyrosine phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Tyr phosphatases are, by definition, enzymes that dephosphorylate phospho-Tyr (pTyr) from proteins. This activity is found in several structurally diverse protein families, including the protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP), arsenate reductase, rhodanese, haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) and His phosphatase (HP) families. Most of these families include members with substrate specificity for non-pTyr substrates, such as phospho-Ser/phospho-Thr, phosphoinositides, phosphorylated carbohydrates, mRNAs, or inorganic moieties. A Cys is essential for catalysis in PTPs, rhodanese and arsenate reductase enzymes, whereas this work is performed by an Asp in HAD phosphatases and by a His in HPs, via a catalytic mechanism shared by all of the different families. The category that contains most Tyr phosphatases is the PTP family, which, although it received its name from this activity, includes Ser, Thr, inositide, carbohydrate and RNA phosphatases, as well as some inactive pseudophosphatase proteins. Here, we propose an extended collection of human Tyr phosphatases, which we call the extended human PTPome. The addition of new members (SACs, paladin, INPP4s, TMEM55s, SSU72, and acid phosphatases) to the currently categorized PTP group of enzymes means that the extended human PTPome contains up to 125 proteins, of which ~ 40 are selective for pTyr. We set criteria to ascribe proteins to the extended PTPome, and summarize the more important features of the new PTPome members in the context of their phosphatase activity and their relationship with human disease. PMID:26573778

  9. Purification of a 53kD pI 4. 8 cytosolic phosphoprotein from HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Biser, P.S.; Spearman, T.N.; Bruzzone, M.; Durham, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    In order to study the potential role of a 53kD pI 4.8 phosphoprotein in the differentiation of HL60 using monoclonal antibodies, a partial purification has been carried out. Cytosol from cells differentiated with 1 M retinoic acid was applied to a DEAE-cellulose column and eluted with a linear NaCl gradient. Fractions were screened by in vitro phosphorylation of aliquots using /sup 32/P ATP and highly purified protein kinase C, SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography. Fraction which showed autoradiographic bands of the correct molecular weight were further analyzed using 2-D electrophoresis involving isolectric focusing over a pH range of 4-6 followed by SDS-PAGE on a 10% slab gel. Autoradiograms of these gels showed the 53 kD pI 4.8 phosphoprotein to elute with a peak at 0.24 NaCl. This 53 kD pI 4.8 protein was identified as the 53kD pI 4.8 phosphoprotein whose synthesis and phosphorylation is induced by retinoic acid by DEAE chromatography of cytosol from cells labelled in vivo with /sup 32/PO/sub 4//sup -2/ followed by 2-D electrophoresis. Fractions containing the 53 kD pI 4.8 protein were concentrated and applied to a chromatofocusing column which was eluted with a gradient from pH 6 to 4. Analysis of fractions via in vitro phosphorylation and SDS PAGE showed the 53 kD pI 4.8 protein eluting with a peak at pH 4.8 as a silver-stained band well separated from contaminating proteins. Experiments are currently in progress to produce monoclonal antibodies to the 53 kD pI 4.8 protein using the partially purified antigen.

  10. Selective polyamine-binding proteins. Spermine binding by an androgen-sensitive phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Liang, T; Mezzetti, G; Chen, C; Liao, S

    1978-09-01

    Rat ventral prostate contains an acidic protein which can bind spermine selectively. The relative binding affinities of various aliphatic amines for the protein are, in decreasing order, spermine greater than thermine greater than greater than putrecine greater than 1,10-diaminodecane, cadaverine and 1,12-diaminododecane. The binding protein has an isoelectric point at pH 4.3 and a sedimentation coefficient of 3 S. Its molecular weight is approx. 30 000. Histones and nuclear chromatin preparations of the prostate can interact with the binding protein. The spermine-binding activity of the purified prostate protein can be inactivated by treatment with intestinal alkaline phosphatases. The phosphatase treated preparation can then be reactivated by beef heart protein kinase in the presence of cyclic AMP and ATP. The spermine-binding activity of the prostate cytosol protein fraction decreases after castration, but increases very rapidly after the castrated rats are injected with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. This finding raises the possibility that, in the postate, certain androgen actions may be dependent on the androgen-induced increase in the acidic protein binding of polyamines and their translocation to a functional cellular site such as nuclear chromatin. In the prostate cytosol, spermine also binds to 4-S tRNAs and to a unique RNA which has a sedimentation coefficient of 1.5 S. PMID:28786

  11. Bone alkaline phosphatase in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, C; Banks, R E; Thompson, D; Forbes, M A; Cooper, E H; Bird, H

    1995-07-01

    A double monoclonal immunoradiometric assay specific for bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was used to determine whether the raised total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) often found in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is derived from bone or liver. Fifty-eight patients with RA were compared to 14 with AS and 14 with non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (NI). None had clinical liver disease and only one had a slightly elevated aspartate transaminase activity. Elevated BAP concentrations were found in seven patients (5 RA, 1 AS, 1 NI), only two of whom also had abnormal TAP. Abnormal TAP activities were found in only three patients (all RA). BAP did not correlate with disease activity in RA or AS. In contrast, TAP correlated with disease activity (assessed by plasma viscosity) in RA (P < 0.002) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) also correlated with plasma viscosity in RA (P < 0.01). Both TAP and BAP were significantly correlated with GGT in RA (P < 0.001 and P < 0.02, respectively). These findings are discussed, together with possible reasons for the conflicting nature of some of the observations. PMID:7486797

  12. Histone II-A stimulates glucose-6-phosphatase and reveals mannose-6-phosphatase activities without permeabilization of liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    St-Denis, J F; Annabi, B; Khoury, H; van de Werve, G

    1995-01-01

    The effect of histone II-A on glucose-6-phosphatase and mannose-6-phosphatase activities was investigated in relation to microsomal membrane permeability. It was found that glucose-6-phosphatase activity in histone II-A-pretreated liver microsomes was stimulated to the same extent as in detergent-permeabilized microsomes, and that the substrate specificity of the enzyme for glucose 6-phosphate was lost in histone II-A-pretreated microsomes, as [U-14C]glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis was inhibited by mannose 6-phosphate and [U-14C]mannose 6-phosphate hydrolysis was increased. The accumulation of [U-14C]glucose from [U-14C]glucose 6-phosphate into untreated microsomes was completely abolished in detergent-treated vesicles, but was increased in histone II-A-treated microsomes, accounting for the increased glucose-6-phosphatase activity, and demonstrating that the microsomal membrane was still intact. The stimulation of glucose-6-phosphatase and mannose-6-phosphatase activities by histone II-A was found to be reversed by EGTA. It is concluded that the effects of histone II-A on glucose-6-phosphatase and mannose-6-phosphatase are not caused by the permeabilization of the microsomal membrane. The measurement of mannose-6-phosphatase latency to evaluate the intactness of the vesicles is therefore inappropriate. PMID:7646448

  13. Phosphatase Specificity and Pathway Insulation in Signaling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Michael A.; Harrison, Brian; Deeds, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatases play an important role in cellular signaling networks by regulating the phosphorylation state of proteins. Phosphatases are classically considered to be promiscuous, acting on tens to hundreds of different substrates. We recently demonstrated that a shared phosphatase can couple the responses of two proteins to incoming signals, even if those two substrates are from otherwise isolated areas of the network. This finding raises a potential paradox: if phosphatases are indeed highly promiscuous, how do cells insulate themselves against unwanted crosstalk? Here, we use mathematical models to explore three possible insulation mechanisms. One approach involves evolving phosphatase KM values that are large enough to prevent saturation by the phosphatase’s substrates. Although this is an effective method for generating isolation, the phosphatase becomes a highly inefficient enzyme, which prevents the system from achieving switch-like responses and can result in slow response kinetics. We also explore the idea that substrate degradation can serve as an effective phosphatase. Assuming that degradation is unsaturatable, this mechanism could insulate substrates from crosstalk, but it would also preclude ultrasensitive responses and would require very high substrate turnover to achieve rapid dephosphorylation kinetics. Finally, we show that adaptor subunits, such as those found on phosphatases like PP2A, can provide effective insulation against phosphatase crosstalk, but only if their binding to substrates is uncoupled from their binding to the catalytic core. Analysis of the interaction network of PP2A’s adaptor domains reveals that although its adaptors may isolate subsets of targets from one another, there is still a strong potential for phosphatase crosstalk within those subsets. Understanding how phosphatase crosstalk and the insulation mechanisms described here impact the function and evolution of signaling networks represents a major challenge for

  14. Biogeochemical drivers of phosphatase activity in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Joana; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Although nitrogen has become a major concern for wetlands scientists dealing with eutrophication problems, phosphorous represents another key element, and consequently its biogeochemical cycling has a crucial role in eutrophication processes. Microbial communities are a central component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes on coastal systems, since most of the processes in sediments are microbial-mediated due to enzymatic action, including the mineralization of organic phosphorus carried out by acid phosphatase activity. In the present work, the authors investigate the biogeochemical sediment drivers that control phosphatase activities. Authors also aim to assess biogeochemical factors' influence on the enzyme-mediated phosphorous cycling processes in salt marshes. Plant rhizosediments and bare sediments were collected and biogeochemical features, including phosphatase activities, inorganic and organic phosphorus contents, humic acids content and pH, were assessed. Acid phosphatase was found to give the highest contribution for total phosphatase activity among the three pH-isoforms present in salt marsh sediments, favored by acid pH in colonized sediments. Humic acids also appear to have an important role inhibiting phosphatase activity. A clear relation of phosphatase activity and inorganic phosphorous was also found. The data presented reinforces the role of phosphatase in phosphorous cycling.

  15. Structural mechanisms of plant glucan phosphatases in starch metabolism.

    PubMed

    Meekins, David A; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gentry, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered class of enzymes that dephosphorylate starch and glycogen, thereby regulating energy metabolism. Plant genomes encode two glucan phosphatases, called Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) and Like Sex Four2 (LSF2), that regulate starch metabolism by selectively dephosphorylating glucose moieties within starch glucan chains. Recently, the structures of both SEX4 and LSF2 were determined, with and without phosphoglucan products bound, revealing the mechanism for their unique activities. This review explores the structural and enzymatic features of the plant glucan phosphatases, and outlines how they are uniquely adapted to perform their cellular functions. We outline the physical mechanisms used by SEX4 and LSF2 to interact with starch glucans: SEX4 binds glucan chains via a continuous glucan-binding platform comprising its dual-specificity phosphatase domain and carbohydrate-binding module, while LSF2 utilizes surface binding sites. SEX4 and LSF2 both contain a unique network of aromatic residues in their catalytic dual-specificity phosphatase domains that serve as glucan engagement platforms and are unique to the glucan phosphatases. We also discuss the phosphoglucan substrate specificities inherent to SEX4 and LSF2, and outline structural features within the active site that govern glucan orientation. This review defines the structural mechanism of the plant glucan phosphatases with respect to phosphatases, starch metabolism and protein-glucan interaction, thereby providing a framework for their application in both agricultural and industrial settings. PMID:26934589

  16. Radioautographic visualization and biochemical identification of O-phosphoserine- and O-phosphothreonine-containing phosphoproteins in mineralizing embryonic chick bone

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.J.; Sanzone, C.F.; Brickley-Parsons, D.; Glimcher, M.J.

    1984-03-01

    The authors injected NaH/sub 2//sup 33/PO/sub 4/ into normal 14-d-old embryonic chicks and examined the long bones by both radioautography and biochemical analyses from 10 to 240 min after the injection was completed. At 30 min, determination of the radiographic grain density revealed that /sup 33/P was concentrated principally in fibroblasts, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts. With time, there was a progressive increase in the density of silver grains located over both the osteogenic cells and the regions of uncalcified (osteoid) and calcified extracellular organic matrices. Biochemical analyses identified /sup 33/P-O-phosphoserine as the major /sup 33/P component in glutaraldehyde-treated whole demineralized bone tissue and in EDTA-soluble, nondiffusible proteins extracted from the bones, both at the same time periods that /sup 33/P-induced silver grains were visualized by radioautography. /sup 33/-P-O-phosphothreonine was also identified in experiments using a dosage of 10 mCi per embryo. The results provide the first combined direct biochemical and radioautographic identification that phosphoproteins are synthesized in bone and are located morphologically at the sites of mineralization. The data provide further evidence that phosphoproteins play a critical role in the biological calcification of vertebrate tissues.

  17. A rapid and simple 8-quinolinol-based fluorescent stain of phosphoproteins in polyacrylamide gel after electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain an easy and rapid protocol to visualize phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE, a fluorescent detection method named 8-Quinolinol (8-Q) stain is described. 8-Q can form ternary complexes in the gel matrix contributed by the affinity of aluminum ion (Al(3+) ) to the phosphate groups on the proteins and the metal chelating property of 8-Quinolinol, exhibiting strong fluorescence in ultraviolet light. It can visualize as little as 4∼8 ng of α-casein and β-casein, 16∼32 ng of ovalbumin and κ-casein which is more sensitive than Stains-All but less sensitive than Pro-Q Diamond. The protocol of 8-Q requires only 70 min in 0.75 mm mini-size or 1.0 mm large-size gels with five changes of solutions without destaining step; Pro-Q takes at least 250 min with 11 changes of solutions. In addition, the new method was confirmed by the study of dephosphorylation and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The approach to visualize phosphoprotein utilizing 8-Q could be an alternative to simplify the analytical operations for phosphoproteomics research. PMID:26177935

  18. Acid phosphatase deactivation by a series mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, L; Marrucci, G; Grizzuti, N; Greco, G

    1984-05-01

    Acid phosphatase (E.C.3.1.3.2.) thermal deactivation at pH 3.77 has been investigated by monitoring the enzyme activity as a function of time in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The experimental curves obtained show a two-slope behavior in a log (activity)versus-time plot, which indicates that deactivation occurs via a complex mechanism. From the dependence of the kinetic parameters on both deactivation and hydrolysis temperatures, it is inferred that the deactivation mechanism involves intermediate, temperature-dependent, less-active forms of the enzyme. This interpretation is confirmed by the results of additional tests in which the temperature was suddenly changed during the deactivation process. PMID:18553349

  19. Determination of liver microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zak, B; Epstein, E; Baginski, E S

    1977-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of liver microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase is described. Homogenization and ultracentrifrigation were used to prepare a precipitate whose character was defined by monitoring the desire enzyme activity which serves as a marker. Activity of the enzyme was determined by means of a sensitive colorimetric reaction for the product, inorganic phosphate. Non-enzymatic hydrolysis problems with the substrate are minimized in this procedure by the masking action of citrate. The final heteropoly blue color appears to be considerably sensitized by interaction of phosphomolybdous ion with arsenite. The stability of the relatively labile enzyme was ensured by chelating any metals present with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. The overall results obtained by the procedure appear to be useful as an aid in the diagnosis of Type I glycogenosis, a glycogen storage disease called Von Gierke's disease. PMID:192125

  20. Unique structural features of red kidney bean purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cashikar, A G; Rao, M N

    1995-06-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme is a homodimer of 60 kDa subunits each containing one atom of zinc and iron in the active site. Circular dichroism spectral studies on the purified enzyme reveals that a large portion of the peptide backbone is in the unordered and beta-turn conformation. A unique feature of the red kidney bean acid phosphatase, which we have found, is that one of the two cysteines of each subunit is involved in the formation of an inter-subunit disulphide. The thiol group of the other cysteine is not necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Western blot analysis with antibodies raised against kidney bean acid phosphatase could not recognize acid phosphatases from other sources except from potato. This paper emphasizes the fact that acid phosphatases are functionally, but not structurally, conserved enzymes. PMID:7590853

  1. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  2. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhongyuan; Do, Le Duy; Bechkoff, Géraldine; Mebarek, Saida; Keloglu, Nermin; Ahamada, Saandia; Meena, Saurabh; Magne, David; Pikula, Slawomir; Wu, Yuqing; Buchet, René

    2015-01-01

    A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes. PMID:25785438

  3. A Theileria parva type 1 protein phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Cayla, X; Garcia, A; Baumgartner, M; Ozon, R; Langsley, G

    2000-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Theileria (spp. parva and annulata) infects bovine leukocytes and provokes a leukaemia-like disease in vivo. In this study, we have detected a type 1 serine/threonine phosphatase activity with phosphorylase a as a substrate, in protein extracts of parasites purified from infected B lymphocytes. In contrast to this type 1 activity, dose response experiments with okadaic acid (OA), a well characterised inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, indicated that type 2A is the predominant activity detected in host B cells. Furthermore, consistent with polycation-specific activation of the type 2A phosphatase, protamine failed to activate the parasite-associated phosphorylase a phosphatase activity. Moreover, inhibition of phosphorylase a dephosphorylation by phospho-DARPP-32, a specific type 1 inhibitor, clearly demonstrated that a type 1 phosphatase is specifically associated with the parasite, while the type 2A is predominantly expressed in the host lymphocyte. Since an antibody against bovine catalytic protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) subunit only recognised the PP1 in B cells, but not in parasite extracts, we conclude that in parasites the PP1 activity is of parasitic origin. Intriguingly, since type 1 OA-sensitive phosphatase activity has been recently described in Plasmodium falciparum, we can conclude that these medically important parasites produce their one PP1. PMID:10989153

  4. Francisella DnaK Inhibits Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Chetty, Senthilnath Lakshmana; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Leonard, Sean; Klose, Karl; Seshu, Janakiram; Cap, Andrew; Valdes, James J.; Chambers, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Following pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis, we observed an unexpected but significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme normally up-regulated following inflammation. However, no reduction was observed in mice infected with a closely related Gram-negative pneumonic organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) suggesting the inhibition may be Francisella-specific. In similar fashion to in vivo observations, addition of Francisella lysate to exogenous alkaline phosphatase (tissue-nonspecific isozyme) was inhibitory. Partial purification and subsequent proteomic analysis indicated the inhibitory factor to be the heat shock protein DnaK. Incubation with increasing amounts of anti-DnaK antibody reduced the inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DnaK contains an adenosine triphosphate binding domain at its N terminus, and addition of adenosine triphosphate enhances dissociation of DnaK with its target protein, e.g. alkaline phosphatase. Addition of adenosine triphosphate resulted in decreased DnaK co-immunoprecipitated with alkaline phosphatase as well as reduction of Francisella-mediated alkaline phosphatase inhibition further supporting the binding of Francisella DnaK to alkaline phosphatase. Release of DnaK via secretion and/or bacterial cell lysis into the extracellular milieu and inhibition of plasma alkaline phosphatase could promote an orchestrated, inflammatory response advantageous to Francisella. PMID:22923614

  5. Crystal Structure of the Measles Virus Nucleoprotein Core in Complex with an N-Terminal Region of Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Guryanov, Sergey G.; Liljeroos, Lassi; Kasaragod, Prasad; Kajander, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus measles virus (MeV) is an important human pathogen. The nucleoprotein (N0) assembles with the viral RNA into helical ribonucleocapsids (NC) which are, in turn, coated by a helical layer of the matrix protein. The viral polymerase complex uses the NC as its template. The N0 assembly onto the NC and the activity of the polymerase are regulated by the viral phosphoprotein (P). In this study, we pulled down an N01-408 fragment lacking most of its C-terminal tail domain by several affinity-tagged, N-terminal P fragments to map the N0-binding region of P to the first 48 amino acids. We showed biochemically and using P mutants the importance of the hydrophobic interactions for the binding. We fused an N0 binding peptide, P1-48, to the C terminus of an N021-408 fragment lacking both the N-terminal peptide and the C-terminal tail of N protein to reconstitute and crystallize the N0-P complex. We solved the X-ray structure of the resulting N0-P chimeric protein at a resolution of 2.7 Å. The structure reveals the molecular details of the conserved N0-P interface and explains how P chaperones N0, preventing both self-assembly of N0 and its binding to RNA. Finally, we propose a model for a preinitiation complex for RNA polymerization. IMPORTANCE Measles virus is an important, highly contagious human pathogen. The nucleoprotein N binds only to viral genomic RNA and forms the helical ribonucleocapsid that serves as a template for viral replication. We address how N is regulated by another protein, the phosphoprotein (P), to prevent newly synthesized N from binding to cellular RNA. We describe the atomic model of an N-P complex and compare it to helical ribonucleocapsid. We thus provide insight into how P chaperones N and helps to start viral RNA synthesis. Our results provide a new insight into mechanisms of paramyxovirus replication. New data on the mechanisms of phosphoprotein chaperone action allows better understanding of

  6. The RCN1-encoded A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A increases phosphatase activity in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deruere, J.; Jackson, K.; Garbers, C.; Soll, D.; Delong, A.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a heterotrimeric serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, comprises a catalytic C subunit and two distinct regulatory subunits, A and B. The RCN1 gene encodes one of three A regulatory subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA insertion mutation at this locus impairs root curling, seedling organ elongation and apical hypocotyl hook formation. We have used in vivo and in vitro assays to gauge the impact of the rcn1 mutation on PP2A activity in seedlings. PP2A activity is decreased in extracts from rcn1 mutant seedlings, and this decrease is not due to a reduction in catalytic subunit expression. Roots of mutant seedlings exhibit increased sensitivity to the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and cantharidin in organ elongation assays. Shoots of dark-grown, but not light-grown seedlings also show increased inhibitor sensitivity. Furthermore, cantharidin treatment of wild-type seedlings mimics the rcn1 defect in root curling, root waving and hypocotyl hook formation assays. In roots of wild-type seedlings, RCN1 mRNA is expressed at high levels in root tips, and accumulates to lower levels in the pericycle and lateral root primordia. In shoots, RCN1 is expressed in the apical hook and the basal, rapidly elongating cells in etiolated hypocotyls, and in the shoot meristem and leaf primordia of light-grown seedlings. Our results show that the wild-type RCN1-encoded A subunit functions as a positive regulator of the PP2A holoenzyme, increasing activity towards substrates involved in organ elongation and differential cell elongation responses such as root curling.

  7. Structural Disorder within Paramyxoviral Nucleoproteins and Phosphoproteins in Their Free and Bound Forms: From Predictions to Experimental Assessment.

    PubMed

    Habchi, Johnny; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We herein review available computational and experimental data pointing to the abundance of structural disorder within the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) from three paramyxoviruses, namely the measles (MeV), Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses. We provide a detailed molecular description of the mechanisms governing the disorder-to-order transition that the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (NTAIL) of their N proteins undergoes upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (PXD) of the homologous P proteins. We also show that NTAIL-PXD complexes are "fuzzy", i.e., they possess a significant residual disorder, and discuss the possible functional significance of this fuzziness. Finally, we emphasize the relevance of N-P interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins as promising targets for new antiviral approaches, and end up summarizing the general functional advantages of disorder for viruses. PMID:26184170

  8. Structural Disorder within Paramyxoviral Nucleoproteins and Phosphoproteins in Their Free and Bound Forms: From Predictions to Experimental Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Habchi, Johnny; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We herein review available computational and experimental data pointing to the abundance of structural disorder within the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) from three paramyxoviruses, namely the measles (MeV), Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses. We provide a detailed molecular description of the mechanisms governing the disorder-to-order transition that the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (NTAIL) of their N proteins undergoes upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (PXD) of the homologous P proteins. We also show that NTAIL–PXD complexes are “fuzzy”, i.e., they possess a significant residual disorder, and discuss the possible functional significance of this fuzziness. Finally, we emphasize the relevance of N–P interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins as promising targets for new antiviral approaches, and end up summarizing the general functional advantages of disorder for viruses. PMID:26184170

  9. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  10. Phosphatase activity of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pácová, Z; Kocur, M

    1978-10-01

    1115 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were tested for phosphatase activity by a conventional plate method and a microtest. The microtest was devised to allow results to be read after 4 h cultivation. Phosphatase activity was found in wide range of species and strains. Besides staphylococci, where the test for phosphatase is successfully used, it may be applied as one of the valuable tests for the differentiation of the following species: Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, Aeromonas spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Actinobacillus spp., Pasteurella spp., Xanthomonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Alteromonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Ps. cepacia, and some other species of Pseudomonas. The species which gave uniformly negative phosphatase reaction were as follows: Staph. saprophyticus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. PMID:216188

  11. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  12. Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphotyrosyl Phosphatase Activator

    SciTech Connect

    Chao,Y.; Xing, Y.; Chen, Y.; Xu, Y.; Lin, Z.; Li, Z.; Jeffrey, P.; Stock, J.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator (PTPA), also known as PP2A phosphatase activator, is a conserved protein from yeast to human. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of human PTPA, which reveals a previously unreported fold consisting of three subdomains: core, lid, and linker. Structural analysis uncovers a highly conserved surface patch, which borders the three subdomains, and an associated deep pocket located between the core and the linker subdomains. The conserved surface patch and the deep pocket are responsible for binding to PP2A and ATP, respectively. PTPA and PP2A A-C dimer together constitute a composite ATPase. PTPA binding to PP2A results in a dramatic alteration of substrate specificity, with enhanced phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity and decreased phosphoserine phosphatase activity. This function of PTPA strictly depends on the composite ATPase activity. These observations reveal significant insights into the function and mechanism of PTPA and have important ramifications for understanding PP2A function.

  13. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activity Dependent Phospho-Protein Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Márk, Ágnes; Hajdu, Melinda; Kenessey, István; Sticz, Tamás; Nagy, Eszter; Barna, Gábor; Váradi, Zsófia; Kovács, Gábor; Kopper, László; Csóka, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Modern treatment strategies have improved the prognosis of childhood ALL; however, treatment still fails in 25–30% of patients. Further improvement of treatment may depend on the development of targeted therapies. mTOR kinase, a central mediator of several signaling pathways, has recently attracted remarkable attention as a potential target in pediatric ALL. However, limited data exists about the activity of mTOR. In the present study, the amount of mTOR activity dependent phospho-proteins was characterized by ELISA in human leukemia cell lines and in lymphoblasts from childhood ALL patients (n = 49). Expression was measured before and during chemotherapy and at relapses. Leukemia cell lines exhibited increased mTOR activity, indicated by phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6) and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein (p-4EBP1). Elevated p-4EBP1 protein levels were detected in ALL samples at diagnosis; efficacy of chemotherapy was followed by the decrease of mTOR activity dependent protein phosphorylation. Optical density (OD) for p-4EBP1 (ELISA) was significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis at diagnosis, and in the samples of relapsed patients. Our results suggest that measuring mTOR activity related phospho-proteins such as p-4EBP1 by ELISA may help to identify patients with poor prognosis before treatment, and to detect early relapses. Determining mTOR activity in leukemic cells may also be a useful tool for selecting patients who may benefit from future mTOR inhibitor treatments. PMID:23573198

  14. Fine Mapping and Characterization of the L-Polymerase-Binding Domain of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sourimant, Julien; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Gaillard, Anne-Laure; Chevret, Didier; Galloux, Marie; Gault, Elyanne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The minimum requirement for an active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a complex made of two viral proteins, the polymerase large protein (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). Here we have investigated the domain on P that is responsible for this critical P-L interaction. By use of recombinant proteins and serial deletions, an L binding site was mapped in the C-terminal region of P, just upstream of the N-RNA binding site. The role of this molecular recognition element of about 30 amino acid residues in the L-P interaction and RNA polymerase activity was evaluated in cellula using an RSV minigenome system and site-directed mutagenesis. The results highlighted the critical role of hydrophobic residues located in this region. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants. Since no vaccine and no good antivirals against RSV are available, it is essential to better understand how the viral machinery functions in order to develop new antiviral strategies. Like all negative-strand RNA viruses, RSV codes for its own machinery to replicate and transcribe its genome. The core of this machinery is composed of two proteins, the phosphoprotein (P) and the large protein (L). Here, using recombinant proteins, we have mapped and characterized the P domain responsible for this L-P interaction and the formation of an active L-P complex. These findings extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of RSV RNA polymerase and allow us to define a new target for the development of drugs against RSV. PMID:25653447

  15. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its...

  17. A Bioassay for Lafora Disease and Laforin Glucan Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Amanda R.; Johnson, Mary Beth; Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V.; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lafora disease is a rare yet invariably fatal form of progressive neurodegenerative epilepsy resulting from mutations in the phosphatase laforin. Several therapeutic options for Lafora disease patients are currently being explored, and these therapies would benefit from a biochemical means of assessing functional laforin activity following treatment. To date, only clinical outcomes such as decreases in seizure frequency and severity have been used to indicate success of epilepsy treatment. However, these qualitative measures exhibit variability and must be assessed over long periods of time. In this work, we detail a simple and sensitive bioassay that can be used for the detection of functional endogenous laforin from human and mouse tissue. Design and methods We generated antibodies capable of detecting and immunoprecipitating endogenous laforin. Following laforin immunoprecipitation, laforin activity was assessed via phosphatase assays using para-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) and a malachite green-based assay specific for glucan phosphatase activity. Results We found that antibody binding to laforin does not impede laforin activity. Furthermore, the malachite green-based glucan phosphatase assay used in conjunction with a rabbit polyclonal laforin antibody was capable of detecting endogenous laforin activity from human and mouse tissue. Importantly, this assay discriminated between laforin activity and other phosphatases. Conclusions The bioassay that we have developed utilizing laforin antibodies and an assay specific for glucan phosphatase activity could prove valuable in the rapid detection of functional laforin in patients to which novel Lafora disease therapies have been administered. PMID:24012855

  18. Protein phosphatase 1 is a key player in nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Martins, Filipa; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B

    2015-12-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation at serine (Ser), threonine (Thr) and tyrosine (Tyr) residues is among the major regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. The eukaryotic genome encodes many protein kinases and protein phosphatases. However, the localization, activity and specificity towards phosphatase substrates are dictated by a large array of phosphatase binding and regulatory subunits. For protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) more than 200 binding subunits have been described. The various PP1 isoforms and the binding subunits can be located throughout the cell, including in the nucleus. It follows that several nuclear specific PP1 binding proteins (PIPs) have been described and these will be discussed. Among them are PNUTS (phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit), NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of PP1) and CREB (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein), which have all been associated with transcription. In fact PP1 can associate with transcription factors fulfilling an important regulatory function, in this respect it can bind to Hox11, human factor C1 (HCF1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2). PP1 also regulates cell cycle progression and centrosome maturation and splitting, again by binding to specific regulatory proteins. Moreover, PP1 together with other protein phosphatases control the entry into mitosis by regulating the activity of mitotic kinases. Thus, PP1, its binding proteins and/or the phosphorylation states of both, directly control a vast array of cell nucleus associated functions, many of which are starting to be unraveled. PMID:26275498

  19. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a neutral phosphatase from wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    A neutral phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from wheat seedlings. The enzyme was a monomeric glycoprotein exhibiting a molecular weight of 35,000, frictional ratio of 1.22, Stokes' radius of 26 A, and sedimentation coefficient of 3.2 S. That the enzyme was a glycoprotein was surmised from its chromatographic property on Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The phosphatase activity was assayed using either fructose-2,6-bisphosphate or p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The phosphatase activity was not affected by high concentrations of chelating agents and did not require the addition of Mg{sup +2} or Ca{sup +2} for its activity. Molybdate, orthovanadate, Zn{sup +2}, and Hg{sup +2} were all potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity. The inhibition by Hg{sup +2} was reversed by dithiothreitol. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Mn{sup +2} about 2-fold. On the other hand, 3-phosphoglycerate, fructose-6-P and Pi as well as polyamines inhibited the enzyme activity. The ability of the neutral phosphatase to dephosphorylate protein phosphotyrosine was also investigated. The phosphotyrosyl-substrates, such as ({sup 32}P) phosphotyrosyl-poly(Glu, Tyr)n, -alkylated bovine serum albumin, -angiotensin-1, and -band 3 of erythrocytes, were all substrates of the phosphatase. On the other hand, the enzyme had no activity toward protein phosphoserine and protein phosphothreonine.

  1. Unique carbohydrate binding platforms employed by the glucan phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Emanuelle, Shane; Brewer, M Kathryn; Meekins, David A; Gentry, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a family of enzymes that are functionally conserved at the enzymatic level in animals and plants. These enzymes bind and dephosphorylate glycogen in animals and starch in plants. While the enzymatic function is conserved, the glucan phosphatases employ distinct mechanisms to bind and dephosphorylate glycogen or starch. The founding member of the family is a bimodular human protein called laforin that is comprised of a carbohydrate binding module 20 (CBM20) followed by a dual specificity phosphatase domain. Plants contain two glucan phosphatases: Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) and Like Sex Four2 (LSF2). SEX4 contains a chloroplast targeting peptide, dual specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain, a CBM45, and a carboxy-terminal motif. LSF2 is comprised of simply a chloroplast targeting peptide, DSP domain, and carboxy-terminal motif. SEX4 employs an integrated DSP-CBM glucan-binding platform to engage and dephosphorylate starch. LSF2 lacks a CBM and instead utilizes two surface binding sites to bind and dephosphorylate starch. Laforin is a dimeric protein in solution and it utilizes a tetramodular architecture and cooperativity to bind and dephosphorylate glycogen. This chapter describes the biological role of glucan phosphatases in glycogen and starch metabolism and compares and contrasts their ability to bind and dephosphorylate glucans. PMID:27147465

  2. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at pH 9.0].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2007-01-01

    In the free-living amoeba Amoeba proteus (strain B), after PAAG disk-electrophoresis of the homogenate supernatant, at using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate and pH 9.0, three forms of phosphatase activity were revealed; they were arbitrarily called "fast", "intermediate", and "slow" phosphatases. The fast phosphatase has been established to be a fraction of lysosomal acid phosphatase that preserves some low activity at alkaline pH. The question as to which particular class the intermediate phosphatase belongs to has remained unanswered: it can be both acid phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Based on data of inhibitor analysis, large substrate specificity, results of experiments with reactivation by Zn ions after inactivation with EDTA, other than in the fast and intermediate phosphatases localization in the amoeba cell, it is concluded that only slow phosphatase can be classified as alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1). PMID:17933343

  3. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo 32P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1α. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1α phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1α phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras. PMID:10811615

  4. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR promotes R7 photoreceptor axon targeting by a phosphatase-independent signaling mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2009-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) control many aspects of nervous system development. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), regulation of synapse growth and maturation by the RPTP LAR depends on catalytic phosphatase activity and on the extracellular ligands Syndecan and Dally-like. We show here that the function of LAR in controlling R7 photoreceptor axon targeting in the visual system differs in several respects. The extracellular domain of LAR important for this process is distinct from the domains known to bind Syndecan and Dally-like, suggesting the involvement of a different ligand. R7 targeting does not require LAR phosphatase activity, but instead depends on the phosphatase activity of another RPTP, PTP69D. In addition, a mutation that prevents dimerization of the intracellular domain of LAR interferes with its ability to promote R7 targeting, although it does not disrupt phosphatase activity or neuromuscular synapse growth. We propose that LAR function in R7 is independent of its phosphatase activity, but requires structural features that allow dimerization and may promote the assembly of downstream effectors. PMID:19889974

  5. Cellular phosphatases facilitate combinatorial processing of receptor-activated signals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Dua, Raina; Srikanth, Ravichandran; Jayaswal, Shilpi; Siddiqui, Zaved; Rao, Kanury VS

    2008-01-01

    Background Although reciprocal regulation of protein phosphorylation represents a key aspect of signal transduction, a larger perspective on how these various interactions integrate to contribute towards signal processing is presently unclear. For example, a key unanswered question is that of how phosphatase-mediated regulation of phosphorylation at the individual nodes of the signaling network translates into modulation of the net signal output and, thereby, the cellular phenotypic response. Results To address the above question we, in the present study, examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. Results from such experiments revealed a highly enmeshed structure for the signaling network where each signaling node was linked to multiple phosphatases on the one hand, and each phosphatase to several nodes on the other. This resulted in a configuration where individual signaling intermediates could be influenced by a spectrum of regulatory phosphatases, but with the composition of the spectrum differing from one intermediate to another. Consequently, each node differentially experienced perturbations in phosphatase activity, yielding a unique fingerprint of nodal signals characteristic to that perturbation. This heterogeneity in nodal experiences, to a given perturbation, led to combinatorial manipulation of the corresponding signaling axes for the downstream transcription factors. Conclusion Our cumulative results reveal that it is the tight integration of phosphatases into the signaling network that provides the plasticity by which perturbation-specific information can be transmitted in the form of a multivariate output to the downstream transcription factor network. This output in turn specifies a context-defined response, when translated into the resulting gene expression profile. PMID:18798986

  6. An Intriguing Shift Occurs in the Novel Protein Phosphatase 1 Binding Partner, TCTEX1D4: Evidence of Positive Selection in a Pika Model

    PubMed Central

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Margarida Lopes, Ana; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Afonso, Sandra; Lemos de Matos, Ana; Lissovsky, Andrey A.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Esteves, Pedro José; Fardilha, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) contains the canonical phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) binding motif, composed by the amino acid sequence RVSF. We identified and validated the binding of TCTEX1D4 to PPP1 and demonstrated that indeed this protein is a novel PPP1 interacting protein. Analyses of twenty-one mammalian species available in public databases and seven Lagomorpha sequences obtained in this work showed that the PPP1 binding motif 90RVSF93 is present in all of them and is flanked by a palindromic sequence, PLGS, except in three species of pikas (Ochotona princeps, O. dauurica and O. pusilla). Furthermore, for the Ochotona species an extra glycosylation site, motif 96NLS98, and the loss of the palindromic sequence were observed. Comparison with other lagomorphs suggests that this event happened before the Ochotona radiation. The dN/dS for the sequence region comprising the PPP1 binding motif and the flanking palindrome highly supports the hypothesis that for Ochotona species this region has been evolving under positive selection. In addition, mutational screening shows that the ability of pikas TCTEX1D4 to bind to PPP1 is maintained, although the PPP1 binding motif is disrupted, and the N- and C-terminal surrounding residues are also abrogated. These observations suggest pika as an ideal model to study novel PPP1 complexes regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24130861

  7. Glycerol-3-phosphatase of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Steffen N; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Panhorst, Maren; Youn, Jung-Won; Wiefel, Lars; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-06-15

    Formation of glycerol as by-product of amino acid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum has been observed under certain conditions, but the enzyme(s) involved in its synthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate were not known. It was shown here that cg1700 encodes an enzyme active as a glycerol-3-phosphatase (GPP) hydrolyzing glycerol-3-phosphate to inorganic phosphate and glycerol. GPP was found to be active as a homodimer. The enzyme preferred conditions of neutral pH and requires Mg²⁺ or Mn²⁺ for its activity. GPP dephosphorylated both L- and D-glycerol-3-phosphate with a preference for the D-enantiomer. The maximal activity of GPP was estimated to be 31.1 and 1.7 U mg⁻¹ with K(M) values of 3.8 and 2.9 mM for DL- and L-glycerol-3-phosphate, respectively. For physiological analysis a gpp deletion mutant was constructed and shown to lack the ability to produce detectable glycerol concentrations. Vice versa, gpp overexpression increased glycerol accumulation during growth in fructose minimal medium. It has been demonstrated previously that intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate is growth inhibitory as shown for a recombinant C. glutamicum strain overproducing glycerokinase and glycerol facilitator genes from E. coli in media containing glycerol. In this strain, overexpression of gpp restored growth in the presence of glycerol as intracellular glycerol-3-phosphate concentrations were reduced to wild-type levels. In C. glutamicum wild type, GPP was shown to be involved in utilization of DL-glycerol-3-phosphate as source of phosphorus, since growth with DL-glycerol-3-phosphate as sole phosphorus source was reduced in the gpp deletion strain whereas it was accelerated upon gpp overexpression. As GPP homologues were found to be encoded in the genomes of many other bacteria, the gpp homologues of Escherichia coli (b2293) and Bacillus subtilis (BSU09240, BSU34970) as well as gpp1 from the plant Arabidosis thaliana were overexpressed in E. coli MG1655 and

  8. Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B56α limits phosphatase activity in the heart.

    PubMed

    Little, Sean C; Curran, Jerry; Makara, Michael A; Kline, Crystal F; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Xu, Zhaobin; Wu, Xiangqiong; Polina, Iuliia; Musa, Hassan; Meadows, Allison M; Carnes, Cynthia A; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Davis, Jonathan P; Weisleder, Noah; Györke, Sandor; Wehrens, Xander H; Hund, Thomas J; Mohler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-selective holoenzyme composed of a catalytic, scaffolding, and regulatory subunit. In the heart, PP2A activity is requisite for cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and central in adrenergic signaling. We found that mice deficient in the PP2A regulatory subunit B56α (1 of 13 regulatory subunits) had altered PP2A signaling in the heart that was associated with changes in cardiac physiology, suggesting that the B56α regulatory subunit had an autoinhibitory role that suppressed excess PP2A activity. The increase in PP2A activity in the mice with reduced B56α expression resulted in slower heart rates and increased heart rate variability, conduction defects, and increased sensitivity of heart rate to parasympathetic agonists. Increased PP2A activity in B56α(+/-) myocytes resulted in reduced Ca(2+) waves and sparks, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation (and thus decreased activation) of the ryanodine receptor RyR2, an ion channel on intracellular membranes that is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in cardiomyocytes. In line with an autoinhibitory role for B56α, in vivo expression of B56α in the absence of altered abundance of other PP2A subunits decreased basal phosphatase activity. Consequently, in vivo expression of B56α suppressed parasympathetic regulation of heart rate and increased RyR2 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. These data show that an integral component of the PP2A holoenzyme has an important inhibitory role in controlling PP2A enzyme activity in the heart. PMID:26198358

  9. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibe, M.; Rosier, R.N.; Puzas, J.E. )

    1991-10-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor.

  10. Ultraviolet light-induced crosslinking of two major phosphoproteins and poly(A)+RNA from free polyribosomes; changes in phosphorylation by inhibitors of transcription and translation

    SciTech Connect

    Schweiger, A.; Kostka, G.; Weiss, E.

    1986-04-14

    Polyribosomes were isolated without the use of detergents, irradiated with ultraviolet light and labelled in the presence of (gamma-/sup 32/P) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Poly(A)+RNA-protein structures separated by chromatography on oligo (dT)-cellulose contained up to 1o crosslinked proteins as shown by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These included a 71 kDa poly(A)-bound species and two major phosphoproteins of 66 and 13o kDa. Pretreatment of rats with inhibitors of transcription and translation caused different and significant alterations in the labelling of the two phosphoproteins, suggesting that phosphorylation of proteins closely associated with mRNA may be involved in the regulation of the stability of this RNA or its binding to structural elements in the cell.

  11. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  12. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer. PMID:26916021

  13. Phosphotyrosine Substrate Sequence Motifs for Dual Specificity Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bryan M.; Keasey, Sarah L.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Lountos, George T.; Dyas, Beverly K.; Cherry, Scott; Raran-Kurussi, Sreejith; Waugh, David S.; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of proteins, whereas, dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a subgroup of protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate not only Tyr(P) residue, but also the Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues of proteins. The DUSPs are linked to the regulation of many cellular functions and signaling pathways. Though many cellular targets of DUSPs are known, the relationship between catalytic activity and substrate specificity is poorly defined. We investigated the interactions of peptide substrates with select DUSPs of four types: MAP kinases (DUSP1 and DUSP7), atypical (DUSP3, DUSP14, DUSP22 and DUSP27), viral (variola VH1), and Cdc25 (A-C). Phosphatase recognition sites were experimentally determined by measuring dephosphorylation of 6,218 microarrayed Tyr(P) peptides representing confirmed and theoretical phosphorylation motifs from the cellular proteome. A broad continuum of dephosphorylation was observed across the microarrayed peptide substrates for all phosphatases, suggesting a complex relationship between substrate sequence recognition and optimal activity. Further analysis of peptide dephosphorylation by hierarchical clustering indicated that DUSPs could be organized by substrate sequence motifs, and peptide-specificities by phylogenetic relationships among the catalytic domains. The most highly dephosphorylated peptides represented proteins from 29 cell-signaling pathways, greatly expanding the list of potential targets of DUSPs. These newly identified DUSP substrates will be important for examining structure-activity relationships with physiologically relevant targets. PMID:26302245

  14. Proteomic Alterations in Heat Shock Protein 27 and Identification of Phosphoproteins in Ascending Aortic Aneurysm Associated with Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Peter; Fu, Zongming; Carrel, Thierry; Huso, David L.; Dirnhofer, Stefan; Lefkovits, Ivan; Zerkowski, Hans-Reinhard; Van Eyk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Whether or not there are molecular differences, at the intra- and extracellular level, between aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid (BAV) and those with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) has remained controversial for years. We have performed 2-dimensional gelelectrophoresis and mass spectrometry coupled with dephosphorylation and phosphostaining experiments to reveal and define protein alterations and the high abundant structural phosphoproteins in BAV compared to TAV aortic aneurysm samples. 2-D gel patterns showed a high correlation in protein expression between BAV and TAV specimens (n=10). Few proteins showed significant differences, among those a phosphorylated form of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 with significantly lower expression in BAV compared to TAV aortic samples (p=0.02). The phosphoprotein tracing revealed four different phosphoproteins including Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, calponin 3, myosin regulatory light chain 2 and four differentially phosphorylated forms of HSP27. Levels of total HSP27 and dually phosphorylated HSP27 (S78/S82) were investigated in an extended patient cohort (n=15) using ELISA. Total HSP27 was significantly lower in BAV compared to TAV patients (p=0.03), with no correlation in levels of phospho-HSP27 (S78/S82) (p=0.4). Western blots analysis showed a trend towards lower levels of phospho-HSP27 (S78) in BAV patients (p=0.07). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that differences in HSP27 occur in the cytoplasma of VSMC’s and not extracellularly. Alterations in HSP27 may give early evidence for intracellular differences in aortic aneurysm of patients with BAV and TAV. Whether HSP27 and the defined phosphoproteins have a specific role in BAV associated aortic dilatation remains to be elucidated. PMID:17949744

  15. Identification and Characterization of the Binding Site of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Phosphoprotein to RNA-Free Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Galloux, Marie; Gabiane, Gaëlle; Sourimant, Julien; Richard, Charles-Adrien; England, Patrick; Moudjou, Mohammed; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Fix, Jenna; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA genome of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is constitutively encapsidated by the viral nucleoprotein N, thus forming a helical nucleocapsid. Polymerization of N along the genomic and antigenomic RNAs is concomitant to replication and requires the preservation of an unassembled monomeric nucleoprotein pool. To this end, and by analogy with Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae, it is expected that the viral phosphoprotein P acts as a chaperone protein, forming a soluble complex with the RNA-free form of N (N0-P complex). Here, we have engineered a mutant form of N that is monomeric, is unable to bind RNA, still interacts with P, and could thus mimic the N0 monomer. We used this N mutant, designated Nmono, as a substitute for N0 in order to characterize the P regions involved in the N0-P complex formation. Using a series of P fragments, we determined by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays that the N and C termini of P are able to interact with Nmono. We analyzed the functional role of amino-terminal residues of P by site-directed mutagenesis, using an RSV polymerase activity assay based on a human RSV minireplicon, and found that several residues were critical for viral RNA synthesis. Using GST pulldown and surface plasmon resonance assays, we showed that these critical residues are involved in the interaction between P[1-40] peptide and Nmono in vitro. Finally, we showed that overexpression of the peptide P[1-29] can inhibit the polymerase activity in the context of the RSV minireplicon, thus demonstrating that targeting the N0-P interaction could constitute a potential antiviral strategy. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants. Since no vaccine or efficient antiviral treatment is available against RSV, it is essential to better understand how the viral machinery functions in order to develop new antiviral strategies. RSV phosphoprotein P, the main RNA polymerase

  16. A novel phosphoprotein analysis scheme for assessing changes in premalignant and malignant breast cell lines using 2D liquid separations, protein microarrays and tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Patwa, Tasneem H.; Wang, Yanfei; Miller, Fred R.; Goodison, Steve; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Barder, Timothy J.; Lubman, David M.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of phosphorylation changes that occur during cancer progression would provide insights into the molecular pathways responsible for a malignant phenotype. In this study we employed a novel coupling of 2D-liquid separations and protein microarray technology to reveal changes in phosphoprotein status between premalignant (AT1) and malignant (CA1a) cell lines derived from the human MCF10A breast cell lines. Intact proteins were first separated according to their isoelectric point and hydrophobicities, then arrayed on SuperAmine glass slides. Phosphoproteins were detected using the universal, inorganic phospho-sensor dye, ProQ Diamond. Using this dye, out of 140 spots that were positive for phosphorylation, a total of 85 differentially expressed spots were detected over a pH range of 7.2 to 4.0. Proteins were identified and their peptides sequenced by mass spectrometry. The strategy enabled the identification of 75 differentially expressed phosphoproteins, from which 51 phosphorylation sites in 27 unique proteins were confirmed. Interestingly, the majority of differentially expressed phosphorylated proteins observed were nuclear proteins. Three regulators of apoptosis, Bad, Bax and Acinus, were also differentially phosphorylated in the two cell lines. Further development of this strategy will facilitate an understanding of the mechanisms involved in malignancy progression and other disease-related phenotypes. PMID:19194518

  17. Identification of phosphoproteins in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using polyethylene glycol fractionation, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Uma K; Krochko, Joan E; Ross, Andrew R S

    2012-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism in cells. Identification and characterization of phosphoproteins requires specialized enrichment methods, due to the relatively low abundance of these proteins, and is further complicated in plants by the high abundance of Rubisco in green tissues. We present a novel method for plant phosphoproteome analysis that depletes Rubisco using polyethylene glycol fractionation and utilizes immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography to enrich phosphoproteins. Subsequent protein separation by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is further improved by extracting the PEG-fractionated protein samples with SDS/phenol and methanol/chloroform to remove interfering compounds. Using this approach, we identified 132 phosphorylated proteins in a partial Arabidopsis leaf extract. These proteins are involved in a range of biological processes, including CO(2) fixation, protein assembly and folding, stress response, redox regulation, and cellular metabolism. Both large and small subunits of Rubisco were phosphorylated at multiple sites, and depletion of Rubisco enhanced detection of less abundant phosphoproteins, including those associated with state transitions between photosystems I and II. The discovery of a phosphorylated form of AtGRP7, a self-regulating RNA-binding protein that affects floral transition, as well as several previously uncharacterized ribosomal proteins confirm the utility of this approach for phosphoproteome analysis and its potential to increase our understanding of growth and development in plants. PMID:22092075

  18. [Interaction of two tumor suppressors: Phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb protein].

    PubMed

    Beniaminov, A D; Krasnov, G S; Dmitriev, A A; Puzanov, G A; Snopok, B A; Senchenko, V N; Kashuba, V I

    2016-01-01

    Earlier we established that CTDSPL gene encoding small carboxy-terminal domain serine phosphatase can be considered a classical tumor suppressor gene. Besides, transfection of tumor cell line MCF-7 with CTDSPL led to the content decrease of inactive phosphorylated form of another tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), and subsequently to cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary. This result implied that small phosphatase CTDSPL is able to specifically dephosphorylate and activate Rb protein. In order to add some fuel to this hypothesis, in the present work we studied the interaction of two tumor suppressors CTDSPL and Rb in vitro. GST pool-down assay revealed that CTDSPL is able to precipitate Rb protein from MCF-7 cell extracts, while surface plasmon resonance technique showed that interaction of the two proteins is direct. Results of this study reassert that phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb could be involved in the common mechanism of cell cycle regulation. PMID:27414789

  19. Characterization of the PEST family protein tyrosine phosphatase BDP1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y W; Wang, H; Sures, I; Lammers, R; Martell, K J; Ullrich, A

    1996-11-21

    Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification strategy, we identified a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) designated Brain Derived Phosphatase (BDP1). The full length sequence encoded an open reading frame of 459 amino acids with no transmembrane domain and had a calculated molecular weight of 50 kDa. The predicted amino acid sequence contained a PEST motif and accordingly, BDP1 shared the greatest homology with members of the PTP-PEST family. When transiently expressed in 293 cells BDP1 hydrolyzed p-Nitrophenylphosphate, confirming it as a functional protein tyrosine phosphatase. Northern blot analysis indicated that BDP1 was expressed not only in brain, but also in colon and several different tumor-derived cell lines. Furthermore, BDP1 was found to differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases which are known to be overexpressed in tumor tissues. PMID:8950995

  20. Structural Basis of Response Regulator Dephosphorylation by Rap Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    V Parashar; N Mirouze; D Dubnau; M Neiditch

    2011-12-31

    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic 'switch' residue to an internal position when the {beta}4-{alpha}4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  1. Genetic alterations of protein tyrosine phosphatases in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuliang; Sedwick, David; Wang, Zhenghe

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that remove phosphate from tyrosine residues in proteins. Recent whole-exome sequencing of human cancer genomes reveals that many PTPs are frequently mutated in a variety of cancers. Among these mutated PTPs, protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) appears to be the most frequently mutated PTP in human cancers. Beside PTPN11 which functions as an oncogene in leukemia, genetic and functional studies indicate that most of mutant PTPs are tumor suppressor genes. Identification of the substrates and corresponding kinases of the mutant PTPs may provide novel therapeutic targets for cancers harboring these mutant PTPs. PMID:25263441

  2. Bacterial Expression and HTS Assessment of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Klingler, Franca-Maria; Wolf, Markus; Wittmann, Sandra; Gribbon, Philip; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2016-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses an epoxide hydrolase and lipid phosphatase activity (sEH-P) at two distinct catalytic domains. While the physiological role of the epoxide hydrolase domain is well understood, the consequences of the phosphatase activity remain unclear. Herein we describe the bacterial expression of the recombinant N-terminal domain of sEH-P and the development of a high-throughput screening protocol using a sensitive and commercially available substrate fluorescein diphosphate. The usability of the assay system was demonstrated and novel inhibitors of sEH-P were identified. PMID:27009944

  3. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  4. Depsidones from Lichens as Natural Product Inhibitors of M-Phase Phosphoprotein 1, a Human Kinesin Required for Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, Sandeep K; Rath, Oliver; Clayton, Eddie; Tomasi, Sophie; Kozielski, Frank

    2016-06-24

    M-Phase Phosphoprotein 1 (MPP1), a microtubule plus end directed kinesin, is required for the completion of cytokinesis. Previous studies have shown that MPP1 is upregulated in various types of bladder cancer. This article describes inhibitor screening leading to the identification of a new class of natural product inhibitors of MPP1. Two compounds with structural similarity, norlobaridone (1) and physodic acid (2), were found to inhibit MPP1. Physodic acid is not competitive with ATP, indicating the presence of an allosteric inhibitor-binding pocket. Initial drug-like property screening indicates that physodic acid is more soluble than norlobaridone and has more favorable lipophilicity. However, both suffer from high clearance in human microsomal stability assays mediated by the lability of the lactone ring as well as hydroxylation of the alkyl chains as shown by metabolite identification studies. In cell-based assays physodic acid is a weak inhibitor with EC50 values of about 30 μM in a range of tumor cell lines. The two depsidones identified and characterized here could be used for future improvement of their activity against MPP1 and will be useful chemical probes for studying this unique molecular motor in more depth. PMID:27300079

  5. The co-chaperone Cdc37 regulates the rabies virus phosphoprotein stability by targeting to Hsp90AA1 machinery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunbin; Liu, Fei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Dandan; Yan, Yan; Ji, Senlin; Zan, Jie; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Cdc37, as a kinase-specific co-chaperone of the chaperone Hsp90AA1 (Hsp90), actively aids with the maturation, stabilization and activation of the cellular or viral kinase/kinase-like targets. Phosphoprotein (P) of rabies virus (RABV) is a multifunctional, non-kinase protein involved in interferon antagonism, viral transcription and replication. Here, we demonstrated that the RABV non-kinase P is chaperoned by Cdc37 and Hsp90 during infection. We found that Cdc37 and Hsp90 affect the RABV life cycle directly. Activity inhibition and knockdown of Cdc37 and Hsp90 increased the instability of the viral P protein. Overexpression of Cdc37 and Hsp90 maintained P's stability but did not increase the yield of infectious RABV virions. We further demonstrated that the non-enzymatic polymerase cofactor P protein of all the genotypes of lyssaviruses is a target of the Cdc37/Hsp90 complex. Cdc37, phosphorylated or unphosphorylated on Ser13, aids the P protein to load onto the Hsp90 machinery, with or without Cdc37 binding to Hsp90. However, the interaction between Cdc37 and Hsp90 appears to have additional allosteric regulation of the conformational switch of Hsp90. Our study highlighted a novel mechanism in which Cdc37/Hsp90 chaperones a non-kinase target, which has significant implications for designing therapeutic targets against Rabies. PMID:27251758

  6. Potential of liquid-isoelectric-focusing protein fractionation to improve phosphoprotein characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Tassadit; Jarnier, Frédérique; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Hardouin, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine is known to be involved in a wide variety of cellular processes and signal transduction in bacteria. Bacterial-proteome analysis is required to determine which proteins have been conditionally expressed and whether any post-translational modifications are present. One of the greatest challenges of proteome analysis is the fractionation of these complex protein mixtures to detect low-abundance phosphoproteins. Liquid-phase isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a promising analytical tool in proteomics, but as far as we are aware no work has studied the reproducibility of this approach. In this study, we investigated the phosphoproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14. We first tested in-solution IEF protein fractionation, and then used this technique to fractionate the proteins in the complex mixture. Next, phosphopeptides were enriched with titanium dioxide and analyzed by high-resolution, high-accuracy liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. With this approach, we succeeded in characterizing 73 unique phosphorylated peptides belonging to 63 proteins. Interestingly, we observed a higher percentage of modified tyrosine, revealing the importance of this phosphorylated residue in bacteria. PMID:25096199

  7. The co-chaperone Cdc37 regulates the rabies virus phosphoprotein stability by targeting to Hsp90AA1 machinery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunbin; Liu, Fei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Dandan; Yan, Yan; Ji, Senlin; Zan, Jie; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Cdc37, as a kinase-specific co-chaperone of the chaperone Hsp90AA1 (Hsp90), actively aids with the maturation, stabilization and activation of the cellular or viral kinase/kinase-like targets. Phosphoprotein (P) of rabies virus (RABV) is a multifunctional, non-kinase protein involved in interferon antagonism, viral transcription and replication. Here, we demonstrated that the RABV non-kinase P is chaperoned by Cdc37 and Hsp90 during infection. We found that Cdc37 and Hsp90 affect the RABV life cycle directly. Activity inhibition and knockdown of Cdc37 and Hsp90 increased the instability of the viral P protein. Overexpression of Cdc37 and Hsp90 maintained P’s stability but did not increase the yield of infectious RABV virions. We further demonstrated that the non-enzymatic polymerase cofactor P protein of all the genotypes of lyssaviruses is a target of the Cdc37/Hsp90 complex. Cdc37, phosphorylated or unphosphorylated on Ser13, aids the P protein to load onto the Hsp90 machinery, with or without Cdc37 binding to Hsp90. However, the interaction between Cdc37 and Hsp90 appears to have additional allosteric regulation of the conformational switch of Hsp90. Our study highlighted a novel mechanism in which Cdc37/Hsp90 chaperones a non-kinase target, which has significant implications for designing therapeutic targets against Rabies. PMID:27251758

  8. Phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) by the anti-platelet drug, cilostazol, in platelets.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Toshiki; Ito, Hideki; Kimura, Yukio

    2003-09-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a regulator of actin dynamics in platelets and a common substrate of both cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA and PKG). Elevations of the cAMP and cGMP concentration have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation. Intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP are regulated by the synthesizing system of adenylate cyclases, and hydrolysis by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). The present study examined the effect of the anti-platelet drug, cilostazol, which inhibits PDE3 activity, on VASP phosphorylation in platelets. VASP phosphorylation was examined by immunoblotting with an anti-VASP antibody, M4, and an anti-phospho-VASP antibody, 16C2. Cilostazol phosphorylated VASP at both Ser157 and Ser239 in a concentration-dependent manner, but EHNA (PDE2 inhibitor), dipyridamole and zaprinast (PDE5 inhibitors) did not. Forskolin (adenylate cyclase activator) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) resulted in the VASP phosphorylation, with increase in the cAMP and cGMP level, respectively. Cilostazol increased cAMP, but not cGMP levels, in platelets. EHNA, zaprinast and dipyridamole, had no effect on cAMP and cGMP levels. The PKA/PKG inhibitor, H-89, inhibited VASP phosphorylation by cilostazol. These results demonstrated that cilostazol phosphorylates VASP through the PDE3 inhibition, increase of cAMP level, and PKA activation in platelets. PMID:14602552

  9. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  10. Cloning of the VASP (Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein) genes in human and mouse: Structure, sequence, and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.; Fischer, L.; Hauser, W.

    1996-09-01

    The genes encoding the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in human and mouse were isolated, and major parts were sequenced. In both species the gene is composed of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron positions. The mouse VASP cDNA sequence was deduced from the genomic sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence is 89% identical to the human protein. The high nucleotide sequence homology extends not only over the coding regions but also into the 3{prime}-UTRs, indicating a possible function in mRNA targeting or regulation of translation. Prominent 5{prime} CpG islands including multiple SP1 sites indicate a housekeeping function of VASP. Using cosmid DNA as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization, the human VASP gene was assigned to chromosome 19q13.2-q13.3, an extended region with homology to mouse chromosome 7. A sequence overlap of the VASP 5{prime}-region with the telomeric end of a cosmid contig physically links the VASP gene with ERCC1. VASP is located about 92 kb distal to ERCC1 and about 300 kb proximal to the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Effects of thyrotropin on the phosphorylation of histones and nonhistone phosphoproteins in micrococcal nuclease-sensitive and resistant thyroid chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.; Spaulding, S.W.

    1983-05-01

    Actively transcribed regions of chromatin are more susceptible than bulk chromatin to digestion by nucleases, and useful information about the composition and structure of active chromatin may be obtained by studying the chromatin fragments released from nuclei by limited nuclease digestion. In the present study, we have used micrococcal nuclease to investigate the effects of TSH on protein phosphorylation in nuclease-sensitive fractions of calf thyroid chromatin. Batches of calf thyroid slices were incubated for 2 h with /sup 32/Pi, with or without 50 mU/ml TSH. Nuclei were then prepared and the distribution of /sup 32/P-labeled histones, high mobility group (HMG) proteins, and other acid-soluble phosphoproteins between micrococcal nuclease-sensitive and resistant fractions of chromatin was examined. TSH increased the amount of /sup 32/P incorporated into HMG 14 and the histones H1 and H3. Hormone-dependent increases in the /sup 32/P-labeling of H1 and H3 were not selectively associated with micrococcal nuclease-sensitive chromatin. In contrast, (/sup 32/P) HMG-14 was preferentially solubilized from nuclei by micrococcal nuclease. This lends support to the view that TSH-induced effects on the structure and function of transcriptionally active chromatin may be mediated in part by phosphorylation of HMG 14.

  12. Insights into the coiled-coil organization of the Hendra virus phosphoprotein from combined biochemical and SAXS studies.

    PubMed

    Beltrandi, Matilde; Blocquel, David; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Cavalli, Andrea; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-03-01

    Nipah and Hendra viruses are recently emerged paramyxoviruses belonging to the Henipavirus genus. The Henipavirus phosphoprotein (P) consists of a large intrinsically disordered domain and a C-terminal domain (PCT) containing alternating disordered and ordered regions. Among these latter is the P multimerization domain (PMD). Using biochemical, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies, we show that Hendra virus (HeV) PMD forms an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer in solution, in agreement with our previous findings on Nipah virus (NiV) PMD. However, the orientation of the N-terminal region differs from that observed in solution for NiV PMD, consistent with the ability of this region to adopt different conformations. SAXS studies provided evidence for a trimeric organization also in the case of PCT, thus extending and strengthening our findings on PMD. The present results are discussed in light of conflicting reports in the literature pointing to a tetrameric organization of paramyxoviral P proteins. PMID:25637789

  13. The non-pathogenic Henipavirus Cedar paramyxovirus phosphoprotein has a compromised ability to target STAT1 and STAT2.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Kim G; Marsh, Glenn A; Wang, Lin-Fa; Netter, Hans J

    2015-12-01

    Immune evasion by the lethal henipaviruses, Hendra (HeV) and Nipah virus, is mediated by its interferon (IFN) antagonist P gene products, phosphoprotein (P), and the related V and W proteins, which can target the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2 proteins to inhibit IFN/STAT signaling. However, it is not clear if the recently identified non-pathogenic Henipavirus, Cedar paramyxovirus (CedPV), is also able to antagonize the STAT proteins. We performed comparative studies between the HeV P gene products (P/V/W) and CedPV-P (CedPV does not encode V or W) and demonstrate that differences exist in their ability to engage the STAT proteins using immunoprecipitation and quantitative confocal microscopic analysis. In contrast to HeV-P gene encoded proteins, the ability of CedPV-P to interact with and relocalize STAT1 or STAT2 is compromised, correlating with a reduced capacity to inhibit the mRNA synthesis of IFN-inducible gene MxA. Furthermore, infection studies with HeV and CedPV demonstrate that HeV is more potent than CedPV in inhibiting the IFN-α-mediated nuclear accumulation of STAT1. These results strongly suggest that the ability of CedPV to counteract the IFN/STAT response is compromised compared to HeV. PMID:26526590

  14. Golgi phosphoprotein3 overexpression is associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yaqi; Su, Yuqi; Zhao, Yang; Pan, Changqie; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein3 (GOLPH3) is known as an oncoprotein and may be a prognostic biomarker in various tumors. Here we performed a meta-analysis on the association of GOLPH3 expression and survival in solid tumors. All eligible studies were identified in Embase, PubMed and Web of Science Databases up to November 2014. Data about overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of GOLPH3 for survival were calculated by using a random-effect model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. A total of 15 eligible studies which comprised of 2529 cases were included in this global analysis: 14 were dealing with overall survival (OS) and 6 were with disease-free survival (DFS). We found that GOLPH3 overexpression was associated with shorter OS (HR 2.487, 95% CI 1.897-3.258, P < 0.001) and DFS (HR 1.911, 95% CI 1.245-2.932, P = 0.003) in general carcinomas. Importantly, subgroup analysis suggested that overexpression of GOLPH3 correlated with shorter OS in urogenital system cancers (HR 4.258, 95% CI 1.81-4.91, P < 0.001). Moreover, publication bias was not significant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis showed that overexpression of GOLPH3 predicts poor prognosis in solid tumors. PMID:26617771

  15. Intrinsic Disorder to Order Transitions in the Scaffold Phosphoprotein P from the Respiratory Syncytial Virus RNA Polymerase Complex.

    PubMed

    Noval, María G; Esperante, Sebastian A; Molina, Ivana G; Chemes, Lucía B; Prat-Gay, Gonzalo de

    2016-03-15

    Intrinsic disorder is at the center of biochemical regulation and is particularly overrepresented among the often multifunctional viral proteins. Replication and transcription of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) relies on a RNA polymerase complex with a phosphoprotein cofactor P as the structural scaffold, which consists of a four-helix bundle tetramerization domain flanked by two domains predicted to be intrinsically disordered. Because intrinsic disorder cannot be reduced to a defined atomic structure, we tackled the experimental dissection of the disorder-order transitions of P by a domain fragmentation approach. P remains as a tetramer above 70 °C but shows a pronounced reversible secondary structure transition between 10 and 60 °C. While the N-terminal module behaves as a random coil-like IDP in a manner independent of tetramerization, the isolated C-terminal module displays a cooperative and reversible metastable transition. When linked to the tetramerization domain, the C-terminal module becomes markedly more structured and stable, with strong ANS binding. Therefore, the tertiary structure in the C-terminal module is not compact, conferring "late" molten globule-like IDP properties, stabilized by interactions favored by tetramerization. The presence of a folded structure highly sensitive to temperature, reversibly and almost instantly formed and broken, suggests a temperature sensing activity. The marginal stability allows for exposure of protein binding sites, offering a thermodynamic and kinetic fine-tuning in order-disorder transitions, essential for the assembly and function of the RSV RNA polymerase complex. PMID:26901160

  16. Phosphoric acid esters cannot replace polyvinylphosphonic acid as phosphoprotein analogs in biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded dentin.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Toledano, Manuel; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ling, Jun Qi; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2009-10-01

    Polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA), a biomimetic analog of phosphoproteins, is crucial for recruiting polyacrylic acid (PAA)-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors during biomimetic remineralization of dentin collagen matrices. This study tested the null hypothesis that phosphoric acid esters of methacrylates in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during bimimetic remineralization of resin-dentin interfaces. Human dentin specimens were bonded with: (I) XP Bond, an etch-and-rinse adhesive using moist bonding; (II) XP Bond using dry bonding; (III) Adper Prompt L-Pop, a self-etching adhesive. The control medium contained only set Portland cement and a simulated body fluid (SBF) without any biomimetic analog. Two experimental Portland cement/SBF remineralization media were evaluated: the first contained PAA as the sole biomimetic analog, the second contained PAA and PVPA as dual biomimetic analogs. No remineralization of the resin-dentin interfaces could be identified from specimens immersed in the control medium. After 2-4 months in the first experimental medium, specimens exhibited either no remineralization or large crystal formation within hybrid layers. Only specimens immersed in the second remineralization medium produced nanocrystals that accounted for intrafibrillar remineralization within hybrid layers. The null hypothesis could not be rejected; phosphoric acid esters in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during biomimetic remineralization of adhesive-bonded dentin. PMID:19481792

  17. Expression of neuron specific phosphatase, striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP) in reactive astrocytes after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, S; Morioka, M; Goto, S; Korematsu, K; Okamura, A; Yano, S; Kai, Y; Hamada, J I; Ushio, Y

    2000-02-15

    We studied the distribution and change of striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP) in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. STEP was expressed in the perikarya and in neuronal processes; it was not detected in non-neuronal cells of control animals. After 5-min forebrain ischemia, STEP immunoreactivity (STEP-IR) was preserved for 2 days; it disappeared 4 and more days after ischemia with completion of delayed neuronal death (DND) in the CA1 subfield. Furthermore, only in the CA1 after ischemia, STEP was expressed in reactive astrocytes for 4 to 28 days, showing different patterns of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive reactive astrocytes. After non-or less-than lethal ischemia, STEP expression in reactive astrocytes corresponded with the degree of neuronal degeneration. Immunoblot analysis of the CA1 subfield revealed the expression of three isoforms, STEP45, -56 and -61; their expression patterns changed with time after ischemia. These data suggest that neuronal STEP is preserved until cell degeneration after ischemia and that STEP is expressed in reactive astrocytes only after lethal ischemia, with different expression patterns for its isoforms. Of STEP45, -56 and -61, STEP61 was the most strongly expressed in the reactive astrocytes; both STEP45 and -61 were expressed in neurons and the expression of STEP56 was weak. STEP may play an important role not only in neurons but also in reactive astrocytes after ischemia, depending on neuronal degeneration. PMID:10652442

  18. Electron microscope histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase(s) in Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, J M; Hulett, F M

    1977-01-01

    Sites of alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity in a facultative thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 have been localized by electron microscope histochemistry, using a lead capture method. The effects of 3% glutaraldehyde and 3.0 mM lead on APase activity were investigated, and these compounds were found to significantly inhibit enzyme activity, 68 and 18%, respectively. A number of parameters were varied in studies to localize APase activity, including: growth temperature (55 and 37 degrees C); substrate concentration in the histochemical mixture (0.06, 0.15, 0.30, 1.00 mM); fixatives; protoplast preparations and whole cells; phosphate-repressed and -derepressed cells; and age of vegetative cells (mid-log and late log). These variations affected the number but not the location of lead phosphate deposits, which appeared at discrete sites along the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. Control cells incubated in histochemical mixtures lacking substrate, lead, or both exhibited no lead phosphate depositis. The histochemical localization at membrane sites correlated well with biochemical localization data, which indicated that greater than 80% of the APase activity was associated with the membrane fraction in logarithmically growing cells. Images PMID:401501

  19. Electron microscope histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase(s) in Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, J M; Hulett, F M

    1977-01-01

    Sites of alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity in a facultative thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 have been localized by electron microscope histochemistry, using a lead capture method. The effects of 3% glutaraldehyde and 3.0 mM lead on APase activity were investigated, and these compounds were found to significantly inhibit enzyme activity, 68 and 18%, respectively. A number of parameters were varied in studies to localize APase activity, including: growth temperature (55 and 37 degrees C); substrate concentration in the histochemical mixture (0.06, 0.15, 0.30, 1.00 mM); fixatives; protoplast preparations and whole cells; phosphate-repressed and -derepressed cells; and age of vegetative cells (mid-log and late log). These variations affected the number but not the location of lead phosphate deposits, which appeared at discrete sites along the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. Control cells incubated in histochemical mixtures lacking substrate, lead, or both exhibited no lead phosphate depositis. The histochemical localization at membrane sites correlated well with biochemical localization data, which indicated that greater than 80% of the APase activity was associated with the membrane fraction in logarithmically growing cells. PMID:401501

  20. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  1. Identification and Structural Characterization of a Legionella Phosphoinositide Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Toulabi, Leila; Wu, Xiaochun; Cheng, Yanshu; Mao, Yuxin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, which is associated with intracellular replication of the bacteria in macrophages of human innate immune system. Recent studies indicate that pathogenic bacteria can subvert host cell phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism by translocated virulence effectors. However, in which manner Legionella actively exploits PI lipids to benefit its infection is not well characterized. Here we report that L. pneumophila encodes an effector protein, named SidP, that functions as a PI-3-phosphatase specifically hydrolyzing PI(3)P and PI(3,5)P2 in vitro. This activity of SidP rescues the growth phenotype of a yeast strain defective in PI(3)P phosphatase activity. Crystal structure of SidP orthologue from Legionella longbeachae reveals that this unique PI-3-phosphatase is composed of three distinct domains: a large catalytic domain, an appendage domain that is inserted into the N-terminal portion of the catalytic domain, and a C-terminal α-helical domain. SidP has a small catalytic pocket that presumably provides substrate specificity by limiting the accessibility of bulky PIs with multiple phosphate groups. Together, our identification of a unique family of Legionella PI phosphatases highlights a common scheme of exploiting host PI lipids in many intracellular bacterial pathogen infections. PMID:23843460

  2. Effects of organic dairy manure amendment on soil phosphatase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairy production is increasing in the U.S. due to concerns over environmental, human, and animal health. It is well known that the application of livestock manure to soil can influence enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, such as soil phosphatases; however, orga...

  3. Enzymatic method of determining lead using alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhovtsova, T.N.; Kucheryaeva, V.V.; Dolmanova, I.F.

    1986-03-20

    The purpose of this work was to determine the possibility of using alkaline phosphatase to determine trace amounts of ions of a number of metals - Mg, Ba, Ca, Sr, Cd, Pb - for which there are virtually no sensitive and simple methods of determination.

  4. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S.; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I.; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. PMID:26071590

  5. Gossypol inhibits calcineurin phosphatase activity at multiple sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcineurin, the calcium/calmodulin dependant serine/threonine phosphatase is the target for the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and cyclosporine A. These calcineurin inhibitors each require an immunophilin protein cofactor. Gossypol, a polyphenol produced by the cotton plant, inhibits calcineurin, ...

  6. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed Central

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7522329

  7. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-09-13

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:7522329

  8. Phosphatase acitivity as biosignatures in terrestrial extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Jun; Nakamoto, Saki; Hara, Masashi; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a can-didate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in ex-treme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica , and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at Tarama Knoll in Okinawa Trough in 2009, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline Phosphatase activ-ity in sea water and in soil was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluoro-metrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC . Significant enzymatic ac-tivities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase activities,, together with amino acids, can be used as possible biosignatures for extant life.

  9. Protein phosphatase 2A: a highly regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, V; Goris, J

    2001-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) comprises a family of serine/threonine phosphatases, minimally containing a well conserved catalytic subunit, the activity of which is highly regulated. Regulation is accomplished mainly by members of a family of regulatory subunits, which determine the substrate specificity, (sub)cellular localization and catalytic activity of the PP2A holoenzymes. Moreover, the catalytic subunit is subject to two types of post-translational modification, phosphorylation and methylation, which are also thought to be important regulatory devices. The regulatory ability of PTPA (PTPase activator), originally identified as a protein stimulating the phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity of PP2A, will also be discussed, alongside the other regulatory inputs. The use of specific PP2A inhibitors and molecular genetics in yeast, Drosophila and mice has revealed roles for PP2A in cell cycle regulation, cell morphology and development. PP2A also plays a prominent role in the regulation of specific signal transduction cascades, as witnessed by its presence in a number of macromolecular signalling modules, where it is often found in association with other phosphatases and kinases. Additionally, PP2A interacts with a substantial number of other cellular and viral proteins, which are PP2A substrates, target PP2A to different subcellular compartments or affect enzyme activity. Finally, the de-regulation of PP2A in some specific pathologies will be touched upon. PMID:11171037

  10. Formation and properties of organo-phosphatase complexes by abiotic and biotic polymerization of pyrogallol-phosphatase mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rao, Maria A; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Scelza, Rosalia; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2010-04-28

    In this paper, the catalytic efficacy of peroxidase and manganese oxide, both commonly present in soil, to catalyze the formation of pyrogallol-phosphatase complexes was compared. The influence of several factors (e.g., the concentration of pyrogallol, the amount of catalysts, the nature of manganese oxide, birnessite, or pyrolusite, the incubation time, and the pH) on the transformation of pyrogallol and the characteristics and properties of the pyrogallol-phosphatase interaction products were investigated. The pyrogallol transformation mediated by both catalysts was very fast and increased by increasing the catalyst concentration. The nature of the catalyst also influenced the size and the molecular mass of the formed complexes. When polymerization of pyrogallol occurred with high intensity, a loss of phosphatase activity occurred, and it strongly depended on the pH at which the process was carried out and the catalyst. In particular, with peroxidase, the phosphatase activity was much lower in either suspensions or supernatants and not measurable in the insoluble complexes as compared to that measured in the presence of manganese oxides. PMID:20302357

  11. Dephosphorylation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin by latent phosphatase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.D.; Fong, Y.L.; Benovic, J.L.; Sibley, D.R.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1988-06-25

    Recent evidence suggests that the function of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins may be controlled by highly specific protein kinases, e.g. rhodopsin kinase and the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. In order to investigate the nature of the phosphatases which might be involved in controlling the state of receptor phosphorylation we studied the ability of four highly purified well characterized protein phosphatases to dephosphorylate preparations of rhodopsin or beta 2-adrenergic receptor which had been highly phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. These included: type 1 phosphatase, calcineurin phosphatase, type 2A phosphatase, and the high molecular weight latent phosphatase 2. Under conditions in which all the phosphatases could dephosphorylate such common substrates as (/sup 32/P)phosphorylase a and (/sup 32/P)myelin basic protein at similar rates only the latent phosphatase 2 was active on the phosphorylated receptors. Moreover, a latent phosphatase activity was found predominantly in a sequestered membrane fraction of frog erythrocytes. This parallels the distribution of a beta-adrenergic receptor phosphatase activity recently described in these cells. These data suggest a potential role for the latent phosphatase 2 as a specific receptor phosphatase.

  12. Enzymatic and Functional Analysis of a Protein Phosphatase, Pph3, from Myxococcus xanthus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Mori, Yumi; Ina, Youhei; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    A protein phosphatase, designated Pph3, from Myxococcus xanthus showed the enzymatic characteristics of PP2C-type serine/threonine protein phosphatases, which are metal ion-dependent, okadaic acid-insensitive protein phosphatases. The pph3 mutant under starvation conditions formed immature fruiting bodies and reduced sporulation. PMID:21398555

  13. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein restricts cell-to-cell spread of Shigella flexneri at the cell periphery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Gertler, Frank B; Goldberg, Marcia B

    2015-11-01

    Shigella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease in humans. Shigella utilize the host actin cytoskeleton to enter cells, move through the cytoplasm of cells and pass into adjacent cells. Ena/VASP family proteins are highly conserved proteins that participate in actin-dependent dynamic cellular processes. We tested whether Ena/VASP family members VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), Mena (mammalian-enabled) or EVL (Ena-VASP-like) contribute to Shigella flexneri spread through cell monolayers. VASP and EVL restricted cell-to-cell spread without significantly altering actin-based motility, whereas Mena had no effect on these processes. Phosphorylation of VASP on Ser153, Ser235 and Thr274 regulated its subcellular distribution and function. VASP derivatives that lack the Ena/VASP homology 1 (EVH1) domain or contain a phosphoablative mutation of Ser153 were defective in restricting S. flexneri spread, indicating that the EVH1 domain and phosphorylation on Ser153 are required for this process. The EVH1 domain and Ser153 of VASP were required for VASP localization to focal adhesions, and localization of VASP to focal adhesions and/or the leading edge was required for restriction of spread. The contribution of the EVH1 domain was from both the donor and the recipient cell, whereas the contribution of Ser153 phosphorylation was only from the donor cell. Thus, unlike host proteins characterized in Shigella pathogenesis that promote bacterial spread, VASP and EVL function to limit it. The ability of VASP and EVL to limit spread highlights the critical role of focal adhesion complexes and/or the leading edge in bacterial passage between cells. PMID:26358985

  14. Ensemble Structure of the Highly Flexible Complex Formed between Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Unassembled Nucleoprotein and its Phosphoprotein Chaperone.

    PubMed

    Yabukarski, Filip; Leyrat, Cedric; Martinez, Nicolas; Communie, Guillaume; Ivanov, Ivan; Ribeiro, Euripedes A; Buisson, Marlyse; Gerard, Francine C; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Bernadó, Pau; Blackledge, Martin; Jamin, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Nucleocapsid assembly is an essential process in the replication of the non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses (NNVs). Unassembled nucleoprotein (N(0)) is maintained in an RNA-free and monomeric form by its viral chaperone, the phosphoprotein (P), forming the N(0)-P complex. Our earlier work solved the structure of vesicular stomatitis virus complex formed between an N-terminally truncated N (NΔ21) and a peptide of P (P60) encompassing the N(0)-binding site, but how the full-length P interacts with N(0) remained unknown. Here, we combine several experimental biophysical methods including size exclusion chromatography with detection by light scattering and refractometry, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation and computational modeling to characterize the NΔ21(0)-PFL complex formed with dimeric full-length P. We show that for multi-molecular complexes, simultaneous multiple-curve fitting using small-angle neutron scattering data collected at varying contrast levels provides additional information and can help refine structural ensembles. We demonstrate that (a) vesicular stomatitis virus PFL conserves its high flexibility within the NΔ21(0)-PFL complex and interacts with NΔ21(0) only through its N-terminal extremity; (b) each protomer of P can chaperone one N(0) client protein, leading to the formation of complexes with stoichiometries 1N:P2 and 2N:P2; and (c) phosphorylation of residues Ser60, Thr62 and Ser64 provides no additional interactions with N(0) but creates a metal binding site in PNTR. A comparison with the structures of Nipah virus and Ebola virus N(0)-P core complex suggests a mechanism for the control of nucleocapsid assembly that is common to all NNVs. PMID:27107640

  15. Regulation of Stress-Inducible Phosphoprotein 1 Nuclear Retention by Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT PIAS1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Iaci N.; Caetano, Fabiana A.; Pinder, Jordan; Rodrigues, Bruna Roz; Beraldo, Flavio H.; Ostapchenko, Valeriy G.; Durette, Chantal; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Lopes, Marilene H.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Cunha, Isabela W.; Sanematsu, Paulo I.; Suzuki, Sergio; Bleggi-Torres, Luiz F.; Schild-Poulter, Caroline; Thibault, Pierre; Dellaire, Graham; Martins, Vilma R.; Prado, Vania F.; Prado, Marco A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1), a cochaperone for Hsp90, has been shown to regulate multiple pathways in astrocytes, but its contributions to cellular stress responses are not fully understood. We show that in response to irradiation-mediated DNA damage stress STI1 accumulates in the nucleus of astrocytes. Also, STI1 haploinsufficiency decreases astrocyte survival after irradiation. Using yeast two-hybrid screenings we identified several nuclear proteins as STI1 interactors. Overexpression of one of these interactors, PIAS1, seems to be specifically involved in STI1 nuclear retention and in directing STI1 and Hsp90 to specific sub-nuclear regions. PIAS1 and STI1 co-immunoprecipitate and PIAS1 can function as an E3 SUMO ligase for STI. Using mass spectrometry we identified five SUMOylation sites in STI1. A STI1 mutant lacking these five sites is not SUMOylated, but still accumulates in the nucleus in response to increased expression of PIAS1, suggesting the possibility that a direct interaction with PIAS1 could be responsible for STI1 nuclear retention. To test this possibility, we mapped the interaction sites between PIAS1 and STI1 using yeast-two hybrid assays and surface plasmon resonance and found that a large domain in the N-terminal region of STI1 interacts with high affinity with amino acids 450–480 of PIAS1. Knockdown of PIAS1 in astrocytes impairs the accumulation of nuclear STI1 in response to irradiation. Moreover, a PIAS1 mutant lacking the STI1 binding site is unable to increase STI1 nuclear retention. Interestingly, in human glioblastoma multiforme PIAS1 expression is increased and we found a significant correlation between increased PIAS1 expression and STI1 nuclear localization. These experiments provide evidence that direct interaction between STI1 and PIAS1 is involved in the accumulation of nuclear STI1. This retention mechanism could facilitate nuclear chaperone activity. PMID:23938469

  16. Hyperactivity and attention deficits in mice with decreased levels of stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1)

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, Flavio H.; Thomas, Anu; Kolisnyk, Benjamin; Hirata, Pedro H.; De Jaeger, Xavier; Martyn, Amanda C.; Fan, Jue; Goncalves, Daniela F.; Cowan, Matthew F.; Masood, Talal; Martins, Vilma R.; Gros, Robert; Prado, Vania F.; Prado, Marco A. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress-inducible phosphoprotein I (STIP1, STI1 or HOP) is a co-chaperone intermediating Hsp70/Hsp90 exchange of client proteins, but it can also be secreted to trigger prion protein-mediated neuronal signaling. Some mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present antibodies against certain brain proteins, including antibodies against STIP1. Maternal antibodies can cross the fetus blood-brain barrier during pregnancy, suggesting the possibility that they can interfere with STIP1 levels and, presumably, functions. However, it is currently unknown whether abnormal levels of STIP1 have any impact in ASD-related behavior. Here, we used mice with reduced (50%) or increased STIP1 levels (fivefold) to test for potential ASD-like phenotypes. We found that increased STIP1 regulates the abundance of Hsp70 and Hsp90, whereas reduced STIP1 does not affect Hsp70, Hsp90 or the prion protein. Interestingly, BAC transgenic mice presenting fivefold more STIP1 show no major phenotype when examined in a series of behavioral tasks, including locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, Morris water maze and five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). In contrast, mice with reduced STIP1 levels are hyperactive and have attentional deficits on the 5-CSRTT, but exhibit normal performance for the other tasks. We conclude that reduced STIP1 levels can contribute to phenotypes related to ASD. However, future experiments are needed to define whether it is decreased chaperone capacity or impaired prion protein signaling that contributes to these phenotypes. PMID:26398952

  17. Characterization of a Peptide Domain within the GB Virus C NS5A Phosphoprotein that Inhibits HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Chang, Qing; Jordan, Emma L.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    Background GBV-C infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected people and GBV-C inhibits HIV replication in co-infection models. Expression of the GBV-C nonstructural phosphoprotein 5A (NS5A) decreases surface levels of the HIV co-receptor CXCR4, induces the release of SDF-1 and inhibits HIV replication in Jurkat CD4+ T cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings Jurkat cell lines stably expressing NS5A protein and peptides were generated and HIV replication in these cell lines assessed. HIV replication was significantly inhibited in all cell lines expressing NS5A amino acids 152–165. Substitution of an either alanine or glycine for the serine at position 158 (S158A or S158G) resulted in a significant decrease in the HIV inhibitory effect. In contrast, substituting a phosphomimetic amino acid (glutamic acid; S158E) inhibited HIV as well as the parent peptide. HIV inhibition was associated with lower levels of surface expression of the HIV co-receptor CXCR4 and increased release of the CXCR4 ligand, SDF-1 compared to control cells. Incubation of CD4+ T cell lines with synthetic peptides containing amino acids 152–167 or the S158E mutant peptide prior to HIV infection resulted in HIV replication inhibition compared to control peptides. Conclusions/Significance Expression of GBV-C NS5A amino acids 152–165 are sufficient to inhibit HIV replication in vitro, and the serine at position 158 appears important for this effect through either phosphorylation or structural changes in this peptide. The addition of synthetic peptides containing 152–167 or the S158E substitution to Jurkat cells resulted in HIV replication inhibition in vitro. These data suggest that GBV-C peptides or a peptide mimetic may offer a novel, cellular-based approach to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:18596910

  18. Differential Expression of Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 in the Motor Cortex among Primate Species and during Postnatal Development and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Oishi, Takao; Higo, Noriyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Sato, Akira; Takashima, Ichiro; Sugiyama, Yoko; Nishimura, Yukio; Murata, Yumi; Yoshino-Saito, Kimika; Isa, Tadashi; Kojima, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) mRNA is expressed in neurons whose axons form the corticospinal tract (CST) of the rhesus macaque, but not in the corresponding neurons of the marmoset and rat. This suggests that SPP1 expression is involved in the functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species. To further examine this hypothesis, we evaluated the expression of SPP1 mRNA in the motor cortex from three viewpoints: species differences, postnatal development, and functional/structural changes of the CST after a lesion of the lateral CST (l-CST) at the mid-cervical level. The density of SPP1-positive neurons in layer V of the primary motor cortex (M1) was much greater in species with highly developed corticospinal systems (i.e., rhesus macaque, capuchin monkey, and humans) than in those with less developed corticospinal systems (i.e., squirrel monkey, marmoset, and rat). SPP1-positive neurons in the macaque monkey M1 increased logarithmically in layer V during postnatal development, following a time course consistent with the increase in conduction velocity of the CST. After an l-CST lesion, SPP1-positive neurons increased in layer V of the ventral premotor cortex, in which compensatory changes in CST function/structure may occur, which positively correlated with the extent of finger dexterity recovery. These results further support the concept that the expression of SPP1 may reflect functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species. PMID:23741508

  19. Detection of endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells by flow cytometry using the fluorogenic ELF-97 phosphatase substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telford, W. G.; Cox, W. G.; Stiner, D.; Singer, V. L.; Doty, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazolinone (ELF((R))-97 for enzyme-labeled fluorescence) has been found useful for the histochemical detection of endogenous AP activity and AP-tagged proteins and oligonucleotide probes. In this study, we evaluated its effectiveness at detecting endogenous AP activity by flow cytometry. METHODS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate was used to detect endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 rat osteosarcoma cells and primary cultures of chick chondrocytes. Cells were labeled with the ELF-97 reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry using an argon ultraviolet (UV) laser. For comparison purposes, cells were also assayed for AP using a Fast Red Violet LB azo dye assay previously described for use in detecting AP activity by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate effectively detected endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 cells, with over 95% of the resulting fluorescent signal resulting from AP-specific activity (as determined by levamisole inhibition of AP activity). In contrast, less than 70% of the fluorescent signal from the Fast Red Violet LB (FRV) assay was AP-dependent, reflecting the high intrinsic fluorescence of the unreacted components. The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was also able to detect very low AP activity in chick chondrocytes that was undetectable by the azo dye method. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was able to detect endogenous AP activity in fixed mammalian and avian cells by flow cytometry with superior sensitivity to previously described assays. This work also shows the applicability of ELF-97 to flow cytometry, supplementing its previously demonstrated histochemical applications. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Assays to Measure PTEN Lipid Phosphatase Activity In Vitro from Purified Enzyme or Immunoprecipitates.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Laura; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    PTEN is a one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressors in human cancers. It is essential for regulating diverse biological processes and through its lipid phosphatase activity regulates the PI 3-Kinase signaling pathway. Sensitive phosphatase assays are employed to study the catalytic activity of PTEN against phospholipid substrates. Here we describe protocols to assay PTEN lipid phosphatase activity using either purified enzyme (purified PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) or PTEN immunopurified from tissues or cultured cells (cellular IP PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) against vesicles containing radiolabeled PIP3 substrate. PMID:27514802

  1. Promiscuity and electrostatic flexibility in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Pabis, Anna; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, that is, the ability of single enzymes to facilitate the turnover of multiple, chemically distinct substrates, is a widespread phenomenon that plays an important role in the evolution of enzyme function. Additionally, such pre-existing multifunctionality can be harnessed in artificial enzyme design. The members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily have served extensively as both experimental and computational model systems for enhancing our understanding of catalytic promiscuity. In this Opinion, we present key recent computational studies into the catalytic activity of these highly promiscuous enzymes, highlighting the valuable insight they have provided into both the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity in general, and its implications for the evolution of phosphatase activity. PMID:26716576

  2. Mitochondrial Phosphatase PTPMT1 is essential for cardiolipin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Guan, Ziqiang; Murphy, Anne N.; Wiley, Sandra E.; Perkins, Guy A.; Worby, Carolyn A.; Engel, James L.; Heacock, Philip; Nguyen, Oanh Kim; Wang, Jonathan H.; Raetz, Christian R.H.; Dowhan, William; Dixon, Jack E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary PTPMT1 was the first protein tyrosine phosphatase found localized to the mitochondria, but its biological function was unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that whole body deletion of Ptpmt1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, suggesting an indispensable role for PTPMT1 during development. Ptpmt1-deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts compromises mitochondrial respiration and results in abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Lipid analysis of Ptpmt1-deficient fibroblasts reveals an accumulation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) along with a concomitant decrease in phosphatidylglycerol. PGP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid regulating the membrane integrity and activities of the organelle. We further demonstrate that PTPMT1 specifically dephosphorylates PGP in vitro. Loss of PTPMT1 leads to dramatic diminution of cardiolipin, which can be partially reversed by the expression of catalytic active PTPMT1. Our study identifies PTPMT1 as the mammalian PGP phosphatase and points to its role as a regulator of cardiolipin biosynthesis. PMID:21641550

  3. Inositol lipid phosphatases in membrane trafficking and human disease.

    PubMed

    Billcliff, Peter G; Lowe, Martin

    2014-07-15

    The specific interaction of phosphoinositides with proteins is critical for a plethora of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton remodelling, mitogenic signalling, ion channel regulation and membrane traffic. The spatiotemporal restriction of different phosphoinositide species helps to define compartments within the cell, and this is particularly important for membrane trafficking within both the secretory and endocytic pathways. Phosphoinositide homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a large number of inositol kinases and phosphatases, which respectively phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct phosphoinositide species. Many of these enzymes have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking and, accordingly, their dysregulation has been linked to a number of human diseases. In the present review, we focus on the inositol phosphatases, concentrating on their roles in membrane trafficking and the human diseases with which they have been associated. PMID:24966051

  4. Radiation inactivation analysis of rat liver microsomal glucose 6-phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, G.C.; Sample, C.E.; McCreery, M.J.; Sukalski, K.A.; Nordlie, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    Attempts to obtain the molecular weight of microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase based on solubilization and purification have yielded widely divergent results. Since radiation inactivation analysis can be used to obtain molecular weights of proteins within the native membrane environments, this technique was applied. Identical target sizes of about 70 kd for both glucose 6-phosphate phosphohydrolase and carbamyl phosphate:glucose phosphotransferase were observed. This value was unaffected by adding deoxycholate, which disrupts the microsomal membranes, to the microsomal suspensions prior to irradiation. The data suggest that the glucose 6-phosphate transport function and the glucose 6-phosphate phosphohydrolase activity of microsomal glucose 6-phosphatase either residue on a single polypeptide or on two covalently linked polypeptides.

  5. Cytochemical characterization of yolk granule acid phosphatase during early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yanjie; Yan, Dongchun; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a cytochemical method and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine acid phosphatase activities of yolk granules throughout the early developmental stages of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic change of yolk granule acid phosphatase, and the mechanisms underlying its involvement in yolk degradation during the early developmental stages of molluscs. Three types of yolk granules (YGI, YGII, and YGIII) that differed in electron density and acid phosphatase reaction were identified in early cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, trochophore, and veliger stages. The morphological heterogeneities of the yolk granules were related to acid phosphatase activity and degrees of yolk degradation, indicating the association of acid phosphatase with yolk degradation in embryos and larvae of molluscs. Fusion of yolk granules was observed during embryogenesis and larval development of C. gigas. The fusion of YGI (free of acid phosphatase reaction) with YGII (rich in acid phosphatase reaction) could be the way by which yolk degradation is triggered.

  6. Cholesterol modulates alkaline phosphatase activity of rat intestinal microvillus membranes.

    PubMed

    Brasitus, T A; Dahiya, R; Dudeja, P K; Bissonnette, B M

    1988-06-25

    Experiments were conducted, using a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, to vary the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of rat proximal small intestinal microvillus membranes in order to assess the possible role of cholesterol in modulating enzymatic activities of this plasma membrane. Cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratios from 0.71 to 1.30 were produced from a normal value of 1.05 by incubation with the transfer protein and an excess of either phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes for 60 min at 37 degrees C. Cholesterol loading or depletion of the membranes was accompanied by a decrease or increase, respectively, in their lipid fluidity, as assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using the lipid-soluble fluorophore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Increasing the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio also decreased alkaline phosphatase specific activity by approximately 20-30%, whereas decreasing this ratio increased this enzymatic activity by 20-30%. Sucrase, maltase, and lactase specific activities were not affected in these same preparations. Since the changes in alkaline phosphatase activity could be secondary to alterations in fluidity, cholesterol, or both, additional experiments were performed using benzyl alcohol, a known fluidizer. Benzyl alcohol (25 mM) restored the fluidity of cholesterol-enriched preparations to control levels, did not change the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio, and failed to alter alkaline phosphatase activity. These findings, therefore, indicate that alterations in the cholesterol content and cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of microvillus membranes can modulate alkaline phosphatase but not sucrase, maltase, or lactase activities. Moreover, membrane fluidity does not appear to be an important physiological regulator of these enzymatic activities. PMID:3379034

  7. Metavanadate at the active site of the phosphatase VHZ.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Hengge, Alvan C

    2012-09-01

    Vanadate is a potent modulator of a number of biological processes and has been shown by crystal structures and NMR spectroscopy to interact with numerous enzymes. Although these effects often occur under conditions where oligomeric forms dominate, the crystal structures and NMR data suggest that the inhibitory form is usually monomeric orthovanadate, a particularly good inhibitor of phosphatases because of its ability to form stable trigonal-bipyramidal complexes. We performed a computational analysis of a 1.14 Å structure of the phosphatase VHZ in complex with an unusual metavanadate species and compared it with two classical trigonal-bipyramidal vanadate-phosphatase complexes. The results support extensive delocalized bonding to the apical ligands in the classical structures. In contrast, in the VHZ metavanadate complex, the central, planar VO(3)(-) moiety has only one apical ligand, the nucleophilic Cys95, and a gap in electron density between V and S. A computational analysis showed that the V-S interaction is primarily ionic. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of metavanadate in the active site from a dimeric vanadate species that previous crystallographic evidence has shown to be able to bind to the active sites of phosphatases related to VHZ. Together, the results show that the interaction of vanadate with biological systems is not solely reliant upon the prior formation of a particular inhibitory form in solution. The catalytic properties of an enzyme may act upon the oligomeric forms primarily present in solution to generate species such as the metavanadate ion observed in the VHZ structure. PMID:22876963

  8. phoD Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Diversity in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Michael A.; Bünemann, Else K.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase enzymes are responsible for much of the recycling of organic phosphorus in soils. The PhoD alkaline phosphatase takes part in this process by hydrolyzing a range of organic phosphoesters. We analyzed the taxonomic and environmental distribution of phoD genes using whole-genome and metagenome databases. phoD alkaline phosphatase was found to be spread across 20 bacterial phyla and was ubiquitous in the environment, with the greatest abundance in soil. To study the great diversity of phoD, we developed a new set of primers which targets phoD genes in soil. The primer set was validated by 454 sequencing of six soils collected from two continents with different climates and soil properties and was compared to previously published primers. Up to 685 different phoD operational taxonomic units were found in each soil, which was 7 times higher than with previously published primers. The new primers amplified sequences belonging to 13 phyla, including 71 families. The most prevalent phoD genes identified in these soils were affiliated with the orders Actinomycetales (13 to 35%), Bacillales (1 to 29%), Gloeobacterales (1 to 18%), Rhizobiales (18 to 27%), and Pseudomonadales (0 to 22%). The primers also amplified phoD genes from additional orders, including Burkholderiales, Caulobacterales, Deinococcales, Planctomycetales, and Xanthomonadales, which represented the major differences in phoD composition between samples, highlighting the singularity of each community. Additionally, the phoD bacterial community structure was strongly related to soil pH, which varied between 4.2 and 6.8. These primers reveal the diversity of phoD in soil and represent a valuable tool for the study of phoD alkaline phosphatase in environmental samples. PMID:26253682

  9. Phosphatidate phosphatase, a key regulator of lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Florencia; Carman, George M

    2013-03-01

    Yeast Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. PAP plays a crucial role in lipid homeostasis by controlling the relative proportions of its substrate phosphatidate and its product diacylglycerol. The cellular amounts of these lipid intermediates influence the synthesis of triacylglycerol and the pathways by which membrane phospholipids are synthesized. Physiological functions affected by PAP activity include phospholipid synthesis gene expression, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane growth, lipid droplet formation, and vacuole homeostasis and fusion. Yeast lacking Pah1p PAP activity are acutely sensitive to fatty acid-induced toxicity and exhibit respiratory deficiency. PAP is distinguished in its cellular location, catalytic mechanism, and physiological functions from Dpp1p and Lpp1p lipid phosphate phosphatases that utilize a variety of substrates that include phosphatidate. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a major mechanism by which Pah1p PAP activity is regulated. Pah1p is phosphorylated by cytosolic-associated Pho85p-Pho80p, Cdc28p-cyclin B, and protein kinase A and is dephosphorylated by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated Nem1p-Spo7p phosphatase. The dephosphorylation of Pah1p stimulates PAP activity and facilitates the association with the membrane/phosphatidate allowing for its reaction and triacylglycerol synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22910056

  10. An Alkaline Phosphatase Reporter for use in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; Pascual, Ricardo A.; Childress, Kevin O.; Nawrocki, Kathryn L.; Woods, Emily C.; McBride, Shonna M.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal disease in humans and other mammals. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to work with and, until recently, few tools were available for genetic manipulation and molecular analyses. Despite the recent advances in the field, there is no simple or cost-effective technique for measuring gene transcription in C. difficile other than direct transcriptional analyses (e.g., quantitative real-time PCR and RNA-seq), which are time-consuming, expensive and difficult to scale-up. We describe the development of an in vivo reporter assay that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of C. difficile gene expression. Using the Enterococcus faecalis alkaline phosphatase gene, phoZ, we measured expression of C. difficile genes using a colorimetric alkaline phosphatase assay. We show that inducible alkaline phosphatase activity correlates directly with native gene expression. The ability to analyze gene expression using a standard reporter is an important and critically needed tool to study gene regulation and design genetic screens for C. difficile and other anaerobic clostridia. PMID:25576237

  11. Crystallization of recombinant Haemophilus influenzaee (P4) acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Zhonghui; Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Nix, Jay C.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-05-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. Haemophilus influenzae infects the upper respiratory tract of humans and can cause infections of the middle ear, sinuses and bronchi. The virulence of the pathogen is thought to involve a group of surface-localized macromolecular components that mediate interactions at the host–pathogen interface. One of these components is lipoprotein e (P4), which is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. The space group is P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, c = 101.4 Å, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit and 37% solvent content. This is the first report of the crystallization of a class C acid phosphatase.

  12. Alkaline Phosphatase-Mimicking Peptide Nanofibers for Osteogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gulseren, Gulcihan; Yasa, I Ceren; Ustahuseyin, Oya; Tekin, E Deniz; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2015-07-13

    Recognition of molecules and regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis are some of the functions of enzymes in addition to their catalytic activity. While a diverse array of enzyme-like materials have been developed, these efforts have largely been confined to the imitation of the chemical structure and catalytic activity of the enzymes, and it is unclear whether enzyme-mimetic molecules can also be used to replicate the matrix-regulatory roles ordinarily performed by natural enzymes. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers can provide multifunctional enzyme-mimetic properties, as the active sequences of the target enzymes can be directly incorporated into the peptides. Here, we report enhanced bone regeneration efficiency through peptide nanofibers carrying both catalytic and matrix-regulatory functions of alkaline phosphatase, a versatile enzyme that plays a critical role in bone formation by regulating phosphate homeostasis and calcifiable bone matrix formation. Histidine presenting peptide nanostructures were developed to function as phosphatases. These molecules are able to catalyze phosphate hydrolysis and serve as bone-like nodule inducing scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase-like peptide nanofibers enabled osteogenesis for both osteoblast-like and mesenchymal cell lines. PMID:26039144

  13. Isolation of lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase from developing peanut cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Sunil; Tumaney, Ajay W; Rao, T J V Sreenivasa; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2002-03-01

    The soluble fraction of immature peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was capable of dephosphorylating [(3)H]lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate monoacylglycerol (MAG). The enzyme responsible for the generation of MAG, LPA phosphatase, has been identified in plants and purified by successive chromatography separations on octyl-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose, Superdex-75, and heparin-agarose to apparent homogeneity from developing peanuts. This enzyme was purified 5,048-fold to a final specific activity of 858 nmol min(-1) mg(-1). The enzyme has a native molecular mass of approximately 39 kD determined by gel filtration and migrates as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular mass of 39 +/- 1.5 kD. The K(m) values for oleoyl-, stearoyl-, and palmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate were determined to be 28.6, 39.3, and 47.9 microM, respectively. The LPA phosphatase was specific to LPA and did not utilize any other substrate such as glycerol-3-phosphate, phosphatidic acid, or p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme activity was stimulated by the low concentrations of detergents such as Triton X-100 and octylglucoside. Cations had no effect on the enzyme activity. Fatty acids, sphingosine, and sphingomyelin at low concentrations stimulated the enzyme activity. The identification of LPA phosphatase in plants demonstrates the existence of MAG biosynthetic machinery in plants. PMID:11891254

  14. Purification of a specific reversible tyrosine-O-phosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Y; Lipmann, F

    1982-01-01

    A phosphatase specific for tyrosine-O-phosphate (Tyr-P) was separated from several nonspecific phosphatases present in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. The enzyme hydrolyzed L-Tyr-P, with an apparent Km of 0.14 mM, but not D-Tyr-P after being freed from hydrolytic activity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the common phosphatase substrate. Such purified preparations also catalyzed a reversible phosphate transfer reaction from unlabeled Tyr-P to [3H]tyrosine. The transfer activity was L4-14% of the hydrolytic activity, depending on the initial concentration of tyrosine (0.25-4.0 mM). The two activities coincided throughout purification. However, they differed in pH optimum, that of hydrolysis being 6.5-7 and that of phosphate transfer being 7.7.5. The two activities were also differentially inhibited by 1-p-bromotetramisole oxalate in the presence of EDTA and by Mn2+. Addition of Mg2+ did not affect either hydrolysis or phosphate transfer, but 5 mM Zn2+ was 65% inhibitory to both. Sodium fluoride strongly inhibited both reactions, and this inhibition was reversed by EDTA, while EDTA itself had no effect. Pi had no effect and no detectable incorporation of 32Pi into Tyr-P was observed, indicating that the phosphate transfer reaction is not a simple reversal of hydrolysis. No ATP-linked phosphorylation of tyrosine was found. PMID:6181504

  15. Discovery and development of small molecule SHIP phosphatase modulators.

    PubMed

    Viernes, Dennis R; Choi, Lydia B; Kerr, William G; Chisholm, John D

    2014-07-01

    Inositol phospholipids play an important role in the transfer of signaling information across the cell membrane in eukaryotes. These signals are often governed by the phosphorylation patterns on the inositols, which are mediated by a number of inositol kinases and phosphatases. The src homology 2 (SH2) containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) plays a central role in these processes, influencing signals delivered through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. SHIP modulation by small molecules has been implicated as a treatment in a number of human disease states, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, alteration of SHIP phosphatase activity may provide a means to facilitate bone marrow transplantation and increase blood cell production. This review discusses the cellular signaling pathways and protein-protein interactions that provide the molecular basis for targeting the SHIP enzyme in these disease states. In addition, a comprehensive survey of small molecule modulators of SHIP1 and SHIP2 is provided, with a focus on the structure, potency, selectivity, and solubility properties of these compounds. PMID:24302498

  16. A PTEN-like phosphatase with a novel substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, David J; Worby, Carolyn A; Dixon, Jack E

    2004-09-10

    We show that a novel PTEN-like phosphatase (PLIP) exhibits a unique preference for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI(5)P) as a substrate in vitro. PI(5)P is the least characterized member of the phosphoinositide (PI) family of lipid signaling molecules. Recent studies suggest a role for PI(5)P in a variety of cellular events, such as tumor suppression, and in response to bacterial invasion. Determining the means by which PI(5)P levels are regulated is therefore key to understanding these cellular processes. PLIP is highly enriched in testis tissue and, similar to other PI phosphatases, exhibits poor activity against several proteinaceous substrates. Despite a recent report suggesting a role for PI(5)P in the regulation of Akt, the overexpression of wild-type or catalytically inactive PLIP in Chinese hamster ovary-insulin receptor cells or a dsRNA-mediated knockdown of PLIP mRNA levels in Drosophila S2 cells does not alter Akt activity or phosphorylation. The unique in vitro catalytic activity and detailed biochemical and kinetic analyses reported here will be of great value in our continued efforts to identify in vivo substrate(s) for this highly conserved phosphatase. PMID:15247229

  17. The role of serine/threonine protein phosphatases in exocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Alistair T R; Baldwin, Monique L; Rostas, John A P; Holst, Jeff; Ludowyke, Russell I

    2003-01-01

    Modulation of exocytosis is integral to the regulation of cellular signalling, and a variety of disorders (such as epilepsy, hypertension, diabetes and asthma) are closely associated with pathological modulation of exocytosis. Emerging evidence points to protein phosphatases as key regulators of exocytosis in many cells and, therefore, as potential targets for the design of novel therapies to treat these diseases. Diverse yet exquisite regulatory mechanisms have evolved to direct the specificity of these enzymes in controlling particular cell processes, and functionally driven studies have demonstrated differential regulation of exocytosis by individual protein phosphatases. This Review discusses the evidence for the regulation of exocytosis by protein phosphatases in three major secretory systems, (1) mast cells, in which the regulation of exocytosis of inflammatory mediators plays a major role in the respiratory response to antigens, (2) insulin-secreting cells in which regulation of exocytosis is essential for metabolic control, and (3) neurons, in which regulation of exocytosis is perhaps the most complex and is essential for effective neurotransmission. PMID:12749763

  18. Searching for the role of protein phosphatases in eukaryotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    da-Silva, A M; Zapella, P D; Andrioli, L P; Campanhã, R B; Fiorini, L C; Etchebehere, L C; da-Costa-Maia, J C; Terenzi, H F

    1999-07-01

    Preference for specific protein substrates together with differential sensitivity to activators and inhibitors has allowed classification of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs) into four major types designated types 1, 2A, 2B and 2C (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP2C, respectively). Comparison of sequences within their catalytic domains has indicated that PP1, PP2A and PP2B are members of the same gene family named PPP. On the other hand, the type 2C enzyme does not share sequence homology with the PPP members and thus represents another gene family, known as PPM. In this report we briefly summarize some of our studies about the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in growth and differentiation of three different eukaryotic models: Blastocladiella emersonii, Neurospora crassa and Dictyostelium discoideum. Our observations suggest that PP2C is the major phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of amidotransferase, an enzyme that controls cell wall synthesis during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. We also report the existence of a novel acid- and thermo-stable protein purified from Neurospora crassa mycelia, which specifically inhibits the PP1 activity of this fungus and mammals. Finally, we comment on our recent results demonstrating that Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a gene that codes for PP1, although this activity has never been demonstrated biochemically in this organism. PMID:10454741

  19. Isolation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Phosphatase from Developing Peanut Cotyledons1

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Sunil; Tumaney, Ajay W.; Rao, T.J.V. Sreenivasa; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2002-01-01

    The soluble fraction of immature peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was capable of dephosphorylating [3H]lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate monoacylglycerol (MAG). The enzyme responsible for the generation of MAG, LPA phosphatase, has been identified in plants and purified by successive chromatography separations on octyl-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose, Superdex-75, and heparin-agarose to apparent homogeneity from developing peanuts. This enzyme was purified 5,048-fold to a final specific activity of 858 nmol min−1 mg−1. The enzyme has a native molecular mass of approximately 39 kD determined by gel filtration and migrates as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular mass of 39 ± 1.5 kD. The Km values for oleoyl-, stearoyl-, and palmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate were determined to be 28.6, 39.3, and 47.9 μm, respectively. The LPA phosphatase was specific to LPA and did not utilize any other substrate such as glycerol-3-phosphate, phosphatidic acid, or p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme activity was stimulated by the low concentrations of detergents such as Triton X-100 and octylglucoside. Cations had no effect on the enzyme activity. Fatty acids, sphingosine, and sphingomyelin at low concentrations stimulated the enzyme activity. The identification of LPA phosphatase in plants demonstrates the existence of MAG biosynthetic machinery in plants. PMID:11891254

  20. Testicular acid phosphatase induces odontoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwajung; Kim, Tak-Heun; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, Jung-Wook; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-04-01

    Odontoblasts differentiate from dental mesenchyme during dentin formation and mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling odontoblast differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT) is restricted in the early stage of odontoblast differentiation in proliferating dental mesenchymal cells and secretory odontoblasts. ACPT is expressed earlier than tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and partly overlaps with TNAP in differentiating odontoblasts. In MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, expression of ACPT appears simultaneously with a decrease in β-catenin activity and is abolished with the expression of Phex and Dsp. Knockdown of ACPT in MDPC-23 cells stimulates cell proliferation together with an increase in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. In contrast, the overexpression of ACPT suppresses cell proliferation with a decrease in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. Expression of TNAP, Osx, Phex and Dsp is reduced by knockdown of ACPT but is enhanced by ACPT overexpression. When ACPT is blocked with IgG, alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited but cell proliferation is unchanged regardless of ACPT expression. These findings suggest that ACPT inhibits cell proliferation through β-catenin-mediated signaling in dental mesenchyme but elicits odontoblast differentiation and mineralization by supplying phosphate during dentin formation. Thus, ACPT might be a novel candidate for inducing odontoblast differentiation and mineralization for dentin regeneration. PMID:26547858

  1. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moorhead, Greg BG; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Nimick, Mhairi; De Wever, Veerle; Campbell, David G; Gourlay, Robert; Lam, Yun Wah; Lamond, Angus I

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the phosphatase affinity matrix microcystin-Sepharose. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that each identified binding protein was either a direct PP1 interactor or was in a complex that contains PP1. Our results have linked PP1 to numerous new nuclear functions and proteins, including Ki-67, Rif-1, topoisomerase IIα, several nuclear helicases, NUP153 and the TRRAP complex. Conclusion This modification of the microcystin-Sepharose technique offers an effective means of purifying novel PP1 regulatory subunits and associated proteins and provides a simple method to uncover a link between PP1 and additional cellular processes. PMID:19000314

  2. Peptide Microarrays for Real-Time Kinetic Profiling of Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity of Recombinant Phosphatases and Phosphatases in Lysates of Cells or Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Hovestad-Bijl, Liesbeth; van Ameijde, Jeroen; Pijnenburg, Dirk; Hilhorst, Riet; Liskamp, Rob; Ruijtenbeek, Rob

    2016-01-01

    A high-throughput method for the determination of the kinetics of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in a microarray format is presented, allowing real-time monitoring of the dephosphorylation of a 3-nitro-phosphotyrosine residue. The 3-nitro-phosphotyrosine residue is incorporated in potential PTP substrates. The peptide substrates are immobilized onto a porous surface in discrete spots. After dephosphorylation by a PTP, a 3-nitrotyrosine residue is formed that can be detected by a specific, sequence-independent antibody. The rate of dephosphorylation can be measured simultaneously on 12 microarrays, each comprising three concentrations of 48 clinically relevant peptides, using 1.0-5.0 μg of protein from a cell or tissue lysate or 0.1-2.0 μg of purified phosphatase. The data obtained compare well with solution phase assays involving the corresponding unmodified phosphotyrosine substrates. This technology, characterized by high-throughput (12 assays in less than 2 h), multiplexing and low sample requirements, facilitates convenient and unbiased investigation of the enzymatic activity of the PTP enzyme family, for instance by profiling of PTP substrate specificities, evaluation of PTP inhibitors and pinpointing changes in PTP activity in biological samples related to diseases. PMID:27514800

  3. Effects of aluminium on the hepatic inositol polyphosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N; Craxton, A; Sumner, M; Shears, S B

    1995-01-01

    There is speculation that some of the toxic effects of Al3+ may originate from it perturbing inositol phosphate/Ca2+ signalling. For example, in permeabilized L1210 mouse lymphoma cells, 10-50 microM Al3+ activated Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-dependent Ca2+ mobilization and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 3-phosphatase activity [Loomis-Husselbee, Cullen, Irvine and Dawson (1991) Biochem. J. 277, 883-885]. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 3-phosphatase activity is performed by a multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MIPP) that also attacks Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 [Craxton, Ali and Shears (1995) Biochem. J. 305, 491-498]: 5-50 microM Al3+ increased MIPP activity towards both Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (by 30%) and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 (by up to 500%), without affecting metabolism of InsP6. Higher concentrations of Al3+ inhibited metabolism of all three substrates, and in the case of InsP6, Al3+ altered the pattern of accumulating products. When 1-50 microM Al3+ was present, InsP6 became a less effective inhibitor of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 3-phosphatase activity; this effect did not depend on the presence of cellular membranes, contrary to a previous proposal. The latter phenomenon largely explains how, in a cell-free system where Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 3-phosphatase is inhibited by endogenous InsP6, the addition of Al3+ can apparently increase the enzyme activity. However, there was no effect of either 10 or 25 microM Al3+ (in either the presence or absence of apotransferrin) on inositol phosphate profiles in either Jurkat E6-1 lymphoma cells or AR4-2J pancreatoma cells. PMID:7832774

  4. Cell cycle-dependent translocations of a major nucleolar phosphoprotein, B23, and some characteristics of its variants.

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O V; Todorov, I T; Philipova, R N; Krachmarov, C P; Trendelenburg, M F; Jordan, E G

    1997-05-01

    A major nucleolar phosphoprotein, B23, is thought to play several apparently unrelated roles and appears to be associated with other cell compartments besides the nucleolus. However, characteristic properties of B23 variants still remain to be established. Here, we raised a new monoclonal antibody against B23 (20B2) and used it to address the issue particularly focusing on the events during mitosis. Also, we made an attempt to generalize the data on the cell cycle-dependent translocations of B23 by the use of three mammalian cell lines (HeLa, PK, RAMT) which were found to be immunoreactive for 20B2. In all the cell strains studied, B23 was chiefly located within the nucleolus at interphase, and was associated with a few cellular domains during mitosis. They were: the nucleoplasm (at prophase before the nuclear envelope breakdown), the cytoplasm (from prometaphase until mid telophase), the perichromosomal layer (from prometaphase till early telophase), cytoplasmic B23-containing bodies (at anaphase and telophase) and prenucleolar bodies, PNBs (at telophase). On Western blots, electrophoretic mobility of B23 was found to be the same at G1, S and G2 periods of interphase, but became slower at mitosis. In situ and cell extraction experiments showed that like the nucleolar B23, B23 of the perichromosomal layer and that of PNBs was highly resistant to extraction with Triton X-100, but could be released with Triton X-100/RNase A. These findings indicated that these portions of B23 were most likely to be associated with RNA. The cytoplasmic B23 was the major intracellular variant of B23 during mitosis. It had a slightly lower electrophoretic mobility than the perichromosomal B23 and could readily be extracted with Triton X-100 without addition of RNase A, a fact indicating that the cytoplasmic B23 was mainly in an RNA-free state. Mitosis-like translocations of B23 from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm induced by actinomycin D increased its extractability but did not affect

  5. Phosphatase activity of the voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, shows graded dependence on the extent of activation of the voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-03-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region, and the movement of the voltage sensor is coupled to the phosphatase activity. However, its coupling mechanisms still remain unclear. One possible scenario is that the phosphatase is activated only when the voltage sensor is in a fully activated state. Alternatively, the enzymatic activity of single VSP proteins could be graded in distinct activated states of the voltage sensor, and partial activation of the voltage sensor could lead to partial activation of the phosphatase. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we studied a voltage sensor mutant of zebrafish VSP, where the voltage sensor moves in two steps as evidenced by analyses of charge movements of the voltage sensor and voltage clamp fluorometry. Measurements of the phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate revealed that both steps of voltage sensor activation are coupled to the tuning of phosphatase activities, consistent with the idea that the phosphatase activity is graded by the magnitude of the movement of the voltage sensor. PMID:24277865

  6. Identification of a non-purple tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase: an evolutionary link to Ser/Thr protein phosphatases?

    PubMed Central

    Hadler, Kieran S; Huber, Thomas; Cassady, A Ian; Weber, Jane; Robinson, Jodie; Burrows, Allan; Kelly, Gregory; Guddat, Luke W; Hume, David A; Schenk, Gerhard; Flanagan, Jack U

    2008-01-01

    Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAcPs), also known as purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals and fungi. The human enzyme is a major histochemical marker for the diagnosis of bone-related diseases. TRAcPs can occur as a small form possessing only the ~35 kDa catalytic domain, or a larger ~55 kDa form possessing both a catalytic domain and an additional N-terminal domain of unknown function. Due to its role in bone resorption the 35 kDa TRAcP has become a promising target for the development of anti-osteoporotic chemotherapeutics. Findings A new human gene product encoding a metallohydrolase distantly related to the ~55 kDa plant TRAcP was identified and characterised. The gene product is found in a number of animal species, and is present in all tissues sampled by the RIKEN mouse transcriptome project. Construction of a homology model illustrated that six of the seven metal-coordinating ligands in the active site are identical to that observed in the TRAcP family. However, the tyrosine ligand associated with the charge transfer transition and purple color of TRAcPs is replaced by a histidine. Conlusion The gene product identified here may represent an evolutionary link between TRAcPs and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. Its biological function is currently unknown but is unlikely to be associated with bone metabolism. PMID:18771593

  7. The 46/50 kDa phosphoprotein VASP purified from human platelets is a novel protein associated with actin filaments and focal contacts.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, M; Halbrügge, M; Scheer, U; Wiegand, C; Jockusch, B M; Walter, U

    1992-01-01

    Vasoactive agents which elevate either cGMP or cAMP inhibit platelet activation by pathways sharing at least one component, the 46/50 kDa vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). VASP is stoichiometrically phosphorylated by both cGMP-dependent and cAMP-dependent protein kinases in intact human platelets, and its phosphorylation correlates very well with platelet inhibition caused by cGMP- and cAMP-elevating agents. Here we report that in human platelets spread on glass, VASP is associated predominantly with the distal parts of radial microfilament bundles and with microfilaments outlining the periphery, whereas less VASP is associated with a central microfilamentous ring. VASP is also detectable in a variety of different cell types including fibroblasts and epithelial cells. In fibroblasts, VASP is concentrated at focal contact areas, along microfilament bundles (stress fibres) in a punctate pattern, in the periphery of protruding lamellae, and is phosphorylated by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases in response to appropriate stimuli. Evidence for the direct binding of VASP to F-actin is also presented. The data demonstrate that VASP is a novel phosphoprotein associated with actin filaments and focal contact areas, i.e. transmembrane junctions between microfilaments and the extracellular matrix. Images PMID:1318192

  8. A panel of monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus phosphoprotein identifies a highly variable epitope of value for sensitive strain discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, S A; Sheen, M; Abdel-Malik, M; Elmgren, L; Armstrong, J; Wandeler, A I

    2000-04-01

    A recombinant rabies virus phosphoprotein fusion product (GST-P) was used to generate a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with anti-P reactivity. Competitive binding assays classified 27 of these MAbs into four groups (I to IV), and 24 of them were deemed to recognize linear epitopes, as judged by their reaction in immunoblots. The linear epitope recognized in each case was mapped by using two series of N- and C-terminally deleted recombinant phosphoproteins. Assessment of the reactivities of representative MAbs to a variety of lyssavirus isolates by an indirect fluorescent antibody test indicated that group I MAbs, which recognized a highly conserved N-terminal epitope, were broadly cross-reactive with all lyssaviruses assayed, while group III MAbs, which reacted with a site overlapping that of group I MAbs, exhibited variable reactivities and group IV MAbs reacted with most isolates of genotypes 1, 6, and 7 only. In contrast, group II MAbs, which recognized an epitope located within a highly divergent central portion of the protein, were exquisitely strain specific. These anti-P MAbs are potentially useful tools for lyssavirus identification and discrimination. PMID:10747114

  9. Cardiac Function Is Regulated by B56α-mediated Targeting of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) to Contractile Relevant Substrates*

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhefer, Uwe; Brekle, Christiane; Eskandar, John; Isensee, Gunnar; Kučerová, Dana; Müller, Frank U.; Pinet, Florence; Schulte, Jan S.; Seidl, Matthias D.; Boknik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of important myocardial proteins is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), representing a heterotrimer that is comprised of catalytic, scaffolding, and regulatory (B) subunits. There is a multitude of B subunit family members directing the PP2A holoenzyme to different myocellular compartments. To gain a better understanding of how these B subunits contribute to the regulation of cardiac performance, we generated transgenic (TG) mice with cardiomyocyte-directed overexpression of B56α, a phosphoprotein of the PP2A-B56 family. The 2-fold overexpression of B56α was associated with an enhanced PP2A activity that was localized mainly in the cytoplasm and myofilament fraction. Contractility was enhanced both at the whole heart level and in isolated cardiomyocytes of TG compared with WT mice. However, peak amplitude of [Ca]i did not differ between TG and WT cardiomyocytes. The basal phosphorylation of cardiac troponin inhibitor (cTnI) and the myosin-binding protein C was reduced by 26 and 35%, respectively, in TG compared with WT hearts. The stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors by isoproterenol (ISO) resulted in an impaired contractile response of TG hearts. At a depolarizing potential of −5 mV, the ICa,L current density was decreased by 28% after administration of ISO in TG cardiomyocytes. In addition, the ISO-stimulated phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 was reduced by 27% in TG hearts. Thus, the increased PP2A-B56α activity in TG hearts is localized to specific subcellular sites leading to the dephosphorylation of important contractile proteins. This may result in higher myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and increased basal contractility in TG hearts. These effects were reversed by β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:25320082

  10. A soluble alkaline phosphatase from Bacillus licheniformis MC14. Histochemical localization, purification, characterization and comparison with the membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hansa, J G; Laporta, M; Kuna, M A; Reimschuessel, R; Hulett, F M

    1981-02-13

    Growth conditions affect the quantity and distribution of alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1) in Bacillus licheniformis MC14. The soluble alkaline phosphatase, which has been found in biochemical localization studies between the cell wall and cell membrane (Glynn, J.A., Schaffel, S.D., McNicholas, J.M. and Hulett, F.M. (1977) J. Bacteriol. 129, 1010-1019), was localized via electron microscope histochemistry in cells cultured under conditions which result in increased quantities of this activity. This soluble alkaline phosphatase was stabilized with 20% glycerol and purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme is soluble in dilute buffer. This soluble alkaline phosphatase has been characterized and compared to the membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase from this organism. PMID:6783099

  11. Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4

    PubMed Central

    Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Taylor, Adam O.; Pace, Rachel M.; Meekins, David A.; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kim, Youngjun; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    Living organisms utilize carbohydrates as essential energy storage molecules. Starch is the predominant carbohydrate storage molecule in plants while glycogen is utilized in animals. Starch is a water-insoluble polymer that requires the concerted activity of kinases and phosphatases to solubilize the outer surface of the glucan and mediate starch catabolism. All known plant genomes encode the glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4 (SEX4). SEX4 can dephosphorylate both the starch granule surface and soluble phosphoglucans and is necessary for processive starch metabolism. The physical basis for the function of SEX4 as a glucan phosphatase is currently unclear. Herein, we report the crystal structure of SEX4, containing phosphatase, carbohydrate-binding, and C-terminal domains. The three domains of SEX4 fold into a compact structure with extensive interdomain interactions. The C-terminal domain of SEX4 integrally folds into the core of the phosphatase domain and is essential for its stability. The phosphatase and carbohydrate-binding domains directly interact and position the phosphatase active site toward the carbohydrate-binding site in a single continuous pocket. Mutagenesis of the phosphatase domain residue F167, which forms the base of this pocket and bridges the two domains, selectively affects the ability of SEX4 to function as a glucan phosphatase. Together, these results reveal the unique tertiary architecture of SEX4 that provides the physical basis for its function as a glucan phosphatase. PMID:20679247

  12. Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Taylor, Adam O.; Pace, Rachel M.; Meekins, David A.; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kim, Youngjun; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2010-11-12

    Living organisms utilize carbohydrates as essential energy storage molecules. Starch is the predominant carbohydrate storage molecule in plants while glycogen is utilized in animals. Starch is a water-insoluble polymer that requires the concerted activity of kinases and phosphatases to solubilize the outer surface of the glucan and mediate starch catabolism. All known plant genomes encode the glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4 (SEX4). SEX4 can dephosphorylate both the starch granule surface and soluble phosphoglucans and is necessary for processive starch metabolism. The physical basis for the function of SEX4 as a glucan phosphatase is currently unclear. Herein, we report the crystal structure of SEX4, containing phosphatase, carbohydrate-binding, and C-terminal domains. The three domains of SEX4 fold into a compact structure with extensive interdomain interactions. The C-terminal domain of SEX4 integrally folds into the core of the phosphatase domain and is essential for its stability. The phosphatase and carbohydrate-binding domains directly interact and position the phosphatase active site toward the carbohydrate-binding site in a single continuous pocket. Mutagenesis of the phosphatase domain residue F167, which forms the base of this pocket and bridges the two domains, selectively affects the ability of SEX4 to function as a glucan phosphatase. Together, these results reveal the unique tertiary architecture of SEX4 that provides the physical basis for its function as a glucan phosphatase.

  13. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten. PMID:26848951

  14. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten. PMID:26848951

  15. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert; and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  16. Characterization of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tapia, Ana Lilia; Baylón-Pacheco, Lidia; Espíritu-Gordillo, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of phosphatases that has not been broadly studied in protozoan parasites. In humans, PRLs are involved in metastatic cancer, the promotion of cell migration and invasion. PTPs have been increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. We characterized the only putative protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (PTP EhPRL) in the eukaryotic human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we reported that the EhPRL protein possessed the classical HCX5R catalytic motif of PTPs and the CAAX box characteristic of the PRL family and exhibited 31-32% homology with the three human PRL isoforms. In amebae, the protein was expressed at low but detectable levels. The recombinant protein (rEhPRL) had enzymatic activity with the 3-o-methyl fluorescein phosphate (OMFP) substrate; this enzymatic activity was inhibited by the PTP inhibitor o-vanadate. Using immunofluorescence we showed that native EhPRL was localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When the trophozoites interacted with collagen, EhPRL relocalized over time to vesicle-like structures. Interaction with fibronectin increased the presence of the enzyme in the cytoplasm. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that EhPRL mRNA expression was upregulated when the trophozoites interacted with collagen but not with fibronectin. Trophozoites recovered from amoebic liver abscesses showed higher EhPRL mRNA expression levels than normal trophozoites. These results strongly suggest that EhPRL may play an important role in the biology and adaptive response of the parasite to the host environment during amoebic liver abscess development, thereby participating in the pathogenic mechanism. PMID:26431820

  17. Phylogenetic Characterization of Phosphatase-Expressing Bacterial Communities in Baltic Sea Sediments.

    PubMed

    Steenbergh, Anne K; Bodelier, Paul L E; Hoogveld, Hans L; Slomp, Caroline P; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate release from sediments hampers the remediation of aquatic systems from a eutrophic state. Microbial phosphatases in sediments release phosphorus during organic matter degradation. Despite the important role of phosphatase-expressing bacteria, the identity of these bacteria in sediments is largely unknown. We herein presented a culture-independent method to phylogenetically characterize phosphatase-expressing bacteria in sediments. We labeled whole-cell extracts of Baltic Sea sediments with an artificial phosphatase substrate and sorted phosphatase-expressing cells with a flow cytometer. Their phylogenetic affiliation was determined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. The phosphatase-expressing bacterial community coarsely reflected the whole-cell bacterial community, with a similar dominance of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:25817584

  18. Acid phosphatase localization in neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia.

    PubMed

    Robles, L J; Fisher, S K

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the ganglia and the ultrastructure of the neurons of Bulla gouldiana are similar to those described for other molluscs. Acid phosphatase positive reactions were found in the large pigmented granules, small dense bodies, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi lamellae and associated vesicles. The small dense bodies and multivesicular bodies may be stages in the formation of the larger pigmented granules which are interpreted as lysosomes. Comparison is made between the pigmented granules in Bulla and the lipofuscin bodies of vertebrate neurons. The possible involvement of these pigmented granules in the hyperpolarization of Bulla and Aplysia neurons to light is discussed. PMID:1122539

  19. A description of alkaline phosphatases from marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Jia, Hongbing; Yu, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are non-specific phosphohydrolases, and they are widely used in clinical diagnostics and biological studies. APs are widespread in nature and exhibit different structural formulations. Based on the diversity of biogenetic sources, APs exhibit temperature-propensity traits, and they are classified as psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic. In this article, the characteristics of psychrophilic APs from marine organisms were described, accompanied by a simple description of APs from other organisms. This review will facilitate better utilization of marine APs in the biotechnology field.

  20. A description of alkaline phosphatases from marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Jia, Hongbing; Yu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are non-specific phosphohydrolases, and they are widely used in clinical diagnostics and biological studies. APs are widespread in nature and exhibit different structural formulations. Based on the diversity of biogenetic sources, APs exhibit temperature-propensity traits, and they are classified as psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic. In this article, the characteristics of psychrophilic APs from marine organisms were described, accompanied by a simple description of APs from other organisms. This review will facilitate better utilization of marine APs in the biotechnology field.

  1. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  2. Graphical techniques for kinetic data analyses of alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, J.W.; Brand, H.R.

    1980-09-01

    The use of an automated reactor for the experimentation and on-line graphics for the rapid and exhaustive analysis of experimental data is described. Traditional (linear) methods are used for selecting the most promising model for the alkaline phosphatase catalyzed reaction from a set of ten models under consideration. Then, nonlinear techniques for model selection are used and compared with traditional techniques. In both approaches, interactive graphics techniques are used to advantage for evaluating various models and for examining the quality of the experimental data.

  3. Deactivation of free and stabilized acid phosphatase by urea.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, L; Marrucci, G; Greco, G

    1986-11-01

    Tests on acid phosphatase (E.G. 3.1.3.2) deactivation by urea have been performed at two pH values. Two conditions have been used: native enzyme operating batch-wise in dilute solution and stabilized enzyme in continuous flow ultrafiltration membrane reactor. Stabilization is achieved by confining the enzyme within a concentrated solution of a linear chain polymer that forms a polarization layer over the membrane. The results provide significant information on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the complex phenomena taking place during deactivation. Deactivation by urea is also compared with thermal deactivation. PMID:18555278

  4. Regulation of Eye Development by Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatases-1 and -2A.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Yang, Y; Gong, X-D; Huang, Z-X; Nie, Q; Wang, Z-F; Ji, W-K; Hu, X-H; Hu, W-F; Gong, L-L; Zhang, L; Huang, S; Qi, R-L; Yang, T-H; Chen, Z-G; Liu, W-B; Liu, Y-Z; Li, D W-C

    2015-01-01

    The protein serine/threonine phosphatases-1 and -2A are major cellular phosphatases, playing a fundamental role in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. They contribute to 90% dephosphorylation in eukaryote proteins. In the eye, both phosphatases are highly expressed and display important functions in regulating normal eye development. Moreover, they are implicated in pathogenesis through modulation of stress-induced apoptosis. Here we review the recent progresses on these aspects. PMID:26592247

  5. Chemostat Culture of Escherichia coli K-12 Limited by the Activity of Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    King, Stagg L.; Francis, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The growth-limiting reaction of a chemostat culture of Escherichia coli K-12 was the hydrolysis of β-glycerophosphate by alkaline phosphatase. The culture was buffered at pH 5.2 where alkaline phosphatase was unable to supply phosphate to the cell at a rate sufficient to sustain the maximum rate of growth. Alkaline phosphatase activity in this system is discussed in terms of the so-called Flip-Flop mechanism. PMID:240310

  6. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  7. Allosteric inhibitors of the Eya2 phosphatase are selective and inhibit Eya2-mediated cell migration.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Aaron B; Drasin, David J; Lea, Wendy A; Patrick, Aaron N; Patnaik, Samarjit; Backos, Donald S; Matheson, Christopher J; Hu, Xin; Barnaeva, Elena; Holliday, Michael J; Blevins, Melanie A; Robin, Tyler P; Eisenmesser, Elan Z; Ferrer, Marc; Simeonov, Anton; Southall, Noel; Reigan, Philip; Marugan, Juan; Ford, Heide L; Zhao, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Eya proteins are essential co-activators of the Six family of transcription factors and contain a unique tyrosine phosphatase domain belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase family of phosphatases. The phosphatase activity of Eya is important for the transcription of a subset of Six1-target genes, and also directs cells to the repair rather than apoptosis pathway upon DNA damage. Furthermore, Eya phosphatase activity has been shown to mediate transformation, invasion, migration, and metastasis of breast cancer cells, making it a potential new drug target for breast cancer. We have previously identified a class of N-arylidenebenzohydrazide compounds that specifically inhibit the Eya2 phosphatase. Herein, we demonstrate that these compounds are reversible inhibitors that selectively inhibit the phosphatase activity of Eya2, but not Eya3. Our mutagenesis results suggest that this class of compounds does not bind to the active site and the binding does not require the coordination with Mg(2+). Moreover, these compounds likely bind within a site on the opposite face of the active site, and function as allosteric inhibitors. We also demonstrate that this class of compounds inhibits Eya2 phosphatase-mediated cell migration, setting the foundation for these molecules to be developed into chemical probes for understanding the specific function of the Eya2 phosphatase and to serve as a prototype for the development of Eya2 phosphatase specific anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24755226

  8. Allosteric Inhibitors of the Eya2 Phosphatase Are Selective and Inhibit Eya2-mediated Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Aaron B.; Drasin, David J.; Lea, Wendy A.; Patrick, Aaron N.; Patnaik, Samarjit; Backos, Donald S.; Matheson, Christopher J.; Hu, Xin; Barnaeva, Elena; Holliday, Michael J.; Blevins, Melanie A.; Robin, Tyler P.; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Ferrer, Marc; Simeonov, Anton; Southall, Noel; Reigan, Philip; Marugan, Juan; Ford, Heide L.; Zhao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Eya proteins are essential co-activators of the Six family of transcription factors and contain a unique tyrosine phosphatase domain belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase family of phosphatases. The phosphatase activity of Eya is important for the transcription of a subset of Six1-target genes, and also directs cells to the repair rather than apoptosis pathway upon DNA damage. Furthermore, Eya phosphatase activity has been shown to mediate transformation, invasion, migration, and metastasis of breast cancer cells, making it a potential new drug target for breast cancer. We have previously identified a class of N-arylidenebenzohydrazide compounds that specifically inhibit the Eya2 phosphatase. Herein, we demonstrate that these compounds are reversible inhibitors that selectively inhibit the phosphatase activity of Eya2, but not Eya3. Our mutagenesis results suggest that this class of compounds does not bind to the active site and the binding does not require the coordination with Mg2+. Moreover, these compounds likely bind within a site on the opposite face of the active site, and function as allosteric inhibitors. We also demonstrate that this class of compounds inhibits Eya2 phosphatase-mediated cell migration, setting the foundation for these molecules to be developed into chemical probes for understanding the specific function of the Eya2 phosphatase and to serve as a prototype for the development of Eya2 phosphatase specific anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24755226

  9. Viewing serine/threonine protein phosphatases through the eyes of drug designers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Yogesha, S. D.; Mayfield, Joshua E.; Gill, Gordon N.; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatases, as the counterpart to protein kinases, are essential for homeostatic balance of cell signaling. Small chemical compounds that modulate the specific activity of phosphatases can be powerful tools to elucidate the biological functions of these enzymes. More importantly, many phosphatases are central players in the development of pathological pathways where inactivation can reverse or delay the onset of human diseases. Therefore, potent inhibitors for such phosphatases can be of great therapeutic benefit. In contrast to the seemingly identical enzymatic mechanism and structural characterization of eukaryotic protein kinases, protein phosphatases evolved from diverse ancestors, resulting in different domain architectures, reaction mechanisms and active site properties. In this review, we will discuss for each family of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, their involvement in biological process and corresponding strategies for small chemical intervention. Recent advances in modern drug discovery technologies have markedly facilitated the identification of selective inhibitors for some members of the phosphatase family. Furthermore, the rapid growth in knowledge about structure-activity relationships related to possible new drug targets has aided the discovery of natural product inhibitors for phosphatase family. This review summarizes the current state of investigation of the small molecules that regulate the function of serine/threonine phosphatases, the challenges presented and also strategies to overcome these obstacles. PMID:23937612

  10. Prostatic acid phosphatase is the main acid phosphatase with 5'-ectonucleotidase activity in the male mouse saliva and regulates salivation.

    PubMed

    Araujo, César L; Quintero, Ileana B; Kipar, Anja; Herrala, Annakaisa M; Pulkka, Anitta E; Saarinen, Lilli; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Vihko, Pirkko

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that in addition to the well-known secreted isoform of prostatic acid phosphatase (sPAP), a transmembrane isoform exists (TMPAP) that interacts with snapin (a SNARE-associated protein) and regulates the endo-/exocytic pathways. We have also shown that PAP has 5'-ectonucleotidase and thiamine monophosphatase activity and elicits antinociceptive effects in mouse models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Therefore, to determine the physiological role of PAP in a typical exocrine organ, we studied the submandibular salivary gland (SMG) of PAP(-/-) and wild-type C57BL/6J mice by microarray analyses, microRNA sequencing, activity tests, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical and physiological analyses of saliva. We show that PAP is the main acid phosphatase in the wild-type male mouse saliva, accounting for 50% of the total acid phosphatase activity, and that it is expressed only in the granular convoluted tubules of the SMGs, where it is the only 5'-ectonucleotidase. The lack of PAP in male PAP(-/-) mice was associated with a significant increase in the salivation volume under secretagogue stimulation, overexpression of genes related to cell proliferation (Mki67, Aurkb, Birc5) and immune response (Irf7, Cxcl9, Ccl3, Fpr2), and upregulation of miR-146a in SMGs. An increased and sustained acinar cell proliferation was detected without signs of glandular hyperplasia. Our results indicate that in PAP(-/-) mice, SMG homeostasis is maintained by an innate immune response. Additionally, we suggest that in male mice, PAP via its 5'-ectonucleotidase activity and production of adenosine can elicit analgesic effects when animals lick their wounds. PMID:24717577

  11. Catalytic and substrate promiscuity: distinct multiple chemistries catalysed by the phosphatase domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Marks, Hanna; Mitra, Sreyoshi; Smalley, David M; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2016-07-15

    The presence of latent activities in enzymes is posited to underlie the natural evolution of new catalytic functions. However, the prevalence and extent of such substrate and catalytic ambiguity in evolved enzymes is difficult to address experimentally given the order-of-magnitude difference in the activities for native and, sometimes, promiscuous substrate/s. Further, such latent functions are of special interest when the activities concerned do not fall into the domain of substrate promiscuity. In the present study, we show a special case of such latent enzyme activity by demonstrating the presence of two mechanistically distinct reactions catalysed by the catalytic domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase isoform δ (PTPRδ). The primary catalytic activity involves the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester bond (C─O─P) with high catalytic efficiency, whereas the secondary activity is the hydrolysis of a glycosidic bond (C─O─C) with poorer catalytic efficiency. This enzyme also displays substrate promiscuity by hydrolysing diester bonds while being highly discriminative for its monoester substrates. To confirm these activities, we also demonstrated their presence on the catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase Ω (PTPRΩ), a homologue of PTPRδ. Studies on the rate, metal-ion dependence, pH dependence and inhibition of the respective activities showed that they are markedly different. This is the first study that demonstrates a novel sugar hydrolase and diesterase activity for the phosphatase domain (PD) of PTPRδ and PTPRΩ. This work has significant implications for both understanding the evolution of enzymatic activity and the possible physiological role of this new chemistry. Our findings suggest that the genome might harbour a wealth of such alternative latent enzyme activities in the same protein domain that renders our knowledge of metabolic networks incomplete. PMID:27208174

  12. Functional Analysis of Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatases in Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Amand, Mathieu; Erpicum, Charlotte; Gilles, Christine; Noël, Agnès; Rahmouni, Souad

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic perspectives targeting angiogenesis in cancer stimulated an intense investigation of the mechanisms triggering and governing angiogenic processes. Several publications have highlighted the importance of typical dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) or MKPs in endothelial cells and their role in controlling different biological functions implicated in angiogenesis such as migration, proliferation, apoptosis, tubulogenesis, and cell adhesion. However, among atypical DSPs, the only one investigated in angiogenesis was DUSP3. We recently identified this DSP as a new key player in endothelial cells and angiogenesis. In this chapter we provide with detailed protocols and models used to investigate the role of DUSP3 in endothelial cells and angiogenesis. We start the chapter with an overview of the role of several DSPs in angiogenesis. We continue with providing a full description of a highly efficient transfection protocol to deplete DUSP3 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We next describe the major assays used to investigate different processes involved in angiogenesis such as tube formation assay, proliferation assay and spheroids sprouting assay. We finish the chapter by validating our results in DUSP3-knockout mice using in vivo angiogenesis assays such as Matrigel plug and Lewis lung carcinoma cell subcutaneous xenograft model followed by anti-CD31 immunofluorescence and ex vivo aortic ring assay. All methods described can be adapted to other phosphatases and signaling molecules. PMID:27514814

  13. The effect of vanadate on human kidney potassium dependent phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Nieder, G L; Corder, C N; Culp, P A

    1979-06-01

    This study examined the effects of vanadate on the potassium dependent phosphatase activity present in purified human kidney microsomal (Na+ + K+)-adenosine triphosphatase. Vanadate anion inhibited the K+-dependent phosphatase at a K1 of 35 nM. This inhibition was noncompetitive with the substrate, p-nitrophenylphosphate. The inhibition by vanadate at 1 mM K+ was only 45% of the inhibition that was observed at 10 mM K+. Neither preincubation of the enzyme with vanadate, nor changing the pH of the assay from 8.2 to 7.2 had any effect on the K1 for vanadate. The inclusion of 2.5 mM isoproterenol, to complex the yanadate, reversed the inhibition, as did diluting the enzymatic reaction. Vanadate also inhibited the overall (Na+ + K+)-ATPase reaction at a K1 of 1.91 microM. This inhibition was also reversible upon inclusion of isoproterenol in the assay. Increasing the level of magnesium from 6 mM to 30 mM lowered the K1 of vanadate to 0.25 microM. The possible role of vanadate as a physiological mediator of (Na+ + k+)-atpase activity is discussed. PMID:39261

  14. Plant species richness increases phosphatase activities in an experimental grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Nina; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Plant species richness has been shown to increase aboveground nutrient uptake requiring the mobilization of soil nutrient pools. For phosphorus (P) the underlying mechanisms for increased P release in soil under highly diverse grassland mixtures remain obscure because aboveground P storage and concentrations of inorganic and organic P in soil solution and differently reactive soil P pools are unrelated (Oelmann et al. 2011). The need of plants and soil microorganisms for P can increase the exudation of enzymes hydrolyzing organically bound P (phosphatases) which might represent an important release mechanism of inorganic P in a competitive environment such as highly diverse grassland mixtures. Our objectives were to test the effects of i) plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall and small herbs), and of (ii) plant species richness on microbial P (Pmic) and phosphatase activities in soil. In autumn 2013, we measured Pmic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in soil of 80 grassland mixtures comprising different community compositions and species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60) in the Jena Experiment. In general, Pmic and enzyme activities were correlated (r = 0.59 and 0.46 for phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively; p

  15. Functional Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Thrombosis and Hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Rahmouni, Souad; Hego, Alexandre; Delierneux, Céline; Wéra, Odile; Musumeci, Lucia; Tautz, Lutz; Oury, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are small blood cells derived from cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes and play an essential role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet activation depends on the rapid phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of key signaling molecules, and a number of kinases and phosphatases have been identified as major regulators of platelet function. However, the investigation of novel signaling proteins has suffered from technical limitations due to the anucleate nature of platelets and their very limited levels of mRNA and de novo protein synthesis. In the past, experimental methods were restricted to the generation of genetically modified mice and the development of specific antibodies. More recently, novel (phospho)proteomic technologies and pharmacological approaches using specific small-molecule inhibitors have added additional capabilities to investigate specific platelet proteins.In this chapter, we report methods for using genetic and pharmacological approaches to investigate the function of platelet signaling proteins. While the described experiments focus on the role of the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling, the presented methods are applicable to any signaling enzyme. Specifically, we describe a testing strategy that includes (1) aggregation and secretion experiments with mouse and human platelets, (2) immunoprecipitation and immunoblot assays to study platelet signaling events, (3) detailed protocols to use selected animal models in order to investigate thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo, and (4) strategies for utilizing pharmacological inhibitors on human platelets. PMID:27514813

  16. New functional aspects of the atypical protein tyrosine phosphatase VHZ

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I.; Hengge, Alvan C.

    2013-01-01

    LDP3 (VHZ) is the smallest classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) known to date, and was originally misclassified as an atypical dual specificity phosphatase (DSP). Kinetic isotope effects with steady state and pre-steady state kinetics of VHZ and mutants with para-nitrophenol phosphate (pNPP) have revealed several unusual properties. VHZ is significantly more active than previously reported, but remains one of the least active PTPs. Highly unusual for a PTP, VHZ possesses two acidic residues (E134 and D65) in the active site. D65 occupies the position corresponding to the typical general acid in the PTP family. However, VHZ primarily utilizes E134 as the general acid, with D65 taking over this role when E134 is mutated. This unusual behavior is facilitated by two coexisting, but unequally populated, substrate binding modes. Unlike most classical PTPs, VHZ exhibits phosphotransferase activity. Despite the presence of the Q-loop that normally prevents alcoholysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate in other classical PTPs, VHZ readily phosphorylates ethylene glycol. Although mutations to Q-loop residues affect this phosphotransferase activity, mutations on the IPD-loop that contains the general acid exert more control over this process. A single P68V substitution on this loop completely abolishes phosphotransferase activity. The ability of native VHZ to catalyze transphosphorylation may lead to an imbalance of intracellular phosphorylation, which could explain the correlation of its overexpression with several types of cancer. PMID:24073992

  17. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg/sup 2 +/ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg/sup 2 +/ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase: Structure, Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Chaturvedi, Nagendra K.; Dwyer, Jennifer G.; LaGrange, Chad A.; Chaney, William G.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2013-01-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a 100 kDa glycoprotein composed of two subunits. Recent advances demonstrate that cellular PAcP (cPAcP) functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase by dephosphorylating ErbB-2/Neu/HER-2 at the phosphotyrosine residues in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which results in reduced tumorigenicity. Further, the interaction of cPAcP and ErbB-2 regulates androgen sensitivity of PCa cells. Knockdown of cPAcP expression allows androgen-sensitive PCa cells to develop the castration-resistant phenotype, where cells proliferate under an androgen-reduced condition. Thus, cPAcP has a significant influence on PCa cell growth. Interestingly, promoter analysis suggests that PAcP expression can be regulated by NF-κB, via a novel binding sequence in an androgen-independent manner. Further understanding of PAcP function and regulation of expression will have a significant impact on understanding PCa progression and therapy. PMID:23698773

  19. Role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in mitochondrial DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Tahbaz, Nasser; Subedi, Sudip; Weinfeld, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in a broad range of human diseases and in aging. Compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more highly exposed to oxidative damage due to its proximity to the respiratory chain and the lack of protection afforded by chromatin-associated proteins. While repair of oxidative damage to the bases in mtDNA through the base excision repair pathway has been well studied, the repair of oxidatively induced strand breaks in mtDNA has been less thoroughly examined. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) processes strand-break termini to render them chemically compatible for the subsequent action of DNA polymerases and ligases. Here, we demonstrate that functionally active full-length PNKP is present in mitochondria as well as nuclei. Downregulation of PNKP results in an accumulation of strand breaks in mtDNA of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. Full restoration of repair of the H2O2-induced strand breaks in mitochondria requires both the kinase and phosphatase activities of PNKP. We also demonstrate that PNKP contains a mitochondrial-targeting signal close to the C-terminus of the protein. We further show that PNKP associates with the mitochondrial protein mitofilin. Interaction with mitofilin may serve to translocate PNKP into mitochondria. PMID:22210862

  20. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  1. Protein Phosphatase-1α Interacts with and Dephosphorylates Polycystin-1

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Stephen C.; Puri, Sanjeev; Wallace, Darren P.; Calvet, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystin signaling is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation. While a number of potential protein kinases and their target phosphorylation sites on polycystin-1 have been identified, the corresponding phosphatases have not been extensively studied. We have now determined that polycystin-1 is a regulatory subunit for protein phosphatase-1α (PP1α). Sequence analysis has revealed the presence of a highly conserved PP1-interaction motif in the cytosolic, C-terminal tail of polycystin-1; and we have shown that transfected PP1α specifically co-immunoprecipitates with a polycystin-1 C-tail construct. To determine whether PP1α dephosphorylates polycystin-1, a PKA-phosphorylated GST-polycystin-1 fusion protein was shown to be dephosphorylated by PP1α but not by PP2B (calcineurin). Mutations within the PP1-binding motif of polycystin-1, including an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)-associated mutation, significantly reduced PP1α-mediated dephosphorylation of polycystin-1. The results suggest that polycystin-1 forms a holoenzyme complex with PP1α via a conserved PP1-binding motif within the polycystin-1 C-tail, and that PKA-phosphorylated polycystin-1 serves as a substrate for the holoenzyme. PMID:22675472

  2. Protein Phosphatase 1α Interacting Proteins in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sara L.C.; Domingues, Sara C.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A.B.; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine-phosphatase whose activity is dependent on its binding to regulatory subunits known as PP1 interacting proteins (PIPs), responsible for targeting PP1 to a specific cellular location, specifying its substrate or regulating its action. Today, more than 200 PIPs have been described involving PP1 in panoply of cellular mechanisms. Moreover, several PIPs have been identified that are tissue and event specific. In addition, the diversity of PP1/PIP complexes can further be achieved by the existence of several PP1 isoforms that can bind preferentially to a certain PIP. Thus, PP1/PIP complexes are highly specific for a particular function in the cell, and as such, they are excellent pharmacological targets. Hence, an in-depth survey was taken to identify specific PP1α PIPs in human brain by a high-throughput Yeast Two-Hybrid approach. Sixty-six proteins were recognized to bind PP1α, 39 being novel PIPs. A large protein interaction databases search was also performed to integrate with the results of the PP1α Human Brain Yeast Two-Hybrid and a total of 246 interactions were retrieved. PMID:22321011

  3. Ultrastructural localization of membrane phosphatases in teratocarcinoma and early embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Damjanov, I.; Cutler, L. S.; Solter, D.

    1977-01-01

    Ectodermal cells of the two- and three-germ layer-thick mouse egg-cylinders are considered to be the progenitors of embryonal carcinoma cells in embryo-derived teratocarcinomas. In an attempt to find differences between the tumor cells and equivalent embryonic cells, we have studied the electron microscopic cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, and Mg2+-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and mouse egg-cylinders. Alkaline phosphatase was detected in both embryonic and tumor cells, but its activity appeared much more intense in the tumor cells. No ATPase was demonstrated in embryonic ectodermal cells of 6-day-old embryos and only in occasional cells of 7- and 8-day-old embryos. No 5'-nucleotidase activity could be demonstrated in 6- to 8-day-old cylinders. There was marked ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activity in the membranes of embryonal carcinoma cells. These data point out some differences on the plasma membrane between the embryonal carcinoma cells and equivalent embryonic cells. The potential significance of these differences is discussed with regards to the transformation of embryonic cells in tumor cells. (Am J Pathol 87:297-310, 1977). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 2 PMID:192083

  4. Alkaline Phosphatase, Soluble Extracellular Adenine Nucleotides, and Adenosine Production after Infant Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jesse A.; Urban, Tracy; Tong, Suhong; Twite, Mark; Woodruff, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Decreased alkaline phosphatase activity after infant cardiac surgery is associated with increased post-operative cardiovascular support requirements. In adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, alkaline phosphatase infusion may reduce inflammation. Mechanisms underlying these effects have not been explored but may include decreased conversion of extracellular adenine nucleotides to adenosine. Objectives 1) Evaluate the association between alkaline phosphatase activity and serum conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine after infant cardiac surgery; 2) assess if inhibition/supplementation of serum alkaline phosphatase modulates this conversion. Methods and Research Pre/post-bypass serum samples were obtained from 75 infants <4 months of age. Serum conversion of 13C5-adenosine monophosphate to 13C5-adenosine was assessed with/without selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase and CD73. Low and high concentration 13C5-adenosine monophosphate (simulating normal/stress concentrations) were used. Effects of alkaline phosphatase supplementation on adenosine monophosphate clearance were also assessed. Changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly correlated with changes in 13C5-adenosine production with or without CD73 inhibition (r = 0.83; p<0.0001). Serum with low alkaline phosphatase activity (≤80 U/L) generated significantly less 13C5-adenosine, particularly in the presence of high concentration 13C5-adenosine monophosphate (10.4μmol/L vs 12.9μmol/L; p = 0.0004). Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase led to a marked decrease in 13C5-adenosine production (11.9μmol/L vs 2.7μmol/L; p<0.0001). Supplementation with physiologic dose human tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase or high dose bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase doubled 13C5-adenosine monophosphate conversion to 13C5-adenosine (p<0.0001). Conclusions Alkaline phosphatase represents the primary serum ectonucleotidase after infant cardiac surgery and low post

  5. Biochemical and structural studies of the oligomerization domain of the Nipah virus phosphoprotein: evidence for an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer.

    PubMed

    Blocquel, David; Beltrandi, Matilde; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Longhi, Sonia

    2013-11-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The NiV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that is the substrate used by the polymerase for transcription and replication. The polymerase is recruited onto the nucleocapsid via its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P). The NiV P protein has a modular organization, with alternating disordered and ordered domains. Among these latter, is the P multimerization domain (PMD) that was predicted to adopt a coiled-coil conformation. Using both biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that NiV PMD forms a highly stable and elongated coiled-coil trimer, a finding in striking contrast with respect to the PMDs of Paramyxoviridae members investigated so far that were all found to tetramerize. The present results therefore represent the first report of a paramyxoviral P protein forming trimers. PMID:24074578

  6. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human gene of the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator (PTPA) of protein phosphatase 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoof, C.; Cayla, X.; Merlevede, W.; Goris, J.

    1995-07-20

    The PTPA gene encodes a specific phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of the dimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A. PTPA, cloned from human genomic libraries, is encoded by one single-copy gene, composed of 10 exons and 9 introns with a total length of about 60 kb. The transcription start site was determined, and the 5{prime} flanking sequence was analyzed for its potential as a promotor. This region lacks a TATA sequence in the appropriate position relative to the transcription start, is very GC-rich, and contains upstream of the transcription start four Sp1 sites, a feature common to many TATA-less promotors. Based on the homology with DNA binding consensus sequences of transcription factors, we identified in this promotor region several putative DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-{kappa}B, Myb, Ets-1, Myc, and ATF. Transfection experiments with a construct containing the PTPA promotor region inserted 5{prime} of a luciferase reporter gene revealed that the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the PTPA gene indeed displayed promotor activity that seems to be cell-line dependent. By fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding, the PTPA gene was localized to the 9q34 region. The PTPA gene is positioned centromeric of c-abl in a region embracing several genes implicated in oncogenesis. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Crystal structure of human dual specificity phosphatase, JNK stimulatory phosphatase-1, at 1.5 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takehiro; Nara, Yukinori; Kashima, Akiko; Matsubara, Keiko; Misawa, Satoru; Kato, Ryohei; Sugio, Shigetoshi

    2007-02-01

    Human JNK stimulatory phosphatase-1 (JSP-1) is a novel member of dual specificity phosphatases. A C-terminus truncated JSP-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapor diffusion method. Thin-plate crystals obtained at 278 K belong to a monoclinic space group, C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.0 A, b = 49.3 A, c = 47.3 A, and beta = 119.5 degrees , and diffract up to 1.5 A resolution at 100 K. The structure of JSP-1 has a single compact (alpha/beta) domain, which consists of six alpha-helices and five beta-strands, and shows a conserved structural scaffold in regard to both DSPs and PTPs. A cleft formed by a PTP-loop at the active site is very shallow, and is occupied by one sulfonate compound, MES, at the bottom. In the binary complex structure of JSP-1 with MES, the conformations of three important segments in regard to the catalytic mechanism are not similar to those in PTP1B. JSP-1 has no loop corresponding to the Lys120-loop of PTP1B, and tryptophan residue corresponding to the substrate-stacking in PTP1B is substituted by alanine residue in JSP-1. PMID:17068812

  8. Identification of phosphorylated form of 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) as 46 kDa phosphoprotein in brain non-synaptic mitochondria overloaded by calcium.

    PubMed

    Azarashvili, Tamara; Krestinina, Olga; Galvita, Anastasia; Grachev, Dmitry; Baburina, Yulia; Stricker, Rolf; Reiser, Georg

    2014-04-01

    In our previous studies phosphorylation of several membrane-bound proteins in brain and liver mitochondria were found to be regulated by Ca(2+) as a second messenger. One of the proteins, the 46 kDa phosphoprotein was found to be highly phosphorylated when Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore (mPTP) was opened in rat brain mitochondria (RBM). In the present study the 46 kDa phosphoprotein was identified as 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) after purification by 2D diagonal electrophoresis following mass spectrometric analysis and Western blot probed with anti-CNP antibody. CNPase was discovered in immunoprecipitates of mitochondria, phosphorylated under both conditions (control and with opened mPTP). Status phosphorylation of CNPase was found to be higher in the inmmunoprecipiates of calcium-overloaded RBM. The phospohoserine and phosphotyrosine residues were detected in phosphorylated 46 kDa band (CNPase) as well as in CNPase immunoprecipitates indicating possible participation of tyrosine and serine protein kinases in phosphorylation of CNPase in mitochondria. The levels of phospo-Ser and phospho-Tyr were increased in RBM with mPTP opened. It was found that CNPase substrate, 2',3'-cAMP (5 μM) and, a non-competitive CNPase inhibitor, atractyloside (5 μM), were able to increase the level of CNPase phosphorylation in calcium-overloaded mitochondria, while CsA (mPTP blocker) was able to strong suppress the phosphorylation of the enzyme. Collectively, our results provide evidence that Ca(2+)-stimulated and mPTP-associated CNPase phosphorylation might be an important stage of mPTP regulation in mitochondria, revealing a new function of CNPase outside of myelin structure. PMID:24532135

  9. The Mediation of Platelet Quiescence by NO-Releasing Polymers via cGMP-Induced Serine 239 Phosphorylation of Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Major, Terry C; Handa, Hitesh; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Reynolds, Melissa M; Annich, Gail M; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing (NORel) materials have been shown to create localized increases in NO concentration by the release of NO from a diazeniumdiaolate-containing or S-nitrosothiol-containing polymer coating and the improvement of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility. However, the mechanism and, in particular, the platelet upregulation of the NO/cGMP signaling protein, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylated at serine 239 (P-VASP (ser 239), for the improved ECC hemocompatibility via NO release still needs elucidation. In this work, two NORel polymeric coatings were evaluated in a 4 h rabbit thrombogenicity (RT) model and the anti-thrombotic mechanism investigated for rabbit platelet P-VASP upregulation. Polymer films containing 25 wt% diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexansdiamine (DBHD) or 5 wt% S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) coated on the inner walls of ECC circuits yielded significantly reduced ECC thrombus formation and maintained normal platelet aggregation compared to polymer controls after 4 h of blood exposure. Platelet P-VASP (ser 239), a useful tool to monitor NO/cGMP signaling, was upregulated after 4 h on ECC and markedly increased after ex vivo sodium nitroprusside (SNP) stimulation. Interestingly, in the rabbit platelet, NO did not upregulate the cAMP P-VASP phosphoprotein P-VASP (ser 157) as previously shown in human platelets. These results suggest that NORel polymers preserve rabbit platelet quiescence by sustainng a level of cGMP signaling as monitored by P-VASP (ser 239) upregulation. The upregulation of this NO-mediated platelet signaling mechanism in this RT model indicates the potential for improved thromboresistance of any NORel-coated medical device. PMID:23906514

  10. Protein phosphatase 2A dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, Jean-Marie; Sontag, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a large family of enzymes that account for the majority of brain Ser/Thr phosphatase activity. While PP2A enzymes collectively modulate most cellular processes, sophisticated regulatory mechanisms are ultimately responsible for ensuring isoform-specific substrate specificity. Of particular interest to the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) field, alterations in PP2A regulators and PP2A catalytic activity, subunit expression, methylation and/or phosphorylation, have been reported in AD-affected brain regions. “PP2A” dysfunction has been linked to tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloidogenesis and synaptic deficits that are pathological hallmarks of this neurodegenerative disorder. Deregulation of PP2A enzymes also affects the activity of many Ser/Thr protein kinases implicated in AD. This review will more specifically discuss the role of the PP2A/Bα holoenzyme and PP2A methylation in AD pathogenesis. The PP2A/Bα isoform binds to tau and is the primary tau phosphatase. Its deregulation correlates with increased tau phosphorylation in vivo and in AD. Disruption of PP2A/Bα-tau protein interactions likely contribute to tau deregulation in AD. Significantly, alterations in one-carbon metabolism that impair PP2A methylation are associated with increased risk for sporadic AD, and enhanced AD-like pathology in animal models. Experimental studies have linked deregulation of PP2A methylation with down-regulation of PP2A/Bα, enhanced phosphorylation of tau and amyloid precursor protein, tau mislocalization, microtubule destabilization and neuritic defects. While it remains unclear what are the primary events that underlie “PP2A” dysfunction in AD, deregulation of PP2A enzymes definitely affects key players in the pathogenic process. As such, there is growing interest in developing PP2A-centric therapies for AD, but this may be a daunting task without a better understanding of the regulation and function of specific PP2A enzymes. PMID:24653673

  11. Protein tyrosine and serine–threonine phosphatases in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: Identification and potential functions

    PubMed Central

    Byrum, C.A.; Walton, K.D.; Robertson, A.J.; Carbonneau, S.; Thomason, R.T.; Coffman, J.A.; McClay, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphatases, in coordination with protein kinases, play crucial roles in regulation of signaling pathways. To identify protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and serine–threonine (ser–thr) phosphatases in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, 179 annotated sequences were studied (122 PTPs, 57 ser–thr phosphatases). Sequence analysis identified 91 phosphatases (33 conventional PTPs, 31 dual specificity phosphatases, 1 Class III Cysteine-based PTP, 1 Asp-based PTP, and 25 ser–thr phosphatases). Using catalytic sites, levels of conservation and constraint in amino acid sequence were examined. Nine of 25 receptor PTPs (RPTPs) corresponded to human, nematode, or fly homologues. Domain structure revealed that sea urchin-specific RPTPs including two, PTPRLec and PTPRscav, may act in immune defense. Embryonic transcription of each phosphatase was recorded from a high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarray experiment. Most RPTPs are expressed at very low levels, whereas nonreceptor PTPs (NRPTPs) are generally expressed at moderate levels. High expression was detected in MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) and numerous ser–thr phosphatases. For several expressed NRPTPs, MKPs, and ser–thr phosphatases, morpholino antisense-mediated knockdowns were performed and phenotypes obtained. Finally, to assess roles of annotated phosphatases in endomesoderm formation, a literature review of phosphatase functions in model organisms was superimposed on sea urchin developmental pathways to predict areas of functional activity. PMID:17087928

  12. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Crop Rotation Impacts on Soil Phosphatase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a species with a low efficiency of acquiring soil P. Rotation crops may potentially influence P uptake by potato by increasing soil organic acids, phosphatase activity, and microbial biomass. However, this kind of information is very limited. We measured the activities of acid phosphatase,...

  13. Okadaic acid-sensitive protein phosphatases constrain phrenic long-term facilitation after sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Julia E R; Satriotomo, Irawan; Baker-Herman, Tracy L; Watters, Jyoti J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2008-03-12

    Phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) is a serotonin-dependent form of pattern-sensitive respiratory plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia (IH), but not sustained hypoxia (SH). The mechanism(s) underlying pLTF pattern sensitivity are unknown. SH and IH may differentially regulate serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity, thereby inhibiting relevant protein phosphatases uniquely during IH and conferring pattern sensitivity to pLTF. We hypothesized that spinal protein phosphatase inhibition would relieve this braking action of protein phosphatases, thereby revealing pLTF after SH. Anesthetized rats received intrathecal (C4) okadaic acid (25 nm) before SH (25 min, 11% O(2)). Unlike (vehicle) control rats, SH induced a significant pLTF in okadaic acid-treated rats that was indistinguishable from rats exposed to IH (three 5 min episodes, 11% O(2)). IH and SH with okadaic acid may elicit pLTF by similar, serotonin-dependent mechanisms, because intravenous methysergide blocks pLTF in rats receiving IH or okadaic acid plus SH. Okadaic acid did not alter IH-induced pLTF. In summary, pattern sensitivity in pLTF may reflect differential regulation of okadaic acid-sensitive serine/threonine phosphatases; presumably, these phosphatases are less active during/after IH versus SH. The specific okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase(s) constraining pLTF and their spatiotemporal dynamics during and/or after IH and SH remain to be determined. PMID:18337426

  14. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL–Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  15. Fluorescence labelling of phosphatase activity in digestive glands of carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Płachno, B J; Adamec, L; Lichtscheidl, I K; Peroutka, M; Adlassnig, W; Vrba, J

    2006-11-01

    A new ELF (enzyme labelled fluorescence) assay was applied to detect phosphatase activity in glandular structures of 47 carnivorous plant species, especially Lentibulariaceae, in order to understand their digestive activities. We address the following questions: (1) Are phosphatases produced by the plants and/or by inhabitants of the traps? (2) Which type of hairs/glands is involved in the production of phosphatases? (3) Is this phosphatase production a common feature among carnivorous plants or is it restricted to evolutionarily advanced species? Our results showed activity of the phosphatases in glandular structures of the majority of the plants tested, both from the greenhouse and from sterile culture. In addition, extracellular phosphatases can also be produced by trap inhabitants. In Utricularia, activity of phosphatase was detected in internal glands of 27 species from both primitive and advanced sections and different ecological groups. Further positive reactions were found in Genlisea, Pinguicula, Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Nepenthes, and Cephalotus. In Utricularia and Genlisea, enzymatic secretion was independent of stimulation by prey. Byblis and Roridula are usually considered as "proto-carnivores", lacking digestive enzymes. However, we found high activity of phosphatases in both species. Thus, they should be classified as true carnivores. We suggest that the inflorescence of Byblis and some Pinguicula species might also be an additional "carnivorous organ", which can trap a prey, digest it, and finally absorb available nutrients. PMID:16865659

  16. Relationship between phosphorus forms and phosphatase activity in soils amended with poultry manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up to 80% of the phosphorus (P) in poultry manure (PM) can be present in organic forms that require mineralization via phosphatase enzymes prior to plant utilization. To determine the correlation between soil P distribution and phosphatase activity we sequentially extracted two Maine soils amended...

  17. Alkaline phosphatase activity in normal and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Di Stilio, M; Piattelli, A

    2001-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seems to be important in the formation of mineralized tissues. High levels of ALP have been demonstrated in dental pulp cells. In the present study ALP activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic ALP control values for the normal healthy pulps were 110.96+/-20.93. In the reversible pulpitis specimens the ALP activity increased almost eight times to 853.6+/-148.27. In the irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased sharply to 137.15+/-21.28 and were roughly equivalent to those seen in normal healthy pulps. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of ALP in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:11487147

  18. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Substrates and Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Jesse; Haj, Fawaz G.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis requires integration of complex signaling networks which, when deregulated, contribute to metabolic syndrome and related disorders. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has emerged as a key regulator of signaling networks that are implicated in metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we examine mechanisms that regulate PTP1B-substrate interaction, enzymatic activity and experimental approaches to identify PTP1B substrates. We then highlight findings that implicate PTP1B in metabolic regulation. In particular, insulin and leptin signaling are discussed as well as recently identified PTP1B substrates that are involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell-cell communication, energy balance and vesicle trafficking. In summary, PTP1B exhibits exquisite substrate specificity and is an outstanding pharmaceutical target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25263014

  19. Decoding signals for membrane protein assembly using alkaline phosphatase fusions.

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, K; Ehrmann, M; Beckwith, J

    1991-01-01

    We have used genetic methods to investigate the role of the different domains of a bacterial cytoplasmic membrane protein, MalF, in determining its topology. This was done by analyzing the effects of MalF topology of deleting various domains of the protein using MalF-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. Our results show that the cytoplasmic domains of the protein are the pre-eminent topogenic signals. These domains contain information that determines their cytoplasmic location and, thus, the orientation of the membrane spanning segments surrounding them. Periplasmic domains do not appear to have equivalent information specifying their location and membrane spanning segments do not contain information defining their orientation in the membrane. The strength of cytoplasmic domains as topogenic signals varies, correlated with the density of positively charged amino acids within them. Images PMID:1915262

  20. Methods to monitor classical protein-tyrosine phosphatase oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Karisch, Robert; Neel, Benjamin G.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly H2O2, act as intracellular second messengers in many signaling pathways. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are now believed to be important targets of ROS. PTPs contain a conserved catalytic cysteine with an unusually low pKa. This property allows PTPs to execute nucleophilic attack on substrate phosphotyrosyl residues, but also renders them highly susceptible to oxidation. Reversible oxidation, which inactivates PTPs, is emerging as an important cellular regulatory mechanism and might contribute to human diseases, including cancer. Given their potential toxicity, it seems likely that ROS generation is highly controlled within cells to restrict oxidation to those PTPs that must be inactivated for signaling to proceed. Thus, identifying ROS-inactivated PTPs could be tantamount to finding the PTP(s) that critically regulate a specific signaling pathway. This article provides an overview of the methods currently available to identify and quantify PTP oxidation and outlines future challenges in redox signaling. PMID:22577968

  1. Intramolecular dynamics of structure of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhul, Vladimir M.; Mjakinnik, Igor V.; Volkova, Alena N.

    1995-01-01

    The luminescent analysis with nano- and millisecond time resolution of intramolecular dynamics of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase was carried out. The effect of pH within the range 7.2 - 9.0, thermal inactivation, limited proteolysis by trypsin, binding of pyrophosphate, interconversion of enzyme and apoenzyme, the replacement of Zn2+ and Mg2+ in the active site by Cd2+ and Ni2+ on the spectral and kinetic parameters of luminescence was investigated. The essential changes of the level of nano- and millisecond dynamics of protein structure were found to correlate with the shift of enzymatic activity. The importance of small- and large-scale flexibility of protein structure for the act of enzymatic catalysis realization was shown.

  2. The influence of complexing pharmaceutical compositions on alkaline phosphatase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Stepina, N. D.; Novikova, N. N.; Yur'eva, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    It is established that the pharmaceutical compositions xydiphon, medifon, succimer, and EDTA, which are used as complexing agents for accelerating the excretion of heavy metals from human organism, at certain concentrations inhibit enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP). It is concluded that xydiphon and EDTA have a noticeable effect on AP activity at concentrations over 0.01 mM; medifon and succimer, at concentrations of over 0.3-0.5 mM. The enzyme's inhibition constants and type of inhibition are determined. Xydiphon is found to manifest the highest affinity to AP ( K I = 0.35 mM). It is shown by kinetic analysis that dissociative chemoinactivation of the enzyme takes place under the action of complexing agents. The corresponding kinetic parameters are calculated.

  3. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kang, Il-Byeong; Jeong, Dana; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  4. Follow-up on the Berg acid phosphatase test.

    PubMed

    Schiff, A F

    1998-03-01

    Approximately 42 years ago, the Berg acid phosphatase (AP) test (1) was accepted in most rape treatment centers nationally as the standard to determine whether sexual intercourse or related actions in any form had occurred. More specifically, the test was designed to determine the presence of a certain enzyme. In October 1969, I published an article making the test simpler (2) and reviewing the history of various tests for the detection of AP, an enzyme found in great abundance in seminal fluid. Both AP-impregnated material and refrigerated reagents had been saved along with a quantity of seminal fluid used in the original tests. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 25-year-old seminal fluid in any form can still be identified by the AP test and whether 25-year-old chemicals have remained stable and are still usable. PMID:9539395

  5. Covalent Docking Predicts Substrates for Haloalkanoate Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme function prediction remains an important open problem. Though structure-based modeling, such as metabolite docking, can identify substrates of some enzymes, it is ill-suited to reactions that progress through a covalent intermediate. Here we investigated the ability of covalent docking to identify substrates that pass through such a covalent intermediate, focusing particularly on the haloalkanoate dehalogenase superfamily. In retrospective assessments, covalent docking recapitulated substrate binding modes of known cocrystal structures and identified experimental substrates from a set of putative phosphorylated metabolites. In comparison, noncovalent docking of high-energy intermediates yielded nonproductive poses. In prospective predictions against seven enzymes, a substrate was identified for five. For one of those cases, a covalent docking prediction, confirmed by empirical screening, and combined with genomic context analysis, suggested the identity of the enzyme that catalyzes the orphan phosphatase reaction in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway of Bacteroides. PMID:25513739

  6. The effect of sorbitol on acid phosphatase deactivation.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, L; Toscano, G; Pirozzi, D; Greco, G

    1991-12-01

    Acid phosphatase thermal deactivation follows a complex path: an initial decay toward an equilibrium distribution of at least two intermediate structures, mutually at the equilibrium, followed by a final breakdown toward a completely inactive enzyme configuration. The results obtained in the presence of sorbitol have been compared to those produced in the course of purely thermal deactivation of the native enzyme. For any sobitol concentration, an equivalent temperature is calculated that results in exactly the same activity-versus-time profile. This suggests enzyme deactivation to be controlled by a single, unchanging step. Immobilized enzyme runs have been performed, as well, by entrapping acid phosphates within a polymeric network formed onto the upstream surface of an ultrafiltration membrane. The stabilizing effect of entrapment cumulates with that produced by sorbitol. In this case, however, an equivalent temperature cannot be determined, thus indicating that a different deactivation mechanism is followed. PMID:18600710

  7. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  8. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  9. Lack of relationship between activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and calcium or phosphate absorption.

    PubMed

    Asteggiano, C; Tolosa, N; Pereira, R; Moreno, J; Cañas, F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of vitamin D3 and the aqueous extract of Solanum malacoxylon on intestinal alkaline phosphatase and tissue phosphate content were studied on rachitic chicks treated with large doses of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1 diphosphonate (EHDP). The EHDP treatment blocks the increase of intestinal calcium or phosphate absorption induced by the vitamin D3, while it has no effects on the rise of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity or the increment in tissue phosphate content. The lack of correlation between the increment of alkaline phosphatase and that of Ca or phosphate absorption in vitamin D3 plus EHDP treated chicks excludes a participation of the alkaline phosphatase in the mechanism of Ca or P intestinal absorption. The Ca or phosphorus absorption are elicited specifically by 1,25-(OH)2-D3, while alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphate tissue concentration respond to a broader spectrum of stimuli. PMID:6316731

  10. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  11. Identification and enzymatic characterization of acid phosphatase from Burkholderia gladioli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Burkholderia is widespread in diverse ecological niches, the majority of known species are soil bacteria that exhibit different types of non-pathogenic interactions with plants. Burkholderia species are versatile organisms that solubilize insoluble minerals through the production of organic acids, which increase the availability of nutrients for the plant. Therefore these bacteria are promising candidates for biotechnological applications. Results Burkholderia sp. (R 3.25 isolate) was isolated from agricultural soil in Ponta Grossa-PR-Brazil and identified through analysis of the 16S rDNA as a strain classified as Burkholderia gladioli. The expression of membrane-bound acid phosphatase (MBAcP) was strictly regulated with optimal expression at a concentration of phosphorus 5 mM. The apparent optimum pH for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) was 6.0. The hydrolysis of PNPP by the enzyme exhibited a hyperbolic relationship with increasing concentration of substrate and no inhibition by excess of substrate was observed. Kinetic data revealed that the hydrolysis of PNPP exhibited cooperative kinetics with n = 1.3, Vm = 113.5 U/mg and K0.5 = 65 μM. The PNPPase activity was inhibited by vanadate, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, arsenate and phosphate, however the activity was not inhibited by calcium, levamisole, sodium tartrate, EDTA, zinc, magnesium, cobalt, ouabain, oligomycin or pantoprazol. Conclusion The synthesis of membrane-bound non-specific acid phosphatase, strictly regulated by phosphate, and its properties suggest that this bacterium has a potential biotechnological application to solubilize phosphate in soils with low levels of this element, for specific crops. PMID:24713147

  12. Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue gene) haploinsufficiency promotes insulin hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J. T.; Kim, P. T. W.; Peacock, J. W.; Yau, T. Y.; Mui, A. L.-F.; Chung, S. W.; Sossi, V.; Doudet, D.; Green, D.; Ruth, T. J.; Parsons, R.; Verchere, C. B.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin controls glucose metabolism via multiple signalling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in muscle and adipose tissue. The protein/lipid phosphatase Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) attenuates PI3K signalling by dephosphorylating the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate generated by PI3K. The current study was aimed at investigating the effect of haploinsufficiency for Pten on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Materials and methods Insulin sensitivity in Pten heterozygous (Pten+/−) mice was investigated in i.p. insulin challenge and glucose tolerance tests. Glucose uptake was monitored in vitro in primary cultures of myocytes from Pten+/− mice, and in vivo by positron emission tomography. The phosphorylation status of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), a downstream signalling protein in the PI3K pathway, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a substrate of PKB/Akt, was determined by western immunoblotting. Results Following i.p. insulin challenge, blood glucose levels in Pten+/− mice remained depressed for up to 120 min, whereas glucose levels in wild-type mice began to recover after approximately 30 min. After glucose challenge, blood glucose returned to normal about twice as rapidly in Pten+/− mice. Enhanced glucose uptake was observed both in Pten+/− myocytes and in skeletal muscle of Pten+/− mice by PET. PKB and GSK3β phosphorylation was enhanced and prolonged in Pten+/− myocytes. Conclusions/interpretation Pten is a key negative regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. The partial reduction of Pten due to Pten haploinsufficiency is enough to elicit enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in Pten+/− mice. PMID:17195063

  13. Phosphatase activity in the limb bones of monkeys (Lagothrix humboldti) with hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Jeffree, Grace M.

    1962-01-01

    The paper reports a study of the distribution of phosphatases in the femora of three specimens of Humboldt's woolly monkey (Lagothrix humboldti) suffering from chronic hyperparathyroidism. Bone structure ranged from the apparently normal to extreme osteitis fibrosa. Most marked changes were found in the distribution of alkaline phosphatase, which reached at least 10 times the normal levels in the bone of the second monkey in the series, dropping to levels still well above normal in that of the most severely affected animal. Very high concentrations were found in the deeper layers of hypertrophied growth cartilage and in the osteoblasts lining poorly calcified trabeculae, and high concentrations in the fibre bone of the third animal. Lack of mineralization and the development of osteitis fibrosa are thus associated with a marked increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Osteoclasts reacted strongly for acid phosphatase but were negative for alkaline phosphatase. Acid phosphatase levels were comparatively high in fibre bone, but overall levels ranged from 1/20 to less than 1/100 those of alkaline phosphatase. Some slow staining for acid phosphatase probably represents residual activity at acid pH of the markedly increased alkaline phosphatase. There may be some association between a failure of mineralization and the presence of acid phosphatase in osteoclasts and osteoid. The aetiology of the monkeys' condition is discussed. It seems likely that the parathyroid hypertrophy and rachitic changes were caused by low blood calcium dependent on a low calcium diet and lack of vitamin D, in which the requirements of New World monkeys are reputedly high. Images PMID:14451521

  14. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3–7 μM; Vmax, 150–193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism. PMID:22217705

  15. The dynamics of alkaline phosphatase activity during operculum regeneration in the polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Réka; Ferrier, David E K

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase enzymes are found throughout the living world and fulfil a variety of functions. They have been linked to regeneration, stem cells and biomineralisation in a range of animals. Here we describe the pattern of alkaline phosphatase activity in a spiralian appendage, the operculum of the serpulid polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii. The P. lamarckii operculum is reinforced by a calcified opercular plate and is capable of rapid regeneration, making it an ideal model system to study these key processes in annelids. Alkaline phosphatase activity is present in mesodermal tissues of both intact and regenerating opercular filaments, in a strongly regionalised pattern correlated with major morphological features. Based on the lack of epidermal activity and the broad distribution of staining in mesodermal tissues, calcification- or stem cell-specific roles are unlikely. Transcriptomic data reveal that at least four distinct genes contribute to the detected activity. Opercular alkaline phosphatase activity is sensitive to levamisole. Phylogenetic analysis of metazoan alkaline phosphatases indicates homology of the P. lamarckii sequences to other annelid alkaline phosphatases, and shows that metazoan alkaline phosphatase evolution was characterised by extensive lineage-specific duplications. PMID:25690977

  16. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:27525888

  17. Inhibition of acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatases by novel vanadium complexes.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, Craig C; Hooker, Jaqueline D; Jones, Marjorie A; Dymon, Zaneta; Backhus, Emily A; Greiner, Bradley A; Dorner, Nicole A; Youkhana, Mary A; Manus, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    In the course of our investigations of vanadium-containing complexes for use as insulin-enhancing agents, we have generated a series of novel vanadium coordination complexes with bidentate ligands. Specifically we have focused on two ligands: anthranilate (anc(-)), a natural metabolite of tryptophan, and imidizole-4-carboxylate (imc(-)), meant to mimic naturally occurring N-donor ligands. For each ligand, we have generated a series of complexes containing the V(III), V(IV), and V(V) oxidation states. Each complex was investigated using phosphatase inhibition studies of three different phosphatases (acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatase) as prima facia evidence for potential use as an insulin-enhancing agent. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as an artificial phosphatase substrate, the levels of inhibition were determined by measuring the absorbance of the product at 405nm using UV/vis spectroscopy. Under our experimental conditions, for instance, V(imc)(3) appears to be as potent an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase as sodium orthovanadate when comparing the K(cat)/K(m) term. VO(anc)(2) is as potent an inhibitor of acid phosphatase and tyrosine phosphatase as the Na(3)VO(4). Thus, use of these complexes can increase our mechanistic understanding of the effects of vanadium in vivo. PMID:20071031

  18. Biochemical localization of the alkaline phosphatase of Bacillus licheniformis as a function of culture age.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, J A; Schaffel, S D; McNicholas, J M; Hulett, F M

    1977-01-01

    Biochemical localization of the enzyme as a function of age of cell culture showed the alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.1) activity of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 predominantly in the particulate cell fraction in early- and mid-log cells. However, in late-log and stationary cells, increasing amounts of activity were found in the soluble fraction of lysed cells. Upon protoplast formation of these cells, the activity was released into the soluble fraction. No alkaline phosphatase activity was found in either the cytoplasmic fraction or in the cell medium during any phase of cell growth. The soluble fraction released on protoplast formation that contained alkaline phosphatase activity showed immunological cross-reactivity with antibody to the purified heat--salt-solubilized membrane alkaline phosphatase (F. M. Hulett-Cowling and L. L. Campbell, 1971). Theparticulate membrane fraction containing a firmly associated alkaline phosphatase also showed similar cross-reactivity. Further, the effectiveness of nonionic detergents, ionic detergents, bile salts, and various concentrations of magnesium and sodium as solubilizing agents for this membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase was investigated. Hexadecyl pyridinium chloride (0.03 M) and magnesium and sodium salts (above 0.2 M) were effective solubilizing agents. The substrate specificities of the various fractions were determined and compared to the substrate specificities of the purified membrane alkaline phosphatase. Images PMID:838674

  19. Biochemical localization of the alkaline phosphatase of Bacillus licheniformis as a function of culture age.

    PubMed

    Glynn, J A; Schaffel, S D; McNicholas, J M; Hulett, F M

    1977-02-01

    Biochemical localization of the enzyme as a function of age of cell culture showed the alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.1) activity of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 predominantly in the particulate cell fraction in early- and mid-log cells. However, in late-log and stationary cells, increasing amounts of activity were found in the soluble fraction of lysed cells. Upon protoplast formation of these cells, the activity was released into the soluble fraction. No alkaline phosphatase activity was found in either the cytoplasmic fraction or in the cell medium during any phase of cell growth. The soluble fraction released on protoplast formation that contained alkaline phosphatase activity showed immunological cross-reactivity with antibody to the purified heat--salt-solubilized membrane alkaline phosphatase (F. M. Hulett-Cowling and L. L. Campbell, 1971). Theparticulate membrane fraction containing a firmly associated alkaline phosphatase also showed similar cross-reactivity. Further, the effectiveness of nonionic detergents, ionic detergents, bile salts, and various concentrations of magnesium and sodium as solubilizing agents for this membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase was investigated. Hexadecyl pyridinium chloride (0.03 M) and magnesium and sodium salts (above 0.2 M) were effective solubilizing agents. The substrate specificities of the various fractions were determined and compared to the substrate specificities of the purified membrane alkaline phosphatase. PMID:838674

  20. Purification and properties of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase phosphatase from bovine kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Damuni, Z; Merryfield, M L; Humphreys, J S; Reed, L J

    1984-01-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) phosphatase was purified about 8000-fold from extracts of bovine kidney mitochondria. The highly purified phosphatase exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 460,000, as estimated by gel-permeation chromatography. Another form of the phosphatase, with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 230,000, was also detected under conditions of high dilution. In contrast to pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, BCKDH phosphatase was active in the absence of divalent cations. BCKDH phosphatase was inactive toward 32P-labeled phosphorylase a, but exhibited approximately 10% maximal activity with 32P-labeled pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. BCKDH phosphatase activity was inhibited by GTP, GDP, ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, CTP, and CDP. Half-maximal inhibition occurred at about 60, 200, 200, 400, 100, 250, 250, and 400 microM, respectively. These inhibitions were reversed completely by 2 mM Mg2+. GTP was replaceable by guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate. GMP, AMP, UMP, CMP, NAD, and NADH showed little effect, if any, on BCKDH phosphatase activity at concentrations up to 1 mM. Heparin showed half-maximal inhibition at 2 micrograms/ml. This inhibition was only partially (30%) reversed by 2 mM Mg2+. CoA and various acyl-CoA compounds exhibited half-maximal inhibition at 150-300 microM. These inhibitions were not reversed by 2 mM Mg2+. BCKDH phosphatase activity was stimulated 1.5- to 3-fold by protamine, poly(L-lysine), and poly(L-arginine) at 3.6 micrograms/ml. PMID:6589597

  1. Protein Phosphatases Decrease Their Activity during Capacitation: A New Requirement for This Event

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Janetti R.; Díaz, Emilce S.; Fara, Karla; Barón, Lina; Morales, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports on the role of protein phosphatases during capacitation. Here, we report on the role of PP2B, PP1, and PP2A during human sperm capacitation. Motile sperm were resuspended in non-capacitating medium (NCM, Tyrode's medium, albumin- and bicarbonate-free) or in reconstituted medium (RCM, NCM plus 2.6% albumin/25 mM bicarbonate). The presence of the phosphatases was evaluated by western blotting and the subcellular localization by indirect immunofluorescence. The function of these phosphatases was analyzed by incubating the sperm with specific inhibitors: okadaic acid, I2, endothall, and deltamethrin. Different aliquots were incubated in the following media: 1) NCM; 2) NCM plus inhibitors; 3) RCM; and 4) RCM plus inhibitors. The percent capacitated sperm and phosphatase activities were evaluated using the chlortetracycline assay and a phosphatase assay kit, respectively. The results confirm the presence of PP2B and PP1 in human sperm. We also report the presence of PP2A, specifically, the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunits PR65 and B. PP2B and PP2A were present in the tail, neck, and postacrosomal region, and PP1 was present in the postacrosomal region, neck, middle, and principal piece of human sperm. Treatment with phosphatase inhibitors rapidly (≤1 min) increased the percent of sperm depicting the pattern B, reaching a maximum of ∼40% that was maintained throughout incubation; after 3 h, the percent of capacitated sperm was similar to that of the control. The enzymatic activity of the phosphatases decreased during capacitation without changes in their expression. The pattern of phosphorylation on threonine residues showed a sharp increase upon treatment with the inhibitors. In conclusion, human sperm express PP1, PP2B, and PP2A, and the activity of these phosphatases decreases during capacitation. This decline in phosphatase activities and the subsequent increase in threonine phosphorylation may be an important requirement for the

  2. An inactive protein phosphatase 2A population is associated with methylesterase and can be re-activated by the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator.

    PubMed Central

    Longin, Sari; Jordens, Jan; Martens, Ellen; Stevens, Ilse; Janssens, Veerle; Rondelez, Evelien; De Baere, Ivo; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Goris, Jozef; Van Hoof, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We have described recently the purification and cloning of PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) leucine carboxylmethyltransferase. We studied the purification of a PP2A-specific methylesterase that co-purifies with PP2A and found that it is tightly associated with an inactive dimeric or trimeric form of PP2A. These inactive enzyme forms could be reactivated as Ser/Thr phosphatase by PTPA (phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of PP2A). PTPA was described previously by our group as a protein that stimulates the in vitro phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of PP2A; however, PP2A-specific methyltransferase could not bring about the activation. The PTPA activation could be distinguished from the Mn2+ stimulation observed with some inactive forms of PP2A, also found associated with PME-1 (phosphatase methylesterase 1). We discuss a potential new function for PME-1 as an enzyme that stabilizes an inactivated pool of PP2A. PMID:14748741

  3. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Wu, C. H.; Beazley, M. J.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Taillefert, M.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons development. Due to the scale of environmental contamination, in situ sequestration of heavy metals and radionuclides remain the most cost-effective strategy for remediation. We are currently investigating a remediation approach that utilizes periplasmic and extracellular microbial phosphatase activity of soil bacteria capable promoting in situ uranium phosphate sequestration. Our studies focus on the contaminated soils from the DOE Field Research Center (ORFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. We have previously demonstrated that ORFRC strains with phosphatase-positive phenotypes were capable of promoting the precpitation of >95% U(VI) as a low solubility phosphate mineral during growth on glycerol phosphate as a sole carbon and phosphorus source. Here we present culture-independent soil slurry studies aimed at understanding microbial community dynamics resulting from exogenous organophosphate additions. Soil slurries containing glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and nitrate as the sole C, P and N sources were incubated under oxic growth conditions at pH 5.5 or pH 6.8. Following treatments, total DNA was extracted and prokaryotic diversity was assessed using high-density 16S oligonucleotide microarray (PhyloChip) analysis. Treatments at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8 amended with G2P required 36 days to accumulate 4.8mM and 2.2 mM phosphate, respectively. In contrast, treatments at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8 amended with G3P accumulated 8.9 mM and 8.7 mM phosphate, respectively, after 20 days. A total of 2120 unique taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families were detected among all treatment conditions. The phyla that significantly (P<0.05) increased in abundance relative to incubations lacking organophosphate amendments included: Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Members from the classes Bacteroidetes

  4. The use of the tyrosine phosphatase antagonist orthovanadate in the study of a cell proliferation inhibitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enebo, D. J.; Hanek, G.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Incubation of murine fibroblasts with orthovanadate, a global tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, was shown to confer a "pseudo-transformed" phenotype with regard to cell morphology and growth characteristics. This alteration was manifested by both an increasing refractile appearance of the cells, consistent with many transformed cell lines, as well as an increase in maximum cell density was attained. Despite the abrogation of cellular tyrosine phosphatase activity, orthovanadate-treated cells remained sensitive to the biological activity of a naturally occurring sialoglycopeptide (SGP) cell surface proliferation inhibitor. The results indicated that tyrosine phosphatase activity, inhibited by orthovanadate, was not involved in the signal transduction pathway of the SGP.

  5. Phosphonate derivatives of tetraazamacrocycles as new inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kobzar, Oleksandr L; Shevchuk, Michael V; Lyashenko, Alesya N; Tanchuk, Vsevolod Yu; Romanenko, Vadim D; Kobelev, Sergei M; Averin, Alexei D; Beletskaya, Irina P; Vovk, Andriy I; Kukhar, Valery P

    2015-07-21

    α,α-Difluoro-β-ketophosphonated derivatives of tetraazamacrocycles were synthesized and found to be potential inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases. N-Substituted conjugates of cyclam and cyclen with bioisosteric phosphonate groups displayed good activities toward T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase with IC50 values in the micromolar to nanomolar range and showed selectivity over PTP1B, CD45, SHP2, and PTPβ. Kinetic studies indicated that the inhibitors can occupy the region of the active site of TC-PTP. This study demonstrates a new approach which employs tetraazamacrocycles as a molecular platform for designing inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases. PMID:26058329

  6. Alkaline phosphatase from Bacillus licheniformis. Solubility dependent on magnesium, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Schaffel, S D; Hulett, F M

    1978-10-12

    The membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1) from Bacillus licheniformis MC14, a facultative thermophile, was purified to homogeneity in buffer containing 0.2 M Mg2+. The alkaline phosphatase purified in this manner is insoluble upon removal of the magnesium by dialysis. This insoluble alkaline phosphatase has been characterized and compared to the previously purified heat-solubilized enzyme (Hulett-Cowling, F.M. and Campbell, L.L. (1971) Biochemistry 10, 1364--1371). PMID:718947

  7. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage-sensing lipid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sasha S; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-04-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We found that the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), has not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Using fast fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage-clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we found that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage-sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This two-step allosteric control over a dual-specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility, endocytosis and exocytosis. PMID:26878552

  8. Alkaline phosphatase from venom of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yin Ye, Gong; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2010-01-01

    Using chromogenic substrates 5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) was histochemically detected in the venom apparatus of an endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum L. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Ultrastructural observations demonstrated its presence in the secretory vesicles and nuclei of the venom gland secretory cells. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate to measure enzyme activity, the venom ALPase was found to be temperature dependent with bivalent cation effects. The full-length cDNA sequence of ALPase was amplified from the cDNA library of the venom apparatus of P. puparum, providing the first molecular characterization of ALPase in the venom of a parasitoid wasp. The cDNA consisted of 2645 bp with a 1623 bp open reading frame coding for 541 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 59.83 kDa and pI of 6.98. Using multiple sequence alignment, the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity to its counterparts from other insects. A signal peptide and a long conserved ALPase gene family signature sequence were observed. The amino acid sequence of this venom protein was characterized with different potential glycosylation, myristoylation, phosphorylation sites and metal ligand sites. The transcript of the ALPase gene was detected by RT-PCR in the venom apparatus with development related expression after adult wasp emergence, suggesting a possible correlation with the oviposition process. PMID:20575745

  9. Uranium Biomineralization By Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefert, Martial

    2015-04-01

    This project investigated the geochemical and microbial processes associated with the biomineralization of radionuclides in subsurface soils. During this study, it was determined that microbial communities from the Oak Ridge Field Research subsurface are able to express phosphatase activities that hydrolyze exogenous organophosphate compounds and result in the non-reductive bioimmobilization of U(VI) phosphate minerals in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The changes of the microbial community structure associated with the biomineralization of U(VI) was determined to identify the main organisms involved in the biomineralization process, and the complete genome of two isolates was sequenced. In addition, it was determined that both phytate, the main source of natural organophosphate compounds in natural environments, and polyphosphate accumulated in cells could also be hydrolyzed by native microbial population to liberate enough orthophosphate and precipitate uranium phosphate minerals. Finally, the minerals produced during this process are stable in low pH conditions or environments where the production of dissolved inorganic carbon is moderate. These findings suggest that the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate minerals is an attractive bioremediation strategy to uranium bioreduction in low pH uranium-contaminated environments. These efforts support the goals of the SBR long-term performance measure by providing key information on "biological processes influencing the form and mobility of DOE contaminants in the subsurface".

  10. Carcinogenic Aspects of Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2A Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells. The mechanism of tumor promotion with oka-daic acid is thus completely different from that of the classic tumor promoter phorbol ester. Other potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A - such as dinophysistoxin-1, calyculins A-H, microcystin-LR and its derivatives, and nodularin - were isolated from marine organisms, and their structural features including the crystal structure of the PP1-inhibitor complex, tumor promoting activities, and biochemical and biological effects, are here reviewed. The compounds induced tumor promoting activity in three different organs, including mouse skin, rat glandular stomach and rat liver, initiated with three different carcinogens. The results indicate that inhibition of PP1 and PP2A is a general mechanism of tumor promotion applicable to various organs. This study supports the concept of endogenous tumor promoters in human cancer development.

  11. Structural basis of protein phosphatase 2A stable latency

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Stanevich, Vitali; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Kong, Mei; Watkins, Guy R.; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Sengupta, Rituparna; Xing, Yongna

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac) is stabilized in a latent form by α4, a regulatory protein essential for cell survival and biogenesis of all PP2A complexes. Here we report the structure of α4 bound to the N-terminal fragment of PP2Ac. This structure suggests that α4 binding to the full-length PP2Ac requires local unfolding near the active site, which perturbs the scaffold subunit binding site at the opposite surface via allosteric relay. These changes stabilize an inactive conformation of PP2Ac and convert oligomeric PP2A complexes to the α4 complex upon perturbation of the active site. The PP2Ac–α4 interface is essential for cell survival and sterically hinders a PP2A ubiquitination site, important for the stability of cellular PP2Ac. Our results show that α4 is a scavenger chaperone that binds to and stabilizes partially folded PP2Ac for stable latency, and reveal a mechanism by which α4 regulates cell survival, and biogenesis and surveillance of PP2A holoenzymes. PMID:23591866

  12. Role of Striatal-Enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase in Neuronal Function.

    PubMed

    Kamceva, Marija; Benedict, Jessie; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a CNS-enriched protein implicated in multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. STEP regulates key signaling proteins required for synaptic strengthening as well as NMDA and AMPA receptor trafficking. Both high and low levels of STEP disrupt synaptic function and contribute to learning and behavioral deficits. High levels of STEP are present in human postmortem samples and animal models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia and in animal models of fragile X syndrome. Low levels of STEP activity are present in additional disorders that include ischemia, Huntington's chorea, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Thus the current model of STEP is that optimal levels are required for optimal synaptic function. Here we focus on the role of STEP in Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms by which STEP activity is increased in this illness. Both genetic lowering of STEP levels and pharmacological inhibition of STEP activity in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease reverse the biochemical and cognitive abnormalities that are present. These findings suggest that STEP is an important point for modulation of proteins required for synaptic plasticity. PMID:27190655

  13. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2015-04-06

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  14. Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue: Novel Regulation by Developmental Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jerde, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a critical cell endogenous inhibitor of phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian cells. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP3), and by so doing PTEN has the function of negative regulation of Akt, thereby inhibiting this key intracellular signal transduction pathway. In numerous cell types, PTEN loss-of-function mutations result in unopposed Akt signaling, producing numerous effects on cells. Numerous reports exist regarding mutations in PTEN leading to unregulated Akt and human disease, most notably cancer. However, less is commonly known about nonmutational regulation of PTEN. This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Specifically, a focus is placed on the role developmental signaling pathways play in PTEN regulation; this includes insulin-like growth factor, NOTCH, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, wnt, and hedgehog signaling. The regulation of PTEN by developmental mediators affects critical biological processes including neuronal and organ development, stem cell maintenance, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, response to hypoxia, repair and recovery, and cell death and survival. Perturbations of PTEN regulation consequently lead to human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes, developmental abnormalities, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. PMID:26339505

  15. Structural and biochemical characterization of a halophilic archaeal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wende, Andy; Johansson, Patrik; Vollrath, Ronnald; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Grininger, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Phosphate is an essential component of all cells that must be taken up from the environment. Prokaryotes commonly secrete alkaline phosphatases (APs) to recruit phosphate from organic compounds by hydrolysis. In this study, the AP from Halobacterium salinarum, an archaeon that lives in a saturated salt environment, has been functionally and structurally characterized. The core fold and the active-site architecture of the H. salinarum enzyme are similar to other AP structures. These generally form dimers composed of dominant beta-sheet structures sandwiched by alpha-helices and have well-accessible active sites. The surface of the enzyme is predicted to be highly negatively charged, like other proteins of extreme halophiles. In addition to the conserved core, most APs contain a crown domain that strongly varies within species. In the H. salinarum AP, the crown domain is made of an acyl-carrier-protein-like fold. Different from other APs, it is not involved in dimer formation. We compare the archaeal AP with its bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts, and we focus on the role of crown domains in enhancing protein stability, regulating enzyme function, and guiding phosphoesters into the active-site funnel. PMID:20438737

  16. Structure of the Protein Phosphatase 2A Holoenzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,Y.; Xing, Y.; Chen, Y.; Chao, Y.; Lin, Z.; Fan, E.; Yu, J.; Strack, S.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays an essential role in many aspects of cellular physiology. The PP2A holoenzyme consists of a heterodimeric core enzyme, which comprises a scaffolding subunit and a catalytic subunit, and a variable regulatory subunit. Here we report the crystal structure of the heterotrimeric PP2A holoenzyme involving the regulatory subunit B'/B56/PR61. Surprisingly, the B'/PR61 subunit has a HEAT-like (huntingtin-elongation-A subunit-TOR-like) repeat structure, similar to that of the scaffolding subunit. The regulatory B'/B56/PR61 subunit simultaneously interacts with the catalytic subunit as well as the conserved ridge of the scaffolding subunit. The carboxyterminus of the catalytic subunit recognizes a surface groove at the interface between the B'/B56/PR61 subunit and the scaffolding subunit. Compared to the scaffolding subunit in the PP2A core enzyme, formation of the holoenzyme forces the scaffolding subunit to undergo pronounced conformational rearrangements. This structure reveals significant ramifications for understanding the function and regulation of PP2A.

  17. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase of spinach acts as a phosphoenzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Z.B.; Seal, S.N.

    1987-05-01

    When /sup 32/P-glycolate and phosphoglycolate phosphatase from spinach are mixed, /sup 32/P is incorporated into acid precipitated protein. Properties that relate this phosphorylation to the enzyme are: The K/sub m/ value for P-glycolate is similar for protein phosphorylation and substrate hydrolysis; the /sup 32/P appearing in the phosphoenzyme is diluted by unlabeled P-glycolate or the alternative substrate, ethyl-P; the activator Cl/sup -/ enhances the effectiveness of ethyl-P as a substrate and as an inhibitor of the formation of /sup 32/P-enzyme; and /sup 32/P is lost from the enzyme when /sup 32/P-glycolate is consumed. The acid denatured phosphorylated protein is a molecule of 34,000 Da, which is half of the molecular weight of the native protein and is similar in size to the labeled band that is seen on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme-bound phosphoryl group appears to be an acyl-phosphate from its pH stability, being quite stable at pH 1, less stable at pH 5, and very unstable above pH 5. The bond is readily hydrolyzed in acid molybdate and it is sensitive to cleavage by hydroxylamine at pH 6.8. The demonstration of enzyme phosphorylation by /sup 32/P-glycolate resolves the dilemma presented by initial rate studies in which alternative substrates appeared to have different mechanisms.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  19. Protein tyrosine phosphatases expression during development of mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Horvat-Bröcker, Andrea; Illes, Sebastian; Zaremba, Angelika; Knyazev, Piotr; Ullrich, Axel; Faissner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of different processes during development of the central nervous system. However, expression patterns and potential roles of PTPs in the developing superior colliculus remain poorly investigated. In this study, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used to isolate seven different intracellular PTPs and nine different receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) from embryonic E15 mouse superior colliculus. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 11 PTPs (TC-PTP, PTP1C, PTP1D, PTP-MEG2, PTP-PEST, RPTPJ, RPTPε, RPTPRR, RPTPσ, RPTPκ and RPTPγ) were further analyzed in detail in superior colliculus from embryonic E13 to postnatal P20 stages by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Each of the 11 PTPs exhibits distinct spatiotemporal regulation of mRNAs and proteins in the developing superior colliculus suggesting their versatile roles in genesis of neuronal and glial cells and retinocollicular topographic mapping. At E13, additional double-immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PTPs in collicular nestin-positive neural progenitor cells and RC-2-immunoreactive radial glia cells, indicating the potential functional importance of PTPs in neurogenesis and gliogenesis. PMID:19727691

  20. Redox and zinc signalling pathways converging on protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Elisa; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Zinc ions, though redox-inert, have either pro-antioxidant or pro-oxidant functions at critical junctures in redox metabolism and redox signalling. They are released from cells and in cells, e.g. from metallothionein, a protein that transduces redox signals into zinc signals (1). The released zinc ions inhibit enzymes such as protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), key regulatory enzymes of cellular phosphorylation signalling. The Ki(Zn) value for inhibition of receptor PTPB is 21pM (2). The binding is about as tight as the binding of zinc to zinc metalloenzymes and suggests tonic zinc inhibition. PTP1-B (PTPN1), an enzyme regulating the insulin and leptin receptors and involved in cancer and diabetes pathobiochemistry, has a Ki(Zn) value of about 5nM (3). Zinc ions bind to the enzyme in the closed conformation when additional metal-binding ligands are brought into the vicinity of the active site. In contrast, redox reactions target cysteines in the active sites of PTPs in the open conformation. This work provides a molecular basis how hydrogen peroxide and free zinc ions generated by growth factor signalling stimulate phosphorylation signalling differentially. (Supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council UK, grant BB/K001442/1.). PMID:26461422

  1. Protein Phosphatase-1 regulates Rift Valley fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Shafagati, Nazly; Benedict, Ashwini; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hakami, Ramin M; Terasaki, Kaori; Makino, Shinji; Nekhai, Sergei; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus family Bunyaviridae, is an arthropod-borne virus endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Recent outbreaks have resulted in cyclic epidemics with an increasing geographic footprint, devastating both livestock and human populations. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of RVFV. To date there are no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines for RVF and there is an urgent need for their development. The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has previously been shown to play a significant role in the replication of several viruses. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PP1 plays a prominent role in RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle. Both siRNA knockdown of PP1α and a novel PP1-targeting small molecule compound 1E7-03, resulted in decreased viral titers across several cell lines. Deregulation of PP1 was found to inhibit viral RNA production, potentially through the disruption of viral RNA transcript/protein interactions, and indicates a potential link between PP1α and the viral L polymerase and nucleoprotein. These results indicate that PP1 activity is important for RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle and may prove an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26801627

  2. Phosphoglycosylation of a secreted acid phosphatase from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Lippert, D N; Dwyer, D W; Li, F; Olafson, R W

    1999-06-01

    The secreted acid phosphatase (SAcP) of L.donovani is a heterogeneous glycoprotein that displays a wide array of N- and O-linked glycosylations. The O-linked sugars are of particular interest due to their similarity to the phosphoglycan structures of the major lipophosphoglycan surface antigen and released phosphoglycan (Turco et al., 1987; Greis et al., 1992). This study describes a structural analysis of the SAcP O-linked glycosylations using mass spectroscopy, amino acid sequencing, and enzymatic carbohydrate sequencing. Analysis of glycan chain lengths and peptide glycosylation site distribution was performed, revealing that the average O-linked structure was approximately 32 repeat units in length. Amino acid sequence analysis of glycosylated peptides showed that phosphoglycosylations did not occur randomly but were localized to specific serine residues within an array of degenerate serine/threonine-rich repeat sequences localized in the C-terminus. No evidence was obtained for modification of threonine residues. The observed pattern suggested that a consensus sequence may exist for localization of phosphoglycan structures. PMID:10336996

  3. Role of Striatal-Enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase in Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    Lombroso, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a CNS-enriched protein implicated in multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. STEP regulates key signaling proteins required for synaptic strengthening as well as NMDA and AMPA receptor trafficking. Both high and low levels of STEP disrupt synaptic function and contribute to learning and behavioral deficits. High levels of STEP are present in human postmortem samples and animal models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia and in animal models of fragile X syndrome. Low levels of STEP activity are present in additional disorders that include ischemia, Huntington's chorea, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Thus the current model of STEP is that optimal levels are required for optimal synaptic function. Here we focus on the role of STEP in Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms by which STEP activity is increased in this illness. Both genetic lowering of STEP levels and pharmacological inhibition of STEP activity in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease reverse the biochemical and cognitive abnormalities that are present. These findings suggest that STEP is an important point for modulation of proteins required for synaptic plasticity. PMID:27190655

  4. SERUM VALUES OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN OSTEOSARCOMA

    PubMed Central

    ZUMÁRRAGA, JUAN PABLO; BAPTISTA, ANDRÉ MATHIAS; ROSA, LUIS PABLO DE LA; CAIERO, MARCELO TADEU; CAMARGO, OLAVO PIRES DE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the relationship between the pre and post chemotherapy (CT) serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) found in specimens after the pre surgical CT in patients with osteosarcoma. Methods: Series of cases with retrospective evaluation of patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma. Participants were divided into two groups according to serum values of both enzymes. The values of AP and LDH were obtained before and after preoperative CT. The percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) of surgical specimens of each patient was also included. Results: One hundred and thirty seven medical records were included from 1990 to 2013. Both the AP as LDH decreased in the patients studied, being the higher in pre CT than post CT. The average LHD decrease was 795.12U/L and AP decrease was 437.40 U/L. The average TN was 34.10 %. There was no statistically significant correlation between the serums values and the percentage of tumoral necrosis. Conclusion: The serum levels values of AP and LDH are not good predictors for the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217815

  5. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, J.Y.; Takahashi, S.

    1987-06-16

    HeLa S/sub 3/ cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S/sub 3/ cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S/sub 3/ cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product.

  6. Characterization of the threonine-phosphatase of mouse eyes absent 3.

    PubMed

    Sano, Teruyuki; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2011-09-01

    Eyes absent (EYA) has tyrosine- and threonine-phosphatase activities in their C-terminal and N-terminal regions, respectively. Using various mutants of mouse EYA3, we showed that the 68-amino acid domain between positions 53 and 120 was necessary and sufficient for its threonine-phosphatase activity. Point mutations were then introduced, and residues Cys-56, Tyr-77, His-79, and Tyr-90 were essential for the EYA3s threonine-phosphatase. The 68-amino acid domain is not well conserved among the four mouse EYA members, but is evolutionally highly conserved in the orthologous EYA members of different species, suggesting that the threonine-phosphatase of EYA3 has a function distinct from that of the other EYAs. PMID:21821028

  7. Protein phosphatase 2A in stretch-induced endothelial cell proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murata, K.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    We previously proposed that activation of protein kinase C is a key mechanism for control of cell growth enhanced by cyclic strain [Rosales and Sumpio (1992): Surgery 112:459-466]. Here we examined protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to cyclic stain. Protein phosphatase 2A activity in the cytosol was decreased by 36.1% in response to cyclic strain for 60 min, whereas the activity in the membrane did not change. Treatment with low concentration (0.1 nM) of okadaic acid enhanced proliferation of both static and stretched endothelial cells in 10% fetal bovine serum. These data suggest that protein phosphatase 2A acts as a growth suppressor and cyclic strain may enhance cellular proliferation by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A as well as stimulating protein kinase C.

  8. Identification of a dual-specificity protein phosphatase that inactivates a MAP kinase from Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R.; Huang, Y.; Kieber, J.; Luan, S.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a key role in plant responses to stress and pathogens. Activation and inactivation of MAPKs involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on both threonine and tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. Here we report the identification of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a dual-specificity protein phosphatase capable of hydrolysing both phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine in protein substrates. This enzyme, designated AtDsPTP1 (Arabidopsis thaliana dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase), dephosphorylated and inactivated AtMPK4, a MAPK member from the same plant. Replacement of a highly conserved cysteine by serine abolished phosphatase activity of AtDsPTP1, indicating a conserved catalytic mechanism of dual-specificity protein phosphatases from all eukaryotes.

  9. A critical evaluation of a specific radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, S.L.; Silver, H.K.; Sullivan, L.D.; Morse, M.J.; Archibald, E.L.

    1982-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for acid phosphatase detection was compared to a standard enzyme assay using sera from 210 normal volunteers and 285 patients with prostatic disease. Statistical and clinical comparisons were made between defined subgroups. All 55 normal females had RIA detectable serum acid phosphatase, implying that this assay cannot be entirely specific for enzyme of prostatic origin. Urinary catheterization did not affect acid phosphatase levels. In all stages of carcinoma there were more acid phosphatase elevations by the RIA method than enzyme method, but neither assay could differentiate intercapsular cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia. A small number of patients with biopsy proven negative nodules had marginally elevated values, suggesting an obligation for closer follow-up. The RIA method may be superior for monitoring patients with more advanced malignancy. Additional practical advantages of the RIA include relative simplicity and elimination of the special serum handling required for the enzyme assay.

  10. Structure of human dual-specificity phosphatase 7, a potential cancer drug target

    PubMed Central

    Lountos, George T.; Austin, Brian P.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Human dual-specificity phosphatase 7 (DUSP7/Pyst2) is a 320-residue protein that belongs to the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) subfamily of dual-specificity phosphatases. Although its precise biological function is still not fully understood, previous reports have demonstrated that DUSP7 is overexpressed in myeloid leukemia and other malignancies. Therefore, there is interest in developing DUSP7 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents, especially for cancer. Here, the purification, crystallization and structure determination of the catalytic domain of DUSP7 (Ser141–Ser289/C232S) at 1.67 Å resolution are reported. The structure described here provides a starting point for structure-assisted inhibitor-design efforts and adds to the growing knowledge base of three-dimensional structures of the dual-specificity phosphatase family. PMID:26057789

  11. Stimulation of protein phosphatase activity by insulin and growth factors in 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.P.; McNall, S.J.; Krebs, E.G.; Fischer, E.H. )

    1988-09-01

    Incubation of Swiss mouse 3T3-D1 cells with physiological concentrations of insulin resulted in a rapid and transient activation of protein phosphatase activity as measure by using ({sup 32}P)phosphorylase {alpha} as substrate. Activation reached a maximum level (140% of control value) within 5 min of addition and returned to control levels within 20 min. The effect of insulin was dose-dependent with half-maximal activation occurring at {approx}5 nM insulin. This activity could be completely inhibited by addition of the heat-stable protein inhibitor 2, which suggests the presence of an activated type-1 phosphatase. Similar effects on phosphatase activity were seen when epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor were tested. These results suggest that some of the intracellular effects caused by insulin and growth factors are mediated through the activation of a protein phosphatase.

  12. Structure of human dual-specificity phosphatase 27 at 2.38 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S.

    2011-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of human dual-specificity phosphatase 27 (DUSP27) is reported at 2.38 Å resolution. There are over 100 genes in the human genome that encode protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and approximately 60 of these are classified as dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). Although many dual-specificity phosphatases are still not well characterized, novel functions have been discovered for some of them that have led to new insights into a variety of biological processes and the molecular basis for certain diseases. Indeed, as the functions of DUSPs continue to be elucidated, a growing number of them are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer, diabetes and inflammatory disorders. Here, the overexpression, purification and structure determination of DUSP27 at 2.38 Å resolution are presented.

  13. EX VIVIO DETECTION OF KINASE AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification involved in every aspect cellular function. Levels of protein phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are regulated by the opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases, the expression of which can be alt...

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative In Vitro Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatase Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ip, Laura Ren Huey; Gewinner, Christina Anja

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides compromise a family of eight membrane lipids which play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways. Signaling through phosphoinositides has been shown in a variety of cellular functions such cell proliferation, cell growth, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. Phospholipid phosphatases regulate cell signaling by modifying the concentration of phosphoinositides and their dephosphorylated products. To understand the role of individual lipid phosphatases in phosphoinositide turnover and functional signaling, it is crucial to determine the substrate specificity of the lipid phosphatase of interest. In this chapter we describe how the substrate specificity of an individual lipid phosphatase can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured in an in vitro radiometric assay. In addition, we specify the different expression systems and purification methods required to produce the necessary yield and functionality in order to further characterize these enzymes. The outstanding versatility and sensitivity of this assay system are yet unmatched and are therefore currently considered the standard of the field. PMID:26552675

  15. DL-Buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine affects intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Marchionatti, A; Alisio, A; Díaz de Barboza, G; Baudino, V; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    2001-06-01

    The susceptibility of intestinal alkaline phosphatase to DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine was investigated in chicks fed a commercial diet. The results show that DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine produced inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. This effect showed dose- and time-dependency and it was caused by either in vivo DL-buthionine-S,R- sulfoximine administration or in vitro DL-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine incubation with villus tip enterocytes. DL-Buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine did not act directly on intestinal alkaline phosphatase but it provoked glutathione depletion which led to changes in the redox state of the enterocyte as shown by the production of free hydroxyl radicals and an incremental increase in the carbonyl content of proteins. The reversibility of the buthionine sulfoximine effect on intestinal alkaline phosphatase was proved by addition of glutathione monoester to the duodenal loop. PMID:11423381

  16. Identification of the Interaction Sites of Inhibitor-3 for Protein Phosphatase-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifang; Qi, Zhiqing; Gao, Yan; Lee, Ernest Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitor-3 is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, with an IC50 in the nanomolar range for the inhibition of the dephosphorylation of phosphorylase a. Human Inhibitor-3 possesses a putative protein phosphatase-1 binding motif, 39KKVEW43. We provide direct evidence that this sequence is involved in PP1 interaction by examining the effects of site-directed mutations of Inhibitor-3 on its ability to inhibit protein phosphatase-1. A second interaction site whose deletion led to loss of inhibitory potency was identified between residues 65–77. The existence of two interaction sites is consistent with the high inhibitory potency of Inhibitor-3, and with current models for other inhibitor and targeting proteins that interact with protein phosphatase-1 with high affinity. PMID:18951879

  17. Stabilization of glucose-6-phosphatase activity by a 21 000-dalton hepatic microsomal protein.

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, A; Burchell, B; Monaco, M; Walls, H E; Arion, W J

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase activity was rendered extremely unstable by a variety of techniques: (a) incubation at pH 5.0; (b) extraction of the microsomal fraction in the presence of 1% Lubrol; (c) various purification procedures. These techniques all result in the removal of a 21 kDa polypeptide from the fraction containing glucose-6-phosphatase activity. The 21 kDa protein was purified to apparent homogeneity by solubilization in the detergent Lubrol 12A-9 and chromatography on Fractogel TSK DEAE-650(S) and centrifugation at 105 000 g. The 21 kDa protein stabilizes glucose-6-phosphatase activity, whereas other purified hepatic microsomal proteins do not. The 21 kDa protein appears to be a potential regulator of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2996501

  18. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  19. A macromolecular complex of β2 adrenergic receptor, CFTR, and ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 is regulated by PKA

    PubMed Central

    Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Cobb, Bryan; Li, Chunying; Roy, Koushik; Nelson, David; Heda, Ghanshyam D.; Liao, Jie; Kirk, Kevin L.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Hanrahan, John; Clancy, John P.

    2003-01-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that both the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) can bind ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50, also referred to as NHERF) through their PDZ motifs. Here, we show that β2 is the major adrenergic receptor isoform expressed in airway epithelia and that it colocalizes with CFTR at the apical membrane. β2AR stimulation increases CFTR activity, in airway epithelial cells, that is glybenclamide sensitive. Deletion of the PDZ motif from CFTR uncouples the channel from the receptor both physically and functionally. This uncoupling is specific to the β2AR receptor and does not affect CFTR coupling to other receptors (e.g., adenosine receptor pathway). Biochemical studies demonstrate the existence of a macromolecular complex involving CFTR-EBP50-β2AR through PDZ-based interactions. Assembly of the complex is regulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Deleting the regulatory domain of CFTR abolishes PKA regulation of complex assembly. This report summarizes a macromolecular signaling complex involving CFTR, the implications of which may be relevant to CFTR-dysfunction diseases. PMID:12502786

  20. Recombinant antibodies encoded by IGHV1-69 react with pUL32, a phosphoprotein of cytomegalovirus and B-cell superantigen

    PubMed Central

    Steininger, Christoph; Widhopf, George F.; Ghia, Emanuela M.; Morello, Christopher S.; Vanura, Katrina; Sanders, Rebecca; Spector, Deborah; Guiney, Don; Jäger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Leukemia cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) express a highly restricted immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV) repertoire, suggesting that a limited set of antigens reacts with leukemic cells. Here, we evaluated the reactivity of a panel of different CLL recombinant antibodies (rAbs) encoded by the most commonly expressed IGHV genes with a panel of selected viral and bacterial pathogens. Six different CLL rAbs encoded by IGHV1-69 or IGHV3-21, but not a CLL rAb encoded by IGHV4-39 genes, reacted with a single protein of human cytomegalovirus (CMV). The CMV protein was identified as the large structural phosphoprotein pUL32. In contrast, none of the CLL rAbs bound to any other structure of CMV, adenovirus serotype 2, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, or of cells used for propagation of these microorganisms. Monoclonal antibodies or humanized rAbs of irrelevant specificity to pUL32 did not react with any of the proteins present in the different lysates. Still, rAbs encoded by a germ line IGHV1-69 51p1 allele from CMV-seropositive and -negative adults also reacted with pUL32. The observed reactivity of multiple different CLL rAbs and natural antibodies from CMV-seronegative adults with pUL32 is consistent with the properties of a superantigen. PMID:22234695

  1. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Zhao-Xia; Han, Bin; Wang, Li-Shun

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha}. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RAR{alpha}). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  2. Overexpression of α1,6-fucosyltransferase in hepatoma enhances expression of Golgi phosphoprotein 2 in a fucosylation-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Sayuri; Moriwaki, Kenta; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Terao, Mika; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Yamane-Ohnuki, Naoko; Satoh, Mitsuo; Mehta, Anand S; Block, Timothy M; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2011-07-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GP73) is a type II Golgi protein, which was found on examination of the fucosylated proteome as a potential tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The serum levels of both total and fucosylated GP73 were increased in the sera of patients with HCC. Fucosylation is one of the most important oligosaccharide modifications involved in cancer and is catalyzed by α1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8). In the present study, we investigated the effect of Fut8 overexpression on GP73 production in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. The Fut8 expression vector was transfected into Hep3B cells and the expression of GP73 was investigated by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Overexpression of Fut8 dramatically enhanced the expression of GP73 at the transcriptional level. Surprisingly, this effect was not dependent on cellular fucosylation. Overexpression of a mutant Fut8, which was unable to be localized to the Golgi, did not induce GP73 production, suggesting that the localization of Fut8 in the Golgi apparatus was important for the increase in GP73 expression. This is the first demonstration of GP73 regulation through overexpression of a glycosyltransferase, which may lead to Golgi stress. PMID:21503570

  3. Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 has unique cochaperone activity during development and regulates cellular response to ischemia via the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Flavio H; Soares, Iaci N; Goncalves, Daniela F; Fan, Jue; Thomas, Anu A; Santos, Tiago G; Mohammad, Amro H; Roffé, Martin; Calder, Michele D; Nikolova, Simona; Hajj, Glaucia N; Guimaraes, Andre L; Massensini, Andre R; Welch, Ian; Betts, Dean H; Gros, Robert; Drangova, Maria; Watson, Andrew J; Bartha, Robert; Prado, Vania F; Martins, Vilma R; Prado, Marco A M

    2013-09-01

    Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1) is part of the chaperone machinery, but it also functions as an extracellular ligand for the prion protein. However, the physiological relevance of these STI1 activities in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that in the absence of embryonic STI1, several Hsp90 client proteins are decreased by 50%, although Hsp90 levels are unaffected. Mutant STI1 mice showed increased caspase-3 activation and 50% impairment in cellular proliferation. Moreover, placental disruption and lack of cellular viability were linked to embryonic death by E10.5 in STI1-mutant mice. Rescue of embryonic lethality in these mutants, by transgenic expression of the STI1 gene, supported a unique role for STI1 during embryonic development. The response of STI1 haploinsufficient mice to cellular stress seemed compromised, and mutant mice showed increased vulnerability to ischemic insult. At the cellular level, ischemia increased the secretion of STI1 from wild-type astrocytes by 3-fold, whereas STI1 haploinsufficient mice secreted half as much STI1. Interesting, extracellular STI1 prevented ischemia-mediated neuronal death in a prion protein-dependent way. Our study reveals essential roles for intracellular and extracellular STI1 in cellular resilience. PMID:23729591

  4. The bone matrix protein secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24): bone metabolism regulator and starting material for biotherapeutic materials.

    PubMed

    Murray, Samuel S; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Tian, Haijun; Francis, Timothy; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J

    2015-05-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) is a bone matrix protein that appears to be derived primarily from the liver and delivered to other tissues in a protective complex. A significant role in bone growth and turnover is suggested by genetic studies that associate the gene locus (SPP2) with bone mineral density and bone quality. The function of this protein in the normal bone environment is unknown but clues are given by the fact that Spp24, or proteolytic products of Spp24, bind cytokines of the TGF-β superfamily and also activate intracellular signaling pathways. Several potential biotherapeutics have been engineered from this protein including materials that enhance BMP-induced bone healing and, on the other hand, materials that inhibit BMPs in clinical situations where this is called for such as reducing BMP-induced inflammation and inhibiting tumors dependent on BMP autocrine systems. As understanding of the structure and function of this protein increases, more opportunities for rationally developed therapeutics will become apparent. PMID:25339413

  5. Mapping of the human dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene (DMP1) to the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II critical region at chromosome 4q21

    SciTech Connect

    Aplin, H.M.; Hirst, K.L.; Crosby, A.H.; Dixon, M.J.

    1995-11-20

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation, which has been mapped to human chromosome 4q12-q21. The region most likely to contain the DGI1 locus is a 3.2-cM region surrounding the osteopontin (SPP1) locus. Recently, a novel dentin-specific acidic phosphoprotein (dmp1) has been cloned in the rat and mapped to mouse chromosome 5q21. In the current investigation, we have isolated a cosmid containing the human DMP1 gene. The isolation of a short tandem repeat polymorphism at this locus has allowed us to map the DMP1 locus to human chromosome 4q21 and demonstrate that it is tightly linked to DGI1 in two families (Z{sub max} = 11.01, {theta} = 0.001). The creation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig around SPP1 has further allowed us to demonstrate that DMP1 is located within 150 kb of the bone sialoprotein and 490 kb of the SPP1 loci, respectively. DMP1 is therefore a strong candidate for the DGI1 locus. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Dynamics of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the nipah virus nucleoprotein and interaction with the x domain of the phosphoprotein as unveiled by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baronti, Lorenzo; Erales, Jenny; Habchi, Johnny; Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-01-19

    We provide an atomic-resolution description based on NMR spectroscopy, of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the Nipah virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL ), both in its isolated state and within the nucleocapsid (NC). Within the NC the second half of NTAIL retains conformational behavior similar to that of isolated NTAIL , whereas the first half of NTAIL becomes much more rigid. In spite of the mostly disordered nature of NTAIL , chemical shifts and relaxation measurements show a significant degree of α-helical sampling in the molecular recognition element (MoRE) involved in binding to the X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein, with this preconfiguration being more pronounced than in the NTAIL domain from the cognate Hendra virus. Outside the MoRE, an additional region exhibiting reduced flexibility was identified within NTAIL and found to be involved in binding to the XD. (1) H- and (13) C-detected titration NMR experiments support a highly dynamic binding of NTAIL at the surface of the XD. PMID:25492314

  7. Myosin X and its motorless isoform differentially modulate dendritic spine development by regulating trafficking and retention of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Hsin; Hurley, Joshua T.; Raines, Alexander N.; Cheney, Richard E.; Webb, Donna J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Myosin X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin with two known isoforms: full-length (FL)-Myo10 that has motor activity, and a recently identified brain-expressed isoform, headless (Hdl)-Myo10, which lacks most of the motor domain. FL-Myo10 is involved in the regulation of filopodia formation in non-neuronal cells; however, the biological function of Hdl-Myo10 remains largely unknown. Here, we show that FL- and Hdl-Myo10 have important, but distinct, roles in the development of dendritic spines and synapses in hippocampal neurons. FL-Myo10 induces formation of dendritic filopodia and modulates filopodia dynamics by trafficking the actin-binding protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) to the tips of filopodia. By contrast, Hdl-Myo10 acts on dendritic spines to enhance spine and synaptic density as well as spine head expansion by increasing the retention of VASP in spines. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel biological function for Hdl-Myo10 and an important new role for both Myo10 isoforms in the development of dendritic spines and synapses. PMID:23943878

  8. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A) association with lymph node metastasis predicts poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chin, Mei-Chung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A) is a multifunctional protein aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers. However, its expression pattern and clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression pattern of ANP32A in 259 OSCC patients and the results were correlated with clinicopathological factors using Allred, Klein and Immunoreactive scoring (IRS) system. Our data indicated that high expression of ANP32A was significantly associated with N stage and tumor differentiation status in OSCC patients. High ANP32A expression with N2/N3 stage had an increased mortality risk than low ANP32A expressing OSCC patients with N0/N1 stage. Functional studies revealed that knockdown of ANP32A significantly decreased the migration and invasion ability thereby concomitantly increasing E-cadherin and decreasing Slug, Claudin-1 and Vimentin expression in vitro. These results suggest that ANP32A is commonly increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma and ANP32A protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of oral cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. PMID:26918356

  9. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A determines bortezomib-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Hsiang-Po; Chen, Ming-Huang; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The multiple cellular targets affected by proteasome inhibition implicate a potential role for bortezomib, a first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, in enhancing antitumor activities in hematologic malignancies. Here, we examined the antitumor activity and drug targets of bortezomib in leukemia cells. Human leukemia cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Drug efficacy was evaluated by apoptosis assays and associated molecular events assessed by Western Blot. Gene silencing was performed by small interference RNA. Drug was tested in vivo in xenograft models of human leukemia cell lines and in primary leukemia cells. Clinical samples were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Bortezomib differentially induced apoptosis in leukemia cells that was independent of its proteasome inhibition. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, a cellular inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, mediated the apoptotic effect of bortezomib. Bortezomib increased protein phosphatase 2A activity in sensitive leukemia cells (HL-60 and KG-1), but not in resistant cells (MOLT-3 and K562). Bortezomib’s downregulation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A and phospho-Akt correlated with its drug sensitivity. Furthermore, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A negatively regulated protein phosphatase 2A activity. Ectopic expression of CIP2A up-regulated phospho-Akt and protected HL-60 cells from bortezomib-induced apoptosis, whereas silencing CIP2A overcame the resistance to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in MOLT3 and K562 cells. Importantly, bortezomib exerted in vivo antitumor activity in HL-60 xenografted tumors and induced cell death in some primary leukemic cells. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A was expressed in leukemic blasts from bone marrow samples. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A plays a major role in mediating bortezomib-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. PMID:22983581

  10. Effects of multivalent cations on cell wall-associated acid phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, S.I.; Brouillette, J.N.; Nagahashi, G.; Kumosinski, T.F.

    1988-09-01

    Primary cell walls, free from cytoplasmic contamination were prepared from corn (Zea mays L.) roots and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. After EDTA treatment, the bound acid phosphatase activities were measured in the presence of various multivalent cations. Under the conditions of minimized Donnan effect and at pH 4.2, the bound enzyme activity of potato tuber cell walls (PCW) was stimulated by Cu/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Za/sup 2 +/, and Mn/sup 2 +/; unaffected by Ba/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; and inhibited by Al/sup 3 +/. The bound acid phosphatase of PCW was stimulated by a low concentration but inhibited by a higher concentration of Hg/sup 2 +/. On the other hand, in the case of corn root cells walls (CCW), only inhibition of the bound acid phosphatase by Al/sup 3 +/ and Hg/sup 2 +/ was observed. Kinetic analyses revealed that PCW acid phosphatase exhibited a negative cooperativity under all employed experimental conditions except in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/. In contrast, CCW acid phosphatase showed no cooperative behavior. The presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ significantly reduced the effects of Hg/sup 2 +/ or Al/sup 3 +/, but not Mg/sup 2 +/, to the bound cell wall acid phosphatases. The salt solubilized (free) acid phosphatases from both PCW and CCW were not affected by the presence of tested cations except for Hg/sup 2 +/ or Al/sup 3 +/ which caused a Ca/sup 2 +/-insensitive inhibition of the enzymes. The induced stimulation or inhibition of bound acid phosphatases was quantitatively related to cation binding in the cell wall structure.

  11. Characterization of the major phosphofructokinase-dephosphorylating protein phosphatases from Ascaris suum muscle.

    PubMed

    Daum, G; Schmid, B; MacKintosh, C; Cohen, P; Hofer, H W

    1992-07-13

    In contrast to the mammalian enzyme, PFK from the nematode Ascaris suum is activated following phosphorylation (Daum et al. (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139, 215-221) catalyzed by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Thalhofer et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 952-957). In the present report, we describe the characterization of the major PFK dephosphorylating phosphatases from Ascaris muscle. Two of these phosphatases exhibit apparent M(r) values of 174,000 and 126,000, respectively, and are dissociated to active 33 kDa proteins by ethanol precipitation. Denaturing electrophoresis of each of the enzyme preparations showed two bands of M(r) 33,000 and 63,000. The enzymes are classified as type 2A phosphatases according to their inhibition by subnanomolar concentrations of okadaic acid, the lack of inhibition by heat-stable phosphatase inhibitors 1 and 2, and their preference for the alpha- rather than for the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase. Like other type 2A phosphatases, they exhibit broad substrate specificities, are activated by divalent cations and polycations, and inhibited by fluoride, inorganic phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In addition, we have found that PFK is also dephosphorylated by an unusual protein phosphatase. This exhibits kinetic properties similar to type 2A protein phosphatases, but has a distinctly lower sensitivity towards inhibition by okadaic acid (IC50 approx. 20 nM). Partial purification of the enzyme provided evidence that it is composed of a 30 kDa catalytic subunit and probably two other subunits (molecular masses 66 and 72 kDa). The dephosphorylation of PFK by protein phosphatases is strongly inhibited by heparin. This effect, however, is substrate-specific and does not occur with Ascaris phosphorylase a. PMID:1321672

  12. Serum alkaline phosphatase negatively affects endothelium-dependent vasodilation in naïve hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Perticone, Francesco; Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Sciacqua, Angela; Andreucci, Michele; Tripepi, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Mallamaci, Francesca; Sesti, Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2015-10-01

    Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, promoting arterial calcification in experimental models, is a powerful predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality in general population and in patients with renal or cardiovascular diseases. For this study, to evaluate a possible correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase levels and endothelial function, assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, we enrolled 500 naïve hypertensives divided into increasing tertiles of alkaline phosphatase. The maximal response to acetylcholine was inversely related to alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.55; P<0.001), and this association was independent (r=−0.61; P<0.001) of demographic and classical risk factors, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum phosphorus and calcium, C-reactive protein, and albuminuria. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of endothelial dysfunction was ≈3-fold higher in patients in the third tertile than that of patients in the first tertile. We also tested the combined role of alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus on endothelial function. The steepness of the alkaline phosphatase/vasodilating response to acetylcholine relationship was substantially attenuated (P<0.001) in patients with serum phosphorus above the median value when compared with patients with serum phosphorus below the median (−5.0% versus −10.2% per alkaline phosphatase unit, respectively), and this interaction remained highly significant (P<0.001) after adjustment of all the previously mentioned risk factors. Our data support a strong and significant inverse relationship between alkaline phosphatase and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which was attenuated by relatively higher serum phosphorus levels. PMID:26324506

  13. Phosphorus resorption by young beech trees and soil phosphatase activity as dependent on phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Kerstin; Heuck, Christine; Spohn, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by decreasing foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations in Fagus sylvatica L. forests, we studied P recycling depending on P fertilization in mesocosms with juvenile trees and soils of two contrasting F. sylvatica L. forests in a greenhouse. We hypothesized that forests with low soil P availability are better adapted to recycle P than forests with high soil P availability. The P resorption efficiency from senesced leaves was significantly higher at the P-poor site (70 %) than at the P-rich site (48 %). P fertilization decreased the resorption efficiency significantly at the P-poor site to 41 %, while it had no effect at the P-rich site. Both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were higher in the rhizosphere of the P-poor than of the P-rich site by 53 and 27 %, respectively, while the activities did not differ in the bulk soil. Fertilization decreased acid phosphatase activity significantly at the P-poor site in the rhizosphere, but had no effect on the alkaline, i.e., microbial, phosphatase activity at any site. Acid phosphatase activity in the P-poor soil was highest in the rhizosphere, while in the P-rich soil, it was highest in the bulk soil. We conclude that F. sylvatica resorbed P more efficiently from senescent leaves at low soil P availability than at high P availability and that acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere but not in the bulk soil was increased at low P availability. Moreover, we conclude that in the P-rich soil, microbial phosphatases contributed more strongly to total phosphatase activity than plant phosphatases. PMID:26875186

  14. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate lysophosphatidic acid production and signaling in platelets: studies using chemical inhibitors of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Susan S; Sciorra, Vicki A; Sigal, Yury J; Pamuklar, Zehra; Wang, Zuncai; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D; Morris, Andrew J

    2003-10-31

    Blood platelets play an essential role in ischemic heart disease and stroke contributing to acute thrombotic events by release of potent inflammatory agents within the vasculature. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator produced by platelets and found in the blood and atherosclerotic plaques. LPA receptors on platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells regulate growth, differentiation, survival, motility, and contractile activity. Definition of the opposing pathways of synthesis and degradation that control extracellular LPA levels is critical to understanding how LPA bioactivity is regulated. We show that intact platelets and platelet membranes actively dephosphorylate LPA and identify the major enzyme responsible as lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1). Localization of LPP1 to the platelet surface is increased by exposure to LPA. A novel receptor-inactive sn-3-substituted difluoromethylenephosphonate analog of phosphatidic acid that is a potent competitive inhibitor of LPP1 activity potentiates platelet aggregation and shape change responses to LPA and amplifies LPA production by agonist-stimulated platelets. Our results identify LPP1 as a pivotal regulator of LPA signaling in the cardiovascular system. These findings are consistent with genetic and cell biological evidence implicating LPPs as negative regulators of lysophospholipid signaling and suggest that the mechanisms involve both attenuation of lysophospholipid actions at cell surface receptors and opposition of lysophospholipid production. PMID:12909631

  15. Rapidly diverging evolution of an atypical alkaline phosphatase (PhoAaty) in marine phytoplankton: insights from dinoflagellate alkaline phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Wang, Lu; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme that enables marine phytoplankton to scavenge phosphorus (P) from dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when inorganic phosphate is scarce in the ocean. Yet how the AP gene has evolved in phytoplankton, particularly dinoflagellates, is poorly understood. We sequenced full-length AP genes and corresponding complementary DNA (cDNA) from 15 strains (10 species), representing four classes of the core dinoflagellate lineage, Gymnodiniales, Prorocentrales, Suessiales, and Gonyaulacales. Dinoflagellate AP gene sequences exhibited high variability, containing variable introns, pseudogenes, single nucleotide polymorphisms and consequent variations in amino acid sequence, indicative of gene duplication events and consistent with the “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution. Further sequence comparison showed that dinoflagellate APs likely belong to an atypical type AP (PhoAaty), which shares conserved motifs with counterparts in marine bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae, haptophytes, and stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PhoAaty probably originated from an ancestral gene in bacteria and evolved divergently in marine phytoplankton. Because variations in AP amino acid sequences may lead to differential subcellular localization and potentially different metal ion requirements, the multiple types of APs in algae may have resulted from selection for diversifying strategies to utilize DOP in the P variable marine environment. PMID:26379645

  16. Three Phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate Phosphatases in the Inner Membrane of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Guan, Ziqiang; Zhao, Jinshi; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2011-01-01

    The phospholipids of Escherichia coli consist mainly of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and cardiolipin. PG makes up ∼25% of the cellular phospholipid and is essential for growth in wild-type cells. PG is synthesized on the inner surface of the inner membrane from cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol and glycerol 3-phosphate, generating the precursor phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate (PGP). This compound is present at low levels (∼0.1% of the total lipid). Dephosphorylation of PGP to PG is catalyzed by several PGP-phosphatases. The pgpA and pgpB genes, which encode structurally distinct PGP-phosphatases, were identified previously. Double deletion mutants lacking pgpA and pgpB are viable and still make PG, suggesting the presence of additional phosphatase(s). We have identified a third PGP-phosphatase gene (previously annotated as yfhB but renamed pgpC) using an expression cloning strategy. A mutant with deletions in all three phosphatase genes is not viable unless covered by a plasmid expressing either pgpA, pgpB, or pgpC. When the triple mutant is covered with the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMAK705 expressing any one of the three pgp genes, the cells grow at 30 but not 42 °C. As growth slows at 42 °C, PGP accumulates to high levels, and the PG content declines. PgpC orthologs are present in many other bacteria. PMID:21148555

  17. New protein kinase and protein phosphatase families mediate signal transduction in bacterial catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Galinier, A; Kravanja, M; Engelmann, R; Hengstenberg, W; Kilhoffer, M C; Deutscher, J; Haiech, J

    1998-02-17

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is the prototype of a signal transduction mechanism. In enteric bacteria, cAMP was considered to be the second messenger in CCR by playing a role reminiscent of its actions in eukaryotic cells. However, recent results suggest that CCR in Escherichia coli is mediated mainly by an inducer exclusion mechanism. In many Gram-positive bacteria, CCR is triggered by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which activates HPr kinase, presumed to be one of the most ancient serine protein kinases. We here report cloning of the Bacillus subtilis hprK and hprP genes and characterization of the encoded HPr kinase and P-Ser-HPr phosphatase. P-Ser-HPr phosphatase forms a new family of phosphatases together with bacterial phosphoglycolate phosphatase, yeast glycerol-3-phosphatase, and 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase whereas HPr kinase represents a new family of protein kinases on its own. It does not contain the domain structure typical for eukaryotic protein kinases. Although up to now the HPr modifying/demodifying enzymes were thought to exist only in Gram-positive bacteria, a sequence comparison revealed that they also are present in several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. PMID:9465101

  18. Characterization of protein phosphatase 5 from three lepidopteran insects: Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi'en; Lü, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases, regulates a variety of biological processes. We obtained full-length PP5 cDNAs from three lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella, encoding predicted proteins of 490 (55.98 kDa), 490 (55.82 kDa) and 491 (56.07 kDa) amino acids, respectively. These sequences shared a high identity with other insect PP5s and contained the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains at N-terminal regions and highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domains. Tissue- and stage-specific expression pattern analyses revealed these three PP5 genes were constitutively expressed in all stages and in tested tissues with predominant transcription occurring at the egg and adult stages. Activities of Escherichia coli-produced recombinant PP5 proteins could be enhanced by almost 2-fold by a known PP5 activator: arachidonic acid. Kinetic parameters of three recombinant proteins against substrate pNPP were similar both in the absence or presence of arachidonic acid. Protein phosphatases inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, and endothall strongly impeded the activities of the three recombinant PP5 proteins, as well as exerted an inhibitory effect on crude protein phosphatases extractions from these three insects. In summary, lepidopteran PP5s share similar characteristics and are all sensitive to the protein phosphatases inhibitors. Our results also imply protein phosphatase inhibitors might be used in the management of lepidopteran pests. PMID:24823652

  19. Suppression of cellular proliferation and invasion by the concerted lipid and protein phosphatase activities of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Lindsay; Maccario, Helene; Perera, Nevin M.; Yang, Xuesong; Spinelli, Laura; Tibarewal, Priyanka; Glancy, Ben; Gray, Alex; Weijer, Cornelis J.; Downes, C. Peter; Leslie, Nick R.

    2009-01-01

    PTEN is a tumour suppressor with phosphatase activity in vitro against both lipids and proteins and other potential non-enzymatic mechanisms of action. Although the importance of PTEN’s lipid phosphatase activity in regulating the PI3K signalling pathway is recognised, the significance of PTEN’s other mechanisms of action is currently unclear. Here, we describe the systematic identification of a PTEN mutant, PTEN Y138L, with activity against lipid, but not soluble substrates. Using this mutant we provide evidence for the interfacial activation of PTEN against lipid substrates. We also show that when re-expressed at physiological levels in PTEN null U87MG glioblastoma cells the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN is not required to regulate cellular PtdInsP3 levels or the downstream protein kinase Akt/PKB. Finally, in 3D Matrigel cultures of U87MG cells similarly re-expressing PTEN mutants, both the protein and lipid phosphatase activities were required to inhibit invasion, but either activity alone significantly inhibited proliferation, albeit only weakly for the protein phosphatase activity. Our data provides a novel tool to address the significance of PTEN’s separable lipid and protein phosphatase activities and suggest that both activities act to suppress proliferation and act together to suppress invasion. PMID:19915616

  20. Developmental regulation of hexosamine biosynthesis by protein phosphatases 2A and 2C in Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, L C; Simon, M N; Campanhã, R B; Zapella, P D; Véron, M; Maia, J C

    1993-08-01

    Extracts of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii were found to contain protein phosphatases type 1, type 2A, and type 2C with properties analogous to those found in mammalian tissues. The activities of all three protein phosphatases are developmentally regulated, increasing during sporulation, with maximum level in zoospores. Protein phosphatases 2A and 2C, present in zoospore extracts, catalyze the dephosphorylation of L-glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (EC 2.6.1.16, amidotransferase), a key regulatory enzyme in hexosamine biosynthesis. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induces encystment and inhibits germ tube formation but does not affect the synthesis of the chitinous cell wall. These results strongly suggest that phosphatase 2C is responsible for the dephosphorylation of amidotransferase in vivo. This dephosphorylation is inhibited by uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine, the end product of hexosamine synthesis and the substrate for chitin synthesis. This result demonstrates a dual role of uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine by inhibiting the activity of the phosphorylated form of amidotransferase and by preventing its dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. PMID:8394312

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase/sub b/ phosphatase inhibition by NADH and dihydrolipoamide along with effects of and capacity for binding the phosphatase to the bovine kidney transacetylase-protein X subcomplex

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, T.E.; Rahmatullah, M.; Maher, J.

    1986-05-01

    NADH inhibits PDH/sub b/ phosphatase activity when /sup 32/P-PDH is associated with the intact complex but not when /sup 32/P-PDH is prepared free of other components of the complex. Addition of the transacetylase-protein X (E2-X) subcomplex both activated the phosphatase and restored NADH inhibition. Low levels of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase associated with the subcomplex might be required for NADH inhibition. Dihydrolipoamide gave inhibition of the phosphatase equivalent to NADH and the combination did not give additional inhibition suggesting a common mechanism. Pretreatment of phosphorylated complex and phosphatase with 2.0 mM dithiothreitol nearly eliminated inhibition of the phosphatase by NADH or dihydrolipoamide. Strong arsenite inhibition of phosphatase activity occurred only in the presence of NADH suggesting modification of thiols reduced by NADH can alter phosphatase activity. Only about 6 molecules of purified phosphatase could be activated by 1 molecule of E2-X subcomplex (initial velocities measured in 15s period). Since that corresponded to the number of protein X rather than E2 subunits, protein X may contribute to the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent binding of the phosphatase. Since protein X also contains a lipoyl moiety, it may also contribute to NADH inhibition of the phosphatase.

  2. Synthesis of functionalized fluorescent gold nanoclusters for acid phosphatase sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-10-01

    A novel and convenient one-pot but two-step synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters, incorporating glutathione (GSH) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) as the functionalized ligands (i.e. AuNCs@GSH/MUA), is demonstrated. Herein, the mixing of HAuCl4 and GSH in aqueous solution results in the immediate formation of non-fluorescent GSH-Au+ complexes, and then a class of ~2.6 nm GSH-coated AuNCs (AuNCs@GSH) with mild orange-yellow fluorescence after several days. Interestingly, the intense orange-red emitting ~1.7 nm AuNCs@GSH/MUA can be synthesized within seconds by introducing an alkaline aqueous solution of MUA into the GSH-Au+ complexes or AuNC@GSH solution. Subsequently, a reliable AuNC@GSH/MUA-based real-time assay of acid phosphatase (ACP) is established for the first time, inspired by the selective coordination of Fe3+ with surface ligands of AuNCs, the higher binding affinity between the pyrophosphate ion (PPi) and Fe3+, and the hydrolysis of PPi into orthophosphate by ACP. Our fluorescent chemosensor can also be applied to assay ACP in a real biological sample and, furthermore, to screen the inhibitor of ACP. This report paves a new avenue for synthesizing AuNCs based on either the bottom-up reduction or top-down etching method, establishing real-time fluorescence assays for ACP by means of PPi as the substrate, and further exploring the sensing applications of fluorescent AuNCs.A novel and convenient one-pot but two-step synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters, incorporating glutathione (GSH) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) as the functionalized ligands (i.e. AuNCs@GSH/MUA), is demonstrated. Herein, the mixing of HAuCl4 and GSH in aqueous solution results in the immediate formation of non-fluorescent GSH-Au+ complexes, and then a class of ~2.6 nm GSH-coated AuNCs (AuNCs@GSH) with mild orange-yellow fluorescence after several days. Interestingly, the intense orange-red emitting ~1.7 nm AuNCs@GSH/MUA can be synthesized within seconds by

  3. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all living organisms, and has been recognized as a limiting nutrient in some oceanic systems (Cotner et al., 1997; Karl et al., 1995; Michaels et al., 1996; Wu et al., 2000). However, relatively little is known about the extent of P limitation in natural environments, how P limitation varies spatially and temporally, and what determines how and when P becomes limiting (Benitez-Nelson, 2000). A more direct estimate of the degree of P limitation in a variety of oceanic systems is needed to better understand P cycling and dynamics within the ocean and how these have and will change in response to global climate and environmental perturbation. Accordingly, the objective this study is to assess the P-status of marine planktonic communities in Monterey and San Francisco Bays using the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the water column. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the most widely used enzyme that marine organisms use to hydrolize organic P compounds to biologically available orthophosphate. Accordingly it is expected that in areas where P is a limiting nutrient organisms will produce and release more AP to seawater so they can utilize the dissolved and particulate organic P compounds. Indeed it has been suggested that the AP activity is a reliable indicator of P-availability to planktonic communities (Ammerman and Azam, 1985; Cotner and Wetzel, 1991; Hong et al., 1998). High enzyme activities indicate low dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) availability while low levels suggest that DIP supply satisfies the community P-demand. This study examines AP activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays over a 12 month period, from November, 2001 through November, 2002 using two enzyme assays. The study encompasses data from a three-station transect in Monterey Bay, at depths ranging from 0-60 meters. The stations range from coastal waters to open ocean depths of several thousand meters. In San Francisco Bay, surface water from

  4. A bioinformatic and computational study of myosin phosphatase subunit diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dippold, Rachael P.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in myosin phosphatase (MP) subunits may provide specificity in signaling pathways that regulate muscle tone. We utilized public databases and computational algorithms to investigate the phylogenetic diversity of MP regulatory (PPP1R12A-C) and inhibitory (PPP1R14A-D) subunits. The comparison of exonic coding sequences and expression data confirmed or refuted the existence of isoforms and their tissue-specific expression in different model organisms. The comparison of intronic and exonic sequences identified potential expressional regulatory elements. As examples, smooth muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12A) is highly conserved through evolution. Its alternative exon E24 is present in fish through mammals with two invariant features: 1) a reading frame shift generating a premature termination codon and 2) a hexanucleotide sequence adjacent to the 3′ splice site hypothesized to be a novel suppressor of exon splicing. A characteristic of the striated muscle MP regulatory subunit (PPP1R12B) locus is numerous and phylogenetically variable transcriptional start sites. In fish this locus only codes for the small (M21) subunit, suggesting the primordial function of this gene. Inhibitory subunits show little intragenic variability; their diversity is thought to have arisen by expansion and tissue-specific expression of different gene family members. We demonstrate differences in the regulatory landscape between smooth muscle enriched (PPP1R14A) and more ubiquitously expressed (PPP1R14B) family members and identify deeply conserved intronic sequence and predicted transcriptional cis-regulatory elements. This bioinformatic and computational study has uncovered a number of attributes of MP subunits that supports selection of ideal model organisms and testing of hypotheses regarding their physiological significance and regulated expression. PMID:24898838

  5. Modeling catalytic promiscuity in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Fernanda; Amrein, Beat Anton

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that promiscuity plays a key role in the evolution of new enzyme function. This finding has helped to elucidate fundamental aspects of molecular evolution. While there has been extensive experimental work on enzyme promiscuity, computational modeling of the chemical details of such promiscuity has traditionally fallen behind the advances in experimental studies, not least due to the nearly prohibitive computational cost involved in examining multiple substrates with multiple potential mechanisms and binding modes in atomic detail with a reasonable degree of accuracy. However, recent advances in both computational methodologies and power have allowed us to reach a stage in the field where we can start to overcome this problem, and molecular simulations can now provide accurate and efficient descriptions of complex biological systems with substantially less computational cost. This has led to significant advances in our understanding of enzyme function and evolution in a broader sense. Here, we will discuss currently available computational approaches that can allow us to probe the underlying molecular basis for enzyme specificity and selectivity, discussing the inherent strengths and weaknesses of each approach. As a case study, we will discuss recent computational work on different members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily (AP) using a range of different approaches, showing the complementary insights they have provided. We have selected this particular superfamily, as it poses a number of significant challenges for theory, ranging from the complexity of the actual reaction mechanisms involved to the reliable modeling of the catalytic metal centers, as well as the very large system sizes. We will demonstrate that, through current advances in methodologies, computational tools can provide significant insight into the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity, and, therefore, in turn, the mechanisms of protein

  6. Pharmacophore modeling for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bharatham, Kavitha; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Lee, Keun Woo

    2007-05-01

    A three dimensional chemical feature based pharmacophore model was developed for the inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) using the CATALYST software, which would provide useful knowledge for performing virtual screening to identify new inhibitors targeted toward type II diabetes and obesity. A dataset of 27 inhibitors, with diverse structural properties, and activities ranging from 0.026 to 600 microM, was selected as a training set. Hypol, the most reliable quantitative four featured pharmacophore hypothesis, was generated from a training set composed of compounds with two H-bond acceptors, one hydrophobic aromatic and one ring aromatic features. It has a correlation coefficient, RMSD and cost difference (null cost-total cost) of 0.946, 0.840 and 65.731, respectively. The best hypothesis (Hypol) was validated using four different methods. Firstly, a cross validation was performed by randomizing the data using the Cat-Scramble technique. The results confirmed that the pharmacophore models generated from the training set were valid. Secondly, a test set of 281 molecules was scored, with a correlation of 0.882 obtained between the experimental and predicted activities. Hypol performed well in correctly discriminating the active and inactive molecules. Thirdly, the model was investigated by mapping on two PTP1B inhibitors identified by different pharmaceutical companies. The Hypol model correctly predicted these compounds as being highly active. Finally, docking simulations were performed on few compounds to substantiate the role of the pharmacophore features at the binding site of the protein by analyzing their binding conformations. These multiple validation approaches provided confidence in the utility of this pharmacophore model as a 3D query for virtual screening to retrieve new chemical entities showing potential as potent PTP1B inhibitors. PMID:17615669

  7. Cloning of the canine glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kishnani, P.; Bao, Y.; Brix, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two Maltese puppies with massive hepatomegaly and failure to thrive were found to have a markedly reduced Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity in the liver and kidney. Deficiency of G-6-Pase activity causes type 1a glycogen storage disease in humans. To further study the mutation responsible for the disease in dog, we cloned G-6-Pase canine cDNA from normal mixed breed dog liver RNA using reverse transcriptase and PCR amplification using primers derived from the published murine G-6-Pase gene sequence. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1071 nucleotides that encodes a predicted 357 amino acid polypeptide in the canine G-6-Pase gene, same as mouse and human. We found more than 90% sequence homology between dog and human G-6-Pase sequence. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced canine G-6-Pase polypeptide shows six transmembrane-spanning segments similar to those seen in human and mouse. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization is similarly predicted by the presence of the ER protein retention signal KK positioned 3 and 4 amino acids from the carboxy terminal. Potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are identified at positions 96, 203, and 276. Northern blot analysis revealed increased G-6-Pase mRNA in the deficient dog liver compared to control. This could possibly reflect upregulation of transcription due to the persistent hypoglycemic state. Further studies are directed at the identification of the mutation involved in this deficient dog strain. Characterization of the G-6-Pase gene and protein in the deficient dog model can pave the way for new understanding in the pathophysiology of this disease and for the trials of novel therapeutic approaches including gene therapy.

  8. Cellular Biochemistry Methods for Investigating Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Stephanie M.; Ahmed, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a family of proteins that play critical roles in cellular signaling and influence many aspects of human health and disease. Although a wealth of information has been collected about PTPs since their discovery, many questions regarding their regulation and function still remain. Critical Issues: Of particular importance are the elucidation of the biological substrates of individual PTPs and understanding of the chemical and biological basis for temporal and spatial resolution of PTP activity within a cell. Recent Advances: Drawing from recent advances in both biology and chemistry, innovative approaches have been developed to study the intracellular biochemistry and physiology of PTPs. We provide a summary of PTP-tailored techniques and approaches, emphasizing methodologies to study PTP activity within a cellular context. We first provide a discussion of methods for identifying PTP substrates, including substrate-trapping mutants and synthetic peptide libraries for substrate selectivity profiling. We next provide an overview of approaches for monitoring intracellular PTP activity, including a discussion of mechanistic-based probes, gel-based assays, substrates that can be used intracellularly, and assays tied to cell growth. Finally, we review approaches used for monitoring PTP oxidation, a key regulatory pathway for these enzymes, discussing the biotin switch method and variants of this approach, along with affinity trapping techniques and probes designed to detect PTP oxidation. Future Directions: Further development of approaches to investigate the intracellular PTP activity and functions will provide specific insight into their mechanisms of action and control of diverse signaling pathways. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2160–2178. PMID:24294920

  9. [Glucose-6-phosphatase from nuclear envelope in rat liver].

    PubMed

    González-Mujica, Freddy

    2008-06-01

    Nuclear envelope (NE) and microsomal glucosa-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activities were compared. Intact microsomes were unable to hydrolyze mannose-6-phosphate (M-6-P), on the other hand, intact NE hydrolyzes this substrate. Galactose-6-phosphate showed to be a good substrate for both NE and microsomal enzymes, with similar latency to that obtained with M-6-P using microsomes. In consequence, this substrate was used to measure the NE integrity. The kinetic parameters (Kii and Kis) of the intact NE G-6-Pase for the phlorizin inhibition using glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and M-6-P as substrates, were very similar. The NE T1 transporter was more sensitive to amiloride than the microsomal T1. The microsomal system was more sensitive to N-ethylmalemide (NEM) than the NE and the latter was insensitive to anion transport inhibitors DIDS and SITS, which strongly affect the microsomal enzyme. The above results allowed to postulate the presence of a hexose-6-phosphate transporter in the NE which is able to carry G-6-P and M-6-P, and perhaps other hexose-6-phosphate which could be different from that present in microsomes or, if it is the same, its activity could by modified by the membrane system where it is included. The higher PPi hydrolysis activity of the intact NE G-6-Pase in comparison to the intact microsomal, suggests differences between the Pi/PPi transport (T2) of both systems. The lower sensitivity of the NE G-6-Pase to NEM suggests that the catalytic subunit of this system has some differences with the microsomal isoform. PMID:18717264

  10. Degradation of potent Rubisco inhibitor by selective sugar phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Andreas; Sharma, Anurag; Starling-Windhof, Amanda; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyses the conversion of atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds in photosynthetic organisms. Alongside carboxylating the five-carbon sugar ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP)(1-3), Rubisco produces a small amount of xylulose-1,5-bisphosphate (XuBP), a potent inhibitor of Rubisco(4). The AAA+ protein Rubisco activase removes XuBP from the active site of Rubisco in an ATP-dependent process(5,6). However, free XuBP rapidly rebinds to Rubisco, perpetuating its inhibitory effect. Here, we combine biochemical and structural analyses to show that the CbbY protein of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Arabidopsis thaliana is a highly selective XuBP phosphatase. We also show that CbbY converts XuBP to the non-inhibitory compound xylulose-5-phosphate, which is recycled back to RuBP. We solve the crystal structures of CbbY from R. sphaeroides and A. thaliana, and through mutational analysis show that the cap domain of the protein confers the selectivity for XuBP over RuBP. Finally, in vitro experiments with CbbY from R. sphaeroides reveal that CbbY cooperates with Rubisco activase to prevent a detrimental build-up of XuBP at the Rubisco active site. We suggest that CbbY, which is conserved in algae and plants, is an important component of the cellular machinery that has evolved to deal with the shortcomings of the ancient enzyme Rubisco. PMID:27246049

  11. Phosphorylcholine Phosphatase: A Peculiar Enzyme of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, Carlos Eduardo; Otero, Lisandro Horacio; Beassoni, Paola Rita; Lisa, Angela Teresita

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP) when grown on choline, betaine, dimethylglycine or carnitine. In the presence of Mg2+ or Zn2+, PchP catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) or phosphorylcholine (Pcho). The regulation of pchP gene expression is under the control of GbdR and NtrC; dimethylglycine is likely the metabolite directly involved in the induction of PchP. Therefore, the regulation of choline metabolism and consequently PchP synthesis may reflect an adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to environmental conditions. Bioinformatic and biochemistry studies shown that PchP contains two sites for alkylammonium compounds (AACs): one in the catalytic site near the metal ion-phosphoester pocket, and another in an inhibitory site responsible for the binding of the alkylammonium moiety. Both sites could be close to each other and interact through the residues 42E, 43E and 82YYY84. Zn2+ is better activator than Mg2+ at pH 5.0 and it is more effective at alleviating the inhibition produced by the entry of Pcho or different AACs in the inhibitory site. We postulate that Zn2+ induces at pH 5.0 a conformational change in the active center that is communicated to the inhibitory site, producing a compact or closed structure. However, at pH 7.4, this effect is not observed because to the hydrolysis of the [Zn2+L2−1L20(H2O)2] complex, which causes a change from octahedral to tetrahedral in the metal coordination geometry. This enzyme is also present in P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae, and other organisms. We have recently crystallized PchP and solved its structure. PMID:21915373

  12. Expression of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Rat Circumvallate Papillae

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Kentaro; Kubota, Teruyo; Matsumoto, Saki; Kato, Junki; Watanabe, Yu; Yamamoto, Atsuko; Furui, Mari; Ohishi, Akihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    ATP and its metabolites are important for taste signaling in taste buds, and thus a clearance system for them would play critical roles in maintenance of gustatory function. A previous report revealed that mRNAs for ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were expressed by taste cells of taste buds, and NT5E-immunoreactivity was detected in taste cells. However, there was no information on PAP-immunoreactivity in taste buds. In this study, we examined the expression profile of PAP in rat taste buds. In the isolated rat taste buds, we detected expression of mRNA for PAP, but NT5E was not detected differing from the case of mouse ones (Dando et al., 2012, J Neuroscience). On immunohistochemical analysis, PAP-immunoreactivity was found predominantly in NTPDase2-positive type I and SNAP25-positive type III taste cells, while there were no apparent signals of it in PLC-β2-positive type II, α-gustducin-positive type II, AADC-positive type III and 5HT-positive type III ones. As for NT5E, we could not detect its immunoreactivity in rat taste buds, and co-localization of it with any taste cell markers, although mouse taste buds expressed NT5E as reported previously. These findings suggest that PAP expressed by type I and one of type III taste cells of rats may contribute to metabolic regulation of the extracellular levels of adenine nucleotides in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, and the regulating mechanisms for adenine nucleotides in taste buds might be different between rats and mice. PMID:27348306

  13. Plasma intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in neonates with bowel necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, R; Coakley, J; Murton, L; Campbell, N

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To determine if the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are biochemical markers of bowel necrosis in neonates. METHODS--Plasma ALP isoenzymes were measured in 22 babies with bowel necrosis, histologically confirmed, and in 22 matched controls. The isoenzymes were also measured in 16 infants with signs of necrotising enterocolitis, who recovered without histological confirmation of bowel necrosis. The isoenzymes were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Auxiliary tests for identification included neuraminidase digestion and treatment with monoclonal and polyclonal antiplacental antibodies. RESULTS--Intestinal ALP was detected in 16 infants with bowel necrosis--13 had fetal intestinal ALP (FI-ALP) and three had adult intestinal ALP (AI-ALP). FI-ALP was detected in nine of the controls. In the babies with bowel necrosis intestinal ALP was found over all gestations, but in the controls only in those less than 34 weeks. The percentages of total ALP activity due to intestinal ALP were significantly higher in those with bowel necrosis compared with matched controls (p = 0.028). In babies of all gestations diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of intestinal ALP as a marker of bowel necrosis was 73% and diagnostic specificity 59%. In babies greater than 34 weeks' gestation, diagnostic sensitivity fell to 60% but the test became completely specific. In two babies FI-ALP increased from zero/trace to high activity coincident with the episode of bowel necrosis. In 16 babies with signs of necrotising enterocolitis but unconfirmed bowel necrosis FI-ALP was detected in four. CONCLUSION--Intestinal ALP seems to be released into the circulation in some babies with bowel necrosis, but its detection does not have the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity to be a reliable biochemical marker of the condition. Images PMID:8157755

  14. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Poelstra, K.; Bakker, W. W.; Klok, P. A.; Kamps, J. A.; Hardonk, M. J.; Meijer, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin is a substance that contains phosphate groups and is usually present in the extracellular space, we studied whether AP is able to dephosphorylate this bacterial product at physiological pH levels. We tested this in intestinal cryostat sections using histochemical methods with endotoxin from Escherichia coli and Salmonella minnesota R595 as substrate. Results show that dephosphorylation of both preparations occurs at pH 7.5 by AP activity. As phosphate residues in the lipid A moiety determine the toxicity of the molecule, we examined the effect of the AP inhibitor levamisole in vivo using a septicemia model in the rat. The results show that inhibition of endogenous AP by levamisole significantly reduces survival of rats intraperitoneally injected with E. coli bacteria, whereas this drug does not influence survival of rats receiving a sublethal dose of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. In view of the endotoxin-dephosphorylating properties of AP demonstrated in vitro, we propose a crucial role for this enzyme in host defense. The effects of levamisole during gram-negative bacterial infections and the localization of AP as an ecto-enzyme in most organs as well as the induction of enzyme activity during inflammatory reactions and cholestasis is in accordance with such a protective role. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:9327750

  15. Downscaling Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in a Subtropical Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This research was conducted by downscaling study to understand phosphorus (P)-deficient status of different plankton and the role of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in subtropical Feitsui Reservoir. Results from field survey showed that bulk APA (1.6~95.2 nM h-1) was widely observed in the epilimnion (0~20 m) with an apparent seasonal variations, suggesting that plankton in the system were subjected to P-deficient seasonally. Mixed layer depth (an index of phosphate availability) is the major factor influencing the variation of bulk APA and specific APA (124~1,253 nmol mg C-1 h-1), based on multiple linear regression analysis. Size-fractionated APA assays showed that picoplankton (size 0.2~3 um) contributed most of the bulk APA in the system. In addition, single-cell APA detected by enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) assay indicated that heterotrophic bacteria are the major contributors of APA. Thus, we can infer that bacteria play an important role in accelerating P-cycle within P-deficient systems. Light/nutrient manipulation bioassays showed that bacterial growth was directly controlled by phosphate, while picocyanobacterial growth is controlled by light and can out-compete bacteria under P-limited condition with the aid of light. Further analysis revealed that the strength of summer typhoon is a factor responsible for the inter-annual variability of bulk and specific APA. APA study demonstrated the episodic events (e.g. strong typhoon and extreme precipitation) had significant influence on APA variability in sub-tropical to tropical aquatic ecosystems. Hence, the results herein will allow future studies on monitoring typhoon disturbance (intensity and frequency) as well as the APA of plankton during summer-to-autumn in subtropical systems.

  16. The DenA/DEN1 Interacting Phosphatase DipA Controls Septa Positioning and Phosphorylation-Dependent Stability of Cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 during Fungal Development

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Josua; Kolog Gulko, Miriam; Christmann, Martin; Valerius, Oliver; Stumpf, Sina Kristin; Stirz, Margarita; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2016-01-01

    DenA/DEN1 and the COP9 signalosome (CSN) represent two deneddylases which remove the ubiquitin-like Nedd8 from modified target proteins and are required for distinct fungal developmental programmes. The cellular DenA/DEN1 population is divided into a nuclear and a cytoplasmatic subpopulation which is especially enriched at septa. DenA/DEN1 stability control mechanisms are different for the two cellular subpopulations and depend on different physical interacting proteins and the C-terminal DenA/DEN1 phosphorylation pattern. Nuclear DenA/DEN1 is destabilized during fungal development by five of the eight CSN subunits which target nuclear DenA/DEN1 for degradation. DenA/DEN1 becomes stabilized as a phosphoprotein at S243/S245 during vegetative growth, which is necessary to support further asexual development. After the initial phase of development, the newly identified cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 interacting phosphatase DipA and an additional developmental specific C-terminal phosphorylation site at serine S253 destabilize DenA/DEN1. Outside of the nucleus, DipA is co-transported with DenA/DEN1 in the cytoplasm between septa and nuclei. Deletion of dipA resulted in increased DenA/DEN1 stability in a strain which is unresponsive to illumination. The mutant strain is dysregulated in cytokinesis and impaired in asexual development. Our results suggest a dual phosphorylation-dependent DenA/DEN1 stability control with stabilizing and destabilizing modifications and physical interaction partner proteins which function as control points in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. PMID:27010942

  17. Identification of a selective small-molecule inhibitor series targeting the eyes absent 2 (Eya2) phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Aaron B; Dehdashti, Seameen J; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J; Ferrer, Marc; Li, Xueni; Ford, Heide L; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Eya proteins are essential coactivators of the Six family of homeobox transcription factors and also contain a unique protein tyrosine phosphatase activity, belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase family of phosphatases. The phosphatase activity of Eya is important for a subset of Six1-mediated transcription, making this a unique type of transcriptional control. It is also responsible for directing cells to the repair instead of apoptosis pathway upon DNA damage. Furthermore, the phosphatase activity of Eya is critical for transformation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Thus, inhibitors of the Eya phosphatase activity may be antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, as well as sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage-inducing therapies. In this article, we identified a previously unknown chemical series using high-throughput screening that inhibits the Eya2 phosphatase activity with IC(50)s ranging from 1.8 to 79 µM. Compound activity was confirmed using an alternative malachite green assay and H2AX, a known Eya substrate. Importantly, these Eya2 phosphatase inhibitors show specificity and do not significantly inhibit several other cellular phosphatases. Our studies identify the first selective Eya2 phosphatase inhibitors that can potentially be developed into chemical probes for functional studies of Eya phosphatase or into anticancer drugs in the future. PMID:22820394

  18. A Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Trypanosoma rangeli modulated by exogenous inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we characterized a Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity present in live Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes. This enzyme showed capacity to hydrolyze the artificial substrate for phosphatases, p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP). At saturating concentration of p-NPP, half-maximal p-NPP hydrolysis was obtained with 0.23mM Mg(2+). Ca(2+) had no effect on the basal phosphatase activity, could not substitute Mg(2+) as an activator and in contrast inhibited the p-NPP hydrolysis stimulated by Mg(2+). The dependence on p-NPP concentration showed a normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for this phosphatase activity with values of V(max) of 8.94+/-0.36 nmol p-NP x h(-1) x 10(-7) cells and apparent K(m) of 1.04+/-0.16 mM p-NPP. Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity was stimulated by the alkaline pH range. Experiments using inhibitors, such as, sodium fluoride, sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate, inhibited the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), a product of phosphatases, inhibited reversibly in 50% this activity. Okadaic acid and microcystin-LR, specific phosphoserine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, inhibited significantly the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. In addition, this phosphatase activity was able to recognize as substrates only o-phosphoserine and o-phosphothreonine, while o-phosphotyrosine was not a good substrate for this phosphatase. Epimastigote forms of T. rangeli exhibit a typical growth curve, achieving the stationary phase around fifth or sixth day and the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity decreased around 10-fold with the cell growth progression. Cells maintained at Pi-deprived medium (2 mM Pi) present Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity approximately threefold higher than that maintained at Pi-supplemented medium (50 mM Pi). PMID:18599005

  19. Induction of a germination specific, low molecular weight, acid phosphatase isozyme with specific phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in lentil (Lens esculenta) seeds.

    PubMed

    Bose, S K; Taneja, V

    1998-09-29

    A germination specific isozyme of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) hydrolysing O-phospho-L-Tyrosine, pH optima 5.5 is induced in lentil seeds. When seeds at 0 h, 24 h and 36 h of germination are electrophorezed, native PAGE on specific enzyme staining shows several constitutive isozymes of acid phosphatases. At 48 h, an isozyme is induced which gradually decreases and then disappears at 108 h of germination. The short lived, induced isozyme is present in the embryo and seed-coat but not in the plumule and the radical. Induction of this isozyme is inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin-D and increased by plant growth regulators such as heteroauxin and gibbrellic acid treatment during germination. The induced isozyme is a single 30 kD polypeptide, with subunit molecular mass of 25 kD, shows activity for O-phospho-L-Tyrosine. It is strongly inhibited by vanadate (microM), molybdate, tungustate as also by iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate and diethylpyrocarbonate. This study shows for the first time that the germination induced low molecular weight Acid phosphatase is a Tyrosine phosphatase super family class IV enzyme, having a role in cellular differentiation and development during seed germination. PMID:9784397

  20. Generic phosphatase activity detection using zinc mediated aggregation modulation of polypeptide-modified gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selegård, Robert; Enander, Karin; Aili, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme. Phosphatase activity generates inorganic phosphate that forms an insoluble complex with Zn2+. In a sample containing a preset concentration of Zn2+, phosphatase activity will markedly reduce the concentration of dissolved Zn2+ from the original value, which in turn affects the aggregation of gold nanoparticles functionalized with a designed Zn2+ responsive polypeptide. The change in nanoparticle stability thus provides a rapid and sensitive readout of the phosphatase activity. The assay is not limited to a particular enzyme or enzyme substrate, which is demonstrated using three completely different phosphatases and five different substrates, and thus constitutes a highly interesting system for drug screening and diagnostics.A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme

  1. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network

    PubMed Central

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Vieira, Sandra I.; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Silva, Joana V.; Freitas, Maria João; Brauns, Ann-Kristin; Luers, Georg; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Fardilha, Margarida; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reversible phosphorylation plays an important role as a mechanism of intracellular control in eukaryotes. PPP1, a major eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein phosphatase, acquires its specificity by interacting with different protein regulators, also known as PPP1 interacting proteins (PIPs). In the present work we characterized a physiologically relevant PIP in testis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human testis cDNA library, we identified a novel PIP of PPP1CC2 isoform, the T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) that has recently been described as a Tctex1 dynein light chain family member. The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present. The distribution of TCTEX1D4 in testis suggests its involvement in distinct functions, such as TGFβ signaling at the blood–testis barrier and acrosome cap formation. Immunofluorescence in human ejaculated sperm shows that TCTEX1D4 is present in the flagellum and in the acrosome region of the head. Moreover, TCTEX1D4 and PPP1 co-localize in the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and microtubules in cell cultures. Importantly, the TCTEX1D4 PPP1BM seems to be relevant for complex formation, for PPP1 retention in the MTOC and movement along microtubules. These novel results open new avenues to possible roles of this dynein, together with PPP1. In essence TCTEX1D4/PPP1C complex appears to be involved in microtubule dynamics, sperm motility, acrosome reaction and in the regulation of the blood–testis barrier. PMID:23789093

  2. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of P supply to ecosystems. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment of precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three forests of early-, mid- and advanced-successional stages in Southern China was carried out. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, no precipitation treatment depressed soil acid phosphatase activity, while doubled precipitation treatment exerted no positive effects on it, and even significantly lowered it in the advanced forest. These indicate the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. The negative responses of soil acid phosphatase activity to precipitation suggest that P supply in subtropical ecosystems might be reduced if there was a drought in a whole year or more rainfall in the wet season in the future. NP, no precipitation; Control, natural precipitation; DP, double precipitation.

  3. Voltage-sensing phosphatase modulation by a C2 domain

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Paul M.; Zolman, Kevin D.; Kohout, Susy C.

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) is the first example of an enzyme controlled by changes in membrane potential. VSP has four distinct regions: the transmembrane voltage-sensing domain (VSD), the inter-domain linker, the cytosolic catalytic domain, and the C2 domain. The VSD transmits the changes in membrane potential through the inter-domain linker activating the catalytic domain which then dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids. The role of the C2, however, has not been established. In this study, we explore two possible roles for the C2: catalysis and membrane-binding. The Ci-VSP crystal structures show that the C2 residue Y522 lines the active site suggesting a contribution to catalysis. When we mutated Y522 to phenylalanine, we found a shift in the voltage dependence of activity. This suggests hydrogen bonding as a mechanism of action. Going one step further, when we deleted the entire C2 domain, we found voltage-dependent enzyme activity was no longer detectable. This result clearly indicates the entire C2 is necessary for catalysis as well as for modulating activity. As C2s are known membrane-binding domains, we tested whether the VSP C2 interacts with the membrane. We probed a cluster of four positively charged residues lining the top of the C2 and suggested by previous studies to interact with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] (Kalli et al., 2014). Neutralizing those positive charges significantly shifted the voltage dependence of activity to higher voltages. We tested membrane binding by depleting PI(4,5)P2 from the membrane using the 5HT2C receptor and found that the VSD motions as measured by voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) were not changed. These results suggest that if the C2 domain interacts with the membrane to influence VSP function it may not occur exclusively through PI(4,5)P2. Together, this data advances our understanding of the VSP C2 by demonstrating a necessary and critical role for the C2 domain in

  4. Cloning and characterization of three Eimeria tenella lipid phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Three Eimeria tenella Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  6. Associations between Renal Hyperfiltration and Serum Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb

    2015-01-01

    Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS), and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008–2011) was performed. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as exceeding the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. We divided participants into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): >120, 90–119, 60–89, and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The participants with eGFR >120 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed the highest risk for MS, in the highest ALP quartiles (3.848, 95% CI, 1.876–7.892), compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, the highest risk for DM, in the highest ALP quartiles, was observed in participants with eGFR >120 ml/min/1.73 m2 (2.166, 95% CI, 1.084–4.329). ALP quartiles were significantly associated with albuminuria in participants with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The highest ALP quartile had a 1.631-fold risk elevation for albuminuria with adjustment of age and sex. (95% CI, 1.158-2.297, P = 0.005). After adjustment, the highest ALP quartile had a 1.624-fold risk elevation, for renal hyperfiltration (95% CI, 1.204–2.192, P = 0.002). In addition, hyperfiltration was significantly associated with hemoglobin, triglyceride, white blood cell count, DM, smoking, and alcohol consumption (P<0.05). The relationship between serum ALP and metabolic disorders is stronger in participants with an upper-normal range of eGFR. Higher ALP levels are significantly associated with renal hyperfiltration in Korean general population. PMID:25853240

  7. Optimal Replication Activity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase Requires Phosphorylation of a Residue(s) at Carboxy-Terminal Domain II of Its Accessory Subunit, Phosphoprotein P

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Leroy N.; Englund, Nathan; Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Amiya K.; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    1999-01-01

    The phosphoprotein, P, of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a key subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. The protein is phosphorylated at multiple sites in two different domains. We recently showed that specific serine and threonine residues within the amino-terminal acidic domain I of P protein must be phosphorylated for in vivo transcription activity, but not for replication activity, of the polymerase complex. To examine the role of phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain II residues of the P protein in transcription and replication, we have used a panel of mutant P proteins in which the phosphate acceptor sites (Ser-226, Ser-227, and Ser-233) were altered to alanines either individually or in various combinations. Analyses of the mutant proteins for their ability to support replication of a VSV minigenomic RNA suggest that phosphorylation of either Ser-226 or Ser-227 is necessary for optimal replication activity of the protein. The mutant protein (P226/227) in which both of these residues were altered to alanines was only about 8% active in replication compared to the wild-type (wt) protein. Substitution of alanine for Ser-233 did not have any adverse effect on replication activity of the protein. In contrast, all the mutant proteins showed activities similar to that of the wt protein in transcription. These results indicate that phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain II residues of P protein are required for optimal replication activity but not for transcription activity. Furthermore, substitution of glutamic acid residues for Ser-226 and Ser-227 resulted in a protein that was only 14% active in replication but almost fully active in transcription. Taken together, these results, along with our earlier studies, suggest that phosphorylation of residues at two different domains in the P protein regulates its activity in transcription and replication of the VSV genome. PMID:10364310

  8. The neuroplastic index p-FADD/FADD and phosphoprotein PEA-15, interacting at GABAA receptor, are upregulated in brain cortex during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Álvaro-Bartolomé, María; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) adaptor is involved in the signaling of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors, whose agonists stimulate its phosphoryaltion (p) increasing p-FADD/FADD ratio in brain. Whether FADD might also participate in the activation of dissimilar receptors such as the ligand-gated ion channels is not known. This study investigated the role of FADD and phosphoprotein-enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15, a FADD partner) in the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor, which mediates the hypnotic effect of midazolam. The main findings revealed that during the time course of midazolam (60 mg/kg)-induced hypnosis in mice (about 2 h) p-FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio) as well as p-PEA (and its phosphorylating Akt1 kinase) were markedly increased (36-80%) in brain cortex, and these effects were partially (only p-FADD) or fully prevented by flumazenil (a neutral allosteric ligand) and FG 7142 (a partial negative allosteric ligand) acting at GABAA receptors. The upregulation of cortical p-FADD/FADD was exclusively observed in the nucleus (up to 2.8-fold), where the transciption factor NF-κB was also increased (up to 46%), and that of p-PEA/p-Akt1 only in the cytosol (up to 53%), suggesting that p-FADD/p-PEA/p-Akt1 are involved in sleep-induced neuroplasticity. Repeated treatment with midazolam (60 mg/kg, 4 days) induced behavioral (prolonged sleep latency and reduced sleeping time) and neurochemical (reduced p-FADD/p-PEA contents) tolerance. These findings indicated that p-FADD/p-PEA are novel molecules in GABAA receptor signaling and that cortical p-PEA and p-FADD, working in tandem, are involved in the complex molecular processes leading to the hypnotic effect of midazolam in mice. PMID:26282360

  9. Reconstitution of Actin-based Motility by Vasodilator-stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) Depends on the Recruitment of F-actin Seeds from the Solution Produced by Cofilin*

    PubMed Central

    Siton, Orit; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is active in many filopodium-based and cytoskeleton reorganization processes. It is not fully understood how VASP directly functions in actin-based motility and how regulatory proteins affect its function. Here, we combine bead motility assay and single filament experiments. In the presence of a bundling component, actin bundles that grow from the surface of WT-VASP-coated beads induced movement of the beads. VASP promotes actin-based movement alone, in the absence of other actin nucleators. We propose that at physiological salt conditions VASP nucleation activity is too weak to promote motility and bundle formation. Rather, VASP recruits F-actin seeds from the solution and promotes their elongation. Cofilin has a crucial role in the nucleation of these F-actin seeds, notably under conditions of unfavorable spontaneous actin nucleation. We explored the role of multiple VASP variants. We found that the VASP-F-actin binding domain is required for the recruitment of F-actin seeds from the solution. We also found that the interaction of profilin-actin complexes with the VASP-proline-rich domain and the binding of the VASP-F-actin binding domain to the side of growing filaments is critical for transforming actin polymerization into motion. At the single filament level, profilin mediates both filament elongation rate and VASP anti-capping activity. Binding of profilin-actin complexes increases the polymerization efficiency by VASP but decreases its efficiency as an anti-capper; binding of free profilin creates the opposite effect. Finally, we found that an additional component such as methylcellulose or fascin is required for actin bundle formation and motility mediated by VASP. PMID:25246528

  10. The secretion-stimulated 80K phosphoprotein of parietal cells is ezrin, and has properties of a membrane cytoskeletal linker in the induced apical microvilli.

    PubMed Central

    Hanzel, D; Reggio, H; Bretscher, A; Forte, J G; Mangeat, P

    1991-01-01

    Stimulation of gastric acid secretion in parietal cells involves the translocation of the proton pump (H,K-ATPase) from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to the apical membrane to form long, F-actin-containing, microvilli. Following secretion, the pump is endocytosed back into tubulovesicles. The parietal cell therefore offers a system for the study of regulated membrane recycling, with temporally separated endocytic and exocytic steps. During cAMP-mediated stimulation, an 80 kDa peripheral membrane protein becomes phosphorylated on serine residues. This protein is a major component, together with actin and the pump, of the isolated apical membrane from stimulated cells, but not the resting tubulovesicular membrane. Here we show that the gastric 80 kDa phosphoprotein is closely related or identical to ezrin, a protein whose phosphorylation on serine and tyrosine residues was recently implicated in the induction by growth factors of cell surface structures on cultured cells [Bretscher, A. (1989) J. Cell Biol., 108, 921-930]. Light and electron microscopy reveal that ezrin is associated with the actin filaments of the microvilli of stimulated cells, but not with the filaments in the terminal web. In addition, a significant amount of ezrin is present in the basolateral membrane infoldings of both resting and stimulated cells. Extraction studies show that ezrin is a cytoskeletal protein in unstimulated and stimulated cells, and its association with the cytoskeleton is more stable in stimulated cells. These studies indicate that ezrin is a membrane cytoskeletal linker that may play a key role in the control of the assembly of secretory apical microvilli in parietal cells and ultimately in the regulation of acid secretion. Taken together with the earlier studies, we suggest that ezrin might be a general substrate for kinases involved in the regulation of actin-containing cell surface structures. Images PMID:1831124

  11. Ribosomal acidic phosphoproteins P1 and P2 are not required for cell viability but regulate the pattern of protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Remacha, M; Jimenez-Diaz, A; Bermejo, B; Rodriguez-Gabriel, M A; Guarinos, E; Ballesta, J P

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with either three inactivated genes (triple disruptants) or four inactivated genes (quadruple disruptants) encoding the four acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins, YP1 alpha, YP1 beta, YP2 alpha, and YP2 beta, present in this species have been obtained. Ribosomes from the triple disruptants and, obviously, those from the quadruple strain do not have bound P proteins. All disrupted strains are viable; however, they show a cold-sensitive phenotype, growing very poorly at 23 degrees C. Cell extracts from the quadruple-disruptant strain are about 30% as active as the control in protein synthesis assays and are stimulated by the addition of free acidic P proteins. Strains lacking acidic proteins do not have a higher suppressor activity than the parental strains, and cell extracts derived from the quadruple disruptant do not show a higher degree of misreading, indicating that the absence of acidic proteins does not affect the accuracy of the ribosomes. However, the patterns of protein expressed in the cells as well as in the cell-free protein system are affected by the absence of P proteins from the particles; a wild-type pattern is restored upon addition of exogenous P proteins to the cell extract. In addition, strains carrying P-protein-deficient ribosomes are unable to sporulate but recover this capacity upon transformation with one of the missing genes. These results indicate that acidic proteins are not an absolute requirement for protein synthesis but regulate the activity of the 60S subunit, affecting the translation of certain mRNAs differently. PMID:7651393

  12. Distinct Biochemical Pools of Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, María J; Ross, Breyan H; Luchsinger, Charlotte; Rivera-Dictter, Andrés; Arriagada, Cecilia; Acuña, Diego; Aguilar, Marcelo; Cavieres, Viviana; Burgos, Patricia V; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Mardones, Gonzalo A

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been implicated in the development of carcinomas in many human tissues, and is currently considered a bona fide oncoprotein. Importantly, several tumor types show overexpression of GOLPH3, which is associated with tumor progress and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that connect GOLPH3 function with tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Experimental evidence shows that depletion of GOLPH3 abolishes transformation and proliferation of tumor cells in GOLPH3-overexpressing cell lines. Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpression drives transformation of primary cell lines and enhances mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo. This evidence suggests that overexpression of GOLPH3 could result in distinct features of GOLPH3 in tumor cells compared to that of non-tumorigenic cells. GOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein mostly localized at the trans-Golgi network, and its association with Golgi membranes depends on binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. GOLPH3 is also contained in a large cytosolic pool that rapidly exchanges with Golgi-associated pools. GOLPH3 has also been observed associated with vesicles and tubules arising from the Golgi, as well as other cellular compartments, and hence it has been implicated in several membrane trafficking events. Whether these and other features are typical to all different types of cells is unknown. Moreover, it remains undetermined how GOLPH3 acts as an oncoprotein at the Golgi. Therefore, to better understand the roles of GOLPH3 in cancer cells, we sought to compare some of its biochemical and cellular properties in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 with that of the non-tumorigenic breast human cell line MCF 10A. We found unexpected differences that support the notion that in different cancer cells, overexpression of GOLPH3 functions in diverse fashions, which may influence specific tumorigenic phenotypes. PMID:27123979

  13. Distinct Biochemical Pools of Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Charlotte; Rivera-Dictter, Andrés; Arriagada, Cecilia; Acuña, Diego; Aguilar, Marcelo; Cavieres, Viviana; Burgos, Patricia V.; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been implicated in the development of carcinomas in many human tissues, and is currently considered a bona fide oncoprotein. Importantly, several tumor types show overexpression of GOLPH3, which is associated with tumor progress and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that connect GOLPH3 function with tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Experimental evidence shows that depletion of GOLPH3 abolishes transformation and proliferation of tumor cells in GOLPH3-overexpressing cell lines. Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpression drives transformation of primary cell lines and enhances mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo. This evidence suggests that overexpression of GOLPH3 could result in distinct features of GOLPH3 in tumor cells compared to that of non-tumorigenic cells. GOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein mostly localized at the trans-Golgi network, and its association with Golgi membranes depends on binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. GOLPH3 is also contained in a large cytosolic pool that rapidly exchanges with Golgi-associated pools. GOLPH3 has also been observed associated with vesicles and tubules arising from the Golgi, as well as other cellular compartments, and hence it has been implicated in several membrane trafficking events. Whether these and other features are typical to all different types of cells is unknown. Moreover, it remains undetermined how GOLPH3 acts as an oncoprotein at the Golgi. Therefore, to better understand the roles of GOLPH3 in cancer cells, we sought to compare some of its biochemical and cellular properties in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 with that of the non-tumorigenic breast human cell line MCF 10A. We found unexpected differences that support the notion that in different cancer cells, overexpression of GOLPH3 functions in diverse fashions, which may influence specific tumorigenic phenotypes. PMID:27123979

  14. Tracking fluorescence-labeled rabies virus: enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged phosphoprotein P supports virus gene expression and formation of infectious particles.

    PubMed

    Finke, Stefan; Brzózka, Krzysztof; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2004-11-01

    Rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus (RV) encode only five multifunctional proteins accomplishing viral gene expression and virus formation. The viral phosphoprotein, P, is a structural component of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and an essential cofactor for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We show here that RV P fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) can substitute for P throughout the viral life cycle, allowing fluorescence labeling and tracking of RV RNPs under live cell conditions. To first assess the functions of P fusion constructs, a recombinant RV lacking the P gene, SAD DeltaP, was complemented in cell lines constitutively expressing eGFP-P or P-eGFP fusion proteins. P-eGFP supported the rapid accumulation of viral mRNAs but led to low infectious-virus titers, suggesting impairment of virus formation. In contrast, complementation with eGFP-P resulted in slower accumulation of mRNAs but similar infectious titers, suggesting interference with polymerase activity rather than with virus formation. Fluorescence microscopy allowed the detection of eGFP-P-labeled extracellular virus particles and tracking of cell binding and temperature-dependent internalization into intracellular vesicles. Recombinant RVs expressing eGFP-P or an eGFP-P mutant lacking the binding site for dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) instead of P were used to track interaction with cellular proteins. In cells expressing a DsRed-labeled DLC1, colocalization of DLC1 with eGFP-P but not with the mutant P was observed. Fluorescent labeling of RV RNPs will allow further dissection of virus entry, replication, and egress under live-cell conditions as well as cell interactions. PMID:15507620

  15. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of a Protein-Serine/Threonine Phosphatase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi TAG11

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Bianca; Frey, Gerhard; Swanson, Ronald V.; Mathur, Eric J.; Stetter, K. O.

    1998-01-01

    An open reading frame coding for a putative protein-serine/threonine phosphatase was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi TAG11 and named Py-PP1. Py-PP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified from inclusion bodies, and biochemically characterized. The phosphatase gene is part of an operon which may provide, for the first time, insight into a physiological role for archaeal protein phosphatases in vivo. PMID:9696747

  16. An insect farnesyl phosphatase homologous to the N-terminal domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Zhang, Ping; Grant, David F.

    2009-01-01

    In insects, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is converted to juvenile hormone (JH) via a conserved pathway consisting of isoprenoid derived metabolites. The first step of this pathway is presumed to be hydrolysis of FPP to farnesol in the ring gland. Based on alignment of putative phosphatases from D. melanogaster with the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase, Phos2680 and Phos15739 with conserved phosphatase motifs were identified, cloned and purified. Both D. melanogaster phosphatases hydrolyzed para-nitrophenyl phosphate, however, Phos15739 also hydrolyzed FPP with a Kcat/Km of 2.1 X 105 M−1s−1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Phos15739 was expressed in the ring gland and its expression was correlated with JHIII titer during development of D. melanogaster. N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine was found to be a potent inhibitor of Phos15739 with an IC50 value of 4.4 μM. Thus, our data identify Phos15739 as a FPP phosphatase that likely catalyzes the hydrolysis of FPP to farnesol in D. melanogaster. PMID:19168029

  17. Dephosphorylation of Tctex2-related dynein light chain by type 2A protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kazuo

    2002-10-01

    Sperm flagellar movements are regulated by cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation. Tctex2-related light chain of outer arm dynein is a well-defined phosphorylated protein that is phosphorylated at activation of sperm motility. Here, the protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates Tctex2-related dynein light chain (LC2) has been characterized in salmonid fish sperm. Most of the phosphatase activity against LC2 is found in Triton-soluble fraction of flagella but trace extent of the activity is retained in the axoneme. The dephosphorylation of LC2 is inhibited by okadaic acid at more than 1nM, whereas that of dynein alpha heavy chain is inhibited at more than 10nM. The addition of Ca(2+) gives no direct effect on LC2 dephosphorylation, but it accelerates the dephosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, resulting in the decrease of LC2 phosphorylation. The activity to dephosphorylate the LC2 is separated by MonoQ ion-exchange column chromatography along with the immunoreactivity to the antibody against the catalytic subunit of type 2A protein phosphatase. These results suggest that LC2 is dephosphorylated by type 2A protein phosphatase and that dynein alpha heavy chain and the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase are dephosphorylated by other types of protein phosphatases. PMID:12359223

  18. PrpE, a PPP protein phosphatase from Bacillus subtilis with unusual substrate specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Iwanicki, Adam; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Pierechod, Marcin; Séror, Simone J; Obuchowski, Michał

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium with a relatively large number of protein phosphatases. Previous studies have shown that some Ser/Thr phosphatases play an important role in the life cycle of this bacterium [Losick and Stragier (1992) Nature (London) 355, 601-604; Yang, Kang, Brody and Price (1996) Genes Dev. 10, 2265-2275]. In this paper, we report the biochemical properties of a putative, previously uncharacterized phosphatase, PrpE, belonging to the PPP family. This enzyme shares homology with other PPP phosphatases as well as with symmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphatases related to ApaH (symmetrical Ap(4)A hydrolase) from Escherichia coli. A His-tagged recombinant PrpE was purified from E. coli and shown to have Ni(2+)-dependent and okadaic acid-resistant phosphatase activity against a synthetic phosphorylated peptide and hydrolase activity against diadenosine 5',5"'-tetraphosphate. Unexpectedly, PrpE was able to remove phosphate from phosphotyrosine, but not from phosphothreonine or phosphoserine. PMID:12059787

  19. Root surface acid phosphatases and their role in phosphorus assimilation by Eriophorum vaginatum

    SciTech Connect

    Kroehler, C.J.; Linkins, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a dominant plant in much of the arctic tundra ecosystem where phosphorus is frequently a limiting nutrient. The mineralization of this organic phosphorus was thought to be principally controlled by microbial respiration, however, more recent work shows that extracellular soil phosphatases are the principal regulators. The existence of plant root and mycorrhizal surface phosphatases which are capable of hydrolyzing organic phosphorus compounds, suggests that soil organic phosphorus may be directly utilized by plants. Since E. vaginatum is a tussock forming sedge with a very dense annually produced rooting system which can exploit most of the tussock soil volume, its surface phosphatases may play a dominant role in organic phosphorus hydrolysis into inorganic phosphorus. Of equal significance would be the potential for this activity to contribute to the phosphorus nutrition through the coupling of phosphorus hydrolysis on the root and root uptake of the resultant inorganic phosphorus. Phosphatase activity was investigated and found to be uniformly distributed along the surface of the root. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme gave estimates of 9.23 mM for the apparent Km and 1.61 * 10/sup -3/ ..mu..moles mm-2 hr/sup -1/ for the apparent Vmax. Saturation values for E. vaginatum phosphatases are about 3 times higher than average soil solution organic phosphorus concentrations. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  20. The PPH1 phosphatase is specifically involved in LHCII dephosphorylation and state transitions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Ingelsson, Björn; Samol, Iga; Andres, Charles; Kessler, Felix; Rochaix, Jean-David; Vener, Alexander V.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The ability of plants to adapt to changing light conditions depends on a protein kinase network in the chloroplast that leads to the reversible phosphorylation of key proteins in the photosynthetic membrane. Phosphorylation regulates, in a process called state transition, a profound reorganization of the electron transfer chain and remodeling of the thylakoid membranes. Phosphorylation governs the association of the mobile part of the light-harvesting antenna LHCII with either photosystem I or photosystem II. Recent work has identified the redox-regulated protein kinase STN7 as a major actor in state transitions, but the nature of the corresponding phosphatases remained unknown. Here we identify a phosphatase of Arabidopsis thaliana, called PPH1, which is specifically required for the dephosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII). We show that this single phosphatase is largely responsible for the dephosphorylation of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 but not of the photosystem II core proteins. PPH1, which belongs to the family of monomeric PP2C type phosphatases, is a chloroplast protein and is mainly associated with the stroma lamellae of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that loss of PPH1 leads to an increase in the antenna size of photosystem I and to a strong impairment of state transitions. Thus phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of LHCII appear to be specifically mediated by the kinase/phosphatase pair STN7 and PPH1. These two proteins emerge as key players in the adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in light quality and quantity. PMID:20176943

  1. Protein phosphatase 2C dephosphorylates and inactivates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Sue M.; Berger, Herbert A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    cAMP-dependent phosphorylation activates the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in epithelia. However, the protein phosphatase (PP) that dephosphorylates and inactivates CFTR in airway and intestinal epithelia, two major sites of disease, is not certain. We found that in airway and colonic epithelia, neither okadaic acid nor FK506 prevented inactivation of CFTR when cAMP was removed. These results suggested that a phosphatase distinct from PP1, PP2A, and PP2B was responsible. Because PP2C is insensitive to these inhibitors, we tested the hypothesis that it regulates CFTR. We found that PP2Cα is expressed in airway and T84 intestinal epithelia. To test its activity on CFTR, we generated recombinant human PP2Cα and found that it dephosphorylated CFTR and an R domain peptide in vitro. Moreover, in cell-free patches of membrane, addition of PP2Cα inactivated CFTR Cl− channels; reactivation required readdition of kinase. Finally, coexpression of PP2Cα with CFTR in epithelia reduced the Cl− current and increased the rate of channel inactivation. These results suggest that PP2C may be the okadaic acid-insensitive phosphatase that regulates CFTR in human airway and T84 colonic epithelia. It has been suggested that phosphatase inhibitors could be of therapeutic value in cystic fibrosis; our data suggest that PP2C may be an important phosphatase to target. PMID:9380758

  2. [Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii yeast in vitro and in vivo].

    PubMed

    Sibirnyi, A A; Shavlovskii, G M

    1978-01-01

    The rate of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis by the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii flavinogenic yeast was studied as affected by different substrates and inorganic ions. Their Km was established to be 2.0 X 10(-4) m and 2.5 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenylphosphate and FMN was inhibited competitively by beta-glycerophosphate (Ki = 3.1 X 10(-3) M, respectively). The presence of inorganic phosphate ions in the reaction mixture decreases or removes inhibition of these compounds hydrolysis by other substrates of alkaline phosphatase I. The activity of alkaline phosphatase I increases in the presence of Mg2+ and was strongly inhibited in the presence of Be2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and inorganic phosphate, the mixture of Be2+ and F- being the most effective. This mixture inhibited the phosphatase activity of the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of the cell-free extract as well as of intact cells in both the alkaline and acid zones of pH (8.6 and 5.5, respectively). Incubation of the washed iron-deficient P. guilliermondii cells in the presence of Be2+ and F- did not result in accumulation of FMN in the yeast culture. A possible role of nonspecific phosphomonoesterases in hydrolysis of FMN in vivo is discussed. PMID:208203

  3. The PPH1 phosphatase is specifically involved in LHCII dephosphorylation and state transitions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Ingelsson, Björn; Samol, Iga; Andres, Charles; Kessler, Felix; Rochaix, Jean-David; Vener, Alexander V; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2010-03-01

    The ability of plants to adapt to changing light conditions depends on a protein kinase network in the chloroplast that leads to the reversible phosphorylation of key proteins in the photosynthetic membrane. Phosphorylation regulates, in a process called state transition, a profound reorganization of the electron transfer chain and remodeling of the thylakoid membranes. Phosphorylation governs the association of the mobile part of the light-harvesting antenna LHCII with either photosystem I or photosystem II. Recent work has identified the redox-regulated protein kinase STN7 as a major actor in state transitions, but the nature of the corresponding phosphatases remained unknown. Here we identify a phosphatase of Arabidopsis thaliana, called PPH1, which is specifically required for the dephosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII). We show that this single phosphatase is largely responsible for the dephosphorylation of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 but not of the photosystem II core proteins. PPH1, which belongs to the family of monomeric PP2C type phosphatases, is a chloroplast protein and is mainly associated with the stroma lamellae of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that loss of PPH1 leads to an increase in the antenna size of photosystem I and to a strong impairment of state transitions. Thus phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of LHCII appear to be specifically mediated by the kinase/phosphatase pair STN7 and PPH1. These two proteins emerge as key players in the adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in light quality and quantity. PMID:20176943

  4. Lipophosphoglycan and secreted acid phosphatase of Leishmania tropica share species-specific epitopes.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, C L; Perez, L; Schnur, L F

    1990-06-01

    Several species-specific monoclonal antibodies (T11, T13-T15) which only react with Leishmania tropica, recognize phosphorlated carbohydrate epitopes on lipophosphoglycan and the structurally related molecule, phosphoglycan, which is shed by promastigotes into spent culture medium. During immunoaffinity isolation of [32P]orthophosphate-labeled phosphoglycan on monoclonal antibody T15 conjugated to Sepharose 4B, a high-Mr component (approx. 200,000) was co-purified. The latter material is metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine and [3H]glucosamine. This glycoprotein was separated from phosphoglycan by chromatography on lentil lectin resin. The glycoprotein exhibited a L-tatrate-sensitive acid phosphatase activity, typical of secreted acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from Leishmania. Monospecific antibodies to Leishmania donovani-secreted acid phosphatase selectively precipitated the L. tropica enzyme from immunoaffinity purified mixtures of the two antigens, and monoclonal antibodies to lipophosphoglycan precipitate the pure enzyme. Species-specific monoclonal antibodies to L. major lipophosphoglycan also recognized both L. tropica antigens. Treatment of the acid phosphatase with periodate or phosphodiesterase I abolished binding by the monoclonal antibodies to the pure enzyme. These results demonstrate that the two major secreted glycoconjugates of Leishmania tropica, the lipophosphoglycan and the acid phosphatase, share species-specific phosphorylated carbohydrate epitope(s). PMID:1697935

  5. An immunochemical approach to detect oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases using a selective C-nucleophile tag.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Francisco J; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-05-24

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases are crucial regulators of signal transduction and function as antagonists towards protein tyrosine kinases to control reversible tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby regulating fundamental physiological processes. Growing evidence has supported the notion that reversible oxidative inactivation of the catalytic cysteine residue in protein tyrosine phosphatases serves as an oxidative post-translational modification that regulates its activity to influence downstream signaling by promoting phosphorylation and induction of the signaling cascade. The oxidation of cysteine to the sulfenic acid is often transient and difficult to detect, thus making it problematic in understanding the role that this oxidative post-translational modification plays in redox-biology and pathogenesis. Several methods to detect cysteine oxidation in biological systems have been developed, though targeted approaches to directly detect oxidized phosphatases are still lacking. Herein we describe the development of a novel immunochemical approach to directly profile oxidized phosphatases. This immunochemical approach consists of an antibody designed to recognize the conserved sequence of the PTP active site (VHCDMDSAG) harboring the catalytic cysteine modified with dimedone (CDMD), a nucleophile that chemoselectively reacts with cysteine sulfenic acids to form a stable thioether adduct. Additionally, we provide biochemical and mass spectrometry workflows to be used in conjugation with this newly developed immunochemical approach to assist in the identification and quantification of basal and oxidized phosphatases. PMID:26757830

  6. Eya protein phosphatase activity regulates Six1-Dach-Eya transcriptional effects in mammalian organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Oghi, Kenneth A; Zhang, Jie; Krones, Anna; Bush, Kevin T; Glass, Christopher K; Nigam, Sanjay K; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Maas, Richard; Rose, David W; Rosenfeld, Michael G

    2003-11-20

    The precise mechanistic relationship between gene activation and repression events is a central question in mammalian organogenesis, as exemplified by the evolutionarily conserved sine oculis (Six), eyes absent (Eya) and dachshund (Dach) network of genetically interacting proteins. Here, we report that Six1 is required for the development of murine kidney, muscle and inner ear, and that it exhibits synergistic genetic interactions with Eya factors. We demonstrate that the Eya family has a protein phosphatase function, and that its enzymatic activity is required for regulating genes encoding growth control and signalling molecules, modulating precursor cell proliferation. The phosphatase function of Eya switches the function of Six1-Dach from repression to activation, causing transcriptional activation through recruitment of co-activators. The gene-specific recruitment of a co-activator with intrinsic phosphatase activity provides a molecular mechanism for activation of specific gene targets, including those regulating precursor cell proliferation and survival in mammalian organogenesis. PMID:14628042

  7. Application of intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity measurement in detection of neutrophil adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Sulowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed the use of the fluorimetric method with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) specific substrate for the alkaline phosphatase determination in the neutrophil adhesion assay. We provide evidence that the endogenous neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity evaluation is reliable to quantify neutrophil adhesion at a wide range of cell numbers (10(4)-10(6)). The results obtained by fluorimetric NAP activity test correlate to the results of adherence evaluated using the MTT reduction assay. The fluorimetric NAP activity test may be applied for resting as well as activated neutrophils without the risk of the activators interferences into the test. The alkaline phosphatase survey with the use of 4-MUP substrate is recommended herein as a sensitive, repeatable, simple, and reliable method of the neutrophil adherence determination in vitro. PMID:17047286

  8. PP2A Phosphatase as a Regulator of ROS Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rahikainen, Moona; Pascual, Jesús; Alegre, Sara; Durian, Guido; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) carry out vital functions in determining appropriate stress reactions in plants, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the sensing, signaling and response to ROS as signaling molecules are not yet fully understood. Recent studies have underscored the role of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ROS-dependent responses involved in light acclimation and pathogenesis responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies have demonstrated that trimeric PP2A phosphatases control metabolic changes and cell death elicited by intracellular and extracellular ROS signals. Associated with this, PP2A subunits contribute to transcriptional and post-translational regulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes. This review highlights the emerging role of PP2A phosphatases in the regulatory ROS signaling networks in plants. PMID:26950157

  9. Electrochemical detection of DNA 3'-phosphatases based on surface-extended DNA nanotail strategy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chao; Hu, Xiaolu; Mao, Xiaoxia; Li, Genxi

    2016-06-14

    Determination of DNA dephosphorylation is of great value due to its vital role in many cellular processes. Here we report a surface-extended DNA nanotail strategy for simple and ultrasensitive detection of DNA 3'-phosphatases by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated signal amplification. In this work, DNA probes labeled with thiols at their 5' terminals and phosphoryls at 3' terminals are immobilized on gold electrode and are used as substrates for DNA 3'-phosphatases, taking T4 polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (T4PNKP) as an example. T4PNKP can catalyze the dephosphorylation reaction of the substrate DNA, followed by the formation of a long DNA strand by TdT on its 3' terminal hydroxyl, leading to an evident chronocoulometry signal enhancement. The proposal presents a considerable analytical performance with low detection limit and wide linear range, making it promise to be applied in the fields of DNA dephosphorylation related processes, drug discovery, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:27181641

  10. PP2A Phosphatase as a Regulator of ROS Signaling in Plants.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen, Moona; Pascual, Jesús; Alegre, Sara; Durian, Guido; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) carry out vital functions in determining appropriate stress reactions in plants, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the sensing, signaling and response to ROS as signaling molecules are not yet fully understood. Recent studies have underscored the role of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ROS-dependent responses involved in light acclimation and pathogenesis responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies have demonstrated that trimeric PP2A phosphatases control metabolic changes and cell death elicited by intracellular and extracellular ROS signals. Associated with this, PP2A subunits contribute to transcriptional and post-translational regulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes. This review highlights the emerging role of PP2A phosphatases in the regulatory ROS signaling networks in plants. PMID:26950157

  11. Structure of human dual-specificity phosphatase 27 at 2.38 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S.

    2012-03-26

    There are over 100 genes in the human genome that encode protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and approximately 60 of these are classified as dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). Although many dual-specificity phosphatases are still not well characterized, novel functions have been discovered for some of them that have led to new insights into a variety of biological processes and the molecular basis for certain diseases. Indeed, as the functions of DUSPs continue to be elucidated, a growing number of them are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer, diabetes and inflammatory disorders. Here, the overexpression, purification and structure determination of DUSP27 at 2.38 {angstrom} resolution are presented.

  12. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase may be an ancestral gluconeogenic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Say, Rafael F; Fuchs, Georg

    2010-04-15

    Most archaeal groups and deeply branching bacterial lineages harbour thermophilic organisms with a chemolithoautotrophic metabolism. They live at high temperatures in volcanic habitats at the expense of inorganic substances, often under anoxic conditions. These autotrophic organisms use diverse carbon dioxide fixation mechanisms generating acetyl-coenzyme A, from which gluconeogenesis must start. Here we show that virtually all archaeal groups as well as the deeply branching bacterial lineages contain a bifunctional fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase with both FBP aldolase and FBP phosphatase activity. This enzyme is missing in most other Bacteria and in Eukaryota, and is heat-stabile even in mesophilic marine Crenarchaeota. Its bifunctionality ensures that heat-labile triosephosphates are quickly removed and trapped in stabile fructose 6-phosphate, rendering gluconeogenesis unidirectional. We propose that this highly conserved, heat-stabile and bifunctional FBP aldolase/phosphatase represents the pace-making ancestral gluconeogenic enzyme, and that in evolution gluconeogenesis preceded glycolysis. PMID:20348906

  13. Cloning and characterization of the Bacillus licheniformis gene coding for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, F M

    1984-01-01

    The structural gene for alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.1) of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 was cloned into the Pst1 site of pMK2004 from chromosomal DNA. The gene was cloned on an 8.5-kilobase DNA fragment. A restriction map was developed, and the gene was subcloned on a 4.2-kilobase DNA fragment. The minimum coding region of the gene was localized to a 1.3-kilobase region. Western blot analysis was used to show that the gene coded for a 60,000-molecular-weight protein which cross-reacts with anti-alkaline phosphatase prepared against the salt-extractable membrane alkaline phosphatase of B. licheniformis MC14 . Images PMID:6327655

  14. Cloning and characterization of the Bacillus licheniformis gene coding for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hulett, F M

    1984-06-01

    The structural gene for alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.1) of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 was cloned into the Pst1 site of pMK2004 from chromosomal DNA. The gene was cloned on an 8.5-kilobase DNA fragment. A restriction map was developed, and the gene was subcloned on a 4.2-kilobase DNA fragment. The minimum coding region of the gene was localized to a 1.3-kilobase region. Western blot analysis was used to show that the gene coded for a 60,000-molecular-weight protein which cross-reacts with anti-alkaline phosphatase prepared against the salt-extractable membrane alkaline phosphatase of B. licheniformis MC14 . PMID:6327655

  15. A single domain of human prostatic acid phosphatase shows antibody-mediated restoration of catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Choe, B K; Dong, M K; Walz, D; Gleason, S; Rose, N R

    1982-01-01

    By limited proteolysis with mouse submaxillaris protease, human prostatic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) was cleaved into three fragments, Sp1, Sp2, and Sp3, which individually had no enzymatic activity. One of the fragments, Sp3, regained enzymatic activity after interaction with rabbit antibody to prostatic acid phosphatase. The Sp3 fragment was purified and characterized as to its molecular weight, amino acid composition, and carbohydrate content. The Sp3 fragment behaved like the parent molecule in L(+)-tartrate affinity and in trapping of a phosphoryl intermediate. The same Sp3 fragment also bears the most prominent antigenic determinants. This evidence suggest that Sp3 is the enzymatically active domain of prostatic acid phosphatase. Images PMID:6193513

  16. The Baculovirus Uses a Captured Host Phosphatase to Induce Enhanced Locomotory Activity in Host Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    Katsuma, Susumu; Koyano, Yasue; Kang, WonKyung; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Kamita, Shizuo George; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The baculovirus is a classic example of a parasite that alters the behavior or physiology of its host so that progeny transmission is maximized. Baculoviruses do this by inducing enhanced locomotory activity (ELA) that causes the host caterpillars to climb to the upper foliage of plants. We previously reported that this behavior is not induced in silkworms that are infected with a mutant baculovirus lacking its protein tyrosine phosphatase (ptp) gene, a gene likely captured from an ancestral host. Here we show that the product of the ptp gene, PTP, associates with baculovirus ORF1629 as a virion structural protein, but surprisingly phosphatase activity associated with PTP was not required for the induction of ELA. Interestingly, the ptp knockout baculovirus showed significantly reduced infectivity of larval brain tissues. Collectively, we show that the modern baculovirus uses the host-derived phosphatase to establish adequate infection for ELA as a virion-associated structural protein rather than as an enzyme. PMID:22496662

  17. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: From Housekeeping Enzymes to Master-Regulators of Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    There are many misconceptions surrounding the roles of protein phosphatases in the regulation of signal transduction, perhaps the most damaging of which is the erroneous view that these enzymes exert their effects merely as constitutively active housekeeping enzymes. On the contrary, the phosphatases are critical, specific regulators of signaling in their own right and serve an essential function, in a coordinated manner with the kinases, to determine the response to a physiological stimulus. This review is a personal perspective on the development of our understanding of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family of enzymes. I have discussed various aspects of the structure, regulation and function of the PTP family, which I hope will illustrate the fundamental importance of these enzymes to the control of signal transduction. PMID:23176256

  18. Effect of nutrient limitation on biofilm formation and phosphatase activity of a Citrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Allan, Victoria J M; Callow, Maureen E; Macaskie, Lynne E; Paterson-Beedle, Marion

    2002-01-01

    A phosphatase-overproducing Citrobacter sp. (NCIMB 40259) was grown in an air-lift reactor in steady-state continuous culture under limitation of carbon, phosphorus or nitrogen. Substantial biofilm formation, and the highest phosphatase activity, were observed under lactose limitation. However, the total amount of biofilm wet biomass and the phosphatase specific activity were reduced in phosphorus- or nitrogen-limited cultures or when glucose was substituted for lactose as the limiting carbon source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed differences in cell and biofilm morphology in relation to medium composition. Electron microscopy suggested that the differences in biofilm formation may relate to differential expression of fimbriae on the cell surface. PMID:11782520

  19. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA Is an Endogenous Tyrosine Phosphatase Secreted during Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Horacio; Sun, Jim; Hmama, Zakaria; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive gene expression in prokaryotes is mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. These regulatory proteins mediate phosphorylation of histidine or aspartate in two-component systems and serine/threonine or tyrosine in eukaryotic and eukaryote-like protein kinase systems. The genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, does not possess a defined tyrosine kinase. Nevertheless, it encodes for protein tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we report that Map1985, is a functional low-molecular tyrosine phosphatase that is secreted intracellularly upon macrophage infection. This finding suggests that Map1985 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dephosphorylating essential macrophage signaling and/or adaptor molecules. PMID:16982836

  20. Regulation of the innate immune response by threonine-phosphatase of Eyes absent.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Yasutaka; Sano, Teruyuki; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2009-07-23

    Innate immunity is stimulated not only by viral or bacterial components, but also by non-microbial danger signals (damage-associated molecular patterns). One of the damage-associated molecular patterns is chromosomal DNA that escapes degradation. In programmed cell death and erythropoiesis, DNA from dead cells or nuclei expelled from erythroblasts is digested by DNase II in the macrophages after they are engulfed. DNase II(-/-) (also known as Dnase2a(-/-)) mice suffer from severe anaemia or chronic arthritis due to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced from the macrophages carrying undigested DNA in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent mechanism. Here we show that Eyes absent 4 (EYA4), originally identified as a co-transcription factor, stimulates the expression of IFN-beta and CXCL10 in response to the undigested DNA of apoptotic cells. EYA4 enhanced the innate immune response against viruses (Newcastle disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus), and could associate with signalling molecules (IPS-1 (also known as MAVS), STING (TMEM173) and NLRX1). Three groups have previously shown that EYA has phosphatase activity. We found that mouse EYA family members act as a phosphatase for both phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine. The haloacid dehalogenase domain at the carboxy terminus contained the tyrosine-phosphatase, and the amino-terminal half carried the threonine-phosphatase. Mutations of the threonine-phosphatase, but not the tyrosine-phosphatase, abolished the ability of EYA4 to enhance the innate immune response, suggesting that EYA regulates the innate immune response by modulating the phosphorylation state of signal transducers for the intracellular pathogens. PMID:19561593

  1. Crystallization of a newly discovered histidine acid phosphatase from Francisella tularensis

    SciTech Connect

    Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    A histidine acid phosphatase from the CDC Category A pathogen F. tularensis has been crystallized in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. A 1.75 Å resolution data set was collected at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be a potential bioterrorism weapon. Here, the crystallization of a 37.2 kDa phosphatase encoded by the genome of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain is reported. This enzyme shares 41% amino-acid sequence identity with Legionella pneumophila major acid phosphatase and contains the RHGXRXP motif that is characteristic of the histidine acid phosphatase family. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of Tacsimate, HEPES and PEG 3350. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain one protein molecule, with a solvent content of 53%. A 1.75 Å resolution native data set was recorded at beamline 4.2.2 of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source. Molecular-replacement trials using the human prostatic acid phosphatase structure as the search model (28% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of F. tularensis histidine acid phosphatase will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  2. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity of phosphoglycerate mutase: stimulation by vanadate and phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, P.J.; Gresser, M.J.; Tracey, A.S.; Hass, L.F.

    1987-03-10

    The binding of inorganic vanadate (V/sub i/) to rabbit muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), studied by using /sup 51/V nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, shows a sigmoidal dependence on vanadate concentration with a stoichiometry of four vanadium atoms per PGM molecule at saturating (V/sub i/). The data are consistent with binding of one divanadate ion to each of the two subunits of PGM in a noncooperative manner with an intrinsic dissociation constant of 4 x 10/sup -6/ M. The relevance of this result to other studies which have shown that the V/sub i/-stimulated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) phosphatase activity of PGM has a sigmoidal dependence on (V/sub i/) with a Hill coefficient of 2.0 is discussed. At pH 7.0, inorganic phosphate has little effect on the 2,3-DPG phosphatase activity of PGM, even at concentrations as high as 50 mM. Similarly, 25 ..mu..M V/sub i/ has little effect on the phosphatase activity. However, in the presence of 25 ..mu..M V/sub i/, a phosphate concentration of 20 mM increases the phosphatase activity by more than 3-fold. This behavior is rationalized in terms of activation of the phosphatase activity by a phosphate/vanadate mixed anhydride. This interpretation is supported by the observation of strong activation of the phosphatase activity by inorganic pyrophosphate. A molecular mechanism for the observed effects of vanadate is proposed, and the relevance of this study to the possible use of vanadate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of sickle cell anemia is discussed.

  3. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

  4. Association of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase activity with the cytosolic pyruvate kinase of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1991-12-01

    The procedure of Malhotra and Kayastha ([1990] Plant Physiology 93: 194-200) for the purification to homogeneity of a phosphoenolpyruvate-specific alkaline phosphatase (PEP phosphatase) from germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) was followed. Although a higher specific activity of 1.4 micromoles pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein was obtained, the final preparation was less than 10% pure as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Attempts to further purify the enzyme resulted in loss of activity. The partially purified enzyme contained significant pyruvate kinase activity (0.13 micromole pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein) when assayed at pH 7.2, but not at pH 8.5. The PEP phosphatase activity of the final preparation exhibited hysteresis; a lag time of 5 to 6 minutes was required before a steady-state reaction rate was attained. A western blot of the final preparation revealed an immunoreactive 57 kilodalton polypeptide when probed with monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibodies prepared against germinating castor bean cytosolic pyruvate kinase. No antigenic cross-reaction of the final preparation was observed with antibodies against castor bean leucoplast pyruvate kinase, or black mustard PEP-specific acid phosphatase. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final preparation resulted in a single PEP phosphatase activity band; when this band was excised and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting, a 57 kilodalton silver-staining